WorldWideScience

Sample records for larger family sizes

  1. Leiomodins: larger members of the tropomodulin (Tmod) gene family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, C. A.; Fritz-Six, K. L.; Almenar-Queralt, A.; Fowler, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    The 64-kDa autoantigen D1 or 1D, first identified as a potential autoantigen in Graves' disease, is similar to the tropomodulin (Tmod) family of actin filament pointed end-capping proteins. A novel gene with significant similarity to the 64-kDa human autoantigen D1 has been cloned from both humans and mice, and the genomic sequences of both genes have been identified. These genes form a subfamily closely related to the Tmods and are here named the Leiomodins (Lmods). Both Lmod genes display a conserved intron-exon structure, as do three Tmod genes, but the intron-exon structure of the Lmods and the Tmods is divergent. mRNA expression analysis indicates that the gene formerly known as the 64-kDa autoantigen D1 is most highly expressed in a variety of human tissues that contain smooth muscle, earning it the name smooth muscle Leiomodin (SM-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD1). Transcripts encoding the novel Lmod gene are present exclusively in fetal and adult heart and adult skeletal muscle, and it is here named cardiac Leiomodin (C-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD2). Human C-Lmod is located near the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy locus CMH6 on human chromosome 7q3, potentially implicating it in this disease. Our data demonstrate that the Lmods are evolutionarily related and display tissue-specific patterns of expression distinct from, but overlapping with, the expression of Tmod isoforms. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Size selectivity of commercial (300 MC) and larger square mesh top ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, size selectivity of a commercial (300 MC) and a larger square mesh top panel (LSMTPC) codend for blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) were tested on a commercial trawl net in the international waters between Turkey and Greece. Trawling, performed during daylight was carried out at depths ...

  3. On Family Size and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques research by Rodgers, et al. (June 2000) on the impact of family size on intelligence, explaining that it applied very simple analytic techniques to a very complex question, leading to unwarranted conclusions about family size and intelligence. Loss of cases, omission of an important ability test, and failure to apply multivariate…

  4. Juvenile exposure to predator cues induces a larger egg size in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Francisca H. I. D.; Taborsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When females anticipate a hazardous environment for their offspring, they can increase offspring survival by producing larger young. Early environmental experience determines egg size in different animal taxa. We predicted that a higher perceived predation risk by juveniles would cause an increase in the sizes of eggs that they produce as adults. To test this, we exposed juveniles of the mouthbrooding cichlid Eretmodus cyanostictus in a split-brood experiment either to cues of a natural predator or to a control situation. After maturation, females that had been confronted with predators produced heavier eggs, whereas clutch size itself was not affected by the treatment. This effect cannot be explained by a differential female body size because the predator treatment did not influence growth trajectories. The observed increase of egg mass is likely to be adaptive, as heavier eggs gave rise to larger young and in fish, juvenile predation risk drops sharply with increasing body size. This study provides the first evidence that predator cues perceived by females early in life positively affect egg mass, suggesting that these cues allow her to predict the predation risk for her offspring. PMID:21976689

  5. Larger ATV engine size correlates with an increased rate of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, C Caleb; Rostas, Jack W; Lee, Y L; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Frotan, M Amin; Ahmed, Naveed; Simmons, Jon D

    2015-04-01

    Since the introduction of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) to the United States in 1971, injuries and mortalities related to their use have increased significantly. Furthermore, these vehicles have become larger and more powerful. As there are no helmet requirements or limitations on engine-size in the State of Alabama, we hypothesised that larger engine size would correlate with an increased incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in patients following an ATV crash. Patient and ATV data were prospectively collected on all ATV crashes presenting to a level one trauma centre from September 2010 to May 2013. Collected data included: demographics, age of driver, ATV engine size, presence of helmet, injuries, and outcomes. The data were grouped according to the ATV engine size in cubic centimetres (cc). For the purposes of this study, TBI was defined as any type of intracranial haemorrhage on the initial computed tomography scan. There were 61 patients identified during the study period. Two patients (3%) were wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Patients on an ATV with an engine size of 350 cc or greater had higher Injury Severity Scores (13.9 vs. 7.5, p ≤ 0.05) and an increased incidence of TBI (26% vs. 0%, p ≤ 0.05) when compared to patients on ATV's with an engine size less than 350 cc. Patients on an ATV with an engine size of 350 cc or greater were more likely to have a TBI. The use of a helmet was rarely present in this cohort. Legislative efforts to implement rider protection laws for ATVs are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Weapons make the man (larger: formidability is represented as size and strength in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M T Fessler

    Full Text Available In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans--and likely many other social vertebrates--navigate social hierarchies.

  7. Economic development and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, R J

    1991-01-01

    The demographic transition in Latin America has resulted in increased family size rather than the Western European model of reduced family size. In 1905, both fertility and mortality were high in Latin America, but mortality declined more rapidly in Latin America than in Europe. In 1905, the crude birth rate for 15 selected countries averaged 44/1000 population. Western fertility at a comparable transition point was much lower at 30/1000. Between 1905 and 1960, fertility declines were evident in Uruguay, Argentina, Cuba, and Chile. Between 1960 and 1985, fertility declines appeared in Costa Rica, Panama, Brazil, and Colombia. Fertility declines were smaller in the other Latin American countries. Crude birth rates declined markedly by 1985 but may overestimate fertility decline, which is more accurately measured by standardized birth rates. Fertility decline was evident in Argentina, Chile, and Costa Rica for standardized birth rates, survivorship ratio, and births surviving past the age of 15 years. Theoretically, families are expected to reduce family size when survivorship is assured; when mortality is 25%, only four children need be planned instead of six when mortality is 50%. A result of falling mortality is a cheaper cost of producing children, which may stimulate parents to raise bigger families. Western fertility decline has been attributed to mortality decline, urbanization, increased female labor force participation, rising wages, and more efficient contraception. Comparable economic development in Latin America has not resulted in large enough changes to encourage family size limitation. A table of fertility and economic indicators for selected countries in Latin America and Europe reflects the inverse relationship between income growth, urban growth, and growth in female educational status and fertility. The regression equation explains 60% of the variation in fertility rates among Latin American countries. Explanatory power increases to 75% when female

  8. BIRTH ORDER, FAMILY SIZE, NEUROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD JALILI

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the relationship of birth rank and family size with the incidence of neurosis in an Iranian culture, case notes of 1029 schizophrenic patients as (497 males and 532 females referred to psychiatric clinic for insured workers were studied. The incidence of neurasis appeared to be significantly more frequent among the first-half position of birth  rders in The families of 5 children and over; this bei-ng more marked-in males than in females; and the first second births comprising the lighest incidence of the illness.

  9. BIRTH ORDER, FAMILY SIZE, NEUROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    AHMAD JALILI

    1984-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate the relationship of birth rank and family size with the incidence of neurosis in an Iranian culture, case notes of 1029 schizophrenic patients as (497 males and 532 females) referred to psychiatric clinic for insured workers were studied. The incidence of neurasis appeared to be significantly more frequent among the first-half position of birth  rders in The families of 5 children and over; this bei-ng more marked-in males than in females; and the first s...

  10. Education, Birth Order, and Family Size

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Jesper; Birchenall, Javier A.; Mansour, Hani; Urzua, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a general framework to analyze the trade-off between education and family size. Our framework incorporates parental preferences for birth order and delivers theoretically consistent birth order and family size effects on children's educational attainment. We develop an empirical strategy to identify these effects. We show that the coefficient on family size in a regression of educational attainment on birth order and family size does not identify the family size effect as defined...

  11. Surgical outcome of primary clipping for anterior circulation aneurysms of size 2 centimeters or larger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Sunil V; Saikiran, Narayanam A; Thakar, Sumit; Dadlani, Ravi; Mohan, Dilip; Aryan, Saritha; Hegde, Alangar S

    2014-07-01

    Aneurysms of the anterior circulation larger than 2cm have a complex relationship to the anterior skull base, requiring a multi-modality management approach. This retrospective study of 54 patients with such aneurysms who underwent clipping between 2001 and 2012 analyzes clinical and surgical data, aneurysm characteristics and correlates them with respect to the Glasgow outcome score at follow-up and immediate post-operative clinical status. Patients with an outcome score of 5 or 4 were categorized as "good", while those with score 3-1 were "poor". Fisher's exact test and paired T-test (p<0.5) were used to test statistical significance for discrete and continuous variables respectively. 44 (81.4%) patients had a good outcome. Patients with non-ophthalmic/paraclinoid aneurysms had significantly lower incidence of adverse intra-operative events (p=0.035). Patients older than 50 years (p=0.045), with adverse intra-operative events (p=0.015) and post-operative infarction (p<0.001) had a poor outcome compared to those younger than 50 years age and those without adverse intra-operative events or infarctions. The grouped age variable had maximum influence on patient outcome. Location and size of aneurysm did not have an overall impact on surgical outcome. There were 4 mortalities. Primary clipping of proximal non-cavernous aneurysms on the internal carotid artery is associated with adverse intra-operative events. A multi-modality treatment approach in these aneurysms should be individualized, more so in patients older than 50 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Larger Bowl Size Increases the Amount of Cereal Children Request, Consume, and Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, Brian; van Ittersum, Koert; Payne, Collin R.

    Objective To examine whether larger bowls bias children toward requesting more food from the adults who serve them. Study design Study 1 was a between-subject design involving 69 preschool-age children who were randomized to receive either a small (8 oz) or large (16 oz) cereal bowl and were asked

  13. Unicortical critical size defect of rabbit tibia is larger than 8 mm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1994-01-01

    The critical-size defect is important as an experimental model to test bone repair materials. Guided tissue regeneration is an established method for tissue regeneration within periodontal surgery. Bony defects covered by a membrane are allowed to be filled by bony tissue. Healing of 8-mm...

  14. Glenosphere size in reverse shoulder arthroplasty: is larger better for external rotation and abduction strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas M; Born, Marian; Jung, Christian; Flury, Matthias; Kolling, Christoph; Schwyzer, Hans-Kaspar; Audigé, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    The role of glenosphere size in reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) may be important in prosthetic stability, joint kinematics, rotator cuff tension and excursion, scapular impingement, humeral lateralization, deltoid wrap, and the occurrence of "notching." This study compared short- and midterm clinical and radiographic outcomes for 2 different glenosphere sizes of a single RSA type with respect to implant positioning, glenoid size, and morphology. This retrospective analysis included 68 RSA procedures that were prospectively documented in a local register during a 5-year postoperative period. Two glenosphere diameter sizes of 36 mm (n = 33) and 44 mm (n = 35) were used. Standard radiographs were made preoperatively (ie, baseline) and at 6, 12, 24, and 60 months after surgery. Range of motion, strength, the Constant-Murley score, and the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index were also assessed at all follow-up visits. The effect of glenosphere size on measured outcomes was adjusted for baseline values, patient gender, and humeral head diameter. No significant differences were found in the functional scores between treatment groups at all follow-up assessments. At the 12-month follow-up, patients with a 44-mm glenosphere had greater external rotation in adduction (mean difference, 12°; P = .001) and abduction strength (mean difference, 1.4 kg; P = .026) compared with those with the smaller implant. These differences remained at 60 months. Scapular notching was observed in 38% of all patients, without any relevant difference between the groups. An increase in glenosphere diameter leads to a clinically moderate but significant increase in external rotation in adduction and abduction strength at midterm follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hybrid Josephson-CMOS Memory in Advanced Technologies and Larger Sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q; Van Duzer, T; Fujiwara, K; Yoshikawa, N

    2006-01-01

    Recent progress on demonstrating components of the 64 kb Josephson-CMOS hybrid memory has encouraged exploration of the advancement possible with use of advanced technologies for both the Josephson and CMOS parts of the memory, as well as considerations of the effect of memory size on access time and power dissipation. The simulations to be reported depend on the use of an approximate model for 90 nm CMOS at 4 K. This model is an extension of the one we developed for 0.25 μm CMOS and have already verified. For the Josephson parts, we have chosen 20 kA/cm 2 technology, which was recently demonstrated. The calculations show that power dissipation and access time increase rather slowly with increasing size of the memory

  16. Dairy farmers with larger herd sizes adopt more precision dairy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, J I; Eastwood, C R; Garcia, S C; Lyons, N A

    2018-06-01

    An increase in the average herd size on Australian dairy farms has also increased the labor and animal management pressure on farmers, thus potentially encouraging the adoption of precision technologies for enhanced management control. A survey was undertaken in 2015 in Australia to identify the relationship between herd size, current precision technology adoption, and perception of the future of precision technologies. Additionally, differences between farmers and service providers in relation to perception of future precision technology adoption were also investigated. Responses from 199 dairy farmers, and 102 service providers, were collected between May and August 2015 via an anonymous Internet-based questionnaire. Of the 199 dairy farmer responses, 10.4% corresponded to farms that had fewer than 150 cows, 37.7% had 151 to 300 cows, 35.5% had 301 to 500 cows; 6.0% had 501 to 700 cows, and 10.4% had more than 701 cows. The results showed that farmers with more than 500 cows adopted between 2 and 5 times more specific precision technologies, such as automatic cup removers, automatic milk plant wash systems, electronic cow identification systems and herd management software, when compared with smaller farms. Only minor differences were detected in perception of the future of precision technologies between either herd size or farmers and service providers. In particular, service providers expected a higher adoption of automatic milking and walk over weighing systems than farmers. Currently, the adoption of precision technology has mostly been of the type that reduces labor needs; however, respondents indicated that by 2025 adoption of data capturing technology for monitoring farm system parameters would be increased. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ventricular arrhythmia burst is an independent indicator of larger infarct size even in optimal reperfusion in STEMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weg, Kirian; Majidi, Mohamed; Haeck, Joost D. E.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Green, Cynthia L.; Koch, Karel T.; Kuijt, Wichert J.; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Gorgels, Anton P. M.; de Winter, Robbert J.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that ventricular arrhythmia (VA) bursts during reperfusion phase are a marker of larger infarct size despite optimal epicardial and microvascular perfusion. 126 STEMI patients were studied with 24h continuous, 12-lead Holter monitoring. Myocardial blush grade (MBG) was determined and

  18. Interpretations of family size distributions: The Datura example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henych, Tomáš; Holsapple, Keith A.

    2018-04-01

    Young asteroid families are unique sources of information about fragmentation physics and the structure of their parent bodies, since their physical properties have not changed much since their birth. Families have different properties such as age, size, taxonomy, collision severity and others, and understanding the effect of those properties on our observations of the size-frequency distribution (SFD) of family fragments can give us important insights into the hypervelocity collision processes at scales we cannot achieve in our laboratories. Here we take as an example the very young Datura family, with a small 8-km parent body, and compare its size distribution to other families, with both large and small parent bodies, and created by both catastrophic and cratering formation events. We conclude that most likely explanation for the shallower size distribution compared to larger families is a more pronounced observational bias because of its small size. Its size distribution is perfectly normal when its parent body size is taken into account. We also discuss some other possibilities. In addition, we study another common feature: an offset or "bump" in the distribution occurring for a few of the larger elements. We hypothesize that it can be explained by a newly described regime of cratering, "spall cratering", which controls the majority of impact craters on the surface of small asteroids like Datura.

  19. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  20. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  1. Family Size, Interaction, Affect and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, F. Ivan; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Synthesizes previous research on relationship of family size to attitudes. Reduces findings to four propositions and submits these propositions to additional tests utilizing secondary data from two large surveys. Substantively, families of three or four children rank lower in all of the analyses than do families with one or two children. Presented…

  2. Artificial selection on relative brain size in the guppy reveals costs and benefits of evolving a larger brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Rogell, Björn; Bundsen, Andreas; Svensson, Beatrice; Zajitschek, Susanne; Brännström, Ioana; Immler, Simone; Maklakov, Alexei A; Kolm, Niclas

    2013-01-21

    The large variation in brain size that exists in the animal kingdom has been suggested to have evolved through the balance between selective advantages of greater cognitive ability and the prohibitively high energy demands of a larger brain (the "expensive-tissue hypothesis"). Despite over a century of research on the evolution of brain size, empirical support for the trade-off between cognitive ability and energetic costs is based exclusively on correlative evidence, and the theory remains controversial. Here we provide experimental evidence for costs and benefits of increased brain size. We used artificial selection for large and small brain size relative to body size in a live-bearing fish, the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and found that relative brain size evolved rapidly in response to divergent selection in both sexes. Large-brained females outperformed small-brained females in a numerical learning assay designed to test cognitive ability. Moreover, large-brained lines, especially males, developed smaller guts, as predicted by the expensive-tissue hypothesis, and produced fewer offspring. We propose that the evolution of brain size is mediated by a functional trade-off between increased cognitive ability and reproductive performance and discuss the implications of these findings for vertebrate brain evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Obturator externus was larger, while obturator internus size was similar in ballet dancers compared to nondancing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Cook, Jill

    2018-06-02

    To compare the cross-sectional area (CSA) of hip external rotators, obturator externus (OE) and obturator internus (OI), in ballet dancers and nondancing athletes, and evaluate the relationship between obturator muscle size and hip pain. Case-control study. Elite ballet and sport. 33 male and female professional ballet dancers and 33 age and sex-matched athletes. CSA's of OE and OI measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of one hip. Hip pain was scored with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS): HAGOS pain score of 100 was defined as no pain and a score less than 100 was defined as pain. Participants weight and height. Estimated marginal mean CSA of OE was 14% larger in dancers than athletes (p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.1); the size of OI was similar (p > 0.05). Men and women in both groups had similar sized OI and OE. There was no interaction between the estimated marginal mean CSA of either obturator and hip pain. It appears that ballet selectively increases muscle size of OE, but not OI. Obturator size was not related to mild hip pain, as OE and OI size was similar in dancers and athletes with and without pain. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Family Medicine Panel Size with Care Teams: Impact on Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Kurt B; Horn, Jennifer L; Bernard, Matthew E; Kresin, Molly M; Klavetter, Eric W; Maxson, Julie; Willis, Floyd B; Grover, Michael L; Bryan, Michael J; Thacher, Tom D

    2016-01-01

    The demand for comprehensive primary health care continues to expand. The development of team-based practice allows for improved capacity within a collective, collaborative environment. Our hypothesis was to determine the relationship between panel size and access, quality, patient satisfaction, and cost in a large family medicine group practice using a team-based care model. Data were retrospectively collected from 36 family physicians and included total panel size of patients, percentage of time spent on patient care, cost of care, access metrics, diabetic quality metrics, patient satisfaction surveys, and patient care complexity scores. We used linear regression analysis to assess the relationship between adjusted physician panel size, panel complexity, and outcomes. The third available appointments (P size. Patient satisfaction, cost, and percentage fill rate were not affected by panel size. A physician-adjusted panel size larger than the current mean (2959 patients) was associated with a greater likelihood of poor-quality rankings (≤25th percentile) compared with those with a less than average panel size (odds ratio [OR], 7.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-51.46). Increased panel size was associated with a longer time to the third available appointment (OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 1.36-87.26) compared with physicians with panel sizes smaller than the mean. We demonstrated a negative impact of larger panel size on diabetic quality results and available appointment access. Evaluation of a family medicine practice parameters while controlling for panel size and patient complexity may help determine the optimal panel size for a practice. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  5. TaGS5-3A, a grain size gene selected during wheat improvement for larger kernel and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Tian; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is a dominant component of grain weight in cereals. Earlier studies have shown that OsGS5 plays a major role in regulating both grain size and weight in rice via promotion of cell division. In this study, we isolated TaGS5 homoeologues in wheat and mapped them on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that TaGS5 homoeologues were preferentially expressed in young spikes and developing grains. Two alleles of TaGS5-3A, TaGS5-3A-T and TaGS5-3A-G were identified in wheat accessions, and a functional marker was developed to discriminate them. Association analysis revealed that TaGS5-3A-T was significantly correlated with larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight. Biochemical assays showed that TaGS5-3A-T possesses a higher enzymatic activity than TaGS5-3A-G. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing TaGS5-3A-T also exhibited larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight than TaGS5-3A-G lines, and the transcript levels of cell cycle-related genes in TaGS5-3A-T lines were higher than those in TaGS5-3A-G lines. Furthermore, systematic evolution analysis in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat showed that TaGS5-3A underwent strong artificial selection during wheat polyploidization events and the frequency changes of two alleles demonstrated that TaGS5-3A-T was favoured in global modern wheat cultivars. These results suggest that TaGS5-3A is a positive regulator of grain size and its favoured allele TaGS5-3A-T exhibits a larger potential application in wheat high-yield breeding. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Size distributions of member asteroids in seven Hirayama families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Takao; Ishida, Keiichi.

    1990-01-01

    The size distributions of asteroids in the seven Hirayama families are studied for newly assigned member asteroids in the diameter range of about 10 to 100 km. The size distributions for the different families are expressed by the power-law functions with distinctly different power-law indices. The power-law indices for families with small mean orbital inclinations are about 2.5 to 3.0. On the other hand, the power-law indices for families with large mean orbital inclinations are significantly smaller than 2.5. This indicates that the smaller asteroids were removed preferentially from these families after their formation. It is thought that the smaller asteroids left behind the families were dispersed into the main belt. It is consistent with the fact that the power-law index for the size distribution of asteroids with diameters smaller than 25 km in the main belt is larger than the power-law indices for the size distributions of asteroids in the families. This segregation due to the asteroid size can be caused by a drag force caused by the ambient matter deposited on the invariable place of the solar system during the early evolutionary stage. (author)

  7. MASSIVE GALAXIES ARE LARGER IN DENSE ENVIRONMENTS: ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF MASS–SIZE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yongmin; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo, E-mail: yymx2@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    Under the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological models, massive galaxies are expected to be larger in denser environments through frequent hierarchical mergers with other galaxies. Yet, observational studies of low-redshift early-type galaxies have shown no such trend, standing as a puzzle to solve during the past decade. We analyzed 73,116 early-type galaxies at 0.1 ≤  z  < 0.15, adopting a robust nonparametric size measurement technique and extending the analysis to many massive galaxies. We find for the first time that local early-type galaxies heavier than 10{sup 11.2} M {sub ⊙} show a clear environmental dependence in mass–size relation, in such a way that galaxies are as much as 20%–40% larger in the densest environments than in underdense environments. Splitting the sample into the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and non-BCGs does not affect the result. This result agrees with the ΛCDM cosmological simulations and suggests that mergers played a significant role in the growth of massive galaxies in dense environments as expected in theory.

  8. Preference for Boys, Family Size, and Educational Attainment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Adriana D; Kumar, Santosh

    2017-06-01

    Using data from nationally representative household surveys, we test whether Indian parents make trade-offs between the number of children and investments in education. To address the endogeneity due to the joint determination of quantity and quality of children, we instrument family size with the gender of the first child, which is plausibly random. Given a strong son preference in India, parents tend to have more children if the firstborn is a girl. Our instrumental variable results show that children from larger families have lower educational attainment and are less likely to be enrolled in school, with larger effects for rural, poorer, and low-caste families as well as for families with illiterate mothers.

  9. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Monique de Haan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of sibship size and birth order on educational attainment, for the United States and the Netherlands. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of sibship size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation with years of education for different family sizes separately; this avoids the problem that estimated ef...

  10. Small Family, Smart Family? Family Size and the IQ Scores of Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses Norwegian data to estimate the effect of family size on IQ scores of men. Instrumental variables (IV) estimates using sex composition as an instrument show no significant negative effect of family size; however, IV estimates using twins imply that family size has a negative effect on IQ scores. Our results suggest that the effect…

  11. Family size, cognitive outcomes, and familial interaction in stable, two-parent families: United States, 1997-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, John; Rafail, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Measures of children's time use, particularly with parents and siblings, are used to evaluate three hypotheses in relation to the vocabulary and mathematical skills development: (1) the resource dilution hypothesis, which argues that parental and household resources are diluted in larger families; (2) the confluence hypothesis, which suggests that the intellectual milieu of families is lowered with additional children; and (3) the admixture ("no effect") hypothesis, which suggests that the negative relationship between family size and achievement is an artifact of cross-sectional research resulting from unobserved heterogeneity. Each hypothesis is tested using within-child estimates of change in cognitive scores over time with the addition of new children to families.

  12. Predicting the number and sizes of IBD regions among family members and evaluating the family size requirement for linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanling; Wang, Zhanyong; Wang, Lusheng; Sham, Pak-Chung; Huang, Peng; Lau, Yu Lung

    2008-12-01

    With genotyping of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) replacing that of microsatellite markers in linkage studies, it becomes possible to accurately determine the genomic regions shared identity by descent (IBD) by family members. In addition to evaluating the likelihood of linkage for a region with the underlining disease (the LOD score approach), an appropriate question to ask is what would be the expected number and sizes of IBD regions among the affecteds, as there could be more than one region reaching the maximum achievable LOD score for a given family. Here, we introduce a computer program to allow the prediction of the total number of IBD regions among family members and their sizes. Reversely, it can be used to predict the portion of the genome that can be excluded from consideration according to the family size and user-defined inheritance mode and penetrance. Such information has implications on the feasibility of conducting linkage analysis on a given family of certain size and structure or on a few small families when interfamily homogeneity can be assumed. It can also help determine the most relevant members to be genotyped for such a study. Simulation results showed that the IBD regions containing true mutations are usually larger than regions IBD due to random chance. We have made use of this feature in our program to allow evaluation of the identified IBD regions based on Bayesian probability calculation and simulation results.

  13. The Impact of Desired Family Size Upon Family Planning Practices in Rural East Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosena, Patricia Wimberley

    1971-01-01

    Results indicated that women whose desired family size is equal to or less than their actual family size have significantly greater frequencies practicing family planning than women whose desired size exceeds their actual size. (Author)

  14. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence.

  15. When larger brains do not have more neurons: Increased numbers of cells are compensated by decreased average cell size across mouse individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana eHerculano-Houzel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong trend toward increased brain size in mammalian evolution, with larger brains composed of more and larger neurons than smaller brains across species within each mammalian order. Does the evolution of increased numbers of brain neurons, and thus larger brain size, occur simply through the selection of individuals with more and larger neurons, and thus larger brains, within a population? That is, do individuals with larger brains also have more, and larger, neurons than individuals with smaller brains, such that allometric relationships across species are simply an extension of intraspecific scaling? Here we show that this is not the case across adult male mice of a similar age. Rather, increased numbers of neurons across individuals are accompanied by increased numbers of other cells and smaller average cell size of both types, in a trade-off that explains how increased brain mass does not necessarily ensue. Fundamental regulatory mechanisms thus must exist that tie numbers of neurons to numbers of other cells and to average cell size within individual brains. Finally, our results indicate that changes in brain size in evolution are not an extension of individual variation in numbers of neurons, but rather occur through step changes that must simultaneously increase numbers of neurons and cause cell size to increase, rather than decrease.

  16. Small family, smart family? : family size and the IQ scores of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    How do families influence the ability of children? Cognitive skills have been shown to be a strong predictor of educational attainment and future labor market success; as a result, understanding the determinants of cognitive skills can lead to a better understanding of children's long run outcomes. This paper uses a large dataset on the male population of Norway and focuses on one family characteristic: the effect of family size on IQ. Because of the endogeneity of family size, we instrument ...

  17. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AND INTENDED FAMILY SIZE AMONG MEN OF URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohan Dixit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%.  IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men.  TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AND INTENDED FAMILY SIZE AMONG MEN OF URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohan Dixit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%.  IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men.  TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.

  19. Does more mean better? Sibling sex composition and the link between family size and children's quality

    OpenAIRE

    Baez, Javier E.

    2008-01-01

    Exogenous variation in fertility from parental preferences for sex-mix among their children is used to identify the causal effect of family size on several measures associated with either the allocation of resources towards children within the household or the outcomes of these investments. Results using data from Colombia suggest that family size has negative effects on average child quality. Children from larger families have accumulated almost 1 year less of education, are less likely to e...

  20. Size exclusion chromatography for semipreparative scale separation of Au38(SR)24 and Au40(SR)24 and larger clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppe, Stefan; Boudon, Julien; Dolamic, Igor; Dass, Amala; Bürgi, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) on a semipreparative scale (10 mg and more) was used to size-select ultrasmall gold nanoclusters (<2 nm) from polydisperse mixtures. In particular, the ubiquitous byproducts of the etching process toward Au(38)(SR)(24) (SR, thiolate) clusters were separated and gained in high monodispersity (based on mass spectrometry). The isolated fractions were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, MALDI mass spectrometry, HPLC, and electron microscopy. Most notably, the separation of Au(38)(SR)(24) and Au(40)(SR)(24) clusters is demonstrated.

  1. The impact of infertility on family size in the USA: data from the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Benjamin N; Smith, James F; Shindel, Alan W; Sharlip, Ira D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2010-09-01

    Investigators have postulated that family size may be influenced by biologic fertility potential in addition to sociodemographic factors. The aim of the current study is to determine if a diagnosis of infertility is associated with family size in the USA. We analyzed data from the male and female samples of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth using multivariable logistic regression models to determine the relationship between infertility and family size while adjusting for sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics. In the survey, 4409 women and 1739 men met the inclusion criteria, of whom 10.2% and 9.7%, respectively, were classified as infertile, on the basis of having sought reproductive assistance. Infertile females had a 34% reduced odds of having an additional child compared with women who did not seek reproductive assistance. For each additional 6 months it took a woman to conceive her first child, the odds of having a larger family fell by 9% and the odds of having a second child were reduced by 11%. A diagnosis of male infertility reduced the odds of having a larger family more than a diagnosis of female infertility. A diagnosis of infertility, especially male factor, is associated with reduced odds of having a larger family, implicating a biologic role in the determination of family size in the USA.

  2. opinions of nigerian students in tertiary institutions on family size

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The study examined the opinions of Nigerian students in tertiary institutions on their ideal family size. It was conducted among students in four ... opinions of male and female students on family size. KEY WORD: Family Size, Nigerian ... two children per woman, with many couples who desire to remain childless and some ...

  3. Single-larger-portion-size and dual-column nutrition labeling may help consumers make more healthful food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Amy M; Lo, Serena C

    2013-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is considering changes to the Nutrition Facts label to help consumers make more healthful choices. To examine the effects of modifications to the Nutrition Facts label on foods that can be listed as having 1 or 2 servings per container, but are reasonably consumed at a single eating occasion. Participants were randomly assigned to study conditions that varied on label format, product, and nutrition profile. Data were collected via an online consumer panel. Adults aged 18 years and older were recruited from Synovate's online household panel. Data were collected during August 2011. A total of 32,897 invitations were sent for a final sample of 9,493 interviews. Participants were randomly assigned to one of 10 label formats classified into three groups: listing 2 servings per container with a single column, listing 2 servings per container with a dual column, and listing a single serving per container. Within these groups there were versions that enlarged the font size for "calories," removed "calories from fat," and changed the wording for serving size declaration. The single product task measured product healthfulness, the amount of calories and various nutrients per serving and per container, and label perceptions. The product comparison task measured ability to identify the healthier product and the product with fewer calories per container and per serving. Analysis of covariance models with Tukey-Kramer tests were used. Covariates included general label use, age, sex, level of education, and race/ethnicity. Single-serving and dual-column formats performed better and scored higher on most outcome measures. For products that contain 2 servings but are customarily consumed at a single eating occasion, using a single-serving or dual-column labeling approach may help consumers make healthier food choices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Family Configuration and Achievement: Effects of Birth Order and Family Size in a Sample of Brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.; Bills, David B.

    1979-01-01

    Birth order effects in brothers were found to derive from difference in family size. Effects for family size were found even with socioeconomic background controlled. Nor were family size effects explained by parental ability. The importance of unmeasured preferences or economic resources that vary across families was suggested. (Author/RD)

  5. Supporting our military families: a case for a larger role for occupational therapy in prevention and mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    More than 2 million U.S. military servicemembers have deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq since September 11, 2001. Unlike during prior conflicts, many servicemembers leave spouses and children behind. Long, multiple deployments cause strain on family at home, with new challenges arising when servicemembers return from combat and reintegrate into family and civilian life. In World Wars I and II, occupational therapy practitioners played a significant role in supporting servicemember reintegration. However, their presence in program delivery in this practice area is limited. Occupational therapy researchers and practitioners can make a valuable contribution by helping families tailor daily activities and routines to address challenges and optimize health and wellness. However, barriers such as reimbursement for services, workforce availability, and access to military families have limited the profession's full engagement. Advocacy is needed to help establish occupational therapy as a key component of the mental and preventive health care teams serving military servicemembers. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. The Impacts of Family Size on Investment in Child Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres-Delpiano, Julio

    2006-01-01

    Using multiple births as an exogenous shift in family size, I investigate the impact of the number of children on child investment and child well-being. Using data from the 1980 US Census Five-Percent Public Use Micro Sample, 2SLS results demonstrate that parents facing a change in family size reallocate resources in a way consistent with Becker's…

  7. Diffusion of two-dimensional epitaxial clusters on metal (100) surfaces: Facile versus nucleation-mediated behavior and their merging for larger sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, King C.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2017-01-01

    For diffusion of two-dimensional homoepitaxial clusters of N atoms on metal(100) surfaces mediated by edge atom hopping, macroscale continuum theory suggests that the diffusion coefficient scales like DN ~ N -β with β = 3/2. However, we find quite different and diverse behavior in multiple size regimes. These include: (i) facile diffusion for small sizes N < 9; (ii) slow nucleation-mediated diffusion with small β < 1 for “perfect” sizes N = N p = L 2 or L(L+1), for L = 3, 4,… having unique ground state shapes, for moderate sizes 9 ≤ N ≤ O(10 2 ); the same also applies for N = N p +3, N p + 4,… (iii) facile diffusion but with large β > 2 for N = Np + 1 and N p + 2 also for moderate sizes 9 ≤ N ≤ O(10 2 ); (iv) merging of the above distinct branches and subsequent anomalous scaling with 1 ≲ β < 3/2, reflecting the quasi-facetted structure of clusters, for larger N = O(10 2 ) to N = O(10 3 ); and (v) classic scaling with β = 3/2 for very large N = O(103) and above. The specified size ranges apply for typical model parameters. We focus on the moderate size regime where show that diffusivity cycles quasi-periodically from the slowest branch for N p + 3 (not Np) to the fastest branch for Np + 1. Behavior is quantified by Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of an appropriate stochastic lattice-gas model. However, precise analysis must account for a strong enhancement of diffusivity for short time increments due to back-correlation in the cluster motion. Further understanding of this enhancement, of anomalous size scaling behavior, and of the merging of various branches, is facilitated by combinatorial analysis of the number of the ground state and low-lying excited state cluster configurations, and also of kink populations.

  8. Size misperception among overweight and obese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Tracy K; Sciacca, Robert R; Bier, Michael; Rodriguez, Juviza; Song, Sharon; Giardina, Elsa-Grace V

    2015-01-01

    Perception of body size is a key factor driving health behavior. Mothers directly influence children's nutritional and exercise behaviors. Mothers of ethnic minority groups and lower socioeconomic status are less likely to correctly identify young children as overweight or obese. Little evaluation has been done of the inverse--the child's perception of the mother's weight. To determine awareness of weight status among mother-child dyads (n = 506). Cross-sectional study conducted in an outpatient pediatric dental clinic of Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY. Primarily Hispanic (82.2 %) mothers (n = 253), 38.8 ± 7.5 years of age, and children (n = 253), 10.5 ± 1.4 years of age, responding to a questionnaire adapted from the validated Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Anthropometric measures-including height, weight, and waist circumference-and awareness of self-size and size of other generation were obtained. 71.4 % of obese adults and 35.1 % of overweight adults underestimated size, vs. 8.6 % of normal-weight (NW) adults (both p < 0.001). Among overweight and obese children, 86.3 % and 62.3 % underestimated their size, vs. 14.9 % NW children (both p < 0.001). Among mothers with overweight children, 80.0 % underestimated their child's weight, vs. 7.1 % of mothers with NW children (p < 0.001); 23.1 % of mothers with obese children also underestimated their child's weight (p < 0.01). Among children with obese mothers, only 13.0 % correctly classified the adult's size, vs. 76.5 % with NW mothers (p < 0.001). Among obese mothers, 20.8 % classified overweight body size as ideal, vs. 1.2 % among NW mothers (p < 0.001). Overweight/obese adults and children frequently underestimate their size. Adults misjudge overweight/obese children as being of normal weight, and children of obese mothers often underestimate the adult's size. Failure to recognize overweight/obesity status among adults and children can lead to prolonged exposure to obesity

  9. Population estimates of extended family structure and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garceau, Anne; Wideroff, Louise; McNeel, Timothy; Dunn, Marsha; Graubard, Barry I

    2008-01-01

    Population-based estimates of biological family size can be useful for planning genetic studies, assessing how distributions of relatives affect disease associations with family history and estimating prevalence of potential family support. Mean family size per person is estimated from a population-based telephone survey (n = 1,019). After multivariate adjustment for demographic variables, older and non-White respondents reported greater mean numbers of total, first- and second-degree relatives. Females reported more total and first-degree relatives, while less educated respondents reported more second-degree relatives. Demographic differences in family size have implications for genetic research. Therefore, periodic collection of family structure data in representative populations would be useful. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Is family size related to adolescence mental hospitalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylmänen, Paula; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between family size and psychiatric disorders of underage adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The study sample consisted of 508 adolescents (age 12-17) admitted to psychiatric impatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition-based psychiatric diagnoses and variables measuring family size were obtained from the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL). The family size of the general Finnish population was used as a reference population. There was a significant difference between the family size of the inpatient adolescents and the general population: 17.0% of adolescents came from large families (with 6 or more children) while the percentage in the general population was 3.3. A girl from a large family had an about 4-fold risk of psychosis other than schizophrenia. However, large family size was not associated with a risk for schizophrenia. Large family size was overrepresented among underage adolescents admitted for psychiatric hospitalization in Northern Finland. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Family Size on Incentive Effects of Welfare Transfers in Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Alisa C.; Maurin, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Family size is an important determinant of family well-being, and it is a good predictor of poverty. This study examines effects of waiving the 100-hour rule, by family size, and distinguishes between the "work-incentive effects" and the "eligibility effects" of the waiver. The 100-hour rule limits eligibility to aid to…

  12. Modelling the effects of penetrance and family size on rates of sporadic and familial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2011-01-01

    Many complex diseases show a diversity of inheritance patterns ranging from familial disease, manifesting with autosomal dominant inheritance, through to simplex families in which only one person is affected, manifesting as apparently sporadic disease. The role of ascertainment bias in generating apparent patterns of inheritance is often overlooked. We therefore explored the role of two key parameters that influence ascertainment, penetrance and family size, in rates of observed familiality. We develop a mathematical model of familiality of disease, with parameters for penetrance, mutation frequency and family size, and test this in a complex disease: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Monogenic, high-penetrance variants can explain patterns of inheritance in complex diseases and account for a large proportion of those with no apparent family history. With current demographic trends, rates of familiality will drop further. For example, a variant with penetrance 0.5 will cause apparently sporadic disease in 12% of families of size 10, but 80% of families of size 1. A variant with penetrance 0.9 has only an 11% chance of appearing sporadic in families of a size similar to those of Ireland in the past, compared with 57% in one-child families like many in China. These findings have implications for genetic counselling, disease classification and the design of gene-hunting studies. The distinction between familial and apparently sporadic disease should be considered artificial. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Geographic Region, Size, and Program Type in Family Practice Residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jolene K.; Garrard, Judith

    1981-01-01

    Research on residency education in family practice is discussed. Programmatic variables are examined: geographic region, size, and type of program. Definitions of these variables are provided, the current distribution of family practice residency programs across each of these variables is described, and data for use by other researchers is…

  14. When Bigger Is Better: Household Size, Abuse Injuries, Neglect, and Family Response in Novosibirsk, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Eremina, Tatiana; Arenas, Carmen; Kim, Jaeyop; Chan, Ko Ling

    2017-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated larger households to be at higher risk of physical abuse and neglect of children, we argue that unilateral conceptualization of larger households as a risk factor is inappropriate. Application of resource dilution theory must capture the possibility that larger families may have more members with both the agency and will to intervene against child maltreatment. We hypothesized a negative interaction between household size and protective informal social control by family members in predicting abuse injuries and neglect. A three-stage probability proportional to size cluster sample representative of Novosibirsk, Russia, was collected from 306 cohabiting couples. One parent in each household was interviewed. A focal child was selected using most recent birthday. When responses limited to families with minor children (below age 18) were selected, 172 families remained in the data. Physical abuse and neglect were measured using the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS). Protective informal social control by family members was measured using the Informal Social Control of Child Maltreatment (ISC_CM) Scale. Models were tested using random effects regression and logistic regression. Nearly 7% of focal children were injured in the last year, 10% were neglected. Consistent with previous research, protective informal social control was associated with lower odds of injury and fewer instances of neglect. The significant negative interaction between household size and protective control is consistent with the idea that larger households may be protective when adult family members intervene against maltreatment to protect children. Replication and further investigation of protective ISC_CM in Western populations is much needed. Future research should not conceptualize or measure household size as a unilateral risk factor.

  15. Kepler Mission: a Discovery-Class Mission Designed to Determine the Frequency of Earth-Size and Larger Planets Around Solar-Like Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack; Basri, Gibor; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Caldwell, Douglas; Kondo, Yoji; hide

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is designed around a 0.95 in aperture Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. Measurements of the depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the position relative to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. Extending the mission to six years doubles the expected number of Earth-size planets in the HZ. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare. Based on the results of the current Doppler-velocity discoveries, detection of a thousand giant planets is expected. Information on their albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained.

  16. The role of biological fertility in predicting family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, M; Key, J; Best, N; Jensen, T K; Keiding, N

    2009-08-01

    It is plausible that a couple's ability to achieve the desired number of children is limited by biological fertility, especially if childbearing is postponed. Family size has declined and semen quality may have deteriorated in much of Europe, although studies have found an increase rather than a decrease in couple fertility. Using four high-quality European datasets, we took the reported time to pregnancy (TTP) as the predictor variable; births reported as following contraceptive failure were an additional category. The outcome variable was final or near-final family size. Potential confounders were maternal age when unprotected sex began prior to the first birth, and maternal smoking. Desired family size was available in only one of the datasets. Couples with a TTP of at least 12 months tended to have smaller families, with odds ratios for the risk of not having a second child approximately 1.8, and for the risk of not having a third child approximately 1.6. Below 12 months no association was observed. Findings were generally consistent across datasets. There was also a more than 2-fold risk of not achieving the desired family size if TTP was 12 months or more for the first child. Within the limits of the available data quality, family size appears to be predicted by biological fertility, even after adjustment for maternal age, if the woman was at least 20 years old when the couple's first attempt at conception started. The contribution of behavioural factors to this result also needs to be investigated.

  17. The role of biological fertility in predicting family size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, M; Key, J; Best, N

    2009-01-01

    for the first child. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limits of the available data quality, family size appears to be predicted by biological fertility, even after adjustment for maternal age, if the woman was at least 20 years old when the couple's first attempt at conception started. The contribution of behavioural......BACKGROUND: It is plausible that a couple's ability to achieve the desired number of children is limited by biological fertility, especially if childbearing is postponed. Family size has declined and semen quality may have deteriorated in much of Europe, although studies have found an increase....... Potential confounders were maternal age when unprotected sex began prior to the first birth, and maternal smoking. Desired family size was available in only one of the datasets. RESULTS: Couples with a TTP of at least 12 months tended to have smaller families, with odds ratios for the risk of not having...

  18. Size-dependent modification of asteroid family Yarkovsky V-shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, B. T.; Morbidelli, A.; Walsh, K. J.

    2018-04-01

    Context. The thermal properties of the surfaces of asteroids determine the magnitude of the drift rate cause by the Yarkovsky force. In the general case of Main Belt asteroids, the Yarkovsky force is indirectly proportional to the thermal inertia, Γ. Aim. Following the proposed relationship between Γ and asteroid diameter D, we find that asteroids' Yarkovsky drift rates might have a more complex size dependence than previous thought, leading to a curved family V-shape boundary in semi-major axis, a, vs. 1/D space. This implies that asteroids are drifting faster at larger sizes than previously considered decreasing on average the known ages of asteroid families. Methods: The V-Shape curvature is determined for >25 families located throughout the Main Belt to quantify the Yarkovsky size-dependent drift rate. Results: We find that there is no correlation between family age and V-shape curvature. In addition, the V-shape curvature decreases for asteroid families with larger heliocentric distances suggesting that the relationship between Γ and D is weaker in the outer MB possibly due to homogenous surface roughness among family members.

  19. Kepler Mission: A Wide-FOV Photometer Designed to Determine the Frequency of Earth-Size and Larger Planets Around Solar-like stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Lissauer, Jack; Basri, Gibor; Caldwell, John; Cochran, William; Dunham, Edward W.; Gilliland, Ronald; Jenkins, Jon M.; Caldwell, Douglas; hide

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is designed around a 0.95 m aperture Schmidt-type telescope with an array of 42 CCDs designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The photometer is scheduled to be launched into heliocentric orbit in 2007. Measurements of the depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the position relative to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare. Based on the results of the current doppler-velocity discoveries, detection of a thousand giant planets is expected. Information on their albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained.

  20. Determinants of family size in a Gulf Arab state: a comparison between two areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Randah R; Al-Roomi, Khaldoon; Masuadi, Emad

    2008-09-01

    The rapid economic transition in the Gulf Arab countries has resulted in marked changes in fertility and marriage patterns and a decrease in the number of children per family. Yet little is known about the determinants of family size in urban and less urban areas. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 450 Kuwaiti women aged 20-60 years who attended health care centres in Al Asima and Al Jahra governorates. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered through face-to-face interview which included variables on socio-demographic characteristics, family size, actual and ideal spacing, marriage related variables, health conditions and utilization of health services. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the factors that affect family size. The socio-economic indicators were significantly better in Al Asima, the capital, than in Al Jahra, a less urbanized area. On average, family size for the total sample was 5.97 +/- 0.114 with a larger size (6.27 +/- 0.242) in Al Jahra than in Al Asima (5.80 +/- 0.118) but without a significant difference. Al Jahra women reported a larger number of deliveries and past pregnancies but a lower usage of contraceptive measures. The total fertility rate was 3.65 in Al Asima, 3.84 in Al Jahra and 3.71 births per woman in the total population. Family size was inversely related to the educational level of women and their husbands. Currently employed women had a smaller family size (5.22 +/- 0.119) than the unemployed (6.81 +/- 0.187); p Families where the husband was the decision-maker on the number of children had a significantly larger family size (6.91 +/- 0.451) than families where the couple both participated in the decision (5.83 +/- 0.129; p = 0.032). The duration of marriage, ideal number of children, age of women at last delivery, number of rooms and the crowding index had significant positive effects on family size, whereas age at first delivery, duration between two consecutive pregnancies and

  1. Family history of type 2 diabetes, abdominal adipocyte size and markers of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthanont, P; Ramos, P; Jensen, M D; Hames, K C

    2017-11-01

    A major risk factor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a positive family history of diabetes. First degree relatives (FDR) of patients with T2DM are more insulin resistant and are reported to have larger abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes than adults without a family history. Our objectives were to assess whether FDR of T2DM are associated with larger abdominal adipocytes independent of age, sex and abdominal subcutaneous fat and to assess whether a family history of T2DM is also independently related to femoral adipocyte size, as well as visceral fat and fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations. We extracted adipocyte size, body composition, plasma TG and demographic data of non-diabetic research participants of previous studies conducted in our laboratory. We ascertained the family history of T2DM from the electronic medical records. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess whether FDR of T2DM are more likely to have other risk factors after adjusting for known covariates. Of 604 participants, 148 were FDR of T2DM. Although abdominal and femoral adipocyte size was greater in FDR of T2DM than those without a family history (0.74±0.33 vs 0.63±0.33 μg lipid per cell, Phistory of T2DM was a significant predictor of abdominal adipocyte size after adjustment for age and body fat distribution parameters in females (total R 2 =0.5, Phistory of T2DM was not independently predictive of femoral adipocyte size, visceral fat area or TG. Female FDR of T2DM have larger abdominal, but not femoral, adipocytes, even after accounting for age and body fat distribution.

  2. New Regimes of Implosions of Larger Sized Wire Arrays With and Without Modified Central Plane at 1.5-1.7 MA Zebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Esaulov, A. A.; Weller, M. E.; Shrestha, I.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Stafford, A.; Keim, S. F.; Petkov, E. E.; Lorance, M.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2013-10-01

    The recent experiments at 1.5-1.7 MA on Zebra at UNR with larger sized planar wires arrays (compared to the wire loads at 1 MA current) have demonstrated higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions. Such multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-Z material to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and mid-Z plasma flow between them. Also, they included a modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction. The stationary shock waves which existed over tens of ns on shadow images and the early x-ray emissions before the PCD peak on time-gated spectra were observed. The most recent experiments with similar loads but without the central wires demonstrated a very different regime of implosion with asymmetrical jets and no precursor formation. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001984 and in part by DE-FC52-06NA27616. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Birth order, family size, and children's use of physician services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to separate out the effects of number of siblings and birth order on children's use of physician services. Prior research has consistently revealed an inverse relationship between family size and physician visits, but the possible confounding influence of the child's ordinal position in the family has been ignored. Later born children may be taken to the doctor less often than first and other early borns because of their parents' increasing knowledgeability in regard to child care as well as their growing understanding of the uses and limitations of physician visits. On the assumption that part of the family size effect observed in prior research may have been due to the clustering of first and early borns in small families, an inverse relationship between birth order and physician utilization is hypothesized. Support for this hypothesis comes from an empirical study of 1,665 children from 587 families in which variation in family size is statistically controlled. PMID:7372499

  4. Parental divorce, sibship size, family resources, and children's academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2009-09-01

    Using data from 19,839 adolescents from the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study investigates whether the effects of parental divorce on adolescents' academic test performance vary by sibship size. Analyses show that the negative effect of divorce on adolescent performance attenuates as sibship size increases. On the other side of the interaction, the inverse relationship between sibship size and test performance is weaker in disrupted than in two-biological-parent families. Trends of such interactions are evident when sibship size is examined either as a continuous or a categorical measure. Finally, the observed interactions on adolescents' academic performance are completely explained by variations in parental financial, human, cultural, and social resources. In sum, this study underlines the importance of treating the effect of parental divorce as a variable and calls for more research to identify child and family features that may change the magnitude of such an effect.

