WorldWideScience

Sample records for large-scale community survey

  1. Talking About The Smokes: a large-scale, community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzos, Sophia; Nicholson, Anna K; Hunt, Jennifer M; Davey, Maureen E; May, Josephine K; Bennet, Pele T; Westphal, Darren W; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe the Talking About The Smokes (TATS) project according to the World Health Organization guiding principles for conducting community-based participatory research (PR) involving indigenous peoples, to assist others planning large-scale PR projects. The TATS project was initiated in Australia in 2010 as part of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, and surveyed a representative sample of 2522 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults to assess the impact of tobacco control policies. The PR process of the TATS project, which aimed to build partnerships to create equitable conditions for knowledge production, was mapped and summarised onto a framework adapted from the WHO principles. Processes describing consultation and approval, partnerships and research agreements, communication, funding, ethics and consent, data and benefits of the research. The TATS project involved baseline and follow-up surveys conducted in 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one Torres Strait community. Consistent with the WHO PR principles, the TATS project built on community priorities and strengths through strategic partnerships from project inception, and demonstrated the value of research agreements and trusting relationships to foster shared decision making, capacity building and a commitment to Indigenous data ownership. Community-based PR methodology, by definition, needs adaptation to local settings and priorities. The TATS project demonstrates that large-scale research can be participatory, with strong Indigenous community engagement and benefits.

  2. Large Scale Survey Data in Career Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale survey datasets have been underutilized but offer numerous advantages for career development scholars, as they contain numerous career development constructs with large and diverse samples that are followed longitudinally. Constructs such as work salience, vocational expectations, educational expectations, work satisfaction, and…

  3. Large Scale Community Detection Using a Small World Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Behera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a social network, small or large communities within the network play a major role in deciding the functionalities of the network. Despite of diverse definitions, communities in the network may be defined as the group of nodes that are more densely connected as compared to nodes outside the group. Revealing such hidden communities is one of the challenging research problems. A real world social network follows small world phenomena, which indicates that any two social entities can be reachable in a small number of steps. In this paper, nodes are mapped into communities based on the random walk in the network. However, uncovering communities in large-scale networks is a challenging task due to its unprecedented growth in the size of social networks. A good number of community detection algorithms based on random walk exist in literature. In addition, when large-scale social networks are being considered, these algorithms are observed to take considerably longer time. In this work, with an objective to improve the efficiency of algorithms, parallel programming framework like Map-Reduce has been considered for uncovering the hidden communities in social network. The proposed approach has been compared with some standard existing community detection algorithms for both synthetic and real-world datasets in order to examine its performance, and it is observed that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than the existing ones.

  4. Optimal sampling designs for large-scale fishery sample surveys in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BAZIGOS

    2007-12-01

    The paper deals with the optimization of the following three large scale sample surveys: biological sample survey of commercial landings (BSCL, experimental fishing sample survey (EFSS, and commercial landings and effort sample survey (CLES.

  5. Sampling strategy for a large scale indoor radiation survey - a pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Stranden, E.

    1986-01-01

    Optimisation of a stratified random sampling strategy for large scale indoor radiation surveys is discussed. It is based on the results from a small scale pilot project where variances in dose rates within different categories of houses were assessed. By selecting a predetermined precision level for the mean dose rate in a given region, the number of measurements needed can be optimised. The results of a pilot project in Norway are presented together with the development of the final sampling strategy for a planned large scale survey. (author)

  6. Comparisons of benthic filter feeder communities before and after a large-scale capital dredging program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Wahab, Muhammad Azmi; Fromont, Jane; Gomez, Oliver; Fisher, Rebecca; Jones, Ross

    2017-09-15

    Changes in turbidity, sedimentation and light over a two year large scale capital dredging program at Onslow, northwestern Australia, were quantified to assess their effects on filter feeder communities, in particular sponges. Community functional morphological composition was quantified using towed video surveys, while dive surveys allowed for assessments of species composition and chlorophyll content. Onslow is relatively diverse recording 150 sponge species. The area was naturally turbid (1.1 mean P 80 NTU), with inshore sites recording 6.5× higher turbidity than offshore localities, likely influenced by the Ashburton River discharge. Turbidity and sedimentation increased by up to 146% and 240% through dredging respectively, with corresponding decreases in light levels. The effects of dredging was variable, and despite existing caveats (i.e. bleaching event and passing of a cyclone), the persistence of sponges and the absence of a pronounced response post-dredging suggest environmental filtering or passive adaptation acquired pre-dredging may have benefited these communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Mapping the distribution of the denitrifier community at large scales (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, L.; Bru, D.; Ramette, A.; Dequiedt, S.; Ranjard, L.; Jolivet, C.; Arrouays, D.

    2010-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the landscape-scale distribution of microbial communities and its environmental determinants. Here we combined molecular approaches and geostatistical modeling to explore spatial patterns of the denitrifying community at large scales. The distribution of denitrifrying community was investigated over 107 sites in Burgundy, a 31 500 km2 region of France, using a 16 X 16 km sampling grid. At each sampling site, the abundances of denitrifiers and 42 soil physico-chemical properties were measured. The relative contributions of land use, spatial distance, climatic conditions, time and soil physico-chemical properties to the denitrifier spatial distribution were analyzed by canonical variation partitioning. Our results indicate that 43% to 85% of the spatial variation in community abundances could be explained by the measured environmental parameters, with soil chemical properties (mostly pH) being the main driver. We found spatial autocorrelation up to 740 km and used geostatistical modelling to generate predictive maps of the distribution of denitrifiers at the landscape scale. Studying the distribution of the denitrifiers at large scale can help closing the artificial gap between the investigation of microbial processes and microbial community ecology, therefore facilitating our understanding of the relationships between the ecology of denitrifiers and N-fluxes by denitrification.

  8. Rocky intertidal macrobenthic communities across a large-scale estuarine gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Giménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated relationships between (1 salinity and species richness and (2 frontal zones and community structure for the rocky intertidal macrobenthic community of the Uruguayan coast. A large-scale sampling design (extent ~500 km covering 9 rocky shores across 3 intertidal levels was performed between September and November 2002. The linear relationship between salinity and species richness (minimum at the freshwater extreme and the lack of correlation between variation in salinity and richness rejected two previous empirical models, explaining variations in species richness along the salinity gradient. Other factors (e.g. turbidity may explain this discrepancy. The estuarine front defined two communities—freshwater and estuarine-marine—differing in species composition and richness. The freshwater community was characterised by low richness and few individuals confined to crevices or tide pools, and must be structured by physical processes (e.g. desiccation; the estuarine-marine community, with individuals occupying almost all available substrata, must be structured by both physical and biological processes. A marine front, separating estuarine and marine habitats, had a weak effect on community structure although estuarine and marine assemblages differed according to species characterising different functional groups. We conclude that the position of the estuarine frontal zones is important for explaining large-scale patterns of community structure in the study area.

  9. Survey of large-scale solar water heaters installed in Taiwan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Keh-Chin; Lee Tsong-Sheng; Chung Kung-Ming [Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (China); Lien Ya-Feng; Lee Chine-An [Cheng Kung Univ. Research and Development Foundation, Tainan (China)

    2008-07-01

    Almost all the solar collectors installed in Taiwan, China were used for production of hot water for homeowners (residential systems), in which the area of solar collectors is less than 10 square meters. From 2001 to 2006, there were only 39 large-scale systems (defined as the area of solar collectors being over 100 m{sup 2}) installed. Their utilization purposes are for rooming house (dormitory), swimming pool, restaurant, and manufacturing process. A comprehensive survey of those large-scale solar water heaters was conducted in 2006. The objectives of the survey were to asses the systems' performance and to have the feedback from the individual users. It is found that lack of experience in system design and maintenance are the key factors for reliable operation of a system. For further promotion of large-scale solar water heaters in Taiwan, a more compressive program on a system design for manufacturing process should be conducted. (orig.)

  10. [Review of occupational hazard census and large-scale surveys in sixty years in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Li, Chao-lin; Wang, Huan-qiang

    2010-11-01

    To compare and analyze the all previous censuses and large-scale surveys on occupational hazard in China, draw lessons from the past, and try to provide references for the development of census or surveys on the occupational hazard in the new period. A literature retrieval had been performed mainly on the occupational hazard census and large-scale surveys since the founding of People's Republic of China. Only the survey items carried on a national scale were selected. Some keywords were drawn from these items such as survey time, survey scope, industries, occupational diseases and the rate of examination, organization and technical director, methods and so on. The outcomes and experiences were summarized. Since the founding of People's Republic of China, there were seven occupational hazard census and large-scale surveys carried in China, three of them were about silicosis or pneumoconiosis, two of them were about poison and carcinogens, one was about noise, another one was about the township industrial enterprises. Leadership attention was the fundamental guarantee of the success of the survey, sound occupational health management organizations were the base, collaborative relationship with each other was an import factor, and only the interdisciplinary team, scientific design, quality control and incentive mechanism could assure the quality of the survey. The survey should be designed and carried out according to industries.

  11. The Transition to Large-scale Cosmic Homogeneity in the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimgeour, Morag; Davis, T.; Blake, C.; James, B.; Poole, G. B.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Dark Energy Survey, WiggleZ

    2013-01-01

    The most fundamental assumption of the standard cosmological model (ΛCDM) is that the universe is homogeneous on large scales. This is clearly not true on small scales, where clusters and voids exist, and some studies seem to suggest that galaxies follow a fractal distribution up to very large scales 200 h-1 Mpc or more), whereas the ΛCDM model predicts transition to homogeneity at scales of ~100 h-1 Mpc. Any cosmological measurements made below the scale of homogeneity (such as the power spectrum) could be misleading, so it is crucial to measure the scale of homogeneity in the Universe. We have used the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey to make the largest volume measurement to date of the transition to homogeneity in the galaxy distribution. WiggleZ is a UV-selected spectroscopic survey of ~200,000 luminous blue galaxies up to z=1, made with the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We have corrected for survey incompleteness using random catalogues that account for the various survey selection criteria, and tested the robustness of our results using a suite of fractal mock catalogues. The large volume and depth of WiggleZ allows us to probe the transition of the galaxy distribution to homogeneity on large scales and over several epochs, and see if this is consistent with a ΛCDM prediction.

  12. The future of primordial features with large-scale structure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Dvorkin, Cora; Huang, Zhiqi; Verde, Licia

    2016-01-01

    Primordial features are one of the most important extensions of the Standard Model of cosmology, providing a wealth of information on the primordial Universe, ranging from discrimination between inflation and alternative scenarios, new particle detection, to fine structures in the inflationary potential. We study the prospects of future large-scale structure (LSS) surveys on the detection and constraints of these features. We classify primordial feature models into several classes, and for each class we present a simple template of power spectrum that encodes the essential physics. We study how well the most ambitious LSS surveys proposed to date, including both spectroscopic and photometric surveys, will be able to improve the constraints with respect to the current Planck data. We find that these LSS surveys will significantly improve the experimental sensitivity on features signals that are oscillatory in scales, due to the 3D information. For a broad range of models, these surveys will be able to reduce the errors of the amplitudes of the features by a factor of 5 or more, including several interesting candidates identified in the recent Planck data. Therefore, LSS surveys offer an impressive opportunity for primordial feature discovery in the next decade or two. We also compare the advantages of both types of surveys.

  13. The future of primordial features with large-scale structure surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dvorkin, Cora [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Huang, Zhiqi [School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University, 135 Xingang Xi Road, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Verde, Licia, E-mail: xingang.chen@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: dvorkin@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: huangzhq25@sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: mohammad.namjoo@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [ICREA and ICC-UB, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Primordial features are one of the most important extensions of the Standard Model of cosmology, providing a wealth of information on the primordial Universe, ranging from discrimination between inflation and alternative scenarios, new particle detection, to fine structures in the inflationary potential. We study the prospects of future large-scale structure (LSS) surveys on the detection and constraints of these features. We classify primordial feature models into several classes, and for each class we present a simple template of power spectrum that encodes the essential physics. We study how well the most ambitious LSS surveys proposed to date, including both spectroscopic and photometric surveys, will be able to improve the constraints with respect to the current Planck data. We find that these LSS surveys will significantly improve the experimental sensitivity on features signals that are oscillatory in scales, due to the 3D information. For a broad range of models, these surveys will be able to reduce the errors of the amplitudes of the features by a factor of 5 or more, including several interesting candidates identified in the recent Planck data. Therefore, LSS surveys offer an impressive opportunity for primordial feature discovery in the next decade or two. We also compare the advantages of both types of surveys.

  14. Large grazers modify effects of aboveground-belowground interactions on small-scale plant community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G. F. (Ciska); Geuverink, Elzemiek; Olff, Han; Schmid, Bernhard

    Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales

  15. Large grazers modify effects of aboveground–belowground interactions on small-scale plant community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G.F.; Geuverink, E.; Olff, H.

    2012-01-01

    Aboveground and belowground organisms influence plant community composition by local interactions, and their scale of impact may vary from millimeters belowground to kilometers aboveground. However, it still poorly understood how large grazers that select their forage on large spatial scales

  16. Probing cosmology with the homogeneity scale of the Universe through large scale structure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntelis, Pierros

    2017-01-01

    This thesis exposes my contribution to the measurement of homogeneity scale using galaxies, with the cosmological interpretation of results. In physics, any model is characterized by a set of principles. Most models in cosmology are based on the Cosmological Principle, which states that the universe is statistically homogeneous and isotropic on a large scales. Today, this principle is considered to be true since it is respected by those cosmological models that accurately describe the observations. However, while the isotropy of the universe is now confirmed by many experiments, it is not the case for the homogeneity. To study cosmic homogeneity, we propose to not only test a model but to test directly one of the postulates of modern cosmology. Since 1998 the measurements of cosmic distances using type Ia supernovae, we know that the universe is now in a phase of accelerated expansion. This phenomenon can be explained by the addition of an unknown energy component, which is called dark energy. Since dark energy is responsible for the expansion of the universe, we can study this mysterious fluid by measuring the rate of expansion of the universe. The universe has imprinted in its matter distribution a standard ruler, the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale. By measuring this scale at different times during the evolution of our universe, it is then possible to measure the rate of expansion of the universe and thus characterize this dark energy. Alternatively, we can use the homogeneity scale to study this dark energy. Studying the homogeneity and the BAO scale requires the statistical study of the matter distribution of the universe at large scales, superior to tens of Mega-parsecs. Galaxies and quasars are formed in the vast over densities of matter and they are very luminous: these sources trace the distribution of matter. By measuring the emission spectra of these sources using large spectroscopic surveys, such as BOSS and eBOSS, we can measure their positions

  17. Measures of large-scale structure in the CfA redshift survey slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lapparent, V.; Geller, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Variations of the counts-in-cells with cell size are used here to define two statistical measures of large-scale clustering in three 6 deg slices of the CfA redshift survey. A percolation criterion is used to estimate the filling factor which measures the fraction of the total volume in the survey occupied by the large-scale structures. For the full 18 deg slice of the CfA redshift survey, f is about 0.25 + or - 0.05. After removing groups with more than five members from two of the slices, variations of the counts in occupied cells with cell size have a power-law behavior with a slope beta about 2.2 on scales from 1-10/h Mpc. Application of both this statistic and the percolation analysis to simulations suggests that a network of two-dimensional structures is a better description of the geometry of the clustering in the CfA slices than a network of one-dimensional structures. Counts-in-cells are also used to estimate at 0.3 galaxy h-squared/Mpc the average galaxy surface density in sheets like the Great Wall. 46 refs

  18. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley; Myers, Adam D.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Muna, Demitri; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study

  19. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ross, Ashley J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bahcall, Neta [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brinkmann, Jonathan [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Muna, Demitri [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pâris, Isabelle [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, Patrick [Université Paris 6 et CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Streblyanska, Alina [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: nishanta@andrew.cmu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study.

  20. Comparison of the large-scale radon risk map for southern Belgium with results of high resolution surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, H.-C.; Charlet, J.M.; Poffijn, A.

    2000-01-01

    A large-scale radon survey consisting of long-term measurements in about 5200 singe-family houses in the southern part of Belgium was carried from 1995 to 1999. A radon risk map for the region was produced using geostatistical and GIS approaches. Some communes or villages situated within high risk areas were chosen for detailed surveys. A high resolution radon survey with about 330 measurements was performed in half part of the commune of Burg-Reuland. Comparison of radon maps on quite different scales shows that the general Rn risk map has similar pattern as the radon map for the detailed study area. Another detailed radon survey in the village of Hatrival, situated in a high radon area, found very high proportion of houses with elevated radon concentrations. The results of this detailed survey are comparable to the expectation for high risk areas on the large-scale radon risk map. The good correspondence between the findings of the general risk map and the analysis of the limited detailed surveys, suggests that the large-scale radon risk map is likely reliable. (author)

  1. The intertidal community in West Greenland: Large-scale patterns and small-scale variation on ecosystem dynamics along a climate gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    are largely unknown. The West Greenland coast is north - south orientated. This provides an ideal setting to study the impact of climate change on marine species population dynamics and distribution. We investigated the latitudinal changes in the rocky intertidal community along 18° latitudes (59-77°N......) in West Greenland. Using cleared quadrats we quantified patterns in abundance, biomass and species richness in the intertidal zone. We use this data to disentangle patterns in Arctic intertidal communities at different scales. We describe the effects of different environmental drivers and species...... interactions on distribution and dynamics of intertidal species. Our results indicate that changes in distribution and abundance of foundation species can have large effects on the ecosystem. We also show that the importance of small-scale variation may be of same magnitude as large- scale variation. Only...

  2. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  3. CONSORT to community: translation of an RCT to a large-scale community intervention and learnings from evaluation of the upscaled program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, Carly Jane; Miller, Jacqueline; Perry, Rebecca Anne; Chan, Lily Lai Hang; Daniels, Lynne Allison; Vidgen, Helen Anna; Magarey, Anthea Margaret

    2017-11-29

    Translation encompasses the continuum from clinical efficacy to widespread adoption within the healthcare service and ultimately routine clinical practice. The Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health (PEACH™) program has previously demonstrated clinical effectiveness in the management of child obesity, and has been recently implemented as a large-scale community intervention in Queensland, Australia. This paper aims to describe the translation of the evaluation framework from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to large-scale community intervention (PEACH™ QLD). Tensions between RCT paradigm and implementation research will be discussed along with lived evaluation challenges, responses to overcome these, and key learnings for future evaluation conducted at scale. The translation of evaluation from PEACH™ RCT to the large-scale community intervention PEACH™ QLD is described. While the CONSORT Statement was used to report findings from two previous RCTs, the REAIM framework was more suitable for the evaluation of upscaled delivery of the PEACH™ program. Evaluation of PEACH™ QLD was undertaken during the project delivery period from 2013 to 2016. Experiential learnings from conducting the evaluation of PEACH™ QLD to the described evaluation framework are presented for the purposes of informing the future evaluation of upscaled programs. Evaluation changes in response to real-time changes in the delivery of the PEACH™ QLD Project were necessary at stages during the project term. Key evaluation challenges encountered included the collection of complete evaluation data from a diverse and geographically dispersed workforce and the systematic collection of process evaluation data in real time to support program changes during the project. Evaluation of large-scale community interventions in the real world is challenging and divergent from RCTs which are rigourously evaluated within a more tightly-controlled clinical research setting. Constructs

  4. Large-Scale Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Baum, S. A.

    1995-12-01

    \\catcode`\\@=11 \\ialign{m @th#1hfil ##hfil \\crcr#2\\crcr\\sim\\crcr}}} \\catcode`\\@=12 Highly collimated outflows extend out to Mpc scales in many radio-loud active galaxies. In Seyfert galaxies, which are radio-quiet, the outflows extend out to kpc scales and do not appear to be as highly collimated. In order to study the nature of large-scale (>~1 kpc) outflows in Seyferts, we have conducted optical, radio and X-ray surveys of a distance-limited sample of 22 edge-on Seyfert galaxies. Results of the optical emission-line imaging and spectroscopic survey imply that large-scale outflows are present in >~{{1} /{4}} of all Seyferts. The radio (VLA) and X-ray (ROSAT) surveys show that large-scale radio and X-ray emission is present at about the same frequency. Kinetic luminosities of the outflows in Seyferts are comparable to those in starburst-driven superwinds. Large-scale radio sources in Seyferts appear diffuse, but do not resemble radio halos found in some edge-on starburst galaxies (e.g. M82). We discuss the feasibility of the outflows being powered by the active nucleus (e.g. a jet) or a circumnuclear starburst.

  5. Community response to large-scale federal projects: the case of the MX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of community response to large-scale defense projects, such as the proposals to site MX missiles in Utah and Nevada, is one way to identify those factors likely to be important in determining community response to nuclear waste repository siting. This chapter gives a brief overview of the MX system's characteristics and the potential impacts it would have had on the rural areas, describes the patterns of community mobilization that occurred in Utah and Nevada, and suggests where this response may parallel community concerns about a repository siting. Three lessons from the MX experience are that local residents, asked to assume a disproportionate share of the negative impacts, should be involved in the siting process, that local residents should be treated as equal, and that compensation should be offered when local residents suffer from political expediency

  6. The use of test scores from large-scale assessment surveys: psychometric and statistical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economists are making increasing use of measures of student achievement obtained through large-scale survey assessments such as NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA. The construction of these measures, employing plausible value (PV methodology, is quite different from that of the more familiar test scores associated with assessments such as the SAT or ACT. These differences have important implications both for utilization and interpretation. Although much has been written about PVs, it appears that there are still misconceptions about whether and how to employ them in secondary analyses. Methods We address a range of technical issues, including those raised in a recent article that was written to inform economists using these databases. First, an extensive review of the relevant literature was conducted, with particular attention to key publications that describe the derivation and psychometric characteristics of such achievement measures. Second, a simulation study was carried out to compare the statistical properties of estimates based on the use of PVs with those based on other, commonly used methods. Results It is shown, through both theoretical analysis and simulation, that under fairly general conditions appropriate use of PV yields approximately unbiased estimates of model parameters in regression analyses of large scale survey data. The superiority of the PV methodology is particularly evident when measures of student achievement are employed as explanatory variables. Conclusions The PV methodology used to report student test performance in large scale surveys remains the state-of-the-art for secondary analyses of these databases.

  7. Disclosure Control using Partially Synthetic Data for Large-Scale Health Surveys, with Applications to CanCORS

    OpenAIRE

    Loong, Bronwyn; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; He, Yulei; Harrington, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical agencies have begun to partially synthesize public-use data for major surveys to protect the confidentiality of respondents’ identities and sensitive attributes, by replacing high disclosure risk and sensitive variables with multiple imputations. To date, there are few applications of synthetic data techniques to large-scale healthcare survey data. Here, we describe partial synthesis of survey data collected by CanCORS, a comprehensive observational study of the experiences, treat...

  8. Large-scale assessment of benthic communities across multiple marine protected areas using an autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Renata; Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Ayroza, Camila Rezende; Jordan, Alan; Figueira, Will F; Byrne, Maria; Malcolm, Hamish A; Williams, Stefan B; Steinberg, Peter D

    2018-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are designed to reduce threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning from anthropogenic activities. Assessment of MPAs effectiveness requires synchronous sampling of protected and non-protected areas at multiple spatial and temporal scales. We used an autonomous underwater vehicle to map benthic communities in replicate 'no-take' and 'general-use' (fishing allowed) zones within three MPAs along 7o of latitude. We recorded 92 taxa and 38 morpho-groups across three large MPAs. We found that important habitat-forming biota (e.g. massive sponges) were more prevalent and abundant in no-take zones, while short ephemeral algae were more abundant in general-use zones, suggesting potential short-term effects of zoning (5-10 years). Yet, short-term effects of zoning were not detected at the community level (community structure or composition), while community structure varied significantly among MPAs. We conclude that by allowing rapid, simultaneous assessments at multiple spatial scales, autonomous underwater vehicles are useful to document changes in marine communities and identify adequate scales to manage them. This study advanced knowledge of marine benthic communities and their conservation in three ways. First, we quantified benthic biodiversity and abundance, generating the first baseline of these benthic communities against which the effectiveness of three large MPAs can be assessed. Second, we identified the taxonomic resolution necessary to assess both short and long-term effects of MPAs, concluding that coarse taxonomic resolution is sufficient given that analyses of community structure at different taxonomic levels were generally consistent. Yet, observed differences were taxa-specific and may have not been evident using our broader taxonomic classifications, a classification of mid to high taxonomic resolution may be necessary to determine zoning effects on key taxa. Third, we provide an example of statistical analyses and

  9. Impacts of a lengthening open water season on Alaskan coastal communities: deriving locally relevant indices from large-scale datasets and community observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, Rebecca J.; Mahoney, Andrew R.; Walsh, John; Loring, Philip A.

    2018-05-01

    Using thresholds of physical climate variables developed from community observations, together with two large-scale datasets, we have produced local indices directly relevant to the impacts of a reduced sea ice cover on Alaska coastal communities. The indices include the number of false freeze-ups defined by transient exceedances of ice concentration prior to a corresponding exceedance that persists, false break-ups, timing of freeze-up and break-up, length of the open water duration, number of days when the winds preclude hunting via boat (wind speed threshold exceedances), the number of wind events conducive to geomorphological work or damage to infrastructure from ocean waves, and the number of these wind events with on- and along-shore components promoting water setup along the coastline. We demonstrate how community observations can inform use of large-scale datasets to derive these locally relevant indices. The two primary large-scale datasets are the Historical Sea Ice Atlas for Alaska and the atmospheric output from a regional climate model used to downscale the ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis. We illustrate the variability and trends of these indices by application to the rural Alaska communities of Kotzebue, Shishmaref, and Utqiaġvik (previously Barrow), although the same procedure and metrics can be applied to other coastal communities. Over the 1979-2014 time period, there has been a marked increase in the number of combined false freeze-ups and false break-ups as well as the number of days too windy for hunting via boat for all three communities, especially Utqiaġvik. At Utqiaġvik, there has been an approximate tripling of the number of wind events conducive to coastline erosion from 1979 to 2014. We have also found a delay in freeze-up and earlier break-up, leading to a lengthened open water period for all of the communities examined.