  5. Meet the Parents? The Causal Effect of Family Size on the Geographic Distance between Adult Children and Older Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Holmlund, Helena; Rainer, Helmut; Siedler, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    An emerging question in demographic economics is whether there is a link between family size and the geographic distance between adult children and elderly parents. Given current population trends, understanding how different configurations of fam- ily size and sibship influence patterns of child-parent proximity is vitally important, as it impacts on issues such as intergenerational care and everyday mobility. It may be the case, for example, that larger families enable the responsibility of...

  6. Influence of Family Size, Household Food Security Status, and Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Fertility pattern and reproductive behaviours affect infant death in Nigeria. ... Keywords: Family size, food insecurity, stunting, breastfeeding, U5 children ... for young children and women in their childbearing years. Food security ... Two in five children are short for their ages; half of .... At the time of data analysis, the child's.

  7. Effects of Morphological Family Size for Young Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdijk, Kors; Schreuder, Robert; Baayen, R. Harald; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    Dutch children, from the second and fourth grade of primary school, were each given a visual lexical decision test on 210 Dutch monomorphemic words. After removing words not recognized by a majority of the younger group, (lexical) decisions were analysed by mixed-model regression methods to see whether morphological Family Size influenced decision…

  8. Word formation is aware of morpheme family size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Barbara Keller

    Full Text Available Words are built from smaller meaning bearing parts, called morphemes. As one word can contain multiple morphemes, one morpheme can be present in different words. The number of distinct words a morpheme can be found in is its family size. Here we used Birth-Death-Innovation Models (BDIMs to analyze the distribution of morpheme family sizes in English and German vocabulary over the last 200 years. Rather than just fitting to a probability distribution, these mechanistic models allow for the direct interpretation of identified parameters. Despite the complexity of language change, we indeed found that a specific variant of this pure stochastic model, the second order linear balanced BDIM, significantly fitted the observed distributions. In this model, birth and death rates are increased for smaller morpheme families. This finding indicates an influence of morpheme family sizes on vocabulary changes. This could be an effect of word formation, perception or both. On a more general level, we give an example on how mechanistic models can enable the identification of statistical trends in language change usually hidden by cultural influences.

  9. Family size and effective population size in a hatchery stock of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R.C.; McIntyre, J.D.; Hemmingsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Means and variances of family size measured in five year-classes of wire-tagged coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were linearly related. Population effective size was calculated by using estimated means and variances of family size in a 25-yr data set. Although numbers of age 3 adults returning to the hatchery appeared to be large enough to avoid inbreeding problems (the 25-yr mean exceeded 4500), the numbers actually contributing to the hatchery production may be too low. Several strategies are proposed to correct the problem perceived. Argument is given to support the contention that the problem of effective size is fairly general and is not confined to the present study population.

  10. Family size and intra-family inequalities in education in Ouagadougou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lachaud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: While the potential benefits for educational investment of decline in family size are well known, some questions have emerged on the distribution of these benefits. Do all the children in a family benefit equitably from the improved conditions brought about by limiting their number? And what are the consequences of reduction in family size for social inequalities in educational opportunity within the family? Objective: This study aims to analyze the inequalities in education between children within the same family in the context of falling fertility in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Methods: Inequalities in school attainment are analyzed, first in regard to family sizes and second in terms of gender, birth order, and the interactions between these two variables. Probit models are estimated and adjusted Wald F statistics with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons are computed. Results: The results show that family households with fewer children exhibit different patterns of investment in children's schooling, with lower inequalities between children by gender and birth order. At the post-primary level, however, the firstborn girls in small families appear to be less likely to be enrolled in school compared with those in large families, and also to be disadvantaged in their schooling compared to other children of small families. Conclusions: Reduced fertility appears to have negative effects on the schooling of the oldest girls and beneficial effects for all other children in the household. To mitigate this disadvantage, measures should be considered to reconcile domestic work with the new opportunities emerging from expanding school systems and smaller family sizes.

  11. Correlates of the desired family size among Indian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, N V; Gadgil, M; Patil, S

    1996-06-25

    The People of India database of the Anthropological Survey of India documents 631 cultural, ecological, and economic traits of the 4635 communities to which the entire Indian population is assigned. Focusing on 1342 communities of South India, we looked for correlates of low (1 or 2 children) and high (4 or more children) desired family size (DFS) reported as the norm for any given community by key informants. We found 10 cultural and 18 economic traits to be significantly correlated to high DFS and 21 cultural and 9 economic traits to low DFS. The economic traits so identified are compatible with high family size being desired by parents who have little capability of investing in quality of offspring, but whose children contribute economically from an early age. In contrast, communities desiring low family size are part of the modern intensive agriculture/organized industry/services sector and invest heavily in educating their children. A composite index based on 27 economic traits (CEI) has a high predictive value with respect to the DFS for the entire set of 4635 Indian communities. The 31 cultural traits highly correlated to high or low DFS constitute 5 clusters that can be identified as characterizing scheduled tribes, scheduled castes, rural and landless lower castes, urban upper castes, and Moslems. Whereas economic traits have similar influence on DFS within each of these ethnic categories, Moslems demonstrate a significantly higher DFS for lower values of CEI.

  12. New Sequences with Low Correlation and Large Family Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanxin

    In direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) communication systems and direct-sequence ultra wideband (DS-UWB) radios, sequences with low correlation and large family size are important for reducing multiple access interference (MAI) and accepting more active users, respectively. In this paper, a new collection of families of sequences of length pn-1, which includes three constructions, is proposed. The maximum number of cyclically distinct families without GMW sequences in each construction is φ(pn-1)/n·φ(pm-1)/m, where p is a prime number, n is an even number, and n=2m, and these sequences can be binary or polyphase depending upon choice of the parameter p. In Construction I, there are pn distinct sequences within each family and the new sequences have at most d+2 nontrivial periodic correlation {-pm-1, -1, pm-1, 2pm-1,…,dpm-1}. In Construction II, the new sequences have large family size p2n and possibly take the nontrivial correlation values in {-pm-1, -1, pm-1, 2pm-1,…,(3d-4)pm-1}. In Construction III, the new sequences possess the largest family size p(d-1)n and have at most 2d correlation levels {-pm-1, -1,pm-1, 2pm-1,…,(2d-2)pm-1}. Three constructions are near-optimal with respect to the Welch bound because the values of their Welch-Ratios are moderate, WR_??_d, WR_??_3d-4 and WR_??_2d-2, respectively. Each family in Constructions I, II and III contains a GMW sequence. In addition, Helleseth sequences and Niho sequences are special cases in Constructions I and III, and their restriction conditions to the integers m and n, pm≠2 (mod 3) and n≅0 (mod 4), respectively, are removed in our sequences. Our sequences in Construction III include the sequences with Niho type decimation 3·2m-2, too. Finally, some open questions are pointed out and an example that illustrates the performance of these sequences is given.

  13. Phylogeny determines flower size-dependent sex allocation at flowering in a hermaphroditic family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, A L; Guzmán, B; Staggemeier, V G; Valladares, F

    2017-11-01

    In animal-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, optimal floral allocation determines relative investment into sexes, which is ultimately dependent on flower size. Larger flowers disproportionally increase maleness whereas smaller and less rewarding flowers favour female function. Although floral traits are considered strongly conserved, phylogenetic relationships in the interspecific patterns of resource allocation to floral sex remain overlooked. We investigated these patterns in Cistaceae, a hermaphroditic family. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among Cistaceae species and quantified phylogenetic signal for flower size, dry mass and nutrient allocation to floral structures in 23 Mediterranean species using Blomberg's K-statistic. Lastly, phylogenetically-controlled correlational and regression analyses were applied to examine flower size-based allometry in resource allocation to floral structures. Sepals received the highest dry mass allocation, followed by petals, whereas sexual structures increased nutrient allocation. Flower size and resource allocation to floral structures, except for carpels, showed a strong phylogenetic signal. Larger-flowered species allometrically allocated more resources to maleness, by increasing allocation to corollas and stamens. Our results suggest a major role of phylogeny in determining interspecific changes in flower size and subsequent floral sex allocation. This implies that flower size balances the male-female function over the evolutionary history of Cistaceae. While allometric resource investment in maleness is inherited across species diversification, allocation to the female function seems a labile trait that varies among closely related species that have diversified into different ecological niches. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. First genome size estimations for some eudicot families and genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia, S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome size diversity in angiosperms varies roughly 2400-fold, although approximately 45% of angiosperm families lack a single genome size estimation, and therefore, this range could be enlarged. To contribute completing family and genera representation, DNA C-Values are here provided for 19 species from 16 eudicot families, including first values for 6 families, 14 genera and 17 species. The sample of species studied is very diverse, including herbs, weeds, vines, shrubs and trees. Data are discussed regarding previous genome size estimates of closely related species or genera, if any, their chromosome number, growth form or invasive behaviour. The present research contributes approximately 1.5% new values for previously unreported angiosperm families, being the current coverage around 55% of angiosperm families, according to the Plant DNA C-Values Database.

    La diversidad del tamaño del genoma en angiospermas es muy amplia, siendo el valor más elevado aproximadamente unas 2400 veces superior al más pequeño. Sin embargo, cerca del 45% de las familias no presentan ni una sola estimación, por lo que el rango real podría ser ampliado. Para contribuir a completar la representación de familias y géneros de angiospermas, este estudio contribuye con valores C para 19 especies de 16 familias de eudicoticotiledóneas, incluyendo los primeros valores para 6 familias, 14 géneros y 17 especies. La muestra estudiada es muy diversa, e incluye hierbas, malezas, enredaderas, arbustos y árboles. Se discuten los resultados en función de estimaciones previas del tamaño del genoma de especies o géneros estrechamente relacionados, del número de cromosomas, la forma de crecimiento o el comportamiento invasor de las especies analizadas. El presente estudio contribuye aproximadamente en un 1,5% de nuevos valores para familias de angiospermas no estudiadas previamente, de las que actualmente existe información para el 55%, según la base de datos

  15. Sibship size, birth order, family structure and childhood mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan J; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Alvarez-García, Raquel; Caro-Cañizares, Irene; López-Castromán, Jorge; Muñoz-Lorenzo, Laura; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role that birth order, sibship size and family structure have as risk factors in the development of common childhood mental disorders. A case-control study design was conducted (N = 16,823). The group under study consisted of all those subjects who had consulted with a psychiatrist/psychologist and had received a clinical diagnosis at public mental health centres within the Region of Madrid (Spain), between 1980 and 2008. A multiple logistic regression was used to explore the independent association with each diagnosis: emotional disorders (ED) with onset specific to childhood, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), mental retardation (MR), and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Birth order and family structure significantly predicted the risk of being diagnosed with ED or ADHD. In addition, sibship size and sex predicted the risk of being diagnosed with a childhood mental disorder. We concluded that being the middle child and living with both biological parents appear to be protective factors against the development of ED or ADHD. Living in large families appears to increase the risk of receiving a CD, MR, or PDD diagnosis. Further research is warranted.

  16. New Evidence of the Causal Effect of Family Size on Child Quality in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponczek, Vladimir; Souza, Andre Portela

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence of the causal effect of family size on child quality in a developing-country context. We estimate the impact of family size on child labor and educational outcomes among Brazilian children and young adults by exploring the exogenous variation of family size driven by the presence of twins in the family. Using the…

  17. Diffusion of two-dimensional epitaxial clusters on metal (100) surfaces: Facile versus nucleation-mediated behavior and their merging for larger sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, King C.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2017-12-01

    For diffusion of two-dimensional homoepitaxial clusters of N atoms on metal (100) surfaces mediated by edge atom hopping, macroscale continuum theory suggests that the diffusion coefficient scales like DN˜ N-β with β =3 /2 . However, we find quite different and diverse behavior in multiple size regimes. These include: (i) facile diffusion for small sizes N mediated diffusion with small β 2 for N =Np+1 and Np+2 also for moderate sizes 9 ≤N ≤O (102) ; (iv) merging of the above distinct branches and subsequent anomalous scaling with 1 ≲β analysis must account for a strong enhancement of diffusivity for short time increments due to back correlation in the cluster motion. Further understanding of this enhancement, of anomalous size scaling behavior, and of the merging of various branches, is facilitated by combinatorial analysis of the number of the ground-state and low-lying excited state cluster configurations, and also of kink populations.

  18. Realizing a desired family size: when should couples start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbema, J Dik F; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Leridon, Henri; te Velde, Egbert R

    2015-09-01

    Until what age can couples wait to start a family without compromising their chances of realizing the desired number of children? The latest female age at which a couple should start trying to become pregnant strongly depends on the importance attached to achieving a desired family size and on whether or not IVF is an acceptable option in case no natural pregnancy occurs. It is well established that the treatment-independent and treatment-dependent chances of pregnancy decline with female age. However, research on the effect of age has focused on the chance of a first pregnancy and not on realizing more than one child. An established computer simulation model of fertility, updated with recent IVF success rates, was used to simulate a cohort of 10 000 couples in order to assess the chances of realizing a one-, two- or three-child family, for different female ages at which the couple starts trying to conceive. The model uses treatment-independent pregnancy chances and pregnancy chances after IVF/ICSI. In order to focus the discussion, we single out three levels of importance that couples could attach to realizing a desired family size: (i) Very important (equated with aiming for at least a 90% success chance). (ii) Important but not at all costs (equated with a 75% success chance) (iii) Good to have children, but a life without children is also fine (equated with a 50% success chance). In order to have a chance of at least 90% to realize a one-child family, couples should start trying to conceive when the female partner is 35 years of age or younger, in case IVF is an acceptable option. For two children, the latest starting age is 31 years, and for three children 28 years. Without IVF, couples should start no later than age 32 years for a one-child family, at 27 years for a two-child family, and at 23 years for three children. When couples accept 75% or lower chances of family completion, they can start 4-11 years later. The results appeared to be robust for

  19. Geographical Mobility, Income, Life Satisfaction and Family Size Preferences: An Empirical Study on Rural Households in Shaanxi and Henan Provinces in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangsheng; Yang, Hong

    Employing data from the China rural-urban mobility survey conducted in 2010, this study investigates the influence of family demographic characteristics on the income, life satisfaction, and potential for rural-urban mobility at the rural household level of two provinces of China: Shaanxi and Henan. A larger labor force in a rural household was found to reduce a family's ability or inclination to move to a city. The findings reveal that family size negatively affects the average income per family member and reduces the marginal income of the labor force and that minor children can improve the life satisfaction of family members. We conclude that a larger family size does not translate to more benefits for a rural household. Family size preference is found to be a reflection of parents' concerns about elderly care and is deemed to be unfavorable for urbanization in P. R. China.

  20. Grandparental investment: The influence of reproductive timing and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coall, David A; Meier, Marc; Hertwig, Ralph; Wänke, Michaela; Höpflinger, François

    2009-01-01

    The influence that grandparents have on the life history traits of their descendants has been studied extensively. However, no attention has been paid to the potential influence a grandparent's own reproductive history has on the investment they make in their grandchildren. We use data from 658 Swiss grandchildren and 591 of their grandparents to investigate whether grandparents' reproductive scheduling and family size influence the amount of investment grandparents make in a focal grandchild (shared contacts, occasions to meet, activities, discussions, interests, and important roles the grandparent plays). Grandparents who were younger when they had their first child had more children and grandchildren; this relationship strengthened after controlling for grandparental age, sex, lineage, and education (all P children or grandchildren was associated with reduced levels of grandparental investment. After adjustment for a wide range of factors known to influence investment, having more children or grandchildren and having a first child or grandchild at a younger age were associated with reduced investment in 14 of 24 analyses (all P family size. Interestingly, these relationships were only present in data reported from the grandchild's point of view, not the grandparent's. This analysis provides preliminary evidence that grandparents' reproductive strategies have consequences for the amount of investment they make in their grandchildren. These results are examined in terms of the trade-offs between current and future reproduction and offspring quality and quantity. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. When men appear smaller or larger than they really are: preliminary evidence that women are fooled by size illusions in attractiveness judgment tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Yannick S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In humans, studies have shown that contrast illusions can affect perceptions of facial attractiveness and dominance. In non-human animals, recent research found that contrast illusions of size positively affected male mate value. In humans, male height is a potentially important indicator of mate value, with women preferring men taller than themselves. We tested in two studies whether height contrast illusions could affect women’s perceptions of male height and mate value, particularly attractiveness, dominance, and muscularity. Using computer-generated images of men of different heights standing in groups of three, 104 female participants rated targets either surrounded by shorter, same height, or taller distractors in a within-subject design. The second experiment (N=80 replicated and extended the first by making the images more realistic and adding natural backgrounds, suggesting that when participants are given a visual anchor, in order to get a better sense of the absolute height of the targets, the effects remain. In both studies, results showed that, compared with same height distractors, male targets were rated as taller when surrounded by shorter distractors, and as shorter when surrounded by taller distractors. Additionally, attractiveness, dominance, and muscularity perceptions were affected in a similar manner, with most of the differences in these appraisals being mediated by the perceived height differences. Therefore, differently sized distractors affected the perceived height and mate value of the targets, which were in effect all of the same constant size. These findings indicate that context dependent effects could potentially influence attractiveness judgments. The same man might thus be perceived as more attractive when surrounded by men of similar or smaller height, as opposed to when surrounded by men who are taller.

  2. The genetic architecture of novel trophic specialists: larger effect sizes are associated with exceptional oral jaw diversification in a pupfish adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher H; Erickson, Priscilla A; Miller, Craig T

    2017-01-01

    The genetic architecture of adaptation is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms and constraints governing diversification. However, most case studies focus on loss of complex traits or parallel speciation in similar environments. It is still unclear how the genetic architecture of these local adaptive processes compares to the architecture of evolutionary transitions contributing to morphological and ecological novelty. Here, we identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) between two trophic specialists in an excellent case study for examining the origins of ecological novelty: a sympatric radiation of pupfishes endemic to San Salvador Island, Bahamas, containing a large-jawed scale-eater and a short-jawed molluscivore with a skeletal nasal protrusion. These specialized niches and trophic traits are unique among over 2000 related species. Measurements of the fitness landscape on San Salvador demonstrate multiple fitness peaks and a larger fitness valley isolating the scale-eater from the putative ancestral intermediate phenotype of the generalist, suggesting that more large-effect QTL should contribute to its unique phenotype. We evaluated this prediction using an F2 intercross between these specialists. We present the first linkage map for pupfishes and detect significant QTL for sex and eight skeletal traits. Large-effect QTL contributed more to enlarged scale-eater jaws than the molluscivore nasal protrusion, consistent with predictions from the adaptive landscape. The microevolutionary genetic architecture of large-effect QTL for oral jaws parallels the exceptional diversification rates of oral jaws within the San Salvador radiation observed over macroevolutionary timescales and may have facilitated exceptional trophic novelty in this system. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Gene family size conservation is a good indicator of evolutionary rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Chi; Chen, Chiuan-Jung; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Chuang, Trees-Juen

    2010-08-01

    The evolution of duplicate genes has been a topic of broad interest. Here, we propose that the conservation of gene family size is a good indicator of the rate of sequence evolution and some other biological properties. By comparing the human-chimpanzee-macaque orthologous gene families with and without family size conservation, we demonstrate that genes with family size conservation evolve more slowly than those without family size conservation. Our results further demonstrate that both family expansion and contraction events may accelerate gene evolution, resulting in elevated evolutionary rates in the genes without family size conservation. In addition, we show that the duplicate genes with family size conservation evolve significantly more slowly than those without family size conservation. Interestingly, the median evolutionary rate of singletons falls in between those of the above two types of duplicate gene families. Our results thus suggest that the controversy on whether duplicate genes evolve more slowly than singletons can be resolved when family size conservation is taken into consideration. Furthermore, we also observe that duplicate genes with family size conservation have the highest level of gene expression/expression breadth, the highest proportion of essential genes, and the lowest gene compactness, followed by singletons and then by duplicate genes without family size conservation. Such a trend accords well with our observations of evolutionary rates. Our results thus point to the importance of family size conservation in the evolution of duplicate genes.

  4. Effects of primary and secondary morphological family size in monolingual and bilingual word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Schreuder, R.; Baayen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated primary and secondary morphological family size effects in monolingual and bilingual processing, combining experimentation with computational modeling. Family size effects were investigated in an English lexical decision task for Dutch-English bilinguals and English

  5. The impact of family size on children’s school attendance in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Kezia C. Bansagan; Hazel Joyce C. Panganiban

    2008-01-01

    Much empirical work has been done to determine the effects of family size on the education of children. Using a sample from the October 2006 Labor Force Survey, this paper attempts to determine the impact of family size on children’s education as measured by school attendance while considering socioeconomic factors. Results have shown that family size is significantly and negatively correlated with children’s school enrollment. Even after controlling for family size and birth-order effect, th...

  6. Testing the quantity–quality model of fertility: Estimation using unrestricted family size models

    OpenAIRE

    Mogstad, Magne; Wiswall, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We examine the relationship between child quantity and quality. Motivated by the theoretical ambiguity regarding the sign of the marginal effects of additional siblings on children's outcomes, our empirical model allows for an unrestricted relationship between family size and child outcomes. We find that the conclusion in Black, Devereux, and Salvanes (2005) of no family size effect does not hold after relaxing their linear specification in family size. We find nonzero effects of family size ...

  7. Association between asthma and family size between 1977 and 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, R J; Hughes, J M; Chinn, S

    1999-01-01

    Several recent reports show a negative association between asthma and family size or birth order, but this association was not detected in data collected between 10 and 30 years ago. This study compared the association between sibship size and asthma in three surveys using the same methodology in 1977, 1985/86, and 1993/94. Cross sectional comparison of the 1977, 1985/86, and 1993/94 surveys. Study areas in England and Scotland. Parents of children between 5 to 11 years in England and Scotland were asked about asthma and bronchitis attacks in the last 12 months, and wheeze in their child. Approximately 9000 children participated in each of the surveys. The overall association between asthma, defined as asthma attacks or wheeze, and total number of siblings was not significant (p = 0.22), but an only child had a higher prevalence of asthma than children with siblings (OR 0.87 95% CI 0.76 to 0.98). The interaction between year of survey and sibship size on asthma was not significant (p = 0.36). There was no association between asthma and birth order. A significant interaction between social class and year of survey on asthma was detected (p = 0.004). In the 1993/94 survey children whose fathers had a semi or unskilled manual occupation had a higher prevalence of asthma (16%) than children whose fathers belonged to other social classes (13%). This study provides only marginal support for a change over time of the association between sibship size and asthma. Based on recent reports the nature of the exposure agent that may explain the association remains controversial. This study suggests a disproportionate increase of asthma in lower social classes.

  8. The combined effects of family size and farm exposure on childhood hay fever and atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuneit, Jon; Strachan, David P; Büchele, Gisela; Weber, Juliane; Loss, Georg; Sozanska, Barbara; Boznanski, Andrzej; Horak, Elisabeth; Heederik, Dick; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; von Mutius, Erika

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to farming environments and siblings is associated with reduced risks of childhood hay fever and atopy. We explored the independence and interaction of these protective effects in the GABRIELA study. Questionnaire surveys on farming, asthma, and allergies were conducted in four central European areas among 79,888 6-12-yr-old children. Aeroallergen-specific serum IgE was measured in a stratified sample of 8,023 children. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare gradients in allergy prevalence by sibship size across three categories of exposure to farming environments. The prevalence of hay fever ranged from 2% (95% confidence interval 1.6%; 2.7%) among farmers' children with more than two siblings to 12% (11.2%; 13.0%) among children with no farm exposure and no siblings. Farming families were larger on average. More siblings and exposure to farming environments independently conferred protection from hay fever and atopy. There was no substantial effect modification between family size and exposure to farming environments. The odds ratios for hay fever per additional sibling were 0.79 among unexposed non-farm children, 0.77 among farm-exposed non-farm children, and 0.72 among children from farming families (2df interaction test: p = 0.41). The inverse association of exposure to farming environments with hay fever is found in all sizes of family, with no substantial tendency to saturation or synergism. This suggests that different biological mechanisms may underlie these two protective factors. Combinations of a large family and exposure to farming environments markedly reduce the prevalence of hay fever and indicate the strength of its environmental determinants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  10. SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS INFLUENCING FAMILY SIZE AMONG RURAL POPULATION OF DISTRICT NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.

  11. Family size preference and factors affecting the fertility rate in Hyogo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yasuyo; Yamabe, Shingo

    2013-01-30

    Japan has consistently shown a low fertility rate, which has been lower than the replacement level since 1974, and represents one of the least fertile countries in the world. This study was designed to determine the family size preference of and its effect on Japanese women. We conducted a questionnaire survey among women who visited the obstetrics and gynecology department of 18 hospitals and clinics in the Hyogo Prefecture, Japan, between October 2011 and February 2012. All the women were categorized according to age group and area of residence, and the survey results were statistically analyzed using a t test. A total of 1616 women were included in this study. There was no significant difference between the mean desired and actual marital ages (26.70 and 26.67 years, respectively). The mean desired number of children was 2.55, which was significantly more than the mean actual number of children (1.77) in all generations. The mean desired and actual numbers of children were more in the rural areas (2.73 and 2.09, respectively) than in the urban (2.54 and 1.70, respectively) and semi-urban areas (2.49 and 1.60, respectively). The mean number of family members was significantly greater in the rural areas (3.84) than in the urban (3.25) and semi-urban areas (3.05).The most important concern among women who had never delivered a baby was childbearing itself, followed by the expenses related to pregnancy and childbearing. The family size preference of the women in our study was higher than the actual numbers of children. The fertility intentions were low among the younger women but high among those living in rural areas with larger families.

  12. The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

  13. The Effect of Childhood Family Size on Fertility in Adulthood: New Evidence From IV Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Sara; Kaldager Hart, Rannveig

    2017-02-01

    Although fertility is positively correlated across generations, the causal effect of children's experience with larger sibships on their own fertility in adulthood is poorly understood. With the sex composition of the two firstborn children as an instrumental variable, we estimate the effect of sibship size on adult fertility using high-quality data from Norwegian administrative registers. Our study sample is all firstborns or second-borns during the 1960s in Norwegian families with at least two children (approximately 110,000 men and 104,000 women). An additional sibling has a positive effect on male fertility, mainly causing them to have three children themselves, but has a negative effect on female fertility at the same margin. Investigation into mediators reveals that mothers of girls shift relatively less time from market to family work when an additional child is born. We speculate that this scarcity in parents' time makes girls aware of the strains of life in large families, leading them to limit their own number of children in adulthood.

  14. Size-dependent sex allocation in Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae): physiological basis and effects of maternal family and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z-G; Meng, J-L; Fan, B-L; Du, G-Z

    2008-11-01

    Theory predicts size-dependent sex allocation (SDS): flowers on plants with a high-resource status should have larger investment in females than plants with a low-resource status. Through a pot experiment with Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae) in the field, we examined the relationship between sex allocation of individual flowers and plant size for different maternal families under different environmental conditions. We also determined the physiological base of variations in plant size. Our results support the prediction of SDS, and show that female-biased allocation with plant size is consistent under different environmental conditions. Negative correlations within families showed a plastic response of sex allocation to plant size. Negative genetic correlations between sex allocation and plant size at the family level indicate a genetic cause of the SDS pattern, although genetic correlation was influenced by environmental factors. Hence, the size-dependency of sex allocation in this species had both plastic and genetic causes. Furthermore, genotypes that grew large also had higher assimilation ability, thus showing a physiological basis for SDS.

  15. Birth Order Matters: The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Booth; Hiau Joo Kee

    2005-01-01

    We use unique retrospective family background data from the 2003 British Household Panel Survey to explore the degree to which family size and birth order affect a child's subsequent educational attainment. Theory suggests a trade off between child quantity and 'quality'. Family size might adversely affect the production of child quality within a family. A number of arguments also suggest that siblings are unlikely to receive equal shares of the resources devoted by parents to their childr...

  16. Standard Practice for Continuous Sizing and Counting of Airborne Particles in Dust-Controlled Areas and Clean Rooms Using Instruments Capable of Detecting Single Sub-Micrometre and Larger Particles

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the determination of the particle concentration, by number, and the size distribution of airborne particles in dust-controlled areas and clean rooms, for particles in the size range of approximately 0.01 to 5.0 m. Particle concentrations not exceeding 3.5 106 particles/m3 (100 000/ft 3) are covered for all particles equal to and larger than the minimum size measured. 1.2 This practice uses an airborne single particle counting device (SPC) whose operation is based on measuring the signal produced by an individual particle passing through the sensing zone. The signal must be directly or indirectly related to particle size. Note 1The SPC type is not specified here. The SPC can be a conventional optical particle counter (OPC), an aerodynamic particle sizer, a condensation nucleus counter (CNC) operating in conjunction with a diffusion battery or differential mobility analyzer, or any other device capable of counting and sizing single particles in the size range of concern and of sampling...

  17. The Dynamical Imprint of Lost Protoplanets on the Trans-Neptunian Populations, and Limits on the Primordial Size Distribution of Trans-Neptunian Objects at Pluto and Larger Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Andrew Brian; Dawson, Rebekah

    2018-04-01

    Planet formation remains a poorly understood process, in part because of our limited access to the intermediate phases of planetesimal and protoplanet growth. Today, the vast majority of the accessible remaining planetesimals and protoplanets reside within the Hot Trans-Neptunian Object population. This population has been depleted by 99% - 99.9% over the course of the Solar system's history, and as such the present day size-number distribution may be incomplete at the large size end. We show that such lost protoplanets would have left signatures in the dynamics of the present-day Trans-Neptunian Populations, and their primordial number can thus be statistically limited by considering the survival of ultra-wide binary TNOs, the Cold Classical Kuiper belt, and the resonant populations. We compare those limits to the predicted size-number distribution of various planetesimal and proto-planet growth models.

  18. Atherogenic lipoprotein particle size and concentrations and the effect of pravastatin in children with familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anouk; Rodenburg, Jessica; Vissers, Maud N.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Wiegman, Albert; Trip, Mieke D.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Otvos, James D.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine lipoprotein particle concentrations and size in children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and investigate the effect of pravastatin therapy on these measures. STUDY DESIGN: Lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

  19. 24 CFR 81.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 81.18 Section 81.18 Housing and Urban... CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.18 Affordability—Income level definitions—family size not known... moderate-income families where family size is not known to the GSE, income will be adjusted using unit size...

  20. Parent-offspring conflict over family size in current China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghua; Duan, Chongli; Lummaa, Virpi

    2017-05-06

    In China, the recent replacement of the one-child policy with a two-child policy could potentially change family ecology-parents may switch investment from exclusively one child to two. The parent-offspring conflict theory provides testable hypotheses concerning possible firstborn opposition toward further reproduction of their mother, and who wins the conflict. We tested the hypotheses that if there is any opposition, it will differ between sexes, weaken with offspring age and family resource availability, and affect maternal reproductive decision-making. Using survey data of 531 non-pregnant mothers of only one child from Xi'an (China), logistic regression was used to examine effects of age, family income, and sex on the attitudes of firstborn children toward having a sibling; ordinal regression was used to investigate how such attitudes affect maternal intention to reproduce again. Firstborns' unsupportive attitude toward their mothers' further reproduction weakened with age and was overall more frequent in low-income families. Sons' unsupportive tendency displayed a somewhat U-shaped relationship, whereas daughters' weakened with family income; consequently, sons were more likely than daughters to be unsupportive in high-income families, suggesting a tendency to be more demanding. Forty-nine percent of mothers supported by their firstborns intended to reproduce again, whilst only 9% of mothers not supported by firstborns had such an intention. Our study contributes to evolutionary literature on parent-offspring conflict and its influence on female reproductive strategy in modern human societies, and has also important implications for understanding fertility patterns and conducting interventions in family conflict in China. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Family history and its association to curve size and treatment in 1,463 patients with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauers, Anna; Danielsson, Aina; Karlsson, Magnus; Ohlin, Acke; Gerdhem, Paul

    2013-11-01

    To study family history in relation to curve severity, gender, age at diagnosis and treatment in idiopathic scoliosis. A self-assessment questionnaire on family history of scoliosis was administered to 1,463 untreated, brace or surgically treated idiopathic scoliosis patients. Out of the 1,463 patients, 51 % had one or more relatives with scoliosis. There was no significant difference between females and males, nor between juvenile and adolescent study participants in this respect (p = 0.939 and 0.110, respectively). There was a significant difference in maximum curve size between patients with one or more relatives with scoliosis (median 35°, interquartile range 25) and patients without any relative with scoliosis (median 32°, interquartile range 23) (p = 0.022). When stratifying patients according to treatment (observation, brace treatment or surgery), we found that it was more common to have a relative with scoliosis among the treated patients (p = 0.011). The OR for being treated was 1.32 (95% CI 1.06-1.64) when the patient had a relative with scoliosis, compared to not having. Larger curve sizes were found in patients with a family history of scoliosis than in the ones without. No relation between family history and gender or between family history and age at onset of idiopathic scoliosis was found. Although the presence of a family history of scoliosis may not be a strong prognostic risk factor, it indicates that these patients are at higher risk of developing a more severe curve.

  2. Young worker safety in construction: do family ties and workgroup size affect hazard exposures and safety practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Myers, Douglas J; Runyan, Carol W; Schulman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how social aspects of the work environment influence exposures or safety practices affecting young construction workers. Our objective was to investigate whether working on a construction site with a small number of workers (≤10 vs. 11-50) or having a family-firm connection (working in a family-owned firm or one in which a family member also works) impacts hazard exposures and safety practices. Participants included 187 North Carolina construction workers 14 to 17 years old who were surveyed about their jobs. We conducted stratified analyses using cross-tabulations and chi-square statistics to measure associations between workgroup size (i.e., the total number of workers on a jobsite) and family-firm connections (yes/no) and hazard exposures (e.g., saws) and safety practices (e.g., supervision). Having a family-firm connection was associated with fewer hazard exposures and greater safety practices. Youth who worked on jobsites with a larger workgroup (11-50 workers) reported more hazards but also more safety practices. Family-firm connections, in particular, may have a protective effect for youth in construction. Even though the statistical significance of our findings on workgroup size was limited in places, the pattern of differences found suggest that further research in this area is warranted.

  3. Morphological Family Size effects in L1 and L2 processing: An electrophysiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, K.; Schreuder, R.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined Morphological Family Size effects in first and second language processing. Items with a high or low Dutch (L1) Family Size were contrasted in four experiments involving Dutch–English bilinguals. In two experiments, reaction times (RTs) were collected in English (L2) and

  4. Changes in family size intentions across young adulthood: a life-course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefbroer, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a resurgence in the interest in family size intentions and ideals in developed societies, partially stemming from the idea that realized fertility in these societies is lower than intended fertility. This paper addresses the question of the stability of family size

  5. Changes of family size intentions across young adulthood: A life-course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefbroer, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a resurgence in the interest in family size intentions and ideals in developed societies, partially stemming from the idea that realized fertility in these societies is lower than intended fertility. This paper addresses the question of the stability of family size

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Family Structure and Size and Adoption Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P.; Brooks, Devon

    1997-01-01

    This follow-up study of international and domestic adoptions, involving participants first studied in 1981, investigated the role of family size and structure, particularly the presence of both biological and adopted children in a family, on adoption outcomes. Data suggested that families who adopt children and have birth children may have less…

  7. Family members' unique perspectives of the family: examining their scope, size, and relations to individual adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-06-01

    Using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's "unique perspective" or nonshared, idiosyncratic view of the family. We used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (a) isolated for each family member's 6 reports of family dysfunction the nonshared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by 1 or more family members and (b) extracted common variance across each family member's set of nonshared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. In addition, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these "unique perspectives" reflect about the family are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Family Members' Unique Perspectives of the Family: Examining their Scope, Size, and Relations to Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H.; Diane, L. Putnick; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Using the Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's “unique perspective” or non-shared, idiosyncratic view of the family. To do so we used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (1) isolated for each family member's six reports of family dysfunction the non-shared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by one or more family members and (2) extracted common variance across each family member's set of non-shared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. Additionally, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these “unique perspectives” reflect about the family are discussed. PMID:22545933

  9. The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth order on children's education

    OpenAIRE

    Devereux, Paul J.; Black, Sandra E.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade-off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich data set on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the educational attainment of children. We find a negative correlation between family size and children's education, but when we include indicators for birt...

  10. The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth children’s education

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a tradeoff between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the educational attainment of children. While we find a negative correlation between family size and children’s education, when we include indicators for birt...

  11. Superior Students: Family Size, Birth Order and Intellectual Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvino, Charles J.; Lupton, Paul E.

    1978-01-01

    Findings from a study of 380 gifted and talented high school students supported R. Zajonc's conclusion that there is an advantage for a child to be raised in a small family and to be first born if intellectual skills development is used as the sole criteria. (CL)

  12. Changes in desired family size during the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefbroer, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch Minister for Youth and Families,André Rouvoet (Christian Union),is in favour of government policy designed to raise the number of children.He believes this would alleviate the disadvantages of an ageing population in the future.Many people in the Netherlands say,however,that the number of

  13. Why have microsaccades become larger?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Nyström, Marcus; Andersson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    -trackers compared to the systems used in the classical studies, in combination with the lack of a systematic algorithmic treatment of the overshoot. We hope that awareness of these discrepancies in microsaccade dynamics across eye structures will lead to more generally accepted definitions of microsaccades....... experts. The main reason was that the overshoots were not systematically detected by the algorithm and therefore not accurately accounted for. We conclude that one reason to why the reported size of microsaccades has increased is due to the larger overshoots produced by the modern pupil-based eye...

  14. Asteroid size distributions for the main belt and for asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantzev, A.; Kazantzeva, L.

    2017-12-01

    The asteroid-size distribution for he Eos family was constructed. The WISE database containing the albedo p and the size D of over 80,000 asteroids was used. The b parameter of the power-law dependence has a minimum at some average values of the asteroid size of the family. A similar dependence b(D) exists for the whole asteroid belt. An assumption on the possible similarity of the formation mechanisms of the asteroid belt as a whole and separate families is made.

  15. Family size, the physical environment, and socioeconomic effects across the stature distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2012-04-01

    A neglected area in historical stature studies is the relationship between stature and family size. Using robust statistics and a large 19th century data set, this study documents a positive relationship between stature and family size across the stature distribution. The relationship between material inequality and health is the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between stature and wealth and an inverse relationship between stature and material inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth variables, the paper reports a positive relationship between the physical environment and stature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of family-related factors on the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Venter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study family-related factors that can influence the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses are empirically investigated.  The dependent variable in this study is measured by two underlying dimensions, namely satisfaction with the process and continued profitability of the business.  The empirical results indicate that the family-related factors that influence both the aforementioned dimensions are the mutual acceptance of roles, the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, and family harmony.  The continued profitability of the business is also influenced by the agreement to continue the business. The existence of family harmony in itself influences the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, the agreement to continue the business, as well as the mutual acceptance of roles.  The managerial implications of these empirical findings are discussed and recommendations offered.

  17. Some Relationships Between Birth Order, Sex, Family Size, Sibling Span, and Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygo, Rosemary E. Cox

    Reading scores earned by 286 fifth-grade pupils taking the California Test of Basic Skills were used in a study examining the relationship between reading achievement and birth order and related family factors. Vocabulary scores were significantly related to birth order, family size, and socioeconomic status. Comprehension scores were…

  18. The Effects of Family Size, Birth Order, Sibling Separation and Crowding on the Academic Achievement of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Family constellation variables such as family size, birth order, spacing of children, and crowding were significantly associated with academic achievement when IQ was controlled. The effects of family constellation variables were found to be sex specific. (RC)

  19. Normative influence and desired family size among young people in rural Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    Research has identified the lack of acceptance of a two-child-family norm as the biggest obstacle to achieving replacement-level fertility in Egypt. This analysis examines norms about desired family size for 1,366 males and 1,367 females aged 15-24 in 2004 in rural Minya governorate. Two-level random-effects multivariate logistic regression models, stratified by sex and grouped by neighborhood, are used to assess normative influence at the household and neighborhood levels, controlling for individual- and household-level covariates. In the final model, young males in neighborhoods where more people desire a small family are 33 percent more likely to desire a small family than are young males in other neighborhoods. Young females in households with one or more adults preferring a small family are 78 percent more likely to desire a small family, and young females in households with one or more young people who prefer a small family are 37 percent more likely to desire a small family themselves, compared with those living with adults or with young people, respectively, who do not prefer a small family. Programs aiming to reduce fertility should be aware of gender differences in the sources of normative influence on desired family size.

  20. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundquist Jan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. Methods We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status. We divided the age at diagnosis in two groups, below and over 50 years, to identify the effect of family size and birth order for different age periods. Results Negative associations for increasing birth order were found for endometrial, testicular, skin, thyroid and connective tissue cancers and melanoma. In contrast, we observed positive association between birth order and lung, male and female genital cancers. Family size was associated with decreasing risk for endometrial and testicular cancers, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma; risk was increased for leukemia and nervous system cancer. The effect of birth order decreased for lung and endometrial cancer from age at diagnosis below to over 50 years. Combined effects for birth order and family size were marginally significant for thyroid gland tumors. Especially, the relative risk for follicular thyroid gland tumors was significantly decreased for increasing birth order. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the effect of birth order decreases from early to late adulthood for lung and endometrial cancer.

  1. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevier, Melanie; Weires, Marianne; Thomsen, Hauke; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2011-05-09

    Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status. We divided the age at diagnosis in two groups, below and over 50 years, to identify the effect of family size and birth order for different age periods. Negative associations for increasing birth order were found for endometrial, testicular, skin, thyroid and connective tissue cancers and melanoma. In contrast, we observed positive association between birth order and lung, male and female genital cancers. Family size was associated with decreasing risk for endometrial and testicular cancers, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma; risk was increased for leukemia and nervous system cancer. The effect of birth order decreased for lung and endometrial cancer from age at diagnosis below to over 50 years. Combined effects for birth order and family size were marginally significant for thyroid gland tumors. Especially, the relative risk for follicular thyroid gland tumors was significantly decreased for increasing birth order. Our findings suggest that the effect of birth order decreases from early to late adulthood for lung and endometrial cancer.

  2. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevier, Melanie; Weires, Marianne; Thomsen, Hauke; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status. We divided the age at diagnosis in two groups, below and over 50 years, to identify the effect of family size and birth order for different age periods. Negative associations for increasing birth order were found for endometrial, testicular, skin, thyroid and connective tissue cancers and melanoma. In contrast, we observed positive association between birth order and lung, male and female genital cancers. Family size was associated with decreasing risk for endometrial and testicular cancers, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma; risk was increased for leukemia and nervous system cancer. The effect of birth order decreased for lung and endometrial cancer from age at diagnosis below to over 50 years. Combined effects for birth order and family size were marginally significant for thyroid gland tumors. Especially, the relative risk for follicular thyroid gland tumors was significantly decreased for increasing birth order. Our findings suggest that the effect of birth order decreases from early to late adulthood for lung and endometrial cancer

  3. The more the heavier? Family size and childhood obesity in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha

    2017-05-01

    Childhood obesity remains a top public health concern and understanding its drivers is important for combating this epidemic. Contemporaneous trends in declining family size and increasing childhood obesity in the U.S. suggest that family size may be a potential contributor, but limited evidence exists. Using data from a national sample of children in the U.S. this study examines whether family size, measured by the number of siblings a child has, is associated with child BMI and obesity, and the possible mechanisms at work. The potential endogeneity of family size is addressed by using several complementary approaches including sequentially introducing of a rich set of controls, subgroup analyses, and estimating school fixed-effects and child fixed-effects models. Results suggest that having more siblings is associated with significantly lower BMI and lower likelihood of obesity. Children with siblings have healthier diets and watch less television. Family mealtimes, less eating out, reduced maternal work, and increased adult supervision of children are potential mechanisms through which family size is protective of childhood obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Explaining religious differentials in family-size preference: Evidence from Nepal in 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lisa D; Brauner-Otto, Sarah R; Ji, Yingchun

    2015-01-01

    We examine how religio-ethnic identity, individual religiosity, and family members' religiosity were related to preferred family size in Nepal in 1996. Analyses of survey data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study show that socio-economic characteristics and individual experiences can suppress, as well as largely account for, religio-ethnic differences in fertility preference. These religio-ethnic differentials are associated with variance in particularized theologies or general value orientations (like son preference) across groups. In addition, individual and family religiosity are both positively associated with preferred family size, seemingly because of their association with religious beliefs—beliefs that are likely to shape fertility strategies. These findings suggest the need for improvements in how we conceptualize and measure supra-individual religious influence in a variety of settings and for a range of demographically interesting outcomes.

  5. Explaining Religious Differentials in Family Size Preferences: Evidence from Nepal in 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lisa D.; Brauner-Otto, Sarah; Ji, Yingchun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an examination of how religio-ethnic identity, individual religiosity, and family members’ religiosity are related to preferred family size in Nepal. Analyses of survey data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study show that socioeconomic characteristics and individual experiences can suppress, as well as largely account for, religio-ethnic differences in fertility preferences. These religio-ethnic differentials are associated with variance in particularized religious theologies or general value orientations (like son preference) across groups. In addition, individual and family religiosity are both positively associated with preferred family size, seemingly because of their association with religious beliefs that are likely to shape fertility strategies. These findings suggest improvements in how we conceptualize and empirically measure supra-individual religious influence in a variety of settings and for a range of demographically interesting outcomes. PMID:25685878

  6. A family longevity selection score: ranking sibships by their longevity, size, and availability for study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Hadley, Evan C; Province, Michael; Christensen, Kaare; Rossi, Winifred; Perls, Thomas T; Ash, Arlene S

    2009-12-15

    Family studies of exceptional longevity can potentially identify genetic and other factors contributing to long life and healthy aging. Although such studies seek families that are exceptionally long lived, they also need living members who can provide DNA and phenotype information. On the basis of these considerations, the authors developed a metric to rank families for selection into a family study of longevity. Their measure, the family longevity selection score (FLoSS), is the sum of 2 components: 1) an estimated family longevity score built from birth-, gender-, and nation-specific cohort survival probabilities and 2) a bonus for older living siblings. The authors examined properties of FLoSS-based family rankings by using data from 3 ongoing studies: the New England Centenarian Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and screenees for the Long Life Family Study. FLoSS-based selection yields families with exceptional longevity, satisfactory sibship sizes and numbers of living siblings, and high ages. Parameters in the FLoSS formula can be tailored for studies of specific populations or age ranges or with different conditions. The first component of the FLoSS also provides a conceptually sound survival measure to characterize exceptional longevity in individuals or families in various types of studies and correlates well with later-observed longevity.

  7. The influence of neighbors' family size preference on progression to high parity births in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Elyse A; Barber, Jennifer S

    2013-03-01

    Large families can have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women, children, and their communities. Seventy-three percent of the individuals in our rural Nepalese sample report that two children is their ideal number, yet about half of the married women continue childbearing after their second child. Using longitudinal data from the Chitwan Valley Family Study, we explore the influence of women's and neighbors' family size preferences on women's progression to high parity births, comparing this influence across two cohorts. We find that neighbors' family size preferences influence women's fertility, that older cohorts of women are more influenced by their neighbors' preferences than are younger cohorts of women, and that the influence of neighbors' preferences is independent of women's own preferences. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  8. Children and Careers: How Family Size Affects Parents' Labor Market Outcomes in the Long Run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Sara; Markussen, Simen; Strøm, Marte

    2017-10-01

    We estimate the effect of family size on various measures of labor market outcomes over the whole career until retirement, using instrumental variables estimation in data from Norwegian administrative registers. Parents' number of children is instrumented with the sex mix of their first two children. We find that having additional children causes sizable reductions in labor supply for women, which fade as children mature and even turn positive for women without a college degree. Among women with a college degree, there is evidence of persistent and even increasing career penalties of family size. Having additional children reduces these women's probability of being employed by higher-paying firms, their earnings rank within the employing firm, and their probability of being the top earner at the workplace. Some of the career effects persist long after labor supply is restored. We find no effect of family size on any of men's labor market outcomes in either the short or long run.

  9. Effects of male literacy on family size: A cross sectional study conducted in Chakwal city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Humaira; Khan, Ziaullah; Masood, Sumaira

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effects of male education on family size, the desired family size, knowledge and use of contraception and opinion about female education. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Chakwal city, Punjab, Pakistan, from June to October 2009. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The respondents were males and data on their demographics, age at marriage, actual and desired family size, knowledge about methods of contraception, and opinion about female education was collected. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Out of the 178 respondents, 52(29.2%) were illiterate and 126(70.8%) were educated. Among the educated, 97(77%) were in favour of small families compared to only 10(19.2%) of the uneducated males (pfamilies, while 67(37.6%) had other reasons, like trying to conceive. Among the uneducated males, 17(32.7%) didn't discuss any family planning issue with their wives compared to 14(11.3%) of educated males (pfamily size, contraceptive use and views in favour of female education.

  10. Developing A Family-Size Biogas-Fueled Electricity Generating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryanto

    2017-06-01

     Keywords: biogas; family size; generator; electricity; bio-filter.  Article History: Received Janury 16th 2017; Received in revised form 2nd June 2017; Accepted 18th June 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Haryanto, A., Marotin, F., Triyono, S., Hasanudin, U. (2017, Developing A Family-Size Biogas-Fueled Electricity Generating System. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(2, 111-118. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.2.111-118

  11. The relationship between 19th century BMIs and family size: Economies of scale and positive externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-04-01

    The use of body mass index values (BMI) to measure living standards is now a well-accepted method in economics. Nevertheless, a neglected area in historical studies is the relationship between 19th century BMI and family size, and this relationship is documented here to be positive. Material inequality and BMI are the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between BMI and wealth and an inverse relationship with inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth, BMI values were related with occupations, and farmers and laborers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Is Parental Involvement Lower at Larger Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Parents who volunteer, or who lobby for improvements in school quality, are generally seen as providing a school-wide public good. If so, straightforward public-good theory predicts that free-riding will reduce average involvement at larger schools. This study uses longitudinal data to follow families over time, as their children move from middle…

  13. Small Family, Smart Family? Family Size and the IQ Scores of Young Men. NBER Working Paper No. 13336

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2007-01-01

    How do families influence the ability of children? Cognitive skills have been shown to be a strong predictor of educational attainment and future labor market success; as a result, understanding the determinants of cognitive skills can lead to a better understanding of children's long run outcomes. This paper uses a large dataset on the male…

  14. Impact of maternal education, employment and family size on nutritional status of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Aisha; Bari, Attia; Bano, Iqbal; Masood, Qaisar

    2017-01-01

    To determine the impact of maternal education, employment, and family size on nutritional status of children. It was case control study conducted at OPD of children Hospital Lahore, from September 2015 to April 2017. Total 340 children (170 cases and 170 controls) with age range of six months to five years along with their mothers were included. Anthropometric measurements were plotted against WHO growth Charts. 170 wasted (Maternal education, employment and family size were compared between the cases and control. Confounding variables noted and dichotomized. Univariate analysis was carried out for factors under consideration i.e.; Maternal Education, employment and family size to study the association of each factor. Logistic regression analysis was applied to study the independent association. Maternal education had significant association with growth parameters; OR of 1.32 with confidence interval of (CI= 1.1 to 1.623). Employment status of mothers had OR of 1.132 with insignificant confidence interval of (CI=0.725 to 1.768). Family size had OR of one with insignificant confidence interval (CI=0.8 -1.21). Association remained same after applying bivariate logistic regression analysis. Maternal education has definite and significant effect on nutritional status of children. This is the key factor to be addressed for prevention or improvement of childhood malnutrition. For this it is imperative to launch sustainable programs at national and regional level to uplift women educational status to combat this ever increasing burden of malnutrition.

  15. Young women's dynamic family size preferences in the context of transitioning fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara; Sennott, Christie; Culpepper, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Dynamic theories of family size preferences posit that they are not a fixed and stable goal but rather are akin to a moving target that changes within individuals over time. Nonetheless, in high-fertility contexts, changes in family size preferences tend to be attributed to low construct validity and measurement error instead of genuine revisions in preferences. To address the appropriateness of this incongruity, the present study examines evidence for the sequential model of fertility among a sample of young Malawian women living in a context of transitioning fertility. Using eight waves of closely spaced data and fixed-effects models, we find that these women frequently change their reported family size preferences and that these changes are often associated with changes in their relationship and reproductive circumstances. The predictability of change gives credence to the argument that ideal family size is a meaningful construct, even in this higher-fertility setting. Changes are not equally predictable across all women, however, and gamma regression results demonstrate that women for whom reproduction is a more distant goal change their fertility preferences in less-predictable ways.

  16. Intergenerational Correlations in Educational Attainment: Birth Order and Family Size Effects Using Canadian Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…

  17. Word Family Size and French-Speaking Children's Segmentation of Existing Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoladis, Elena; Krott, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The family size of the constituents of compound words, or the number of compounds sharing the constituents, affects English-speaking children's compound segmentation. This finding is consistent with a usage-based theory of language acquisition, whereby children learn abstract underlying linguistic structure through their experience with particular…

  18. The Effect of Family Size on Spanish Simple and Complex Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaro, Miguel; Sainz, Javier S.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of three experiments in which the Family Size (FS) effect is explored. The first experiment is carried out with no prime on simple words. The second and third experiments are carried out with morphological priming on complex words. In the first experiment a facilitatory effect of FS is observed: high FS targets…

  19. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  20. Changing Places: A Cross-Language Perspective on Frequency and Family Size in Dutch and Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso del Prado Martin, Fermin; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram; Schreuder, Robert; De Jong, Nivja H.; Baayen, R. Harald

    2005-01-01

    This study uses the morphological family size effect as a tool for exploring the degree of isomorphism in the networks of morphologically related words in the Hebrew and Dutch mental lexicon. Hebrew and Dutch are genetically unrelated, and they structure their morphologically complex words in very different ways. Two visual lexical decision…

  1. Young Women’s Dynamic Family Size Preferences in the Context of Transitioning Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara; Sennott, Christie; Culpepper, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic theories of family size preferences posit that they are not a fixed and stable goal but rather are akin to a moving target that changes within individuals over time. Nonetheless, in high-fertility contexts, changes in family size preferences tend to be attributed to low construct validity and measurement error instead of genuine revisions in preferences. To address the appropriateness of this incongruity, the present study examines evidence for the sequential model of fertility among a sample of young Malawian women living in a context of transitioning fertility. Using eight waves of closely spaced data and fixed-effects models, we find that these women frequently change their reported family size preferences and that these changes are often associated with changes in their relationship and reproductive circumstances. The predictability of change gives credence to the argument that ideal family size is a meaningful construct, even in this higher-fertility setting. Changes are not equally predictable across all women, however, and gamma regression results demonstrate that women for whom reproduction is a more distant goal change their fertility preferences in less-predictable ways. PMID:23619999

  2. Relation Between Intelligence and Family Size, Position, and Income in Adolescent Girls in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Habab; Alahmadi, Maryam; Bakhiet, Salaheldin; Lynn, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Data are reported showing statistically significant negative correlations between intelligence and family size, position, and income in a sample of 604 adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia. There were no statistically significant correlations or associations between whether the mother or father were deceased or both parents were alive, and whether the parents were living together or were divorced. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Birth Order, Family Size, and Self-Esteem: A Filipino Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David; Astilla, Estela

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between birth order and self-esteem among 209 11- to 13-year-old girls attending a private high school in the central Philippines. The Self-Esteem Inventory was used to measure self-esteem. No evidence of any influence of birth order, family size, or their interaction with self-esteem was found. (Author/RH)

  4. A universe of dwarfs and giants: genome size and chromosome evolution in the monocot family Melanthiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, Jaume; Kelly, Laura J; Leitch, Ilia J; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Fay, Michael F

    2014-03-01

    • Since the occurrence of giant genomes in angiosperms is restricted to just a few lineages, identifying where shifts towards genome obesity have occurred is essential for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms triggering this process. • Genome sizes were assessed using flow cytometry in 79 species and new chromosome numbers were obtained. Phylogenetically based statistical methods were applied to infer ancestral character reconstructions of chromosome numbers and nuclear DNA contents. • Melanthiaceae are the most diverse family in terms of genome size, with C-values ranging more than 230-fold. Our data confirmed that giant genomes are restricted to tribe Parideae, with most extant species in the family characterized by small genomes. Ancestral genome size reconstruction revealed that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for the family had a relatively small genome (1C = 5.37 pg). Chromosome losses and polyploidy are recovered as the main evolutionary mechanisms generating chromosome number change. • Genome evolution in Melanthiaceae has been characterized by a trend towards genome size reduction, with just one episode of dramatic DNA accumulation in Parideae. Such extreme contrasting profiles of genome size evolution illustrate the key role of transposable elements and chromosome rearrangements in driving the evolution of plant genomes. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Childhood accidents: the relationship of family size to incidence, supervision, and rapidity of seeking medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Shepard; Eidelman, Arthur I; Zeidan, Amin; Applebaum, David; Raveh, David

    2005-09-01

    Large family size may be a risk factor for childhood accidents. A possible association with quality of child supervision and rapidity of seeking medical care has not been fully evaluated. To determine whether children with multiple siblings are at increased risk for accidents, to assess whether quality of child supervision varies with family size, and to evaluate the relationship of family size with the rapidity of seeking medical care after an accident. We prospectively studied 333 childhood accidents treated at TEREM (emergency care station) or the Shaare Zedek Medical Center. Details on family composition and the accident were obtained through parental interview. Family size of the study population was compared with that of the Jerusalem population. Families with one to three children (Group 1) and four or more children (Group 2) were compared with regard to type of supervision and different "Gap times" - the time interval from when the accident occurred until medical assistance was sought ("Gap 1"), the time from that medical contact until arrival at Shaare Zedek ("Gap 2"), and the time from the accident until arrival at Shaare Zedek for those children for whom interim medical assistance either was ("Gap 3A") or was not ("Gap 3B") sought. Children from families with 1, 2, 3, 4 and > or =5 children comprised 7.2%, 18.3%, 14.4%, 18.6% and 41.4% of our sample compared to 20.4%, 21.8%, 18.4%, 14.7% and 24.7% in the general population respectively. Children from Group 2 were less often attended to by an adult (44.5% vs. 62.0%) and more often were in the presence only of other children at the time of the accident (27.0% vs. 10.5%). Gaps 1, 2 and 3A in Group 2 (6.3 hours, 16.5 hours, 27.8 hours respectively) were longer than for Group 1 (2.7, 10.7, 13.3 hours respectively). The risk for accidents is increased among children from families with four or more children. The adequacy of child supervision in large families is impaired. There is a relative delay from the time

  6. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  7. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Iannelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  8. Poverty and household size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, P.; Ravallion, M.

    1995-01-01

    The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. The authors find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity

  9. Engineering design and economic evaluation of a family-sized biogas project in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeoti, O.; Ilori, M.O.; Oyebisi, T.O.; Adekoya, L.O.

    2000-01-01

    To woo householders into harnessing the cooking energy potential of biogas in order to solve the perennial cooking energy problems at household level in Nigeria, this paper carried out the engineering design requirement, and used the discounted cash flow micro-economic assessments to evaluate the 6.0 m 3 family-sized biogas project in Nigeria. The project has an initial investment cost of 41,088 Naira, annual expenditure of 5909 Naira and an annual benefit of 13,347 Naira. The NPV, IRR, B/C and payback period of financial analysis are 0.050 million Naira, 17.52%, 2.26 and 6.6 years respectively. This shows that the 6.0 m 3 family-sized biogas project using cattle dung as substrate in Nigeria has a good economic potential. (author)

  10. Family size and expectations about housing in the later nineteenth century: three Yorkshire towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how cultural history can deepen the understanding of demographic change, presenting evidence about ways in which rising working-class expectations about appropriate living standards may have created additional pressures on the perceived costs of child-rearing. Among the key areas of family consumption, housing costs are selected for examination. It is shown that higher expectations about appropriate housing quality put pressure on family budgets, augmented by the rising cost of like-for-like housing. The discussion considers expectations about the size of the dwelling and attitudes to furnishing the home, and suggests that these rising expectations helped encourage family limitation. Existing accounts of the fertility decline which stress the role of rising expectations are often too generalised: this article illustrates what can be gained by adding detail and geographical variation.

  11. Family size and perinatal circumstances, as mental health risk factors in a Scottish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Daniel Vincent; Morris, Carole; Hattie, Joanne; Stark, Cameron

    2012-06-01

    Higher maternal parity and younger maternal age have each been observed to be associated with subsequent offspring suicidal behaviour. This study aimed to establish if these, and other variables from the perinatal period, together with family size, are also associated with other psychiatric morbidity. Linked datasets of the Scottish Morbidity Record and Scottish death records were used to follow up, into young adulthood, a birth cohort of 897,685. In addition to the index maternity records, mothers' subsequent pregnancy records were identified, allowing family size to be estimated. Three independent outcomes were studied: suicide, self-harm, and psychiatric hospital admission. Data were analysed using Cox regression. Younger maternal age and higher maternal parity were independently associated with increased risk in offspring of suicide, of self-harm and of psychiatric admission. Risk of psychiatric admission was higher amongst those from families of three or more, but, compared with only children, those with two or three siblings had a lower risk of self harm. Perinatal and family composition factors have a broad influence on mental health outcomes. These data suggest that the existence of younger, as well as elder siblings may be important.

  12. Type-II generalized family-wise error rate formulas with application to sample size determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Phillipe; de Micheaux, Pierre Lafaye; Liquet, Benoit; Riou, Jérémie

    2016-07-20

    Multiple endpoints are increasingly used in clinical trials. The significance of some of these clinical trials is established if at least r null hypotheses are rejected among m that are simultaneously tested. The usual approach in multiple hypothesis testing is to control the family-wise error rate, which is defined as the probability that at least one type-I error is made. More recently, the q-generalized family-wise error rate has been introduced to control the probability of making at least q false rejections. For procedures controlling this global type-I error rate, we define a type-II r-generalized family-wise error rate, which is directly related to the r-power defined as the probability of rejecting at least r false null hypotheses. We obtain very general power formulas that can be used to compute the sample size for single-step and step-wise procedures. These are implemented in our R package rPowerSampleSize available on the CRAN, making them directly available to end users. Complexities of the formulas are presented to gain insight into computation time issues. Comparison with Monte Carlo strategy is also presented. We compute sample sizes for two clinical trials involving multiple endpoints: one designed to investigate the effectiveness of a drug against acute heart failure and the other for the immunogenicity of a vaccine strategy against pneumococcus. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Organ size control is dominant over Rb family inactivation to restrict proliferation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmer, Ursula; Zmoos, Anne-Flore; Auerbach, Raymond K; Vaka, Dedeepya; Butte, Atul J; Kay, Mark A; Sage, Julien

    2014-07-24

    In mammals, a cell's decision to divide is thought to be under the control of the Rb/E2F pathway. We previously found that inactivation of the Rb family of cell cycle inhibitors (Rb, p107, and p130) in quiescent liver progenitors leads to uncontrolled division and cancer initiation. Here, we show that, in contrast, deletion of the entire Rb gene family in mature hepatocytes is not sufficient for their long-term proliferation. The cell cycle block in Rb family mutant hepatocytes is independent of the Arf/p53/p21 checkpoint but can be abrogated upon decreasing liver size. At the molecular level, we identify YAP, a transcriptional regulator involved in organ size control, as a factor required for the sustained expression of cell cycle genes in hepatocytes. These experiments identify a higher level of regulation of the cell cycle in vivo in which signals regulating organ size are dominant regulators of the core cell cycle machinery. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship between Partners' Family-Size Preferences in Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara; Sennott, Christie

    2014-09-01

    Studies of the relative influence of partners' fertility preferences on behaviors tend to treat preferences as fixed, largely independent traits despite existing theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggesting that they are moving targets that may be jointly developed within relationships. In this study, we use couple-level panel data from married and unmarried young adults in southern Malawi to examine the relationship between partners' family-size preferences. We find evidence of assortative mating: young Malawians are more likely to partner with individuals who have similar family-size goals. Additionally, although partners' family-size preferences do not perfectly converge, changes among men's and women's preferences are significantly more likely to be "toward" than "away from" those of their partner. Our findings point to a need for studies regarding the relative influence of partners on reproductive outcomes to consider the interdependence of partners' preferences and the varied ways in which partners can influence shared reproductive behaviors. © 2014 The Population Council, Inc.

  15. The Relationship between Partners’ Family-Size Preferences in Southern Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara; Sennott, Christie

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the relative influence of partners’ fertility preferences on behaviors tend to treat preferences as fixed, largely independent traits despite existing theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggesting that they are moving targets that may be jointly developed within relationships. In this study, we use couple-level panel data from married and unmarried young adults in southern Malawi to examine the relationship between partners’ family-size preferences. We find evidence of assortative mating: young Malawians are more likely to partner with individuals who have similar family-size goals. Additionally, although partners’ family-size preferences do not perfectly converge, changes among men’s and women’s preferences are significantly more likely to be “toward” than “away from” those of their partner. Our findings point to a need for studies regarding the relative influence of partners on reproductive outcomes to consider the interdependence of partners’ preferences and the varied ways in which partners can influence shared reproductive behaviors. PMID:25207497

  16. Organ Size Control Is Dominant over Rb Family Inactivation to Restrict Proliferation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Ehmer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, a cell’s decision to divide is thought to be under the control of the Rb/E2F pathway. We previously found that inactivation of the Rb family of cell cycle inhibitors (Rb, p107, and p130 in quiescent liver progenitors leads to uncontrolled division and cancer initiation. Here, we show that, in contrast, deletion of the entire Rb gene family in mature hepatocytes is not sufficient for their long-term proliferation. The cell cycle block in Rb family mutant hepatocytes is independent of the Arf/p53/p21 checkpoint but can be abrogated upon decreasing liver size. At the molecular level, we identify YAP, a transcriptional regulator involved in organ size control, as a factor required for the sustained expression of cell cycle genes in hepatocytes. These experiments identify a higher level of regulation of the cell cycle in vivo in which signals regulating organ size are dominant regulators of the core cell cycle machinery.

  17. 12 CFR 1282.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....18 Affordability—Income level definitions—family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). In... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 1282.18 Section 1282.18 Banks and Banking FEDERAL...

  18. Pass rates on the American Board of Family Medicine Certification Exam by residency location and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, John L; Middleton, Donald B

    2013-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) sets residency performance standards for the American Board of Family Medicine Certification Examination. This study aims are to describe the compliance of residency programs with ACGME standards and to determine whether residency pass rates depend on program size and location. In this retrospective cohort study, residency performance from 2007 to 2011 was compared with the ACGME performance standards. Simple linear regression was performed to see whether program pass rates were dependent on program size. Regional differences in performance were compared with χ(2) tests, using an α level of 0.05. Of 429 total residency programs, there were 205 (47.8%) that violate ACGME performance standards. Linear regression showed that program pass rates were positively correlated and dependent on program size (P family medicine training programs do not meet the ACGME examination performance standards. Pass rates are associated with residency program size, and regional variation occurs. These findings have the potential to affect ACGME policy and residency program application patterns.

  19. The changing impact of family size on adolescents' schooling: assessing the exogenous variation in fertility using twins in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteleto, Letícia J; de Souza, Laetícia R

    2012-11-01

    Researchers have long been interested in the influence of family size on children's educational outcomes. Simply put, theories have suggested that resources are diluted within families that have more children. Although the empirical literature on developed countries has generally confirmed the theoretical prediction that family size is negatively related to children's education, studies focusing on developing societies have reported heterogeneity in this association. Recent studies addressing the endogeneity between family size and children's education have also cast doubt on the homogeneity of the negative role of family size on children's education. The goal of this study is to examine the causal effect of family size on children's education in Brazil over a 30-year period marked by important social and demographic change, and across extremely different regions within the country. We implement a twin birth instrumental variable approach to the nationally representative 1977-2009 PNAD data. Our results suggest an effect of family size on education that is not uniform throughout a period of significant social, economic, and demographic change. Rather, the causal effect of family size on adolescents' schooling resembles a gradient that ranges from positive to no effect, trending to negative.

  20. The Changing Impact of Family Size on Adolescents’ Schooling: Assessing the Exogenous Variation in Fertility Using Twins in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Laetícia R.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have long been interested in the influence of family size on children’s educational outcomes. Simply put, theories have suggested that resources are diluted within families that have more children. Although the empirical literature on developed countries has generally confirmed the theoretical prediction that family size is negatively related to children’s education, studies focusing on developing societies have reported heterogeneity in this association. Recent studies addressing the endogeneity between family size and children’s education have also cast doubt on the homogeneity of the negative role of family size on children’s education. The goal of this study is to examine the causal effect of family size on children’s education in Brazil over a 30-year period marked by important social and demographic change, and across extremely different regions within the country. We implement a twin birth instrumental variable approach to the nationally representative 1977–2009 PNAD data. Our results suggest an effect of family size on education that is not uniform throughout a period of significant social, economic, and demographic change. Rather, the causal effect of family size on adolescents’ schooling resembles a gradient that ranges from positive to no effect, trending to negative. PMID:22810834

  1. Is parental competitive ability in winter negatively affected by previous springs' family size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, Rienk W; Ubels, Richard; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2017-03-01

    Reproductive behavior cannot be understood without taking the local level of competition into account. Experimental work in great tits ( Parus major ) showed that (1) a survival cost of reproduction was paid in environments with high levels of competition during the winter period and (2) experimentally manipulated family size negatively affected the ability of parents to compete for preferred breeding boxes in the next spring. The fact that survival was affected in winter suggests that the competitive ability of parents in winter may also be affected by previous reproductive effort. In this study, we aim to investigate whether (1) such carryover effects of family size on the ability of parents to compete for resources in the winter period occurred and (2) this could explain the occurrence of a survival cost of reproduction under increased competition. During two study years, we manipulated the size of in total 168 great tit broods. Next, in winter, we induced competition among the parents by drastically reducing the availability of roosting boxes in their local environment for one week. Contrary to our expectation, we found no negative effect of family size manipulation on the probability of parents to obtain a roosting box. In line with previous work, we did find that a survival cost of reproduction was paid only in plots in which competition for roosting boxes was shortly increased. Our findings thus add to the scarce experimental evidence that survival cost of reproduction are paid under higher levels of local competition but this could not be linked to a reduced competitive ability of parents in winter.

  2. Child health, nutrition and family size: a comparative study of rural and urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderama-guzman, V

    1978-01-01

    771 children from Baras, Rizal, and Pasay City, Philippines were studied. House interviews of mothers using precoded questionnaires were conducted and the children were given a complete physical examination. The study objectives were to compare the health and nutritional status of children in a rural and an urban area in greater Manila and to determine how family size affects the nutritional status of children 3 years and younger. The following were among the study results: 1) the weight curves of both urban and rural groups were similar until age 4-1/2 years, but beyond this age the mean weight curve of the rural group exceeded that of the urban group; 2) urban children between ages 1-5 enjoyed a height advantage; 3) there was a positive correlation between malnutrition and excessive family size; 4) the high prevalence of malnutrition among children 1-4 years of age was due to food deprivation because of poverty, parental ignorance, inappropriate folklores, oversized families, high episodes of illnesses, and inadequate medical care; and 5) dietary assessment of both groups showed the inadequacy of the quality and quantity of basic nutrients and elements needed for growth, development, and repair of tissues.

  3. Reproductive biology, family conflict, and size of offspring in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Stephanie J; Oyarzun, Fernanda X; Grosberg, Richard K

    2010-10-01

    All organisms face two fundamental trade-offs in the allocation of energetic resources: one between many small versus a few large offspring, and the second between present and future reproduction. Nowhere are these trade-offs more apparent than in the vast range of variation in the sizes of eggs and offspring exhibited among species of marine invertebrates. It has become increasingly clear that, in many taxa of marine organisms, there is also substantial intraspecific variation in the size of eggs and hatchings. This variation has largely been attributed to adaptive maternal effects. In theory, however, the inevitable conflicts of interest that arise in families of sexually reproducing organisms over the optimal distribution of parental resources among siblings could also account for much of this variation in egg and offspring size. Here, we explore the potential impacts of family conflict on offspring traits by comparing the life histories of two exemplar species of marine organisms, the polychaete Boccardia proboscidea and the gastropod Solenosteira macrospira, emphasizing how differences in modes of fertilization and parental care might influence the phenotype and, consequently, the fitness of offspring. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  4. 24 CFR 81.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and prospective tenants). 81...—Income level definitions—family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual tenants, and...-income families, where the unit is owner-occupied or, for rental housing, family size and income...

  5. GS6, a member of the GRAS gene family, negatively regulates grain size in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lianjun; Li, Xiaojiao; Fu, Yongcai; Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Fengxia; Sun, Xianyou; Sun, Xuewen; Sun, Chuanqing

    2013-10-01

    Grain size is an important yield-related trait in rice. Intensive artificial selection for grain size during domestication is evidenced by the larger grains of most of today's cultivars compared with their wild relatives. However, the molecular genetic control of rice grain size is still not well characterized. Here, we report the identification and cloning of Grain Size 6 (GS6), which plays an important role in reducing grain size in rice. A premature stop at the +348 position in the coding sequence (CDS) of GS6 increased grain width and weight significantly. Alignment of the CDS regions of GS6 in 90 rice materials revealed three GS6 alleles. Most japonica varieties (95%) harbor the Type I haplotype, and 62.9% of indica varieties harbor the Type II haplotype. Association analysis revealed that the Type I haplotype tends to increase the width and weight of grains more than either of the Type II or Type III haplotypes. Further investigation of genetic diversity and the evolutionary mechanisms of GS6 showed that the GS6 gene was strongly selected in japonica cultivars. In addition, a "ggc" repeat region identified in the region that encodes the GRAS domain of GS6 played an important historic role in the domestication of grain size in rice. Knowledge of the function of GS6 might aid efforts to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control grain development and evolution in rice plants, and could facilitate the genetic improvement of rice yield. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Social class and family size as determinants of attributed machismo, femininity, and family planning: a field study in two South American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicassio, P M

    1977-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the way in which stereotypes of machismo and femininity are associated with family size and perceptions of family planning. A total of 144 adults, male and female, from a lower class and an upper middle class urban area in Colombia were asked to respond to photographs of Colombian families varying in size and state of completeness. The study illustrated the critical role of sex-role identity and sex-role organization as variables having an effect on fertility. The lower-class respondents described parents in the photographs as significantly more macho or feminine because of their children than the upper-middle-class subjects did. Future research should attempt to measure when this drive to sex-role identity is strongest, i.e., when men and women are most driven to reproduce in order to "prove" themselves. Both lower- and upper-middle-class male groups considered male dominance in marriage to be directly linked with family size. Perceptions of the use of family planning decreased linearly with family size for both social groups, although the lower-class females attributed more family planning to spouses of large families than upper-middle-class females. It is suggested that further research deal with the ways in which constructs of machismo and male dominance vary between the sexes and among socioeconomic groups and the ways in which they impact on fertility.

  7. Sex preference and its effect on family size and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, N E

    1982-12-01

    Sex discrimination begins before birth in many parts of the world. Many cultures have myths about how parents can increase their chances of having a son. There is now a test, anmiocentesis, that provides the scientific method for determining sex before birth. The text involves examining the chromosomes in the amniotic fluid. Until now little advantage has been taken of this knowledge since amniocentesis is uncommon around the world. There are recent news reports that assert that in India female fetuses are being aborted. The same has been rumored for China. Sex selection may become more widespread as the technology of sex detection improves. Currently, an abortion for the purpose of sex selection must be performed in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy because the test can be done only after the 3rd or 4th month of pregnancy. A technology which permits very early sex detection could, when combined with early menstrual regulation, have widespread ramifications, particularly since the preference for sons is so widespread. Son preference is common throughout the world and is unusually strong in Arab countries and in South Asia. It is fairly mild in Latin America and Southeast Asia. In Africa sex preference has not become a public issue for fertility is so high. Policymakers in countries such as Bangladesh, China, India, Pakistan, South Korea, and Taiwan have recently become concerned about sex preference for their objective is to reduce the population growth rates of their countries. Among countries with son preference China is unusual in that the government has tried to undermine the basis for son preference. It has encouraged families with an only daughter to adopt a son-in-law and have him take the family name. It has tried to equalize women's position in marriage and the economy. The policymakers in other countries assume that son preference will diminish with modernization. Family planning workers in most Asian countries assume that sex preference affects family size

  8. Developing a Family-Size Biogas-Fueled Electricity Generating System

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Agus; Marotin, Fadli; Triyono, Sugeng; Hasanudin, Udin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a family-size biogas-fueled electricity generating system consisting of anaerobic digester, bio-filter scrubber, and power generating engine. Biogas was produced from a pilot scale wet anaerobic digester (5-m3 capacity). The biogas was filtered using bio-scrubber column filled with locally made compost to reduce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) content. Biogas composition was analysed using a gas chromatograph and its H2S level was measured using a H2S detector. ...

  9. When the proton becomes larger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC has just confirmed that, at high energy, protons behave as if they were becoming larger. In more technical terms, their total cross-section – a parameter linked to the proton-proton interaction probability – increases with energy. This phenomenon, expected from previous measurements performed at much lower energy, has now been confirmed for the first time at the LHC’s unprecedented energy.   One arm of a TOTEM T2 detector during its installation at interaction point 5. A composite particle like the proton is a complex system that in no way resembles a static Lego construction: sub-components move inside and interactions keep the whole thing together, but in a very dynamic way. This partly explains why even the very common proton can still be hiding secrets about its nature, decades after its discovery. One way of studying the inner properties of protons is to observe how they interact with each other, which, in technical terms, i...

  10. The sociocultural context of family size preference, ideal sex composition, and induced abortion in India: findings from India's National Family Health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sutapa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the effect of family size preference and sex composition of living children as determinants of induced abortion among women in India by analyzing 90,303 ever-married women aged 15-49, included in India's second National Family Health Survey, conducted in 1998-99. Multivariate logistic regression methods were used to examine the association between induced abortion and possible determinants. The results indicated that a woman's desire to limit family size with preferred sex composition of children, coupled with her autonomy and the sociocultural context, largely determines her experience of induced abortion in India.

  11. Impact of Childbearing Decisions on Family Size of Korean Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Je; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Suh, Chang-Hee; Park, Yong-Wook; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bang, So-Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Young Mo; Lee, Won Kyung; Park, Hyesook; Lee, Jisoo

    2016-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women in their reproductive years and has a significant impact on childbearing. We investigated the influence of personal decision on family size among Korean women with SLE and factors that affect the decisions. A case-control study comparing childbearing history and decisions of 112 SLE patients and 135 controls was performed. Women with SLE participating in the Network for Lupus Clinical Research in South Korea and matching controls between ages of 18-45, who are/were married or living with a partner were included. Data regarding socio-demographics, reproductive history, and childbearing decisions were collected through a survey using a standardized questionnaire and medical record review. More women with SLE reported at least one pregnancy (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.009) or at least one live birth (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.003) compared with controls. Mean number of pregnancies was significantly higher (2.4 ± 1.6 vs. 1.4 ± 1.3, P family size and childbearing decisions among Korean women with SLE.

  12. Natural resource collection and desired family size: a longitudinal test of environment-population theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner-Otto, Sarah R; Axinn, William G

    2017-06-01

    Theories relating the changing environment to human fertility predict declining natural resources may actually increase the demand for children. Unfortunately most previous empirical studies have been limited to cross-sectional designs that limit our ability to understand links between processes that change over time. We take advantage of longitudinal measurement spanning more than a decade of change in the natural environment, household agricultural behaviors, and individual fertility preferences to reexamine this question. Using fixed-effects models, we find that women experiencing increasing time required to collect firewood to heat and cook or fodder to feed animals (the dominant needs for natural resources in this setting) increased their desired family size, even as many other macro-level changes have reduced desired family size. In contrast to previous, cross-sectional studies we find no evidence of such a relationship for men. Our findings regarding time spent collecting firewood are also new. These results support the "vicious circle" perspective and economic theories of fertility pointing to the value of children for household labor. This feedback from natural resource constraint to increased fertility is an important mechanism for understanding long term environmental change.

  13. Reasons for discontinuation of contraceptive methods among couples with different family size and educational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Farwa; Irfan, Ghazia

    2012-01-01

    High rates of contraceptive discontinuation for reasons other than the desire for pregnancy are a public health concern because of their association with negative reproductive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine reasons for discontinuation of contraceptive methods among couples with different family size and educational status. This cross-sectional study was carried out at the Obstetrics/Gynaecology Out-Patient Department of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad from April-September 2012. Patients (241) were selected by consecutive sampling after informed written consent and acquiring approval of Ethical Committee. The survey interview tool was a semi-structured questionnaire. Majority (68%) of women belonged to urban, and the rest were from rural areas. Mean age of these women was 29.43 +/- 5.384 year. Reasons for discontinuation of contraceptives included fear of injectable contraceptives (2.9%), contraceptive failure/pregnancy (7.46%), desire to become pregnant (63.48%), husband away at job (2.49%), health concerns/side effects (16.18%), affordability (0.83%), inconvenient to use (1.24%), acceptability (0.83%) and accessibility/lack of information (4.56%). Association of different reasons of discontinuation (chi square test) with the family size (actual number of children) was significant (p = 0.019) but was not significant with husband's or wife's educational status (p = 0.33 and 0.285 respectively). Keeping in mind the complex socioeconomic conditions in our country, Family planning programmers and stake holders need to identify women who strongly want to avoid a pregnancy and finding ways to help the couples successfully initiate and maintain appropriate contraceptive use.

  14. The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Children's Education. CEE DP 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul; Salvanes, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the…

  15. Family history tools in primary care: does one size fit all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B J; Carroll, J C; Allanson, J; Little, J; Etchegary, H; Avard, D; Potter, B K; Castle, D; Grimshaw, J M; Chakraborty, P

    2012-01-01

    Family health history (FHH) has potential value in many health care settings. This review discusses the potential uses of FHH information in primary care and the need for tools to be designed accordingly. We developed a framework in which the attributes of FHH tools are mapped against these different purposes. It contains 7 attributes mapped against 5 purposes. In considering different FHH tool purposes, it is apparent that different attributes become more or less important, and that tools for different purposes require different implementation and evaluation strategies. The context in which a tool is used is also relevant to its effectiveness. For FHH tools, it is unlikely that 'one size fits all', although appreciation of different purposes, users and contexts should facilitate the development of different applications from single FHH platforms. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. 12 CFR 1282.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.17 Affordability—Income level definitions—family size and income..., for rental housing, family size and income information for the dwelling unit is known to the... sizes: Number of persons in family Percentageof area median income 1 70 2 80 3 90 4 100 5 or more...

  17. Hypothesis: brain size and skull shape as criteria for a new hominin family tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardin, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Today, gorillas and chimpanzees live in tropical forests, where acid soils do not favor fossilization. It is thus widely believed that there are no fossils of chimpanzees or gorillas. However, four teeth of a 0.5-million-year (Ma)-old chimpanzee were discovered in the rift valley of Kenya (McBrearty and Jablonski, 2005), and a handful of teeth of a 10-Ma-old gorilla-like creature were found in Ethiopia (Suwa et al., 2007), close to the major sites of Homo discoveries. These discoveries indicate that chimpanzees and gorillas once shared their range with early Homo. However, the thousands of hominin fossils discovered in the past century have all been attributed to the Homo line. Thus far, our family tree looks like a bush with many dead-branches. If one admits the possibility that the australopithecines can also be the ancestors of African great apes, one can place Paranthropus on the side of gorilla ancestors and divide the remaining Australopithecus based on the brain size into the two main lines of humans and chimpanzees, thereby resulting in a coherent family tree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Meet the parents? Family size and the geographic proximity between adult children and older mothers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlund, Helena; Rainer, Helmut; Siedler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the causal effect of family size on the proximity between older mothers and adult children by using a large administrative data set from Sweden. Our main results show that adult children in Sweden are not constrained by sibship size in choosing where to live: for families with more than one child, sibship size does not affect child-mother proximity. For aging parents, however, having fewer children reduces the probability of having at least one child living nearby, which is likely to have consequences for the intensity of intergenerational contact and eldercare.

  19. Time budgets of Snow Geese Chen caerulescens and Ross's Geese Chen rossii in mixed flocks: Implications of body size, ambient temperature and family associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Body size affects foraging and forage intake rates directly via energetic processes and indirectly through interactions with social status and social behaviour. Ambient temperature has a relatively greater effect on the energetics of smaller species, which also generally are more vulnerable to predator attacks than are larger species. We examined variability in an index of intake rates and an index of alertness in Lesser Snow Geese Chen caerulescens caerulescens and Ross's Geese Chen rossii wintering in southwest Louisiana. Specifically we examined variation in these response variables that could be attributed to species, age, family size and ambient temperature. We hypothesized that the smaller Ross's Geese would spend relatively more time feeding, exhibit relatively higher peck rates, spend more time alert or raise their heads up from feeding more frequently, and would respond to declining temperatures by increasing their proportion of time spent feeding. As predicted, we found that Ross's Geese spent more time feeding than did Snow Geese and had slightly higher peck rates than Snow Geese in one of two winters. Ross's Geese spent more time alert than did Snow Geese in one winter, but alert rates differed by family size, independent of species, in contrast to our prediction. In one winter, time spent foraging and walking was inversely related to average daily temperature, but both varied independently of species. Effects of age and family size on time budgets were generally independent of species and in accordance with previous studies. We conclude that body size is a key variable influencing time spent feeding in Ross's Geese, which may require a high time spent feeding at the expense of other activities. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  20. Culture and Parenting: Family Models Are Not One-Size-Fits-All. FPG Snapshot #67

    Science.gov (United States)

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Family process models guide theories and research about family functioning and child development outcomes. Theory and research, in turn, inform policies and services aimed at families. But are widely accepted models valid across cultural groups? To address these gaps, FPG researchers examined the utility of two family process models for families…

  1. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feij, Jan A,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same factor, are related to biologically based impulsive disorders, and have a common genetic basis. Questionnaire and biographical data obtained from 532 female and 479 male young adults (age between 18 and 30 years were analyzed using structural modeling. The results show that participants who experienced little parental care and much control were more likely to have high scores on disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. It appears that these family factors may partly explain the previously reported effects of birth order and family size on sensation seeking.

  2. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Feij, Jan A,; Taris, Toon W.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same fa...

  3. A Family Longevity Selection Score: Ranking Sibships by Their Longevity, Size, and Availability for Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Hadley, Evan C; Province, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Family studies of exceptional longevity can potentially identify genetic and other factors contributing to long life and healthy aging. Although such studies seek families that are exceptionally long lived, they also need living members who can provide DNA and phenotype information. On the basis...... of these considerations, the authors developed a metric to rank families for selection into a family study of longevity. Their measure, the family longevity selection score (FLoSS), is the sum of 2 components: 1) an estimated family longevity score built from birth-, gender-, and nation-specific cohort survival...... probabilities and 2) a bonus for older living siblings. The authors examined properties of FLoSS-based family rankings by using data from 3 ongoing studies: the New England Centenarian Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and screenees for the Long Life Family Study. FLoSS-based selection yields families...

  4. The changing relationship between family size and educational attainment over the course of socioeconomic development: evidence from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maralani, Vida

    2008-08-01

    Many studies from developed countries show a negative correlation between family size and children's schooling, while results from developing countries show this association ranging from positive to neutral to negative, depending on the context. The body of evidence suggests that this relationship changes as a society develops, but this theory has been difficult to assess because the existing evidence requires comparisons across countries with different social structures and at different levels of development. The world's fourth most populous nation in 2007, Indonesia has developed rapidly in recent decades. This context provides the opportunity to study these relationships within the same rapidly developing setting to see if and how these associations change. Results show that in urban areas, the association between family size and children's schooling was positive for older cohorts but negative for more recent cohorts. Models using instrumental variables to address the potential endogeneity of fertility confirm these results. In contrast, rural areas show no significant association between family size and children's schooling for any cohort. These findings show how the relationship between family size and children's schooling can differ within the same country and change over time as contextual factors evolve with socioeconomic development.

  5. Like Mother(-in-Law) Like Daughter? Influence of the Older Generation's Fertility Behaviours on Women's Desired Family Size in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Bordone, Valeria; Muttarak, Raya

    This paper investigates the associations between preferred family size of women in rural Bihar, India and the fertility behaviours of their mother and mother-in-law. Scheduled interviews of 440 pairs of married women aged 16-34 years and their mothers-in-law were conducted in 2011. Preferred family size is first measured by Coombs scale, allowing us to capture latent desired number of children and then categorized into three categories (low, medium and high). Women's preferred family size is estimated using ordered logistic regression. We find that the family size preferences are not associated with mother's fertility but with mother's education. Mother-in-law's desired number of grandchildren is positively associated with women's preferred family size. However, when the woman has higher education than her mother-in-law, her preferred family size gets smaller, suggesting that education provides women with greater autonomy in their decision-making on childbearing.

  6. Correlations between cultured pearl size parameters and PIF-177 biomarker expression in Pinctada margaritifera families reared in two contrasting environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Carole; Parrad, Sophie; Cabral, Philippe; Aiho, Vaite; Ky, Chin-Long

    2016-12-01

    The black-lipped pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, produces the largest and most valuable coloured pearls in the world. Cultured pearl size remains one of the most important quality traits. Despite the great geographical area covered by pearl farms in the atolls of French Polynesia, little is known about the influence of grow-out site effects on pearl size attained. To explore the genetic and environmental impact on the size of pearls as well as the genetic × environment interaction, a uniform experimental graft was designed on two contrasting macro-geographical lagoons. Five biparental families of donor oysters were grafted and then reared at both sites. After 18 months of culture, phenotypic parameters corresponding to pearl size, i.e. nacre weight and thickness, were recorded among the harvested pearls. The expression of Pif-177 gene, a biomarker encoding protein in the aragonite nacreous layer, was analysed in the corresponding pearl sac. The results show a family effect for nacre weight and thickness on both sites, with family F058 producing the heaviest and thickest nacre, and F805 the lightest and thinnest. By contrast, inter-site comparison revealed no significant site effects for these two parameters. In addition, grow-out location did not modify the relative gene expression of Pif-177 in the pearl sac between donor families in either culture site. Both nacre weight and thickness were positively correlated with the level gene expression of Pif-177. These results suggest that pearl size parameters were not affected by the environment in the present study and this is supported by the relative gene expression of Pif-177 observed. This knowledge constitutes an initial step in the study of pearl size trait inheritance, which will be helpful in the near future for the diffusion of genetically selected donor oyster lines produced by hatchery systems throughout production sites.

  7. More 'altruistic' punishment in larger societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette

    2008-03-07

    If individuals will cooperate with cooperators, and punish non-cooperators even at a cost to themselves, then this strong reciprocity could minimize the cheating that undermines cooperation. Based upon numerous economic experiments, some have proposed that human cooperation is explained by strong reciprocity and norm enforcement. Second-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on you; third-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on someone else. Third-party punishment is an effective way to enforce the norms of strong reciprocity and promote cooperation. Here we present new results that expand on a previous report from a large cross-cultural project. This project has already shown that there is considerable cross-cultural variation in punishment and cooperation. Here we test the hypothesis that population size (and complexity) predicts the level of third-party punishment. Our results show that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies.

  8. Size of forest holdings and family forests: implications for forest management in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Williams; Thomas Straka; Richard Harper

    2012-01-01

    There are about 11.3 million private forest owners in the United States; of those, 10.4 million are family forest owners who control 62% of the nation's private timberland. South Carolina has about 262,000 family forest owners who control almost two-thirds of the state's private timberland (Butler, 2008). In the recent past, these ownerships were generally...

  9. The Changing Relationship Between Family Size and Educational Attainment Over the Course of Socioeconomic Development: Evidence From Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    MARALANI, VIDA

    2008-01-01

    Many studies from developed countries show a negative correlation between family size and children’s schooling, while results from developing countries show this association ranging from positive to neutral to negative, depending on the context. The body of evidence suggests that this relationship changes as a society develops, but this theory has been difficult to assess because the existing evidence requires comparisons across countries with different social structures and at different leve...

  10. Pengaruh Family Control, Firm Size, Firm Risk, Dan Firm Life Cycle Terhadap Profitabilitas Dan Nilai Perusahaan Sektor Industri Barang Konsumsi

    OpenAIRE

    Servin, Servin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of family control, firm size, firm risk, and firm lifecycle towards profitability and firm's value. Sampels were taken from 27 consumer goodscompanies, listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange, ranging from 2010 – 2012. The hypotheseswere tested using multiple regression analysis. In this study, profitability was measured byROA (Return on Asset) and firm's value was measured by Tobin's q. The result were, familycontrol and life cycle stage-growth had negative i...

  11. Size-biased distributions in the generalized beta distribution family, with applications to forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ducey; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Size-biased distributions arise in many forestry applications, as well as other environmental, econometric, and biomedical sampling problems. We examine the size-biased versions of the generalized beta of the first kind, generalized beta of the second kind and generalized gamma distributions. These distributions include, as special cases, the Dagum (Burr Type III),...

  12. Key factors of project success in family small and medium-sized companies: the theoretical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Arsic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a systematization of the key success factors of projects, through the theoretical review of family-owned companies operating in the EU market. It is the small and medium companies that in their own way contribute to the overall success of the national economy in terms of economic activity, increased employment, development activities and defining better business environment. The theoretical review observed numerous studies of family businesses, and the contribution of this work is in the systematization of the results of previous research – over three horizons, i.e., over the role of managers in the creation of successful projects (or owner if it is a family enterprise, institutional support for companies in Serbia and the EU, specific industries and the parent (regional markets where a family company operates. Project management, as a general representation of the concept of implementation of strategic and operational endeavors, contains many specifics in terms of critical success factors of projects depending on the environment in which they are implemented. The goal of the paper is reflected in the identification and presentation of critical success factors of projects implemented in family companies. The paper concludes with a discussion of the research results in relation to the existing, similar research studies, as well as with the announcement of future research, which will examine the conclusions drawn on a real sample.

  13. Detecting and correcting for family size differences in the study of sexual orientation and fraternal birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2014-07-01

    The term "fraternal birth order effect" denotes a statistical relation most commonly expressed in one of two ways: Older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later born males or, alternatively, homosexual men tend to have more older brothers than do heterosexual men. The demonstrability of this effect depends partly on the adequate matching of the homosexual and heterosexual study groups with respect to mean family size. If the homosexual group has too many siblings, relative to the heterosexual group, the homosexual group will tend to show the expected excess of older brothers but may also show an excess of other sibling-types (most likely older sisters); if the homosexual group has too few siblings, it will tend not to show a difference in number of older brothers but instead may show a deficiency of other sibling-types (most likely younger brothers and younger sisters). In the first part of this article, these consequences are illustrated with deliberately mismatched groups selected from archived data sets. In the second part, two slightly different methods for transforming raw sibling data are presented. These are intended to produce family-size-corrected variables for each of the four original sibling parameters (older brothers, older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters). Both versions are shown to render the fraternal birth order effect observable in the deliberately mismatched groups. In the third part of the article, fraternal birth order studies published in the last 5 years were surveyed for failures to find a statistically significant excess of older brothers for the homosexual group. Two such studies were found in the nine examined. In both cases, the collective findings for older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters suggested that the mean family size of the homosexual groups was smaller than that of the heterosexual comparison groups. Furthermore, the individual findings for the four classes of siblings resembled those

  14. Intelligence and Family Size: Another Look. Discussion Papers No. 467-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.; Wolfe, Barbara L.

    Periodically, fears are voiced that the intelligence level of the United States population is falling. Historically, this fear has been linked to the belief that fertility is inversely related to intelligence. Evidence for that belief is sparse and may be an artifact of the failure of researchers to consider completed families. An inverse…

  15. Ideal family size in a rural Tswana population | De Villiers | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A questionnaire was used to discover what 350 rural Tswanas believed the ideal number of children to be; results were tabulated according to age and sex. It appears· that older people tend to want more children and, more surprisingly, that men and women agree on the ideal number of children in a family; this is contrary to ...

  16. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea M. Iannelli; Simone Gonçalves Assis; Liana Wernersbach Pinto

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children an...

  17. Larger men have larger prostates: Detection bias in epidemiologic studies of obesity and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, Andrew; Wang, Yun; Sadasivan, Sudha; Chitale, Dhananjay A; Gupta, Nilesh S; Tang, Deliang; Rybicki, Benjamin A

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa), but not with over-all PCa risk. However, obese men have larger prostates which may lower biopsy accuracy and cause a systematic bias toward the null in epidemiologic studies of over-all risk. Within a cohort of 6692 men followed-up after a biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) with benign findings, a nested case-control study was conducted of 495 prostate cancer cases and controls matched on age, race, follow-up duration, biopsy versus TURP, and procedure date. Data on body mass index and prostate volume at the time of the initial procedure were abstracted from medical records. Prior to consideration of differences in prostate volume, overweight (OR = 1.41; 95%CI 1.01, 1.97), and obese status (OR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.09, 2.33) at the time of the original benign biopsy or TURP were associated with PCa incidence during follow-up. Prostate volume did not significantly moderate the association between body-size and PCa, however it did act as an inverse confounder; adjustment for prostate volume increased the effect size for overweight by 22% (adjusted OR = 1.52; 95%CI 1.08, 2.14) and for obese status by 23% (adjusted OR = 1.77; 95%CI 1.20, 2.62). Larger prostate volume at the time of the original benign biopsy or TURP was inversely associated with PCa incidence during follow-up (OR = 0.92 per 10 cc difference in volume; 95%CI 0.88, 0.97). In analyses that stratified case-control pairs by tumor aggressiveness of the case, prostate volume acted as an inverse confounder in analyses of non-aggressive PCa but not in analyses of aggressive PCa. In studies of obesity and PCa, differences in prostate volume cause a bias toward the null, particularly in analyses of non-aggressive PCa. A pervasive underestimation of the association between obesity and overall PCa risk may exist in the literature. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Impact of inherited epidermolysis bullosa on parental interpersonal relationships, marital status and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, J-D; Johnson, L B; Weiner, M; Suchindran, C

    2005-05-01

    The presence in a family of a child or children with epidermolysis bullosa (EB) may have profound psychological implications for other family members. To assess the impact of the presence of EB in one or more children on the personal relationships between their parents. Standardized questionnaires were used. In general, the presence of a child severely affected with EB had profound effects on many aspects of marriage. This included a lack of interest in participating in activities as couples [junctional EB (JEB), 45%; recessive dystrophic EB (RDEB), 25%], a lack of energy to invest in such pursuits (JEB, 82%; RDEB, 50%), limitations in opportunities for sharing nonintimate physical activities (reported by most parents having children with some type of generalized EB), and negatively altered parental sex life (JEB, 55%; RDEB, 39%). This is consistent with the fact that 10%, 64%, 25% and 36% of parents of an affected child with EB simplex (EBS), JEB, dominant dystrophic EB (DDEB) and RDEB, respectively, characterized their relationships as couples as revolving almost exclusively around the day-to-day care of their affected children. The severity of disease in an affected child clearly influenced parental decisions about having more children: 24% and 64% of parents of children with JEB and RDEB, respectively, chose not to have additional children, compared with 26% and 54% of parents with children having EBS or DDEB. This choice was most often pursued via tubal ligation; less often, alternative means of surgical sterilization were chosen. Divorce was common among parents of children with EB (range: 17% in EBS to 31% in JEB) and, with the exception of parents of children with EBS, was usually directly attributed by one or both parents to the profound impact that this disease had exerted on their marriage. Physicians caring for children with EB need to give more consideration to the many psychological factors that may contribute to their patients' well being. They may

  19. Family size effects on childhood obesity: Evidence on the quantity-quality trade-off using the NLSY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kabir; Solomon, Keisha T

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we use matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Surveys to study the effects of family size on child health. Focusing on excess body weight indicators as children's health outcome of interest, we examine the effects of exogenous variations in family size generated by twin births and parental preference for mixed sex composition of their children. We find no significant empirical support in favor of the quantity-quality trade-off theory in instrumental variable regression analysis. This result is further substantiated when we make use of the panel aspects of the data to study child health outcomes of arrival of younger siblings at later parities. Specifically, when we employ child fixed effects analysis, results suggest that birth of a younger sibling is related to a decline in the likelihood of being overweight by 4 percentage points and a drop in the probability of illness by approximately 5 percentage points. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Geometrical Method for Sound-Hole Size and Location Enhancement in Lute Family Musical Instruments: The Golden Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Jafari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new analytical approach, the Golden Method, to enhance sound-hole size and location in musical instruments of the lute family in order to obtain better sound damping characteristics based on the concept of the golden ratio and the instrument geometry. The main objective of the paper is to increase the capability of lute family musical instruments in keeping a note for a certain time at a certain level to enhance the instruments’ orchestral characteristics. For this purpose, a geometry-based analytical method, the Golden Method is first described in detail in an itemized feature. A new musical instrument is then developed and tested to confirm the ability of the Golden Method in optimizing the acoustical characteristics of musical instruments from a damping point of view by designing the modified sound-hole. Finally, the new-developed instrument is tested, and the obtained results are compared with those of two well-known instruments to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the suggested method is able to increase the sound damping time by at least 2.4% without affecting the frequency response function and other acoustic characteristics of the instrument. This methodology could be used as the first step in future studies on design, optimization and evaluation of musical instruments of the lute family (e.g., lute, oud, barbat, mandolin, setar, and etc..