  10. Impacts of a lengthening open water season on Alaskan coastal communities: deriving locally relevant indices from large-scale datasets and community observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Rolph

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Using thresholds of physical climate variables developed from community observations, together with two large-scale datasets, we have produced local indices directly relevant to the impacts of a reduced sea ice cover on Alaska coastal communities. The indices include the number of false freeze-ups defined by transient exceedances of ice concentration prior to a corresponding exceedance that persists, false break-ups, timing of freeze-up and break-up, length of the open water duration, number of days when the winds preclude hunting via boat (wind speed threshold exceedances, the number of wind events conducive to geomorphological work or damage to infrastructure from ocean waves, and the number of these wind events with on- and along-shore components promoting water setup along the coastline. We demonstrate how community observations can inform use of large-scale datasets to derive these locally relevant indices. The two primary large-scale datasets are the Historical Sea Ice Atlas for Alaska and the atmospheric output from a regional climate model used to downscale the ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis. We illustrate the variability and trends of these indices by application to the rural Alaska communities of Kotzebue, Shishmaref, and Utqiaġvik (previously Barrow, although the same procedure and metrics can be applied to other coastal communities. Over the 1979–2014 time period, there has been a marked increase in the number of combined false freeze-ups and false break-ups as well as the number of days too windy for hunting via boat for all three communities, especially Utqiaġvik. At Utqiaġvik, there has been an approximate tripling of the number of wind events conducive to coastline erosion from 1979 to 2014. We have also found a delay in freeze-up and earlier break-up, leading to a lengthened open water period for all of the communities examined.

  11. Use of large-scale acoustic monitoring to assess anthropogenic pressures on Orthoptera communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penone, Caterina; Le Viol, Isabelle; Pellissier, Vincent; Julien, Jean-François; Bas, Yves; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Biodiversity monitoring at large spatial and temporal scales is greatly needed in the context of global changes. Although insects are a species-rich group and are important for ecosystem functioning, they have been largely neglected in conservation studies and policies, mainly due to technical and methodological constraints. Sound detection, a nondestructive method, is easily applied within a citizen-science framework and could be an interesting solution for insect monitoring. However, it has not yet been tested at a large scale. We assessed the value of a citizen-science program in which Orthoptera species (Tettigoniidae) were monitored acoustically along roads. We used Bayesian model-averaging analyses to test whether we could detect widely known patterns of anthropogenic effects on insects, such as the negative effects of urbanization or intensive agriculture on Orthoptera populations and communities. We also examined site-abundance correlations between years and estimated the biases in species detection to evaluate and improve the protocol. Urbanization and intensive agricultural landscapes negatively affected Orthoptera species richness, diversity, and abundance. This finding is consistent with results of previous studies of Orthoptera, vertebrates, carabids, and butterflies. The average mass of communities decreased as urbanization increased. The dispersal ability of communities increased as the percentage of agricultural land and, to a lesser extent, urban area increased. Despite changes in abundances over time, we found significant correlations between yearly abundances. We identified biases linked to the protocol (e.g., car speed or temperature) that can be accounted for ease in analyses. We argue that acoustic monitoring of Orthoptera along roads offers several advantages for assessing Orthoptera biodiversity at large spatial and temporal extents, particularly in a citizen science framework. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. LSD: Large Survey Database framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mario

    2012-09-01

    The Large Survey Database (LSD) is a Python framework and DBMS for distributed storage, cross-matching and querying of large survey catalogs (>10^9 rows, >1 TB). The primary driver behind its development is the analysis of Pan-STARRS PS1 data. It is specifically optimized for fast queries and parallel sweeps of positionally and temporally indexed datasets. It transparently scales to more than >10^2 nodes, and can be made to function in "shared nothing" architectures.

  13. Multi-scale associations between vegetation cover and woodland bird communities across a large agricultural region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ikin

    Full Text Available Improving biodiversity conservation in fragmented agricultural landscapes has become an important global issue. Vegetation at the patch and landscape-scale is important for species occupancy and diversity, yet few previous studies have explored multi-scale associations between vegetation and community assemblages. Here, we investigated how patch and landscape-scale vegetation cover structure woodland bird communities. We asked: (1 How is the bird community associated with the vegetation structure of woodland patches and the amount of vegetation cover in the surrounding landscape? (2 Do species of conservation concern respond to woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover differently to other species in the community? And (3 Can the relationships between the bird community and the woodland vegetation structure and surrounding vegetation cover be explained by the ecological traits of the species comprising the bird community? We studied 103 woodland patches (0.5 - 53.8 ha over two time periods across a large (6,800 km(2 agricultural region in southeastern Australia. We found that both patch vegetation and surrounding woody vegetation cover were important for structuring the bird community, and that these relationships were consistent over time. In particular, the occurrence of mistletoe within the patches and high values of woody vegetation cover within 1,000 ha and 10,000 ha were important, especially for bird species of conservation concern. We found that the majority of these species displayed similar, positive responses to patch and landscape vegetation attributes. We also found that these relationships were related to the foraging and nesting traits of the bird community. Our findings suggest that management strategies to increase both remnant vegetation quality and the cover of surrounding woody vegetation in fragmented agricultural landscapes may lead to improved conservation of bird communities.

  14. Large scale implementation of clinical medication reviews in Dutch community pharmacies: Drug-related problems and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, Thomas G. H.; Van De Steeg-Van Gompel, Caroline H. P. A.; Hoogland, Petra; Liu, Yuqian; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on the benefits of clinical medication reviews (CMRs) performed by pharmacists has been conducted mostly in controlled settings and has been widely published. Less is known of the effects after large scale implementation in community pharmacies. An online CMR tool enabled the

  15. Community Detection for Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin; Kolda, Tamara G.; Pinar, Ali; Zhang, Zhihua; Keyes, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Many real world networks have inherent community structures, including social networks, transportation networks, biological networks, etc. For large scale networks with millions or billions of nodes in real-world applications, accelerating current

  16. The Use of Online Social Networks by Polish Former Erasmus Students: A Large-Scale Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryla, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing role of online social networks in the life of young Poles. We conducted a large-scale survey among Polish former Erasmus students. We have received 2450 completed questionnaires from alumni of 115 higher education institutions all over Poland. 85.4% of our respondents reported they kept in touch with their former Erasmus…

  17. Community Detection for Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2014-05-04

    Many real world networks have inherent community structures, including social networks, transportation networks, biological networks, etc. For large scale networks with millions or billions of nodes in real-world applications, accelerating current community detection algorithms is in demand, and we present two approaches to tackle this issue -A K-core based framework that can accelerate existing community detection algorithms significantly; -A parallel inference algorithm via stochastic block models that can distribute the workload.

  18. Political consultation and large-scale research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann, G.; Folkers, H.

    1977-01-01

    Large-scale research and policy consulting have an intermediary position between sociological sub-systems. While large-scale research coordinates science, policy, and production, policy consulting coordinates science, policy and political spheres. In this very position, large-scale research and policy consulting lack of institutional guarantees and rational back-ground guarantee which are characteristic for their sociological environment. This large-scale research can neither deal with the production of innovative goods under consideration of rentability, nor can it hope for full recognition by the basis-oriented scientific community. Policy consulting knows neither the competence assignment of the political system to make decisions nor can it judge succesfully by the critical standards of the established social science, at least as far as the present situation is concerned. This intermediary position of large-scale research and policy consulting has, in three points, a consequence supporting the thesis which states that this is a new form of institutionalization of science: These are: 1) external control, 2) the organization form, 3) the theoretical conception of large-scale research and policy consulting. (orig.) [de

  19. Genetic 'fingerprints' to characterise microbial communities during organic overloading and in large-scale biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleyboecker, A.; Lerm, S.; Vieth, A.; Wuerdemann, H. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Bio-Geo-Engineering, Potsdam (Germany); Miethling-Graff, R. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Agraroekologie; Wittmaier, M. [Institut fuer Kreislaufwirtschaft, Bremen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Since fermentation is a complex process, biogas reactors are still known as 'black boxes'. Mostly they are not run at their maximum loading rate due to the possible failure in the process by organic overloading. This means that there are still unused capacities to produce more biogas in less time. Investigations of different large-scale biogas plants showed that fermenters are operated containing different amounts of volatile fatty acids. These amounts can vary so much that one of two digestors, both possessing the same VFA concentration, does not produce gas anymore while the other is still at work. A reason for this phenomenon might be found in the composition of the microbial communities or in differences in the operation of the plants. To gain a better understanding of the 'black box', structural changes in microbial communities during controlled organic overloading in a laboratory and biocenosis of large-scale reactors were investigated. A genetic fingerprint based on 16S rDNA (PCR-SSCP) was used to characterise the microbial community. (orig.)

  20. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-01-01

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community

  1. Chirping for large-scale maritime archaeological survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological wrecks exposed on the sea floor are mapped using side-scan and multibeam techniques, whereas the detection of submerged archaeological sites, such as Stone Age settlements, and wrecks, partially or wholly embedded in sea-floor sediments, requires the application of high-resolution ...... the present state of this technology, it appears well suited to large-scale maritime archaeological mapping....

  2. Large-Scale Astrophysical Visualization on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becciani, U.; Massimino, P.; Costa, A.; Gheller, C.; Grillo, A.; Krokos, M.; Petta, C.

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays digital sky surveys and long-duration, high-resolution numerical simulations using high performance computing and grid systems produce multidimensional astrophysical datasets in the order of several Petabytes. Sharing visualizations of such datasets within communities and collaborating research groups is of paramount importance for disseminating results and advancing astrophysical research. Moreover educational and public outreach programs can benefit greatly from novel ways of presenting these datasets by promoting understanding of complex astrophysical processes, e.g., formation of stars and galaxies. We have previously developed VisIVO Server, a grid-enabled platform for high-performance large-scale astrophysical visualization. This article reviews the latest developments on VisIVO Web, a custom designed web portal wrapped around VisIVO Server, then introduces VisIVO Smartphone, a gateway connecting VisIVO Web and data repositories for mobile astrophysical visualization. We discuss current work and summarize future developments.

  3. Additional renewable energy growth through small-scale community orientated energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hain, J.J.; Ault, G.W.; Galloway, S.J.; Cruden, A.; McDonald, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises the energy policies that the UK Government has enacted in order to achieve its renewable targets by 2010. Current policies are designed primarily to support large-scale renewable projects through Renewable Obligation Certificates, Levy Exemption Certificates and capital grant schemes. Non-profit domestic and non-profit community renewable projects are also eligible for grant support. First-hand experience of privately owned renewable projects indicate that existing renewable policy is insufficient in its support of both small-scale and community-based profit oriented renewable energy (RE) schemes. Primary and secondary survey information suggests that people living in regions where RE will be situated may generally be inclined to support broader uses of renewables in these regions. Small-scale renewables can make a significant cumulative contribution to the RE mix. The results reported in this paper support the contention that the Government could go further towards approaching its targets through rural-focused changes to its energy incentive programmes

  4. Validating Bayesian truth serum in large-scale online human experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Cebrian, Manuel; Pickard, Galen; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    Bayesian truth serum (BTS) is an exciting new method for improving honesty and information quality in multiple-choice survey, but, despite the method's mathematical reliance on large sample sizes, existing literature about BTS only focuses on small experiments. Combined with the prevalence of online survey platforms, such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk, which facilitate surveys with hundreds or thousands of participants, BTS must be effective in large-scale experiments for BTS to become a readily accepted tool in real-world applications. We demonstrate that BTS quantifiably improves honesty in large-scale online surveys where the "honest" distribution of answers is known in expectation on aggregate. Furthermore, we explore a marketing application where "honest" answers cannot be known, but find that BTS treatment impacts the resulting distributions of answers.

  5. Structure of Caribbean coral reef communities across a large gradient of fish biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Marah J H; Paredes, Gustavo A; Sala, Enric; Jackson, Jeremy B C

    2006-11-01

    The collapse of Caribbean coral reefs has been attributed in part to historic overfishing, but whether fish assemblages can recover and how such recovery might affect the benthic reef community has not been tested across appropriate scales. We surveyed the biomass of reef communities across a range in fish abundance from 14 to 593 g m(-2), a gradient exceeding that of any previously reported for coral reefs. Increased fish biomass was correlated with an increased proportion of apex predators, which were abundant only inside large marine reserves. Increased herbivorous fish biomass was correlated with a decrease in fleshy algal biomass but corals have not yet recovered.

  6. Large-Scale Mapping of Tree-Community Composition as a Surrogate of Forest Degradation in Bornean Tropical Rain Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogoro Fujiki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the progress of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD and the safeguarding of ecosystems from the perverse negative impacts caused by Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Plus (REDD+ requires the development of spatiotemporally robust and sensitive indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem health. Recently, it has been proposed that tree-community composition based on count-plot surveys could serve as a robust, sensitive, and cost-effective indicator for forest intactness in Bornean logged-over rain forests. In this study, we developed an algorithm to map tree-community composition across the entire landscape based on Landsat imagery. We targeted six forest management units (FMUs, each of which ranged from 50,000 to 100,000 ha in area, covering a broad geographic range spanning the most area of Borneo. Approximately fifty 20 m-radius circular plots were established in each FMU, and the differences in tree-community composition at a genus level among plots were examined for trees with diameter at breast height ≥10 cm using an ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS. Subsequently, we developed a linear regression model based on Landsat metrics (e.g., reflectance value, vegetation indices and textures to explain the nMDS axis-1 scores of the plots, and extrapolated the model to the landscape to establish a tree-community composition map in each FMU. The adjusted R2 values based on a cross-validation approach between the predicted and observed nMDS axis-1 scores indicated a close correlation, ranging from 0.54 to 0.69. Histograms of the frequency distributions of extrapolated nMDS axis-1 scores were derived from each map and used to quantitatively diagnose the forest intactness of the FMUs. Our study indicated that tree-community composition, which was reported as a robust indicator of forest intactness, could be mapped at a landscape level to

  7. Mapping spatial patterns of denitrifiers at large scales (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippot, L.; Ramette, A.; Saby, N.; Bru, D.; Dequiedt, S.; Ranjard, L.; Jolivet, C.; Arrouays, D.

    2010-12-01

    Little information is available regarding the landscape-scale distribution of microbial communities and its environmental determinants. Here we combined molecular approaches and geostatistical modeling to explore spatial patterns of the denitrifying community at large scales. The distribution of denitrifrying community was investigated over 107 sites in Burgundy, a 31 500 km2 region of France, using a 16 X 16 km sampling grid. At each sampling site, the abundances of denitrifiers and 42 soil physico-chemical properties were measured. The relative contributions of land use, spatial distance, climatic conditions, time and soil physico-chemical properties to the denitrifier spatial distribution were analyzed by canonical variation partitioning. Our results indicate that 43% to 85% of the spatial variation in community abundances could be explained by the measured environmental parameters, with soil chemical properties (mostly pH) being the main driver. We found spatial autocorrelation up to 739 km and used geostatistical modelling to generate predictive maps of the distribution of denitrifiers at the landscape scale. Studying the distribution of the denitrifiers at large scale can help closing the artificial gap between the investigation of microbial processes and microbial community ecology, therefore facilitating our understanding of the relationships between the ecology of denitrifiers and N-fluxes by denitrification.

  8. A large-scale study of epilepsy in Ecuador: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placencia, M; Suarez, J; Crespo, F; Sander, J W; Shorvon, S D; Ellison, R H; Cascante, S M

    1992-01-01

    The methodology is presented of a large-scale study of epilepsy carried out in a highland area in northern Ecuador, South America, covering a population of 72,121 people; The study was carried out in two phases, the first, a cross-sectional phase, consisted of a house-to-house survey of all persons in this population, screening for epileptic seizures using a specially designed questionnaire. Possible cases identified in screening were assessed in a cascade diagnostic procedure applied by general doctors and neurologists. Its objectives were: to establish a comprehensive epidemiological profile of epileptic seizures; to describe the clinical phenomenology of this condition in the community; to validate methods for diagnosis and classification of epileptic seizures by a non-specialised team; and to ascertain the community's knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding epilepsy. A sample was selected in this phase in order to study the social aspects of epilepsy in this community. The second phase, which was longitudinal, assessed the ability of non-specialist care in the treatment of epilepsy. It consisted of a prospective clinical trial of antiepileptic therapy in untreated patients using two standard anti-epileptic drugs. Patients were followed for 12 months by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a primary health worker, rural doctor, neurologist, anthropologist, and psychologist. Standardised, reproducible instruments and methods were used. This study was carried out through co-operation between the medical profession, political agencies and the pharmaceutical industry, at an international level. We consider this a model for further large-scale studies of this type.

  9. Growth Limits in Large Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    limitations. The rising complexity of network management with the convergence of communications platforms is shown as problematic for both automatic management feasibility and for manpower resource management. In the fourth step the scope is extended to include the present society with the DDN project as its......The Subject of large scale networks is approached from the perspective of the network planner. An analysis of the long term planning problems is presented with the main focus on the changing requirements for large scale networks and the potential problems in meeting these requirements. The problems...... the fundamental technological resources in network technologies are analysed for scalability. Here several technological limits to continued growth are presented. The third step involves a survey of major problems in managing large scale networks given the growth of user requirements and the technological...

  10. Development of a community's self-efficacy scale for preventing social isolation among community-dwelling older people (Mimamori Scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadaka, Etsuko; Kono, Ayumi; Ito, Eriko; Kanaya, Yukiko; Dai, Yuka; Imamatsu, Yuki; Itoi, Waka

    2016-11-28

    Among older people in developed countries, social isolation leading to solitary death has become a public health issue of vital importance. Such isolation could be prevented by monitoring at-risk individuals at the neighborhood level and by implementing supportive networks at the community level. However, a means of measuring community confidence in these measures has not been established. This study is aimed at developing the Community's Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES; Mimamori scale in Japanese) for community members preventing social isolation among older people. The CSES is a self-administered questionnaire developed on the basis of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The survey was given to a general population (GEN) sample (n = 6,000) and community volunteer (CVOL) sample (n = 1,297). Construct validity was determined using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's alpha. The Generative Concern Scale (GCS-R) and Brief Sense of Community Scale (BSCS) were also administered to assess criterion-related validity of the CSES. In total, 3,484 and 859 valid responses were received in the GEN and CVOL groups, respectively. The confirmatory factor analysis identified eight items from two domains-community network and neighborhood watch-with goodness of fit index = 0.984, adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.970, comparative fit index = 0.988, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.047. Cronbach's alpha for the entire CSES was 0.87 and for the subscales was 0.80 and higher. The score of the entire CSES was positively correlated with the GCS-R in both the GEN (r = 0.80, p social isolation among older people. The scale is potentially useful for promoting health policies, practices, and interventions within communities. This may help prevent social isolation among older people and contribute to overall well-being in aging societies in Japan and abroad.

  11. Promoting Handwashing Behavior: The Effects of Large-scale Community and School-level Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiani, Sebastian; Gertler, Paul; Ajzenman, Nicolas; Orsola-Vidal, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes a randomized experiment that uses novel strategies to promote handwashing with soap at critical points in time in Peru. It evaluates a large-scale comprehensive initiative that involved both community and school activities in addition to communication campaigns. The analysis indicates that the initiative was successful in reaching the target audience and in increasing the treated population's knowledge about appropriate handwashing behavior. These improvements translated into higher self-reported and observed handwashing with soap at critical junctures. However, no significant improvements in the health of children under the age of 5 years were observed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The health system and population health implications of large-scale diabetes screening in India: a microsimulation model of alternative approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Basu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Like a growing number of rapidly developing countries, India has begun to develop a system for large-scale community-based screening for diabetes. We sought to identify the implications of using alternative screening instruments to detect people with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes among diverse populations across India.We developed and validated a microsimulation model that incorporated data from 58 studies from across the country into a nationally representative sample of Indians aged 25-65 y old. We estimated the diagnostic and health system implications of three major survey-based screening instruments and random glucometer-based screening. Of the 567 million Indians eligible for screening, depending on which of four screening approaches is utilized, between 158 and 306 million would be expected to screen as "high risk" for type 2 diabetes, and be referred for confirmatory testing. Between 26 million and 37 million of these people would be expected to meet international diagnostic criteria for diabetes, but between 126 million and 273 million would be "false positives." The ratio of false positives to true positives varied from 3.9 (when using random glucose screening to 8.2 (when using a survey-based screening instrument in our model. The cost per case found would be expected to be from US$5.28 (when using random glucose screening to US$17.06 (when using a survey-based screening instrument, presenting a total cost of between US$169 and US$567 million. The major limitation of our analysis is its dependence on published cohort studies that are unlikely fully to capture the poorest and most rural areas of the country. Because these areas are thought to have the lowest diabetes prevalence, this may result in overestimation of the efficacy and health benefits of screening.Large-scale community-based screening is anticipated to produce a large number of false-positive results, particularly if using currently available survey-based screening

  13. Forest fragmentation and bird community dynamics: inference at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulinier, T.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Flather, C.H.; Pollock, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing fragmentation of natural areas and a dramatic reduction of forest cover in several parts of the world, quantifying the impact of such changes on species richness and community dynamics has been a subject of much concern. Here, we tested whether in more fragmented landscapes there was a lower number of area-sensitive species and higher local extinction and turnover rates, which could explain higher temporal variability in species richness. To investigate such potential landscape effects at a regional scale, we merged two independent, large-scale monitoring efforts: the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and the Land Use and Land Cover Classification data from the U.S. Geological Survey. We used methods that accounted for heterogeneity in the probability of detecting species to estimate species richness and temporal changes in the bird communities for BBS routes in three mid-Atlantic U.S. states. Forest breeding bird species were grouped prior to the analyses into area-sensitive and non-area-sensitive species according to previous studies. We tested predictions relating measures of forest structure at one point in time (1974) to species richness at that time and to parameters of forest bird community change over the following 22-yr-period (1975-1996). We used the mean size of forest patches to characterize landscape structure, as high correlations among landscape variables did not allow us to disentangle the relative roles of habitat fragmentation per se and habitat loss. As predicted, together with lower species richness for area-sensitive species on routes surrounded by landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size, we found higher mean year-to-year rates of local extinction. Moreover, the mean year-to-year rates of local turnover (proportion of locally new species) for area-sensitive species were also higher in landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size. These associations were not observed for the non-area-sensitive species group. These

  14. Community Survey Q5: Public safety - Police services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This question is from the 2015 Chapel Hill Community Survey.Using a scale of 1 to 5 where 5 means “Very Satisfied” and 1 means “Very Dissatisfied,” residents were...

  15. Monitoring community mobilisation and organisational capacity among high-risk groups in a large-scale HIV prevention programme in India: selected findings using a Community Ownership and Preparedness Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Pradeep; Moulasha, K; Wheeler, Tisha; Baer, James; Bharadwaj, Sowmyaa; Ramanathan, T V; Thomas, Tom

    2012-10-01

    In a participatory approach to health and development interventions, defining and measuring community mobilisation is important, but it is challenging to do this effectively, especially at scale. A cross-sectional, participatory monitoring tool was administered in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 across a representative sample of 25 community-based groups (CBGs) formed under the Avahan India AIDS Initiative, to assess their progress in mobilisation, and to inform efforts to strengthen the groups and make them sustainable. The survey used a weighted index to capture both qualitative and quantitative data in numeric form. The index permitted broad, as well as highly detailed, analysis of community mobilisation, relevant at the level of individual groups, as well as state-wide and across the whole programme. The survey demonstrated that leadership and programme management were the strongest areas among the CBGs, confirming the programme's investment in these areas. Discussion of the Round 1 results led to efforts to strengthen governance and democratic decision making in the groups, and progress was reflected in the Round 2 survey results. CBG engagement with state authorities to gain rights and entitlements and securing the long-term financial stability of groups remain a challenge. The survey has proven useful for informing the managers of programmes about what is happening on the ground, and it has opened spaces for discussion within community groups about the nature of leadership, decision making and their goals, which is leading to accelerated progress. The tool provided useful data to manage community mobilisation in Avahan.

  16. Measuring Cosmic Expansion and Large Scale Structure with Destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod R.

    2007-01-01

    Destiny is a simple, direct, low cost mission to determine the properties of dark energy by obtaining a cosmologically deep supernova (SN) type Ia Hubble diagram and by measuring the large-scale mass power spectrum over time. Its science instrument is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared survey camera/spectrometer with a large field of view. During its first two years, Destiny will detect, observe, and characterize 23000 SN Ia events over the redshift interval 0.4Destiny will be used in its third year as a high resolution, wide-field imager to conduct a weak lensing survey covering >lo00 square degrees to measure the large-scale mass power spectrum. The combination of surveys is much more powerful than either technique on its own, and will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than will be provided by ongoing ground-based projects.

  17. Bird-community responses to habitat creation in a long-term, large-scale natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whytock, Robin C; Fuentes-Montemayor, Elisa; Watts, Kevin; Barbosa De Andrade, Patanjaly; Whytock, Rory T; French, Paul; Macgregor, Nicholas A; Park, Kirsty J

    2018-04-01

    Ecosystem function and resilience are compromised when habitats become fragmented due to land-use change. This has led to national and international conservation strategies aimed at restoring habitat extent and improving functional connectivity (i.e., maintaining dispersal processes). However, biodiversity responses to landscape-scale habitat creation and the relative importance of spatial and temporal scales are poorly understood, and there is disagreement over which conservation strategies should be prioritized. We used 160 years of historic post-agricultural woodland creation as a natural experiment to evaluate biodiversity responses to habitat creation in a landscape context. Birds were surveyed in 101 secondary, broadleaf woodlands aged 10-160 years with ≥80% canopy cover and in landscapes with 0-17% broadleaf woodland cover within 3000 m. We used piecewise structural equation modeling to examine the direct and indirect relationships between bird abundance and diversity, ecological continuity, patch characteristics, and landscape structure and quantified the relative conservation value of local and landscape scales for bird communities. Ecological continuity indirectly affected overall bird abundance and species richness through its effects on stand structure, but had a weaker influence (effect size near 0) on the abundance and diversity of species most closely associated with woodland habitats. This was probably because woodlands were rapidly colonized by woodland generalists in ≤10 years (minimum patch age) but were on average too young (median 50 years) to be colonized by woodland specialists. Local patch characteristics were relatively more important than landscape characteristics for bird communities. Based on our results, biodiversity responses to habitat creation depended on local- and landscape-scale factors that interacted across time and space. We suggest that there is a need for further studies that focus on habitat creation in a landscape

  18. Liquid metal fast breeder reactor steam generator survey of the consequences of large scale sodium water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vambenepe, G.