  1. A novel approach for small sample size family-based association studies: sequential tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Ozlem; Rajabli, Farid; Dungul, Dilay Ciglidag; Ozdag, Hilal; Ilk, Hakki Gokhan

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) to overcome the problem of limited samples in studies related to complex genetic diseases. The results of this novel approach are compared with the ones obtained from the traditional transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on simulated data. Although TDT classifies single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to only two groups (SNPs associated with the disease and the others), SPRT has the flexibility of assigning SNPs to a third group, that is, those for which we do not have enough evidence and should keep sampling. It is shown that SPRT results in smaller ratios of false positives and negatives, as well as better accuracy and sensitivity values for classifying SNPs when compared with TDT. By using SPRT, data with small sample size become usable for an accurate association analysis.

  2. Accelerating Smaller Cutbacks to Delay Larger Ones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    . Investigating both medium and large cutbacks in ageing welfare states, we test whether, in addition to conventional demographic and economic variables, political-institutional variables capturing partisanship (political ideology), electioneering (political cycle), and institutional constraints (political...... effects of unemployment and population aging: these socio-demographic variables tend to delay large-size cutbacks, but to accelerate medium-size cutbacks in pension generosity, possibly because they function as alarm bell signals urging policymakers to take still feasible incremental action through...

  3. Editorial Commentary: The Larger Holes or Larger Number of Holes We Drill in the Coracoid, the Weaker the Coracoid Becomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Paul

    2016-06-01

    The larger holes or larger number of holes we drill in the coracoid, the weaker the coracoid becomes. Thus, minimizing bone holes (both size and number) is required to lower risk of coracoid process fracture, in patients in whom transosseous shoulder acromioclavicular joint reconstruction is indicated. A single 2.4-mm-diameter tunnel drilled through both the clavicle and the coracoid lowers the risk of fracture, but the risk cannot be entirely eliminated. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biogas energy from family-sized digesters in Uganda: Critical factors and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walekhwa, Peter N.; Mugisha, Johnny; Drake, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Dependence on fossil energy sources is increasingly becoming unsustainable due to ecological and environmental problems and rapid depletion. Biogas energy could augment these conventional energy sources but despite its advantages and favourable conditions for its production, biogas energy use in Uganda remains low due to technical, economic and socio-cultural impediments. Based on primary data on households in Central and Eastern Uganda and the use of logistic regression, this study analyses factors affecting the adoption of biogas energy in Uganda. The empirical results suggest that the probability of a household adopting biogas technology increases with decreasing age of head of household, increasing household income, increasing number of cattle owned, increasing household size, male head of household and increasing cost of traditional fuels. In contrast, the likelihood of adoption decreases with increasing remoteness of household location and increasing household land area. Policy options and recommendations including educational and awareness campaigns on biogas benefits and successes, the provision of financial and non-financial incentives to households and establishment of an institutional framework could bolster wider biogas energy acceptance in Uganda.

  5. The future of wind is growing larger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    This article highlights the dramatic developments in wind turbines over the last 20 years, and notes the increase in efficiency, reduced noise emissions, improvements in manufacturing , and refined resource assessment tools. A summary of the wind turbine market is tabulated, and the increasing size of wind turbines, the assembly of the wind turbines, and current designs are discussed. (UK)

  6. Psycholinguistic measures for German verb pairs: Semantic transparency, semantic relatedness, verb family size, and age of reading acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Eva; Eulitz, Carsten

    2018-06-18

    A central issue in visual and spoken word recognition is the lexical representation of complex words-in particular, whether the lexical representation of complex words depends on semantic transparency: Is a complex verb like understand lexically represented as a whole word or via its base stand, given that its meaning is not transparent from the meanings of its parts? To study this issue, a number of stimulus characteristics are of interest that are not yet available in public databases of German. This article provides semantic association ratings, lexical paraphrases, and vector-based similarity measures for German verbs, measuring (a) the semantic transparency between 1,259 complex verbs and their bases, (b) the semantic relatedness between 1,109 verb pairs with 432 different bases, and (c) the vector-based similarity measures of 846 verb pairs. Additionally, we include the verb regularity of all verbs and two counts of verb family size for 184 base verbs, as well as estimates of age of acquisition and age of reading for 200 verbs. Together with lemma and type frequencies from public lexical databases, all measures can be downloaded along with this article. Statistical analyses indicate that verb family size, morphological complexity, frequency, and verb regularity affect the semantic transparency and relatedness ratings as well as the age of acquisition estimates, indicating that these are relevant variables in psycholinguistic experiments. Although lexical paraphrases, vector-based similarity measures, and semantic association ratings may deliver complementary information, the interrater reliability of the semantic association ratings for each verb pair provides valuable information when selecting stimuli for psycholinguistic experiments.

  7. Comparative study of economics of different models of family size biogas plants for state of Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K. Jatinder; Sooch, Sarbjit Singh

    2004-01-01

    Biogas, the end product of anaerobic digestion of cattle dung, can successfully supplement the cooking fuels in the countryside areas of India, where the raw material needed for its production is plentifully available. Because of the lack of awareness regarding selection of a suitable model and size of biogas plant, the full potential of the biogas producing material is not harnessed, and the economic viability of biogas technology is rendered doubtful. To facilitate this decision making, the economics of family size biogas plants, i.e. with capacity from 1 to 6 m 3 , was studied, and three prevalent models, viz. KVIC, Janta and Deenbandu, were compared. Calculations for installation cost and annual operational cost were made for the state of Punjab, India, where the hydraulic retention time is 40 days, and current market prices were taken into account. Comparison of the economics revealed that the cost of installation and annual operational cost of each capacity were higher for the KVIC model, followed by the Janta and then the Deenbandhu model. Irrespective of the model, as the capacity of the biogas plant increases, the installation, as well as the annual operational cost increase proportionately. With increase in capacity, the payback period decreased exponentially with the exponential character being highest for the KVIC model, followed by the Janta and then the Deenbandhu model. However, on the basis of comparative economics, the Deenbandhu model was found to be the cheapest and most viable model of biogas plant

  8. Demonstrating the value of larger ensembles in forecasting physical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reason L. Machete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble simulation propagates a collection of initial states forward in time in a Monte Carlo fashion. Depending on the fidelity of the model and the properties of the initial ensemble, the goal of ensemble simulation can range from merely quantifying variations in the sensitivity of the model all the way to providing actionable probability forecasts of the future. Whatever the goal is, success depends on the properties of the ensemble, and there is a longstanding discussion in meteorology as to the size of initial condition ensemble most appropriate for Numerical Weather Prediction. In terms of resource allocation: how is one to divide finite computing resources between model complexity, ensemble size, data assimilation and other components of the forecast system. One wishes to avoid undersampling information available from the model's dynamics, yet one also wishes to use the highest fidelity model available. Arguably, a higher fidelity model can better exploit a larger ensemble; nevertheless it is often suggested that a relatively small ensemble, say ~16 members, is sufficient and that larger ensembles are not an effective investment of resources. This claim is shown to be dubious when the goal is probabilistic forecasting, even in settings where the forecast model is informative but imperfect. Probability forecasts for a ‘simple’ physical system are evaluated at different lead times; ensembles of up to 256 members are considered. The pure density estimation context (where ensemble members are drawn from the same underlying distribution as the target differs from the forecasting context, where one is given a high fidelity (but imperfect model. In the forecasting context, the information provided by additional members depends also on the fidelity of the model, the ensemble formation scheme (data assimilation, the ensemble interpretation and the nature of the observational noise. The effect of increasing the ensemble size is quantified by

  9. The Larger Linear N-Heteroacenes

    KAUST Repository

    Bunz, Uwe H. F.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. ConspectusThe close structural and chemical relationship of N-heteroacenes to pentacene suggests their broad applicability in organic electronic devices, such as thin-film transistors. The superb materials science properties of azaacenes result from their improved resistance toward oxidation and their potential for electron transport, both of which have been demonstrated recently. The introduction of nitrogen atoms into the aromatic perimeter of acenes stabilizes their frontier molecular orbitals and increases their electron affinity. The HOMO-LUMO gaps in azaacenes in which the nitrogen atoms are symmetrically placed are similar to those of the acenes. The judiciously placed nitrogen atoms induce an "umpolung" of the electronic behavior of these pentacene-like molecules, i.e., instead of hole mobility in thin-film transistors, azaacenes are electron-transporting materials. The fundamental synthetic approaches toward larger azaacenes are described and discussed. Several synthetic methodologies have been exploited, and some have been newly developed to assemble substituted azaacenes. The oldest methods are condensation-based. Aromatic o-diamines are coupled with o-dihydroxyarenes in the melt without solvent. This method works well for unsubstituted azaacenes only. The attachment of substituents to the starting materials renders these "fire and sword" methods less useful. The starting materials decompose under these conditions. The direct condensation of substituted o-diamines with o-quinones proceeds well in some cases. Fluorinated benzene rings next to a pyrazine unit are introduced by nucleophilic aromatic substitution employing hexafluorobenzene. However, with these well-established synthetic methodologies, a number of azaacene topologies cannot be synthesized. The Pd-catalyzed coupling of aromatic halides and aromatic diamines has therefore emerged as versatile tool for azaacene synthesis. Now substituted diaza- and

  10. The Larger Linear N-Heteroacenes

    KAUST Repository

    Bunz, Uwe H. F.

    2015-06-16

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. ConspectusThe close structural and chemical relationship of N-heteroacenes to pentacene suggests their broad applicability in organic electronic devices, such as thin-film transistors. The superb materials science properties of azaacenes result from their improved resistance toward oxidation and their potential for electron transport, both of which have been demonstrated recently. The introduction of nitrogen atoms into the aromatic perimeter of acenes stabilizes their frontier molecular orbitals and increases their electron affinity. The HOMO-LUMO gaps in azaacenes in which the nitrogen atoms are symmetrically placed are similar to those of the acenes. The judiciously placed nitrogen atoms induce an "umpolung" of the electronic behavior of these pentacene-like molecules, i.e., instead of hole mobility in thin-film transistors, azaacenes are electron-transporting materials. The fundamental synthetic approaches toward larger azaacenes are described and discussed. Several synthetic methodologies have been exploited, and some have been newly developed to assemble substituted azaacenes. The oldest methods are condensation-based. Aromatic o-diamines are coupled with o-dihydroxyarenes in the melt without solvent. This method works well for unsubstituted azaacenes only. The attachment of substituents to the starting materials renders these "fire and sword" methods less useful. The starting materials decompose under these conditions. The direct condensation of substituted o-diamines with o-quinones proceeds well in some cases. Fluorinated benzene rings next to a pyrazine unit are introduced by nucleophilic aromatic substitution employing hexafluorobenzene. However, with these well-established synthetic methodologies, a number of azaacene topologies cannot be synthesized. The Pd-catalyzed coupling of aromatic halides and aromatic diamines has therefore emerged as versatile tool for azaacene synthesis. Now substituted diaza- and

  11. Inside the Family Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Nielsen, Kasper; Pérez-González, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a unique dataset from Denmark to investigate (1) the role of family characteristics in corporate decision making, and (2) the consequences of these decisions on firm performance. We focus on the decision to appoint either a family or an external chief executive officer (CEO). We...... show that a departing CEO's family characteristics have a strong predictive power in explaining CEO succession decisions: family CEOs are more frequently selected the larger the size of the family, the higher the ratio of male children and when the departing CEOs had only had one spouse. We...... then analyze the impact of family successions on performance. We overcome endogeneity and omitted variables problems of previous papers in the literature by using the gender of a departing CEO's first-born child as an instrumental variable (IV) for family successions. This is a plausible IV as male first...

  12. SME routes for innovation collaboration with larger enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2017-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) can contribute to industry competiveness through collaboration with larger enterprises. The research is based on a longitudinal qualitative case study starting in 2011 with 10 SME offshore wind farm suppliers...... and follow-up interviews in 2013. The research continued with a second approach in 2014 within operation and maintenance (O&M) through focus group interviews and subsequent individual interviews with 20 enterprises and a seminar in May 2015. The findings reveal opportunities and challenges for SMEs according...... to three different routes for cooperation and collaboration with larger enterprises: demand-driven cooperation, supplier-driven cooperation and partnerdriven collaboration. The SME contribution to innovation and competiveness is different within the three routes and ranges from providing specific knowledge...

  13. Fraternal Birth Order, Family Size, and Male Homosexuality: Meta-Analysis of Studies Spanning 25 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2018-01-01

    The fraternal birth order effect is the tendency for older brothers to increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This study compared the strength of the effect in subjects from small versus large families and in homosexual subjects with masculine versus feminine gender identities. Meta-analyses were conducted on 30 homosexual and 30 heterosexual groups from 26 studies, totaling 7140 homosexual and 12,837 heterosexual males. The magnitude of the fraternal birth order effect was measured with a novel variable, the Older Brothers Odds Ratio, computed as (homosexuals' older brothers ÷ homosexuals' other siblings) ÷ (heterosexuals' older brothers ÷ heterosexuals' other siblings), where other siblings = older sisters + younger brothers + younger sisters. An Older Brothers Odds Ratio of 1.00 represents no effect of sexual orientation; values over 1.00 are positive evidence for the fraternal birth order effect. Evidence for the reliability of the effect was consistent. The Older Brothers Odds Ratio was significantly >1.00 in 20 instances, >1.00 although not significantly in nine instances, and nonsignificantly <1.00 in 1 instance. The pooled Older Brothers Odds Ratio for all samples was 1.47, p < .00001. Subgroups analyses showed that the magnitude of the effect was significantly greater in the 12 feminine or transgender homosexual groups than in the other 18 homosexual groups. There was no evidence that the magnitude of the effect differs according to family size.

  14. Family size and intergenerational social mobility during the fertility transition: Evidence of resource dilution from the city of Antwerp in nineteenth century Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Van Bavel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued in sociology, economics, and evolutionary anthropology that family size limitation enhances the intergenerational upward mobility chances in modernized societies. If parents have a large flock, family resources get diluted and intergenerational mobility is bound to head downwards. Yet, the empirical record supporting this resource dilution hypothesis is limited. This article investigates the empirical association between family size limitation and intergenerational mobility in an urban, late nineteenth century population in Western Europe. It uses life course data from the Belgian city of Antwerp between 1846 and 1920. Findings are consistent with the resource dilution hypothesis: after controlling for confounding factors, people with many children were more likely to end up in the lower classes. Yet, family size limitation was effective as a defensive rather than an offensive strategy: it prevented the next generation from going down rather than helping them to climb up the social ladder. Also, family size appears to have been particularly relevant for the middle classes. Implications for demographic transition theory are discussed.

  15. Base stock policies with degraded service to larger orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Bisheng; Larsen, Christian

    We study an inventory system controlled by a base stock policy assuming a compound renewal demand process. We extend the base stock policy by incorporating rules for degrading the service of larger orders. Two specific rules are considered, denoted Postpone(q,t) and Split(q), respectively. The aim...... of using these rules is to achieve a given order fill rate of the regular orders (those of size less than or equal to the parameter q) having less inventory. We develop mathematical expressions for the performance measures order fill rate (of the regular orders) and average on-hand inventory level. Based...

  16. One Size Does Not Fit All: Contextualising Family Physical Activity Using a Write, Draw, Show and Tell Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Robert J; Fairclough, Stuart J; Knowles, Zoe R; Boddy, Lynne M

    2017-07-14

    Understanding family physical activity (PA) behaviour is essential for designing effective family-based PA interventions. However, effective approaches to capture the perceptions and "lived experiences" of families are not yet well established. The aims of the study were to: (1) demonstrate how a "write, draw, show and tell" (WDST) methodological approach can be appropriate to family-based PA research, and (2) present two distinct family case studies to provide insights into the habitual PA behaviour and experiences of a nuclear and single-parent family. Six participants (including two "target" children aged 9-11 years, two mothers and two siblings aged 6-8 years) from two families were purposefully selected to take part in the study, based on their family structure. Participants completed a paper-based PA diary and wore an ActiGraph GT9X accelerometer on their left wrist for up to 10 weekdays and 16 weekend days. A range of WDST tasks were then undertaken by each family to offer contextual insight into their family-based PA. The selected families participated in different levels and modes of PA, and reported contrasting leisure opportunities and experiences. These novel findings encourage researchers to tailor family-based PA intervention programmes to the characteristics of the family.

  17. Catalytic burners in larger boiler appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik; Persson, Mikael (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This project focuses on the scale up of a Catator's catalytic burner technology to enable retrofit installation in existing boilers and the design of new innovative combinations of catalytic burners and boilers. Different design approaches are discussed and evaluated in the report and suggestions are made concerning scale-up. Preliminary test data, extracted from a large boiler installation are discussed together with an accurate analysis of technical possibilities following an optimization of the boiler design to benefit from the advantages of catalytic combustion. The experimental work was conducted in close collaboration with ICI Caldaie (ICI), located in Verona, Italy. ICI is a leading European boiler manufacturer in the effect segment ranging from about 20 kWt to several MWt. The study shows that it is possibly to scale up the burner technology and to maintain low emissions. The boilers used in the study were designed around conventional combustion and were consequently not optimized for implementation of catalytic burners. From previous experiences it stands clear that the furnace volume can be dramatically decreased when applying catalytic combustion. In flame combustion, this volume is normally dimensioned to avoid flame impingement on cold surfaces and to facilitate completion of the gas-phase reactions. The emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by decreasing the residence time in the furnace. Even with the over-dimensioned furnace used in this study, we easily reached emission values close to 35 mg/kWh. The emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were negligible (less than 5 ppmv). It is possible to decrease the emissions of nitrogen oxides further by designing the furnace/boiler around the catalytic burner, as suggested in the report. Simultaneously, the size of the boiler installation can be reduced greatly, which also will result in material savings, i.e. the production cost can be reduced. It is suggested to optimize the

  18. Time trends and determinants of completed family size in a rural community from the Basque area of Spain (1800-1969).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Sánchez, Miguel A; Peña, José A; Calderón, Rosario

    2003-10-01

    The focus of this work is the analysis of changes in completed family size and possible determinants of that size over time, in an attempt to characterize the evolution of reproductive patterns during the demographic transition. With this purpose in mind, time trends are studied in relation to the mean number of live births per family (as an indirect measure of fertility), using family reconstitution techniques to trace the reproductive history of each married woman. The population surveyed is a Spanish rural community called Lanciego, located at the southern end of the province of Alava (Basque Country). A total of 24,510 parish records of baptisms, marriages and burials made between 1800 and 1969 were examined to obtain the demographic data set. For each reconstituted family, the variables included in the study were the number of live births per family or family size (FAMS), year of marriage (YEAR), age at marriage of both partners (AMAN, AWOM), wife's age at the end of marriage (WEND), duration of marriage (MARD), age at first maternity (A1CH), length of reproductive span (REPS) and number of children dying before their first anniversary (MINF). Through a principal component analysis, three factors were found that explained more than 75% of the total variance. Association of variables in factors I and III was particularly useful in characterizing the variability of mean family size in pre-transitional, transitional and post-transitional cohorts. During demographic transition, a decreasing trend is observed in the variables FAMS, REPS and MINF, while variables AWOM, AMAN, WEND and A1CH show a tendency to increase over the 20th century. Results obtained by multiple regression analysis confirm that the best predictors of family size (dependent variable) were REPS and MINF, which between them explained over 85% of the total variation in FAMS (R2 = 0.853). In Lanciego, birth control seems to be present on the evidence of an increase in age at first maternity and a

  19. Family Characteristics and Achievement: Effects of Birth Order and Family Size of the Kalamazoo Brothers Sample. Discussion Papers No. 431-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.; Bills, David B.

    Research on the effects of birth order on cognitive ability often fails to control relevant variables related to family background and does not usually investigate the effects of birth order among members of the same family. Consequently, apparently significant birth order effects may in fact be spurious. This study uses a sample of brothers…

  20. The Size of the Family – A Factor Influencing Alimentation and, Implicitly, the Growth and Development Processes in Teen-Agers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Simalcsik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Viewed as a phenomenon with multi-factorial determination, the growth and development of the human organism depend equally on the hereditary patrimony and on the environmental conditions, the socio-economic ones, especially. As a critical transition period from childhood to adult age, adolescence is characterized by increased nutritional needs. The main factor responsible for the variations manifested in human physical development is alimentation – a factor correlated with the socio-economic variations. Similarly with the case of other countries affected by transitions, the difficult economic transformations occurring in the Republic of Moldova have been accompanied by the installation of poverty – a phenomenon affecting especially the families formed of more than 5 members. The teen-agers of the Republic of Moldova register a deficit in the consumption of proteins, especially of animal origin, known as playing a critical role in the period of accelerated growing of the organism. Alimentation and family size are closely correlated with the socio-economic status of the family from which the child comes, while the attention and care given to the child by the family plays an essential part in the growth and development of the teen-ager. Child’s development as a function of such an element is directly related to environmental factors, as follows: alimentation is poorer in more numerous families, as the monthly income per member of family is more reduced, which is immediately reflected in a scarce alimentary consumption; hygiene is insufficient; mother’s care for the child is also reduced, etc. The study was performed on 1,525 subjects (boys and girls with ages between 10 and 16 years, all from the city of Kishinev. The main parameters considered were: stature, weight and average puberal age. The results obtained show that family size influences both the average stature of the teenagers and their weight, over the 10-16 years interval, the

  1. A 72-year-old Danish puzzle resolved--comparative analysis of phenotypes in families with different-sized HOXD13 polyalanine expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Klaus Wilbrandt; Hansen, Lars; Eiberg, Hans

    2005-01-01

    A phenotype-genotype correlation was previously described for carriers of different sized of polyalanine expansions in HOXD13. We report on a detailed comparison of 55 members (approximately 220 limbs) from 4 Danish families with duplications of 21 or 27 bp, expanding the polyalanine repeat from ...

  2. Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words…

  3. The Anatomy of the Role of Morphological Awareness in Chinese Character Learning: The Mediation of Vocabulary and Semantic Radical Knowledge and the Moderation of Morpheme Family Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duo; Li, Hong; Wong, Kwok Shing Richard

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the mediating roles of syllable awareness, orthographic knowledge, and vocabulary skills and the moderating role of morpheme family size in the association between morphological awareness and Chinese character reading were investigated with 176 second-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. In the path analyses, the results…

  4. Can resource dilution explain differences in height by birth order and family size? A study of 389,287 male recruits in twentieth-century Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stradford, L.; van Poppel, F.W.A.; Lumey, L.H.

    2017-01-01

    ‘Resource dilution’ has been invoked as a possible mechanism to explain the inverse relation between sibship size and sibling heights in European populations (Öberg, 2015). Alternative explanations include confounding of the relation by other measured or unmeasured family characteristics including

  5. Domestic hot water use study, multi-family building energy monitoring and analysis for DHW system sizing criteria development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldner, F.S.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty New York City multifamily building combined steam heating and domestic hot water (DHW) plants were instrumented for monitoring (mostly hourly) apartment, outdoor, boiler and DHW temperatures and burner on-off times. In nine of these buildings, which had been upgraded, additional data collected were: stack temperature, DHW flow in 15-minute increments, oil ampersand boiler make-up water flows, and DHW temperature before and after the mixing (tempering) valve and on the circulating return line. The project's objectives are to develop comprehensive operating data on combined DHW and heating systems to be used in system design and specifications and for improving operating procedures. DHW requirements in multi-family buildings are currently calculated on the basis of questionable standards. These new, more precise DHW flow data result in a better basis for sizing than existed heretofore. There is a critical need for improved specifications and performance in newly constructed and renovated buildings. Better system choices among various instantaneous generation and storage scenarios will result in savings derived from smaller initial equipment investments as well as more energy efficient operations. The data being generated define figures for DHW energy use so that more reliable and accurate predictions of savings can be calculated. This paper presents DHW demand patterns, seasonal variations, weekday vs. weekend consumption, consumption vs. occupancy levels, coincidence of 15- and 60-minute demand periods, and average vs. peak demand levels. This project is sponsored by New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The results of this research are being reviewed for inclusion in a revision of DHW guidelines for the next edition of the ASHRAE Handbook

  6. Family Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  7. Family Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Disruptions Page Content Article Body No matter how ...

  8. The Place of the Family in the System of Values of Inhabitants of a Medium-Sized Urals City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satybaldina, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    The processes of modernization in this country's economy require a well-qualified work force that is mobile in social, professional, and geographic terms. The necessary basis of a successful solution to this problem is the stability of the family, which is the basic active agent of the reproduction of new generations of workers. Family stability…

  9. Introgression of a Rare Haplotype from Southeastern Africa to Breed California Blackeyes with Larger Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell R Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed size distinguishes most crops from their wild relatives and is an important quality trait for the grain legume cowpea. In order to breed cowpea varieties with larger seeds we introgressed a rare haplotype associated with large seeds at the Css-1 locus from an African buff seed type cultivar, IT82E-18 (18.5g/100 seeds, into a blackeye seed type cultivar, CB27 (22g/100 seed. Four RILs derived from these two parents were chosen for marker-assisted breeding based on SNP genotyping with a goal of stacking large seed haplotypes into a CB27 background. Foreground and background selection were performed during two cycles of backcrossing based on genome-wide SNP markers. The average seed size of introgression lines homozygous for haplotypes associated with large seeds was 28.7g/100 seed and 24.8g/100 seed for cycles 1 and 2, respectively. One cycle 1 introgression line with desirable seed quality was selfed for two generations to make families with very large seeds (28-35g/100 seeds. Field-based performance trials helped identify breeding lines that not only have large seeds but are also desirable in terms of yield, maturity, and plant architecture when compared to industry standards. A principal component analysis was used to explore the relationships between the parents relative to a core set of landraces and improved varieties based on high-density SNP data. The geographic distribution of haplotypes at the Css-1 locus suggest the haplotype associated with large seeds is unique to accessions collected from Southeastern Africa. Therefore this QTL has a strong potential to develop larger seeded varieties for other growing regions which is demonstrated in this work using a California pedigree.

  10. The cavity-nest ant Temnothorax crassispinus prefers larger nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrus, S

    Colonies of the ant Temnothorax crassispinus inhabit mostly cavities in wood and hollow acorns. Typically in the field, nest sites that can be used by the ant are a limited resource. In a field experiment, it was investigated whether the ants prefer a specific size of nest, when different ones are available. In July 2011, a total of 160 artificial nests were placed in a beech-pine forest. Four artificial nests (pieces of wood with volume cavities, ca 415, 605, 730, and 980 mm 3 , respectively) were located on each square meter of the experimental plot. One year later, shortly before the emergence of new sexuals, the nests were collected. In July 2012, colonies inhabited more frequently bigger nests. Among queenright colonies, the ones which inhabited bigger nests had more workers. However, there was no relationship between volume of nest and number of workers for queenless colonies. Queenright colonies from bigger nests produced more sexual individuals, but there was no correlation between number of workers and sex allocation ratio, or between volume of nest and sex allocation ratio. In a laboratory experiment where ant colonies were kept in 470 and 860 mm 3 nests, larger colonies allocated more energy to produce sexual individuals. The results of this study show the selectivity of T. crassispinus ants regarding the size of nest cavity, and that the nest volume has an impact on life history parameters.

  11. An Assessment of the Influence of Selected on the Performance of Small to Medium Sized Family Owned Businesses in the Zimbabwe Retail Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Sandada

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study attempted to assess the factors that are affecting business performance of small to medium sized family owned businesses in the Zimbabwean retail sector. The objective was to establish the effect of innovation, management skills, succession planning and corporate governance on family owned SMEs in Zimbabwe. The study sought to complement other previous studies that were carried out in other different contexts by producing evidence on the same phenomenon from a developing country context. The study adopted a quantitative approach. A self-administered survey was conducted to collect data that was analysed using descriptive, correlation and regression analyses. The results showed that the most significant factors affecting business performance in order of predictive power were innovation, proper management skills, succession planning and corporate governance. The findings have implications to family business managers and owners in Zimbabwe who are encouraged to be innovative, properly manage, practise succession planning and be guided by business morals in managing their enterprises. Whilst the factors ensuring the success of Small and Medium sized enterprises have extensively been examined, there is dearth of research on family business success factors especially in a developing country like Zimbabwe.

  12. Does a family history of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and cyst size influence the follow-up strategy for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandai, Koichiro; Uno, Koji; Yasuda, Kenjiro

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) family history and PDAC development in patients followed up for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and to assess the cyst size relevance in determining follow-up strategies. We analyzed 300 patients with branch duct and mixed-type IPMN who were followed up at our facility. Among the patients aged 70 years or older, the frequency of PDAC did not differ significantly between those with 1 first-degree relative with PDAC and those without a family history. Although patients with IPMNs of greater than or equal to 30 mm were followed up for a significantly shorter duration than those patients with IPMNs of less than 30 mm, the frequency of IPMN progression and malignant IPMN was significantly greater in the former. The frequency of IPMN progression and pancreatic cancer did not differ significantly according to IPMN size (family history. Special attention should be paid to IPMN progression and malignant transformation in patients with IPMNs of greater than or equal to 30 mm, but cyst size need not be considered when determining follow-up strategies for patients with IPMNs of less than 30 mm without mural nodules.

  13. A comparative study of factors influencing decisions on desired family size among married men and women in Bokkos, a rural local government area in Plateau state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahansim, Makshwar L; Hadejia, Idris S; Sambo, Mohammed N

    2013-03-01

    The total fertility rate of Nigerian women has remained high at 5.7. This is even higher for women in rural areas. Men and women in rural areas desire more children than those in urban areas. This study was aimed at describing and comparing the factors that influence family size decisions among men and women in Bokkos, a rural Local Government Area in Plateau state, Nigeria. A cross sectional descriptive comparative study was used. Data was collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaires. Seventy two percent of women and 83.6% of men who desire to have 1-4 children had at least a secondary school education. Close to seventy percent of both men and women would have fewer children if they are certain of their survival to adulthood. Over 50% of the respondents believe that the husbands should have the final say on family size decisions. Preference for male children influences decisions on family size among men and women in the study population.

  14. The effects on stature of poverty, family size, and birth order: British children in the 1930s

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Hatton; Richard M. Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines effects of socio-economic conditions on the standardised heights and body mass index of children in Interwar Britain. It uses the Boyd Orr cohort, a survey of predominantly poor families taken in 1937-9, which provides a unique opportunity to explore the determinants of child health in the era before the welfare state. We examine the trade-off between the quality (in the form of health outcomes) and the number of children in the family at a time when genuine poverty still ...

  15. The determinants of the readiness to let go among senior generation owner-managers of small and medium-sized family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan P van der Merwe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the determinants of the readiness of the senior generation owner-managers to finally transfer the management and control of the family business to the younger generation. Data from 504 questionnaires linked to 81 family businesses were collected and analysed. An Oblimin oblique rotation was carried out on the principal components of the exploratory factor analysis. Five factors with eigen-values greater than one, explaining 62.64 per cent of the variance, were extracted. These five factors describing the theoretical dimensions of the dependent variable were: the senior generation owner-manager’s readiness to let go, and the independent variables of retirement planning, perceived suitability of the successor, estate planning, and the perceived liquidity of the business after the transfer. No significant practical differences relating to these five factors could be found between the perceptions of male and female respondents, the senior and younger generation family members or family members involved in medium-sized or small businesses. Practical recommendations are suggested to ensure a smooth final transfer of the management and control of the business to the younger generation family members.

  16. Application of chemical mutagens and radiation in breeding buckwheat for larger seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: In 1974, seeds of the Viktoriya variety of buckwheat were treated with 20-30 krad gamma radiation and chemical mutagens in the Biophysics Department of the Kishinev Agricultural Institute. For the chemical mutagen treatment, we used N-ethylnitroso-urea NEH (0.025 and 0.012%), N-methylnitroso-urea NMH (0.01 and 0.005%), ethylenimine EI (0.01 and 0.005%), dimethyl sulphate DMS (0.01 and 0.005%) and 1.4-bis-diazoacetyl butane DAB (0.01 and 0.05%). Since some investigators think that different results are produced by changing the order of the treatment, we treated seeds with chemical mutagens before and after irradiation and this was followed by drying. A total of 2400 seeds were treated. Selection started with M 2 seeds produced by M 1 plants. The thousand seed weight of the best ones ranged from 40.7 to 47.8 g, which was 11.9-18.7 g heavier than the control. The large seed size thus selected was heritable. Since larger seeds are very important for the creation of high yielding varieties buckwheat, only families with these characteristics were selected for further work. We observed even some further increase in seed weight in the next generation. It was observed that when planting large seeds, after six days of growth the cotyledons were significantly larger than in the control plants. This characteristic was used in selecting for a high yielding large-seed variety of buckwheat. The plants were selected twice: once for development of large cotyledon leaves and the second time for plant yield. In the fourth generation, the families thus obtained continued to be studied in greenhouse experiments and the same time be propagated under field conditions. The seeds of these families were then combined and under the name Podolyanka in 1976 were subjected to competitive variety testing. Following the competitive variety testing the mutant variety Podolyanka was released in 1984. It is high yielding (2950 kg/ha), has a short vegetation period (matures 17-18 days

  17. More ‘altruistic’ punishment in larger societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J. Colette; Barr, Abigail; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Cardenas, Juan Camilo; Ensminger, Jean; Gurven, Michael; Gwako, Edwins; Henrich, Joseph; Henrich, Natalie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; McElreath, Richard; Tracer, David

    2007-01-01

    If individuals will cooperate with cooperators, and punish non-cooperators even at a cost to themselves, then this strong reciprocity could minimize the cheating that undermines cooperation. Based upon numerous economic experiments, some have proposed that human cooperation is explained by strong reciprocity and norm enforcement. Second-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on you; third-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on someone else. Third-party punishment is an effective way to enforce the norms of strong reciprocity and promote cooperation. Here we present new results that expand on a previous report from a large cross-cultural project. This project has already shown that there is considerable cross-cultural variation in punishment and cooperation. Here we test the hypothesis that population size (and complexity) predicts the level of third-party punishment. Our results show that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies. PMID:18089534

  18. Ribosomal protein NtRPL17 interacts with kinesin-12 family protein NtKRP and functions in the regulation of embryo/seed size and radicle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shujuan; Wu, Jingjing; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Xiaorong; Li, Fen; Wang, Zhaodan; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2017-11-28

    We previously reported that a novel motor protein belonging to the kinesin-12 family, NtKRP, displays critical roles in regulating embryo and seed size establishment. However, it remains unknown exactly how NtKRP contributes to this developmental process. Here, we report that a 60S ribosomal protein NtRPL17 directly interacts with NtKRP. The phenotypes of NtRPL17 RNAi lines show notable embryo and seed size reduction. Structural observations of the NtRPL17-silenced embryos/seeds reveal that the embryo size reduction is due to a decrease in cell number. In these embryos, cell division cycle progression is delayed at the G2/M transition. These phenotypes are similar to that in NtKRP-silenced embryos/seeds, indicating that NtKRP and NtRPL17 function as partners in the same regulatory pathway during seed development and specifically regulate cell cycle progression to control embryo/seed size. This work reveals that NtRPL17, as a widely distributed ribosomal protein, plays a critical role in seed development and provides a new clue in the regulation of seed size. Confirmation of the interaction between NtKRP and NtRPL17 and their co-function in the control of the cell cycle also suggests that the mechanism might be conserved in both plants and animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Are larger effect sizes in experimental studies good predictors of higher citation rates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Henriksen, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    the studies are published. Contrary to the previous findings, and in fact most studies in scientometrics, we examine the hypothesis with a Bayesian model selection procedure. This is advantageous, as we thereby are able to quantify the statistical evidence for both hypotheses, H0 and H1. This is not possible...

  20. Small Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children of larger families. The financial costs of maintaining a household are lower. It is easier for ... separated from you, hindering the development of new relationships with peers. In fact, you may have that ...

  1. Recombining overlapping BACs into a single larger BAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxley Clare

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAC clones containing entire mammalian genes including all the transcribed region and long range controlling elements are very useful for functional analysis. Sequenced BACs are available for most of the human and mouse genomes and in many cases these contain intact genes. However, large genes often span more than one BAC, and single BACs covering the entire region of interest are not available. Here we describe a system for linking two or more overlapping BACs into a single clone by homologous recombination. Results The method was used to link a 61-kb insert carrying the final 5 exons of the human CFTR gene onto a 160-kb BAC carrying the first 22 exons. Two rounds of homologous recombination were carried out in the EL350 strain of bacteria which can be induced for the Red genes. In the first round, the inserts of the two overlapping BACs were subcloned into modified BAC vectors using homologous recombination. In the second round, the BAC to be added was linearised with the very rare-cutting enzyme I-PpoI and electroporated into recombination efficient EL350 bacteria carrying the other BAC. Recombined BACs were identified by antibiotic selection and PCR screening and 10% of clones contained the correctly recombined 220-kb BAC. Conclusion The system can be used to link the inserts from any overlapping BAC or PAC clones. The original orientation of the inserts is not important and desired regions of the inserts can be selected. The size limit for the fragments recombined may be larger than the 61 kb used here and multiple BACs in a contig could be combined by alternating use of the two pBACLink vectors. This system should be of use to many investigators wishing to carry out functional analysis on large mammalian genes which are not available in single BAC clones.

  2. Impact of breast cancer family history on tumor detection and tumor size in women newly-diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Fabienne Dominique; Bürki, Nicole; Huang, Dorothy Jane; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola; Schmid, Seraina Margaretha; Vetter, Marcus; Schötzau, Andreas; Güth, Uwe

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the impact of family history (FH) on tumor detection, the patient's age and tumor size at diagnosis in breast cancer (BC). Furthermore, we investigated whether the impact of FH on these features was dependent on degree of relationship, number of relatives with a BC history, or the age of the affected relative at the time that her BC was diagnosed. Out of the entire cohort (n = 1,037), 244 patients (23.5%) had a positive FH; 159 (15.3%) had first-degree relatives affected with BC and 85 patients (8.2%) had second-degree affected relatives. Compared to women who had no BC-affected relatives, the tumors of women who had positive FH were more often found by radiological breast examination (RBE: 31.7%/27.2%, p = 0.008), and they were smaller (general tumor size: 21.8 mm/26.4 mm, p = 0.003; size of tumors found by breast self-examination (BSE): 26.1 mm/30.6 mm, p = 0.041). However, this positive effect of increased use of BC screening and smaller tumor sizes was only observed in patients whose first-degree relatives were affected (comparison with second-degree affected relatives: RBE: 43.8%/24.7%; odds ratio 2.38, p = 0.007; general tumor size: 19.3 mm/26.3 mm; mean difference (MD) -6.9, p = 0.025; tumor size found by BSE: 22.5 mm/31.0 mm; MD -8.5, p = 0.044). When more second-degree relatives or older relatives were diagnosed with BC, the tumors of these patients were similarly often detected by RBE (relationship: 24.7%/27.2%, p = 0.641; age: 33.7 %/27.2 %, p = 0.177) and had similar tumor sizes (general size: 26.3 mm/26.4 mm, p = 0.960; BSE: 31.0 mm/30.6 mm, p = 0.902) as those of women without a FH. Women with a positive FH generally use mammography screening more often and perceive changes in the breast earlier than women without such history. The increased awareness of BC risk decreases if the relationship is more distant.

  3. Women's empowerment and ideal family size: an examination of DHS empowerment measures in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Karasek, Deborah

    2012-06-01

    The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program collects data on women's empowerment, but little is known about how these measures perform in Sub-Saharan African countries. It is important to understand whether women's empowerment is associated with their ideal number of children and ability to limit fertility to that ideal number in the Sub-Saharan African context. The analysis used couples data from DHS surveys in four Sub-Saharan African countries: Guinea, Mali, Namibia and Zambia. Women's empowerment was measured by participation in household decision making, attitudes toward wife beating and attitudes toward refusing sex with one's husband. Multivariable linear regression was used to model women's ideal number of children, and multivariable logistic regression was used to model women's odds of having more children than their ideal. In Guinea and Zambia, negative attitudes toward wife beating were associated with having a smaller ideal number of children (beta coefficients, -0.5 and -0.3, respectively). Greater household decision making was associated with a smaller ideal number of children only in Guinea (beta coefficient, -0.3). Additionally, household decision making and positive attitudes toward women's right to refuse sex were associated with elevated odds of having more children than desired in Namibia and Zambia, respectively (odds ratios, 2.3 and 1.4); negative attitudes toward wife beating were associated with reduced odds of the outcome in Mali (0.4). Women's empowerment--as assessed using currently available measures--is not consistently associated with a desire for smaller families or the ability to achieve desired fertility in these Sub-Saharan African countries. Further research is needed to determine what measures are most applicable for these contexts.

  4. Roles within the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Text Size Email Print Share Roles Within the Family Page Content Article Body Families are not democracies. ...

  5. Annual spatiotemporal migration schedules in three larger insectivorous birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Jensen, Niels Odder; Willemoes, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger ...

  6. Listing of nuclear power plant larger than 100 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, B.

    1976-03-01

    This report contains a list of all nuclear power plants larger than 100 MWe, printed out from the Argus Data Bank at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The plants are listed by NSSS supply. (M.S.)

  7. Dust captures effectiveness of scrubber systems on mechanical miners operating in larger roadways.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hole, BJ

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The project was directed towards bord and pillar working by mechanised miners operating in larger section roadways, where the problem of scrubber capture tends to be greatest owing to the limited size of the zone of influence around exhaust...

  8. A specialist toxicity database (TRACE) is more effective than its larger, commercially available counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.A.; Copestake, P.T.; Robinson, L.

    2000-01-01

    The retrieval precision and recall of a specialist bibliographic toxicity database (TRACE) and a range of widely available bibliographic databases used to identify toxicity papers were compared. The analysis indicated that the larger size and resources of the major bibliographic databases did not,

  9. Eviendep® reduces number and size of duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Carlo; Praticò, Chiara; Calafiore, Andrea; Coscia, Maurizio; Gentilini, Lorenzo; Poggioli, Gilberto; Gionchetti, Paolo; Campieri, Massimo; Rizzello, Fernando

    2013-09-14

    To evaluate if 3 mo oral supplementation with Eviendep® was able to reduce the number of duodenal polyps in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). Eleven FAP patients with IPAA and duodenal polyps were enrolled. They underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy at the baseline and after 3 mo of treatment. Each patient received 5 mg Eviendep twice a day, at breakfast and dinner time, for 3 mo. Two endoscopists evaluated in a blinded manner the number and size of duodenal polyps. Upper GI endoscopies with biopsies were performed at the baseline (T0) with the assessment of the Spigelman score. Polyps > 10 mm were removed during endoscopy and at the end of the procedure a new Spigelman score was determined (T1). The procedure was repeated 3 mo after the baseline (T2). Four photograms were examined for each patient, at T1 and T2. The examined area was divided into 3 segments: duodenal bulb, second and third portion duodenum. Biopsy specimens were taken from all polyps > 10 mm and from all suspicious ones, defined by the presence of a central depression, irregular surface, or irregular vascular pattern. Histology was classified according to the updated Vienna criteria. At baseline the mean number of duodenal detected polyps was 27.7 and mean sizes were 15.8 mm; the mean Spigelman score was 7.1. After polypectomy the mean number of duodenal detected polyps was 25.7 and mean sizes were 7.6 mm; the mean Spigelman score was 6.4. After 3 mo of Eviendep bid, all patients showed a reduction of number and size of duodenal polyps. The mean number of duodenal polyps was 8 (P = 0.021) and mean size was 4.4 mm; the mean Spigelman score was 6.6. Interrater agreement was measured. Lesions > 1 cm found a very good degree of concordance (kappa 0.851) and a good concordance was as well encountered for smaller lesions (kappa 0.641). Our study demonstrated that short-term (90 d) supplementation with Eviendep® in FAP patients with IPAA

  10. Generation of Domestic Solid Waste in Tikrit City and The Effects of Family Size and Incomes Level on the Rate of Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed M. Al Abed Raba

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available     This research included collection and analysis of (2800 samples from four different neighborhoods in Tikrit over the seasons of the year to cover seasonal changes in the generation rate of domestic solid waste. The generation rate of domestic solid waste is (0.460 kg / person / day. The results also showed that summer season is the most season that produced solid waste (0.487 kg / person / day. While winter is the lowest season (0.422 kg / person / day. The results indicated that Friday and Saturday are the most producing days (0.629 , 0.557 kg / person / days, respectively. The results showed the impact of rural character of Aalam region in reducing the rate of generation of domestic solid waste as the rate of generation of the neighborhoods of the four studied areas was (0.460 kg / person / day. SPSS program using has been adopted as a method of statistical analysis to study the effect of family size and income level have on the generation rate in the city, where the results showed that family size adversely affects the generation rate of solid waste, also the lowest generation rate was recorded for families with high income level.                                                                                                                                  

  11. NRT2.4 and NRT2.5 Are Two Half-Size Transporters from the Chlamydomonas NRT2 Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Javier Higuera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The NRT2 transporters mediate High Affinity Nitrate/NitriteTransport (HAN/NiT, which are essential for nitrogen acquisition from these inorganic forms. The NRT2 proteins are encoded by a multigene family in plants, and contain 12 transmembrane-spanning domains. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has six NRT2, two of which (NRT2.5 and NRT2.4 are located in Chromosome III, in tandem head to tail. cDNAs for these genes were isolated and their sequence revealed that they correspond to half-size NRT2 transporters each containing six transmembrane domains. NRT2.5 has long N- and C- termini sequences without known homology. NRT2.4 also contains long termini sequences but smaller than NRT2.5. Expression of both studied genes occurred at a very low level, slightly in darkness, and was not modified by the N or C source. Silencing of NRT2.4 by specific artificial miRNA resulted in the inhibition of nitrite transport in the absence of other HANNiT (NRT2.1/NAR2 in the cell genetic background. Nitrite transport activity in the Hansenula polymorpha Δynt::URA3 Leu2 mutant was restored by expressing CrNRT2.4. These results indicate that half-size NRT2 transporters are present in photosynthetic organisms and that NRT2.4 is a HANiT.

  12. Women play larger role in Latin America's commercial urban waste ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-21

    Jun 21, 2016 ... Image. cover women and solid waste LAC book. Gustavo Riofrío and ... Understanding how emergencies affect internal migration in Costa Rica ... or no savings can be devastating for poor families, especially in times of crisis.

  13. Protecting the larger fish: an ecological, economical and evolutionary analysis using a demographic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdiell, Nuria Calduch

    . Recently, there is increasing evidence that this size-selective fishing reduces the chances of maintaining populations at levels sufficient to produce maximum sustainable yields, the chances of recovery/rebuilding populations that have been depleted/collapsed and may causes rapid evolutionary changes...... and the consequent changes in yield. We attempt to evaluate the capability of the larger fish to mitigate the evolutionary change on life-history traits caused by fishing, while also maintaining a sustainable annual yield. This is achieved by calculating the expected selection response on three life-history traits......Many marine fish stocks are reported as overfished on a global scale. This overfishing not only removes fish biomass, but also causes dramatic changes in the age and size structure of fish stocks. In particular, targeting of the larger individuals truncates the age and size structure of stocks...

  14. Species and Size Composition of Seahorses (Genus Hippocampus, Family Syngnathidae) in the Coastal Waters and Local Market of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapawi, Rossita; Anyie, Adrian Leslie; Hussien, Muhammad Ali Syed; Zuldin, Wahidatul Husna

    2015-12-01

    Seahorse diversity (genus Hippocampus, Family Syngnathidae), species identification, size composition and sexual dimorphism were studied from November 2012 to March 2013 in selected coastal waters around Kota Kinabalu, Sabah and the local market trade. Six species of seahorses were identified in the study: (1) Hippocampus barbouri, (2) Hippocampus comes, (3) Hippocampus kelloggi, (4) Hippocampus kuda, (5) Hippocampus spinosissimus and (6) Hippocampus trimaculatus. All six species were sold at the local market, and the dried seahorses were obtained mainly by local fishermen using trawl by-catch method and traded as traditional medicine, souvenirs and other uses. Four species were identified by direct samplings in various different habitats of Kota Kinabalu coastal waters: (1) H. barbouri, (2) H. comes, (3) H. kuda, and (4) H. spinosissimus. Based on the results, H. comes was the largest in size among the four fresh/live species found (mean standard length [SL]: 148.25±1.26 mm), whereas H. barbouri was the smallest species (mean SL: 129±7.81 mm). For the dried samples, H. kelloggi was the largest (mean SL: 245.25±14.55 mm) and H. barbouri was the smallest (mean SL: 127.21±10.01 mm). No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between the lengths of males and females in every seahorse species, and there was no sexual size dimorphism in any of the species. The findings from the study are significant to provide baseline data for the conservation efforts of these unique marine teleost.

  15. Structural and Supportive Changes in Couples' Family and Friendship Networks across the Transition to Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Kelly K.; Cox, Martha J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Payne, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Examines patterns of change in family and friend network with parenthood in 137 couples surveyed before the birth of their first child. Husbands and wives who reported larger network sizes and support prior to their first child's birth were more likely to report larger networks after birth. Changes in parents' social systems were related to…

  16. Dispersal, phenology and predicted abundance of the larger grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenology and dispersal of the larger grain borer (LGB) in Africa is described, and comparisons are made between prediction of LGB numbers from laboratory studies and predictions from multiple linear models derived from trapping data in the field. The models were developed in Mexico and Kenya, using ...

  17. Listing of nuclear power plant larger than 100 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, B.

    1975-06-01

    This report contains a list of all nuclear power plants larger than 100 MWe, printed out from the Argus Data Bank at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The plants are listed alphabetically. The report contains also a plant ranking list, where the plants are listed by the load factor (12 months) (M.S.)

  18. Listing of nuclear power plant larger than 100 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, B.

    1975-12-01

    This report contains a list of all nuclear power plants larger than 100 MWe, printed out from the Argus Data Bank at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The plants are listed by country. The report contains also a plant ranking list, where the plants are listed by the load factor (12 months). (M.S.)

  19. Family-centred care delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Bruinsma, Liesha; Hogg, William; Taljaard, Monica; Dahrouge, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether models of primary care service delivery differ in their provision of family-centred care (FCC) and to identify practice characteristics associated with FCC. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary care practices in Ontario (ie, 35 salaried community health centres, 35 fee-for-service practices, 32 capitation-based health service organizations, and 35 blended remuneration family health networks) that belong to 4 models of primary care service delivery. Participants A total of 137 practices, 363 providers, and 5144 patients. Main outcome measures Measures of FCC in patient and provider surveys were based on the Primary Care Assessment Tool. Statistical analyses were conducted using linear mixed regression models and generalized estimating equations. Results Patient-reported FCC scores were high and did not vary significantly by primary care model. Larger panel size in a practice was associated with lower odds of patients reporting FCC. Provider-reported FCC scores were significantly higher in community health centres than in family health networks (P = .035). A larger number of nurse practitioners and clinical services on-site were both associated with higher FCC scores, while scores decreased as the number of family physicians in a practice increased and if practices were more rural. Conclusion Based on provider and patient reports, primary care reform strategies that encourage larger practices and more patients per family physician might compromise the provision of FCC, while strategies that encourage multidisciplinary practices and a range of services might increase FCC. PMID:24235195

  20. The role of family size, employment and education of parents in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in school children in Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Akua Obeng; Arthur, Isaac; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in school children are a public health problem in most developing countries. A cross sectional survey was conducted from May to July 2016 with school children living in overcrowded urban slums in Accra, Ghana. A simple random sample of 300 children aged 2-9 years was collected. The study used structured pre-tested questionnaire and stool tests to obtain information on epidemiological, sanitation habits, employment and education status of parents and children. Data were analysed using appropriate descriptive, univariate and multivariable logistic tools of analyses. The mean age of participants was 6.9 years and 49% were males and 51.3% were females. Giardia lamblia was found in males (10.95%) and females (7.79%). Very low prevalences for Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia species, and Entamoeba coli were detected. Whilst children from mothers (62.2%) and fathers (55.6%) with no education were often infected, a few children from fathers (22.2%) and mothers (6.7%) with no jobs were infected. Most of the infected children's (93.7%) parents did not have any knowledge of IPIs. The educational and employment status of the mothers [p = 1.0 and p = 0.422] was not significant, however, the family size was a predisposing factor (p = 0.031) for parasitic infections. Intestinal parasites were prevalent in children from overcrowded families and with no knowledge of IPIs. Educative programmes on IPIs, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programmes to elevate socioeconomic conditions may help reduce the burden of intestinal parasite carriage in children.

  1. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  2. Collision cascades and sputtering induced by larger cluster ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experimental work on larger cluster impact on solid surfaces suggests large deviations from the standard case of additive sputter yields both in the nuclear and electronic stopping regime. The paper concentrates on elastic collision cascades. In addition to very pronounced spike effects, two phenomena are pointed out that are specific to cluster bombardment. Multiple hits of cluster atoms on one and the same target atom may result in recoil atoms that move faster than the maximum recoil speed for monomer bombardment at the same projectile speed. This effect is important when the atomic mass of a beam atom is less than that of a target atom, M 1 2 . In the opposite case, M 1 >> M 2 , collisions between beam particles may accelerate some beam particles and slow down others. Some consequences are mentioned. Remarks on the nuclear stopping power of larger clusters and on electronic sputtering by cluster bombardment conclude the paper. 38 refs., 2 figs

  3. How do environmental policies fit within larger strategic planning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores how environmental policies fit within larger strategic processes relevant to sport management and development. It identifies key policy areas such as environmental impact assessment, sustainable land use planning, environmental protection and visitor impact management. Good practice and guidelines which will enable sport managers to integrate their work with these environmental policies are explored. Detailed guidance on design and longer term management and maintenance ...

  4. Larger bases and mixed analog/digital neural nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-31

    The paper overviews results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, and bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on an explicit numerical algorithm for Kolmogorov`s superpositions the authors show that minimum size neural networks--for implementing any Boolean function--have the identity function as the activation function. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.

  5. Influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, K O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Adebayo, A A; Fatusi, A O; Afolabi, O T

    2010-12-01

    Fertility pattern and reproductive behaviours affect infant death in Nigeria. Household food insecurity and poor care practices also place children at risk of morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 423 mothers of under-five children and their children in the households selected through multistage sampling methods. Food-insecure households were five times more likely than secure households to have wasted children (crude OR = 5.707, 95 percent CI = 1.31-24.85). Children with less educated mothers were significantly more likely to be stunted. The prevalence of food insecurity among households in Ile-Ife was high. Households with food insecurity and less educated mothers were more likely to have malnourished children.

  6. Tamanho da amostra para avaliação de famílias de meios-irmãos de milho Sample size for half-sib family evaluation in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWIN CAMACHO PALOMINO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito do número de plantas por parcela na avaliação de famílias de meios-irmãos de milho. Para isso, 25 famílias da população CMS-39 foram avaliadas utilizando um látice 5 x 5 com duas repetições. Cada parcela era constituída por três linhas com 10 m de comprimento. Cada parcela foi subdividida em estratos de 1 m com cinco plantas; associando os estratos contíguos, foi possível obter número de plantas por parcela, que variou de 5 a 135. Utilizando esses diferentes tamanhos de parcelas, foram realizadas 270 análises de variância quanto ao caráter peso da espiga despalhada. A partir dessas análises, foram estimados os parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos com os seus respectivos erros e simulando o ganho esperado com a seleção. Constatou-se que quanto maior o número de plantas, mais precisos foram os experimentos; as parcelas contendo o mesmo número de plantas, porém distribuídos em duas ou três linhas, propiciam maior precisão experimental; o ganho esperado com a seleção decresce com o aumento do número de plantas utilizadas, por parcela.This work had the aim to verify the effect of the number of plants per plot in the evaluation of half-sib families. For that, 25 half-sib families of CMS-39 were evaluated with the experimental design being a simple lattice, 5 x 5, with two replications. Each plot was constituted by three lines with 10 m of length. Each plot was subdivided in sub-plots with five plants, being discarded extremities. Associating the contiguous sub-plots it was possible to simulate 270 variance analyses, with the number of plants per plot varying from 5 to 135. Genetic and phenotypic parameters were estimated with their respective errors. Expected selection response yield was also simulated for each sample size. In this simulation, it was verified that the number of plants per plot affected experimental precision. As larger was the number of plants, more

  7. Larger eggs in resident brown trout living in sympatry with anadromous brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, H.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Freshwater resident brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) in the stream Jorlandaan (southwestern Sweden) had larger eggs (range of actual mean egg wet weights, 65.9-108.5 mg) than both sympatric migratory trout (76.8-84.2 mg) and trout from five other Swedish streams with allopatric resident (23.7-80.1 mg......) or migratory populations (44.5-121.9 mg), after accounting for differences in body size. In Jorlandaan, some resident females even had a larger absolute mean egg weight than any of the migratory females found in the stream Resident trout had low absolute fecundity, and our data suggest that resident females...... in Jorlandan produce large eggs at the expense of their fecundity The extremely large relative egg size in resident Jorlandaan females suggests that the production of large offspring enhances fitness, possibly through increased fry survival....

  8. Action video game players and deaf observers have larger Goldmann visual fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Codina, Charlotte; Bhardwaj, Palvi; Pascalis, Olivier

    2010-03-05

    We used Goldmann kinetic perimetry to compare how training and congenital auditory deprivation may affect the size of the visual field. We measured the ability of action video game players and deaf observers to detect small moving lights at various locations in the central (around 30 degrees from fixation) and peripheral (around 60 degrees ) visual fields. Experiment 1 found that 10 habitual video game players showed significantly larger central and peripheral field areas than 10 controls. In Experiment 2 we found that 13 congenitally deaf observers had significantly larger visual fields than 13 hearing controls for both the peripheral and central fields. Here the greatest differences were found in the lower parts of the fields. Comparison of the two groups showed that whereas VGP players have a more uniform increase in field size in both central and peripheral fields deaf observers show non-uniform increases with greatest increases in lower parts of the visual field.

  9. Larger aftershocks happen farther away: nonseparability of magnitude and spatial distributions of aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Elst, Nicholas; Shaw, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Aftershocks may be driven by stress concentrations left by the main shock rupture or by elastic stress transfer to adjacent fault sections or strands. Aftershocks that occur within the initial rupture may be limited in size, because the scale of the stress concentrations should be smaller than the primary rupture itself. On the other hand, aftershocks that occur on adjacent fault segments outside the primary rupture may have no such size limitation. Here we use high-precision double-difference relocated earthquake catalogs to demonstrate that larger aftershocks occur farther away than smaller aftershocks, when measured from the centroid of early aftershock activity—a proxy for the initial rupture. Aftershocks as large as or larger than the initiating event nucleate almost exclusively in the outer regions of the aftershock zone. This observation is interpreted as a signature of elastic rebound in the earthquake catalog and can be used to improve forecasting of large aftershocks.

  10. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L Caldwell

    Full Text Available Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  11. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  12. Revised age estimates of the Euphrosyne family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, Valerio; Masiero, Joseph R.; Cibulková, Helena; Aljbaae, Safwan; Espinoza Huaman, Mariela

    2015-08-01

    The Euphrosyne family, a high inclination asteroid family in the outer main belt, is considered one of the most peculiar groups of asteroids. It is characterized by the steepest size frequency distribution (SFD) among families in the main belt, and it is the only family crossed near its center by the ν6 secular resonance. Previous studies have shown that the steep size frequency distribution may be the result of the dynamical evolution of the family.In this work we further explore the unique dynamical configuration of the Euphrosyne family by refining the previous age values, considering the effects of changes in shapes of the asteroids during YORP cycle (``stochastic YORP''), the long-term effect of close encounters of family members with (31) Euphrosyne itself, and the effect that changing key parameters of the Yarkovsky force (such as density and thermal conductivity) has on the estimate of the family age obtained using Monte Carlo methods. Numerical simulations accounting for the interaction with the local web of secular and mean-motion resonances allow us to refine previous estimates of the family age. The cratering event that formed the Euphrosyne family most likely occurred between 560 and 1160 Myr ago, and no earlier than 1400 Myr ago when we allow for larger uncertainties in the key parameters of the Yarkovsky force.

  13. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  14. Improving Family Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Improving Family Communications Page Content Article Body How can I ...

  15. HIPAA is larger and more complex than Y2K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempesco, J W

    2000-07-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) is a larger and more complex problem than Y2K ever was. According to the author, the costs associated with a project of such unending scope and in support of intrusion into both information and operational systems of every health care transaction will be incalculable. Some estimate that the administrative simplification policies implemented through HIPAA will save billions of dollars annually, but it remains to be seen whether the savings will outweigh implementation and ongoing expenses associated with systemwide application of the regulations. This article addresses the rules established for electronic data interchange, data set standards for diagnostic and procedure codes, unique identifiers, coordination of benefits, privacy of individual health care information, electronic signatures, and security requirements.

  16. New nonbinary quantum codes with larger distance constructed from BCH codes over 𝔽q2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Yuena; Guo, Luobin

    2017-03-01

    This paper concentrates on construction of new nonbinary quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of narrow-sense imprimitive BCH codes over finite field 𝔽q2 (q ≥ 3 is an odd prime power). By a careful analysis on properties of cyclotomic cosets in defining set T of these BCH codes, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing BCH codes is determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. [S. A. Aly, A. Klappenecker and P. K. Sarvepalli, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 53, 1183 (2007)] for each different code length. Thus families of new nonbinary QECCs are constructed, and the newly obtained QECCs have larger distance than those in previous literature.

  17. The pack size effect: Influence on consumer perceptions of portion sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hieke, Sophie; Palascha, Aikaterini; Jola, Corinne; Wills, Josephine; Raats, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Larger portions as well as larger packs can lead to larger prospective consumption estimates, larger servings and increased consumption, described as 'portion-size effects' and 'pack size effects'. Although related, the effects of pack sizes on portion estimates have received less attention. While

  18. Achievement Flourishes in Larger Classes: Secondary School Students in Most Countries Achieved Better Literacy in Larger Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Abeer A.; Stoet, Gijsbert

    2017-01-01

    There is no consensus among academics about whether children benefit from smaller classes. We analysed the data from the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to test if smaller classes lead to higher performance. Advantages of using this data set are not only its size (478,120 15-year old students in 63 nations) and…

  19. An investigation of the impact of succession planning on the success of small and medium-sized family businesses / Hilton Edwin Nell

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Hilton Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the role that succession planning plays in family businesses in the Sedibeng region of the Gauteng province in South Africa. According to Netsiande (2008:1) family businesses should anticipate, recognise, understand and work pro-actively on issues, learn from other businesses and find their own unique solution.to ensure sustainability. Management succession and succession planning is very important and it has a significant impact on family member...

  20. The cause of larger local magnitude (Mj) in western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, H.; Furumura, T.

    2017-12-01

    The local magnitude of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) scale (Mj) in Japan sometimes show a significant discrepancy between Mw. The Mj is calculated using the amplitude of the horizontal component of ground displacement recorded by seismometers with the natural period of T0=5 s using Katsumata et al. (2004). A typical example of such a discrepancy in estimating Mj was an overestimation of the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake (Mj=7.3, Mw=6.7; hereafter referred to as event T). In this study, we examined the discrepancy between Mj and Mw for recent large earthquakes occurring in Japan.We found that the most earthquakes with larger Mj (>Mw) occur in western Japan while the earthquakes in northern Japan show reasonable Mj (=Mw). To understand the cause of such larger Mj for western Japan earthquakes we examined the strong motion record from the K-NET and KiK-net network for the event T and other earthquakes for reference. The observed ground displacement record from the event T shows a distinctive Love wave packet in tangential motion with a dominant period of about T=5 s which propagates long distances without showing strong dispersions. On the other hand, the ground motions from the earthquakes in northeastern Japan do not have such surface wave packet, and attenuation of ground motion is significant. Therefore, the overestimation of the Mj for earthquakes in western Japan may be attributed to efficient generation and propagation properties of Love wave probably relating to the crustal structure of western Japan. To explain this, we then conducted a numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation using 3D sedimentary layer model (JIVSM; Koketsu et al., 2012) and the source model of the event T. The result demonstrated the efficient generation of Love wave from the shallow strike-slip source which propagates long distances in western Japan without significant dispersions. On the other hand, the generation of surface wave was not so efficient when using a

  1. Groups have a larger cognitive capacity than individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takao; Pratt, Stephen C

    2012-10-09

    Increasing the number of options can paradoxically lead to worse decisions, a phenomenon known as cognitive overload [1]. This happens when an individual decision-maker attempts to digest information exceeding its processing capacity. Highly integrated groups, such as social insect colonies, make consensus decisions that combine the efforts of many members, suggesting that these groups can overcome individual limitations [2-4]. Here we report that an ant colony choosing a new nest site is less vulnerable to cognitive overload than an isolated ant making this decision on her own. We traced this improvement to differences in individual behavior. In whole colonies, each ant assesses only a small subset of available sites, and the colony combines their efforts to thoroughly explore all options. An isolated ant, on the other hand, must personally assess a larger number of sites to approach the same level of option coverage. By sharing the burden of assessment, the colony avoids overtaxing the abilities of its members. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ecological tolerances of Miocene larger benthic foraminifera from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Vibor; Renema, Willem

    2018-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on larger benthic foraminifera (LBF), a quantitative analysis of their assemblage composition is needed. Besides microfacies analysis which includes environmental preferences of foraminiferal taxa, statistical analyses should also be employed. Therefore, detrended correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were performed on relative abundance data of identified LBF assemblages deposited in mixed carbonate-siliciclastic (MCS) systems and blue-water (BW) settings. Studied MCS system localities include ten sections from the central part of the Kutai Basin in East Kalimantan, ranging from late Burdigalian to Serravallian age. The BW samples were collected from eleven sections of the Bulu Formation on Central Java, dated as Serravallian. Results from detrended correspondence analysis reveal significant differences between these two environmental settings. Cluster analysis produced five clusters of samples; clusters 1 and 2 comprise dominantly MCS samples, clusters 3 and 4 with dominance of BW samples, and cluster 5 showing a mixed composition with both MCS and BW samples. The results of cluster analysis were afterwards subjected to indicator species analysis resulting in the interpretation that generated three groups among LBF taxa: typical assemblage indicators, regularly occurring taxa and rare taxa. By interpreting the results of detrended correspondence analysis, cluster analysis and indicator species analysis, along with environmental preferences of identified LBF taxa, a palaeoenvironmental model is proposed for the distribution of LBF in Miocene MCS systems and adjacent BW settings of Indonesia.

  3. Males that drop a sexually selected weapon grow larger testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Paul N; Emberts, Zachary; Sasson, Daniel A; Miller, Christine W

    2018-01-01

    Costly sexually selected weapons are predicted to trade off with postcopulatory traits, such as testes. Although weapons can be important for achieving access to females, individuals of some species can permanently drop (i.e. autotomize) their weapons, without regeneration, to escape danger. We capitalized on this natural behavior to experimentally address whether the loss of a sexually selected weapon leads to increased testes investment in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae). In a second experiment, we measured offspring production for males that lost a weapon during development. As predicted, males that dropped a hind limb during development grew significantly larger testes than the control treatments. Hind-limb autotomy did not result in the enlargement of other nearby traits. Our results are the first to experimentally demonstrate that males compensate for natural weapon loss by investing more in testes. In a second experiment we found that females paired with males that lost a hind limb had 40% lower egg hatching success than females paired with intact males, perhaps because of lower mating receptivity to males with a lost limb. Importantly, in those cases where viable offspring were produced, males missing a hind limb produced 42% more offspring than males with intact limbs. These results suggest that the loss of a hind-limb weapon can, in some cases, lead to greater fertilization success. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Human resource management and career planning in a larger library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Gazvoda

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management is presented as a managerial function which is used to develop potential abilities of the employees to achieve organizational goals.Different perception of the employees is essential - people working in the organization are treated as capital and not as an expenditure. In human resource management the most important view of the employees is their potential growth and professional development, training for acquiring new responsibilities and encouragement for innovation. Library management is becoming more and more complex as the result of introducing new technologies. For this reason libraries need well trained people with potentials to modernize library performance and to overcome the conflict between the traditional organizational culture and the requirements of the modem technologically developed environment. The author presents different techniques of active human resource management, which can be used in larger libraries where an appropriate number of employees exists to realize different programmes with. These are programmes for education, staffing,career planning, stimmulation and reward systems, job redefinition and enrichment,and other forms of internal segmentation.

  5. Motivations for childbearing and fertility behavior among urban and rural families of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, F; Kabacoff, R I; Klein, H E

    1983-01-01

    A sample of 384 husbands and wives were randomly selected and interviewed to investigate the implication of fertility norms and motivations for childbearing on fertility and family planning behavior among Iranian families in urban and rural areas of Iran, after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. The term "fertility behavior" refers to actual family size, which is defined as number of children the respondent has living at the time of the interview. "Family planning behavior" refers to the duration of time that the subject has used any birth control method(s). Rural families demonstrated larger actual and ideal family sizes than urban families. The rural sample had a median actual family size of 3.5 children and a median ideal family size of 4.7 children. For the urban sample these figures were 2.2 and 2.3, respectively. The median number of years married was 12.33 for rural and 13.91 for urban respondents. Urban respondents tended to emphasize the psychological and emotional benefits and liabilities associated with having children while rural respondents tended to emphasize both economic and security related motivations. Both groups endorsed infant mortality as a motivation for having more children. Male and female respondents were remarkably similar in their endorsed motivations. There was a significant positive correlation between desired and ideal family size. The correlations among ideal/desired family size and practicing birth control methods were the same and significant at the .001 level. The relationship between motivations for childbearing and years of practicing birth control methods was also significant at the .001 level. Stepwise regression analyses were performed to examine the important predictors of fertility and family planning behavior. For both actual family size and years on birth control, males and females were very similar in terms of predictor importance. Those respondents with less education and large ideal family size tended to have larger

  6. The Caenorhabditis chemoreceptor gene families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Hugh M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of genes encoding chemoreceptors that mediate taste, olfaction, and pheromone responses. The size and diversity of these families reflect the biology of chemoperception in specific species. Results Based on manual curation and sequence comparisons among putative G-protein-coupled chemoreceptor genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified approximately 1300 genes and 400 pseudogenes in the 19 largest gene families, most of which fall into larger superfamilies. In the related species C. briggsae and C. remanei, we identified most or all genes in each of the 19 families. For most families, C. elegans has the largest number of genes and C. briggsae the smallest number, suggesting changes in the importance of chemoperception among the species. Protein trees reveal family-specific and species-specific patterns of gene duplication and gene loss. The frequency of strict orthologs varies among the families, from just over 50% in two families to less than 5% in three families. Several families include large species-specific expansions, mostly in C. elegans and C. remanei. Conclusion Chemoreceptor gene families in Caenorhabditis species are large and evolutionarily dynamic as a result of gene duplication and gene loss. These dynamics shape the chemoreceptor gene complements in Caenorhabditis species and define the receptor space available for chemosensory responses. To explain these patterns, we propose the gray pawn hypothesis: individual genes are of little significance, but the aggregate of a large number of diverse genes is required to cover a large phenotype space.

  7. The Caenorhabditis chemoreceptor gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James H; Robertson, Hugh M

    2008-10-06

    Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of genes encoding chemoreceptors that mediate taste, olfaction, and pheromone responses. The size and diversity of these families reflect the biology of chemoperception in specific species. Based on manual curation and sequence comparisons among putative G-protein-coupled chemoreceptor genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified approximately 1300 genes and 400 pseudogenes in the 19 largest gene families, most of which fall into larger superfamilies. In the related species C. briggsae and C. remanei, we identified most or all genes in each of the 19 families. For most families, C. elegans has the largest number of genes and C. briggsae the smallest number, suggesting changes in the importance of chemoperception among the species. Protein trees reveal family-specific and species-specific patterns of gene duplication and gene loss. The frequency of strict orthologs varies among the families, from just over 50% in two families to less than 5% in three families. Several families include large species-specific expansions, mostly in C. elegans and C. remanei. Chemoreceptor gene families in Caenorhabditis species are large and evolutionarily dynamic as a result of gene duplication and gene loss. These dynamics shape the chemoreceptor gene complements in Caenorhabditis species and define the receptor space available for chemosensory responses. To explain these patterns, we propose the gray pawn hypothesis: individual genes are of little significance, but the aggregate of a large number of diverse genes is required to cover a large phenotype space.

  8. Family planning: the unfinished agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, John; Bernstein, Stan; Ezeh, Alex; Faundes, Anibal; Glasier, Anna; Innis, Jolene

    2006-11-18

    Promotion of family planning in countries with high birth rates has the potential to reduce poverty and hunger and avert 32% of all maternal deaths and nearly 10% of childhood deaths. It would also contribute substantially to women's empowerment, achievement of universal primary schooling, and long-term environmental sustainability. In the past 40 years, family-planning programmes have played a major part in raising the prevalence of contraceptive practice from less than 10% to 60% and reducing fertility in developing countries from six to about three births per woman. However, in half the 75 larger low-income and lower-middle income countries (mainly in Africa), contraceptive practice remains low and fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. The cross-cutting contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals makes greater investment in family planning in these countries compelling. Despite the size of this unfinished agenda, international funding and promotion of family planning has waned in the past decade. A revitalisation of the agenda is urgently needed. Historically, the USA has taken the lead but other governments or agencies are now needed as champions. Based on the sizeable experience of past decades, the key features of effective programmes are clearly established. Most governments of poor countries already have appropriate population and family-planning policies but are receiving too little international encouragement and funding to implement them with vigour. What is currently missing is political willingness to incorporate family planning into the development arena.

  9. Larger groups of passerines are more efficient problem solvers in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand-Ferron, Julie; Quinn, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Group living commonly helps organisms face challenging environmental conditions. Although a known phenomenon in humans, recent findings suggest that a benefit of group living in animals generally might be increased innovative problem-solving efficiency. This benefit has never been demonstrated in a natural context, however, and the mechanisms underlying improved efficiency are largely unknown. We examined the problem-solving performance of great and blue tits at automated devices and found that efficiency increased with flock size. This relationship held when restricting the analysis to naive individuals, demonstrating that larger groups increased innovation efficiency. In addition to this effect of naive flock size, the presence of at least one experienced bird increased the frequency of solving, and larger flocks were more likely to contain experienced birds. These findings provide empirical evidence for the “pool of competence” hypothesis in nonhuman animals. The probability of success also differed consistently between individuals, a necessary condition for the pool of competence hypothesis. Solvers had a higher probability of success when foraging with a larger number of companions and when using devices located near rather than further from protective tree cover, suggesting a role for reduced predation risk on problem-solving efficiency. In contrast to traditional group living theory, individuals joining larger flocks benefited from a higher seed intake, suggesting that group living facilitated exploitation of a novel food source through improved problem-solving efficiency. Together our results suggest that both ecological and social factors, through reduced predation risk and increased pool of competence, mediate innovation in natural populations. PMID:21930936

  10. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Messmer, Vanessa

    2016-11-03

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems.

  11. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Vanessa; Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S; Tobin, Andrew J; Coker, Darren J; Cooke, Steven J; Clark, Timothy D

    2017-06-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Messmer, Vanessa; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Hoey, Andrew S.; Tobin, Andrew J.; Coker, Darren James; Cooke, Steven J.; Clark, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems.

  13. In vivo toxicologic study of larger silica nanoparticles in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan WT

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wai-Tao Chan,1–3 Cheng-Che Liu,4 Jen-Shiu Chiang Chiau,5 Shang-Ting Tsai,6 Chih-Kai Liang,6 Mei-Lien Cheng,5 Hung-Chang Lee,7,8 Chun-Yun Yeung,1,3,9 Shao-Yi Hou2,6 1Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, MacKay Children’s Hospital, 2Graduate Institute of Engineering Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 3Mackay Medicine, Nursing, and Management College, 4Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 5Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu, 6Graduate Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, 7Department of Pediatrics, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu, 8Department of Pediatrics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 9Department of Medicine, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs are being studied and used for medical purposes. As nanotechnology grows rapidly, its biosafety and toxicity have frequently raised concerns. However, diverse results have been reported about the safety of SiNPs; several studies reported that smaller particles might exhibit toxic effects to some cell lines, and larger particles of 100 nm were reported to be genotoxic to the cocultured cells. Here, we investigated the in vivo toxicity of SiNPs of 150 nm in various dosages via intravenous administration in mice. The mice were observed for 14 days before blood examination and histopathological assay. All the mice survived and behaved normally after the administration of nanoparticles. No significant weight change was noted. Blood examinations showed no definite systemic dysfunction of organ systems. Histopathological studies of vital organs confirmed no SiNP-related adverse effects. We concluded that 150 nm SiNPs were biocompatible and safe for in vivo use in mice. Keywords: in vivo, mice, silica nanoparticle, nanotoxicity

  14. Larger than life: billboard communication in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, B

    1983-01-01

    Billboards are widely used in Southeast Asia, and especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, for delivering persuasive political and commercial messages and for advertising the cinema. Billboards are a cost effective way of communicating with all segments of society including illiterate persons, poor people who cannot afford television sets and radios, rural populations, and diverse ethnic and linguistic groups. Billboards are a form of applied art and are used to deliver temporary messages. Each country has its own billboard traditions and styles, and within each country, commercial, cinema, and political boards also have their own styles. In Indonesia and Thailand, almost all billboards are hand painted and gigantic in size. The paintings are highly realistic and detailed. In Thailand billboards are produced in large studios employing many artists, and the boards cost about US$9.00/square meter or more. The Four Art Studio in Bankok produces commercial boards in Renaissance, Impressionistic, Pop, and Op art styles. Both Indonesia and Thailand were early centers of artistic and cultural influence in Asia, and each country has highly developed art traditions. In Indonesia, the Japanese occupation led to the development of propaganda and nationalistic art. After independence nationalistic art was developed still further. At the present time, socialist-realistism predominates as an art style, and large air brushed political billboards are prominantly displayed throughout the country. In Malaysia and Singapore billboards are small in size. Most of the boards, except those used to advertise the cinema, are printed rather than painted. Neither country has a strong tradition of art. Realism is not stressed in their fine arts nor in their art training. The lack of a realistic art tradition probably accounts for the emphasis placed on printed billboards. Cinema boards are painted but they are not produced by applied artists and are generally mediocre in

  15. Comparison between smaller ruptured intracranial aneurysm and larger un-ruptured intracranial aneurysm: gene expression profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Li, Haowen; Yue, Haiyan; Wang, Wen; Yu, Lanbing; ShuoWang; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Jizong

    2017-07-01

    As it grows in size, an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is prone to rupture. In this study, we compared two extreme groups of IAs, ruptured IAs (RIAs) smaller than 10 mm and un-ruptured IAs (UIAs) larger than 10 mm, to investigate the genes involved in the facilitation and prevention of IA rupture. The aneurismal walls of 6 smaller saccular RIAs (size smaller than 10 mm), 6 larger saccular UIAs (size larger than 10 mm) and 12 paired control arteries were obtained during surgery. The transcription profiles of these samples were studied by microarray analysis. RT-qPCR was used to confirm the expression of the genes of interest. In addition, functional group analysis of the differentially expressed genes was performed. Between smaller RIAs and larger UIAs, 101 genes and 179 genes were significantly over-expressed, respectively. In addition, functional group analysis demonstrated that the up-regulated genes in smaller RIAs mainly participated in the cellular response to metal ions and inorganic substances, while most of the up-regulated genes in larger UIAs were involved in inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. Moreover, compared with control arteries, inflammation was up-regulated and muscle-related biological processes were down-regulated in both smaller RIAs and larger UIAs. The genes involved in the cellular response to metal ions and inorganic substances may facilitate the rupture of IAs. In addition, the healing process, involving inflammation and ECM organization, may protect IAs from rupture.

  16. Only half right: species with female-biased sexual size dimorphism consistently break Rensch's rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Webb

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Most animal species display Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD: males and females consistently attain different sizes, most frequently with females being larger than males. However the selective mechanisms driving patterns of SSD remain controversial. 'Rensch's rule' proposes a general scaling phenomenon for all taxa, whereby SSD increases with average body size when males are larger than females, and decreases with body size when females are larger than males. Rensch's rule appears to be general in the former case, but there is little evidence for the rule when females are larger then males.Using comprehensive data for 1291 species of birds across 30 families, we find strong support for Rensch's rule in families where males are typically larger than females, but no overall support for the rule in families with female-biased SSD. Reviewing previous studies of a broad range of taxa (arthropods, reptiles, fish and birds showing predominantly female-biased SSD, we conclude that Rensch's conjecture is the exception rather than the rule in such species.The absence of consistent scaling of SSD in taxa with female-biased SSD, the most prevalent direction of dimorphism, calls into question previous general evolutionary explanations for Rensch's rule. We propose that, unlike several other ecological scaling relationships, Rensch's rule does not exist as an independent scaling phenomenon.

  17. Application of small panel damping measurements to larger walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Mardi C.; Godfrey, Richard; Babcock, G. Madison

    1996-05-01

    Damping properties of a viscoelastic material were determined using a standard resonant beam technique. The damping material was then applied to 1 by 2 foot gypsum panels in a constrained layer construction. Damping loss factors in panels with and without the constrained layer were determined based on reverberation times after excitation at third-octave band center frequencies. The constrained damping layer had been designed to increase damping by an order of magnitude above that of a single gypsum panel at 2000 Hz; however, relative to a gypsum panel of the same overall thickness as the panel with the constrained layer, loss factors increased only by a factor of three to five. Next modal damping loss factors in 9 by 14 foot gypsum single and double walls were calculated from the experimentally determined quality factor for each modal resonance. Results showed that below 2500 Hz, modes in 1 by 2 foot gypsum panels had nearly the same damping loss factors as modes in a 9 by 14 foot gypsum wall of the same thickness; however, loss factors for the wall were an order of magnitude lower than those of the 1 by 2 foot panels at frequencies above 2500 Hz, the coincidence frequency for 5/8-inch thick gypsum plates. Thus it was inconclusive whether or not damping loss factors measured using small panels could be used to estimate the effect of a constrained damping layer on transmission loss through a 9 by 14 foot wall unless boundary conditions and modal frequencies were the same for each size.

  18. Strategies to address management challenges in larger intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlakala, M C; Bezuidenhout, M C; Botha, A D H

    2015-10-01

    To illustrate the need for and suggest strategies that will enhance sustainable management of a large intensive care unit (ICU). The challenges faced by intensive care nursing in South Africa are well documented. However, there appear to be no strategies available to assist nurses to manage large ICUs or for ICU managers to deal with problems as they arise. Data sources to illustrate the need for strategies were challenges described by ICU managers in the management of large ICUs. A purposive sample of managers was included in individual interviews during compilation of evidence regarding the challenges experienced in the management of large ICUs. The challenges were presented at the Critical Care Society of Southern Africa Congress held on 28 August to 2 September 2012 in Sun City North-West province, South Africa. Five strategies are suggested for the challenges identified: divide the units into sections; develop a highly skilled and effective nursing workforce to ensure delivery of quality nursing care; create a culture to retain an effective ICU nursing team; manage assets; and determine the needs of ICU nurses. ICUs need measures to drive the desired strategies into actions to continuously improve the management of the unit. Future research should be aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the strategies identified. This research highlights issues relating to large ICUs and the strategies will assist ICU managers to deal with problems related to large unit sizes, shortage of trained ICU nurses, use of agency nurses, shortage of equipment and supplies and stressors in the ICU. The article will make a contribution to the body of nursing literature on management of ICUs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Impacto del tamaño de las familias afiliadas al Seguro Popular de Salud de México, experiencia 2004-2006 Impact of size of families in Mexico's Popular Health Insurance Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique Pérez-Salvador

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar el tamaño promedio de las familias del Seguro Popular de Salud (SPS e identificar las variables que mejor predicen la afiliación unipersonal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se comparan tamaños promedios de familias según los Padrones 2004 a 2006 del SPS y otras fuentes. Se ajustan modelos logísticos para identificar las variables explicativas de la afiliación como familia unipersonal. RESULTADOS: Las familias del SPS en promedio tienen un miembro menos respecto de otras fuentes. Los modelos logísticos indican que cuanto más reciente es el año de afiliación tanto mayor es la probabilidad de afiliarse como familia unipersonal CONCLUSIONES: El menor número de miembros por familia afiliada implica un sobrefinanciamiento al SPS. Se recomienda cambiar la unidad de financiamiento hacia la persona, para apoyar el sostenimiento financiero y operativo del SPS en el mediano y largo plazos.OBJECTIVE: To compare the average size of families affiliated with Popular Health Insurance (SPS, abbrev. in Spanish and identify variables that best predict single-person affiliation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Average sizes of families in the SPS are compared using 2004-2006 enrollment records and other sources. Logistic models are used to identify explanatory variables for affiliation as a single-person family. RESULTS: SPS families on average are composed of one member less in comparison with other sources. The logistic models indicate that the more recent the affiliation year the more probable is affiliation as a single-person family. CONCLUSIONS: The smaller number of family members implies an over-financing by the SPS. It is recommended to change the unit of financing to the individual to help the operational and financial sustainability of the SPS over the mid- to long-term.

  20. Stereotactic Radiosurgery with Neoadjuvant Embolization of Larger Arteriovenous Malformations: An Institutional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Dalyai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the safety and efficacy of a multimodality approach combining staged endovascular embolizations with subsequent SRS for the management of larger AVMs. Methods. Ninety-five patients with larger AVMs were treated with staged endovascular embolization followed by SRS between 1996 and 2011. Results. The median volume of AVM in this series was 28 cm3 and 47 patients (48% were Spetzler-Martin grade IV or V. Twenty-seven patients initially presented with hemorrhage. Sixty-one patients underwent multiple embolizations while a single SRS session was performed in 64 patients. The median follow-up after SRS session was 32 months (range 9–136 months. Overall procedural complications occurred in 14 patients. There were 13 minor neurologic complications and 1 major complication (due to embolization while four patients had posttreatment hemorrhage. Thirty-eight patients (40% were cured radiographically. The postradiosurgery actuarial rate of obliteration was 45% at 5 years, 56% at 7 years, and 63% at 10 years. In multivariate analysis, larger AVM size, deep venous drainage, and the increasing number of embolization/SRS sessions were negative predictors of obliteration. The number of embolizations correlated positively with the number of stereotactic radiosurgeries (P<0.005. Conclusions. Multimodality endovascular and radiosurgical approach is an efficacious treatment strategy for large AVM.

  1. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner's linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner's ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language.

  2. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseline Interferometry project at JPL. "Observations of cosmic masers -- naturally-occurring microwave radio amplifiers -- will tell us new things about the process of star formation and activity in the heart of other galaxies." "By the 1980s, radio astronomers were observing the universe with assemblages of radio telescopes whose resolving power was limited only by the size of the Earth. Now, through a magnificent international effort, we will be able to break this barrier and see fine details of celestial objects that are beyond the reach of a purely ground-based telescope array. We anticipate a rich harvest of new scientific knowledge from VSOP," said Dr. Paul Vanden Bout, Director of NRAO. In the first weeks after launch, scientists and engineers will "test the deployment of the reflecting mesh telescope in orbit, the wide-band data link from the satellite to the ground, the performance of the low noise amplifiers in orbit, and the high-precision orbit determination and attitude control necessary for VLBI observations with an orbiting telescope," according to Dr. Joel Smith, manager of the U.S. Space VLBI project at JPL. Scientific observations are expected to begin in May. The 26-foot diameter orbiting radio telescope will observe celestial radio sources in concert with a number of the world's ground-based radio telescopes. The 1,830-pound satellite will be launched from ISAS' Kagoshima Space Center, at the southern tip of Kyushu, one of Japan's main islands, and will be the first launch with ISAS' new M-5 series rocket. The satellite will go into an elliptical orbit, varying between 620 to 12,400 miles above the Earth's surface. This orbit provides a wide range of distances between the satellite and ground-based telescopes, which is important for producing a high-quality image of the radio source being observed. One orbit of the Earth will take about six hours. The satellite's observations will concentrate on some of the most distant and intriguing objects in the

  3. Familial macrocephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuno, Masaru; Hayashi, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko

    1984-01-01

    We reported 63 macrocephalic children with special emphasis on 16 cases with familial macrocephaly. Of the 16 children with familial macrocephaly, 13 were boys. Foureen parents (13 fathers and 1 mother) had head sizes above 98th percentile. Three of 5 brothers and 5 of 8 sisters also had large heads. The head circumference at birth was known for 14 of the children and it was above the 98th percentile in 7 patients. Subsequent evaluations have shown the head size of these children to be following a normal growth curve. Some of the children were hypotonic as infants, but their development was generally normal. CT scans usually clearly distinguished these children from those with hydorocephalus. The familial macrocephalic children had ventricular measurements which were within the normal range, but absolute measurements of the ventricular size may be misleading, because the CT appearance was of mildly dilated ventricles in half of them. (author)

  4. Implantation and 30-Day Follow-Up on All 4 Valve Sizes Within the Portico Transcatheter Aortic Bioprosthetic Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllmann, Helge; Linke, Axel; Holzhey, David M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term safety and performance of the full range of valve sizes offered within the Portico transcatheter aortic valve replacement system. BACKGROUND: The Portico transcatheter aortic heart valve is a fully resheathable, repositionable.......8% of patients improved by ≥1 New York Heart Association functional class at 30 days. The rate of moderate paravalvular leak was 5.7%, with no severe paravalvular leak reported. No differences in paravalvular leak incidence and severity were observed among valve sizes (p = 0.24). CONCLUSIONS: Across all valve...... sizes, use of the repositionable Portico transcatheter aortic valve replacement system resulted in safe and effective treatment of aortic stenosis in high-risk patients....

  5. The quest for small family size among Pakistani women--is voluntary termination of pregnancy a matter of choice or necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Sarah; Fikree, Fariyal F

    2005-07-01

    To present the socio-biologic predictors of induced abortion among married women residing in low income squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three squatter settlements of Karachi from June to August 1997. Interviews were conducted on 1,214 married women assessing past pregnancy history, literacy and employment status of self and spouse and specifically probing for past history of seeking an induced abortion. Fifty women reported an induced abortion during last three years prior to survey. Of these, forty percent (20/50) of abortion seekers were using some method of family planning before conceiving the index pregnancy. Post abortion family planning method use was adopted by 50% (25/50) of the abortion seekers. The most parsimonious multivariate logistic regression model included grand-multigravidity (OR 2.6 CI, 1.3 - 5.2), literate status of the woman (OR 1.9 CI, 1.0 - 3.4) and the 26-35 age group (OR 3.0 CI, 1.4 - 6.6). Unplanned/mistimed pregnancies generally result from high unmet need and ineffective use of contraceptives and culminate through induced abortions. We propose that improvement in the quality of family planning counseling should be targeted to effective use of a method, back-up support in case of method failure and the health consequences of unsafe abortions.

  6. Beyond Panglossian Optimism: Larger N2 Amplitudes Probably Signal a Bilingual Disadvantage in Conflict Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Paap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue on the brain mechanisms that lead to cognitive benefits of bilingualism we discussed six reasons why it will be very difficult to discover those mechanisms. Many of these problems apply to the article by Fernandez, Acosta, Douglass, Doshi, and Tartar that also appears in the special issue. These concerns include the following: 1 an overly optimistic assessment of the replicability of bilingual advantages in behavioral studies, 2 reliance on risky small samples sizes, 3 failures to match the samples on demographic characteristics such as immigrant status, and 4 language group differences that occur in neural measures (i.e., N2 amplitude, but not in the behavioral data. Furthermore the N2 amplitude measure in general suffers from valence ambiguity: larger N2 amplitudes reported for bilinguals are more likely to reflect poorer conflict resolution rather than enhanced inhibitory control.

  7. Imaging samples larger than the field of view: the SLS experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Lovric, Goran; Cremona, Tiziana P.; Arcadu, Filippo; Patera, Alessandra; Schittny, Johannes C.; Stampanoni, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Volumetric datasets with micrometer spatial and sub-second temporal resolutions are nowadays routinely acquired using synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM). Although SRXTM technology allows the examination of multiple samples with short scan times, many specimens are larger than the field-of-view (FOV) provided by the detector. The extension of the FOV in the direction perpendicular to the rotation axis remains non-trivial. We present a method that can efficiently increase the FOV merging volumetric datasets obtained by region-of-interest tomographies in different 3D positions of the sample with a minimal amount of artefacts and with the ability to handle large amounts of data. The method has been successfully applied for the three-dimensional imaging of a small number of mouse lung acini of intact animals, where pixel sizes down to the micrometer range and short exposure times are required.

  8. Larger fig wasps are more careful about which figs to enter--with good reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Da-Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Peng, Yan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Floral longevity reflects a balance between gains in pollinator visitation and the costs of flower maintenance. Because rewards to pollinators change over time, older flowers may be less attractive, reducing the value of extended longevity. Un-pollinated figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species, can remain receptive for long periods, but figs that are older when entered by their host-specific fig wasp pollinators produce fewer seeds and fig wasp offspring. Our field experiments with Ficushispida, a dioecious fig tree, examined how the length of time that receptive figs have remained un-pollinated influences the behaviour and reproductive success of its short-lived fig wasp pollinator, Ceratosolensolmsi marchali. The results were consistent in three different seasons, and on male and female trees, although receptivity was greatly extended during colder months. Pollinators took longer to find the ostioles of older figs, and longer to penetrate them. They also became increasingly unwilling to enter figs as they aged, and increasing numbers of the wasps became trapped in the ostiolar bracts. Larger individuals were particularly unwilling to enter older figs, resulting in older figs being pollinated by smaller wasps. On female trees, where figs produce only seeds, seed production declined rapidly with fig age. On male trees, the numbers and size of fig wasp offspring declined, and a higher proportion were male. Older male figs are harder to enter, especially for larger individuals, and offer poorer quality oviposition opportunities. This study opens an interesting new perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators, especially factors influencing pollinator body size and emphasises the subtleties of interactions between mutualists.

  9. A Mathematical Model for Scheduling a Batch Processing Machine with Multiple Incompatible Job Families, Non-identical Job dimensions, Non-identical Job sizes, Non-agreeable release times and due dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramaniam, M; Mathirajan, M

    2013-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem scheduling a batch processing machine with multiple incompatible job families, non-identical job dimensions, non-identical job sizes and non-agreeable release dates to minimize makespan. The research problem is solved by proposing a mixed integer programming model that appropriately takes into account the parameters considered in the problem. The proposed is validated using a numerical example. The experiment conducted show that the model can pose significant difficulties in solving the large scale instances. The paper concludes by giving the scope for future work and some alternative approaches one can use for solving these class of problems.

  10. Smart Moves: Effects of Relative Brain Size on Establishment Success of Invasive Amphibians and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Joshua J.; Tingley, Reid; Shine, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Brain size relative to body size varies considerably among animals, but the ecological consequences of that variation remain poorly understood. Plausibly, larger brains confer increased behavioural flexibility, and an ability to respond to novel challenges. In keeping with that hypothesis, successful invasive species of birds and mammals that flourish after translocation to a new area tend to have larger brains than do unsuccessful invaders. We found the same pattern in ectothermic terrestrial vertebrates. Brain size relative to body size was larger in species of amphibians and reptiles reported to be successful invaders, compared to species that failed to thrive after translocation to new sites. This pattern was found in six of seven global biogeographic realms; the exception (where relatively larger brains did not facilitate invasion success) was Australasia. Establishment success was also higher in amphibian and reptile families with larger relative brain sizes. Future work could usefully explore whether invasion success is differentially associated with enlargement of specific parts of the brain (as predicted by the functional role of the forebrain in promoting behavioural flexibility), or with a general size increase (suggesting that invasion success is facilitated by enhanced perceptual and motor skills, as well as cognitive ability). PMID:21494328

  11. Smart moves: effects of relative brain size on establishment success of invasive amphibians and reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J Amiel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain size relative to body size varies considerably among animals, but the ecological consequences of that variation remain poorly understood. Plausibly, larger brains confer increased behavioural flexibility, and an ability to respond to novel challenges. In keeping with that hypothesis, successful invasive species of birds and mammals that flourish after translocation to a new area tend to have larger brains than do unsuccessful invaders. We found the same pattern in ectothermic terrestrial vertebrates. Brain size relative to body size was larger in species of amphibians and reptiles reported to be successful invaders, compared to species that failed to thrive after translocation to new sites. This pattern was found in six of seven global biogeographic realms; the exception (where relatively larger brains did not facilitate invasion success was Australasia. Establishment success was also higher in amphibian and reptile families with larger relative brain sizes. Future work could usefully explore whether invasion success is differentially associated with enlargement of specific parts of the brain (as predicted by the functional role of the forebrain in promoting behavioural flexibility, or with a general size increase (suggesting that invasion success is facilitated by enhanced perceptual and motor skills, as well as cognitive ability.

  12. Smart moves: effects of relative brain size on establishment success of invasive amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Joshua J; Tingley, Reid; Shine, Richard

    2011-04-06

    Brain size relative to body size varies considerably among animals, but the ecological consequences of that variation remain poorly understood. Plausibly, larger brains confer increased behavioural flexibility, and an ability to respond to novel challenges. In keeping with that hypothesis, successful invasive species of birds and mammals that flourish after translocation to a new area tend to have larger brains than do unsuccessful invaders. We found the same pattern in ectothermic terrestrial vertebrates. Brain size relative to body size was larger in species of amphibians and reptiles reported to be successful invaders, compared to species that failed to thrive after translocation to new sites. This pattern was found in six of seven global biogeographic realms; the exception (where relatively larger brains did not facilitate invasion success) was Australasia. Establishment success was also higher in amphibian and reptile families with larger relative brain sizes. Future work could usefully explore whether invasion success is differentially associated with enlargement of specific parts of the brain (as predicted by the functional role of the forebrain in promoting behavioural flexibility), or with a general size increase (suggesting that invasion success is facilitated by enhanced perceptual and motor skills, as well as cognitive ability).

  13. Birth control necessary to limit family size in tribal couples with aberrant heterosis of G-6-PD deficiency and sickle cell disorders in India: an urgency of creating awareness and imparting genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgir, R S

    2010-06-01

    (i) To study the outcome of ignorance and lack of awareness about sickle cell disease and G-6-PD deficiency among Dhelki Kharia tribal families of Orissa, and (ii) to study the reproductive output in relation to clinical genetics and patho-physiological implications. A random genetic study of screening for hemoglobinopathies and G-6-PD deficiency among Dhelki Kharia tribal community in Sundargarh district of Orissa was carried out for intervention during the year 2000-2004. A total of 81 Dhelki Kharia families were screened and six families with double heterozygosity for above genetic anomalies were encountered. About 2-3 ml. intravenous blood samples were collected in EDTA by disposable syringes and needles after taking informed consent from each individual in the presence of a doctor and community leaders and sent to laboratory at Bhubaneswar for hematological investigations. Analysis was carried out following the standard procedures after cross checking for quality control. There were 12 (about 52%) children out of 23 who were either suffering from sickle cell trait or disease in concurrence with G-6-PD deficiency in hemizygous/heterozygous/homozygous condition in Dhelki Kharia tribal community of Orissa. There were on an average 3.83 number of surviving (range 2-6) children per mother in families of G-6-PD deficiency and sickle cell disorders. The average number of children (3.83) born (range 2-6 children) per mother to carrier/affected mother was much higher than the average for India (2.73). It is very difficult to maintain the normal health of an affected child with aberrant anomalies due to exorbitant cost of treatment, frequent transfusions and huge involvement of economy. One of the implications of aberrant heterosis is its adverse affects on routine individual physiology and hard activities. It is suggested to limit the family size in carrier couples to avoid aberrant heterosis of hereditary hemolytic disorders in their offsprings.