    1978-01-01

    The ''Retona'' three-dimensional hydrodynamic computing code is being developed by Electricity de France to survey the consequences, on the very plant, of a large scale sodium water reaction in liquid metal steam generators. In this communication, the heat-exchanger geometry is schematized and the problem solving process briefly described under assumed simplifying hypotheses. The application of the results to the Creusot-Loire steam generator selected for Super-Phenix are given as an example. (author)

  19. Indicators to examine quality of large scale survey data: an example through district level household and facility survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakoli Borkotoky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large scale surveys are the main source of data pertaining to all the social and demographic indicators, hence its quality is also of great concern. In this paper, we discuss the indicators used to examine the quality of data. We focus on age misreporting, incompleteness and inconsistency of information; and skipping of questions on reproductive and sexual health related issues. In order to observe the practical consequences of errors in a survey; the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3 is used as an example dataset. METHODS: Whipple's and Myer's indices are used to identify age misreporting. Age displacements are identified by estimating downward and upward transfers for women from bordering age groups of the eligible age range. Skipping pattern is examined by recording the responses to the questions which precede the sections on birth history, immunization, and reproductive and sexual health. RESULTS: The study observed errors in age reporting, in all the states, but the extent of misreporting differs by state and individual characteristics. Illiteracy, rural residence and poor economic condition are the major factors that lead to age misreporting. Female were excluded from the eligible age group, to reduce the duration of interview. The study further observed that respondents tend to skip questions on HIV/RTI and other questions which follow a set of questions. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that age misreporting, inconsistency and incomplete response are three sources of error that need to be considered carefully before drawing conclusions from any survey. DLHS-3 also suffers from age misreporting, particularly for female in the reproductive ages. In view of the coverage of the survey, it may not be possible to control age misreporting completely, but some extra effort to probe a better answer may help in improving the quality of data in the survey.

  20. Large scale electrolysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Bello; M Junker

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by water electrolysis represents nearly 4 % of the world hydrogen production. Future development of hydrogen vehicles will require large quantities of hydrogen. Installation of large scale hydrogen production plants will be needed. In this context, development of low cost large scale electrolysers that could use 'clean power' seems necessary. ALPHEA HYDROGEN, an European network and center of expertise on hydrogen and fuel cells, has performed for its members a study in 2005 to evaluate the potential of large scale electrolysers to produce hydrogen in the future. The different electrolysis technologies were compared. Then, a state of art of the electrolysis modules currently available was made. A review of the large scale electrolysis plants that have been installed in the world was also realized. The main projects related to large scale electrolysis were also listed. Economy of large scale electrolysers has been discussed. The influence of energy prices on the hydrogen production cost by large scale electrolysis was evaluated. (authors)

  1. Catalogue of antibiotic resistome and host-tracking in drinking water deciphered by a large scale survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Li, Bing; Jiang, Xiao-Tao; Wang, Yu-Lin; Xia, Yu; Li, An-Dong; Zhang, Tong

    2017-11-28

    Excesses of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which are regarded as emerging environmental pollutants, have been observed in various environments. The incidence of ARGs in drinking water causes potential risks to human health and receives more attention from the public. However, ARGs harbored in drinking water remain largely unexplored. In this study, we aimed at establishing an antibiotic resistome catalogue in drinking water samples from a wide range of regions and to explore the potential hosts of ARGs. A catalogue of antibiotic resistome in drinking water was established, and the host-tracking of ARGs was conducted through a large-scale survey using metagenomic approach. The drinking water samples were collected at the point of use in 25 cities in mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, South Africa, Singapore and the USA. In total, 181 ARG subtypes belonging to 16 ARG types were detected with an abundance range of 2.8 × 10 -2 to 4.2 × 10 -1 copies of ARG per cell. The highest abundance was found in northern China (Henan Province). Bacitracin, multidrug, aminoglycoside, sulfonamide, and beta-lactam resistance genes were dominant in drinking water. Of the drinking water samples tested, 84% had a higher ARG abundance than typical environmental ecosystems of sediment and soil. Metagenomic assembly-based host-tracking analysis identified Acidovorax, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Methylobacterium, Methyloversatilis, Mycobacterium, Polaromonas, and Pseudomonas as the hosts of ARGs. Moreover, potential horizontal transfer of ARGs in drinking water systems was proposed by network and Procrustes analyses. The antibiotic resistome catalogue compiled using a large-scale survey provides a useful reference for future studies on the global surveillance and risk management of ARGs in drinking water. .

  2. Coverage of the migrant population in large-scale assessment surveys. Experiences from PIAAC in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora B. Maehler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European countries, and especially Germany, are currently very much affected by human migration flows, with the result that the task of integration has become a challenge. Only very little empirical evidence on topics such as labor market participation and processes of social integration of migrant subpopulations is available to date from large-scale population surveys. The present paper provides an overview of the representation of the migrant population in the German Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC sample and evaluates reasons for the under-coverage of this population. Methods We examine outcome rates and reasons for nonresponse among the migrant population based on sampling frame data, and we also examine para data from the interviewers’ contact protocols to evaluate time patterns for the successful contacting of migrants. Results and Conclusions This is the first time that results of this kind have been presented for a large-scale assessment in educational research. These results are also discussed in the context of future PIAAC cycles. Overall, they confirm the expectations in the literature that factors such as language problems result in lower contact and response rates among migrants.

  3. Long-term spatial and temporal microbial community dynamics in a large-scale drinking water distribution system with multiple disinfectant regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Sarah; Pinto, Ameet; Sigudu, Makhosazana; du Preez, Hein; Ncube, Esper; Venter, Stephanus

    2018-08-01

    Long-term spatial-temporal investigations of microbial dynamics in full-scale drinking water distribution systems are scarce. These investigations can reveal the process, infrastructure, and environmental factors that influence the microbial community, offering opportunities to re-think microbial management in drinking water systems. Often, these insights are missed or are unreliable in short-term studies, which are impacted by stochastic variabilities inherent to large full-scale systems. In this two-year study, we investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of the microbial community in a large, full scale South African drinking water distribution system that uses three successive disinfection strategies (i.e. chlorination, chloramination and hypochlorination). Monthly bulk water samples were collected from the outlet of the treatment plant and from 17 points in the distribution system spanning nearly 150 km and the bacterial community composition was characterised by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Like previous studies, Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria dominated the drinking water bacterial communities, with an increase in Betaproteobacteria post-chloramination. In contrast with previous reports, the observed richness, diversity, and evenness of the bacterial communities were higher in the winter months as opposed to the summer months in this study. In addition to temperature effects, the seasonal variations were also likely to be influenced by changes in average water age in the distribution system and corresponding changes in disinfectant residual concentrations. Spatial dynamics of the bacterial communities indicated distance decay, with bacterial communities becoming increasingly dissimilar with increasing distance between sampling locations. These spatial effects dampened the temporal changes in the bulk water community and were the dominant factor when considering the entire distribution system. However

  4. Google Street View as an alternative method to car surveys in large-scale vegetation assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, Ernesto; Silva, Joaquim S; Catry, Filipe X; Rocha, Miguel; Moreira, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    Car surveys (CS) are a common method for assessing the distribution of alien invasive plants. Google Street View (GSV), a free-access web technology where users may experience a virtual travel along roads, has been suggested as a cost-effective alternative to car surveys. We tested if we could replicate the results from a countrywide survey conducted by car in Portugal using GSV as a remote sensing tool, aiming at assessing the distribution of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. wildlings on roadsides adjacent to eucalypt stands. Georeferenced points gathered along CS were used to create road transects visible as lines overlapping the road in GSV environment, allowing surveying the same sampling areas using both methods. This paper presents the results of the comparison between the two methods. Both methods produced similar models of plant abundance, selecting the same explanatory variables, in the same hierarchical order of importance and depicting a similar influence on plant abundance. Even though the GSV model had a lower performance and the GSV survey detected fewer plants, additional variables collected exclusively with GSV improved model performance and provided a new insight into additional factors influencing plant abundance. The survey using GSV required ca. 9 % of the funds and 62 % of the time needed to accomplish the CS. We conclude that GSV may be a cost-effective alternative to CS. We discuss some advantages and limitations of GSV as a survey method. We forecast that GSV may become a widespread tool in road ecology, particularly in large-scale vegetation assessments.

  5. Comparison of Community Annoyance from Railway Noise Evaluated by Different Category Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T.; Yamashita, T.; Izumi, K.

    1997-08-01

    A considerable number of reviews on community responses to noise have been carried out to compare dose-response relationships obtained from different noise sources and to investigate the effects of various factors on noise annoyance by using the data from different surveys. In order to compare the findings from various surveys precisely, it is very important to know how the different subjective or objective scales are transformed to unified scale. The present paper discusses the effect of four kinds of category scale on the annoyance response by using the data obtained from a social survey on community response to railway noise and compares the dose-response relationships between railway and road traffic noise obtained with the same scale. The extent of annoyance, such as % very annoyed, is strongly affected by the descriptors just below the annoyance range. This means that the descriptors are very important in constructing questionnaires and comparing the findings of different surveys. No systematic difference is found in dose-response relationships between railway and road traffic noises, using data obtained with the same method in the same area. This finding is quite different from those of European studies.

  6. Validation of a short qualitative food frequency list used in several German large scale surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, G; Döring, A

    1998-09-01

    Our study aimed to test the validity of a short, qualitative food frequency list (FFL) used in several German large scale surveys. In the surveys of the MONICA project Augsburg, the FFL was used in randomly selected adults. In 1984/85, a dietary survey with 7-day records (DR) was conducted within the subsample of men aged 45 to 64 (response 70%). The 899 DR were used to validate the FFL. Mean weekly food intake frequency and mean daily food intake were compared and Spearman rank order correlation coefficients and classification into tertiles with values of the statistic Kappa were calculated. Spearman correlations range between 0.15 for the item "Other sweets (candies, compote)" and 0.60 for the items "Curds, yoghurt, sour milk", "Milk including butter milk" and "Mineral water"; values for statistic Kappa vary between 0.04 ("White bread, brown bread, crispbread") and 0.41 ("Flaked oats, muesli, cornflakes" and "milk including butter milk"). With the exception of two items, FFL data can be used for analysis on group level. Analysis on individual level should be done with caution. It seems, as if some food groups are generally easier to ask for in FFL than others.

  7. Large-Scale Star Formation-Driven Outflows at 13D-HST Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britt; Brammer, G.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Bezanson, R.; Franx, M.; Fumagalli, M.; Momcheva, I. G.; Nelson, E.; Skelton, R.; Wake, D.; Whitaker, K. E.; da Cunha, E.; Erb, D.; Fan, X.; Kriek, M.; Labbe, I.; Marchesini, D.; Patel, S.; Rix, H.; Schmidt, K.; van der Wel, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present evidence of large-scale outflows from three low-mass star-forming galaxies observed at z=1.24, z=1.35 and z=1.75 in the 3D-HST Survey. Each of these galaxies is located within a projected physical distance of 60 kpc around the sight line to the quasar SDSS J123622.93+621526.6, which exhibits well-separated strong (W>0.8A) MgII absorption systems matching precisely to the redshifts of the three galaxies. We derive the star formation surface densities from the H-alpha emission in the WFC3 G141 grism observations for the galaxies and find that in each case the star formation surface density well-exceeds 0.1 solar mass / yr / kpc^2, the typical threshold for starburst galaxies in the local Universe. From a small but complete parallel census of the 0.650.8A MgII covering fraction of star-forming galaxies at 10.4A MgII absorbing gas around star-forming galaxies may evolve from 2 to the present, consistent with recent observations of an increasing collimation of star formation-driven outflows with time from 3.

  8. Nesting, Subsidiarity, and Community-based environmental Governance beyond the Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Marshall

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Community-based approaches to environmental management have become widely adopted over the last two decades. From their origins in grassroots frustrations with governmental inabilities to solve local environmental problems, these approaches are now sponsored frequently by governments as a way of dealing with such problems at much higher spatial levels. However, this 'up-scaling' of community-based approaches has run well ahead of knowledge about how they might work. This article explores how Elinor Ostrom's 'nesting principle' for robust common property governance of large-scale common-pool resources might inform future up-scaling efforts. In particular, I consider how the design of nested governance systems for large-scale environmental problems might be guided by the principle of subsidiarity. The challenges of applying this principle are illustrated by Australia's experience in up-scaling community-based natural resource management from local groups comprising 20-30 members to regional bodies representing hundreds of thousands of people. Seven lessons are distilled for fostering community-based environmental governance as a multi-level system of nested enterprises.

  9. Authors’ perspectives on academic publishing: initial observations from a large-scale global survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil D’Souza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors are at the heart of academic publishing, but their voices are underrepresented in discussions about improving the academic publishing system. To understand the viewpoints of authors on various aspects of academic publishing and the challenges they face, we developed a large-scale survey entitled “Author perspectives on the academic publishing process” and made it available in December 2016. The survey has received 8,795 responses; this paper is based on the interim results drawn from 5,293 survey responses, and presents some interesting and thought-provoking trends that were observed in the authors’ responses, such as their interpretation of plagiarism and decisive factors in journal selection, as well as their thoughts on what needs to change in the publishing system for it to be more author-friendly. Some of the most important findings of the survey were: (1 the majority of the authors found manuscript preparation to be the most challenging task in the publication process, (2 the impact factor of a journal was reported to be the most important consideration for journal selection, (3 most authors found journal guidelines to be incomplete, (4 major gaps existed in author-journal communication, and (5 although awareness of ethics was high, awareness of good publication practice standards was low. Moreover, more than half of the participants indicated that among areas for improvement in the publishing system, they would like to see changes in the time it takes to publish a paper, the peer review process, and the fairness and objectivity of the publication process. These findings indicate the necessity of making the journal publication process more author-centered and smoothing the way for authors to get published.

  10. Understory fern community structure, growth and spore production responses to a large-scale hurricane experiment in a Puerto Rico rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne M. Sharpe; Aaron B. Shiels

    2014-01-01

    Ferns are abundant in most rainforest understories yet their responses to hurricanes have not been well studied. Fern community structure, growth and spore production were monitored for two years before and five years after a large-scale experiment that simulated two key components of severe hurricane disturbance: canopy openness and debris deposition. The canopy was...

  11. Why small-scale cannabis growers stay small: five mechanisms that prevent small-scale growers from going large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersvik, Eirik; Sandberg, Sveinung; Pedersen, Willy

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 15-20 years, domestic cultivation of cannabis has been established in a number of European countries. New techniques have made such cultivation easier; however, the bulk of growers remain small-scale. In this study, we explore the factors that prevent small-scale growers from increasing their production. The study is based on 1 year of ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative interviews conducted with 45 Norwegian cannabis growers, 10 of whom were growing on a large-scale and 35 on a small-scale. The study identifies five mechanisms that prevent small-scale indoor growers from going large-scale. First, large-scale operations involve a number of people, large sums of money, a high work-load and a high risk of detection, and thus demand a higher level of organizational skills than for small growing operations. Second, financial assets are needed to start a large 'grow-site'. Housing rent, electricity, equipment and nutrients are expensive. Third, to be able to sell large quantities of cannabis, growers need access to an illegal distribution network and knowledge of how to act according to black market norms and structures. Fourth, large-scale operations require advanced horticultural skills to maximize yield and quality, which demands greater skills and knowledge than does small-scale cultivation. Fifth, small-scale growers are often embedded in the 'cannabis culture', which emphasizes anti-commercialism, anti-violence and ecological and community values. Hence, starting up large-scale production will imply having to renegotiate or abandon these values. Going from small- to large-scale cannabis production is a demanding task-ideologically, technically, economically and personally. The many obstacles that small-scale growers face and the lack of interest and motivation for going large-scale suggest that the risk of a 'slippery slope' from small-scale to large-scale growing is limited. Possible political implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright

  12. To explore the community rehabilitation assessment scales for patients with stroke sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To choose the scales that can comprehensively assess the function of patients with stroke sequelae for the grassroots medical staff. Methods: The commonly used scales were selected. The patients with stroke sequelae were assessed by the MOS item short from health survey(SF-36, Modified Barthel Index(MBI, Brain Injury Community Rehabilitation Outcome Scales(BICRO-39,WHO Disability Assessment Scale II(WHO-DAS II and Anxiety and Depression Self-rating Scales(SAS and SDS. The assessment datum was conducted by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The data of MBI have significant correlation among the datum of WHO-DASII, SF-36 and BICRO 39 scales(P<0.05. The datum of MBI doesn’t have correlation among the datum of the SAS and SDS (P>0.05. Conclusions: Community doctors can choose MBI which can effectively assess the activities of daily living for the community patients with stroke sequelae. MBI also can reflect the functional levels of community patients with stroke sequelae.

  13. A mixed-methods study of system-level sustainability of evidence-based practices in 12 large-scale implementation initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Ashley T; Taber-Thomas, Sarah M; Schaffner, Kristen; Pemberton, Joy R; Hunter, Leah; Herschell, Amy D

    2017-12-07

    In recent decades, evidence-based practices (EBPs) have been broadly promoted in community behavioural health systems in the United States of America, yet reported EBP penetration rates remain low. Determining how to systematically sustain EBPs in complex, multi-level service systems has important implications for public health. This study examined factors impacting the sustainability of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) in large-scale initiatives in order to identify potential predictors of sustainment. A mixed-methods approach to data collection was used. Qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys examining sustainability processes and outcomes were completed by participants from 12 large-scale initiatives. Sustainment strategies fell into nine categories, including infrastructure, training, marketing, integration and building partnerships. Strategies involving integration of PCIT into existing practices and quality monitoring predicted sustainment, while financing also emerged as a key factor. The reported factors and strategies impacting sustainability varied across initiatives; however, integration into existing practices, monitoring quality and financing appear central to high levels of sustainability of PCIT in community-based systems. More detailed examination of the progression of specific activities related to these strategies may aide in identifying priorities to include in strategic planning of future large-scale initiatives. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02543359 ; Protocol number PRO12060529.

  14. Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

  15. Neural ensemble communities: Open-source approaches to hardware for large-scale electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Joshua H.; Hale, Gregory J.; Newman, Jonathan P.; Voigts, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    One often-overlooked factor when selecting a platform for large-scale electrophysiology is whether or not a particular data acquisition system is “open” or “closed”: that is, whether or not the system’s schematics and source code are available to end users. Open systems have a reputation for being difficult to acquire, poorly documented, and hard to maintain. With the arrival of more powerful and compact integrated circuits, rapid prototyping services, and web-based tools for collaborative development, these stereotypes must be reconsidered. We discuss some of the reasons why multichannel extracellular electrophysiology could benefit from open-source approaches and describe examples of successful community-driven tool development within this field. In order to promote the adoption of open-source hardware and to reduce the need for redundant development efforts, we advocate a move toward standardized interfaces that connect each element of the data processing pipeline. This will give researchers the flexibility to modify their tools when necessary, while allowing them to continue to benefit from the high-quality products and expertise provided by commercial vendors. PMID:25528614

  16. 2015 Community Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — These are the answers to the 2015 Community Survey.A comprehensive summary of the survey results can be found here.The survey asked town members to address their...

  17. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto; Watson, James R.; Jö nsson, Bror; Gasol, Josep M.; Salazar, Guillem; Acinas, Silvia G.; Estrada, Marta; Massana, Ramó n; Logares, Ramiro; Giner, Caterina R.; Pernice, Massimo C.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Citores, Leire; Corell, Jon; Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Acuñ a, José Luis; Molina-Ramí rez, Axayacatl; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Có zar, André s; Martí , Elisa; Cuesta, José A.; Agusti, Susana; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem

    2018-01-01

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  18. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto

    2018-01-04

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  19. Impact of large-scale tides on cosmological distortions via redshift-space power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitsu, Kazuyuki; Takada, Masahiro

    2018-03-01

    Although large-scale perturbations beyond a finite-volume survey region are not direct observables, these affect measurements of clustering statistics of small-scale (subsurvey) perturbations in large-scale structure, compared with the ensemble average, via the mode-coupling effect. In this paper we show that a large-scale tide induced by scalar perturbations causes apparent anisotropic distortions in the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in a way depending on an alignment between the tide, wave vector of small-scale modes and line-of-sight direction. Using the perturbation theory of structure formation, we derive a response function of the redshift-space power spectrum to large-scale tide. We then investigate the impact of large-scale tide on estimation of cosmological distances and the redshift-space distortion parameter via the measured redshift-space power spectrum for a hypothetical large-volume survey, based on the Fisher matrix formalism. To do this, we treat the large-scale tide as a signal, rather than an additional source of the statistical errors, and show that a degradation in the parameter is restored if we can employ the prior on the rms amplitude expected for the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model. We also discuss whether the large-scale tide can be constrained at an accuracy better than the CDM prediction, if the effects up to a larger wave number in the nonlinear regime can be included.

  20. Cosmology with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hu; Tyson, J. Anthony

    2018-06-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a high étendue imaging facility that is being constructed atop Cerro Pachón in northern Chile. It is scheduled to begin science operations in 2022. With an ( effective) aperture, a novel three-mirror design achieving a seeing-limited field of view, and a 3.2 gigapixel camera, the LSST has the deep-wide-fast imaging capability necessary to carry out an survey in six passbands (ugrizy) to a coadded depth of over 10 years using of its observational time. The remaining of the time will be devoted to considerably deeper and faster time-domain observations and smaller surveys. In total, each patch of the sky in the main survey will receive 800 visits allocated across the six passbands with exposure visits. The huge volume of high-quality LSST data will provide a wide range of science opportunities and, in particular, open a new era of precision cosmology with unprecedented statistical power and tight control of systematic errors. In this review, we give a brief account of the LSST cosmology program with an emphasis on dark energy investigations. The LSST will address dark energy physics and cosmology in general by exploiting diverse precision probes including large-scale structure, weak lensing, type Ia supernovae, galaxy clusters, and strong lensing. Combined with the cosmic microwave background data, these probes form interlocking tests on the cosmological model and the nature of dark energy in the presence of various systematics. The LSST data products will be made available to the US and Chilean scientific communities and to international partners with no proprietary period. Close collaborations with contemporaneous imaging and spectroscopy surveys observing at a variety of wavelengths, resolutions, depths, and timescales will be a vital part of the LSST science program, which will not only enhance specific studies but, more importantly, also allow a more complete understanding of the Universe through different windows.

  1. Variation in the macrofaunal community over large temporal and spatial scales in the southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Sui, Jixing; Yang, Mei; Sun, Yue; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin

    2017-09-01

    To detect large, temporal- and spatial-scale variations in the macrofaunal community in the southern Yellow Sea, data collected along the western, middle and eastern regions of the southern Yellow Sea from 1958 to 2014 were organized and analyzed. Statistical methods such as cluster analysis, non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination (nMDS), permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA), redundancy analysis (RDA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were applied. The abundance of polychaetes increased in the western region but decreased in the eastern region from 1958 to 2014, whereas the abundance of echinoderms showed an opposite trend. For the entire macrofaunal community, Margalef's richness (d), the Shannon-Wiener index (H‧) and Pielou's evenness (J‧) were significantly lower in the eastern region when compared with the other two regions. No significant temporal differences were found for d and H‧, but there were significantly lower values of J‧ in 2014. Considerable variation in the macrofaunal community structure over the past several decades and among the geographical regions at the species, genus and family levels were observed. The species, genera and families that contributed to the temporal variation in each region were also identified. The most conspicuous pattern was the increase in the species Ophiura sarsii vadicola in the eastern region. In the western region, five polychaetes (Ninoe palmata, Notomastus latericeus, Paralacydonia paradoxa, Paraprionospio pinnata and Sternaspis scutata) increased consistently from 1958 to 2014. The dominance curves showed that both the species diversity and the dominance patterns were relatively stable in the western and middle regions. Environmental parameters such as depth, temperature and salinity could only partially explain the observed biological variation in the southern Yellow Sea. Anthropogenic activities such as demersal fishing and other unmeasured environmental variables

  2. IT User Community Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peter Jones (IT-CDA-WF)

    2016-01-01

    IT-CDA is gathering information to more accurately form a snapshot of the CERN IT user community and we would appreciate you taking time to complete the following survey.   We want to use this survey to better understand how the user community uses their devices and our services, and how the delivery of those services could be improved. You will need to authenticate to complete the survey. However please note that your responses are confidential and will be compiled together and analysed as a group. You can also volunteer to offer additional information if you so wish. This survey should take no longer than 5 minutes. Thanks in advance for your collaboration.

  3. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  4. Community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi across hierarchical spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Abrego

    Full Text Available For efficient use of conservation resources it is important to determine how species diversity changes across spatial scales. In many poorly known species groups little is known about at which spatial scales the conservation efforts should be focused. Here we examined how the community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi is realised at three hierarchical levels, and how much of community variation is explained by variation in resource composition and spatial proximity. The hierarchical study design consisted of management type (fixed factor, forest site (random factor, nested within management type and study plots (randomly placed plots within each study site. To examine how species richness varied across the three hierarchical scales, randomized species accumulation curves and additive partitioning of species richness were applied. To analyse variation in wood-inhabiting species and dead wood composition at each scale, linear and Permanova modelling approaches were used. Wood-inhabiting fungal communities were dominated by rare and infrequent species. The similarity of fungal communities was higher within sites and within management categories than among sites or between the two management categories, and it decreased with increasing distance among the sampling plots and with decreasing similarity of dead wood resources. However, only a small part of community variation could be explained by these factors. The species present in managed forests were in a large extent a subset of those species present in natural forests. Our results suggest that in particular the protection of rare species requires a large total area. As managed forests have only little additional value complementing the diversity of natural forests, the conservation of natural forests is the key to ecologically effective conservation. As the dissimilarity of fungal communities increases with distance, the conserved natural forest sites should be broadly distributed in space, yet

  5. Cross-Scale Variation in Biodiversity-Environment Links Illustrated by Coastal Sandflat Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Kraan

    Full Text Available Spatial variation in the composition of communities is the product of many biotic and environmental interactions. A neglected factor in the analysis of community distribution patterns is the multi-scale nature of the data, which has implications for understanding ecological processes and the development of conservation and environmental management practice. Drawing on recently established multivariate spatial analyses, we investigate whether including relationships between spatial structure and abiotic variables enable us to better discern patterns of species and communities across scales. Data comprised 1200 macrozoobenthic samples collected over an array of distances (30 cm to 1 km in three New Zealand harbours, as well as commonly used abiotic variables, such as sediment characteristics and chlorophyll a concentrations, measured at the same scales. Moran's eigenvector mapping was used to extract spatial scales at which communities were structured. Benthic communities, representing primarily bivalves, polychaetes and crustaceans, were spatially structured at four spatial scales, i.e. >100 m, 50-100 m, 50-15 m, and < 15 m. A broad selection of abiotic variables contributed to the large-scale variation, whereas a more limited set explained part of the fine-scale community structure. Across all scales, less than 30% of the variation in spatial structure was captured by our analysis. The large number of species (48 making up the 10 highest species scores based on redundancy analyses illustrate the variability of species-scale associations. Our results emphasise that abiotic variables and biodiversity are related at all scales investigated and stress the importance of assessing the relationship between environmental variables and the abundance and distribution of biological assemblages across a range of different scales.