  14. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Jose V., E-mail: josev.mathew@gmail.com; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ∼16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ∼20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs. -- Highlights: • An improved permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) design with larger good field region is proposed. • We investigate four PMQ designs, including the widely used Halbach and bullet nosed designs. • Analytical calculations are backed by 2D as well as 3D numerical solvers, PANDIRA and RADIA. • The optimized 16 segment rectangular PMQ design is identified to exhibit the largest good field region. • The effect of easy axis orientation

  15. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ∼16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ∼20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs. -- Highlights: • An improved permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) design with larger good field region is proposed. • We investigate four PMQ designs, including the widely used Halbach and bullet nosed designs. • Analytical calculations are backed by 2D as well as 3D numerical solvers, PANDIRA and RADIA. • The optimized 16 segment rectangular PMQ design is identified to exhibit the largest good field region. • The effect of easy axis orientation

  16. Why droplet dimension can be larger than, equal to, or smaller than the nanowire dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S. Noor

    2009-11-01

    Droplets play central roles in the nanowire (NW) growth by vapor phase mechanisms. These mechanisms include vapor-liquid-solid (VLS), vapor-solid-solid or vapor-solid (VSS), vapor-quasisolid-solid or vapor-quasiliquid-solid (VQS), oxide-assisted growth (OAG), and self-catalytic growth (SCG) mechanisms. Fundamentals of the shape, size, characteristics, and dynamics of droplets and the impacts of them on the NW growth, have been studied. The influence of growth techniques, growth parameters (e.g., growth temperature, partial pressure, gas flow rates, etc.), thermodynamic conditions, surface and interface energy, molar volume, chemical potentials, etc. have been considered on the shapes and sizes of droplets. A model has been presented to explain why droplets can be larger than, equal to, or smaller than the associated NWs. Various growth techniques have been analyzed to understand defects created in NWs. Photoluminescence characteristics have been presented to quantify the roles of droplets in the creation of NW defects. The study highlights the importance of the purity of the droplet material. It attests to the superiority of the SCG mechanism, and clarifies the differences between the VSS, VQS, VLS, and SCG mechanisms. It explains why droplets produced by some mechanisms are visible but droplets produced by some other mechanisms are not visible. It elucidates the formation mechanisms of very large and very small droplets, and discusses the ground rules for droplets creating necked NWs. It puts forth reasons to demonstrate that very large droplets may not behave as droplets.

  17. Is a larger refuge always better? Dispersal and dose in pesticide resistance evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Takehiko; Sudo, Masaaki; Andow, David A

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of resistance against pesticides is an important problem of modern agriculture. The high-dose/refuge strategy, which divides the landscape into treated and nontreated (refuge) patches, has proven effective at delaying resistance evolution. However, theoretical understanding is still incomplete, especially for combinations of limited dispersal and partially recessive resistance. We reformulate a two-patch model based on the Comins model and derive a simple quadratic approximation to analyze the effects of limited dispersal, refuge size, and dominance for high efficacy treatments on the rate of evolution. When a small but substantial number of heterozygotes can survive in the treated patch, a larger refuge always reduces the rate of resistance evolution. However, when dominance is small enough, the evolutionary dynamics in the refuge population, which is indirectly driven by migrants from the treated patch, mainly describes the resistance evolution in the landscape. In this case, for small refuges, increasing the refuge size will increase the rate of resistance evolution. Our analysis distils major driving forces from the model, and can provide a framework for understanding directional selection in source-sink environments. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. The 'Natural Laboratory', a tool for deciphering growth, lifetime and population dynamics in larger benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The shells of symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) represent the response to physiological requirements in dependence of environmental conditions. All compartments of the shell such as chambers and chamberlets accommodate the growth of the cell protoplasm and are adaptations for housing photosymbiotic algae. Investigations on the biology of LBF were predominantly based on laboratory studies. The lifetime of LBF under natural conditions is still unclear. LBF, which can build >100 chambers during their lifetime, are thought to live at least one year under natural conditions. This is supported by studies on population dynamics of eulittoral foraminifera. In species characterized by a time-restricted single reproduction period the mean size of specimens increases from small to large during lifetime simultaneously reducing individual number. This becomes more complex when two or more reproduction times are present within a one-year cycle leading to a mixture of abundant small individuals with few large specimens during the year, while keeping mean size more or less constant. This mixture is typical for most sublittoral megalospheric (gamonts or schizonts) LBF. Nothing is known on the lifetime of agamonts, the diploid asexually reproducing generation. In all hyaline LBF it is thought to be significantly longer than 1 year based on the large size and considering the mean chamber building rate of the gamont/schizonts. Observations on LBF under natural conditions have not been performed yet in the deeper sublittoral. This reflects the difficulties due to intense hydrodynamics that hinder deploying technical equipment for studies in the natural environment. Therefore, studying growth, lifetime and reproduction of sublittoral LBF under natural conditions can be performed using the so-called 'natural laboratory' in comparison with laboratory investigations. The best sampling method in the upper sublittoral from 5 to 70 m depth is by SCUBA diving. Irregular

  19. “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  20. Stable isotope stratigraphy and larger benthic foraminiferal extinctions in the Melinau Limestone, Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Laura J.; Pearson, Paul N.; Renema, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Important long-ranging groups of larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are known to have become extinct during a period of global cooling and climate disruption at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) but the precise timing and mechanisms are uncertain. Recent study showed unexpectedly that the LBF extinction in Tanzania occurs very close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, as recognised by the extinction of the planktonic foraminiferal Family Hantkeninidae, rather than at the later period of maximum global ice growth and sea-level fall, as previously thought. Here we investigate the same phase of extinction in the Melinau Limestone of Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, Malaysia one of the most complete carbonate successions spanning the Eocene to Lower Miocene. Assemblages of LBF from the Melinau Limestone were studied extensively by Geoffrey Adams during the 1960s-80s, confirming a major extinction during the EOT, but the section lacked independent means of correlation. By analysing rock samples originally studied by Adams and now in the Natural History Museum, London, we provide new bulk stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) records. This enables us to identify, albeit tentatively, the level of maximum stable isotope excursion and show that the LBF extinction event in the Melinau Limestone occurs below this isotope excursion, supporting the results from Tanzania and indicating that the extinction of LBF close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary may be a global phenomenon.

  1. The evolution of body size in extant groups of North American freshwater fishes: speciation, size distributions, and Cope's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knouft, Jason H; Page, Lawrence M

    2003-03-01

    Change in body size within an evolutionary lineage over time has been under investigation since the synthesis of Cope's rule, which suggested that there is a tendency for mammals to evolve larger body size. Data from the fossil record have subsequently been examined for several other taxonomic groups to determine whether they also displayed an evolutionary increase in body size. However, we are not aware of any species-level study that has investigated the evolution of body size within an extant continental group. Data acquired from the fossil record and data derived from the evolutionary relationships of extant species are not similar, with each set exhibiting both strengths and weaknesses related to inferring evolutionary patterns. Consequently, expectation that general trends exhibited in the fossil record will correspond to patterns in extant groups is not necessarily warranted. Using phylogenetic relationships of extant species, we show that five of nine families of North American freshwater fishes exhibit an evolutionary trend of decreasing body size. These trends result from the basal position of large species and the more derived position of small species within families. Such trends may be caused by the invasion of small streams and subsequent isolation and speciation. This pattern, potentially influenced by size-biased dispersal rates and the high percentage of small streams in North America, suggests a scenario that could result in the generation of the size-frequency distribution of North American freshwater fishes.

  2. Microgravity Science Experiment of Marangoni Convection occurred in Larger Liquid Bridge on KIBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Yoda, Shinichi; Tanaka, Tetsuo

    Marangoni convection is a fluid motion induced by local variations of surface tension along a free surface which is caused by temperature and/or concentration differences. Marangoni convection plays important roll in such applications as crystal growth from melt, welding, con-tainerless material processing, and so on. One of the promising techniques to grow a high quality crystal is a floating-zone method which exists cylindrical melting part at heated region. This liquid part like a column is sustained between solid rods and it has free surface on the side. For investigation of Marangoni convection, a liquid bridge configuration with heated top and cooled bottom is often employed to simplify phenomena. Much work has been performed on Marangoni convection in the past, both experimentally and theoretically. Most of the ex-perimental investigations were conducted in normal gravity but some results from microgravity experiments are now available. However, problems to be solved are still remained in scientific view point. The effect of liquid bridge size on critical Marangoni number to determine the onset of oscillatory flow is one of important subjects. To investigate size effect, the experiment with changing wide range of diameter is needed. Under terrestrial conditions, large size of liquid bridge enhances to induce buoyancy convection. Much larger liquid bridge is deformed its shape or finally liquid bridge could not keep between disks because of its self-weight. So, microgravity experiment is required to make clear the size effect and to obtain precise data. We carried out Marangoni experiment under microgravity condition in Japanese Experiment Module "KIBO". A 50 mm diameter liquid bridge was formed and temperature difference between supporting rods was imposed to induce thermocapillary flow. Convective motion was observed in detail using several cameras, infrared camera and temperature sensors. Silicone oil of 5cSt was employed as a working fluid, which Prandtl

  3. Efficiency and Reliability of Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy for Renal Tumors Larger than 4 cm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Özgör

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate safety and efficiency of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for renal tumors larger than 4 cm. Methods: We retrospectivelly evaluated the medical records of 65 patients who underwent laparascopic partial nephrectomy between May 2009 and June 2013 in our clinic. The patients were divided into two groups according to tumor size. Patients with a tumor 4 cm were included in group 1 (n=45 and group 2 (n=20, respectively. Demographic, perioperative and postoperative parameters were compared between the groups. Histopathological examination and surgical margin status were also evaluated. Results: The mean age of the patients was 59.2±10.9 (range: 26- 81 years. The mean tumor size and the mean RENAL nephrometry score were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1. The mean operation time and warm ischemia time were similar between groups but estimated blood loss and transfusion requirement were significantly higher in group 2. Convertion to open surgery was seen two patients in group 2 and one patient in group 1. Only one patient underwent radical nephrectomy for uncontrolled bleeding in group 2. There was no difference in preoperative and 3-month postoperative serum creatinine levels between the groups. The incidence of positive surgical margin was 0% and 5% in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Conclusion: Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for renal tumors is an effective and feasible procedure with acceptable oncologic results. However, tranfusion rate and requiremet of pelvicaliceal system repair were more common in patients with tumor >4 cm. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:30-5

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V. [L.V. Kirensky Institute of Physics SB RAS, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A. [NRC ' Kurchatov Institute,' 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zaikovskiy, V. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Stepanov, S. [S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Artemenko, A. [ICMCB, UPR CNRS 9048, 33608 Pessac cedex (France); Curely, J.; Kliava, J. [LOMA, UMR 5798 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS, 33405 Talence cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe{sup 3+} ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by 'direct' techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curély, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-01-01

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe 3+ ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by “direct” techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization

  6. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curély, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-10-01

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe3+ ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by "direct" techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization studies.

  7. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A James

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.

  8. Family welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  9. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social thermoregulation as a potential mechanism linking sociality and fitness: Barbary macaques with more social partners form larger huddles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Liz A D; Tkaczynski, Patrick J; Lehmann, Julia; Mouna, Mohamed; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2018-04-17

    Individuals with more or stronger social bonds experience enhanced survival and reproduction in various species, though the mechanisms mediating these effects are unclear. Social thermoregulation is a common behaviour across many species which reduces cold stress exposure, body heat loss, and homeostatic energy costs, allowing greater energetic investment in growth, reproduction, and survival, with larger aggregations providing greater benefits. If more social individuals form larger thermoregulation aggregations due to having more potential partners, this would provide a direct link between sociality and fitness. We conducted the first test of this hypothesis by studying social relationships and winter sleeping huddles in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), wherein individuals with more social partners experience greater probability of winter survival. Precipitation and low temperature increased huddle sizes, supporting previous research that huddle size influences thermoregulation and energetics. Huddling relationships were predicted by social (grooming) relationships. Individuals with more social partners therefore formed larger huddles, suggesting reduced energy expenditure and exposure to environmental stressors than less social individuals, potentially explaining how sociality affects survival in this population. This is the first evidence that social thermoregulation may be a direct proximate mechanism by which increased sociality enhances fitness, which may be widely applicable across taxa.

  11. Distribution of living larger benthic foraminifera in littoral environments of the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of larger benthic foraminifera in Recent littoral environment of the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi and Western regions) was investigated with the aim of understanding the response of those foraminifera to an increase in water salinity. For this purpose, 100 sediment samples from nearshore shelf, beach-front, channel, lagoon, and intertidal environment were collected. Sampling was undertaken at a water depth shallower than 15 m in water with a temperature of 22 to 35˚C, a salinity ranging from 40 to 60‰ and a pH of 8. Samples were stained with rose Bengal at the moment of sample collection in order to identify living specimens. The most abundant epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera in the studied area were Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus with less common Spirolina areatina, S. aciculate and Sorites marginalis. The living specimens of the above mentioned species with normal test growing were particularly abundant in the nearshore shelf and lagoonal samples collected on seaweed. Dead specimens were concentrated in the coarser sediments of the beach-front, probably transported from nearby environments. Shallow coastal ponds are located in the upper intertidal zone and have a maximum salinity of 60‰ and contain abundant detached seagrass. Samples collected from these ponds possess a living foraminifera assemblage dominated by Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of Peneroplis presented abnormality in test growth, such as the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test, irregular suture lines and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress mainly caused by high and variable salinity. The unique presence of living epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the pond together with seagrass and continued to live in the pond. This hypothesis is supported by

  12. Prevalence of any size adenomas and advanced adenomas in 40- to 49-year-old individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy because of a family history of colorectal carcinoma in a first-degree relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akshay K; Samadder, Jewel; Elliott, Eric; Sethi, Saurabh; Schoenfeld, Philip

    2011-07-01

    Per current guidelines, patients with a first-degree relative (FDR) with colorectal cancer (CRC) should get screened at least at age 40. Data about the prevalence of adenomas and advanced adenomas (AAs) in these patients are lacking. To examine the prevalence of adenomas and AAs in 40- to 49-year-old individuals undergoing screening colonoscopy for family history of CRC. Retrospective chart review. Asymptomatic patients 40 to 49 years of age undergoing their first screening colonoscopy at the University of Michigan during the period 1999 to 2009 because of an FDR with CRC. Prevalence of adenomas (any size), AAs, and risk factors associated with adenomas. Among 640 study patients, the prevalence of adenomas (any size) was 15.4% and 3.3% for AAs. Adenoma prevalence was lower if the FDR with CRC was younger than 60 years of age versus an FDR with CRC older than 60 years of age (12.4% vs 19%, P = .034). Male sex (odds ratio 2.6; 95% CI, 1.06-4.4) and advancing age (odds ratio 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31) were associated with adenomas. Limited data on risk factor exposure and insufficient sample size to assess risk factors for AAs. Among 40- to 49-year-old patients undergoing screening colonoscopy because of an FDR with CRC, the prevalence of adenomas and AAs is low. Further research should determine whether these individuals have a higher prevalence of adenomas compared with average-risk individuals. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Pavković-Lučić

    Full Text Available Are larger and/or more symmetrical Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae males more successful in matings in nature? Sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster, related to body size and fluctuating asymmetry in wing length and number of sex comb teeth in males, was tested in natural conditions. Males collected in copula were significantly larger than those collected as a single, while no difference in mean number of sex comb teeth between copulating and single males was observed. On the other hand, single males had greater asymmetry both for wing length and number of sex comb teeth than their mating counterparts. It looks like that symmetry of these bilateral traits also may play a role in sexual selection in this dipteran species in nature.

  14. Why borrowers pay premiums to larger lenders: Empirical evidence from sovereign syndicated loans

    OpenAIRE

    Hallak, Issam

    2002-01-01

    All other terms being equal (e.g. seniority), syndicated loan contracts provide larger lending compensations (in percentage points) to institutions funding larger amounts. This paper explores empirically the motivation for such a price design on a sample of sovereign syndicated loans in the period 1990-1997. I find strong evidence that a larger premium is associated with higher renegotiation probability and information asymmetries. It hardly has any impact on the number of lenders though. Thi...

  15. Outcome Evaluation of Family Eats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Debbe; Chen, Tzu-An

    2017-02-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized clinical trial evaluating the eight-session Family Eats web-based intervention promoting healthy home food environments for African American families. African American families ( n = 126) with 8- to 12-year-old children completed online baseline questionnaires and were randomized into intervention or control groups. Data collection occurred at baseline, immediately postintervention (Post 1), and 4 months later (Post 2), for parents and children, separately. There were two group by time intervention effects: Control group parents reported a significantly greater frequency of drinking 100% fruit juice at Post 1 compared with intervention group parents. Parent menu planning skills were significantly higher at Post 2 for the intervention group compared with the control group. Significant positive changes overtime were noted for both groups for home fruit/vegetable availability, food preparation practices, and healthy restaurant selection. Intervention group children reported a significant increase in home juice availability at Post 1 compared with the control group; home fruit availability improved for both groups. There was no difference in log on rates by group: 84% and 86% for those who completed Post 1 and Post 2 measurements, respectively. Sixty-four participants completed the evaluation survey: 17 control (50%) and 47 intervention (51%) participants. All participants reported liking the program components; all but one gave it an A or B grade. An Internet-delivered nutrition intervention for families was successful in achieving change in some mediating variables, with good log on rates. Future research with Family Eats should include larger sample sizes, with longer follow-up and a more objective measure of diet.

  16. Effect of meal size and body size on specific dynamic action and gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

    2013-11-01

    Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the responses reported for other aquatic ectotherms. Therefore, the effects of meal size and animal size on the characteristics of SDA response were investigated in a variety of decapod crustaceans from different families. A 6 fold increase in meal size (0.5%-3% body mass) resulted a pronounced increase in the duration of increased oxygen consumption, resulting in an increase in the SDA of Callinectes sapidus, Cancer gracilis, Hemigrapsus nudus, Homarus americanus, Pugettia producta and Procambarus clarkii. Unlike many other aquatic ectotherms a substantial increase between meal sizes was required, with meal size close to their upper feeding limit (3% body mass), before changes were evident. In many organisms increases in both duration and scope contribute to the overall SDA, here changes in scope as a function of meal size were weak, suggesting that a similar amount of energy is required to upregulate gastric processes, regardless of meal size. The SDA characteristics were less likely to be influenced by the size of the animal, and there was no difference in the SDA (kJ) as a function of size in H. americanus or Cancer irroratus when analysed as mass specific values. In several fish species characteristics of the SDA response are more closely related to the transit times of food, rather than the size of a meal. To determine if a similar trend occurred in crustaceans, the transit rates of different sized meals were followed through the digestive system using a fluoroscope. Although there was a trend towards larger meals taking longer to pass through the gut, this was only statistically significant for P. clarkii. There were some changes in transit times as a function of animal

  17. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances, franchise...

  18. Great tits provided with ad libitum food lay larger eggs when exposed to colder temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, S.V.; Visser, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of nutrients deposited into a bird egg varies both between and within clutches of the same female. Larger eggs enhance offspring traits, but as a tradeoff, laying large eggs also infers energetic costs to the female. Income breeders usually lay larger eggs later in the season, when

  19. Why get big in the cold? Size-fecundity relationships explain the temperature-size rule in a pulmonate snail (Physa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, J

    2015-01-01

    Most ectotherms follow a pattern of size plasticity known as the temperature-size rule where individuals reared in cold environments are larger at maturation than those reared in warm environments. This pattern seems maladaptive because growth is slower in the cold so it takes longer to reach a large size. However, it may be adaptive if reaching a large size has a greater benefit in a cold than in a warm environment such as when size-dependent mortality or size-dependent fecundity depends on temperature. I present a theoretical model showing how a correlation between temperature and the size-fecundity relationship affects optimal size at maturation. I parameterize the model using data from a freshwater pulmonate snail from the genus Physa. Nine families were reared from hatching in one of three temperature regimes (daytime temperature of 22, 25 or 28 °C, night-time temperature of 22 °C, under a 12L:12D light cycle). Eight of the nine families followed the temperature-size rule indicating genetic variation for this plasticity. As predicted, the size-fecundity relationship depended upon temperature; fecundity increases steeply with size in the coldest treatment, less steeply in the intermediate treatment, and shows no relationship with size in the warmest treatment. Thus, following the temperature-size rule is adaptive for this species. Although rarely measured under multiple conditions, size-fecundity relationships seem to be sensitive to a number of environmental conditions in addition to temperature including local productivity, competition and predation. If this form of plasticity is as widespread as it appears to be, this model shows that such plasticity has the potential to greatly modify current life-history theory. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Body Size Shifts in Philippine Reef Fishes: Interfamilial Variation in Responses to Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Y. Fidler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of intense fishing pressure, fished populations experience reduced population sizes and shifts in body size toward the predominance of smaller and early maturing individuals. Small, early-maturing fish exhibit significantly reduced reproductive output and, ultimately, reduced fitness. As part of resource management and biodiversity conservation programs worldwide, no-take marine protected areas (MPAs are expected to ameliorate the adverse effects of fishing pressure. In an attempt to advance our understanding of how coral reef MPAs meet their long-term goals, this study used visual census data from 23 MPAs and fished reefs in the Philippines to address three questions: (1 Do MPAs promote shifts in fish body size frequency distribution towards larger body sizes when compared to fished reefs? (2 Do MPA size and (3 age contribute to the efficacy of MPAs in promoting such shifts? This study revealed that across all MPAs surveyed, the distribution of fishes between MPAs and fished reefs were similar; however, large-bodied fish were more abundant within MPAs, along with small, young-of-the-year individuals. Additionally, there was a significant shift in body size frequency distribution towards larger body sizes in 12 of 23 individual reef sites surveyed. Of 22 fish families, eleven demonstrated significantly different body size frequency distributions between MPAs and fished reefs, indicating that shifts in the size spectrum of fishes in response to protection are family-specific. Family-level shifts demonstrated a significant, positive correlation with MPA age, indicating that MPAs become more effective at increasing the density of large-bodied fish within their boundaries over time.

  1. Recipe Book for Larger Benthic Foraminifera X-ray Investigation: a Process Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgring, E.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    During the past years X-ray microtomography (microCT) has become an essential tool in imaging procedures in micropaleontology. Apart from highest standards in accuracy, well conducted microCT scans aim to resolve the whole specimen in constant quality and free from any artifacts or visual interferences. Normally, to get used to X-ray techniques and get usable results, countless attempts are needed, resulting in enormous waste of time. This work tries to provide an insight into how best exploitable results can be obtained from the scanning process concerning Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). As each specimen features different characteristics regarding substantial composition, density and conservation status, it is impossible and probably erroneous to give standardized guidelines even within this systematic group. Depending on the attributes of the specimen and on the desired visualization, several details have to be taken into account. Samples preparation: to get sharp images the X-ray has to cross the specimen along its shortest diameter, for LBF the equatorial view is almost always the best positioning (not for alveolinids!). The container itself has to be chosen wisely as well; it must not affect a flawless penetration of the specimen by the X-ray and has to provide a high degree of stability. Small plastic pipettes are perfect to store the specimen (or specimens) and some cardboard may help in keeping the position. The nature and quality of the paste used to fixate the object and its container are essential in ensuring a smooth rotation of the specimen which is inevitable for the consistent quality of the image and to avoid vibrations. Scan parameters: beside the correct choice of dedicated filters (which are always different depending on the working station), settings for kv, µA and resolution might have to be revised for each new object to deliver optimal results. Standard values for hyaline forms with empty chambers are normally around 80 Kv and 100 u

  2. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cards One 3-ounce (84 grams) serving of fish is a checkbook One-half cup (40 grams) ... for the smallest size. By eating a small hamburger instead of a large, you will save about 150 calories. ...

  3. Thinking outside the box: effects of modes larger than the survey on matter power spectrum covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putter, Roland de; Wagner, Christian; Verde, Licia; Mena, Olga; Percival, Will J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate power spectrum (or correlation function) covariance matrices are a crucial requirement for cosmological parameter estimation from large scale structure surveys. In order to minimize reliance on computationally expensive mock catalogs, it is important to have a solid analytic understanding of the different components that make up a covariance matrix. Considering the matter power spectrum covariance matrix, it has recently been found that there is a potentially dominant effect on mildly non-linear scales due to power in modes of size equal to and larger than the survey volume. This beat coupling effect has been derived analytically in perturbation theory and while it has been tested with simulations, some questions remain unanswered. Moreover, there is an additional effect of these large modes, which has so far not been included in analytic studies, namely the effect on the estimated average density which enters the power spectrum estimate. In this article, we work out analytic, perturbation theory based expressions including both the beat coupling and this local average effect and we show that while, when isolated, beat coupling indeed causes large excess covariance in agreement with the literature, in a realistic scenario this is compensated almost entirely by the local average effect, leaving only ∼ 10% of the excess. We test our analytic expressions by comparison to a suite of large N-body simulations, using both full simulation boxes and subboxes thereof to study cases without beat coupling, with beat coupling and with both beat coupling and the local average effect. For the variances, we find excellent agreement with the analytic expressions for k −1 at z = 0.5, while the correlation coefficients agree to beyond k = 0.4 hMpc −1 . As expected, the range of agreement increases towards higher redshift and decreases slightly towards z = 0. We finish by including the large-mode effects in a full covariance matrix description for arbitrary survey

  4. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD.

  5. [Research progress of larger flexion gap than extension gap in total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weisong; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-05-01

    To summarize the progress of larger flexion gap than extension gap in total knee arthro-plasty (TKA). The domestic and foreign related literature about larger flexion gap than extension gap in TKA, and its impact factors, biomechanical and kinematic features, and clinical results were summarized. During TKA, to adjust the relations of flexion gap and extension gap is one of the key factors of successful operation. The biomechanical, kinematic, and clinical researches show that properly larger flexion gap than extension gap can improve both the postoperative knee range of motion and the satisfaction of patients, but does not affect the stability of the knee joint. However, there are also contrary findings. So adjustment of flexion gap and extension gap during TKA is still in dispute. Larger flexion gap than extension gap in TKA is a new joint space theory, and long-term clinical efficacy, operation skills, and related complications still need further study.

  6. Purchasing innovations in the construction sector in the Netherlands : a comparison between SMEs and larger companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rijk, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Posterpresentatie Ondernemerschapsmiddag KCO, gehouden op 16 november 2015. Main research question: To what extend does the purchasing activity of incremental and radical innovations of SMEs differ from that of larger companies in the construction sector in the Netherlands?

  7. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  8. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family therapy Overview Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided by a psychologist, ...

  9. Dissolved families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...

  10. Sustainable Sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  11. Size matter!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Jespersen, Andreas Maaløe; Skov, Laurits Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    trash bags according to size of plates and weighed in bulk. Results Those eating from smaller plates (n=145) left significantly less food to waste (aver. 14,8g) than participants eating from standard plates (n=75) (aver. 20g) amounting to a reduction of 25,8%. Conclusions Our field experiment tests...... the hypothesis that a decrease in the size of food plates may lead to significant reductions in food waste from buffets. It supports and extends the set of circumstances in which a recent experiment found that reduced dinner plates in a hotel chain lead to reduced quantities of leftovers....

  12. Mammalian collection on Noah's Ark: the effects of beauty, brain and body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Frynta

    Full Text Available The importance of today's zoological gardens as the so-called "Noah's Ark" grows as the natural habitat of many species quickly diminishes. Their potential to shelter a large amount of individuals from many species gives us the opportunity to reintroduce a species that disappeared in nature. However, the selection of animals to be kept in zoos worldwide is highly selective and depends on human decisions driven by both ecological criteria such as population size or vulnerability and audience-driven criteria such as aesthetic preferences. Thus we focused our study on the most commonly kept and bred animal class, the mammals, and we asked which factors affect various aspects of the mammalian collection of zoos. We analyzed the presence/absence, population size, and frequency per species of each of the 123 mammalian families kept in the worldwide zoo collection. Our aim was to explain these data using the human-perceived attractiveness of mammalian families, their body weight, relative brain size and species richness of the family. In agreement with various previous studies, we found that the body size and the attractiveness of mammals significantly affect all studied components of the mammalian collection of zoos. There is a higher probability of the large and attractive families to be kept. Once kept, these animals are presented in larger numbers in more zoos. On the contrary, the relative mean brain size only affects the primary selection whether to keep the family or not. It does not affect the zoo population size or the number of zoos that keep the family.

  13. Exploring Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among…

  14. Possible Evolution of the Pulsar Braking Index from Larger than Three to About One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, H.; Kou, F. F.

    2017-01-01

    The coupled evolution of pulsar rotation and inclination angle in the wind braking model is calculated. The oblique pulsar tends to align. The pulsar alignment affects its spin-down behavior. As a pulsar evolves from the magneto-dipole radiation dominated case to the particle wind dominated case, the braking index first increases and then decreases. In the early time, the braking index may be larger than three. During the following long time, the braking index is always smaller than three. The minimum braking index is about one. This can explain the existence of a high braking index larger than three and a low braking index simultaneously. The pulsar braking index is expected to evolve from larger than three to about one. The general trend is for the pulsar braking index to evolve from the Crab-like case to the Vela-like case.

  15. Possible Evolution of the Pulsar Braking Index from Larger than Three to About One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, H. [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangzhou University, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Kou, F. F., E-mail: htong_2005@163.com [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011 (China)

    2017-03-10

    The coupled evolution of pulsar rotation and inclination angle in the wind braking model is calculated. The oblique pulsar tends to align. The pulsar alignment affects its spin-down behavior. As a pulsar evolves from the magneto-dipole radiation dominated case to the particle wind dominated case, the braking index first increases and then decreases. In the early time, the braking index may be larger than three. During the following long time, the braking index is always smaller than three. The minimum braking index is about one. This can explain the existence of a high braking index larger than three and a low braking index simultaneously. The pulsar braking index is expected to evolve from larger than three to about one. The general trend is for the pulsar braking index to evolve from the Crab-like case to the Vela-like case.

  16. Macroevolutionary patterns of sexual size dimorphism in copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Andrew G.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Major theories compete to explain the macroevolutionary trends observed in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in animals. Quantitative genetic theory suggests that the sex under historically stronger directional selection will exhibit greater interspecific variance in size, with covariation between allometric slopes (male to female size) and the strength of SSD across clades. Rensch's rule (RR) also suggests a correlation, but one in which males are always the more size variant sex. Examining free-living pelagic and parasitic Copepoda, we test these competing predictions. Females are commonly the larger sex in copepod species. Comparing clades that vary by four orders of magnitude in their degree of dimorphism, we show that isometry is widespread. As such we find no support for either RR or for covariation between allometry and SSD. Our results suggest that selection on both sexes has been equally important. We next test the prediction that variation in the degree of SSD is related to the adult sex ratio. As males become relatively less abundant, it has been hypothesized that this will lead to a reduction in both inter-male competition and male size. However, the lack of such a correlation across diverse free-living pelagic families of copepods provides no support for this hypothesis. By comparison, in sea lice of the family Caligidae, there is some qualitative support of the hypothesis, males may suffer elevated mortality when they leave the host and rove for sedentary females, and their female-biased SSD is greater than in many free-living families. However, other parasitic copepods which do not appear to have obvious differences in sex-based mate searching risks also show similar or even more extreme SSD, therefore suggesting other factors can drive the observed extremes. PMID:25100692

  17. Hektor - an exceptional D-type family among Jovian Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozehnal, J.; Brož, M.; Nesvorný, D.; Durda, D. D.; Walsh, K.; Richardson, D. C.; Asphaug, E.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we analyse Jovian Trojans in the space of suitable resonant elements and we identify clusters of possible collisional origin by two independent methods: the hierarchical clustering and a so-called randombox. Compared to our previous work, we study a twice larger sample. Apart from Eurybates, Ennomos and 1996 RJ families, we have found three more clusters - namely families around asteroids (20961) Arkesilaos, (624) Hektor in the L4 libration zone and (247341) 2001 UV209 in L5. The families fulfill our stringent criteria, I.e. a high statistical significance, an albedo homogeneity and a steeper size-frequency distribution than that of background. In order to understand their nature, we simulate their long term collisional evolution with the Boulder code and dynamical evolution using a modified SWIFT integrator. Within the framework of our evolutionary model, we were able to constrain the age of the Hektor family to be either 1-4 Gyr or, less likely, 0.1-2.5 Gyr, depending on initial impact geometry. Since (624) Hektor itself seems to be a bilobed-shape body with a satellite, I.e. an exceptional object, we address its association with the D-type family and we demonstrate that the moon and family could be created during a single impact event. We simulated the cratering event using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This is also the first case of a family associated with a D-type parent body.

  18. Size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The shakeout in the solar cell and module industry is in full swing. While the number of companies and production locations shutting down in the Western world is increasing, the capacity expansion in the Far East seems to be unbroken. Size in combination with a good sales network has become the key to success for surviving in the current storm. The trade war with China already looming on the horizon is adding to the uncertainties. (orig.)

  19. Niacin extended-release/simvastatin combination therapy produces larger favorable changes in high-density lipoprotein particles than atorvastatin monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth PP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter P Toth1, Kamlesh M Thakker2, Ping Jiang2, Robert J Padley21University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, and CGH Medical Center, Sterling, 2Abbott, Abbott Park, IL, USABackground: The purpose of this research was to compare the effects of niacin extended-release in combination with simvastatin (NER/S versus atorvastatin monotherapy on high-density lipoprotein (HDL particle number and size in patients with hyperlipidemia or dyslipidemia from the SUPREME study.Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of patients (n = 137 who completed the SUPREME study and who had lipid particle number and size measurements at both baseline and at week 12 by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Following ≥4 weeks without lipid-modifying therapy (washout period, the patients received NER/S 1000/40 mg/day for 4 weeks followed by NER/S 2000/40 mg/day for 8 weeks, or atorvastatin 40 mg/day for 12 weeks. Median percent changes in HDL particle number and size from baseline to week 12 were compared between the NER/S and atorvastatin treatment groups using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Distribution of HDL particle subclasses at week 12 was compared between the treatment groups using the Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel test.Results: Treatment with NER/S resulted in a significantly greater percent reduction in small HDL particle number at week 12 compared with atorvastatin monotherapy (-1.8% versus 4.2%, P = 0.014, and a numerically greater percent increase in large HDL particle number (102.4% versus 39.2%, P = 0.078 compared with atorvastatin monotherapy. A significantly greater percent increase in HDL particle size from baseline at week 12 was observed with NER/S compared with atorvastatin (6.0% versus 1.3%, P < 0.001. NER/S treatment also resulted in a significant shift in HDL particle size from small and medium at baseline to large at week 12 (P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Treatment with NER/S resulted in larger favorable changes in number and size of HDL particle

  20. Low local recurrence rate without postmastectomy radiation in node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm and larger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, Scott R.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Raad, Rita Abi; Oswald, Mary J.; Sullivan, Timothy; Strom, Eric A.; Powell, Simon N.; Katz, Angela; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the need for adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with node-negative breast tumors 5 cm or larger. Methods and Materials: Between 1981 and 2002, a total of 70 patients with node-negative breast cancer and tumors 5 cm or larger were treated with mastectomy and adjuvant systemic therapies but without radiotherapy at three institutions. We retrospectively assessed rates and risk factors for locoregional failure (LRF), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) in these patients. Results: With a median follow-up of 85 months, the 5-year actuarial LRF rate was 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 3%-16%). LRF was primarily in the chest wall (4/5 local failures), and lymphatic-vascular invasion (LVI) was statistically significantly associated with LRF risk by the log-rank test (p = 0.017) and in Cox proportional hazards analysis (p 0.038). The 5-year OS and DFS rates were 83% and 86% respectively. LVI was also significantly associated with OS and DFS in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions: This series demonstrates a low LRF rate of 7.6% among breast cancer patients with node-negative tumors 5 cm and larger after mastectomy and adjuvant systemic therapy. Our data indicate that further adjuvant radiation therapy to increase local control may not be indicated by tumor size alone in the absence of positive lymph nodes. LVI was significantly associated with LRF in our series, indicating that patients with this risk factor require careful consideration with regard to further local therapy

  1. Specific Noncovalent Association of Chiral Large-Ring Hexaimines: Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry and PM7 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troć, Anna; Gajewy, Jadwiga; Danikiewicz, Witold; Kwit, Marcin

    2016-09-05

    Ion mobility mass spectrometry and PM7 semiempirical calculations are effective complementary methods to study gas phase formation of noncovalent complexes from vaselike macrocycles. The specific association of large-ring chiral hexaimines, derived from enantiomerically pure trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane and various isophthaldehydes, is driven mostly by CH-π and π-π stacking interactions. The isotrianglimine macrocycles are prone to form two types of aggregates: tail-to-tail and head-to-head (capsule) dimers. The stability of the tail-to-tail dimers is affected by the size and electronic properties of the substituents at the C-5 position of the aromatic ring. Electron-withdrawing groups stabilize the aggregate, whereas bulky or electron-donating groups destabilize the complexes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Employer choices of family premium sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistnes, Jessica Primoff; Morrisey, Michael A; Jensen, Gail A

    2006-03-01

    In 1997, nearly two-thirds of married couples with children under age 18 were dual-earner couples. Such families may have a variety of insurance options available to them. If so, declining a high employee premium contribution may be a mechanism for one spouse to take money wages in lieu of coverage while the other spouse takes coverage rather than high wages. Employers may use these preferences and the size of premium contributions to encourage workers to obtain family coverage through their spouse. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of labor force composition, particularly the proportion of dual-earner couples in the labor market, on the marginal employee premium contribution (marginal EPC) for family coverage. We analyze data from the 1997-2001 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey--Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) List Sample of private establishments. We find strong evidence that the marginal EPC for family coverage is higher when there is a larger concentration of women in the workforce, but only in markets with a higher proportion of dual-earner households.

  3. Framing the Discussion: Elections as Components of Larger Political and Cultural Geographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Larry

    2016-01-01

    It is important to remember that elections are but one piece--albeit an important one--of much larger processes of politics and governance. Moreover, in the United States they are increasingly implicated in the construction of identities and places. What goes on in the course of electoral politics (creating electoral systems and voting districts,…

  4. Larger foraminifera distribution on a mesotrophic carbonate shelf in SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, W.; Troelstra, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Larger symbiont bearing foraminifera typically live in shallow tropical seas. In this study the fauna composition of patch reefs scattered over the Spermonde Shelf (SW Sulawesi, Indonesia), a mesotrophic carbonate shelf, is examined. The foraminiferal fauna of the Spermonde Shelf is characterised by

  5. Larger foraminifera from a relict structure off Karwar western Indian continental margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    of such water masses having been present in the region. Among the larger forms, @iAmphistegina bicirculata, A. radiata@@ var. @ipapillosa@@ and @iOperculina ammonoides@@ indicate mixing, while @iNummulites cumingii@@ and @iBorelis schlumbergeri@@ were relict...

  6. 78 FR 18902 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 [Docket No. CFPB-2013-0005] RIN 3170-AA35... Protection. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for public comment. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau or CFPB) proposes to amend the regulation defining larger participants of certain consumer...

  7. Ventilation efficiency in a low-energy dwelling setting – a parameter study for larger rooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, D.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Cremers, B.E. (Bart)

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical balanced ventilation systems typically is applied in new and renovated dwellings in The Netherlands. The application assumes an adequate ventilation efficiency but this has not been confirmed for larger rooms (e.g. living rooms with kitchen attached). This study investigates ventilation

  8. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Family Meals KidsHealth / For Parents / Family Meals What's in ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  10. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  11. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some have two parents, while others have a single parent. Sometimes there is no parent and grandparents raise grandchildren. Some children live in foster families, adoptive families, or in stepfamilies. Families are much ...

  12. The relations between forest fragmentation and bird community body size and biodiversity and bird community body size.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopman, F.

    2017-01-01

    Bachelor thesis Future Planet Studies, major biologie ABSTRACT Animal species with a larger body-size tend to have larger home ranges than small-bodied animals. Therefore it is likely that they are more affected by habitat fragmentation than small-bodied species. Body size of birds also seems to have a negative relation with species richness. This research has therefore looked into whether birds with a larger body-size are more sensitive to habitat fragmentation caused by forest...

  13. A contribution to radiotherapy of the larger-celled bronchial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoubie, I.

    1982-01-01

    This work consists of a retrospective definition of disease courses of 859 patients with lung tumors and the definition of the survival curves in their dependence on histology, radiation dose and sex. With 721 larger-celled bronchial carcinomas the ratio of men to women was 12:1. The age peak lay between 60 and 70 years. The one/five year survival rate of all included larger-celled bronchial carcinomas (n=701) was, independent from the therapy form, 35.7, resp. 4.78%. The one year/five year survival rates were for the squamous epithelia 31.08/0.58%, for the undifferentiated carcinomas 25.34/3.41%, and for the lung tumors without histology 35.4/5.14%. Lobectomized patients with squamous epithelium carcinoma had in comparison to pneumonectomized patients a clearly higher survival chance. A clearly sex-dependent predisposition for a certain type of carcinoma was not present. (TRV) [de

  14. Impact of Alternative Inputs and Grooming Methods on Large-R Jet Reconstruction in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During Run 1 of the LHC, the optimal reconstruction algorithm for large-$R$ jets in ATLAS, characterized in terms of the ability to discriminate signal from background and robust reconstruction in the presence of pileup, was found to be anti-$k_{t}$ jets with a radius parameter of 1.0, formed from locally calibrated topological calorimeter cell clusters and groomed with the trimming algorithm to remove contributions from pileup and underlying event. Since that time, much theoretical, phenomenological, and experimental work has been performed to improve both the reconstruction of the jet inputs as well as the grooming techniques applied to reconstructed jets. In this work, an inclusive survey of both pileup mitigation algorithms applied to calorimeter cell clusters and grooming algorithms is done to study their pileup stability and ability to identify hadronically decaying W bosons within the ATLAS experiment. It is found that compared to the conventional reconstruction algorithm of large-$R$ trimmed jets form...

  15. Investigation of Larger Poly(α-Methylstyrene) Mandrels for High Gain Designs Using Microencapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Masaru; Cook, Robert; McQuillan, Barry; Gibson, Jane; Paguio, Sally

    2004-01-01

    In recent years we have demonstrated that 2-mm-diameter poly(α-methylstyrene) mandrels meeting indirect drive NIF surface symmetry specifications can be produced using microencapsulation methods. Recently higher gain target designs have been introduced that rely on frequency doubled (green) laser energy and require capsules up to 4 mm in diameter, nominally meeting the same surface finish and symmetry requirements as the existing 2-mm-diameter capsule designs. Direct drive on the NIF also requires larger capsules. In order to evaluate whether the current microencapsulation-based mandrel fabrication techniques will adequately scale to these larger capsules, we have explored extending the techniques to 4-mm-diameter capsules. We find that microencapsulated shells meeting NIF symmetry specifications can be produced, the processing changes necessary to accomplish this are presented here

  16. Selandian-Thanetian larger foraminifera from the lower Jafnayn Formation in the Sayq area (eastern Oman Mountains)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Kiel, J.; Vicedo, V.; Razin, P.; Grelaud, C.

    2016-07-01

    The larger foraminifera of the lower part of the Jafnayn Formation outcropping in the Wadi Sayq, in the Paleocene series of the eastern Oman Mountains, have been studied and described in detail. The analysis have allowed us to develop a detailed systematic description of each taxa, constraining their biostratigraphic distribution and defining the associated foraminifera assemblages. The taxonomic study has permitted us to identify each morphotype precisely and describe three new taxa, namely, Ercumentina sayqensis n. gen. n. sp. Lacazinella rogeri n. sp. and Globoreticulinidae new family. The first assemblage is characterized by the presence of Coskinon sp., Dictyoconus cf. turriculus Hottinger and Drobne, Anatoliella ozalpiensis Sirel, Ercumentina sayqensis n. gen. n. sp. SerraKiel and Vicedo, Lacazinella rogeri n. sp. Serra-Kiel and Vicedo, Mandanella cf. flabelliformis Rahaghi, Azzarolina daviesi (Henson), Lockhartia retiata Sander, Dictyokathina simplex Smout and Miscellanites globularis (Rahaghi). The second assemblage is constituted by the forms Pseudofallotella persica (Hottinger and Drobne), Dictyoconus cf. turriculus Hottinger and Drobne, Lacazinella rogeri n. sp. Serra-Kiel and Vicedo, Azzarolina daviesi (Henson), Keramosphera? cf. iranica Rahaghi, Lockhartia haimei (Davies), Lockhartia retiata Sander, Sakesaria trichilata Sander, Kathina delseota Smout, Elazigina harabekayisensis Sirel, Daviesina khatiyahi Smout, and Miscellanea juliettae Leppig. The first assemblage can be considered to belong to the Shallow Bentic Zone SBZ2 (early Selandian age), and the second assemblage to the SBZ3 (late Selandian-early Thanetian age).This paper shows, for the first time in the Middle East area, a correlation between the Selandian larger foraminifera and planktonic foraminifera biozones. (Author)

  17. Selandian-Thanetian larger foraminifera from the lower Jafnayn Formation in the Sayq area (eastern Oman Mountains)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra-Kiel, J.; Vicedo, V.; Razin, P.; Grelaud, C.

    2016-01-01

    The larger foraminifera of the lower part of the Jafnayn Formation outcropping in the Wadi Sayq, in the Paleocene series of the eastern Oman Mountains, have been studied and described in detail. The analysis have allowed us to develop a detailed systematic description of each taxa, constraining their biostratigraphic distribution and defining the associated foraminifera assemblages. The taxonomic study has permitted us to identify each morphotype precisely and describe three new taxa, namely, Ercumentina sayqensis n. gen. n. sp. Lacazinella rogeri n. sp. and Globoreticulinidae new family. The first assemblage is characterized by the presence of Coskinon sp., Dictyoconus cf. turriculus Hottinger and Drobne, Anatoliella ozalpiensis Sirel, Ercumentina sayqensis n. gen. n. sp. SerraKiel and Vicedo, Lacazinella rogeri n. sp. Serra-Kiel and Vicedo, Mandanella cf. flabelliformis Rahaghi, Azzarolina daviesi (Henson), Lockhartia retiata Sander, Dictyokathina simplex Smout and Miscellanites globularis (Rahaghi). The second assemblage is constituted by the forms Pseudofallotella persica (Hottinger and Drobne), Dictyoconus cf. turriculus Hottinger and Drobne, Lacazinella rogeri n. sp. Serra-Kiel and Vicedo, Azzarolina daviesi (Henson), Keramosphera? cf. iranica Rahaghi, Lockhartia haimei (Davies), Lockhartia retiata Sander, Sakesaria trichilata Sander, Kathina delseota Smout, Elazigina harabekayisensis Sirel, Daviesina khatiyahi Smout, and Miscellanea juliettae Leppig. The first assemblage can be considered to belong to the Shallow Bentic Zone SBZ2 (early Selandian age), and the second assemblage to the SBZ3 (late Selandian-early Thanetian age).This paper shows, for the first time in the Middle East area, a correlation between the Selandian larger foraminifera and planktonic foraminifera biozones. (Author)

  18. Rhizosphere size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov; Razavi, Bahar

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of the soil volume affected by roots - the rhizosphere - is crucial to assess the effects of plants on properties and processes in soils and dynamics of nutrients, water, microorganisms and soil organic matter. The challenges to assess the rhizosphere size are: 1) the continuum of properties between the root surface and root-free soil, 2) differences in the distributions of various properties (carbon, microorganisms and their activities, various nutrients, enzymes, etc.) along and across the roots, 3) temporal changes of properties and processes. Thus, to describe the rhizosphere size and root effects, a holistic approach is necessary. We collected literature and own data on the rhizosphere gradients of a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties: pH, CO2, oxygen, redox potential, water uptake, various nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Fe), organic compounds (glucose, carboxylic acids, amino acids), activities of enzymes of C, N, P and S cycles. The collected data were obtained based on the destructive approaches (thin layer slicing), rhizotron studies and in situ visualization techniques: optodes, zymography, sensitive gels, 14C and neutron imaging. The root effects were pronounced from less than 0.5 mm (nutrients with slow diffusion) up to more than 50 mm (for gases). However, the most common effects were between 1 - 10 mm. Sharp gradients (e.g. for P, carboxylic acids, enzyme activities) allowed to calculate clear rhizosphere boundaries and so, the soil volume affected by roots. The first analyses were done to assess the effects of soil texture and moisture as well as root system and age on these gradients. The most properties can be described by two curve types: exponential saturation and S curve, each with increasing and decreasing concentration profiles from the root surface. The gradient based distribution functions were calculated and used to extrapolate on the whole soil depending on the root density and rooting intensity. We

  19. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    OpenAIRE

    Edelman , Irina; Ivanova , Oxana; Ivantsov , Ruslan; Velikanov , D.; Zabluda , V.; Zubavichus , Y.; Veligzhanin , A.; Zaikovskiy , V.; Stepanov , S.; Artemenko , Alla; Curély , Jacques; Kliava , Janis

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge struct...

  20. Larger error signals in major depression are associated with better avoidance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F eCavanagh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is particularly reactive to signals of error, punishment, and conflict in the service of behavioral adaptation and it is consistently implicated in the etiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD. This association makes conceptual sense, given that MDD has been associated with hyper-reactivity in neural systems associated with punishment processing. Yet in practice, depression-related variance in measures of mPFC functioning often fails to relate to performance. For example, neuroelectric reflections of mediofrontal error signals are often found to be larger in MDD, but a deficit in post-error performance suggests that these error signals are not being used to rapidly adapt behavior. Thus, it remains unknown if depression-related variance in error signals reflects a meaningful alteration in the use of error or punishment information. However, larger mediofrontal error signals have also been related to another behavioral tendency: increased accuracy in avoidance learning. The integrity of this error-avoidance system remains untested in MDD. In this study, EEG was recorded as 21 symptomatic, drug-free participants with current or past MDD and 24 control participants performed a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. Depressed participants had larger mPFC EEG responses to error feedback than controls. The direct relationship between error signal amplitudes and avoidance learning accuracy was replicated. Crucially, this relationship was stronger in depressed participants for high conflict lose-lose situations, demonstrating a selective alteration of avoidance learning. This investigation provided evidence that larger error signal amplitudes in depression are associated with increased avoidance learning, identifying a candidate mechanistic model for hypersensitivity to negative outcomes in depression.

  1. When gains loom larger than losses: reversed loss aversion for small amounts of money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinck, Fieke; Van Dijk, Eric; Van Beest, Ilja; Mersmann, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has generally shown that people are loss averse; that is, they weigh losses more heavily than gains. In a series of three experiments, we found that for small outcomes, this pattern is reversed, and gains loom larger than losses. We explain this reversal on the basis of (a) the hedonic principle, which states that individuals are motivated to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain, and (b) the assumption that small losses are more easily discounted cognitively than large losses are.

  2. Sequencing Larger Intact Proteins (30-70 kDa) with Activated Ion Electron Transfer Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Nicholas M.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2018-01-01

    The analysis of intact proteins via mass spectrometry can offer several benefits to proteome characterization, although the majority of top-down experiments focus on proteoforms in a relatively low mass range (AI-ETD) to proteins in the 30-70 kDa range. AI-ETD leverages infrared photo-activation concurrent to ETD reactions to improve sequence-informative product ion generation. This method generates more product ions and greater sequence coverage than conventional ETD, higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and ETD combined with supplemental HCD activation (EThcD). Importantly, AI-ETD provides the most thorough protein characterization for every precursor ion charge state investigated in this study, making it suitable as a universal fragmentation method in top-down experiments. Additionally, we highlight several acquisition strategies that can benefit characterization of larger proteins with AI-ETD, including combination of spectra from multiple ETD reaction times for a given precursor ion, multiple spectral acquisitions of the same precursor ion, and combination of spectra from two different dissociation methods (e.g., AI-ETD and HCD). In all, AI-ETD shows great promise as a method for dissociating larger intact protein ions as top-down proteomics continues to advance into larger mass ranges. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Historical Carbon Dioxide Emissions Caused by Land-Use Changes are Possibly Larger than Assumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, A.; Sitch, S.; Pongratz, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.; Bayer, A. D.; Bondeau, A.; Calle, L.; Chini, L. P.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere absorbs about 20% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. The overall magnitude of this sink is constrained by the difference between emissions, the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the ocean sink. However, the land sink is actually composed of two largely counteracting fluxes that are poorly quantified: fluxes from land-use change andCO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Dynamic global vegetation model simulations suggest that CO2 emissions from land-use change have been substantially underestimated because processes such as tree harvesting and land clearing from shifting cultivation have not been considered. As the overall terrestrial sink is constrained, a larger net flux as a result of land-use change implies that terrestrial uptake of CO2 is also larger, and that terrestrial ecosystems might have greater potential to sequester carbon in the future. Consequently, reforestation projects and efforts to avoid further deforestation could represent important mitigation pathways, with co-benefits for biodiversity. It is unclear whether a larger land carbon sink can be reconciled with our current understanding of terrestrial carbon cycling. Our possible underestimation of the historical residual terrestrial carbon sink adds further uncertainty to our capacity to predict the future of terrestrial carbon uptake and losses.

  4. Larger miliolids of the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene seen through space and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Ćosović

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal occurrences of the larger (complex miliolids are discussed to give more light on biostratigraphy and paleobiogeographic provinces distribution. Seven generaand 47 species from the Late Cretaceous to Oligocene inhabited shallow marine settings in the Indo-Pacific, Tethyan and Caribbean regions. Of all genera only four (Idalina, Periloculina, Pseudolacazina, Lacazina widespread throughout Tethys in theLate Cretaceous and Paleogene. Single occurrence of Lacazina was recorded further to east (Moluccas. By now the Late Cretaceous genus Adrahentina is known only from the Spain. The newcomer’s Eocene genera were Fabularia and Lacazinella. Fabularia reachedhigh diversity in species term in the Central and Western Tethys and occured as unique genus in Caribbean realm, too. Conversely, during the same period, Lacazinella spread over the southern border of Neo-Tethys reaching New Guinea.On the Adriatic – Dinaric Carbonate Platform, larger miliolids occurred from the Late Cretaceous to Cuisian, having the same biostratigraphically trends and distribution as contemporaneous larger miliolids from the Tethys.

  5. AXIALLY ORIENTED SECTIONS OF NUMMULITIDS: A TOOL TO INTERPRET LARGER BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL DEPOSITS

    OpenAIRE

    Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino

    2012-01-01

    The “critical shear velocity” and “settling velocity” of foraminiferal shells are important parameters for determining hydrodynamic conditions during deposition of Nummulites banks. These can be estimated by determining the size, shape, and density of nummulitid shells examined in axial sections cut perpendicular to the bedding plane. Shell size and shape can be determined directly from the shell diameter and thickness, but density must be calculated indirectly from the thin section. Calculat...

  6. Song repertoire size correlates with measures of body size in Eurasian blackbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Mundry, Roger; Sacher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In most oscine bird species males possess a repertoire of different song patterns. The size of these repertoires is assumed to serve as an honest signal of male quality. The Eurasian blackbird’s (Turdus merula) song contains a large repertoire of different element types with a flexible song...... organisation. Here we investigated whether repertoire size in Eurasian blackbirds correlates with measures of body size, namely length of wing, 8th primary, beak and tarsus. So far, very few studies have investigated species with large repertoires and a flexible song organisation in this context. We found...... positive correlations, meaning that larger males had larger repertoires. Larger males may have better fighting abilities and, thus, advantages in territorial defence. Larger structural body size may also reflect better conditions during early development. Therefore, under the assumption that body size...

  7. Findings from the Families on Track Intervention Pilot Trial for Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Christie L M; Pandolfino, Mary E; Robinson, Luther K

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are at high risk for costly, debilitating mental health problems and secondary conditions, such as school disruption, trouble with the law, and substance use. The study objective was to pilot a multicomponent intervention designed to prevent secondary conditions in children with FASD and improve family adaptation. Thirty children with FASD or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) (ages 4 to 8) and their primary caregivers were enrolled. Families were randomized to either the Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention or an active control of neuropsychological assessment and personalized community referrals. The 30-week intervention integrates scientifically validated bimonthly, in-home parent behavioral consultation, and weekly child skills groups. Outcomes measured at baseline and follow-up postintervention included intervention satisfaction, child emotional and behavioral functioning, child self-esteem, caregiver knowledge of FASD and advocacy, caregiver attitudes, use of targeted parenting practices, perceived family needs met, social support, and self-care. Data analysis emphasized calculation of effect sizes and was supplemented with analysis of variance techniques. Analyses indicated that families participating in the intervention reported high program satisfaction. Relative to comparison group outcomes, the intervention was associated with medium-to-large effects for child emotion regulation, self-esteem, and anxiety. Medium-sized improvements in disruptive behavior were observed for both groups. Medium and large effects were seen for important caregiver outcomes: knowledge of FASD and advocacy, attributions of behavior, use of antecedent strategies, parenting efficacy, family needs met, social support, and self-care. This pilot study yielded promising findings from the multicomponent Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention for child and caregiver outcomes. An important next step is to

  8. Family-centred care delivery: comparing models of primary care service delivery in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Bruinsma, Liesha; Hogg, William; Taljaard, Monica; Dahrouge, Simone

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether models of primary care service delivery differ in their provision of family-centred care (FCC) and to identify practice characteristics associated with FCC. Cross-sectional study. Primary care practices in Ontario (ie, 35 salaried community health centres, 35 fee-for-service practices, 32 capitation-based health service organizations, and 35 blended remuneration family health networks) that belong to 4 models of primary care service delivery. A total of 137 practices, 363 providers, and 5144 patients. Measures of FCC in patient and provider surveys were based on the Primary Care Assessment Tool. Statistical analyses were conducted using linear mixed regression models and generalized estimating equations. Patient-reported FCC scores were high and did not vary significantly by primary care model. Larger panel size in a practice was associated with lower odds of patients reporting FCC. Provider-reported FCC scores were significantly higher in community health centres than in family health networks (P = .035). A larger number of nurse practitioners and clinical services on-site were both associated with higher FCC scores, while scores decreased as the number of family physicians in a practice increased and if practices were more rural. Based on provider and patient reports, primary care reform strategies that encourage larger practices and more patients per family physician might compromise the provision of FCC, while strategies that encourage multidisciplinary practices and a range of services might increase FCC.

  9. Size, rarity and charisma: valuing African wildlife trophies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Johnson

    Full Text Available We explore variation in the prices paid by recreational hunters of trophy animals in Africa and its possible causes, including perceived rarity. Previous work has raised the possibility that extinction can result if demand rises fast enough as a species becomes rarer. We attempt to disentangle this from other inter-correlated influences affecting price. Species with larger body sizes and larger trophies were more valuable. Value increased less steeply as a function of size for bovids than for felids and the effect was consistent across countries. Power laws, ubiquitous in physical and social systems, described the trends. The exponent was approximately 0.4 for bovids, compared with approximately 1.0 for felids. Rarity (as indexed by IUCN score influenced the value of bovid trophies - price was higher for species in categories denoting higher global threat. There was substantial variation in price among and within families not explained by either size or rarity. This may be attributable to a 'charisma' effect, which seems likely to be a general attribute of human perceptions of wildlife. Species where prices were higher than predicted by size or rarity are ranked high in published accounts of desirability by hunters. We conclude that the valuation of these species is explicable to a large extent by body size and perceived rarity, and that differences in valuation between taxonomic groups are related to less easily quantified 'charisma' effects. These findings are relevant for conservationists considering the threat status of species exploited in open access markets, and where license quotas are adjusted in response to changes in perceived rarity.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of nanometer sized thermoelectric lead-antimony-silver-tellurium compounds and related materials; Synthese und Charakterisierung nanoskaliger Thermoelektrika der LAST (Lead-Antimony-Silver-Tellurium)-Familie und verwandter Verbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petri, Denis

    2012-09-10

    The present dissertation deals with different variants of synthesis and processing of nanocrystalline composites of various thermoelectric compounds based on lead telluride including LAST-m (AgPb{sub m}SbTe{sub m+2}), LASTT-m-x (AgPb{sub m-x}Sn{sub x}SbTe{sub m+2}), LABST-m-x (AgPb{sub m}Sb{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x}Te{sub m+2}), doped LAST-m and (PbTe){sub m}(M{sup 15}{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) and the characterization thereof. A new route of manufacturing nanocrystalline composites was developed. The so called co-ball milling-route includes the synthesis of bi- or multinary compounds by conventional solid state melting methods followed by combined milling of appropriate amounts in a planetary ball mill; a process related to the widely used mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The as produced powders were shortly annealed for one hour and a.erwards compacted either at room temperature followed by pressureless sintering or combined application of high pressure and elevated temperatures via spark-plasma-sintering or short-term-sintering. The ball milling yielded micron-sized agglomerates consisting of crystallites with diameters ranging from 10 to 50 nm. These crystallites exhibited complicated internal nanostructures severe crystal defects as a consequence of the high energy processing. During short-term annealing some grain coarsening occured and the crystal defects partly healed, which was confirmed by TEM and HRTEM investigations as well as profile analysis of XRD powder pattern. Local EDX-analysis showed different compositions at every point as a consequence of synthesis and decomposition of the compounds. Measurements of thermopower, electrical and thermal conductivity were carried out and the values of the figure of merit ZT and the powerfactor were calculated. In general the compounds exhibited larger thermopower than corresponding bulk materials, which might be attributed to energy filtering of charge carriers at partly oxidized grain boundaries. Due to enhanced phonon

  11. Squamate hatchling size and the evolutionary causes of negative offspring size allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, S; Feldman, A; Kratochvíl, L

    2015-02-01

    Although fecundity selection is ubiquitous, in an overwhelming majority of animal lineages, small species produce smaller number of offspring per clutch. In this context, egg, hatchling and neonate sizes are absolutely larger, but smaller relative to adult body size in larger species. The evolutionary causes of this widespread phenomenon are not fully explored. The negative offspring size allometry can result from processes limiting maximal egg/offspring size forcing larger species to produce relatively smaller offspring ('upper limit'), or from a limit on minimal egg/offspring size forcing smaller species to produce relatively larger offspring ('lower limit'). Several reptile lineages have invariant clutch sizes, where females always lay either one or two eggs per clutch. These lineages offer an interesting perspective on the general evolutionary forces driving negative offspring size allometry, because an important selective factor, fecundity selection in a single clutch, is eliminated here. Under the upper limit hypotheses, large offspring should be selected against in lineages with invariant clutch sizes as well, and these lineages should therefore exhibit the same, or shallower, offspring size allometry as lineages with variable clutch size. On the other hand, the lower limit hypotheses would allow lineages with invariant clutch sizes to have steeper offspring size allometries. Using an extensive data set on the hatchling and female sizes of > 1800 species of squamates, we document that negative offspring size allometry is widespread in lizards and snakes with variable clutch sizes and that some lineages with invariant clutch sizes have unusually steep offspring size allometries. These findings suggest that the negative offspring size allometry is driven by a constraint on minimal offspring size, which scales with a negative allometry. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary

  12. Roosevelt elk density and social segregation: Foraging behavior and females avoiding larger groups of males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, F.; McFarland, K.; Ricca, M.; Meyer, K.

    2004-01-01

    Intersexual social segregation at small spatial scales is prevalent in ruminants that are sexually dimorphic in body size. Explaining social segregation, however, from hypotheses of how intersexual size differences affects the foraging process of males and females has had mixed results. We studied whether body size influences on forage behavior, intersexual social incompatibility or both might influence social segregation in a population of Roosevelt elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelt) that declined 40% over 5 y. Most males and females in the population occurred in the same forage patches, meadows, but occupied different parts of meadows and most groups were overwhelming comprised of one sex. The extent of segregation varied slightly with changing elk density. Cropping rate, our surrogate of forage ingestion, of males in mixed-sex groups differed from males in male-only groups at high, but not low, elk density. In a prior study of intersexual social interactions it was shown that females avoided groups containing ???6 males. Therefore, we predicted that females should avoid parts of meadows where groups of males ???6 were prevalent. Across the 5 y of study this prediction held because ???5% of all females were found in parts of meadows where median aggregation sizes of males were ???6. Social segregation was coupled to body size influences on forage ingestion at high density and social incompatibility was coupled to social segregation regardless of elk density.

  13. Family Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  14. The erection of larger windmills in the open countryside - an investigation of the visual effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The future use of larger windmills will result in new visual effects. The investigation points out that these effects will be dependent on the main characteristics of the landscape. Windmills with a height of 90 m will be taller than any other element found in the landscape with the exception of some chimneys, masts, etc. It is shown that very tall windmills should not be set up in large dominating groups, that it is important that the towers are slender and that the blades rotate slowly (in order to give a more peaceful effect), if the landscape should not be spoiled. Large windmills dominate an area of 1 - 3 kilometers, but at a distance of 10 - 12 km they can appear to fade away between woods and large buildings etc. Naturally, large windmills will be prominent on heaths and moors, and would not be welcome where there are buildings of cultural interest or where the landscape is under conservation. They could, it is stated, be placed amongst a group of smaller windmills, as this would help to lessen their dominance, but should not be positioned where one type of landscape merges into another, as here they would show up more. Local boundaries should also be taken into consideration. When planning where to locate windmills the overall visual effect over larger areas should be contemplated in addition to the preservation of views of buildings etc. of historical interest. Photographs should be taken of proposed sites so that paper models can be placed so as to produce an idea of the visual effects of erecting larger windmills in various positions in specified areas

  15. Collecting the neclected kingdom: Guidelines for the field mycologist with emphasis on the larger fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buyck, B.; Læssøe, Thomas; Meyer, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for collecting a group of organisms that has often been overlooked in earlier inventories: the kingdom Fungi and other groups that are traditionally collected by mycologists such as slime molds. After a short introduction on fungi and the feasibility of an ‘all fungal taxa......’ inventory, the authors divide the fungi in six ‘practical’ groups that require specific approaches: slime molds, lichens, parasitic fungi of plants and animals, larger mushrooms, microscopic fungi. Various topics are discussed in relation to three chronological stages (before, during and after...

  16. Laser-Induced Damage Growth on Larger-Aperture Fused Silica Optical Components at 351 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan-Qing, Huang; Wei, Han; Fang, Wang; Yong, Xiang; Fu-Quan, Li; Bin, Feng; Feng, Jing; Xiao-Feng, Wei; Wan-Guo, Zheng; Xiao-Min, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced damage is a key lifetime limiter for optics in high-power laser facility. Damage initiation and growth under 351 nm high-fluence laser irradiation are observed on larger-aperture fused silica optics. The input surface of one fused silica component is damaged most severely and an explanation is presented. Obscurations and the area of a scratch on it are found to grow exponentially with the shot number. The area of damage site grows linearly. Micrographs of damage sites support the micro-explosion damage model which could be used to qualitatively explain the phenomena

  17. Examples of fatigue lifetime and reliability evaluation of larger wind turbine components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    This report is one out of several that constitute the final report on the ELSAM funded PSO project “Vindmøllekomponenters udmattelsesstyrke og levetid”, project no. 2079, which regards the lifetime distribution of larger wind turbine components in ageneric turbine that has real life dimensions....... Though it was the initial intention of the project to consider only the distribution of lifetimes the work reported in this document provides also calculations of reliabilities and partial load safetyfactors under specific assumptions about uncertainty sources, as reliabilities are considered...

  18. An extension of fracture mechanics/technology to larger and smaller cracks/defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Fracture mechanics/technology is a key science and technology for the design and integrity assessment of the engineering structures. However, the conventional fracture mechanics has mostly targeted a limited size of cracks/defects, say of from several hundred microns to several tens of centimeters. The author and his group has tried to extend that limited size and establish a new version of fracture technology for very large cracks used in geothermal energy extraction and for very small cracks/defects or damage often appearing in the combination of mechanical and electronic components of engineering structures. Those new versions are reviewed in this paper. PMID:19907123

  19. Larger foraminifera of the Devil's Den and Blue Hole sinkholes, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Laura J.; Eder, Wolfgang; Floyd, James

    2018-03-01

    Shallow-water carbonate deposits are well-known from the Eocene of the US Gulf Coast and Caribbean. These deposits frequently contain abundant larger benthic foraminifera (LBF). However, whilst integrated stratigraphic studies have helped to refine the timing of LBF overturning events within the Tethys and Indo-Pacific regions with respect to global bio- and chemo-stratigraphic records, little recent work has been carried out in the Americas. The American LBF assemblages are distinctly different from those of Europe and the Indo-Pacific. It is therefore essential that the American bio-province is included in studies of LBF evolution, biodiversity and climate events to understand these processes on a global scale.Here we present the LBF ranges from two previously unpublished sections spanning 35 and 29 m of the upper Eocene Ocala limestone, as the early stages of a larger project addressing the taxonomy and biostratigraphy of the LBF of Florida. The study indicates that the lower member of the Ocala limestone may be Bartonian rather than Priabonian in age, with implications for the biostratigraphy of the region. In addition, the study highlights the need for multiple sites to assess the LBF assemblages and fully constrain ranges across Florida and the US Gulf and suggests potential LBF events for future integrated stratigraphic study.

  20. EOCENE LARGER FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE SOUTHERNMOST DAUPHINOIS DOMAIN (MARITIME ALPS, FRANCE-ITALY BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIO VARRONE

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Trucco Formation and the Nummulitic Limestone (Dauphinois Domain, Maritime Alps are characterized by abundant larger foraminifera, specifically nummulitids, orthophragminids and encrusting foraminifera. In the Maritime Alps, previous studies suggest a late Lutetian age for the Trucco Formation and a late Lutetian-Priabonian age for the Nummulitic Limestone.Biostratigraphic analysis of the nummulitids, in 11 stratigraphic sections, allowed us to distinguish 3 biozones:MALF1 Zone: defined by the presence of Nummulites brongniarti d’Archiac & Haime, N. puschi d’Archiac, N. perforatus de Montfort, N. striatus (Bruguière, N. cf. dufrenoyi d’Archiac & Haime, N. variolarius/incrassatus and Operculina schwageri Silvestri.MALF2 Zone: defined by the presence of Nummulites perforatus de Montfort, N. striatus (Bruguière, N. cf. dufrenoyi d’Archiac & Haime, N. variolarius/incrassatus and Operculina schwageri Silvestri.MALF 3 Zone: defined by the presence of gr. Nummulites variolarius/incrassatus, N. striatus (Bruguière and Operculina schwageri Silvestri.According to current larger foraminiferal biozonal schemes, the age of these local biozones corresponds to the Bartonian p.p.Moreover, the comparison with biostratigraphic schemes established for the Dauphinois Domain and for the Tethyan area evidences that several typical nummulitid species of the late Bartonian are lacking in the southern Dauphinois Domain, probably due to a paleogeographic control. 

  1. Sauropod dinosaurs evolved moderately sized genomes unrelated to body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris L; Brusatte, Stephen L; Stein, Koen

    2009-12-22

    Sauropodomorph dinosaurs include the largest land animals to have ever lived, some reaching up to 10 times the mass of an African elephant. Despite their status defining the upper range for body size in land animals, it remains unknown whether sauropodomorphs evolved larger-sized genomes than non-avian theropods, their sister taxon, or whether a relationship exists between genome size and body size in dinosaurs, two questions critical for understanding broad patterns of genome evolution in dinosaurs. Here we report inferences of genome size for 10 sauropodomorph taxa. The estimates are derived from a Bayesian phylogenetic generalized least squares approach that generates posterior distributions of regression models relating genome size to osteocyte lacunae volume in extant tetrapods. We estimate that the average genome size of sauropodomorphs was 2.02 pg (range of species means: 1.77-2.21 pg), a value in the upper range of extant birds (mean = 1.42 pg, range: 0.97-2.16 pg) and near the average for extant non-avian reptiles (mean = 2.24 pg, range: 1.05-5.44 pg). The results suggest that the variation in size and architecture of genomes in extinct dinosaurs was lower than the variation found in mammals. A substantial difference in genome size separates the two major clades within dinosaurs, Ornithischia (large genomes) and Saurischia (moderate to small genomes). We find no relationship between body size and estimated genome size in extinct dinosaurs, which suggests that neutral forces did not dominate the evolution of genome size in this group.

  2. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  3. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli; Sheng, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R 50 was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V 20 , V 10 , and V 5 were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor coverage and

  4. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin [Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R{sub 50} was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V{sub 20}, V{sub 10}, and V{sub 5} were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor

  5. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from biomass combustion fly ash in larger scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd), biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. It has previously been shown that it is possible to reduce the concentration of Cd in different bio ashes...... significantly by using electrodialytic remediation, an electrochemically assisted extraction method. In this work the potential of the method was demonstrated in larger scale. Three different experimental set-ups were used, ranging from bench-scale (25 L ash suspension) to pilot scale (0.3 - 3 m3......). The experimental ash was a straw combustion fly ash suspended in water. Within 4 days of remediation, Cd concentrations below the limiting concentration of 5.0 mg Cd/kg DM for straw ash were reached. On the basis of these results, the energy costs for remediation of ash in industrial scale have been estimated...

  6. Design of reactor internals in larger high-temperature reactors with spherical fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elter, C.

    1981-01-01

    In his paper, the author analyzes and summarizes the present state of the art with emphasis on the prototype reactor THTR 300 MWe, because in addition to spherical fuel elements, this type includes other features of future HTR design such as the same flow direction of cooland gas through the core. The paper on hand also elaborates design guidelines for reactor internals applicable with large HTR's of up to 1200 MWe. Proved designs will be altered so as to meet the special requirements of larger cores with spherical elements to be reloaded according to the OTTO principle. This paper is furthermore designed as a starting point for selective and swift development of reactor internals for large HTR's to be refuelled according to the OTTO principle. (orig./GL) [de

  7. Practical aspects of NMR signal assignment in larger and challenging proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, Dominique P.

    2014-01-01

    NMR has matured into a technique routinely employed for studying proteins in near physiological conditions. However, applications to larger proteins are impeded by the complexity of the various correlation maps necessary to assign NMR signals. This article reviews the data analysis techniques traditionally employed for resonance assignment and describes alternative protocols necessary for overcoming challenges in large protein spectra. In particular, simultaneous analysis of multiple spectra may help overcome ambiguities or may reveal correlations in an indirect manner. Similarly, visualization of orthogonal planes in a multidimensional spectrum can provide alternative assignment procedures. We describe examples of such strategies for assignment of backbone, methyl, and nOe resonances. We describe experimental aspects of data acquisition for the related experiments and provide guidelines for preliminary studies. Focus is placed on large folded monomeric proteins and examples are provided for 37, 48, 53, and 81 kDa proteins. PMID:24534088

  8. Performance of large-R jets and jet substructure reconstruction with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the application of techniques to study jet substructure. The performance of modified jet algorithms for a variety of jet types and event topologies is investigated. Properties of jets subjected to the mass-drop filtering, trimming and pruning algorithms are found to have a reduced sensitivity to multiple proton-proton interactions and exhibit improved stability at high luminosity. Monte Carlo studies of the signal-background discrimination with jet grooming in new physics searches based on jet invariant mass and jet substructure properties are also presented. The application of jet trimming is shown to improve the robustness of large-R jet measurements, reduce sensitivity to the superfluous effects due to the intense environment of the high luminosity LHC, and improve the physics potential of searches for heavy boosted objects. The analyses presented in this note use the full 2011 ATLAS dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 \\pm 0.2 fb−1 .

  9. The Larger Bound on the Domination Number of Fibonacci Cubes and Lucas Cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Γn and Λn be the n-dimensional Fibonacci cube and Lucas cube, respectively. Denote by Γ[un,k,z] the subgraph of Γn induced by the end-vertex un,k,z that has no up-neighbor. In this paper, the number of end-vertices and domination number γ of Γn and Λn are studied. The formula of calculating the number of end-vertices is given and it is proved that γ(Γ[un,k,z]≤2k-1+1. Using these results, the larger bound on the domination number γ of Γn and Λn is determined.

  10. Designing key-dependent chaotic S-box with larger key space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Ruming; Yuan Jian; Wang Jian; Shan Xiuming; Wang Xiqin

    2009-01-01

    The construction of cryptographically strong substitution boxes (S-boxes) is an important concern in designing secure cryptosystems. The key-dependent S-boxes designed using chaotic maps have received increasing attention in recent years. However, the key space of such S-boxes does not seem to be sufficiently large due to the limited parameter range of discretized chaotic maps. In this paper, we propose a new key-dependent S-box based on the iteration of continuous chaotic maps. We explore the continuous-valued state space of chaotic systems, and devise the discrete mapping between the input and the output of the S-box. A key-dependent S-box is constructed with the logistic map in this paper. We show that its key space could be much larger than the current key-dependent chaotic S-boxes.

  11. Smoking Topography among Korean Smokers: Intensive Smoking Behavior with Larger Puff Volume and Shorter Interpuff Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Yu, Sol

    2018-05-18

    The difference of smoker's topography has been found to be a function many factors, including sex, personality, nicotine yield, cigarette type (i.e., flavored versus non-flavored) and ethnicity. We evaluated the puffing behaviors of Korean smokers and its association with smoking-related biomarker levels. A sample of 300 participants was randomly recruited from metropolitan areas in South Korea. Topography measures during a 24-hour period were obtained using a CReSS pocket device. Korean male smokers smoked two puffs less per cigarette compared to female smokers (15.0 (13.0⁻19.0) vs. 17.5 (15.0⁻21.0) as the median (Interquartile range)), but had a significantly larger puff volume (62.7 (52.7⁻75.5) mL vs. 53.5 (42.0⁻64.2) mL); p = 0.012). The interpuff interval was similar between men and women (8.9 (6.5⁻11.2) s vs. 8.3 (6.2⁻11.0) s; p = 0.122) but much shorter than other study results. A dose-response association ( p = 0.0011) was observed between daily total puff volumes and urinary cotinine concentrations, after controlling for sex, age, household income level and nicotine addiction level. An understanding of the difference of topography measures, particularly the larger puff volume and shorter interpuff interval of Korean smokers, may help to overcome a potential underestimation of internal doses of hazardous byproducts of smoking.

  12. Transmissible Plasmids and Integrons Shift Escherichia coli Population Toward Larger Multiple Drug Resistance Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartono, Suhartono; Savin, Mary C; Gbur, Edward E

    2018-04-01

    Transmissible plasmids and integrons may play important roles in the persistence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria throughout aquatic environment by accumulating antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). Class 1 and class 2 integron (intI), mobilization (mob), sulfamethoxazole resistance (sul), and trimethoprim resistance (dfr) genes were PCR-amplified and confirmed through DNA sequencing following plasmid extraction from 139 antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli. E. coli had previously been recovered from wastewater treatment plant effluent and receiving stream water in Northwest Arkansas and isolates had expressed resistance to one to six antibiotics. Almost half of the total isolates (47%) carried putatively transmissible plasmids with mob F12 gene as the most frequently detected mobilization gene. When two or three mob genes were detected per isolate, there was a significant shift in the population toward larger multiple drug resistance (MDR) number. Class 1 and/or 2 integrons were prevalent (46%), and the presence of integron significantly shifted the isolate population toward larger MDR number. More isolates carried single or coexistence of two or three sul genes (99.3%), and single or a combination up to five dfr genes (89.3%) than had exhibited in vitro resistance to the respective antibiotics. These findings indicate not only the role of the wastewater treatment effluent and the stream environment in coaccumulation of ARG with transmissible plasmids and integrons in multiple antibiotic-resistant E. coli populations but also suggest that density of sul and dfr resistance genes within an isolate may serve as a biomarker for mobile MDR in general.

  13. Larger Neural Responses Produce BOLD Signals That Begin Earlier in Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena eThompson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI analyses commonly rely on the assumption that the temporal dynamics of hemodynamic response functions (HRFs are independent of the amplitude of the neural signals that give rise to them. The validity of this assumption is particularly important for techniques that use fMRI to resolve sub-second timing distinctions between responses, in order to make inferences about the ordering of neural processes. Whether or not the detailed shape of the HRF is independent of neural response amplitude remains an open question, however. We performed experiments in which we measured responses in primary visual cortex (V1 to large, contrast-reversing checkerboards at a range of contrast levels, which should produce varying amounts of neural activity. Ten subjects (ages 22-52 were studied in each of two experiments using 3 Tesla scanners. We used rapid, 250 msec, temporal sampling (repetition time, or TR and both short and long inter-stimulus interval (ISI stimulus presentations. We tested for a systematic relationship between the onset of the HRF and its amplitude across conditions, and found a strong negative correlation between the two measures when stimuli were separated in time (long- and medium-ISI experiments, but not the short-ISI experiment. Thus, stimuli that produce larger neural responses, as indexed by HRF amplitude, also produced HRFs with shorter onsets. The relationship between amplitude and latency was strongest in voxels with lowest mean-normalized variance (i.e., parenchymal voxels. The onset differences observed in the longer-ISI experiments are likely attributable to mechanisms of neurovascular coupling, since they are substantially larger than reported differences in the onset of action potentials in V1 as a function of response amplitude.

  14. Does consideration of larger study areas yield more accurate estimates of air pollution health effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Siroux, Valérie; Pin, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spatially-resolved air pollution models can be developed in large areas. The resulting increased exposure contrasts and population size offer opportunities to better characterize the effect of atmospheric pollutants on respiratory health. However the heterogeneity of these areas may......: Simulations indicated that adjustment for area limited the bias due to unmeasured confounders varying with area at the costs of a slight decrease in statistical power. In our cohort, rural and urban areas differed for air pollution levels and for many factors associated with respiratory health and exposure....... Area tended to modify effect measures of air pollution on respiratory health. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the size of the study area also increases the potential for residual confounding. Our simulations suggest that adjusting for type of area is a good option to limit residual confounding due to area...

  15. AXIALLY ORIENTED SECTIONS OF NUMMULITIDS: A TOOL TO INTERPRET LARGER BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL DEPOSITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino

    2012-04-01

    The "critical shear velocity" and "settling velocity" of foraminiferal shells are important parameters for determining hydrodynamic conditions during deposition of Nummulites banks. These can be estimated by determining the size, shape, and density of nummulitid shells examined in axial sections cut perpendicular to the bedding plane. Shell size and shape can be determined directly from the shell diameter and thickness, but density must be calculated indirectly from the thin section. Calculations using the half-tori method approximate shell densities by equalizing the chamber volume of each half whorl, based on the half whorl's lumen area and its center of gravity. Results from this method yield the same lumen volumes produced empirically by micro-computed tomography. The derived hydrodynamic parameters help estimate the minimum flow velocities needed to entrain nummulitid tests and provide a potential tool to account for the nature of their accumulations.

  16. On size effects in fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the dependence of fracture stress on size. This conclusion is based on classical energy arguments. For an in-plane scaled specimen pair, the larger the specimen the smaller the fracture stress. In contrast the same theory gives a different dependence for out-of-plane specimen and the dependence involves plane stress, strain, fracture stresses and Poisson's ratio. The objective of this paper is to examine how well these predictions are actually complied with

  17. Finite Size Scaling of Perceptron

    OpenAIRE

    Korutcheva, Elka; Tonchev, N.

    2000-01-01

    We study the first-order transition in the model of a simple perceptron with continuous weights and large, bit finite value of the inputs. Making the analogy with the usual finite-size physical systems, we calculate the shift and the rounding exponents near the transition point. In the case of a general perceptron with larger variety of inputs, the analysis only gives bounds for the exponents.

  18. Asteroid family dynamics in the inner main belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhuis, Melissa Joy

    The inner main asteroid belt is an important source of near-Earth objects and terrestrial planet impactors; however, the dynamics and history of this region are challenging to understand, due to its high population density and the presence of multiple orbital resonances. This dissertation explores the properties of two of the most populous inner main belt family groups --- the Flora family and the Nysa-Polana complex --- investigating their memberships, ages, spin properties, collision dynamics, and range in orbital and reflectance parameters. Though diffuse, the family associated with asteroid (8) Flora dominates the inner main belt in terms of the extent of its members in orbital parameter space, resulting in its significant overlap with multiple neighboring families. This dissertation introduces a new method for membership determination (the core sample method) which enables the distinction of the Flora family from the background, permitting its further analysis. The Flora family is shown to have a signature in plots of semimajor axis vs. size consistent with that expected for a collisional family dispersed as a result of the Yarkovsky radiation effect. The family's age is determined from the Yarkovsky dispersion to be 950 My. Furthermore, a survey of the spin sense of 21 Flora-region asteroids, accomplished via a time-efficient modification of the epoch method for spin sense determination, confirms the single-collision Yarkovsky-dispersed model for the family's origin. The neighboring Nysa-Polana complex is the likely source region for many of the carbonaceous near-Earth asteroids, several of which are important targets for spacecraft reconnaissance and sample return missions. Family identification in the Nysa-Polana complex via the core sample method reveals two families associated with asteroid (135) Hertha, both with distinct age and reflectance properties. The larger of these two families demonstrates a correlation in semimajor axis and eccentricity

  19. A larger hippocampus is associated with longer-lasting spatial memory

    OpenAIRE

    Biegler, Robert; McGregor, Anthony; Krebs, John R.; Healy, Susan D.

    2001-01-01

    Volumetric studies in a range of animals (London taxi-drivers, polygynous male voles, nest-parasitic female cowbirds, and a number of food-storing birds) have shown that the size of the hippocampus, a brain region essential to learning and memory, is correlated with tasks involving an extra demand for spatial learning and memory. In this paper, we report the quantitative advantage that food storers gain from such an enlargement. Coal tits (Parus ater) a food-storin...

  20. Changes in radiation dose with variations in human anatomy: larger and smaller normal-stature adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Patrick M; Stabin, Michael G; Fernald, Michael J; Brill, Aaron B

    2010-05-01

    A systematic evaluation has been performed to study how specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) vary with changes in adult body size, for persons of different size but normal body stature. A review of the literature was performed to evaluate how individual organ sizes vary with changes in total body weight of normal-stature individuals. On the basis of this literature review, changes were made to our easily deformable reference adult male and female total-body models. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport were performed; SAFs for photons were generated for 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentile adults; and comparisons were made to the reference (50th) percentile SAF values. Differences in SAFs for organs irradiating themselves were between 0.5% and 1.0%/kg difference in body weight, from 15% to 30% overall, for organs within the trunk. Differences in SAFs for organs outside the trunk were not greater than the uncertainties in the data and will not be important enough to change calculated doses. For organs irradiating other organs within the trunk, differences were significant, between 0.3% and 1.1%/kg, or about 8%-33% overall. The differences are interesting and can be used to estimate how different patients' dosimetry might vary from values reported in standard dose tables.

  1. Exploring Shared SRAM Tables in FPGAs for Larger LUTs and Higher Degree of Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern SRAM based Field Programmable Gate Arrays, a Look-Up Table (LUT is the principal constituent logic element which can realize every possible Boolean function. However, this flexibility of LUTs comes with a heavy area penalty. A part of this area overhead comes from the increased amount of configuration memory which rises exponentially as the LUT size increases. In this paper, we first present a detailed analysis of a previously proposed FPGA architecture which allows sharing of LUTs memory (SRAM tables among NPN-equivalent functions, to reduce the area as well as the number of configuration bits. We then propose several methods to improve the existing architecture. A new clustering technique has been proposed which packs NPN-equivalent functions together inside a Configurable Logic Block (CLB. We also make use of a recently proposed high performance Boolean matching algorithm to perform NPN classification. To enhance area savings further, we evaluate the feasibility of more than two LUTs sharing the same SRAM table. Consequently, this work explores the SRAM table sharing approach for a range of LUT sizes (4–7, while varying the cluster sizes (4–16. Experimental results on MCNC benchmark circuits set show an overall area reduction of ~7% while maintaining the same critical path delay.

  2. Communicating with the crowd: speakers use abstract messages when addressing larger audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Priyanka D; Wakslak, Cheryl J

    2014-02-01

    Audience characteristics often shape communicators' message framing. Drawing from construal level theory, we suggest that when speaking to many individuals, communicators frame messages in terms of superordinate characteristics that focus attention on the essence of the message. On the other hand, when communicating with a single individual, communicators increasingly describe events and actions in terms of their concrete details. Using different communication tasks and measures of construal, we show that speakers communicating with many individuals, compared with 1 person, describe events more abstractly (Study 1), describe themselves as more trait-like (Study 2), and use more desirability-related persuasive messages (Study 3). Furthermore, speakers' motivation to communicate with their audience moderates their tendency to frame messages based on audience size (Studies 3 and 4). This audience-size abstraction effect is eliminated when a large audience is described as homogeneous, suggesting that people use abstract construal strategically in order to connect across a disparate group of individuals (Study 5). Finally, we show that participants' experienced fluency in communication is influenced by the match between message abstraction and audience size (Study 6).

  3. Reframing family-centred obesity prevention using the Family Ecological Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Jurkowski, Janine M; Lawson, Hal A

    2013-10-01

    According to the Family Ecological Model (FEM), parenting behaviours are shaped by the contexts in which families are embedded. In the present study, we utilize the FEM to guide a mixed-methods community assessment and summarize the results. Additionally, we discuss the utility of the FEM and outline possible improvements. Using a cross-sectional design, qualitative and quantitative methods were used to examine the ecologies of parents’ cognitions and behaviours specific to children’s diet, physical activity and screen-based behaviours. Results were mapped onto constructs outlined in the FEM. The study took place in five Head Start centres in a small north-eastern city. The community assessment was part of a larger study to develop and evaluate a family-centred obesity prevention programme for low-income families. Participants included eighty-nine low-income parents/caregivers of children enrolled in Head Start. Parents reported a broad range of factors affecting their parenting cognitions and behaviours. Intrafamilial factors included educational and cultural backgrounds, family size and a lack of social support from partners. Organizational factors included staff stability at key organizations, a lack of service integration and differing school routines. Community factors included social connectedness to neighbours/friends, shared norms around parenting and the availability of safe public housing and play spaces. Policy- and media-related factors included requirements of public assistance programmes, back-to-work policies and children’s exposure to food advertisements. Based on these findings, the FEM was refined to create an evidence-based,temporally structured logic model to support and guide family-centred research in childhood obesity prevention.

  4. evaluatiOn Of discriminant rOle Of mOther’s educatiOn and family size in shaping bOdy height Of children frOm the cOpper basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Fugiel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Growth of the children influence several environmental factors, including urban development level of the place of residence, parents” education and number of children in family. Many survey results reveal that body height is a sensitive measure of environmental interaction and physical growth in a period of progressive growth. The aim of the research was to determine if mother’s education and number of children in family are among the factors which modify the body height in ecologically endangered environment, urban and rural. Material and methods. 2599 boys and girls aged 7– 15 were examined. Children represented primary and secondary schools in Polkowice and rural region schools near Legnica and Głogów. Surveys were performed in the years 2007 and 2008. Every subject was examined for body height and data from questionnaire provided information on mother’s education and number of children in family. Results. Reportedly, it was noticed, that groups of boys and girls are different in body height which depend on level of urbanization of living environment and socio-economic standards. Conclusions. Collected results reveal that such factors as mother’s education and number of children in the family make differences in body height of young generation and they occur in both environments – urban and rural – with different intensity.

  5. Whole-word frequency and inflectional paradigm size facilitate Estonian case-inflected noun processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõo, Kaidi; Järvikivi, Juhani; Baayen, R Harald

    2018-06-01

    Estonian is a morphologically rich Finno-Ugric language with nominal paradigms that have at least 28 different inflected forms but sometimes more than 40. For languages with rich inflection, it has been argued that whole-word frequency, as a diagnostic of whole-word representations, should not be predictive for lexical processing. We report a lexical decision experiment, showing that response latencies decrease both with frequency of the inflected form and its inflectional paradigm size. Inflectional paradigm size was also predictive of semantic categorization, indicating it is a semantic effect, similar to the morphological family size effect. These findings fit well with the evidence for frequency effects of word n-grams in languages with little inflectional morphology, such as English. Apparently, the amount of information on word use in the mental lexicon is substantially larger than was previously thought. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of larger than tetrameric poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) by a radioimmunoassay in nuclei separated in organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, A.M.; Minaga, T.; Piper, W.N.; Kun, E.

    1978-01-01

    Antibodies were prepared against poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) of an average chain length of 40 adenosine diphosphoribose units by repeated injection of the polymer mixed with methylated albumin and adjuvants into rabbits. The antibody was present mainly in the 7 S fraction of the immunoglobulins. A membrane binding assay was developed, and its specificity determined for the detection of (adenosine diphosphoribose) (n>4) in organs. The method is suitable for the study of the variation of the polymer content of nuclei. The size recognition of the anti-poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) globulin fraction was the same for polymers composed of 4-40 adenosine diphosphoribose units, but smaller oligomers were not detectible. A quantitative extraction technique was developed and applied for radioimmunoassay of nuclear (adenosine diphosphoribose) n>4. Organs were freeze-clamped, freeze dried, broken into subcellular fragments in a colloid mill, and the nuclear fraction was subsequently separated in organic solvents in order to preserve the polymer. Nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, when administered in vivo, augmented the (adenosine diphosphoribose) (n>4) content of rat liver and heart. Tissues of infant pigeons contained larger quantities of (adenosine diphosphoribose) (n>4) than tissues of adult rates. (Auth.)

  7. Familial gigantism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. de Herder (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFamilial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

  8. Familial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter W. de Herder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

  9. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Virginia and in the Maine referendum on Medicaid expansion will still have a practical impact on what ... income, family size and age. Medicaid Extending Federal Funding for CHIP: What is at Stake? Health Reform ...

  10. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  11. The fluorescence properties of aerosol larger than 0.8 μm in urban and tropical rainforest locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabey, A. M.; Stanley, W. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Kaye, P. H.

    2011-06-01

    UV-LIF measurements were performed on ambient aerosol in Manchester, UK (urban city centre, winter) and Borneo, Malaysia (remote, tropical) using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer, version 3 (WIBS3). These sites are taken to represent environments with minor and significant primary biological aerosol (PBA) influences respectively, and the urban dataset describes the fluorescent background aerosol against which PBA must be identified by researchers using LIF. The ensemble aerosol at both sites was characterised over 2-3 weeks by measuring the fluorescence intensity and optical equivalent diameter (DP) of single particles sized 0.8 ≤ DP ≤ 20 μm. Filter samples were also collected for a subset of the Manchester campaign and analysed using energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), which revealed mostly non-PBA at D ≤ 1 μm. The WIBS3 features three fluorescence channels: the emission following a 280 nm excitation is recorded at 310-400 nm (channel F1) and 400-600 nm (F2), and fluorescence excited at 350 nm is detected at 400-600 nm (F3). In Manchester the primary size mode of fluorescent and non-fluorescent material was present at 0.8-1.2 μm, with a secondary fluorescent mode at 2-4 μm. In Borneo non-fluorescent material peaked at 0.8-1.2 μm and fluorescent at 3-4 μm. Agreement between fluorescent number concentrations in each channel differed at the two sites, with F1 and F3 reporting similar concentrations in Borneo but F3 outnumbering F1 by a factor of 2-3 across the size spectrum in Manchester. The fluorescence intensity in each channel generally rose with DP at both sites with the exception of F1 intensity in Manchester, which peaked at DP = 4 μm, causing a divergence between F1 and F3 intensity at larger DP. This divergence and the differing fluorescent particle concentrations demonstrate the additional discrimination provided by the F1 channel in Manchester. The relationships between

  12. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  13. Burdigalian turbid water patch reef environment revealed by larger benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, V.; Renema, W.; Throughflow-project

    2012-04-01

    Ancient isolated patch reefs outcropping from siliciclastic sediments are a trademark for the Miocene carbonate deposits occurring in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. They develop in transitional shelf sediments deposited between deltaic and deep marine deposits (Allen and Chambers, 1998). The Batu Putih Limestone (Wilson, 2005) and similar outcrops in adjacent areas have been characterized as shallow water carbonates influenced by high siliciclastic input, showing low relief patch reefs in turbid waters. Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are excellent markers for biochronology and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. This study aims to reveal age and paleoenvironment of a shallow water carbonate patch reef developed in mixed depositional system by using LBF and microfacies analysis. The studied section is located near Bontang, East Kalimantan, and is approximately 80 m long and 12 m high. It is placed within Miocene sediments in the central part of the Kutai Basin. Patch reef and capping sediments were logged through eight transects along section and divided into nine different lithological units from which samples were collected. Thin sections and isolated specimens of larger benthic foraminifera were analyzed and recognized to species level (where possible) providing age and environmental information. Microfacies analysis of thin sections included carbonate classification (textural scheme of Dunham, 1962) and assemblage composition of LBF, algae and corals relative abundance. Three environmentally indicative groups of LBF were separated based on test morphology, habitat or living relatives (Hallock and Glenn, 1986). Analysed foraminifera assemblage suggests Burdigalian age (Tf1). With use of microfacies analysis nine successive lithological units were grouped into five facies types. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of LBF fossil assemblage indicate two cycles of possible deepening recorded in the section. Based on high muddy matrix ratio in analyzed thin-sections we

  14. Mud deposit formation on the open coast of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzon, S. B.; Winterwerp, J. C.; Nogueira, R.; de Boer, G. J.

    2009-03-01

    This paper proposes an explanation of the mud deposits on the inner Shelf of Cassino Beach, South Brazil, by using computational modeling. These mud deposits are mainly formed by sediments delivered from Patos Lagoon, a coastal lagoon connected to the Shelf, next to Cassino Beach. The deposits are characterized by (soft) mud layers of about 1 m thick and are found between the -5 and -20 isobaths. Two hydrodynamic models of the larger Patos Lagoon-Cassino Beach system were calibrated against water elevation measured for a 5 months period, and against currents and salinity measured for a week period. The circulation patterns and water exchange through the mouth were analyzed as a function of local and remote wind effects, and river discharges. The remote wind effect mainly governs the quantity of water exchange with the Lagoon through its effect on mean sea level as a result of Ekman dynamics, while river discharges are important for the salinity of the exchanged water masses. Local winds augment the export-import rates by set-up and set-down within the Lagoon, but their effects are much smaller than those of the remote wind. Currents patterns on the inner Shelf during water outflow revealed a recirculation zone south of the Lagoon, induced by the local geometry and bathymetry of the system. This recirculation zone coincides with observed locations of mud deposition. Water, hence suspended sediment export occurs when remote and local winds are from the N-E, which explains why fine sediment deposits are mainly found south of the Lagoon's breakwater. A sensitivity analysis with the numerical model quantified the contribution of the various mechanisms driving the transport and fate of the fine suspended sediments, i.e. the effects of remote and local wind, of the astronomical tide, of river discharge and fresh-salt water-induced density currents, and of earth rotation. It is concluded that gravitational circulation and earth rotation affects the further dispersion of

  15. Is a larger equity market more information efficient? Evidence from intervalling effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KiHoon Hong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of equity return autocorrelation on financial market efficiency via intervalling effect. A simple model is proposed to show that the degree of intervalling effect is related to the security return autocorrelation. A more general version of Levy and Levhari hypothesis is proposed to find that the degree of the autocorrelations of the security and the market returns determines the existence and the direction of the intervalling effect and the size of the intervalling effect are dependent on the degree of the security autocorrelations. Empirical evidence of the latter is presented

  16. Family ties and depression across the life course: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Moor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Family ties in Europe are affected by demographic trends associated with parenting and partnering, such as a decline in fertility, an increase in childlessness, postponement of parenthood and of partnership formation, the rise of "new" relationship forms and divorce rates. It is unclear how the contemporary family structure and composition are associated with people's mental wellbeing. OBJECTIVE This article examines how ties with parents, siblings, a partner and children are associated with depressive mood of men and women in seven Eastern and Western European countries. METHODS To test our hypotheses we made use of data from the Generations and Gender Surveys. We performed logistic regression analyses to study the associations between people's family ties and depressive mood. RESULTS Our research findings show that family ties can diminish people's depressive feelings. Although we find some gender differences in these associations, we do not find support for the argument that family ties are more important for the mental wellbeing of women than of men. Moreover, our findings support the hierarchical model of family relations in which new ties with partner and children in adulthood gain precedence over the original primary ties with parents and siblings. Finally, we find that the association between family ties and depressive mood is quite similar in Eastern and Western Europe, but being married or having a partner more strongly reduces depressive feelings in Eastern than in Western Europe. CONCLUSIONS Although we did not dispose of longitudinal data, our research results do provide some indications about how demographic changes, for instance, those affecting family size -- the number of children or siblings -- might be associated with mental wellbeing. Our findings also suggest that the demographic trend of increasing partnership dissolution may have larger consequences for people's mental wellbeing in Eastern

  17. Shyer and larger bird species show more reduced fear of humans when living in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier

    2018-04-01

    As the natural habitats of many species are degraded or disappear, there is scope for these species to be established in urban habitats. To ease the establishment and maintenance of urban populations of more species we need to better understand what degree of phenotypical change to expect as different species transition into urban environments. During the first stages of urban colonization, behavioural changes such as an increase in boldness are particularly important. A consistent response in urban populations is to decrease the distance at which individuals flee from an approaching human (flight initiation distance, or FID). Performing a phylogenetic generalized least-squares (PGLS) analysis on 130 avian species, I found that the largest changes in FID between rural and urban populations occur in species that are larger-bodied and naturally shy (higher rural FID), two phenotypic traits that are not normally associated with urban colonizers. More unlikely species may thus be able to colonize urban environments, especially if we design cities in ways that promote such urban colonizations. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. Outcomes of multiple wire localization for larger breast cancers: when can mastectomy be avoided?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstein, Laurie J; Rafferty, Elizabeth; Specht, Michelle C; Moore, Richard H; Taghian, Alphonse G; Hughes, Kevin S; Gadd, Michele A; Smith, Barbara L

    2008-09-01

    Mastectomy is often recommended when mammography shows a breast cancer with extensive calcifications. We wished to determine whether the use of multiple localizing wires to guide lumpectomy in this setting was associated with increased rates of breast conservation. We also wanted to identify factors that predicted a poor chance of successful lumpectomy, to avoid multiple lumpectomy attempts in a patient who would ultimately require mastectomy. Records of 153 women with breast cancer who underwent lumpectomy for larger lesions that required multiple wire localization and 196 controls who required only single wire localization were reviewed retrospectively. The number of localizing wires, specimen volume, largest specimen dimension, number of surgical procedures, and rates of breast conservation were scored. Seventy-seven percent of patients requiring multiple wire localization had successful breast conservation, compared with 90% of those needing only single wire localization. Only 28% of multiple wire patients required more than 1 excision to achieve clear margins, compared with 36% of single wire patients (p localizing wires for excision. The use of multiple wires can decrease the number of procedures required to obtain clear lumpectomy margins.