  6. A Polar Rover for Large-Scale Scientific Surveys: Design, Implementation and Field Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of polar regions is of great importance to scientific research. Unfortunately, due to the harsh environment, most of the regions on the Antarctic continent are still unreachable for humankind. Therefore, in 2011, the Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE launched a project to design a rover to conduct large-scale scientific surveys on the Antarctic. The main challenges for the rover are twofold: one is the mobility, i.e., how to make a rover that could survive the harsh environment and safely move on the uneven, icy and snowy terrain; the other is the autonomy, in that the robot should be able to move at a relatively high speed with little or no human intervention so that it can explore a large region in a limit time interval under the communication constraints. In this paper, the corresponding techniques, especially the polar rover's design and autonomous navigation algorithms, are introduced in detail. Subsequently, an experimental report of the fields tests on the Antarctic is given to show some preliminary evaluation of the rover. Finally, experiences and existing challenging problems are summarized.

  7. Survey of community pharmacy residents' perceptions of transgender health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Caitlin; Layson-Wolf, Cherokee

    2016-01-01

    1) To measure the general perceptions and attitudes of community pharmacy residents toward transgender patients and health; 2) to identify gaps in didactic education regarding transgender health care among residents; and 3) to evaluate residents' level of support for pharmacists receiving education in transgender health care. This study was a cross-sectional survey delivered online. Community residency directors were e-mailed a cover letter and a 34-question online survey. The directors were asked to forward the survey to their residents for completion within 4 weeks. Responses were anonymous with no identifiers collected on the survey. Survey responses used a combination of open-response, multiple-choice, and Likert-scale questions aimed at gathering respondents' demographic information, perceptions of managing transgender patients and the need for receiving additional education in transgender health care. Overall, the results of the survey indicated that community pharmacy residents support integrating transgender health management into pharmacy education and recognize that the overwhelming barriers to care for these patients include discrimination and lack of provider knowledge. Significant findings include: 82.7% of community residents think that community pharmacists play an important role in providing care for transgender patients; 98.2% think that they have a responsibility to treat transgender patients; and 71.4% were not educated about transgender patient issues in pharmacy school. Only 36.2% of community residents felt confident in their ability to treat transgender patients. Community pharmacy residents list discrimination and lack of provider knowledge as the major barriers to care for transgender patients. Residents do not feel confident in their ability to treat and manage transgender patients. The majority of residents were not educated about transgender patient issues while in pharmacy school and think that community pharmacists need more education

  8. 2MASS Constraints on the Local Large-Scale Structure: A Challenge to LCDM?

    OpenAIRE

    Frith, W. J.; Shanks, T.; Outram, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the large-scale structure of the local galaxy distribution using the recently completed 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). First, we determine the K-band number counts over the 4000 sq.deg. APM survey area where evidence for a large-scale `local hole' has previously been detected and compare them to a homogeneous prediction. Considering a LCDM form for the 2-point angular correlation function, the observed deficiency represents a 5 sigma fluctuation in the galaxy distribution. We...

  9. Associations Between Resilience, Community Belonging, and Social Participation Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results From the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Roy, Mathieu; Michallet, Bernard; St-Hilaire, France; Maltais, Danielle; Généreux, Mélissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the associations between resilience, community belonging, and social participation, and the moderating effect of resilience on the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional; secondary analyses of the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. Community. A sample (N=4541) of women (n=2485) and men (n=2056) aged ≥60 years was randomly selected according to area. Most participants had community belonging, and resilience were collected by phone interviewer-administered questionnaire. A social participation scale measured frequency of participation in 8 community activities. A 4-point Likert scale ranging from "very strong" to "very weak" estimated sense of belonging to the local community. Social participation and sense of belonging questions came from Statistics Canada surveys. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, capturing the ability to cope with adversity. Controlling for age, education, and psychological distress, greater resilience and community belonging were associated with greater social participation among women (R 2 =.13; Pcommunity belonging and social participation varied as a function of resilience, especially in men. Greater community belonging further enhanced social participation, especially among women (P=.03) and men (Pcommunity belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older women and, especially, men. Interventions targeting social participation should consider the potential impact of resilience on improving community belonging. Future studies should investigate why resilience moderates associations between community belonging and social participation, and how to enhance resilience among older adults. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the use of local ecological knowledge to monitor hunted tropical-forest wildlife over large spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Parry

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the distribution and abundance of hunted wildlife is critical to achieving sustainable resource use, yet adequate data are sparse for most tropical regions. Conventional methods for monitoring hunted forest-vertebrate species require intensive in situ survey effort, which severely constrains spatial and temporal replication. Integrating local ecological knowledge (LEK into monitoring and management is appealing because it can be cost-effective, enhance community participation, and provide novel insights into sustainable resource use. We develop a technique to monitor population depletion of hunted forest wildlife in the Brazilian Amazon, based on the local ecological knowledge of rural hunters. We performed rapid interview surveys to estimate the landscape-scale depletion of ten large-bodied vertebrate species around 161 Amazonian riverine settlements. We assessed the explanatory and predictive power of settlement and landscape characteristics and were able to develop robust estimates of local faunal depletion. By identifying species-specific drivers of depletion and using secondary data on human population density, land form, and physical accessibility, we then estimated landscape- and regional-scale depletion. White-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari, for example, were estimated to be absent from 17% of their putative range in Brazil's largest state (Amazonas, despite 98% of the original forest cover remaining intact. We found evidence that bushmeat consumption in small urban centers has far-reaching impacts on some forest species, including severe depletion well over 100 km from urban centers. We conclude that LEK-based approaches require further field validation, but have significant potential for community-based participatory monitoring as well as cost-effective, large-scale monitoring of threatened forest species.

  11. Disclosure control using partially synthetic data for large-scale health surveys, with applications to CanCORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loong, Bronwyn; Zaslavsky, Alan M; He, Yulei; Harrington, David P

    2013-10-30

    Statistical agencies have begun to partially synthesize public-use data for major surveys to protect the confidentiality of respondents' identities and sensitive attributes by replacing high disclosure risk and sensitive variables with multiple imputations. To date, there are few applications of synthetic data techniques to large-scale healthcare survey data. Here, we describe partial synthesis of survey data collected by the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance (CanCORS) project, a comprehensive observational study of the experiences, treatments, and outcomes of patients with lung or colorectal cancer in the USA. We review inferential methods for partially synthetic data and discuss selection of high disclosure risk variables for synthesis, specification of imputation models, and identification disclosure risk assessment. We evaluate data utility by replicating published analyses and comparing results using original and synthetic data and discuss practical issues in preserving inferential conclusions. We found that important subgroup relationships must be included in the synthetic data imputation model, to preserve the data utility of the observed data for a given analysis procedure. We conclude that synthetic CanCORS data are suited best for preliminary data analyses purposes. These methods address the requirement to share data in clinical research without compromising confidentiality. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Report of the LASCAR forum: Large scale reprocessing plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information on the studies which were carried out from 1988 to 1992 under the auspices of the multinational forum known as Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards (LASCAR) on safeguards for four large scale reprocessing plants operated or planned to be operated in the 1990s. The report summarizes all of the essential results of these studies. The participants in LASCAR were from France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, the Commission of the European Communities - Euratom, and the International Atomic Energy Agency

  13. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries and the European Union.

    OpenAIRE

    Dragstra, A.; Tijdens, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews how working hours are asked in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all questionnaires ask for hours worked, the terminology varies largely. In only half of the cases a reference period is taken into account and in half the reasons for working more/less in the survey week than...

  14. EFFECTS OF LARGE-SCALE POULTRY FARMS ON AQUATIC MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A MOLECULAR INVESTIGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of large-scale poultry production operations on water quality and human health are largely unknown. Poultry litter is frequently applied as fertilizer to agricultural lands adjacent to large poultry farms. Run-off from the land introduces a variety of stressors into t...

  15. Results and lessons learned from UMANG program: A large scale community-managed supplementary feeding program in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockalingham, David; Gnanaraj, Grana Pu Selvi; Indriani, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Full text: India’s National Family Health Survey (2005-2006) revealed that 48% children under 5 years old were stunted while 43% were underweight. Child malnutrition is the outcome of high levels of exposure to infections, inappropriate infant and young child feeding and caring practices. It has its origins almost entirely during the first two to three years of life. Child malnutrition is responsible for 22% of India’s burden of disease. According to the Lancet journal in 2013, undernutrition during pregnancy, affecting fetal growth, and the first two years of life is a major determinant of both stunting of linear growth and subsequent obesity and non-communicable diseases in adulthood. World Vision India (WVI) is a humanitarian organization working in India since 1951 and currently serving 163 districts in 25 states. The strategic directive of WVI for 2011-2014 focuses on reducing infant mortality and eliminating hunger in communities. In March 2011, a special task force Integrated Programming - Child Health (IPCH) with the key mandates to target families of malnourished children residing in program areas towards delivering fullness of life; support Government, communities and other partners in scaling up proven multisectoral interventions; leverage multi-sectoral coalitions to combat malnutrition; advocate change in system and sustainability; and set up organizational support. A generic logframe with the intervention packages was adopted by Area Development Programs (ADPs) in 96 locations, making it the biggest nutrition program ever been implemented by WVI. After doing the nutritional assessment, 83255 children were identified to be in moderate and severe malnutrition condition. Considering that even mild to moderate malnutrition greatly increases the risk of children dying from common childhood diseases, WVI decided to set up an emergency response as an ethical and critical decision to save the lives of these children. A community managed supplementary

  16. Large-scale Star-formation-driven Outflows at 1 3D-HST Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britt F.; Brammer, Gabriel; van Dokkum, Pieter; Bezanson, Rachel; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine; da Cunha, Elizabete; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan, Xiaohui; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Patel, Shannon; Rix, Hans Walter; Schmidt, Kasper; van der Wel, Arjen

    2012-11-01

    We present evidence of large-scale outflows from three low-mass (log(M */M ⊙) ~ 9.75) star-forming (SFR > 4 M ⊙ yr-1) galaxies observed at z = 1.24, z = 1.35, and z = 1.75 in the 3D-HST Survey. Each of these galaxies is located within a projected physical distance of 60 kpc around the sight line to the quasar SDSS J123622.93+621526.6, which exhibits well-separated strong (W λ2796 r >~ 0.8 Å) Mg II absorption systems matching precisely to the redshifts of the three galaxies. We derive the star formation surface densities from the Hα emission in the WFC3 G141 grism observations for the galaxies and find that in each case the star formation surface density well exceeds 0.1 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, the typical threshold for starburst galaxies in the local universe. From a small but complete parallel census of the 0.65 0.8 Å Mg II covering fraction of star-forming galaxies at 1 0.4 Å Mg II absorbing gas around star-forming galaxies may evolve from z ~ 2 to the present, consistent with recent observations of an increasing collimation of star-formation-driven outflows with time from z ~ 3.

  17. Efficient Topology Estimation for Large Scale Optical Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Elibol, Armagan; Garcia, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Large scale optical mapping methods are in great demand among scientists who study different aspects of the seabed, and have been fostered by impressive advances in the capabilities of underwater robots in gathering optical data from the seafloor. Cost and weight constraints mean that low-cost ROVs usually have a very limited number of sensors. When a low-cost robot carries out a seafloor survey using a down-looking camera, it usually follows a predefined trajectory that provides several non time-consecutive overlapping image pairs. Finding these pairs (a process known as topology estimation) is indispensable to obtaining globally consistent mosaics and accurate trajectory estimates, which are necessary for a global view of the surveyed area, especially when optical sensors are the only data source. This book contributes to the state-of-art in large area image mosaicing methods for underwater surveys using low-cost vehicles equipped with a very limited sensor suite. The main focus has been on global alignment...

  18. Participatory Design and the Challenges of Large-Scale Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD...

  19. The role of large-scale, extratropical dynamics in climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, T.G. [ed.

    1994-02-01

    The climate modeling community has focused recently on improving our understanding of certain processes, such as cloud feedbacks and ocean circulation, that are deemed critical to climate-change prediction. Although attention to such processes is warranted, emphasis on these areas has diminished a general appreciation of the role played by the large-scale dynamics of the extratropical atmosphere. Lack of interest in extratropical dynamics may reflect the assumption that these dynamical processes are a non-problem as far as climate modeling is concerned, since general circulation models (GCMs) calculate motions on this scale from first principles. Nevertheless, serious shortcomings in our ability to understand and simulate large-scale dynamics exist. Partly due to a paucity of standard GCM diagnostic calculations of large-scale motions and their transports of heat, momentum, potential vorticity, and moisture, a comprehensive understanding of the role of large-scale dynamics in GCM climate simulations has not been developed. Uncertainties remain in our understanding and simulation of large-scale extratropical dynamics and their interaction with other climatic processes, such as cloud feedbacks, large-scale ocean circulation, moist convection, air-sea interaction and land-surface processes. To address some of these issues, the 17th Stanstead Seminar was convened at Bishop`s University in Lennoxville, Quebec. The purpose of the Seminar was to promote discussion of the role of large-scale extratropical dynamics in global climate change. Abstracts of the talks are included in this volume. On the basis of these talks, several key issues emerged concerning large-scale extratropical dynamics and their climatic role. Individual records are indexed separately for the database.

  20. The role of large-scale, extratropical dynamics in climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-02-01

    The climate modeling community has focused recently on improving our understanding of certain processes, such as cloud feedbacks and ocean circulation, that are deemed critical to climate-change prediction. Although attention to such processes is warranted, emphasis on these areas has diminished a general appreciation of the role played by the large-scale dynamics of the extratropical atmosphere. Lack of interest in extratropical dynamics may reflect the assumption that these dynamical processes are a non-problem as far as climate modeling is concerned, since general circulation models (GCMs) calculate motions on this scale from first principles. Nevertheless, serious shortcomings in our ability to understand and simulate large-scale dynamics exist. Partly due to a paucity of standard GCM diagnostic calculations of large-scale motions and their transports of heat, momentum, potential vorticity, and moisture, a comprehensive understanding of the role of large-scale dynamics in GCM climate simulations has not been developed. Uncertainties remain in our understanding and simulation of large-scale extratropical dynamics and their interaction with other climatic processes, such as cloud feedbacks, large-scale ocean circulation, moist convection, air-sea interaction and land-surface processes. To address some of these issues, the 17th Stanstead Seminar was convened at Bishop's University in Lennoxville, Quebec. The purpose of the Seminar was to promote discussion of the role of large-scale extratropical dynamics in global climate change. Abstracts of the talks are included in this volume. On the basis of these talks, several key issues emerged concerning large-scale extratropical dynamics and their climatic role. Individual records are indexed separately for the database

  1. Large-scale solar purchasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The principal objective of the project was to participate in the definition of a new IEA task concerning solar procurement (''the Task'') and to assess whether involvement in the task would be in the interest of the UK active solar heating industry. The project also aimed to assess the importance of large scale solar purchasing to UK active solar heating market development and to evaluate the level of interest in large scale solar purchasing amongst potential large scale purchasers (in particular housing associations and housing developers). A further aim of the project was to consider means of stimulating large scale active solar heating purchasing activity within the UK. (author)

  2. Creation of a community violence exposure scale: accounting for what, who, where, and how often.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Ryan, Louise; Wright, Rosalind J

    2008-10-01

    Previous research has used the Rasch model, a method for obtaining a continuous scale from dichotomous survey items measuring a single latent construct, to create a scale of community violence exposure. The authors build upon previous work and describe the application of a Rasch model using the continuation ratio model to create an exposure to community violence (ETV) scale including event circumstance information previously shown to modify the impact of experienced events. They compare the Rasch ETV scale to a simpler sum ETV score, and estimate the effect of ETV on child posttraumatic stress symptoms. Incorporating detailed event circumstance information that is grounded in traumatic stress theory may reduce measurement error in the assessment of children's community violence exposure.

  3. Survey and research for the enhancement of large-scale technology development 2. How large-scale technology development should be in the future; Ogata gijutsu kaihatsu suishin no tame no chosa kenkyu. 2. Kongo no ogata gijutsu kaihatsu no arikata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    A survey is conducted over the subject matter by holding interviews with people, employed with the entrusted businesses participating in the large-scale industrial technology development system, who are engaged in the development of industrial technologies, and with people of experience or academic background involved in the project enhancement effort. Needs of improvement are pointed out that the competition principle based for example on parallel development be introduced; that research-on-research be practiced for effective task institution; midway evaluation be substantiated since prior evaluation is difficult; efforts be made to organize new industries utilizing the fruits of large-scale industrial technology for the creation of markets, not to induce economic conflicts; that transfer of technologies be enhanced from the private sector to public sector. Studies are made about the review of research conducting systems; utilization of the power of private sector research and development efforts; enlightening about industrial proprietorship; and the diffusion of large-scale project systems. In this connection, problems are pointed out, requests are submitted, and remedial measures and suggestions are presented. (NEDO)

  4. Understanding uncertainties in non-linear population trajectories: a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical approach to large-scale surveys of coral cover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Vercelloni

    Full Text Available Recently, attempts to improve decision making in species management have focussed on uncertainties associated with modelling temporal fluctuations in populations. Reducing model uncertainty is challenging; while larger samples improve estimation of species trajectories and reduce statistical errors, they typically amplify variability in observed trajectories. In particular, traditional modelling approaches aimed at estimating population trajectories usually do not account well for nonlinearities and uncertainties associated with multi-scale observations characteristic of large spatio-temporal surveys. We present a Bayesian semi-parametric hierarchical model for simultaneously quantifying uncertainties associated with model structure and parameters, and scale-specific variability over time. We estimate uncertainty across a four-tiered spatial hierarchy of coral cover from the Great Barrier Reef. Coral variability is well described; however, our results show that, in the absence of additional model specifications, conclusions regarding coral trajectories become highly uncertain when considering multiple reefs, suggesting that management should focus more at the scale of individual reefs. The approach presented facilitates the description and estimation of population trajectories and associated uncertainties when variability cannot be attributed to specific causes and origins. We argue that our model can unlock value contained in large-scale datasets, provide guidance for understanding sources of uncertainty, and support better informed decision making.

  5. Collective response to public health emergencies and large-scale disasters: putting hospitals at the core of community resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturas, James L; Smith, Deborah; Smith, Stewart; Albanese, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Healthcare organisations are a critical part of a community's resilience and play a prominent role as the backbone of medical response to natural and manmade disasters. The importance of healthcare organisations, in particular hospitals, to remain operational extends beyond the necessity to sustain uninterrupted medical services for the community, in the aftermath of a large-scale disaster. Hospitals are viewed as safe havens where affected individuals go for shelter, food, water and psychosocial assistance, as well as to obtain information about missing family members or learn of impending dangers related to the incident. The ability of hospitals to respond effectively to high-consequence incidents producing a massive arrival of patients that disrupt daily operations requires surge capacity and capability. The activation of hospital emergency support functions provides an approach by which hospitals manage a short-term shortfall of hospital personnel through the reallocation of hospital employees, thereby obviating the reliance on external qualified volunteers for surge capacity and capability. Recent revisions to the Joint Commission's hospital emergency preparedness standard have impelled healthcare facilities to participate actively in community-wide planning, rather than confining planning exclusively to a single healthcare facility, in order to harmonise disaster management strategies and effectively coordinate the allocation of community resources and expertise across all local response agencies.

  6. Birth Satisfaction Scale/Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS/BSS-R): A large scale United States planned home birth and birth centre survey

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Susan E.; Donovan-Batson, Colleen.; Burduli, Ekaterina.; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina.; Hollins Martin, Caroline J.; Martin, Colin R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective:\\ud to explore the prevalence of birth satisfaction for childbearing women planning to birth in their home or birth centers in the United States. Examining differences in birth satisfaction of the home and birth centers; and those who birthed in a hospital using the 30-item Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and the 10-item Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R).\\ud Study design:\\ud a quantitative survey using the BSS and BSS-R were employed. Additional demographic data were collected...

  7. Large-Scale Structure Behind The Milky Way with ALFAZOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Barrantes, Monica; Henning, Patricia A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; McIntyre, Travis; Minchin, Robert F.

    2018-06-01

    The region of the sky behind the Milky Way (the Zone of Avoidance; ZOA) is not well studied due to high obscuration from gas and dust in our galaxy as well as stellar confusion, which results in low detection rate of galaxies in this region. Because of this, little is known about the distribution of galaxies in the ZOA, and other all sky redshift surveys have incomplete maps (e.g. the 2MASS Redshift survey in NIR has a gap of 5-8 deg around the Galactic plane). There is still controversy about the dipole anisotropy calculated from the comparison between the CMB and galaxy and redshift surveys, in part due to the incomplete sky mapping and redshift depth of these surveys. Fortunately, there is no ZOA at radio wavelengths because such wavelengths can pass unimpeded through dust and are not affected by stellar confusion. Therefore, we can detect and make a map of the distribution of obscured galaxies that contain the 21cm neutral hydrogen emission line, and trace the large-scale structure across the Galactic plane. The Arecibo L-Band Feed Array Zone of Avoidance (ALFAZOA) survey is a blind HI survey for galaxies behind the Milky Way that covers more than 1000 square degrees of the sky, conducted in two phases: shallow (completed) and deep (ongoing). We show the results of the finished shallow phase of the survey, which mapped a region between the galactic longitude l=30-75 deg, and latitude b <|10 deg|, and detected 418 galaxies to about 12,000 km/s, including galaxy properties and mapped large-scale structure. We do the same for new results from the deep phase, which is ongoing and covers 30 < l < 75 deg and b < |2| deg for the inner galaxy and 175 < l < 207 deg, with -2 < b < 1 for the outer galaxy.

  8. Establishing the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS): Operationalizing Community-based Research in a Large National Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona; Greene, Saara; Kennedy, V Logan; Lewis, Johanna; Thomas-Pavanel, Jamie; Conway, Tracey; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; O'Brien, Nadia; Carter, Allison; Tharao, Wangari; Nicholson, Valerie; Beaver, Kerrigan; Dubuc, Danièle; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Hogg, Robert S; Kaida, Angela

    2016-08-19

    Community-based research has gained increasing recognition in health research over the last two decades. Such participatory research approaches are lauded for their ability to anchor research in lived experiences, ensuring cultural appropriateness, accessing local knowledge, reaching marginalized communities, building capacity, and facilitating research-to-action. While having these positive attributes, the community-based health research literature is predominantly composed of small projects, using qualitative methods, and set within geographically limited communities. Its use in larger health studies, including clinical trials and cohorts, is limited. We present the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), a large-scale, multi-site, national, longitudinal quantitative study that has operationalized community-based research in all steps of the research process. Successes, challenges and further considerations are offered. Through the integration of community-based research principles, we have been successful in: facilitating a two-year long formative phase for this study; developing a novel survey instrument with national involvement; training 39 Peer Research Associates (PRAs); offering ongoing comprehensive support to PRAs; and engaging in an ongoing iterative community-based research process. Our community-based research approach within CHIWOS demanded that we be cognizant of challenges managing a large national team, inherent power imbalances and challenges with communication, compensation and volunteering considerations, and extensive delays in institutional processes. It is important to consider the iterative nature of community-based research and to work through tensions that emerge given the diverse perspectives of numerous team members. Community-based research, as an approach to large-scale quantitative health research projects, is an increasingly viable methodological option. Community-based research has several

  9. The CIDA-QUEST large-scale survey of Orion OB1: evidence for rapid disk dissipation in a dispersed stellar population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, C; Vivas, A K; Calvet, N; Hartmann, L; Pacheco, R; Herrera, D; Romero, L; Berlind, P; Sánchez, G; Snyder, J A; Andrews, P

    2001-01-05

    We are conducting a large-scale, multiepoch, optical photometric survey [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomia-Quasar Equatorial Survey Team (CIDA-QUEST)] covering about 120 square degrees to identify the young low-mass stars in the Orion OB1 association. We present results for an area of 34 square degrees. Using photometric variability as our main selection criterion, as well as follow-up spectroscopy, we confirmed 168 previously unidentified pre-main sequence stars that are about 0.6 to 0.9 times the mass of the sun (Mo), with ages of about 1 million to 3 million years (Ori OB1b) and about 3 million to 10 million years (Ori OB1a). The low-mass stars are spatially coincident with the high-mass (at least 3 Mo) members of the associations. Indicators of disk accretion such as Halpha emission and near-infrared emission from dusty disks fall sharply from Ori OB1b to Ori OB1a, indicating that the time scale for disk dissipation and possibly the onset of planet formation is a few million years.

  10. Large-Scale Science Observatories: Building on What We Have Learned from USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R.; Busby, R.; Detrick, R. S.; Frassetto, A.

    2015-12-01

    With the NSF-sponsored EarthScope USArray observatory, the Earth science community has built the operational capability and experience to tackle scientific challenges at the largest scales, such as a Subduction Zone Observatory. In the first ten years of USArray, geophysical instruments were deployed across roughly 2% of the Earth's surface. The USArray operated a rolling deployment of seismic stations that occupied ~1,700 sites across the USA, made co-located atmospheric observations, occupied hundreds of sites with magnetotelluric sensors, expanded a backbone reference network of seismic stations, and provided instruments to PI-led teams that deployed thousands of additional seismic stations. USArray included a comprehensive outreach component that directly engaged hundreds of students at over 50 colleges and universities to locate station sites and provided Earth science exposure to roughly 1,000 landowners who hosted stations. The project also included a comprehensive data management capability that received, archived and distributed data, metadata, and data products; data were acquired and distributed in real time. The USArray project was completed on time and under budget and developed a number of best practices that can inform other large-scale science initiatives that the Earth science community is contemplating. Key strategies employed by USArray included: using a survey, rather than hypothesis-driven, mode of observation to generate comprehensive, high quality data on a large-scale for exploration and discovery; making data freely and openly available to any investigator from the very onset of the project; and using proven, commercial, off-the-shelf systems to ensure a fast start and avoid delays due to over-reliance on unproven technology or concepts. Scope was set ambitiously, but managed carefully to avoid overextending. Configuration was controlled to ensure efficient operations while providing consistent, uniform observations. Finally, community

  11. What Will the Neighbors Think? Building Large-Scale Science Projects Around the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Craig; Mrotzek, Christian; Toge, Nobu; Sarno, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Public participation is an essential ingredient for turning the International Linear Collider into a reality. Wherever the proposed particle accelerator is sited in the world, its neighbors -- in any country -- will have something to say about hosting a 35-kilometer-long collider in their backyards. When it comes to building large-scale physics projects, almost every laboratory has a story to tell. Three case studies from Japan, Germany and the US will be presented to examine how community relations are handled in different parts of the world. How do particle physics laboratories interact with their local communities? How do neighbors react to building large-scale projects in each region? How can the lessons learned from past experiences help in building the next big project? These and other questions will be discussed to engage the audience in an active dialogue about how a large-scale project like the ILC can be a good neighbor.

  12. Large-scale motions in the universe: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, D.

    1990-01-01

    The expansion of the universe can be retarded in localised regions within the universe both by the presence of gravity and by non-gravitational motions generated in the post-recombination universe. The motions of galaxies thus generated are called 'peculiar motions', and the amplitudes, size scales and coherence of these peculiar motions are among the most direct records of the structure of the universe. As such, measurements of these properties of the present-day universe provide some of the severest tests of cosmological theories. This is a review of the current evidence for large-scale motions of galaxies out to a distance of ∼5000 km s -1 (in an expanding universe, distance is proportional to radial velocity). 'Large-scale' in this context refers to motions that are correlated over size scales larger than the typical sizes of groups of galaxies, up to and including the size of the volume surveyed. To orient the reader into this relatively new field of study, a short modern history is given together with an explanation of the terminology. Careful consideration is given to the data used to measure the distances, and hence the peculiar motions, of galaxies. The evidence for large-scale motions is presented in a graphical fashion, using only the most reliable data for galaxies spanning a wide range in optical properties and over the complete range of galactic environments. The kinds of systematic errors that can affect this analysis are discussed, and the reliability of these motions is assessed. The predictions of two models of large-scale motion are compared to the observations, and special emphasis is placed on those motions in which our own Galaxy directly partakes. (author)

  13. Hydrometeorological variability on a large french catchment and its relation to large-scale circulation across temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, Nicolas; Dieppois, Bastien; Fritier, Nicolas; Laignel, Benoit; Debret, Maxime; Lavers, David; Hannah, David

    2015-04-01

    In the present context of global changes, considerable efforts have been deployed by the hydrological scientific community to improve our understanding of the impacts of climate fluctuations on water resources. Both observational and modeling studies have been extensively employed to characterize hydrological changes and trends, assess the impact of climate variability or provide future scenarios of water resources. In the aim of a better understanding of hydrological changes, it is of crucial importance to determine how and to what extent trends and long-term oscillations detectable in hydrological variables are linked to global climate oscillations. In this work, we develop an approach associating large-scale/local-scale correlation, enmpirical statistical downscaling and wavelet multiresolution decomposition of monthly precipitation and streamflow over the Seine river watershed, and the North Atlantic sea level pressure (SLP) in order to gain additional insights on the atmospheric patterns associated with the regional hydrology. We hypothesized that: i) atmospheric patterns may change according to the different temporal wavelengths defining the variability of the signals; and ii) definition of those hydrological/circulation relationships for each temporal wavelength may improve the determination of large-scale predictors of local variations. The results showed that the large-scale/local-scale links were not necessarily constant according to time-scale (i.e. for the different frequencies characterizing the signals), resulting in changing spatial patterns across scales. This was then taken into account by developing an empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) modeling approach which integrated discrete wavelet multiresolution analysis for reconstructing local hydrometeorological processes (predictand : precipitation and streamflow on the Seine river catchment) based on a large-scale predictor (SLP over the Euro-Atlantic sector) on a monthly time-step. This approach

  14. Generating mock data sets for large-scale Lyman-α forest correlation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Fac. Ciències, torre C5 parell 2, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); McDonald, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi, E-mail: font@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: pvmcdonald@lbl.gov, E-mail: miralda@icc.ub.edu [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2012-01-01

    Massive spectroscopic surveys of high-redshift quasars yield large numbers of correlated Lyα absorption spectra that can be used to measure large-scale structure. Simulations of these surveys are required to accurately interpret the measurements of correlations and correct for systematic errors. An efficient method to generate mock realizations of Lyα forest surveys is presented which generates a field over the lines of sight to the survey sources only, instead of having to generate it over the entire three-dimensional volume of the survey. The method can be calibrated to reproduce the power spectrum and one-point distribution function of the transmitted flux fraction, as well as the redshift evolution of these quantities, and is easily used for modeling any survey systematic effects. We present an example of how these mock surveys are applied to predict the measurement errors in a survey with similar parameters as the BOSS quasar survey in SDSS-III.

  15. Generating mock data sets for large-scale Lyman-α forest correlation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; McDonald, Patrick; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Massive spectroscopic surveys of high-redshift quasars yield large numbers of correlated Lyα absorption spectra that can be used to measure large-scale structure. Simulations of these surveys are required to accurately interpret the measurements of correlations and correct for systematic errors. An efficient method to generate mock realizations of Lyα forest surveys is presented which generates a field over the lines of sight to the survey sources only, instead of having to generate it over the entire three-dimensional volume of the survey. The method can be calibrated to reproduce the power spectrum and one-point distribution function of the transmitted flux fraction, as well as the redshift evolution of these quantities, and is easily used for modeling any survey systematic effects. We present an example of how these mock surveys are applied to predict the measurement errors in a survey with similar parameters as the BOSS quasar survey in SDSS-III

  16. Cosmological Parameter Estimation with Large Scale Structure Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the sensitivity of future galaxy surveys to cosmological parameters, using the redshift dependent angular power spectra of galaxy number counts, $C_\\ell(z_1,z_2)$, calculated with all relativistic corrections at first order in perturbation theory. We pay special attention to the redshift dependence of the non-linearity scale and present Fisher matrix forecasts for Euclid-like and DES-like galaxy surveys. We compare the standard $P(k)$ analysis with the new $C_\\ell(z_1,z_2)$ method. We show that for surveys with photometric redshifts the new analysis performs significantly better than the $P(k)$ analysis. For spectroscopic redshifts, however, the large number of redshift bins which would be needed to fully profit from the redshift information, is severely limited by shot noise. We also identify surveys which can measure the lensing contribution and we study the monopole, $C_0(z_1,z_2)$.

  17. Large scale mapping: an empirical comparison of pixel-based and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, large scale mapping was carried using precise ground survey methods. Later, paradigm shift in data collection using medium to low resolution and, recently, high resolution images brought to bear the problem of accurate data analysis and fitness-for-purpose challenges. Using high resolution satellite images ...

  18. The Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale: A Preliminary Examination of a Community Responsive Measure in Two Southwest Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Scott C.; Rosales, Cecilia; Rubio-Goldsmith, Raquel; Sabo, Samantha; Ingram, Maia; McClelland, Debra Jean; Redondo, Floribella; Torres, Emma; Romero, Andrea J.; Oleary, Anna Ochoa; Sanchez, Zoila; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding contemporary socio-cultural stressors may assist educational, clinical and policy-level health promotion efforts. This study presents descriptive findings on a new measure, the Border Community & Immigration Stress Scale (BCISS). Methods The data were from two community surveys as part of community based participatory projects conducted in the Southwestern US border region. This scale includes stressful experiences reflected in extant measures, with new items reflecting heightened local migration pressures and health care barriers. Results Stressors representing each main domain, including novel ones, were reported with frequency and at high intensity in the predominantly Mexican-descent samples. Total stress was also significantly associated with mental and physical health indicators. Discussion The study suggests particularly high health burdens tied to the experience of stressors in the US border region. Further, many of the stressors are also likely relevant for other communities within developed nations also experiencing high levels of migration. PMID:22430894

  19. Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale forcing properties: 2. Scale awareness and application to single-column model experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sha; Li, Zhijin; Liu, Yangang; Lin, Wuyin; Zhang, Minghua; Toto, Tami; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Endo, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    three-dimensional fields have been produced using the Community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system for the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains region. The GSI system is implemented in a multiscale data assimilation framework using the Weather Research and Forecasting model at a cloud-resolving resolution of 2 km. From the fine-resolution three-dimensional fields, large-scale forcing is derived explicitly at grid-scale resolution; a subgrid-scale dynamic component is derived separately, representing subgrid-scale horizontal dynamic processes. Analyses show that the subgrid-scale dynamic component is often a major component over the large-scale forcing for grid scales larger than 200 km. The single-column model (SCM) of the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 is used to examine the impact of the grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components on simulated precipitation and cloud fields associated with a mesoscale convective system. It is found that grid-scale size impacts simulated precipitation, resulting in an overestimation for grid scales of about 200 km but an underestimation for smaller grids. The subgrid-scale dynamic component has an appreciable impact on the simulations, suggesting that grid-scale and subgrid-scale dynamic components should be considered in the interpretation of SCM simulations.

  20. Automation of Survey Data Processing, Documentation and Dissemination: An Application to Large-Scale Self-Reported Educational Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunjae; Shim, Minsuk K.; Felner, Robert D.

    Automation of the survey process has proved successful in many industries, yet it is still underused in educational research. This is largely due to the facts (1) that number crunching is usually carried out using software that was developed before information technology existed, and (2) that the educational research is to a great extent trapped…

  1. Energy transfers in large-scale and small-scale dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Kumar, Rohit; Verma, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    We present the energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers in small-scale dynamo (SSD) and large-scale dynamo (LSD) using numerical simulations of MHD turbulence for Pm = 20 (SSD) and for Pm = 0.2 on 10243 grid. For SSD, we demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers move towards lower wavenumbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason for the growth of the magnetic fields at the large scales. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. For LSD, we show that the magnetic energy growth takes place via energy transfers from large-scale velocity field to large-scale magnetic field. We observe forward U2U and B2B energy flux, similar to SSD.

  2. Adapting to large-scale changes in Advanced Placement Biology, Chemistry, and Physics: the impact of online teacher communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumin, Kim; Dede, Chris; Fischer, Christian; Foster, Brandon; Lawrenz, Frances; Eisenkraft, Arthur; Fishman, Barry; Jurist Levy, Abigail; McCoy, Ayana

    2018-03-01

    Over the past decade, the field of teacher professional learning has coalesced around core characteristics of high quality professional development experiences (e.g. Borko, Jacobs, & Koellner, 2010. Contemporary approaches to teacher professional development. In P. L. Peterson, E. Baker, & B. McGaw (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education (Vol. 7, pp. 548-556). Oxford: Elsevier.; Darling-Hammond, Hyler, & Gardner, 2017. Effective teacher professional development. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute). Many countries have found these advances of great interest because of a desire to build teacher capacity in science education and across the full curriculum. This paper continues this progress by examining the role and impact of an online professional development community within the top-down, large-scale curriculum and assessment revision of Advanced Placement (AP) Biology, Chemistry, and Physics. This paper is part of a five-year, longitudinal, U.S. National Science Foundation-funded project to study the relative effectiveness of various types of professional development in enabling teachers to adapt to the revised AP course goals and exams. Of the many forms of professional development our research has examined, preliminary analyses indicated that participation in the College Board's online AP Teacher Community (APTC) - where teachers can discuss teaching strategies, share resources, and connect with each other - had positive, direct, and statistically significant association with teacher self-reported shifts in practice and with gains in student AP scores (Fishman et al., 2014). This study explored how usage of the online APTC might be useful to teachers and examined a more robust estimate of these effects. Findings from the experience of AP teachers may be valuable in supporting other large-scale curriculum changes, such as the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards or Common Core Standards, as well as parallel curricular shifts in other countries.

  3. Inflation Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazajian, K.N.; Arnold,K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B.A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Buder, I.; Burke, D.L.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in the intensity and polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe each contain clues about the nature of the earliest moments of time. The next generation of CMB and large-scale structure (LSS) experiments are poised to test the leading paradigm for these earliest moments---the theory of cosmic inflation---and to detect the imprints of the inflationary epoch, thereby dramatically increasing our understanding of fundamental physics and the early universe. A future CMB experiment with sufficient angular resolution and frequency coverage that surveys at least 1 of the sky to a depth of 1 uK-arcmin can deliver a constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio that will either result in a 5-sigma measurement of the energy scale of inflation or rule out all large-field inflation models, even in the presence of foregrounds and the gravitational lensing B-mode signal. LSS experiments, particularly spectroscopic surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, will complement the CMB effort by improving current constraints on running of the spectral index by up to a factor of four, improving constraints on curvature by a factor of ten, and providing non-Gaussianity constraints that are competitive with the current CMB bounds.

  4. Native fish conservation areas: a vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Williams; Richard N. Williams; Russell F. Thurow; Leah Elwell; David P. Philipp; Fred A. Harris; Jeffrey L. Kershner; Patrick J. Martinez; Dirk Miller; Gordon H. Reeves; Christopher A. Frissell; James R. Sedell

    2011-01-01

    The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we...

  5. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries and the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragstra, A.; Tijdens, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews how working hours are asked in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  6. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Dragstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews how working hours are asked for in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  7. The effective field theory of cosmological large scale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Hertzberg, Mark P. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Large scale structure surveys will likely become the next leading cosmological probe. In our universe, matter perturbations are large on short distances and small at long scales, i.e. strongly coupled in the UV and weakly coupled in the IR. To make precise analytical predictions on large scales, we develop an effective field theory formulated in terms of an IR effective fluid characterized by several parameters, such as speed of sound and viscosity. These parameters, determined by the UV physics described by the Boltzmann equation, are measured from N-body simulations. We find that the speed of sound of the effective fluid is c2s ≈ 10–6c2 and that the viscosity contributions are of the same order. The fluid describes all the relevant physics at long scales k and permits a manifestly convergent perturbative expansion in the size of the matter perturbations δ(k) for all the observables. As an example, we calculate the correction to the power spectrum at order δ(k)4. As a result, the predictions of the effective field theory are found to be in much better agreement with observation than standard cosmological perturbation theory, already reaching percent precision at this order up to a relatively short scale k ≃ 0.24h Mpc–1.

  8. Multiresolution comparison of precipitation datasets for large-scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, K. P.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Davison, B.; DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Gridded precipitation datasets are crucial for driving large-scale models which are related to weather forecast and climate research. However, the quality of precipitation products is usually validated individually. Comparisons between gridded precipitation products along with ground observations provide another avenue for investigating how the precipitation uncertainty would affect the performance of large-scale models. In this study, using data from a set of precipitation gauges over British Columbia and Alberta, we evaluate several widely used North America gridded products including the Canadian Gridded Precipitation Anomalies (CANGRD), the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, the Water and Global Change (WATCH) project, the thin plate spline smoothing algorithms (ANUSPLIN) and Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA). Based on verification criteria for various temporal and spatial scales, results provide an assessment of possible applications for various precipitation datasets. For long-term climate variation studies (~100 years), CANGRD, NCEP, WATCH and ANUSPLIN have different comparative advantages in terms of their resolution and accuracy. For synoptic and mesoscale precipitation patterns, CaPA provides appealing performance of spatial coherence. In addition to the products comparison, various downscaling methods are also surveyed to explore new verification and bias-reduction methods for improving gridded precipitation outputs for large-scale models.

  9. Retention of habitat complexity minimizes disassembly of reef fish communities following disturbance: a large-scale natural experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Emslie

    Full Text Available High biodiversity ecosystems are commonly associated with complex habitats. Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, but are under increasing pressure from numerous stressors, many of which reduce live coral cover and habitat complexity with concomitant effects on other organisms such as reef fishes. While previous studies have highlighted the importance of habitat complexity in structuring reef fish communities, they employed gradient or meta-analyses which lacked a controlled experimental design over broad spatial scales to explicitly separate the influence of live coral cover from overall habitat complexity. Here a natural experiment using a long term (20 year, spatially extensive (∼ 115,000 kms(2 dataset from the Great Barrier Reef revealed the fundamental importance of overall habitat complexity for reef fishes. Reductions of both live coral cover and habitat complexity had substantial impacts on fish communities compared to relatively minor impacts after major reductions in coral cover but not habitat complexity. Where habitat complexity was substantially reduced, species abundances broadly declined and a far greater number of fish species were locally extirpated, including economically important fishes. This resulted in decreased species richness and a loss of diversity within functional groups. Our results suggest that the retention of habitat complexity following disturbances can ameliorate the impacts of coral declines on reef fishes, so preserving their capacity to perform important functional roles essential to reef resilience. These results add to a growing body of evidence about the importance of habitat complexity for reef fishes, and represent the first large-scale examination of this question on the Great Barrier Reef.

  10. Improving predictions of large scale soil carbon dynamics: Integration of fine-scale hydrological and biogeochemical processes, scaling, and benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, W. J.; Dwivedi, D.; Ghimire, B.; Hoffman, F. M.; Pau, G. S. H.; Randerson, J. T.; Shen, C.; Tang, J.; Zhu, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical model representations of decadal- to centennial-scale soil-carbon dynamics are a dominant cause of uncertainty in climate change predictions. Recent attempts by some Earth System Model (ESM) teams to integrate previously unrepresented soil processes (e.g., explicit microbial processes, abiotic interactions with mineral surfaces, vertical transport), poor performance of many ESM land models against large-scale and experimental manipulation observations, and complexities associated with spatial heterogeneity highlight the nascent nature of our community's ability to accurately predict future soil carbon dynamics. I will present recent work from our group to develop a modeling framework to integrate pore-, column-, watershed-, and global-scale soil process representations into an ESM (ACME), and apply the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) package for evaluation. At the column scale and across a wide range of sites, observed depth-resolved carbon stocks and their 14C derived turnover times can be explained by a model with explicit representation of two microbial populations, a simple representation of mineralogy, and vertical transport. Integrating soil and plant dynamics requires a 'process-scaling' approach, since all aspects of the multi-nutrient system cannot be explicitly resolved at ESM scales. I will show that one approach, the Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation, improves predictions of forest nitrogen and phosphorus experimental manipulations and leads to very different global soil carbon predictions. Translating model representations from the site- to ESM-scale requires a spatial scaling approach that either explicitly resolves the relevant processes, or more practically, accounts for fine-resolution dynamics at coarser scales. To that end, I will present recent watershed-scale modeling work that applies reduced order model methods to accurately scale fine-resolution soil carbon dynamics to coarse-resolution simulations. Finally, we

  11. Large-scale grid management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langdal, Bjoern Inge; Eggen, Arnt Ove

    2003-01-01

    The network companies in the Norwegian electricity industry now have to establish a large-scale network management, a concept essentially characterized by (1) broader focus (Broad Band, Multi Utility,...) and (2) bigger units with large networks and more customers. Research done by SINTEF Energy Research shows so far that the approaches within large-scale network management may be structured according to three main challenges: centralization, decentralization and out sourcing. The article is part of a planned series

  12. The Hannibal Community Survey; A Case Study in a Community Development Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, John A.

    Disturbed by the community's negative attitude toward its prospects for progress, the Hannibal (Missouri) Chamber of Commerce initiated a community self-survey to improve the situation. The questionnaire survey concentrated on felt needs relationg to city government, retail facilities and services, recreation, religion, education, industrial…

  13. Large-scale high-resolution non-invasive geophysical archaeological prospection for the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Immo; Neubauer, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Alois; Kucera, Matthias; Löcker, Klaus; Nau, Erich; Wallner, Mario; Gabler, Manuel; Zitz, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Over the past three years the 2010 in Vienna founded Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (http://archpro.lbg.ac.at), in collaboration with its ten European partner organizations, has made considerable progress in the development and application of near-surface geophysical survey technology and methodology mapping square kilometres rather than hectares in unprecedented spatial resolution. The use of multiple novel motorized multichannel GPR and magnetometer systems (both Förster/Fluxgate and Cesium type) in combination with advanced and centimetre precise positioning systems (robotic totalstations and Realtime Kinematic GPS) permitting efficient navigation in open fields have resulted in comprehensive blanket coverage archaeological prospection surveys of important cultural heritage sites, such as the landscape surrounding Stonehenge in the framework of the Stonehenge Hidden Landscape Project, the mapping of the World Cultural Heritage site Birka-Hovgården in Sweden, or the detailed investigation of the Roman urban landscape of Carnuntum near Vienna. Efficient state-of-the-art archaeological prospection survey solutions require adequate fieldwork methodologies and appropriate data processing tools for timely quality control of the data in the field and large-scale data visualisations after arrival back in the office. The processed and optimized visualisations of the geophysical measurement data provide the basis for subsequent archaeological interpretation. Integration of the high-resolution geophysical prospection data with remote sensing data acquired through aerial photography, airborne laser- and hyperspectral-scanning, terrestrial laser-scanning or detailed digital terrain models derived through photogrammetric methods permits improved understanding and spatial analysis as well as the preparation of comprehensible presentations for the stakeholders (scientific community, cultural heritage managers, public). Of

  14. Dipolar modulation of Large-Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mijin

    For the last two decades, we have seen a drastic development of modern cosmology based on various observations such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB), type Ia supernovae, and baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). These observational evidences have led us to a great deal of consensus on the cosmological model so-called LambdaCDM and tight constraints on cosmological parameters consisting the model. On the other hand, the advancement in cosmology relies on the cosmological principle: the universe is isotropic and homogeneous on large scales. Testing these fundamental assumptions is crucial and will soon become possible given the planned observations ahead. Dipolar modulation is the largest angular anisotropy of the sky, which is quantified by its direction and amplitude. We measured a huge dipolar modulation in CMB, which mainly originated from our solar system's motion relative to CMB rest frame. However, we have not yet acquired consistent measurements of dipolar modulations in large-scale structure (LSS), as they require large sky coverage and a number of well-identified objects. In this thesis, we explore measurement of dipolar modulation in number counts of LSS objects as a test of statistical isotropy. This thesis is based on two papers that were published in peer-reviewed journals. In Chapter 2 [Yoon et al., 2014], we measured a dipolar modulation in number counts of WISE matched with 2MASS sources. In Chapter 3 [Yoon & Huterer, 2015], we investigated requirements for detection of kinematic dipole in future surveys.

  15. Sustainability of small reservoirs and large scale water availability under current conditions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, Martinus S.; de Vries, Marjella J.; van Oel, Pieter R.; Carlos de Araújo, José

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid river basins often rely on reservoirs for water supply. Small reservoirs may impact on large-scale water availability both by enhancing availability in a distributed sense and by subtracting water for large downstream user communities, e.g. served by large reservoirs. Both of these impacts

  16. Evaluating tablet computers as a survey tool in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Steve M; Logan, Henrietta L; Guo, Yi; Marks, John G; Shepperd, James A

    2015-01-01

    Although tablet computers offer advantages in data collection over traditional paper-and-pencil methods, little research has examined whether the 2 formats yield similar responses, especially with underserved populations. We compared the 2 survey formats and tested whether participants' responses to common health questionnaires or perceptions of usability differed by survey format. We also tested whether we could replicate established paper-and-pencil findings via tablet computer. We recruited a sample of low-income community members living in the rural southern United States. Participants were 170 residents (black = 49%; white = 36%; other races and missing data = 15%) drawn from 2 counties meeting Florida's state statutory definition of rural with 100 persons or fewer per square mile. We randomly assigned participants to complete scales (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and Regulatory Focus Questionnaire) along with survey format usability ratings via paper-and-pencil or tablet computer. All participants rated a series of previously validated posters using a tablet computer. Finally, participants completed comparisons of the survey formats and reported survey format preferences. Participants preferred using the tablet computer and showed no significant differences between formats in mean responses, scale reliabilities, or in participants' usability ratings. Overall, participants reported similar scales responses and usability ratings between formats. However, participants reported both preferring and enjoying responding via tablet computer more. Collectively, these findings are among the first data to show that tablet computers represent a suitable substitute among an underrepresented rural sample for paper-and-pencil methodology in survey research. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Examining Agencies' Satisfaction with Electronic Record Management Systems in e-Government: A Large-Scale Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Ming; Hu, Paul Jen-Hwa; Chen, Hsinchun; Hu, Han-Fen

    While e-government is propelling and maturing steadily, advanced technological capabilities alone cannot guarantee agencies’ realizing the full benefits of the enabling computer-based systems. This study analyzes information systems in e-government settings by examining agencies’ satisfaction with an electronic record management system (ERMS). Specifically, we investigate key satisfaction determinants that include regulatory compliance, job relevance, and satisfaction with support services for using the ERMS. We test our model and the hypotheses in it, using a large-scale survey that involves a total of 1,652 government agencies in Taiwan. Our results show significant effects of regulatory compliance on job relevance and satisfaction with support services, which in turn determine government agencies’ satisfaction with an ERMS. Our data exhibit a reasonably good fit to our model, which can explain a significant portion of the variance in agencies’ satisfaction with an ERMS. Our findings have several important implications to research and practice, which are also discussed.

  18. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Tijdens, K.; Dragstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews how working hours are asked for in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all questionnaires ask for hours worked, the terminology varies greatly. In only half of the cases a reference period is taken into account and in half the reasons for working more/less in the survey w...

  19. Bioethics consultation practices and procedures: a survey of a large Canadian community of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R A; Anstey, K W; Macri, R; Heesters, A; Bean, S; Zlotnik Shaul, R

    2014-06-01

    The literature fails to reflect general agreement over the nature of the services and procedures provided by bioethicists, and the training and core competencies this work requires. If bioethicists are to define their activities in a consistent way, it makes sense to look for common ground in shared communities of practice. We report results of a survey of the services and procedures among bioethicists affiliated with the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics (JCB). This is the largest group of bioethicists working in healthcare organizations in Canada. The results suggest there are many common services and procedures of JCB bioethicists. This survey can serve as a baseline for further exploration of the work of JCB bioethicists. Common practices exist with respect to the domains of practice, individual reporting relationships, service availability within business hours and the education and training of the bioethicist.