  19. Technique for Extension of Small Antenna Array Mutual-Coupling Data to Larger Antenna Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the mutual interaction between a small number of elements in a planar array can be interpolated and extrapolated to accurately predict the combined interactions in a much larger array of many elements. An approximate series expression is developed, based upon knowledge of the analytical characteristic behavior of the mutual admittance between small aperture antenna elements in a conducting ground plane. This expression is utilized to analytically extend known values for a few spacings and orientations to other element configurations, thus eliminating the need to numerically integrate a large number of highly oscillating and slowly converging functions. This paper shows that the technique can predict very accurately the mutual coupling between elements in a very large planar array with a knowledge of the self-admittance of an isolated element and the coupling between only two-elements arranged in eight different pair combinations. These eight pair combinations do not necessarily have to correspond to pairs in the large array, although all of the individual elements must be identical.

  20. Larger aggregates of mutant seipin in Celia's Encephalopathy, a new protein misfolding neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Riquelme, Alejandro; Sánchez-Iglesias, Sofía; Rábano, Alberto; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Domingo-Jiménez, Rosario; Ramos, Adriana; Rosa, Isaac; Senra, Ana; Nilsson, Peter; García, Ángel; Araújo-Vilar, David; Requena, Jesús R

    2015-11-01

    Celia's Encephalopathy (MIM #615924) is a recently discovered fatal neurodegenerative syndrome associated with a new BSCL2 mutation (c.985C>T) that results in an aberrant isoform of seipin (Celia seipin). This mutation is lethal in both homozygosity and compounded heterozygosity with a lipodystrophic BSCL2 mutation, resulting in a progressive encephalopathy with fatal outcomes at ages 6-8. Strikingly, heterozygous carriers are asymptomatic, conflicting with the gain of toxic function attributed to this mutation. Here we report new key insights about the molecular pathogenic mechanism of this new syndrome. Intranuclear inclusions containing mutant seipin were found in brain tissue from a homozygous patient suggesting a pathogenic mechanism similar to other neurodegenerative diseases featuring brain accumulation of aggregated, misfolded proteins. Sucrose gradient distribution showed that mutant seipin forms much larger aggregates as compared with wild type (wt) seipin, indicating an impaired oligomerization. On the other hand, the interaction between wt and Celia seipin confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays, together with the identification of mixed oligomers in sucrose gradient fractionation experiments can explain the lack of symptoms in heterozygous carriers. We propose that the increased aggregation and subsequent impaired oligomerization of Celia seipin leads to cell death. In heterozygous carriers, wt seipin might prevent the damage caused by mutant seipin through its sequestration into harmless mixed oligomers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Working with and promoting early career scientists within a larger community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, K.

    2017-12-01

    For many scientific communities, engaging early career researchers is critical for success. These young scientists (graduate students, postdocs, and newly appointed professors) are actively forming collaborations and instigating new research programs. They also stand to benefit hugely from being part of a scientific community, gaining access to career development activities, becoming part of strong collaborator networks, and achieving recognition in their field of study — all of which will help their professional development. There are many ways community leaders can work proactively to support and engage early career scientists, and it it is often a community manager's job to work with leadership to implement such activities. In this presentation, I will outline ways of engaging early career scientists at events and tailored workshops, of promoting development of their leadership skills, and of creating opportunities for recognizing early career scientists within larger scientific communities. In this talk, I will draw from my experience working with the Deep Carbon Observatory Early Career Scientist Network, supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  2. Lecture archiving on a larger scale at the University of Michigan and CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Jeremy; Lougheed, Robert; Neal, Homer A, E-mail: herrj@umich.ed [University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS Collaboratory Project at the University of Michigan has been a leader in the area of collaborative tools since 1999. Its activities include the development of standards, software and hardware tools for lecture archiving, and making recommendations for videoconferencing and remote teaching facilities. Starting in 2006 our group became involved in classroom recordings, and in early 2008 we spawned CARMA, a University-wide recording service. This service uses a new portable recording system that we developed. Capture, archiving and dissemination of rich multimedia content from lectures, tutorials and classes are increasingly widespread activities among universities and research institutes. A growing array of related commercial and open source technologies is becoming available, with several new products introduced in the last couple years. As the result of a new close partnership between U-M and CERN IT, a market survey of these products was conducted and a summary of the results are presented here. It is informing an ambitious effort in 2009 to equip many CERN rooms with automated lecture archiving systems, on a much larger scale than before. This new technology is being integrated with CERN's existing webcast, CDS, and Indico applications.

  3. Assignment methodology for larger RNA oligonucleotides: Application to an ATP-binding RNA aptamer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckmann, Thorsten; Feigon, Juli

    1997-01-01

    The use of uniform 13C, 15N labeling in the NMR spectroscopic study of RNA structures has greatly facilitated the assignment process in small RNA oligonucleotides. For ribose spinsystem assignments, exploitation of these labels has followed previously developed methods for the study of proteins. However, for sequential assignment of the exchangeable and nonexchangeable protons of the nucleotides, it has been necessary to develop a variety of new NMR experiments. Even these are of limited utility in the unambiguous assignment of larger RNAs due to the short carbon relaxation times and extensive spectral overlap for all nuclei.These problems can largely be overcome by the additional use of base-type selectively 13C, 15N-labeled RNA in combination with a judicious use of related RNAs with base substitutions. We report the application of this approach to a 36-nucleotide ATP-binding RNA aptamer in complex with AMP. Complete sequential 1H assignments, as well as the majority of 13C and 15N assignments, were obtained

  4. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Fukano

    Full Text Available The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1 butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2 butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3 butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.

  5. Developmental reversals in risky decision making: intelligence agents show larger decision biases than college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Chick, Christina F; Corbin, Jonathan C; Hsia, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence agents make risky decisions routinely, with serious consequences for national security. Although common sense and most theories imply that experienced intelligence professionals should be less prone to irrational inconsistencies than college students, we show the opposite. Moreover, the growth of experience-based intuition predicts this developmental reversal. We presented intelligence agents, college students, and postcollege adults with 30 risky-choice problems in gain and loss frames and then compared the three groups' decisions. The agents not only exhibited larger framing biases than the students, but also were more confident in their decisions. The postcollege adults (who were selected to be similar to the students) occupied an interesting middle ground, being generally as biased as the students (sometimes more biased) but less biased than the agents. An experimental manipulation testing an explanation for these effects, derived from fuzzy-trace theory, made the students look as biased as the agents. These results show that, although framing biases are irrational (because equivalent outcomes are treated differently), they are the ironical output of cognitively advanced mechanisms of meaning making.

  6. Dynamics of Transformation from Platinum Icosahedral Nanoparticles to Larger FCC Crystal at Millisecond Time Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenpei [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Lab.; Wu, Jianbo [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Lab. and Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Yoon, Aram [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Lab.; Lu, Ping [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Qi, Liang [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Wen, Jianguo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials and Electron Microscopy Center; Miller, Dean J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials and Electron Microscopy Center; Mabon, James C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Lab.; Wilson, William L. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Lab.; Yang, Hong [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Zuo, Jian-Min [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Lab.

    2017-12-08

    Atomic motion at grain boundaries is essential to microstructure development, growth and stability of catalysts and other nanostructured materials. However, boundary atomic motion is often too fast to observe in a conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM) and too slow for ultrafast electron microscopy. We report on the entire transformation process of strained Pt icosahedral nanoparticles (ICNPs) into larger FCC crystals, captured at 2.5 ms time resolution using a fast electron camera. Results show slow diffusive dislocation motion at nm/s inside ICNPs and fast surface transformation at μm/s. By characterizing nanoparticle strain, we show that the fast transformation is driven by inhomogeneous surface stress. And interaction with pre-existing defects led to the slowdown of the transformation front inside the nanoparticles. Particle coalescence, assisted by oxygen-induced surface migration at T ≥ 300°C, also played a critical role. Thus by studying transformation in the Pt ICNPs at high time and spatial resolution, we obtain critical insights into the transformation mechanisms in strained Pt nanoparticles.

  7. Patterns of species richness and the center of diversity in modern Indo-Pacific larger foraminifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förderer, Meena; Rödder, Dennis; Langer, Martin R

    2018-05-29

    Symbiont-bearing Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are ubiquitous components of shallow tropical and subtropical environments and contribute substantially to carbonaceous reef and shelf sediments. Climate change is dramatically affecting carbonate producing organisms and threatens the diversity and structural integrity of coral reef ecosystems. Recent invertebrate and vertebrate surveys have identified the Coral Triangle as the planet's richest center of marine life delineating the region as a top priority for conservation. We compiled and analyzed extensive occurrence records for 68 validly recognized species of LBF from the Indian and Pacific Ocean, established individual range maps and applied Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP) and Species Distribution Model (SDM) methodologies to create the first ocean-wide species richness maps. SDM output was further used for visualizing latitudinal and longitudinal diversity gradients. Our findings provide strong support for assigning the tropical Central Indo-Pacific as the world's species-richest marine region with the Central Philippines emerging as the bullseye of LBF diversity. Sea surface temperature and nutrient content were identified as the most influential environmental constraints exerting control over the distribution of LBF. Our findings contribute to the completion of worldwide research on tropical marine biodiversity patterns and the identification of targeting centers for conservation efforts.

  8. Transport properties of a Kondo dot with a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y S; Fan, X H; Xia, Y J; Yang, X F

    2008-01-01

    We investigate theoretically linear and nonlinear quantum transport through a smaller quantum dot in a Kondo regime connected to two leads in the presence of a larger side-coupled noninteracting quantum dot, without tunneling coupling to the leads. To do this we employ the slave boson mean field theory with the help of the Keldysh Green's function at zero temperature. The numerical results show that the Kondo conductance peak may develop multiple resonance peaks and multiple zero points in the conductance spectrum owing to constructive and destructive quantum interference effects when the energy levels of the large side-coupled noninteracting dot are located in the vicinity of the Fermi level in the leads. As the coupling strength between two quantum dots increases, the tunneling current through the quantum device as a function of gate voltage applied across the two leads is suppressed. The spin-dependent transport properties of two parallel coupled quantum dots connected to two ferromagnetic leads are also investigated. The numerical results show that, for the parallel configuration, the spin current or linear spin differential conductance are enhanced when the polarization strength in the two leads is increased

  9. Scaling local species-habitat relations to the larger landscape with a hierarchical spatial count model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Knutson, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Much of what is known about avian species-habitat relations has been derived from studies of birds at local scales. It is entirely unclear whether the relations observed at these scales translate to the larger landscape in a predictable linear fashion. We derived habitat models and mapped predicted abundances for three forest bird species of eastern North America using bird counts, environmental variables, and hierarchical models applied at three spatial scales. Our purpose was to understand habitat associations at multiple spatial scales and create predictive abundance maps for purposes of conservation planning at a landscape scale given the constraint that the variables used in this exercise were derived from local-level studies. Our models indicated a substantial influence of landscape context for all species, many of which were counter to reported associations at finer spatial extents. We found land cover composition provided the greatest contribution to the relative explained variance in counts for all three species; spatial structure was second in importance. No single spatial scale dominated any model, indicating that these species are responding to factors at multiple spatial scales. For purposes of conservation planning, areas of predicted high abundance should be investigated to evaluate the conservation potential of the landscape in their general vicinity. In addition, the models and spatial patterns of abundance among species suggest locations where conservation actions may benefit more than one species. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Yuya; Tanaka, Yosuke; Farkhary, Sayed Ibrahim; Kurachi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1) butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2) butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3) butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.

  11. The application of slip length models to larger textures in turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhall, Chris; Garcia-Mayoral, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    We present results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows over superhydrophobic surfaces. We assess the validity of simulations where the surface is modelled as homogeneous slip lengths, comparing them to simulations where the surface texture is resolved. Our results show that once the coherent flow induced by the texture is removed from the velocity fields, the remaining flow sees the surface as homogeneous. We then investigate how the overlying turbulence is modified by the presence of surface texture. For small textures, we show that turbulence is shifted closer to the wall due to the presence of slip, but otherwise remains essentially unmodified. For larger textures, the texture interacts with the turbulent lengthscales, thereby modifying the overlying turbulence. We also show that the saturation of the effect of the spanwise slip length (Fukagata et al. 2006, Busse & Sandham 2012, Seo & Mani 2016), which is drag increasing, is caused by the impermeability imposed at the surface. This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  12. Lecture archiving on a larger scale at the University of Michigan and CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, Jeremy; Lougheed, Robert; Neal, Homer A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboratory Project at the University of Michigan has been a leader in the area of collaborative tools since 1999. Its activities include the development of standards, software and hardware tools for lecture archiving, and making recommendations for videoconferencing and remote teaching facilities. Starting in 2006 our group became involved in classroom recordings, and in early 2008 we spawned CARMA, a University-wide recording service. This service uses a new portable recording system that we developed. Capture, archiving and dissemination of rich multimedia content from lectures, tutorials and classes are increasingly widespread activities among universities and research institutes. A growing array of related commercial and open source technologies is becoming available, with several new products introduced in the last couple years. As the result of a new close partnership between U-M and CERN IT, a market survey of these products was conducted and a summary of the results are presented here. It is informing an ambitious effort in 2009 to equip many CERN rooms with automated lecture archiving systems, on a much larger scale than before. This new technology is being integrated with CERN's existing webcast, CDS, and Indico applications.

  13. Volcanism in slab tear faults is larger than in island-arcs and back-arcs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Luca; Passaro, Salvatore; Tontini, Fabio Caratori; Ventura, Guido

    2017-11-13

    Subduction-transform edge propagators are lithospheric tears bounding slabs and back-arc basins. The volcanism at these edges is enigmatic because it is lacking comprehensive geological and geophysical data. Here we present bathymetric, potential-field data, and direct observations of the seafloor on the 90 km long Palinuro volcanic chain overlapping the E-W striking tear of the roll-backing Ionian slab in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The volcanic chain includes arc-type central volcanoes and fissural, spreading-type centers emplaced along second-order shears. The volume of the volcanic chain is larger than that of the neighbor island-arc edifices and back-arc spreading center. Such large volume of magma is associated to an upwelling of the isotherms due to mantle melts upraising from the rear of the slab along the tear fault. The subduction-transform edge volcanism focuses localized spreading processes and its magnitude is underestimated. This volcanism characterizes the subduction settings associated to volcanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers.

  14. Origami-inspired metamaterial absorbers for improving the larger-incident angle absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yang; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Pei, Zhibin; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-01-01

    When a folded resistive patch array stands up on a metallic plane, it can exhibit more outstanding absorption performance. Our theoretical investigations and simulations demonstrated that the folded resistive patch arrays can enhance the absorption bandwidth progressively with the increase of the incident angle for the oblique transverse magnetic incidence, which is contrary to the conventional resistive frequency selective surface absorber. On illumination, we achieved a 3D structure metamaterial absorber with the folded resistive patches. The proposed absorber is obtained from the inspiration of the origami, and it has broadband and lager-incident angle absorption. Both the simulations and the measurements indicate that the proposed absorber achieves the larger-incident angle absorption until 75° in the frequency band of 3.6–11.4 GHz. In addition, the absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.023 g cm −2 . Due to the broadband and lager-incident angle absorption, it is expected that the absorbers may find potential applications such as stealth technologies and electromagnetic interference. (paper)

  15. Jamaican families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Dianne Cooney

    2003-01-01

    The study of the family in the Caribbean originated with European scholars who assumed the universality of the patriarchal nuclear family and the primacy of this structure to the healthy functioning of society. Matrifocal Caribbean families thus were seen as chaotic and disorganized and inadequate to perform the essential tasks of the social system. This article provides a more current discussion of the Jamaican family. It argues that its structure is the result of the agency and adaptation of its members and not the root cause of the increasing marginalization of peoples in the developing world. The article focuses on families living in poverty and how the family structure supports essential family functions, adaptations, and survival.

  16. Initial contents of residue quality parameters predict effects of larger soil fauna on decomposition of contrasting quality residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratikorn Sanghaw

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A 52-week decomposition study employing the soil larger fauna exclusion technique through litter bags of two mesh sizes (20 and 0.135 mm was conducted in a long-term (18 yr field experiment. Organic residues of contrasting quality of N, lignin (L, polyphenols (PP and cellulose (CL all in grams per kilogram: rice straw (RS: 4.5N, 22.2L, 3.9PP, 449CL, groundnut stover (GN: 21.2N, 71.4L, 8.1PP, 361CL, dipterocarp leaf litter (DP: 5.1N, 303L, 68.9PP, 271CL and tamarind leaf litter (TM: 11.6N, 190L, 27.7PP, 212CL were applied to soil annually to assess and predict soil larger fauna effects (LFE on decomposition based on the initial contents of the residue chemical constituents. Mass losses in all residues were not different under soil fauna inclusion and exclusion treatments during the early stage (up to week 4 after residue incorporation but became significantly higher under the inclusion than the exclusion treatments during the later stage (week 8 onwards. LFE were highest (2–51% under the resistant DP at most decomposition stages. During the early stage (weeks 1–4, both the initial contents of labile (N and CL and recalcitrant C, and recalcitrant C interaction with labile constituents of residues showed significant correlations (r = 0.64–0.90 with LFE. In the middle stage (week 16, LFE under resistant DP and TM had significant positive correlations with L, L + PP and L/CL. They were also affected by these quality parameters as shown by the multiple regression analysis. In the later stages (weeks 26–52, the L/CL ratio was the most prominent quality parameter affecting LFE. Keywords: Mesofauna and macrofauna, Microorganisms, Recalcitrant and labile compounds, Residue chemical composition, Tropical sandy soil

  17. Safety and Effectiveness of UFE in Fibroids Larger than 10 cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bérczi, Viktor, E-mail: berczi@hotmail.com; Valcseva, Éva, E-mail: evapeneva@gmail.com; Kozics, Dóra, E-mail: dora.kozics@gmail.com; Kalina, Ildikó, E-mail: ilkalina@t-online.hu; Kaposi, Pál, E-mail: kaposipal@gmail.com [Semmelweis University, Department of Radiology and Oncotherapy (Hungary); Sziller, Péter, E-mail: psziller@t-online.hu; Várbíró, Szabolcs, E-mail: varbiroszabolcs@gmail.com [Semmelweis University, 2nd Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Hungary); Botos, Erzsébet Mária, E-mail: erzsebetbotos@gmail.com [Semmelweis University, Department of Radiology and Oncotherapy (Hungary)

    2015-10-15

    IntroductionEarly literature suggested that the size of the uterus, the size of the dominant fibroid, and the amount of applied embolization particles would be the risk factors for major postprocedural complications, but recent publications have confuted these early results. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether the size of the dominant fibroid would influence the complication rate and effectiveness in a large single-center cohort.Patients and MethodsFrom 28 April 2008 until 31 December 2012, 303 patients had uterine artery embolization (UAE). 262 patients had small [largest diameter <10 cm (Group 1)], 41 patients had large [largest diameter >10 cm (Group 2)] fibroid. UAE was performed from unilateral femoral access using 500–710 and 355–500 µm polyvinyl alcohol particles. Periprocedural and postprocedural complications and numerical analog quality-of-life scores (0—unbearable symptoms; 100—perfect quality of life) were listed and statistically analyzed.ResultsDuring the mean follow-up time [7.79 ± 5.16 (SD) month], data on 275 patients (275/303 = 90.8 %) were available. Quality-of-life score was 33.3 ± 23.5 and 33.5 ± 24.1 before, whereas 85.6 ± 16.0 and 81.5 ± 23.5 after UAE in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, (Mann–Whitney U test one-sided, p = 0.365). There were 4 myoma expulsions, 1 acute myomectomy, and 2 acute hysterectomies reported from Group 1, meanwhile 1 myoma expulsion, 1 acute myomectomy, and 2 acute hysterectomies were documented from Group 2 (NS differences).ConclusionThere was no significant difference in the effectiveness and in the number of minor and major complications between fibroids with <10 cm largest diameter compared to those >10 cm.

  18. Mammal extinctions, body size, and paleotemperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, T M; Holroyd, P A; Rose, K D

    1994-10-25

    There is a general inverse relationship between the natural logarithm of tooth area (a body size indicator) of some fossil mammals and paleotemperature during approximately 2.9 million years of the early Eocene in the Bighorn Basin of northwest Wyoming. When mean temperatures became warmer, tooth areas tended to become smaller. During colder times, larger species predominated; these generally became larger or remained the same size. Paleotemperature trends also markedly affected patterns of local (and, perhaps, regional) extinction and immigration. New species appeared as immigrants during or near the hottest (smaller forms) and coldest (larger forms) intervals. Paleotemperature trend reversals commonly resulted in the ultimate extinction of both small forms (during cooling intervals) and larger forms (during warming intervals). These immigrations and extinctions mark faunal turnovers that were also modulated by sharp increases in sediment accumulation rate.

  19. Sibship Size and Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    have a negative effect on educational attainment most studies cannot distinguish empirically between the CM and the RDH. In this paper I use the different theoretical predictions in the CM and RDH on the role of cognitive ability as a partial or complete mediator of the effect of sibship size......Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories - for substantively different reasons - predict that sibship size should...... to distinguish the two theories and to identify a unique RDH effect on educational attainment. Using sibling data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and a random effect Instrumental Variable model I find that, in addition to a negative effect on cognitive ability, sibship size also has a strong negative...

  20. Persistent Homology fingerprinting of microstructural controls on larger-scale fluid flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, C.; Mitchell, S. A.; Callor, N.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.; Yoon, H.; Conner, G. R.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional subsurface continuum multiphysics models include useful yet limiting geometrical assumptions: penny- or disc-shaped cracks, spherical or elliptical pores, bundles of capillary tubes, cubic law fracture permeability, etc. Each physics (flow, transport, mechanics) uses constitutive models with an increasing number of fit parameters that pertain to the microporous structure of the rock, but bear no inter-physics relationships or self-consistency. Recent advances in digital rock physics and pore-scale modeling link complex physics to detailed pore-level geometries, but measures for upscaling are somewhat unsatisfactory and come at a high computational cost. Continuum mechanics rely on a separation between small scale pore fluctuations and larger scale heterogeneity (and perhaps anisotropy), but this can break down (particularly for shales). Algebraic topology offers powerful mathematical tools for describing a local-to-global structure of shapes. Persistent homology, in particular, analyzes the dynamics of topological features and summarizes into numeric values. It offers a roadmap to both "fingerprint" topologies of pore structure and multiscale connectedness as well as links pore structure to physical behavior, thus potentially providing a means to relate the dependence of constitutive behaviors of pore structures in a self-consistent way. We present a persistence homology (PH) analysis framework of 3D image sets including a focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy data set of the Selma Chalk. We extract structural characteristics of sampling volumes via persistence homology and fit a statistical model using the summarized values to estimate porosity, permeability, and connectivity—Lattice Boltzmann methods for single phase flow modeling are used to obtain the relationships. These PH methods allow for prediction of geophysical properties based on the geometry and connectivity in a computationally efficient way. Sandia National Laboratories is a

  1. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  2. A Larger Social Network Enhances Novel Object Location Memory and Reduces Hippocampal Microgliosis in Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryon M.; Yao, Xinyue; Chen, Kelly S.; Kirby, Elizabeth D.

    2018-01-01

    The mammalian hippocampus shows marked decline in function with aging across many species, including humans and laboratory rodent models. This decline frequently manifests in memory impairments that occur even in the absence of dementia pathology. In humans, a number of factors correlate with preserved hippocampal memory in aging, such as exercise, cognitive stimulation and number of social ties. While interventional studies and animal models clearly indicate that exercise and cognitive stimulation lead to hippocampal preservation, there is relatively little research on whether a decline in social ties leads to cognitive decline or vice versa. Even in animal studies of environmental enrichment in aging, the focus typically falls on physical enrichment such as a rotating cast of toys, rather than the role of social interactions. The present studies investigated the hypothesis that a greater number of social ties in aging mice would lead to improved hippocampal function. Aged, female C57/Bl6 mice were housed for 3 months in pairs or large groups (7 mice per cage). Group-housed mice showed greater novel object location memory and stronger preference for a spatial navigation strategy in the Barnes maze, though no difference in escape latency, compared to pair-housed mice. Group-housed mice did not differ from pair-housed mice in basal corticosterone levels or adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Group-housed mice did, however, show reduced numbers of Iba1/CD68+ microglia in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that group housing led to better memory function and reduced markers of neuroinflammation in aged mice. More broadly, they support a causative link between social ties and hippocampal function, suggesting that merely having a larger social network can positively influence the aging brain. Future research should address the molecular mechanisms by which a greater number of social ties alters hippocampal function. PMID:29904345

  3. Experience from a number of larger surface earth heating systems. Erfarenheter fraan naagra stora ytjordvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    The heat pump systems investigated in this project supply heat to the following loads: the Adult High School in Oestra Grevie, a cycle factory in Vandsbro, detached houses in Surte and detached houses in the Sandhed area of Orsa. The heat pumps in all four have operated reasonably well. As far as design is concerned the systems are of monovalent type with low-temperature heating systems. Although the Oestra Grevie installation incorporates an oil-fired boiler for supplying heat during the winter to an older part of the school, there is no load-sharing between the boiler and the heat pump. The Vansbro installation incorporates an eletric boiler, but is has not been necessary in practice to use it. As a result, the systems have not suffered from what would normally be the relatively common problems encountered in bivalent systems from joint operation. Total heat and energy demands are generally over-estimated, which has meant that heat pumps are larger than was originally intended. In purely physical terms, specific heat abstraction from the ground in kWh/m/sup 2/ per year for the various systems could be increased by 100-700%, although abstraction should also be related to the intended use of the ground. However, it is clear that it could be higher in the systems investigated here. If building these systems today, optimum system design would enable capital costs to be reduced by 10-35%. However, there does not appear to be any scope for general cost reductions per m of hose in large collector systems: the decisive factors are ground conditions and the distance between the collector and the heat pump in each individual case.

  4. Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    To accomplish Federal goals for renewable energy, sustainability, and energy security, large-scale renewable energy projects must be developed and constructed on Federal sites at a significant scale with significant private investment. For the purposes of this Guide, large-scale Federal renewable energy projects are defined as renewable energy facilities larger than 10 megawatts (MW) that are sited on Federal property and lands and typically financed and owned by third parties.1 The U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps Federal agencies meet these goals and assists agency personnel navigate the complexities of developing such projects and attract the necessary private capital to complete them. This Guide is intended to provide a general resource that will begin to develop the Federal employee’s awareness and understanding of the project developer’s operating environment and the private sector’s awareness and understanding of the Federal environment. Because the vast majority of the investment that is required to meet the goals for large-scale renewable energy projects will come from the private sector, this Guide has been organized to match Federal processes with typical phases of commercial project development. FEMP collaborated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and professional project developers on this Guide to ensure that Federal projects have key elements recognizable to private sector developers and investors. The main purpose of this Guide is to provide a project development framework to allow the Federal Government, private developers, and investors to work in a coordinated fashion on large-scale renewable energy projects. The framework includes key elements that describe a successful, financially attractive large-scale renewable energy project. This framework begins the translation between the Federal and private sector operating environments. When viewing the overall

  5. Molecular evidence for Lessepsian invasion of soritids (larger symbiont bearing benthic foraminifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gily Merkado

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is considered as one of the hotspots of marine bioinvasions, largely due to the influx of tropical species migrating through the Suez Canal, so-called Lessepsian migrants. Several cases of Lessepsian migration have been documented recently, however, little is known about the ecological characteristics of the migrating species and their aptitude to colonize the new areas. This study focused on Red Sea soritids, larger symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera (LBF that are indicative of tropical and subtropical environments and were recently found in the Israeli coast of the Eastern Mediterranean. We combined molecular phylogenetic analyses of soritids and their algal symbionts as well as network analysis of Sorites orbiculus Forskål to compare populations from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea and from a known hotspot in Shikmona (northern Israel that consists of a single population of S. orbiculus. Our phylogenetic analyses show that all specimens found in Shikmona are genetically identical to a population of S. orbiculus living on a similar shallow water pebbles habitat in the Gulf of Elat. Our analyses also show that the symbionts found in Shikmona and Elat soritids belong to the Symbiodinium clade F5, which is common in the Red Sea and also present in the Indian Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Our study therefore provides the first genetic and ecological evidences that indicate that modern population of soritids found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian, and is less likely the descendant of a native ancient Mediterranean species.

  6. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...... was checked with mixtures of monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres. In addition, the ultrastructure of Lipofundin N and Lipofundin MCT was investigated by cryo-electron microscopy. All different particle sizing methods gave different mean sizes and size distributions but overall, results were in reasonable...... agreement. By all methods, a larger mean droplet size (between 350 and 400 nm) as well as a broader distribution was measured for Lipofundin N compared to Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem (mean droplet size between about 280 and 320 nm). Size distributions of Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem were very similar...

  7. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  8. Family Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    safety and flexibility at the level of multi-object systems. We are granted the flexibility of using different families of kinds of objects, and we are guaranteed the safety of the combination. This paper highlights the inability of traditional polymorphism to handle multiple objects, and presents family...... polymorphism as a way to overcome this problem. Family polymorphism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta, a generalized version of Beta, and the source code of this implementation is available under GPL....

  9. Family literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    I Projekt familielæsning, der er et samarbejde mellem Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning og Hillerød Bibliotek, arbejder vi med at få kontakt til de familier, som biblioteket ellers aldrig ser som brugere og dermed også de børn, der vokser op i familier, for hvem bøger og oplæsningssituationer ikk...... er en selvfølgelig del af barndommen. Det, vi vil undersøge og ønsker at være med til at udvikle hos disse familier, er det, man kan kalde family literacy....

  10. Community families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Lou, Stina; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    : Qualitative interviews with members of volunteer families. Discussion: The families were motivated by helping a vulnerable person and to engaging in a rewarding relationship. However, the families often doubted their personal judgment and relied on mental health workers to act as safety net. Conclusion......Background: Social interventions targeted at people with severe mental illness (SMI) often include volunteers. Volunteers' perspectives are important for these interventions to work. The present paper investigates the experiences of volunteer families who befriend a person with SMI. Material...

  11. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...... and clothing sector. Family ownership reduces union membership; and within family firms, the number of family members employed is negatively associated with unionization rates and employee perceptions of unions....

  12. Body Size, Fecundity, and Sexual Size Dimorphism in the Neotropical Cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva Del Castillo, R

    2015-04-01

    Body size is directly or indirectly correlated with fitness. Body size, which conveys maximal fitness, often differs between sexes. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) evolves because body size tends to be related to reproductive success through different pathways in males and females. In general, female insects are larger than males, suggesting that natural selection for high female fecundity could be stronger than sexual selection in males. I assessed the role of body size and fecundity in SSD in the Neotropical cricket Macroanaxipha macilenta (Saussure). This species shows a SSD bias toward males. Females did not present a correlation between number of eggs and body size. Nonetheless, there were fluctuations in the number of eggs carried by females during the sampling period, and the size of females that were collected carrying eggs was larger than that of females collected with no eggs. Since mating induces vitellogenesis in some cricket species, differences in female body size might suggest male mate choice. Sexual selection in the body size of males of M. macilenta may possibly be stronger than the selection of female fecundity. Even so, no mating behavior was observed during the field observations, including audible male calling or courtship songs, yet males may produce ultrasonic calls due to their size. If female body size in M. macilenta is not directly related to fecundity, the lack of a correlated response to selection on female body size could represent an alternate evolutionary pathway in the evolution of body size and SSD in insects.

  13. This is My Family

    OpenAIRE

    Yeğen, Hale Nur; Çetin, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Me and my family, Families poem, Mother-Father, Brother-Sister, Grandparents, Uncle-Aunt, Cousin, Family, Family handgame, My family tree, Activities (Three In a Family), Digital Games, A family poem, Quiz

  14. Determination of Flaw Size from Thermographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, William P.; Howell, Patricia A.; Zalameda, Joseph N.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional methods for reducing the pulsed thermographic responses of delaminations tend to overestimate the size of the flaw. Since the heat diffuses in the plane parallel to the surface, the resulting temperature profile over the flaw is larger than the flaw. A variational method is presented for reducing the thermographic data to produce an estimated size for the flaw that is much closer to the true size of the flaw. The size is determined from the spatial thermal response of the exterior surface above the flaw and a constraint on the length of the contour surrounding the flaw. The technique is applied to experimental data acquired on a flat bottom hole composite specimen.

  15. Family problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1984-01-01

    Even Grand Unified Theories may not explain the repetitive pattern of fermions in the Standard Model. The abysmal absence of dynamical information about these ''families'' is emphasized. The evidence that family quantum numbers exist, and are not conserved, is reviewed. It is argued that rare kaon decays may be the best means to obtain more information on this important question

  16. Family problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1984-01-01

    Even Grand Unified Theories may not explain the repetitive pattern of fermions in the Standard Model. The abysmal absence of dynamical information about these families is emphasized. The evidence that family quantum numbers exist, and are not conserved, is reviewed. It is argued that rare kaon decays may be the best means to obtain more information on this important question

  17. Familial hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Tests A physical exam may show fatty skin growths called xanthomas and cholesterol deposits in the eye (corneal arcus). The health care provider will ask questions about your personal and family medical history. There may be: A strong family history of ...

  18. FAMILY PYRGOTIDAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Ramon Luciano; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2016-06-14

    Pyrgotidae is a family of endoparasitics flies of beetles with worldwide distribution. The Neotropical fauna is composed by 59 valid species names disposed in 13 genera. The occurrence of Pyrgota longipes Hendel is the first record of the family in Colombia.

  19. The fluorescence properties of aerosol larger than 0.8 μm in urban and tropical rainforest locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gabey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available UV-LIF measurements were performed on ambient aerosol in Manchester, UK (urban city centre, winter and Borneo, Malaysia (remote, tropical using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer, version 3 (WIBS3. These sites are taken to represent environments with minor and significant primary biological aerosol (PBA influences respectively, and the urban dataset describes the fluorescent background aerosol against which PBA must be identified by researchers using LIF. The ensemble aerosol at both sites was characterised over 2–3 weeks by measuring the fluorescence intensity and optical equivalent diameter (DP of single particles sized 0.8 ≤ DP ≤ 20 μm. Filter samples were also collected for a subset of the Manchester campaign and analysed using energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM, which revealed mostly non-PBA at D ≤ 1 μm.

    The WIBS3 features three fluorescence channels: the emission following a 280 nm excitation is recorded at 310–400 nm (channel F1 and 400–600 nm (F2, and fluorescence excited at 350 nm is detected at 400–600 nm (F3. In Manchester the primary size mode of fluorescent and non-fluorescent material was present at 0.8–1.2 μm, with a secondary fluorescent mode at 2–4 μm. In Borneo non-fluorescent material peaked at 0.8–1.2 μm and fluorescent at 3–4 μm. Agreement between fluorescent number concentrations in each channel differed at the two sites, with F1 and F3 reporting similar concentrations in Borneo but F3 outnumbering F1 by a factor of 2–3 across the size spectrum in Manchester.

    The fluorescence intensity in each channel generally rose with DP at both sites with the exception of F1 intensity in Manchester, which peaked at DP = 4 μm, causing a divergence between F1 and F3 intensity at larger DP. This divergence and the differing

  20. Genome size variation in the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honghai; Martin, Sara L; Bekele, Wubishet A; Latta, Robert G; Diederichsen, Axel; Peng, Yuanying; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Genome size is an indicator of evolutionary distance and a metric for genome characterization. Here, we report accurate estimates of genome size in 99 accessions from 26 species of Avena. We demonstrate that the average genome size of C genome diploid species (2C = 10.26 pg) is 15% larger than that of A genome species (2C = 8.95 pg), and that this difference likely accounts for a progression of size among tetraploid species, where AB genome configuration had similar genome sizes (average 2C = 25.74 pg). Genome size was mostly consistent within species and in general agreement with current information about evolutionary distance among species. Results also suggest that most of the polyploid species in Avena have experienced genome downsizing in relation to their diploid progenitors. Genome size measurements could provide additional quality control for species identification in germplasm collections, especially in cases where diploid and polyploid species have similar morphology.

  1. Modelling the effect of size-asymmetric competition on size inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Ruø; Weiner, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The concept of size asymmetry in resource competition among plants, in which larger individuals obtain a disproportionate share of contested resources, appears to be very straightforward, but the effects of size asymmetry on growth and size variation among individuals have proved...... to be controversial. It has often been assumed that competition among individual plants in a population has to be size-asymmetric to result in higher size inequality than in the absence of competition, but here we question this inference. Using very simple, individual-based models, we investigate how size symmetry...... of competition affects the development in size inequality between two competing plants and show that increased size inequality due to competition is not always strong evidence for size-asymmetric competition. Even absolute symmetric competition, in which all plants receive the same amount of resources...

  2. Body size and predatory performance in wolves: is bigger better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Mech, L David; Eberly, Lynn E

    2009-05-01

    1. Large body size hinders locomotor performance in ways that may lead to trade-offs in predator foraging ability that limit the net predatory benefit of larger size. For example, size-related improvements in handling prey may come at the expense of pursuing prey and thus negate any enhancement in overall predatory performance due to increasing size. 2. This hypothesis was tested with longitudinal data from repeated observations of 94 individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Wolf size was estimated from an individually based sex-specific growth model derived from body mass measurements of 304 wolves. 3. Larger size granted individual wolves a net predatory advantage despite substantial variation in its effect on the performance of different predatory tasks; larger size improved performance of a strength-related task (grappling and subduing elk) but failed to improve performance of a locomotor-related task (selecting an elk from a group) for wolves > 39 kg. 4. Sexual dimorphism in wolf size also explained why males outperformed females in each of the three tasks considered (attacking, selecting, and killing). 5. These findings support the generalization that bigger predators are overall better hunters, but they also indicate that increasing size ultimately limits elements of predatory behaviour that require superior locomotor performance. We argue that this could potentially narrow the dietary niche of larger carnivores as well as limit the evolution of larger size if prey are substantially more difficult to pursue than to handle.

  3. Body size and predatory performance in wolves: Is bigger better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Mech, L.D.; Eberly, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Large body size hinders locomotor performance in ways that may lead to trade-offs in predator foraging ability that limit the net predatory benefit of larger size. For example, size-related improvements in handling prey may come at the expense of pursuing prey and thus negate any enhancement in overall predatory performance due to increasing size. 2. This hypothesis was tested with longitudinal data from repeated observations of 94 individually known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. Wolf size was estimated from an individually based sex-specific growth model derived from body mass measurements of 304 wolves. 3. Larger size granted individual wolves a net predatory advantage despite substantial variation in its effect on the performance of different predatory tasks; larger size improved performance of a strength-related task (grappling and subduing elk) but failed to improve performance of a locomotor-related task (selecting an elk from a group) for wolves > 39 kg. 4. Sexual dimorphism in wolf size also explained why males outperformed females in each of the three tasks considered (attacking, selecting, and killing). 5. These findings support the generalization that bigger predators are overall better hunters, but they also indicate that increasing size ultimately limits elements of predatory behaviour that require superior locomotor performance. We argue that this could potentially narrow the dietary niche of larger carnivores as well as limit the evolution of larger size if prey are substantially more difficult to pursue than to handle. ?? 2009 British Ecological Society.

  4. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Hardman, Charlotte A.

    2016-01-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study ...

  5. Development and Examination of a Family Triadic Measure to Examine Quality of Life Family Congruence in Nursing Home Residents and Two Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalgaard Kelly, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The overall purpose of this study was to propose and test a conceptual model and apply family analyses methods to understand quality of life family congruence in the nursing home setting. Method: Secondary data for this study were from a larger study, titled Measurement, Indicators and Improvement of the Quality of Life (QOL) in Nursing Homes . Research literature, family systems theory and human ecological assumptions, fostered the conceptual model empirically testing quality of life family congruence. Results: The study results supported a model examining nursing home residents and two family members on quality of life family congruence. Specifically, family intergenerational dynamic factors, resident personal and social-psychological factors, and nursing home family input factors were examined to identify differences in quality of life family congruence among triad families. Discussion: Formal family involvement and resident cognitive functioning were found as the two most influential factors to quality of life family congruence (QOLFC).

  6. Ecological correlates of relative brain size in some South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative brain size (size of the brain once body size effects have been removed) has been calculated for 16 species of rodent from South Africa and is shown to vary with six species having a positive RBS (that is a brain larger than expected) and 10 a negative RBS. Arboreal species such as Paraxerus cepapi and ...

  7. Family matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    brain injury participated. Family and brain injury characteristics were reported by the ill and healthy parents. Children self-reported post-traumatic stress symptoms (PSS) using the Child Impact of Events revised (CRIES). Emotional and behavioural problems among the children were also identified...... by the parents using the Achenbach’s Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). RESULTS: The family stress variables relating to the healthy spouse in all six comparisons were significant (p... scores for the children. For the adjusted associations, we again found the family stress variables in the healthy spouse to be related to the risk of emotional and behavioral problems in the children. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that in ABI families, the children’s emotional functioning...

  8. Familial hypercholesterolaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a monogenic disorder of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism. It is characterised .... Figure 2: Cumulative prevalence of physical signs in adult FH patients at the. GSH Lipid .... microvascular trauma.

  9. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family members to do your laundry, walk the dog, or update others on your progress. You may ... parenting while living with cancer . The importance of communication As demonstrated above, good communication is important in ...

  10. Familial dysautonomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition. FD occurs most often in people of Eastern European Jewish ancestry (Ashkenazi Jews). It is caused ... also be used for prenatal diagnosis. People of Eastern European Jewish background and families with a history ...

  11. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    Complex butterfly wing color patterns are coordinated throughout a wing by unknown mechanisms that provide undifferentiated immature scale cells with positional information for scale color. Because there is a reasonable level of correspondence between the color pattern element and scale size at least in Junonia orithya and Junonia oenone, a single morphogenic signal may contain positional information for both color and size. However, this color-size relationship has not been demonstrated in other species of the family Nymphalidae. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of scale size in relation to color pattern elements on the hindwings of the peacock pansy butterfly Junonia almana, together with other nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa indica and Danaus chrysippus. In these species, we observed a general decrease in scale size from the basal to the distal areas, although the size gradient was small in D. chrysippus. Scales of dark color in color pattern elements, including eyespot black rings, parafocal elements, and submarginal bands, were larger than those of their surroundings. Within an eyespot, the largest scales were found at the focal white area, although there were exceptional cases. Similarly, ectopic eyespots that were induced by physical damage on the J. almana background area had larger scales than in the surrounding area. These results are consistent with the previous finding that scale color and size coordinate to form color pattern elements. We propose a ploidy hypothesis to explain the color-size relationship in which the putative morphogenic signal induces the polyploidization (genome amplification) of immature scale cells and that the degrees of ploidy (gene dosage) determine scale color and scale size simultaneously in butterfly wings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 6 Tips for Managing Portion Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eating healthy is about enjoying your food while also managing portion size. Most people eat and drink more than their bodies need especially when they are served larger portions. So, choosing smaller portions to begin with is important for maintaining your overall health and well-being.

  13. Estimating Search Engine Index Size Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van den Bosch, Antal; Bogers, Toine; De Kunder, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    One of the determining factors of the quality of Web search engines is the size of their index. In addition to its influence on search result quality, the size of the indexed Web can also tell us something about which parts of the WWW are directly accessible to the everyday user. We propose a novel...... method of estimating the size of a Web search engine’s index by extrapolating from document frequencies of words observed in a large static corpus of Web pages. In addition, we provide a unique longitudinal perspective on the size of Google and Bing’s indices over a nine-year period, from March 2006...... until January 2015. We find that index size estimates of these two search engines tend to vary dramatically over time, with Google generally possessing a larger index than Bing. This result raises doubts about the reliability of previous one-off estimates of the size of the indexed Web. We find...

  14. Gender Stereotyping in Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hussain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping and gender role development is one of the debatable concerns to sociologists especially those who are interested in sociology of gender. This study attempts to investigate the role of family inculcating gender stereotyping in Pakhtun culture and its impact on gender role development conducted in public-sector universities of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The data were collected through in-depth interview method using interview guide as a tool of data collection. A sample size of 24 respondents consisting male and female students and teachers (8 samples from each university through purposive sampling technique was selected from three universities in the region, that is, University of Malakand, University of Swat, and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sharingal (main campus. The collected information has been analyzed qualitatively where primary information has been linked with secondary data for further elaboration and attainment of grounded facts. The study reveals that gender stereotyping and gender role formation are sociocultural and relational constructs, which are developed and inculcated in the institutional network, social interaction, and social relationships especially in family. The study indicated that in family sphere, gender stereotyping and gender role formation are the outcome of gender socialization, differential familial environment, and parents’ differential role with children. The study recommends that gender-balanced familial environment, adopting the strategy of gender mainstreaming and positive role of media, can overcome gender stereotyping and reduce its impacts on gender and social role formation.

  15. Population Size and the Rate of Language Evolution: A Test Across Indo-European, Austronesian, and Bantu Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Simon J.; Hua, Xia; Welsh, Caela F.; Schneemann, Hilde; Bromham, Lindell

    2018-01-01

    What role does speaker population size play in shaping rates of language evolution? There has been little consensus on the expected relationship between rates and patterns of language change and speaker population size, with some predicting faster rates of change in smaller populations, and others expecting greater change in larger populations. The growth of comparative databases has allowed population size effects to be investigated across a wide range of language groups, with mixed results. One recent study of a group of Polynesian languages revealed greater rates of word gain in larger populations and greater rates of word loss in smaller populations. However, that test was restricted to 20 closely related languages from small Oceanic islands. Here, we test if this pattern is a general feature of language evolution across a larger and more diverse sample of languages from both continental and island populations. We analyzed comparative language data for 153 pairs of closely-related sister languages from three of the world's largest language families: Austronesian, Indo-European, and Niger-Congo. We find some evidence that rates of word loss are significantly greater in smaller languages for the Indo-European comparisons, but we find no significant patterns in the other two language families. These results suggest either that the influence of population size on rates and patterns of language evolution is not universal, or that it is sufficiently weak that it may be overwhelmed by other influences in some cases. Further investigation, for a greater number of language comparisons and a wider range of language features, may determine which of these explanations holds true. PMID:29755387

  16. Portion size and intended consumption. Evidence for a pre-consumption portion size effect in males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; te Raa, Wesselien; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Larger portions increase energy intake (the 'portion size effect'); however, the mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. Although pre-meal intentions are thought to be an important determinant of energy intake, little research has examined how much of a meal individuals intend to eat when served standard versus larger portion sizes. Three studies examined the effect of manipulating portion size on intended food consumption. In Studies 1 (spaghetti bolognese) and 2 (curry and rice) male participants were shown an image of either a standard or a larger meal and indicated how much of the meal they intended to consume. In Study 3 male and female participants were served either a standard or a larger portion of ice cream for dessert, they indicated how much they intended to consume and then ate as much of the ice cream as they desired. Regardless of being shown standard or large portion sizes, in Studies 1 and 2 participants reported that they intended to eat the majority of the meal, equating to a large difference in intended energy consumption between portion size conditions (a 'pre-consumption portion size effect'). This finding was replicated in male participants in Study 3, although females intended to eat a smaller proportion of the larger portion of ice cream, compared to the standard portion. Both male and female participants tended to eat in accordance with their pre-meal intentions and a portion size effect on actual consumption was subsequently observed in males, but not in females. The portion size effect may be observed when measuring pre-meal intended consumption in males. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Country size, currency unions, and international asset returns

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Tarek A.

    2015-01-01

    The fact that economies differ in size has important implications for international asset returns. I solve for the spread on international bonds and stocks in an endowment economy with complete asset markets and non-traded goods. The model predicts that larger countries have lower real interest rates because their bonds provide insurance against shocks that affect a larger fraction of the world economy. Larger countries' bonds must therefore pay lower excess returns in equilibrium and uncover...

  18. The Caenorhabditis chemoreceptor gene families

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson Hugh M; Thomas James H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of genes encoding chemoreceptors that mediate taste, olfaction, and pheromone responses. The size and diversity of these families reflect the biology of chemoperception in specific species. Results Based on manual curation and sequence comparisons among putative G-protein-...

  19. Object size effects on initial lifting forces under microgravity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Toussaint, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Individuals usually report for two objects of equal mass but different volume that the larger object feels lighter. This so-called size-weight illusion has been investigated for more than a century. The illusion is accompanied by increased forces, used to lift the larger object, resulting in a

  20. Larger Angles For COMPASS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new magnet at CERN is going to allow COMPASS (Common Muon Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) maximum acceptance. Thanks to the 5 tonne, 2.5 m long magnet, which arrived last December, many more events are expected compared to the previous data-taking.