  20. Socio-cultural impacts of large-scale cruise tourism in Souq Mutrah, Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Gutberlet

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The following paper explores socio-cultural impacts of large-scale cruise liner tourism on the traditional bazaar (souq in the district of Mutrah. The souq is located opposite the port in the Omani capital Muscat. Large-scale cruise tourism in Muscat started only in 2004 and has increased in scale and numbers in the past years. 24 cruise vessels with around 7600 passengers arrived in Muscat in 2005. Seven years later 135 cruise liners carrying 257,000 tourists docked in Muscat. Due to this dramatic rise of international cruise ships, the socio-cultural impacts have increased for local residents, shop vendors/owners and tourists alike. To capture those socio-cultural impacts on Souq Mutrah, a survey of cruise tourists was conducted by a questionnaire. In addition, the researcher used participatory observation, counting, and in-depth interviews with different stakeholders of the local community and different types of tourists during the cruise seasons 2012/13 and 2013/14. Moreover, content analysis of statistics and local media publications were used. Results indicate that the souq has become “the core of a tourist bubble”, where crowding is a major problem and local residents avoid the place. The social carrying capacity of the souq has been reached. Omani vendors are leaving their businesses and renting their shops out to expatriates. Since contemporary cruise tourists are low spenders, expatriate shop sellers have become more aggressive.

  1. Ethics of large-scale change

    OpenAIRE

    Arler, Finn

    2006-01-01

      The subject of this paper is long-term large-scale changes in human society. Some very significant examples of large-scale change are presented: human population growth, human appropriation of land and primary production, the human use of fossil fuels, and climate change. The question is posed, which kind of attitude is appropriate when dealing with large-scale changes like these from an ethical point of view. Three kinds of approaches are discussed: Aldo Leopold's mountain thinking, th...

  2. Updating Geospatial Data from Large Scale Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Chen, J.; Wang, D.; Shang, Y.; Wang, Z.; Li, X.; Ai, T.

    2011-08-01

    In the past decades, many geospatial databases have been established at national, regional and municipal levels over the world. Nowadays, it has been widely recognized that how to update these established geo-spatial database and keep them up to date is most critical for the value of geo-spatial database. So, more and more efforts have been devoted to the continuous updating of these geospatial databases. Currently, there exist two main types of methods for Geo-spatial database updating: directly updating with remote sensing images or field surveying materials, and indirectly updating with other updated data result such as larger scale newly updated data. The former method is the basis because the update data sources in the two methods finally root from field surveying and remote sensing. The later method is often more economical and faster than the former. Therefore, after the larger scale database is updated, the smaller scale database should be updated correspondingly in order to keep the consistency of multi-scale geo-spatial database. In this situation, it is very reasonable to apply map generalization technology into the process of geo-spatial database updating. The latter is recognized as one of most promising methods of geo-spatial database updating, especially in collaborative updating environment in terms of map scale, i.e , different scale database are produced and maintained separately by different level organizations such as in China. This paper is focused on applying digital map generalization into the updating of geo-spatial database from large scale in the collaborative updating environment for SDI. The requirements of the application of map generalization into spatial database updating are analyzed firstly. A brief review on geospatial data updating based digital map generalization is then given. Based on the requirements analysis and review, we analyze the key factors for implementing updating geospatial data from large scale including technical

  3. Comparing Lay Community and Academic Survey Center Interviewers in Conducting Household Interviews in Latino Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Glik, Deborah C; Prelip, Michael L; Belin, Thomas R; Brookmeyer, Ron; Santos, Robert; Chen, Jie; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The employment of professional interviewers from academic survey centers to conduct surveys has been standard practice. Because one goal of community-engaged research is to provide professional skills to community residents, this paper considers whether employing locally trained lay interviewers from within the community may be as effective as employing interviewers from an academic survey center with regard to unit and item nonresponse rates and cost. To study a nutrition-focused intervention, 1035 in-person household interviews were conducted in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, 503 of which were completed by lay community interviewers. A chi-square test was used to assess differences in unit nonresponse rates between professional and community interviewers and Welch's t tests were used to assess differences in item nonresponse rates. A cost comparison analysis between the two interviewer groups was also conducted. Interviewers from the academic survey center had lower unit nonresponse rates than the lay community interviewers (16.2% vs. 23.3%; p < 0.01). However, the item nonresponse rates were lower for the community interviewers than the professional interviewers (1.4% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.01). Community interviewers cost approximately $415.38 per survey whereas professional interviewers cost approximately $537.29 per survey. With a lower cost per completed survey and lower item nonresponse rates, lay community interviewers are a viable alternative to professional interviewers for fieldwork in community-based research. Additional research is needed to assess other important aspects of data quality interviewer such as interviewer effects and response error.

  4. Alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltenbacher, A.; Li Cheng; White, Simon D. M.; Jing, Yi-Peng; Mao Shude; Wang Jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR6 (SDSS) and the Millennium Simulation (MS), we investigate the alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure. For this purpose, we develop two new statistical tools, namely the alignment correlation function and the cos(2θ)-statistic. The former is a two-dimensional extension of the traditional two-point correlation function and the latter is related to the ellipticity correlation function used for cosmic shear measurements. Both are based on the cross correlation between a sample of galaxies with orientations and a reference sample which represents the large-scale structure. We apply the new statistics to the SDSS galaxy catalog. The alignment correlation function reveals an overabundance of reference galaxies along the major axes of red, luminous (L ∼ * ) galaxies out to projected separations of 60 h- 1 Mpc. The signal increases with central galaxy luminosity. No alignment signal is detected for blue galaxies. The cos(2θ)-statistic yields very similar results. Starting from a MS semi-analytic galaxy catalog, we assign an orientation to each red, luminous and central galaxy, based on that of the central region of the host halo (with size similar to that of the stellar galaxy). As an alternative, we use the orientation of the host halo itself. We find a mean projected misalignment between a halo and its central region of ∼ 25 deg. The misalignment decreases slightly with increasing luminosity of the central galaxy. Using the orientations and luminosities of the semi-analytic galaxies, we repeat our alignment analysis on mock surveys of the MS. Agreement with the SDSS results is good if the central orientations are used. Predictions using the halo orientations as proxies for central galaxy orientations overestimate the observed alignment by more than a factor of 2. Finally, the large volume of the MS allows us to generate a two-dimensional map of the alignment correlation function, which shows the reference

  5. Environment and host as large-scale controls of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Sietse; Suz, Laura M; Orme, C David L; Cox, Filipa; Andreae, Henning; Asi, Endla; Atkinson, Bonnie; Benham, Sue; Carroll, Christopher; Cools, Nathalie; De Vos, Bruno; Dietrich, Hans-Peter; Eichhorn, Johannes; Gehrmann, Joachim; Grebenc, Tine; Gweon, Hyun S; Hansen, Karin; Jacob, Frank; Kristöfel, Ferdinand; Lech, Paweł; Manninger, Miklós; Martin, Jan; Meesenburg, Henning; Merilä, Päivi; Nicolas, Manuel; Pavlenda, Pavel; Rautio, Pasi; Schaub, Marcus; Schröck, Hans-Werner; Seidling, Walter; Šrámek, Vít; Thimonier, Anne; Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Titeux, Hugues; Vanguelova, Elena; Verstraeten, Arne; Vesterdal, Lars; Waldner, Peter; Wijk, Sture; Zhang, Yuxin; Žlindra, Daniel; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2018-06-06

    Explaining the large-scale diversity of soil organisms that drive biogeochemical processes-and their responses to environmental change-is critical. However, identifying consistent drivers of belowground diversity and abundance for some soil organisms at large spatial scales remains problematic. Here we investigate a major guild, the ectomycorrhizal fungi, across European forests at a spatial scale and resolution that is-to our knowledge-unprecedented, to explore key biotic and abiotic predictors of ectomycorrhizal diversity and to identify dominant responses and thresholds for change across complex environmental gradients. We show the effect of 38 host, environment, climate and geographical variables on ectomycorrhizal diversity, and define thresholds of community change for key variables. We quantify host specificity and reveal plasticity in functional traits involved in soil foraging across gradients. We conclude that environmental and host factors explain most of the variation in ectomycorrhizal diversity, that the environmental thresholds used as major ecosystem assessment tools need adjustment and that the importance of belowground specificity and plasticity has previously been underappreciated.

  6. Large scale photovoltaic field trials. Second technical report: monitoring phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This report provides an update on the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trials (LS-BIPV FT) programme commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry (Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry; BERR). It provides detailed profiles of the 12 projects making up this programme, which is part of the UK programme on photovoltaics and has run in parallel with the Domestic Field Trial. These field trials aim to record the experience and use the lessons learnt to raise awareness of, and confidence in, the technology and increase UK capabilities. The projects involved: the visitor centre at the Gaia Energy Centre in Cornwall; a community church hall in London; council offices in West Oxfordshire; a sports science centre at Gloucester University; the visitor centre at Cotswold Water Park; the headquarters of the Insolvency Service; a Welsh Development Agency building; an athletics centre in Birmingham; a research facility at the University of East Anglia; a primary school in Belfast; and Barnstable civic centre in Devon. The report describes the aims of the field trials, monitoring issues, performance, observations and trends, lessons learnt and the results of occupancy surveys.

  7. Investigating the dependence of SCM simulated precipitation and clouds on the spatial scale of large-scale forcing at SGP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuaiqi; Zhang, Minghua; Xie, Shaocheng

    2017-08-01

    Large-scale forcing data, such as vertical velocity and advective tendencies, are required to drive single-column models (SCMs), cloud-resolving models, and large-eddy simulations. Previous studies suggest that some errors of these model simulations could be attributed to the lack of spatial variability in the specified domain-mean large-scale forcing. This study investigates the spatial variability of the forcing and explores its impact on SCM simulated precipitation and clouds. A gridded large-scale forcing data during the March 2000 Cloud Intensive Operational Period at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Southern Great Plains site is used for analysis and to drive the single-column version of the Community Atmospheric Model Version 5 (SCAM5). When the gridded forcing data show large spatial variability, such as during a frontal passage, SCAM5 with the domain-mean forcing is not able to capture the convective systems that are partly located in the domain or that only occupy part of the domain. This problem has been largely reduced by using the gridded forcing data, which allows running SCAM5 in each subcolumn and then averaging the results within the domain. This is because the subcolumns have a better chance to capture the timing of the frontal propagation and the small-scale systems. Other potential uses of the gridded forcing data, such as understanding and testing scale-aware parameterizations, are also discussed.

  8. Community variations in infant and child mortality in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonston, B; Andes, N

    1983-06-01

    Data from the national Peru Fertility Survey are used to estimate infant and childhood mortality ratios, 1968--77, for 124 Peruvian communities, ranging from small Indian hamlets in the Andes to larger cities on the Pacific coast. Significant mortality variations are found: mortality is inversely related to community population size and is higher in the mountains than in the jungle or coast. Multivariate analysis is then used to assess the influence of community population size, average female education, medical facilities, and altitude on community mortality. Finally, this study concludes that large-scale sample surveys, which include maternal birth history, add useful data for epidemiological studies of childhood mortality.

  9. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey (GGMFS: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand what makes some species successful invaders, it is critical to quantify performance differences between native and introduced regions, and among populations occupying a broad range of environmental conditions within each region. However, these data are not available even for the world’s most notorious invasive species. Here we introduce the Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey, a coordinated distributed field survey to collect performance data and germplasm from a single invasive species: garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata across its entire distribution using minimal resources. We chose this species for its ecological impacts, prominence in ecological studies of invasion success, simple life history, and several genetic and life history attributes that make it amenable to experimental study. We developed a standardised field survey protocol to estimate population size (area and density, age structure, plant size and fecundity, as well as damage by herbivores and pathogens in each population, and to collect representative seed samples. Across four years and with contributions from 164 academic and non-academic participants from 16 countries in North America and Europe thus far, we have collected 45,788 measurements and counts of 137,811 plants from 383 populations and seeds from over 5,000 plants. All field data and seed resources will be curated for release to the scientific community. Our goal is to establish A. petiolata as a model species for plant invasion biology and to encourage large collaborative studies of other invasive species.

  10. Large-scale multimedia modeling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.; Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Castleton, K.J.; Gelston, G.M.

    1995-08-01

    Over the past decade, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies have faced increasing scrutiny for a wide range of environmental issues related to past and current practices. A number of large-scale applications have been undertaken that required analysis of large numbers of potential environmental issues over a wide range of environmental conditions and contaminants. Several of these applications, referred to here as large-scale applications, have addressed long-term public health risks using a holistic approach for assessing impacts from potential waterborne and airborne transport pathways. Multimedia models such as the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) were designed for use in such applications. MEPAS integrates radioactive and hazardous contaminants impact computations for major exposure routes via air, surface water, ground water, and overland flow transport. A number of large-scale applications of MEPAS have been conducted to assess various endpoints for environmental and human health impacts. These applications are described in terms of lessons learned in the development of an effective approach for large-scale applications

  11. Implementation of a Computerized Tablet-Survey in an Adolescent Large-Scale, School-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delk, Joanne; Harrell, Melissa B; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Muir, Katelyn A; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-07-01

    Computerized surveys present many advantages over paper surveys. However, school-based adolescent research questionnaires still mainly rely on paper-and-pencil surveys as access to computers in schools is often not practical. Tablet-assisted self-interviews (TASI) present a possible solution, but their use is largely untested. This paper presents a method for and our experiences with implementing a TASI in a school setting. A TASI was administered to 3907 middle and high school students from 79 schools. The survey assessed use of tobacco products and exposure to tobacco marketing. To assess in-depth tobacco use behaviors, the TASI employed extensive skip patterns to reduce the number of not-applicable questions that nontobacco users received. Pictures were added to help respondents identify the tobacco products they were being queried about. Students were receptive to the tablets and required no instructions in their use. None were lost, stolen, or broken. Item nonresponse, unanswered questions, was a pre-administration concern; however, 92% of participants answered 96% or more of the questions. This method was feasible and successful among a diverse population of students and schools. It generated a unique dataset of in-depth tobacco use behaviors that would not have been possible through a paper-and-pencil survey. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  12. Multi-scale variation in spatial heterogeneity for microbial community structure in an eastern Virginia agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Rima B.; Mills, Aaron L.

    2003-01-01

    To better understand the distribution of soil microbial communities at multiple spatial scales, a survey was conducted to examine the spatial organization of community structure in a wheat field in eastern Virginia (USA). Nearly 200 soil samples were collected at a variety of separation distances ranging from 2.5 cm to 11 m. Whole-community DNA was extracted from each sample, and community structure was compared using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA fingerprinting. Relative similarity was calculated between each pair of samples and compared using geostatistical variogram analysis to study autocorrelation as a function of separation distance. Spatial autocorrelation was found at scales ranging from 30 cm to more than 6 m, depending on the sampling extent considered. In some locations, up to four different correlation length scales were detected. The presence of nested scales of variability suggests that the environmental factors regulating the development of the communities in this soil may operate at different scales. Kriging was used to generate maps of the spatial organization of communities across the plot, and the results demonstrated that bacterial distributions can be highly structured, even within a habitat that appears relatively homogeneous at the plot and field scale. Different subsets of the microbial community were distributed differently across the plot, and this is thought to be due to the variable response of individual populations to spatial heterogeneity associated with soil properties. c2003 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. Imprint of thawing scalar fields on the large scale galaxy overdensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Bikash R.; Sen, Anjan A.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the observed galaxy power spectrum for the thawing class of scalar field models taking into account various general relativistic corrections that occur on very large scales. We consider the full general relativistic perturbation equations for the matter as well as the dark energy fluid. We form a single autonomous system of equations containing both the background and the perturbed equations of motion which we subsequently solve for different scalar field potentials. First we study the percentage deviation from the Λ CDM model for different cosmological parameters as well as in the observed galaxy power spectra on different scales in scalar field models for various choices of scalar field potentials. Interestingly the difference in background expansion results from the enhancement of power from Λ CDM on small scales, whereas the inclusion of general relativistic (GR) corrections results in the suppression of power from Λ CDM on large scales. This can be useful to distinguish scalar field models from Λ CDM with future optical/radio surveys. We also compare the observed galaxy power spectra for tracking and thawing types of scalar field using some particular choices for the scalar field potentials. We show that thawing and tracking models can have large differences in observed galaxy power spectra on large scales and for smaller redshifts due to different GR effects. But on smaller scales and for larger redshifts, the difference is small and is mainly due to the difference in background expansion.

  15. Natural Length Scales of Ecological Systems: Applications at Community and Ecosystem Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Johnson

    2009-06-01

    associated with loss of resilience in ecological systems and thus provide a means to interpret change in community composition. By extension, comparison of the CLSs of ostensibly similar communities at different points in space can reveal whether they experience similar underlying dynamics. Analysis of these models also reveals that species in the same community whose dynamics are largely independent indicate different length scales. These examples demonstrate the potential to apply CLSs in a decision-support role in determining scales for monitoring, interpreting whether change in community structure reflects a shift in underlying dynamics and therefore may warrant management intervention, and determining connectivities among species in complex ecological systems.

  16. Environmental factors at different spatial scales governing soil fauna community patterns in fragmented forests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins da Silva, P.; Berg, M.P.; Serrano, A.R.M.; Dubs, F.; Sousa, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and temporal changes in community structure of soil organisms may result from a myriad of processes operating at a hierarchy of spatial scales, from small-scale habitat conditions to species movements among patches and large-sale landscape features. To disentangle the relative importance of

  17. Availability and quality of anti-malarials among private sector outlets in Myanmar in 2012: results from a large, community-based, cross-sectional survey before a large-scale intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khin, Hnin Su Su; Chen, Ingrid; White, Chris; Sudhinaraset, May; McFarland, Willi; Littrell, Megan; Montagu, Dominic; Aung, Tin

    2015-07-14

    Global malaria control efforts are threatened by the spread and emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. In 2012, the widespread sale of partial courses of artemisinin-based monotherapy was suspected to take place in the highly accessed, weakly regulated private sector in Myanmar, posing potentially major threats to drug resistance. This study investigated the presence of artemisinin-based monotherapies in the Myanmar private sector, particularly as partial courses of therapy, to inform the targeting of future interventions to stop artemisinin resistance. A large cross-sectional survey comprised of a screening questionnaire was conducted across 26 townships in Myanmar between March and May, 2012. For outlets that stocked anti-malarials at the time of survey, a stock audit was conducted, and for outlets that stocked anti-malarials within 3 months of the survey, a provider survey was conducted. A total of 3,658 outlets were screened, 83% were retailers (pharmacies, itinerant drug vendors and general retailers) and 17% were healthcare providers (private facilities and health workers). Of the 3,658 outlets screened, 1,359 outlets (32%) stocked at least one anti-malarial at the time of study. Oral artemisinin-based monotherapy comprised of 33% of self-reported anti-malarials dispensing volumes found. The vast majority of artemisinin-based monotherapy was sold by retailers, where 63% confirmed that they sold partial courses of therapy by cutting blister packets. Very few retailers (5%) had malaria rapid diagnostic tests available, and quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy was virtually nonexistent among retailers. Informal private pharmacies, itinerant drug vendors and general retailers should be targeted for interventions to improve malaria treatment practices in Myanmar, particularly those that threaten the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance.

  18. Decentralized Large-Scale Power Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    problem is formulated as a centralized large-scale optimization problem but is then decomposed into smaller subproblems that are solved locally by each unit connected to an aggregator. For large-scale systems the method is faster than solving the full problem and can be distributed to include an arbitrary...

  19. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  20. Convolutional neural networks for transient candidate vetting in large-scale surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseke, Fabian; Bloemen, Steven; van den Bogaard, Cas; Heskes, Tom; Kindler, Jonas; Scalzo, Richard A.; Ribeiro, Valério A. R. M.; van Roestel, Jan; Groot, Paul J.; Yuan, Fang; Möller, Anais; Tucker, Brad E.

    2017-12-01

    Current synoptic sky surveys monitor large areas of the sky to find variable and transient astronomical sources. As the number of detections per night at a single telescope easily exceeds several thousand, current detection pipelines make intensive use of machine learning algorithms to classify the detected objects and to filter out the most interesting candidates. A number of upcoming surveys will produce up to three orders of magnitude more data, which renders high-precision classification systems essential to reduce the manual and, hence, expensive vetting by human experts. We present an approach based on convolutional neural networks to discriminate between true astrophysical sources and artefacts in reference-subtracted optical images. We show that relatively simple networks are already competitive with state-of-the-art systems and that their quality can further be improved via slightly deeper networks and additional pre-processing steps - eventually yielding models outperforming state-of-the-art systems. In particular, our best model correctly classifies about 97.3 per cent of all 'real' and 99.7 per cent of all 'bogus' instances on a test set containing 1942 'bogus' and 227 'real' instances in total. Furthermore, the networks considered in this work can also successfully classify these objects at hand without relying on difference images, which might pave the way for future detection pipelines not containing image subtraction steps at all.

  1. Automating large-scale reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper conveys a philosophy for developing automated large-scale control systems that behave in an integrated, intelligent, flexible manner. Methods for operating large-scale systems under varying degrees of equipment degradation are discussed, and a design approach that separates the effort into phases is suggested. 5 refs., 1 fig

  2. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  3. Spatial fingerprints of community structure in human interaction network for an extensive set of large-scale regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Zsófia; Barankai, Norbert; Szüle, János; Vattay, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization.

  4. The large-scale environment from cosmological simulations - I. The baryonic cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiguang; Knebe, Alexander; Yepes, Gustavo; Yang, Xiaohu; Borgani, Stefano; Kang, Xi; Power, Chris; Staveley-Smith, Lister

    2018-01-01

    Using a series of cosmological simulations that includes one dark-matter-only (DM-only) run, one gas cooling-star formation-supernova feedback (CSF) run and one that additionally includes feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we classify the large-scale structures with both a velocity-shear-tensor code (VWEB) and a tidal-tensor code (PWEB). We find that the baryonic processes have almost no impact on large-scale structures - at least not when classified using aforementioned techniques. More importantly, our results confirm that the gas component alone can be used to infer the filamentary structure of the universe practically un-biased, which could be applied to cosmology constraints. In addition, the gas filaments are classified with its velocity (VWEB) and density (PWEB) fields, which can theoretically connect to the radio observations, such as H I surveys. This will help us to bias-freely link the radio observations with dark matter distributions at large scale.

  5. Reviving large-scale projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desiront, A.

    2003-01-01

    For the past decade, most large-scale hydro development projects in northern Quebec have been put on hold due to land disputes with First Nations. Hydroelectric projects have recently been revived following an agreement signed with Aboriginal communities in the province who recognized the need to find new sources of revenue for future generations. Many Cree are working on the project to harness the waters of the Eastmain River located in the middle of their territory. The work involves building an 890 foot long dam, 30 dikes enclosing a 603 square-km reservoir, a spillway, and a power house with 3 generating units with a total capacity of 480 MW of power for start-up in 2007. The project will require the use of 2,400 workers in total. The Cree Construction and Development Company is working on relations between Quebec's 14,000 Crees and the James Bay Energy Corporation, the subsidiary of Hydro-Quebec which is developing the project. Approximately 10 per cent of the $735-million project has been designated for the environmental component. Inspectors ensure that the project complies fully with environmental protection guidelines. Total development costs for Eastmain-1 are in the order of $2 billion of which $735 million will cover work on site and the remainder will cover generating units, transportation and financial charges. Under the treaty known as the Peace of the Braves, signed in February 2002, the Quebec government and Hydro-Quebec will pay the Cree $70 million annually for 50 years for the right to exploit hydro, mining and forest resources within their territory. The project comes at a time when electricity export volumes to the New England states are down due to growth in Quebec's domestic demand. Hydropower is a renewable and non-polluting source of energy that is one of the most acceptable forms of energy where the Kyoto Protocol is concerned. It was emphasized that large-scale hydro-electric projects are needed to provide sufficient energy to meet both

  6. TOPOLOGY OF A LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE AS A TEST OF MODIFIED GRAVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Chen Xuelei; Park, Changbom

    2012-01-01

    The genus of the isodensity contours is a robust measure of the topology of a large-scale structure, and it is relatively insensitive to nonlinear gravitational evolution, galaxy bias, and redshift-space distortion. We show that the growth of density fluctuations is scale dependent even in the linear regime in some modified gravity theories, which opens a new possibility of testing the theories observationally. We propose to use the genus of the isodensity contours, an intrinsic measure of the topology of the large-scale structure, as a statistic to be used in such tests. In Einstein's general theory of relativity, density fluctuations grow at the same rate on all scales in the linear regime, and the genus per comoving volume is almost conserved as structures grow homologously, so we expect that the genus-smoothing-scale relation is basically time independent. However, in some modified gravity models where structures grow with different rates on different scales, the genus-smoothing-scale relation should change over time. This can be used to test the gravity models with large-scale structure observations. We study the cases of the f(R) theory, DGP braneworld theory as well as the parameterized post-Friedmann models. We also forecast how the modified gravity models can be constrained with optical/IR or redshifted 21 cm radio surveys in the near future.

  7. Future changes in large-scale transport and stratosphere-troposphere exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalos, M.; Randel, W. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Garcia, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Future changes in large-scale transport are investigated in long-term (1955-2099) simulations of the Community Earth System Model - Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM-WACCM) under an RCP6.0 climate change scenario. We examine artificial passive tracers in order to isolate transport changes from future changes in emissions and chemical processes. The model suggests enhanced stratosphere-troposphere exchange in both directions (STE), with decreasing tropospheric and increasing stratospheric tracer concentrations in the troposphere. Changes in the different transport processes are evaluated using the Transformed Eulerian Mean continuity equation, including parameterized convective transport. Dynamical changes associated with the rise of the tropopause height are shown to play a crucial role on future transport trends.

  8. Higher Education Teachers' Descriptions of Their Own Learning: A Large-Scale Study of Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töytäri, Aija; Piirainen, Arja; Tynjälä, Päivi; Vanhanen-Nuutinen, Liisa; Mäki, Kimmo; Ilves, Vesa

    2016-01-01

    In this large-scale study, higher education teachers' descriptions of their own learning were examined with qualitative analysis involving application of principles of phenomenographic research. This study is unique: it is unusual to use large-scale data in qualitative studies. The data were collected through an e-mail survey sent to 5960 teachers…

  9. The Software Reliability of Large Scale Integration Circuit and Very Large Scale Integration Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Artem Ganiyev; Jan Vitasek

    2010-01-01

    This article describes evaluation method of faultless function of large scale integration circuits (LSI) and very large scale integration circuits (VLSI). In the article there is a comparative analysis of factors which determine faultless of integrated circuits, analysis of already existing methods and model of faultless function evaluation of LSI and VLSI. The main part describes a proposed algorithm and program for analysis of fault rate in LSI and VLSI circuits.

  10. An Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy Setting (EISP): Development and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnjanski, Tatjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Tadic, Ivana; Stojkov, Svetlana; Savic, Mirko

    2016-04-01

    Many problems that arise when providing pharmacy services may contain some ethical components and the aims of this study were to develop and validate a scale that could assess difficulties of ethical issues, as well as the frequency of those occurrences in everyday practice of community pharmacists. Development and validation of the scale was conducted in three phases: (1) generating items for the initial survey instrument after qualitative analysis; (2) defining the design and format of the instrument; (3) validation of the instrument. The constructed Ethical Issue scale for community pharmacy setting has two parts containing the same 16 items for assessing the difficulty and frequency thereof. The results of the 171 completely filled out scales were analyzed (response rate 74.89%). The Cronbach's α value of the part of the instrument that examines difficulties of the ethical situations was 0.83 and for the part of the instrument that examined frequency of the ethical situations was 0.84. Test-retest reliability for both parts of the instrument was satisfactory with all Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values above 0.6, (for the part that examines severity ICC = 0.809, for the part that examines frequency ICC = 0.929). The 16-item scale, as a self assessment tool, demonstrated a high degree of content, criterion, and construct validity and test-retest reliability. The results support its use as a research tool to asses difficulty and frequency of ethical issues in community pharmacy setting. The validated scale needs to be further employed on a larger sample of pharmacists.

  11. Solving large scale structure in ten easy steps with COLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassev, Svetlin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Zaldarriaga, Matias [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J., E-mail: stassev@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu, E-mail: deisenstein@cfa.harvard.edu [Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present the COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration (COLA) method: an N-body method for solving for Large Scale Structure (LSS) in a frame that is comoving with observers following trajectories calculated in Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT). Unlike standard N-body methods, the COLA method can straightforwardly trade accuracy at small-scales in order to gain computational speed without sacrificing accuracy at large scales. This is especially useful for cheaply generating large ensembles of accurate mock halo catalogs required to study galaxy clustering and weak lensing, as those catalogs are essential for performing detailed error analysis for ongoing and future surveys of LSS. As an illustration, we ran a COLA-based N-body code on a box of size 100 Mpc/h with particles of mass ≈ 5 × 10{sup 9}M{sub s}un/h. Running the code with only 10 timesteps was sufficient to obtain an accurate description of halo statistics down to halo masses of at least 10{sup 11}M{sub s}un/h. This is only at a modest speed penalty when compared to mocks obtained with LPT. A standard detailed N-body run is orders of magnitude slower than our COLA-based code. The speed-up we obtain with COLA is due to the fact that we calculate the large-scale dynamics exactly using LPT, while letting the N-body code solve for the small scales, without requiring it to capture exactly the internal dynamics of halos. Achieving a similar level of accuracy in halo statistics without the COLA method requires at least 3 times more timesteps than when COLA is employed.

  12. Punishment sustains large-scale cooperation in prestate warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sarah; Boyd, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding cooperation and punishment in small-scale societies is crucial for explaining the origins of human cooperation. We studied warfare among the Turkana, a politically uncentralized, egalitarian, nomadic pastoral society in East Africa. Based on a representative sample of 88 recent raids, we show that the Turkana sustain costly cooperation in combat at a remarkably large scale, at least in part, through punishment of free-riders. Raiding parties comprised several hundred warriors and participants are not kin or day-to-day interactants. Warriors incur substantial risk of death and produce collective benefits. Cowardice and desertions occur, and are punished by community-imposed sanctions, including collective corporal punishment and fines. Furthermore, Turkana norms governing warfare benefit the ethnolinguistic group, a population of a half-million people, at the expense of smaller social groupings. These results challenge current views that punishment is unimportant in small-scale societies and that human cooperation evolved in small groups of kin and familiar individuals. Instead, these results suggest that cooperation at the larger scale of ethnolinguistic units enforced by third-party sanctions could have a deep evolutionary history in the human species. PMID:21670285

  13. Traffic assignment models in large-scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær

    the potential of the method proposed and the possibility to use individual-based GPS units for travel surveys in real-life large-scale multi-modal networks. Congestion is known to highly influence the way we act in the transportation network (and organise our lives), because of longer travel times...... of observations of actual behaviour to obtain estimates of the (monetary) value of different travel time components, thereby increasing the behavioural realism of largescale models. vii The generation of choice sets is a vital component in route choice models. This is, however, not a straight-forward task in real......, but the reliability of the travel time also has a large impact on our travel choices. Consequently, in order to improve the realism of transport models, correct understanding and representation of two values that are related to the value of time (VoT) are essential: (i) the value of congestion (VoC), as the Vo...

  14. Large Survey Database: A Distributed Framework for Storage and Analysis of Large Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The Large Survey Database (LSD) is a Python framework and DBMS for distributed storage, cross-matching and querying of large survey catalogs (>10^9 rows, >1 TB). The primary driver behind its development is the analysis of Pan-STARRS PS1 data. It is specifically optimized for fast queries and parallel sweeps of positionally and temporally indexed datasets. It transparently scales to more than >10^2 nodes, and can be made to function in "shared nothing" architectures. An LSD database consists of a set of vertically and horizontally partitioned tables, physically stored as compressed HDF5 files. Vertically, we partition the tables into groups of related columns ('column groups'), storing together logically related data (e.g., astrometry, photometry). Horizontally, the tables are partitioned into partially overlapping ``cells'' by position in space (lon, lat) and time (t). This organization allows for fast lookups based on spatial and temporal coordinates, as well as data and task distribution. The design was inspired by the success of Google BigTable (Chang et al., 2006). Our programming model is a pipelined extension of MapReduce (Dean and Ghemawat, 2004). An SQL-like query language is used to access data. For complex tasks, map-reduce ``kernels'' that operate on query results on a per-cell basis can be written, with the framework taking care of scheduling and execution. The combination leverages users' familiarity with SQL, while offering a fully distributed computing environment. LSD adds little overhead compared to direct Python file I/O. In tests, we sweeped through 1.1 Grows of PanSTARRS+SDSS data (220GB) less than 15 minutes on a dual CPU machine. In a cluster environment, we achieved bandwidths of 17Gbits/sec (I/O limited). Based on current experience, we believe LSD should scale to be useful for analysis and storage of LSST-scale datasets. It can be downloaded from http://mwscience.net/lsd.

  15. Phylogenetic distribution of large-scale genome patchiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackenberg Michael

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic distribution of large-scale genome structure (i.e. mosaic compositional patchiness has been explored mainly by analytical ultracentrifugation of bulk DNA. However, with the availability of large, good-quality chromosome sequences, and the recently developed computational methods to directly analyze patchiness on the genome sequence, an evolutionary comparative analysis can be carried out at the sequence level. Results The local variations in the scaling exponent of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis are used here to analyze large-scale genome structure and directly uncover the characteristic scales present in genome sequences. Furthermore, through shuffling experiments of selected genome regions, computationally-identified, isochore-like regions were identified as the biological source for the uncovered large-scale genome structure. The phylogenetic distribution of short- and large-scale patchiness was determined in the best-sequenced genome assemblies from eleven eukaryotic genomes: mammals (Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Canis familiaris, birds (Gallus gallus, fishes (Danio rerio, invertebrates (Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans, plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found large-scale patchiness of genome structure, associated with in silico determined, isochore-like regions, throughout this wide phylogenetic range. Conclusion Large-scale genome structure is detected by directly analyzing DNA sequences in a wide range of eukaryotic chromosome sequences, from human to yeast. In all these genomes, large-scale patchiness can be associated with the isochore-like regions, as directly detected in silico at the sequence level.

  16. Managing large-scale models: DBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    A set of fundamental management tools for developing and operating a large scale model and data base system is presented. Based on experience in operating and developing a large scale computerized system, the only reasonable way to gain strong management control of such a system is to implement appropriate controls and procedures. Chapter I discusses the purpose of the book. Chapter II classifies a broad range of generic management problems into three groups: documentation, operations, and maintenance. First, system problems are identified then solutions for gaining management control are disucssed. Chapters III, IV, and V present practical methods for dealing with these problems. These methods were developed for managing SEAS but have general application for large scale models and data bases

  17. Large Scale Self-Organizing Information Distribution System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Low, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This project investigates issues in "large-scale" networks. Here "large-scale" refers to networks with large number of high capacity nodes and transmission links, and shared by a large number of users...

  18. Large scale structure and baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.P.; Chizhov, M.V.

    2001-08-01

    We discuss a possible connection between the large scale structure formation and the baryogenesis in the universe. An update review of the observational indications for the presence of a very large scale 120h -1 Mpc in the distribution of the visible matter of the universe is provided. The possibility to generate a periodic distribution with the characteristic scale 120h -1 Mpc through a mechanism producing quasi-periodic baryon density perturbations during inflationary stage, is discussed. The evolution of the baryon charge density distribution is explored in the framework of a low temperature boson condensate baryogenesis scenario. Both the observed very large scale of a the visible matter distribution in the universe and the observed baryon asymmetry value could naturally appear as a result of the evolution of a complex scalar field condensate, formed at the inflationary stage. Moreover, for some model's parameters a natural separation of matter superclusters from antimatter ones can be achieved. (author)

  19. Automatic management software for large-scale cluster system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Yunjian; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Sun Gongxing

    2007-01-01

    At present, the large-scale cluster system faces to the difficult management. For example the manager has large work load. It needs to cost much time on the management and the maintenance of large-scale cluster system. The nodes in large-scale cluster system are very easy to be chaotic. Thousands of nodes are put in big rooms so that some managers are very easy to make the confusion with machines. How do effectively carry on accurate management under the large-scale cluster system? The article introduces ELFms in the large-scale cluster system. Furthermore, it is proposed to realize the large-scale cluster system automatic management. (authors)

  20. FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK: RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Q.; Hui-Hai Liu; Molz, F.J.; Zhang, Y.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D m e , a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D m e values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F D (defined as the ratio of D m e to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D m ] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F D value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F D value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F D value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminant remediation

  1. Relation between metabolic syndrome and body compositions among Chinese adolescents and adults from a large-scale population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few nationally representative surveys regarding body composition and metabolic syndrome (MetS have been done in a large-scale representative Chinese population to explore the prediction of body composition indicators for MetS. The objective of this study was to examine the relation of body composition and MetS and to determine the optimal cut-off values of body composition indicators that predict MetS in a large representative Chinese sample based on multiple provinces and ethnicities, covering a broad age range from 10 to 80 years old. Methods The subjects came from a large-scale population survey on Chinese physiological constants and health conditions conducted in six provinces. 32,036 subjects completed all blood biochemical testing and body composition measure. Subjects meeting at least 3 of the following 5 criteria qualify as having MetS: elevated blood pressure, lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol level, higher triglyceride level, higher fasting glucose level and abdominal obesity. Results The total prevalence rate of MetS for males (9.29% was lower than for females (11.58%. The prevalence rates were 12.03% for male adults and 15.57% for female adults respectively. The risk of MetS increased 44.6% (OR = 1.446, 95%CI: 1.414–1.521 for males and 53.4% (OR = 1.534, 95%CI: 1.472–1.598 for females with each 5% increase of percentage of body fat. The risk of MetS increased two-fold (OR = 2.020, 95%CI: 1.920–2.125 for males; OR = 2.047, 95%CI: 1.954–2.144 for females respectively with each 5% increase of waist-hip ratio. The risk of MetS increased three-fold (OR = 2.915, 95%CI: 2.742–3.099 for males; OR = 2.950, 95%CI: 2.784–3.127 for females respectively with each 5% increase of Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR. Areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC of most body composition indicators were larger than 0.70 and the sensitivities and the specificities of most cut-off values were larger than 0

  2. Development of a community’s self-efficacy scale for preventing social isolation among community-dwelling older people (Mimamori Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Tadaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among older people in developed countries, social isolation leading to solitary death has become a public health issue of vital importance. Such isolation could be prevented by monitoring at-risk individuals at the neighborhood level and by implementing supportive networks at the community level. However, a means of measuring community confidence in these measures has not been established. This study is aimed at developing the Community’s Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES; Mimamori scale in Japanese for community members preventing social isolation among older people. Methods The CSES is a self-administered questionnaire developed on the basis of Bandura’s self-efficacy theory. The survey was given to a general population (GEN sample (n = 6,000 and community volunteer (CVOL sample (n = 1,297. Construct validity was determined using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha. The Generative Concern Scale (GCS-R and Brief Sense of Community Scale (BSCS were also administered to assess criterion-related validity of the CSES. Results In total, 3,484 and 859 valid responses were received in the GEN and CVOL groups, respectively. The confirmatory factor analysis identified eight items from two domains—community network and neighborhood watch—with goodness of fit index = 0.984, adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.970, comparative fit index = 0.988, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.047. Cronbach’s alpha for the entire CSES was 0.87 and for the subscales was 0.80 and higher. The score of the entire CSES was positively correlated with the GCS-R in both the GEN (r = 0.80, p < 0.001 and CVOL (r = 0.86, p < 0.001 samples. Conclusions The CSES demonstrated adequate reliability and validity for assessing a community’s self-efficacy to aid in its preventing social isolation among older people. The scale is potentially useful for

  3. Management of social and economic impacts associated with the construction of large-scale projects: experiences from the Western coal development communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, M.R.; Curry, M.G.

    1977-06-01

    The construction and operation of large-scale energy or resource development projects are accompanied by environmental, social, and economic changes or impacts. Impact assessment is the key tool used to determine which impact areas will most severely affect the community and will thus need to be managed. Impact management, only recently recognized as part of the assessment process, includes public and private actions to ameliorate impacts. The use of available impact management strategies can affect the outcome or change in the social and economic environment in a community. Therefore, an inventory of available strategies and the capabilities of local governments to use such strategies should be an integral part of any social and economic impact assessment. This provides a link between impact assessment and management. This report provides an introductory analysis to some of the more complex issues raised by social and economic impact management, with experiences cited from Western coal-development communities. Following an introduction, the paper is divided into sections corresponding to the major social and economic impacts experienced by rural communities surrounding an energy development. Each section contains a brief introductory description of the types of problems typically associated with the impact sector, and a discussion of management strategies either proposed or implemented for the impact. The management strategies are presented in tabular form, indicating the level of government responsible for implementation. 10 tables, 72 references. (MCW)

  4. Membrane biofilm communities in full-scale membrane bioreactors are not randomly assembled and consist of a core microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald Kamil

    2017-06-21

    Finding efficient biofouling control strategies requires a better understanding of the microbial ecology of membrane biofilm communities in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Studies that characterized the membrane biofilm communities in lab-and pilot-scale MBRs are numerous, yet similar studies in full-scale MBRs are limited. Also, most of these studies have characterized the mature biofilm communities with very few studies addressing early biofilm communities. In this study, five full-scale MBRs located in Seattle (Washington, U.S.A.) were selected to address two questions concerning membrane biofilm communities (early and mature): (i) Is the assembly of biofilm communities (early and mature) the result of random immigration of species from the source community (i.e. activated sludge)? and (ii) Is there a core membrane biofilm community in full-scale MBRs? Membrane biofilm (early and mature) and activated sludge (AS) samples were collected from the five MBRs, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of AS and membrane biofilms (early and mature). Alpha and beta diversity measures revealed clear differences in the bacterial community structure between the AS and biofilm (early and mature) samples in the five full-scale MBRs. These differences were mainly due to the presence of large number of unique but rare operational taxonomic units (∼13% of total reads in each MBR) in each sample. In contrast, a high percentage (∼87% of total reads in each MBR) of sequence reads was shared between AS and biofilm samples in each MBR, and these shared sequence reads mainly belong to the dominant taxa in these samples. Despite the large fraction of shared sequence reads between AS and biofilm samples, simulated biofilm communities from random sampling of the respective AS community revealed that biofilm communities differed significantly from the random assemblages (P < 0.001 for each MBR), indicating that the biofilm communities (early

  5. Meta-scale mountain grassland observatories uncover commonalities as well as specific interactions among plant and non-rhizosphere soil bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Erika; Pinto-Figueroa, Eric; Buri, Aline; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Adatte, Thierry; Niculita-Hirzel, Helene; Guisan, Antoine; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2018-04-10

    Interactions between plants and bacteria in the non-rhizosphere soil are rarely assessed, because they are less direct and easily masked by confounding environmental factors. By studying plant vegetation alliances and soil bacterial community co-patterning in grassland soils in 100 sites across a heterogeneous mountain landscape in the western Swiss Alps, we obtained sufficient statistical power to disentangle common co-occurrences and weaker specific interactions. Plant alliances and soil bacterial communities tended to be synchronized in community turnover across the landscape, largely driven by common underlying environmental factors, such as soil pH or elevation. Certain alliances occurring in distinct, local, environmental conditions were characterized by co-occurring specialist plant and bacterial species, such as the Nardus stricta and Thermogemmatisporaceae. In contrast, some generalist taxa, like Anthoxanthum odoratum and 19 Acidobacteria species, spanned across multiple vegetation alliances. Meta-scale analyses of soil bacterial community composition and vegetation surveys, complemented with local edaphic measurements, can thus prove useful to identify the various types of plant-bacteria interactions and the environments in which they occur.

  6. Solar System science with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lynne; Brown, Mike; Ivezić, Zeljko; Jurić, Mario; Malhotra, Renu; Trilling, David

    2015-11-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST; http://lsst.org) will be a large-aperture, wide-field, ground-based telescope that will survey half the sky every few nights in six optical bands from 320 to 1050 nm. It will explore a wide range of astrophysical questions, ranging from performing a census of the Solar System, to examining the nature of dark energy. It is currently in construction, slated for first light in 2019 and full operations by 2022.The LSST will survey over 20,000 square degrees with a rapid observational cadence, to typical limiting magnitudes of r~24.5 in each visit (9.6 square degree field of view). Automated software will link the individual detections into orbits; these orbits, as well as precisely calibrated astrometry (~50mas) and photometry (~0.01-0.02 mag) in multiple bandpasses will be available as LSST data products. The resulting data set will have tremendous potential for planetary astronomy; multi-color catalogs of hundreds of thousands of NEOs and Jupiter Trojans, millions of asteroids, tens of thousands of TNOs, as well as thousands of other objects such as comets and irregular satellites of the major planets.LSST catalogs will increase the sample size of objects with well-known orbits 10-100 times for small body populations throughout the Solar System, enabling a major increase in the completeness level of the inventory of most dynamical classes of small bodies and generating new insights into planetary formation and evolution. Precision multi-color photometry will allow determination of lightcurves and colors, as well as spin state and shape modeling through sparse lightcurve inversion. LSST is currently investigating survey strategies to optimize science return across a broad range of goals. To aid in this investigation, we are making a series of realistic simulated survey pointing histories available together with a Python software package to model and evaluate survey detections for a user-defined input population. Preliminary

  7. Large scale network-centric distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issu

  8. SpS1-Preparing for the harvest from large infrared surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah L.

    2010-11-01

    During the past decade, there has been a revolution in the availability of multi-wavelength astronomical surveys. From the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS), astronomical research based on publicly accessible datasets is becoming standard practice in the community. Beginning with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission, infrared surveys have played a critical role in stellar astronomy by identifying cool and dusty stars worthy of spectroscopic characterization. IRAS' four photometric bands at 12, 25, 60, and 100 μm were ideal for detecting dusty circumstellar material. All-sky surveys like IRAS reveal the brightest members of each class of rare objects, optimizing their follow-up strategy. The case of debris disks around main sequence stars demonstrates this utility. IRAS detected dust disks around four nearby stars, Beta Pictoris, Fomalhaut, Epsilon Eridani, and Vega. The “Fabulous Four” remain the best studied debris disks, despite hundreds of additional examples discovered by the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the nearly 30 years since IRAS was launched, its highly reliable catalog of just 250000 sources, modest by modern standards, with arcminute scale resolution and 0.3 - 1 Jy sensitivity, has generated over 10,000 references in ADS. This is a success story by any measure.

  9. Large scale food retailing as an intervention for diet and health: quasi-experimental evaluation of a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Steven; Petticrew, Mark; Higgins, Cassie; Findlay, Anne; Sparks, Leigh

    2005-12-01

    To assess the effect on fruit and vegetable consumption, self reported, and psychological health of a "natural experiment"-the introduction of large scale food retailing in a deprived Scottish community. Prospective quasi-experimental design comparing baseline and follow up data in an "intervention" community with a matched "comparison" community in Glasgow, UK. 412 men and women aged 16 or over for whom follow up data on fruit and vegetable consumption and GHQ-12 were available. Fruit and vegetable consumption in portions per day, poor self reported health, and poor psychological health (GHQ-12). Adjusting for age, sex, educational attainment, and employment status there was no population impact on daily fruit and vegetable consumption, self reported, and psychological health. There was some evidence for a net reduction in the prevalence of poor psychological health for residents who directly engaged with the intervention. Government policy has advocated using large scale food retailing as a social intervention to improve diet and health in poor communities. In contrast with a previous uncontrolled study this study did not find evidence for a net intervention effect on fruit and vegetable consumption, although there was evidence for an improvement in psychological health for those who directly engaged with the intervention. Although definitive conclusions about the effect of large scale retailing on diet and health in deprived communities cannot be drawn from non-randomised controlled study designs, evaluations of the impacts of natural experiments may offer the best opportunity to generate evidence about the health impacts of retail interventions in poor communities.

  10. The cost-effectiveness of cash versus lottery incentives for a web-based, stated-preference community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic, Aleksandra; Cameron, David; Hurley, Jeremiah

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of a randomized experiment to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of response incentives for a stated-preference survey of a general community population. The survey was administered using a mixed-mode approach, in which community members were invited to participate using a traditional mailed letter using contact information for a representative sample of the community; but individuals completed the survey via the web, which exploited the advantages of electronic capture. Individuals were randomized to four incentive groups: (a) no incentive, (b) prepaid cash incentive ($2), (c) a low lottery (10 prizes of $25) and (d) a high lottery (2 prizes of $250). Letters of invitation were mailed to 3,000 individuals. In total, 405 individuals (14.4%) contacted the website and 277 (9.8%) provided complete responses. The prepaid cash incentive generated the highest contact and response rates (23.3 and 17.3%, respectively), and no incentive generated the lowest (9.1 and 5.7%, respectively). The high lottery, however, was the most cost-effective incentive for obtaining completed surveys: compared with no incentive, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per completed survey for high lottery was $13.89; for prepaid cash, the ICER was $18.29. This finding suggests that the preferred response incentive for community-based, stated-preference surveys is a lottery with a small number of large prizes.

  11. Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 2001 ... Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America, Canada, and Spain. Couverture du livre Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America. Directeur(s):. Gary McMahon et Felix Remy. Maison(s) d'édition: Banque ...

  12. SCALE INTERACTION IN A MIXING LAYER. THE ROLE OF THE LARGE-SCALE GRADIENTS

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, Daniele

    2015-08-23

    The interaction between scales is investigated in a turbulent mixing layer. The large-scale amplitude modulation of the small scales already observed in other works depends on the crosswise location. Large-scale positive fluctuations correlate with a stronger activity of the small scales on the low speed-side of the mixing layer, and a reduced activity on the high speed-side. However, from physical considerations we would expect the scales to interact in a qualitatively similar way within the flow and across different turbulent flows. Therefore, instead of the large-scale fluctuations, the large-scale gradients modulation of the small scales has been additionally investigated.

  13. Continental-scale variation in seaweed host-associated bacterial communities is a function of host condition, not geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Campbell, Alexandra H; Zozaya Valdes, Enrique; Vergés, Adriana; Nielsen, Shaun; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Bennett, Scott; Caporaso, J Gregory; Thomas, Torsten; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Interactions between hosts and associated microbial communities can fundamentally shape the development and ecology of 'holobionts', from humans to marine habitat-forming organisms such as seaweeds. In marine systems, planktonic microbial community structure is mainly driven by geography and related environmental factors, but the large-scale drivers of host-associated microbial communities are largely unknown. Using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing, we characterized 260 seaweed-associated bacterial and archaeal communities on the kelp Ecklonia radiata from three biogeographical provinces spanning 10° of latitude and 35° of longitude across the Australian continent. These phylogenetically and taxonomically diverse communities were more strongly and consistently associated with host condition than geographical location or environmental variables, and a 'core' microbial community characteristic of healthy kelps appears to be lost when hosts become stressed. Microbial communities on stressed individuals were more similar to each other among locations than those on healthy hosts. In contrast to biogeographical patterns of planktonic marine microbial communities, host traits emerge as critical determinants of associated microbial community structure of these holobionts, even at a continental scale. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Spatial fingerprints of community structure in human interaction network for an extensive set of large-scale regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia Kallus

    Full Text Available Human interaction networks inferred from country-wide telephone activity recordings were recently used to redraw political maps by projecting their topological partitions into geographical space. The results showed remarkable spatial cohesiveness of the network communities and a significant overlap between the redrawn and the administrative borders. Here we present a similar analysis based on one of the most popular online social networks represented by the ties between more than 5.8 million of its geo-located users. The worldwide coverage of their measured activity allowed us to analyze the large-scale regional subgraphs of entire continents and an extensive set of examples for single countries. We present results for North and South America, Europe and Asia. In our analysis we used the well-established method of modularity clustering after an aggregation of the individual links into a weighted graph connecting equal-area geographical pixels. Our results show fingerprints of both of the opposing forces of dividing local conflicts and of uniting cross-cultural trends of globalization.

  15. Survey on the technological development issues for large-scale methanol engine power generation plant; Ogata methanol engine hatsuden plant ni kansuru gijutsu kaihatsu kadai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Based on the result of `Survey on the feasibility of large-scale methanol engine power generation plant` in fiscal 1992, concrete technological development issues were studied for its practical use, and the technological R & D scheme was prepared for large-scale methanol engine power plant featured by low NOx and high efficiency. Technological development issues of this plant were as follows: improvement of thermal efficiency, reduction of NOx emission, improvement of the reliability and durability of ignition and fuel injection systems, and reduction of vibration. As the economical effect of the technological development, the profitability of NOx control measures was compared between this methanol engine and conventional heavy oil diesel engines or gas engines. As a result, this engine was more economical than conventional engines. It was suggested that development of the equipment will be completed in nearly 4 years through every component study, single-cylinder model experiment and real engine test. 21 refs., 43 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Tracing The Sound Horizon Scale With Photometric Redshift Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, E; Garcia-Bellido, J; Gaztanaga, E; de Simoni, F; Crocce, M; Cabre, A; Fosalba, P; Alonso, D

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new method for cosmological parameters extraction using the baryon acoustic oscillation scale as a standard ruler in deep galaxy surveys with photometric determination of redshifts. The method consists in a simple empirical parametric fit to the angular 2-point correlation function w(theta). It is parametrized as a power law to describe the continuum plus a Gaussian to describe the BAO bump. The location of the Gaussian is used as the basis for the measurement of the sound horizon scale. This method, although simple, actually provides a robust estimation, since the inclusion of the power law and the use of the Gaussian removes the shifts which affect the local maximum. We discuss the effects of projection bias, non-linearities, redshift space distortions and photo-z precision, and apply our method to a mock catalog of the Dark Energy Survey, built upon a large N-body simulation provided by the MICE collaboration. We discuss the main systematic errors associated to our method and show that they ar...

  17. Dissecting the large-scale galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongu

    2018-01-01

    Galactic conformity is an observed phenomenon that galaxies located in the same region have similar properties such as star formation rate, color, gas fraction, and so on. The conformity was first observed among galaxies within in the same halos (“one-halo conformity”). The one-halo conformity can be readily explained by mutual interactions among galaxies within a halo. Recent observations however further witnessed a puzzling connection among galaxies with no direct interaction. In particular, galaxies located within a sphere of ~5 Mpc radius tend to show similarities, even though the galaxies do not share common halos with each other ("two-halo conformity" or “large-scale conformity”). Using a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, Illustris, we investigate the physical origin of the two-halo conformity and put forward two scenarios. First, back-splash galaxies are likely responsible for the large-scale conformity. They have evolved into red galaxies due to ram-pressure stripping in a given galaxy cluster and happen to reside now within a ~5 Mpc sphere. Second, galaxies in strong tidal field induced by large-scale structure also seem to give rise to the large-scale conformity. The strong tides suppress star formation in the galaxies. We discuss the importance of the large-scale conformity in the context of galaxy evolution.

  18. COMBINED EFFECTS OF GALAXY INTERACTIONS AND LARGE-SCALE ENVIRONMENT ON GALAXY PROPERTIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    We inspect the coupled dependence of physical parameters of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies on the small-scale (distance to and morphology of the nearest neighbor galaxy) and the large-scale (background density smoothed over 20 nearby galaxies) environments. The impacts of interaction on galaxy properties are detected at least out to the neighbor separation corresponding to the virial radius of galaxies, which is typically between 200 and 400 h -1 kpc for the galaxies in our sample. To detect these long-range interaction effects, it is crucial to divide galaxy interactions into four cases dividing the morphology of target and neighbor galaxies into early and late types. We show that there are two characteristic neighbor-separation scales where the galaxy interactions cause abrupt changes in the properties of galaxies. The first scale is the virial radius of the nearest neighbor galaxy r vir,nei . Many physical parameters start to deviate from those of extremely isolated galaxies at the projected neighbor separation r p of about r vir,nei . The second scale is at r p ∼ 0.05r vir,nei = 10-20 h -1 kpc, and is the scale at which the galaxies in pairs start to merge. We find that late-type neighbors enhance the star formation activity of galaxies while early-type neighbors reduce it, and that these effects occur within r vir,nei . The hot halo gas and cold disk gas must be participating in the interactions at separations less than the virial radius of the galaxy plus dark halo system. Our results also show that the role of the large-scale density in determining galaxy properties is minimal once luminosity and morphology are fixed. We propose that the weak residual dependence of galaxy properties on the large-scale density is due to the dependence of the halo gas property on the large-scale density.

  19. New ultracool subdwarfs identified in large-scale surveys using Virtual Observatory tools. I. UKIDSS LAS DR5 vs. SDSS DR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodieu, N.; Espinoza Contreras, M.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Solano, E.; Aberasturi, M.; Martín, E. L.

    2012-06-01

    Aims: The aim of the project is to improve our knowledge of the low-mass and low-metallicity population to investigate the influence of metallicity on the stellar (and substellar) mass function. Methods: We present the results of a photometric and proper motion search aimed at discovering ultracool subdwarfs in large-scale surveys. We employed and combined the Fifth Data Release (DR5) of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 complemented with ancillary data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), the DEep Near-Infrared Survey (DENIS) and the SuperCOSMOS Sky Surveys (SSS). Results: The SDSS DR7 vs. UKIDSS LAS DR5 search returned a total of 32 ultracool subdwarf candidates, only two of which are recognised as a subdwarf in the literature. Twenty-seven candidates, including the two known ones, were followed-up spectroscopically in the optical between 600 and 1000 nm, thus covering strong spectral features indicative of low metallicity (e.g., CaH), 21 with the Very Large Telescope, one with the Nordic Optical Telescope, and five were extracted from the Sloan spectroscopic database to assess (or refute) their low-metal content. We confirm 20 candidates as subdwarfs, extreme subdwarfs, or ultra-subdwarfs with spectral types later than M5; this represents a success rate of ≥ 60%. Among those 20 new subdwarfs, we identify two early-L subdwarfs that are very likely located within 100 pc, which we propose as templates for future searches because they are the first examples of their subclass. Another seven sources are solar-metallicity M dwarfs with spectral types between M4 and M7 without Hα emission, suggesting that they are old M dwarfs. The remaining five candidates do not have spectroscopic follow-up yet; only one remains as a bona-fide ultracool subdwarf after revision of their proper motions. We assigned spectral types based on the current classification schemes and, when

  20. Inflationary tensor fossils in large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Fasiello, Matteo [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Jeong, Donghui [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kamionkowski, Marc, E-mail: ema@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: mrf65@case.edu, E-mail: duj13@psu.edu, E-mail: kamion@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3400 N. Charles St., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Inflation models make specific predictions for a tensor-scalar-scalar three-point correlation, or bispectrum, between one gravitational-wave (tensor) mode and two density-perturbation (scalar) modes. This tensor-scalar-scalar correlation leads to a local power quadrupole, an apparent departure from statistical isotropy in our Universe, as well as characteristic four-point correlations in the current mass distribution in the Universe. So far, the predictions for these observables have been worked out only for single-clock models in which certain consistency conditions between the tensor-scalar-scalar correlation and tensor and scalar power spectra are satisfied. Here we review the requirements on inflation models for these consistency conditions to be satisfied. We then consider several examples of inflation models, such as non-attractor and solid-inflation models, in which these conditions are put to the test. In solid inflation the simplest consistency conditions are already violated whilst in the non-attractor model we find that, contrary to the standard scenario, the tensor-scalar-scalar correlator probes directly relevant model-dependent information. We work out the predictions for observables in these models. For non-attractor inflation we find an apparent local quadrupolar departure from statistical isotropy in large-scale structure but that this power quadrupole decreases very rapidly at smaller scales. The consistency of the CMB quadrupole with statistical isotropy then constrains the distance scale that corresponds to the transition from the non-attractor to attractor phase of inflation to be larger than the currently observable horizon. Solid inflation predicts clustering fossils signatures in the current galaxy distribution that may be large enough to be detectable with forthcoming, and possibly even current, galaxy surveys.

  1. Going Digital: A Survey on Digitalization and Large Scale Data Analytics in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Tresp, Volker; Overhage, J. Marc; Bundschus, Markus; Rabizadeh, Shahrooz; Fasching, Peter A.; Yu, Shipeng

    2016-01-01

    We provide an overview of the recent trends towards digitalization and large scale data analytics in healthcare. It is expected that these trends are instrumental in the dramatic changes in the way healthcare will be organized in the future. We discuss the recent political initiatives designed to shift care delivery processes from paper to electronic, with the goals of more effective treatments with better outcomes; cost pressure is a major driver of innovation. We describe newly developed ne...

  2. A global classification of coastal flood hazard climates associated with large-scale oceanographic forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Ana; Vitousek, Sean; Camus, Paula; Tomás, Antonio; Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Inigo J; Barnard, Patrick L; Erikson, Li H; Ruggiero, Peter; Reguero, Borja G; Mendez, Fernando J

    2017-07-11

    Coastal communities throughout the world are exposed to numerous and increasing threats, such as coastal flooding and erosion, saltwater intrusion and wetland degradation. Here, we present the first global-scale analysis of the main drivers of coastal flooding due to large-scale oceanographic factors. Given the large dimensionality of the problem (e.g. spatiotemporal variability in flood magnitude and the relative influence of waves, tides and surge levels), we have performed a computer-based classification to identify geographical areas with homogeneous climates. Results show that 75% of coastal regions around the globe have the potential for very large flooding events with low probabilities (unbounded tails), 82% are tide-dominated, and almost 49% are highly susceptible to increases in flooding frequency due to sea-level rise.

  3. Large-scale perspective as a challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Scale forms a challenge for chain researchers: when exactly is something ‘large-scale’? What are the underlying factors (e.g. number of parties, data, objects in the chain, complexity) that determine this? It appears to be a continuum between small- and large-scale, where positioning on that

  4. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M. Stubbendieck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities.

  5. Algorithm 896: LSA: Algorithms for Large-Scale Optimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Matonoha, Ctirad; Vlček, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2009), 16-1-16-29 ISSN 0098-3500 R&D Pro jects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405; GA ČR GP201/06/P397 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : algorithms * design * large-scale optimization * large-scale nonsmooth optimization * large-scale nonlinear least squares * large-scale nonlinear minimax * large-scale systems of nonlinear equations * sparse pro blems * partially separable pro blems * limited-memory methods * discrete Newton methods * quasi-Newton methods * primal interior-point methods Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.904, year: 2009

  6. Scale interactions in a mixing layer – the role of the large-scale gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, D.

    2016-02-15

    © 2016 Cambridge University Press. The interaction between the large and the small scales of turbulence is investigated in a mixing layer, at a Reynolds number based on the Taylor microscale of , via direct numerical simulations. The analysis is performed in physical space, and the local vorticity root-mean-square (r.m.s.) is taken as a measure of the small-scale activity. It is found that positive large-scale velocity fluctuations correspond to large vorticity r.m.s. on the low-speed side of the mixing layer, whereas, they correspond to low vorticity r.m.s. on the high-speed side. The relationship between large and small scales thus depends on position if the vorticity r.m.s. is correlated with the large-scale velocity fluctuations. On the contrary, the correlation coefficient is nearly constant throughout the mixing layer and close to unity if the vorticity r.m.s. is correlated with the large-scale velocity gradients. Therefore, the small-scale activity appears closely related to large-scale gradients, while the correlation between the small-scale activity and the large-scale velocity fluctuations is shown to reflect a property of the large scales. Furthermore, the vorticity from unfiltered (small scales) and from low pass filtered (large scales) velocity fields tend to be aligned when examined within vortical tubes. These results provide evidence for the so-called \\'scale invariance\\' (Meneveau & Katz, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., vol. 32, 2000, pp. 1-32), and suggest that some of the large-scale characteristics are not lost at the small scales, at least at the Reynolds number achieved in the present simulation.

  7. Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics 2007 : Implementations and Experiences on Large Scale and Grid Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    At the 19th Annual Conference on Parallel Computational Fluid Dynamics held in Antalya, Turkey, in May 2007, the most recent developments and implementations of large-scale and grid computing were presented. This book, comprised of the invited and selected papers of this conference, details those advances, which are of particular interest to CFD and CFD-related communities. It also offers the results related to applications of various scientific and engineering problems involving flows and flow-related topics. Intended for CFD researchers and graduate students, this book is a state-of-the-art presentation of the relevant methodology and implementation techniques of large-scale computing.

  8. Analysis using large-scale ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baillie, S. R.

    2004-06-01

    ]; Peach et al., 1998; DeSante et al., 2001 are generally co–ordinated by ringing centres such as those that make up the membership of EURING. In some countries volunteer census work (often called Breeding Bird Surveys is undertaken by the same organizations while in others different bodies may co–ordinate this aspect of the work. This session was concerned with the analysis of such extensive data sets and the approaches that are being developed to address the key theoretical and applied issues outlined above. The papers reflect the development of more spatially explicit approaches to analyses of data gathered at large spatial scales. They show that while the statistical tools that have been developed in recent years can be used to derive useful biological conclusions from such data, there is additional need for further developments. Future work should also consider how to best implement such analytical developments within future study designs. In his plenary paper Andy Royle (Royle, 2004 addresses this theme directly by describing a general framework for modelling spatially replicated abundance data. The approach is based on the idea that a set of spatially referenced local populations constitutes a metapopulation, within which local abundance is determined as a random process. This provides an elegant and general approach in which the metapopulation model as described above is combined with a data–generating model specific to the type of data being analysed to define a simple hierarchical model that can be analysed using conventional methods. It should be noted, however, that further software development will be needed if the approach is to be made readily available to biologists. The approach is well suited to dealing with sparse data and avoids the need for data aggregation prior to analysis. Spatial synchrony has received most attention in studies of species whose populations show cyclic fluctuations, particularly certain game birds and small mammals. However

  9. Observing trans-Planckian ripples in the primordial power spectrum with future large scale structure probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the issue of ripples in the primordial power spectra caused by trans-Planckian physics, and the potential for their detection by future cosmological probes. We find that for reasonably large values of the first slow-roll parameter epsilon (> 0.001), a positive detection of trans......-Planckian ripples can be made even if the amplitude is as low as 10^-4. Data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed future 21 cm survey with the Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT) will be particularly useful in this regard. If the scale of inflation is close to its present upper bound...

  10. Large-scale matrix-handling subroutines 'ATLAS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Takeda, Tatsuoki; Fujita, Keiichi; Matsuura, Toshihiko; Tahara, Nobuo

    1978-03-01

    Subroutine package ''ATLAS'' has been developed for handling large-scale matrices. The package is composed of four kinds of subroutines, i.e., basic arithmetic routines, routines for solving linear simultaneous equations and for solving general eigenvalue problems and utility routines. The subroutines are useful in large scale plasma-fluid simulations. (auth.)

  11. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). An unprecedented view of galaxies and large-scale structure at 0.5 < z < 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, L.; Scodeggio, M.; Garilli, B.; Granett, B. R.; Fritz, A.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bel, J.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Branchini, E.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Hudelot, P.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zamorani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Marinoni, C.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Percival, W. J.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.

    2014-06-01

    We describe the construction and general features of VIPERS, the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey. This ESO Large Programme is using the Very Large Telescope with the aim of building a spectroscopic sample of ~ 100 000 galaxies with iABcontamination is found to be only 3.2%, endorsing the quality of the star-galaxy separation process and fully confirming the original estimates based on the VVDS data, which also indicate a galaxy incompleteness from this process of only 1.4%. Using a set of 1215 repeated observations, we estimate an rms redshift error σz/ (1 + z) = 4.7 × 10-4 and calibrate the internal spectral quality grading. Benefiting from the combination of size and detailed sampling of this dataset, we conclude by presenting a map showing in unprecedented detail the large-scale distribution of galaxies between 5 and 8 billion years ago. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programmes 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS website is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  12. State-of-the-Art in GPU-Based Large-Scale Volume Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    This survey gives an overview of the current state of the art in GPU techniques for interactive large-scale volume visualization. Modern techniques in this field have brought about a sea change in how interactive visualization and analysis of giga-, tera- and petabytes of volume data can be enabled on GPUs. In addition to combining the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming, a major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount and resolution of data that is actually visible on screen, i.e. \\'output-sensitive\\' algorithms and system designs. This leads to recent output-sensitive approaches that are \\'ray-guided\\', \\'visualization-driven\\' or \\'display-aware\\'. In this survey, we focus on these characteristics and propose a new categorization of GPU-based large-scale volume visualization techniques based on the notions of actual output-resolution visibility and the current working set of volume bricks-the current subset of data that is minimally required to produce an output image of the desired display resolution. Furthermore, we discuss the differences and similarities of different rendering and data traversal strategies in volume rendering by putting them into a common context-the notion of address translation. For our purposes here, we view parallel (distributed) visualization using clusters as an orthogonal set of techniques that we do not discuss in detail but that can be used in conjunction with what we present in this survey. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. State-of-the-Art in GPU-Based Large-Scale Volume Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2015-01-01

    This survey gives an overview of the current state of the art in GPU techniques for interactive large-scale volume visualization. Modern techniques in this field have brought about a sea change in how interactive visualization and analysis of giga-, tera- and petabytes of volume data can be enabled on GPUs. In addition to combining the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming, a major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount and resolution of data that is actually visible on screen, i.e. 'output-sensitive' algorithms and system designs. This leads to recent output-sensitive approaches that are 'ray-guided', 'visualization-driven' or 'display-aware'. In this survey, we focus on these characteristics and propose a new categorization of GPU-based large-scale volume visualization techniques based on the notions of actual output-resolution visibility and the current working set of volume bricks-the current subset of data that is minimally required to produce an output image of the desired display resolution. Furthermore, we discuss the differences and similarities of different rendering and data traversal strategies in volume rendering by putting them into a common context-the notion of address translation. For our purposes here, we view parallel (distributed) visualization using clusters as an orthogonal set of techniques that we do not discuss in detail but that can be used in conjunction with what we present in this survey. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Large-scale solar heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this project a large domestic solar heating system was built and a solar district heating system was modelled and simulated. Objectives were to improve the performance and reduce costs of a large-scale solar heating system. As a result of the project the benefit/cost ratio can be increased by 40 % through dimensioning and optimising the system at the designing stage. (orig.)

  15. Scale dependence of biotic homogenisation by urbanisation: a comparison of urban bird communities between central Argentina and northern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leveau Lucas M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed contrasting results about the homogenising force of urbanisation on bird community composition at large and regional scales. We studied whether urbanisation promotes the homogenisation of wintering bird communities and if this varies when comparing towns located within a specific region and towns located in two different biomes of two countries. We used both similarity indices based on the presence/absence data and the abundance data in comparing communities. Processes governing bird community dissimilarity between urbanisation levels were examined with the partitioning of Sörensen index in species turnover and nestedness. We made bird surveys in town centres and suburban habitats of three cities located in the Pampean region of Argentina and in the boreal region of Finland using a single-visit study plot method. Rarefacted species richness did not differ amongst the town centres between the countries, but it was higher in the suburban areas of Argentina than in Finland. At the country-level comparison, we found a higher similarity amongst the town centres than amongst the suburban areas; whereas at the regional comparison, similarity between town centres was comparable to the similarity between suburban areas. The use of an abundance-based index produced a higher similarity between town centre communities of both countries than when using a presence-based index. The dissimilarity between habitats in Argentina was related to nestedness and to species turnover in Finland. Our results indicate that urban-based biotic homogenisation of bird communities is dependent on the scale used, being more evident when comparing cities of different biomes where the same and abundant bird species, such as sparrows and doves, dominate. At the regional scale, quite a high beta-diversity can still be found within urban habitats. Processes of community dissimilarity between urban habitats may differ according to the regional pool of species

  16. Psychometric characteristics of a public-domain self-report measure of vocational interests: the Oregon Vocational Interest Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzebon, Julie A; Visser, Beth A; Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom; Goldberg, Lewis R

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the psychometric properties of the Oregon Vocational Interest Scales (ORVIS), a brief public-domain alternative to commercial inventories, in a large community sample and in a college sample. In both samples, we examined the factor structure, scale intercorrelations, and personality correlates of the ORVIS, and in the community sample, we also examined the correlations of the ORVIS scales with cognitive abilities and with the scales of a longer, proprietary interest survey. In both samples, all 8 scales-Leadership, Organization, Altruism, Creativity, Analysis, Producing, Adventuring, and Erudition-showed wide variation in scores, high internal-consistency reliabilities, and a pattern of high convergent and low discriminant correlations with the scales of the proprietary interest survey. Overall, the results support the construct validity of the scales, which are recommended for use in research on vocational interests and other individual differences.

  17. Biomass Gasification - A synthesis of technical barriers and current research issues for deployment at large scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyne, Stefan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Liliedahl, Truls [KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Marklund, Magnus [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    some as a main technical barrier for direct fluidized bed gasification. Finally, operation under pressurised conditions and associated feeding problems are also regarded as potential difficulties by more than one expert. In summary, for EFG the aspects of preparation, feeding flexibility of the fuel are considered not mature and thus in principle not solved. However, the tar-related problems are less for the EFG design than for the other two concepts. For the DFBG design the aspects of pressurisation, up-scaling and maximum size are considered not mature and thus problematic. For both FBG and DFBG gasification concepts the issue of tar generation is a main if not the main problem area. The expert community, however, is convinced that the technical barriers will be overcome and actually do not constitute the critical barrier for biomass gasification deployment. The foremost barrier for biomass gasification is associated with the economic risk. Technical solutions exist for most of the problems, but are not demonstrated at large scale due to the associated economic risks. As is evidenced by the answers to the survey, experts are convinced that biomass gasification will be applied at large scale as soon as policy measures ensuring economic viability of the projects have been adopted.

  18. Probes of large-scale structure in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasushi; Gorski, K.; Juszkiewicz, R.; Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in observational techniques has made it possible to confront quantitatively various models for the large-scale structure of the Universe with detailed observational data. We develop a general formalism to show that the gravitational instability theory for the origin of large-scale structure is now capable of critically confronting observational results on cosmic microwave background radiation angular anisotropies, large-scale bulk motions and large-scale clumpiness in the galaxy counts. (author)

  19. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of four telescopes designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. CLASS aims to detect the B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves predicted by cosmic inflation theory, as well as the imprint left by reionization upon the CMB E-mode polarization. This will be achieved through a combination of observing strategy and state-of-the-art instrumentation. CLASS is observing 70% of the sky to characterize the CMB at large angular scales, which will measure the entire CMB power spectrum from the reionization peak to the recombination peak. The four telescopes operate at frequencies of 38, 93, 145, and 217 GHz, in order to estimate Galactic synchrotron and dust foregrounds while avoiding atmospheric absorption. CLASS employs rapid polarization modulation to overcome atmospheric and instrumental noise. Polarization sensitive cryogenic detectors with low noise levels provide CLASS the sensitivity required to constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to levels of r ~ 0.01 while also measuring the optical depth the reionization to sample-variance levels. These improved constraints on the optical depth to reionization are required to pin down the mass of neutrinos from complementary cosmological data. CLASS has completed a year of observations at 38 GHz and is in the process of deploying the rest of the telescope array. This poster provides an overview and update on the CLASS science, hardware and survey operations.

  20. Developing A Large-Scale, Collaborative, Productive Geoscience Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Fox, S.; Ledley, T. S.; Macdonald, H.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, the geoscience education community has grown substantially and developed broad and deep capacity for collaboration and dissemination of ideas. While this community is best viewed as emergent from complex interactions among changing educational needs and opportunities, we highlight the role of several large projects in the development of a network within this community. In the 1990s, three NSF projects came together to build a robust web infrastructure to support the production and dissemination of on-line resources: On The Cutting Edge (OTCE), Earth Exploration Toolbook, and Starting Point: Teaching Introductory Geoscience. Along with the contemporaneous Digital Library for Earth System Education, these projects engaged geoscience educators nationwide in exploring professional development experiences that produced lasting on-line resources, collaborative authoring of resources, and models for web-based support for geoscience teaching. As a result, a culture developed in the 2000s in which geoscience educators anticipated that resources for geoscience teaching would be shared broadly and that collaborative authoring would be productive and engaging. By this time, a diverse set of examples demonstrated the power of the web infrastructure in supporting collaboration, dissemination and professional development . Building on this foundation, more recent work has expanded both the size of the network and the scope of its work. Many large research projects initiated collaborations to disseminate resources supporting educational use of their data. Research results from the rapidly expanding geoscience education research community were integrated into the Pedagogies in Action website and OTCE. Projects engaged faculty across the nation in large-scale data collection and educational research. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network and OTCE engaged community members in reviewing the expanding body of on-line resources. Building Strong

  1. Best Practices in the Evaluation of Large-scale STEM-focused Events: A Review of Recent Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebby, S.; Cobb, W. H.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Each year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsors a variety of educational events to share information with educators, students, and the general public. Intended outcomes of these events include increased interest in and awareness of the mission and goals of NASA. Events range in size from relatively small family science nights at a local school to large-scale mission and celestial event celebrations involving thousands of members of the general public. To support community members in designing event evaluations, the Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Planetary Science Forum sponsored the creation of a Best Practices Guide. The guide was generated by reviewing published large-scale event evaluation reports; however, the best practices described within are pertinent for all event organizers and evaluators regardless of event size. Each source included in the guide identified numerous challenges to conducting their event evaluation. These included difficulty in identifying extant instruments or items, collecting representative data, and disaggregating data to inform different evaluation questions. Overall, the guide demonstrates that evaluations of the large-scale events are generally done at a very basic level, with the types of data collected limited to observable demographic information and participant reactions collected via online survey. In addition to these findings, this presentation will describe evaluation best practices that will help practitioners move beyond these basic indicators and examine how to make the evaluation process an integral—and valuable—element of event planning, ultimately informing event outcomes and impacts. It will provide detailed information on five recommendations presented in the guide: 1) consider evaluation methodology, including data analysis, in advance; 2) design data collection instruments well in advance of the event; 3) collect data at different times and from multiple sources; 4) use

  2. Projection Effects of Large-scale Structures on Weak-lensing Peak Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuo; Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Wang, Qiao; Fan, Zuhui

    2018-04-01

    High peaks in weak lensing (WL) maps originate dominantly from the lensing effects of single massive halos. Their abundance is therefore closely related to the halo mass function and thus a powerful cosmological probe. However, besides individual massive halos, large-scale structures (LSS) along lines of sight also contribute to the peak signals. In this paper, with ray-tracing simulations, we investigate the LSS projection effects. We show that for current surveys with a large shape noise, the stochastic LSS effects are subdominant. For future WL surveys with source galaxies having a median redshift z med ∼ 1 or higher, however, they are significant. For the cosmological constraints derived from observed WL high-peak counts, severe biases can occur if the LSS effects are not taken into account properly. We extend the model of Fan et al. by incorporating the LSS projection effects into the theoretical considerations. By comparing with simulation results, we demonstrate the good performance of the improved model and its applicability in cosmological studies.

  3. Large-scale grid management; Storskala Nettforvaltning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdal, Bjoern Inge; Eggen, Arnt Ove

    2003-07-01

    The network companies in the Norwegian electricity industry now have to establish a large-scale network management, a concept essentially characterized by (1) broader focus (Broad Band, Multi Utility,...) and (2) bigger units with large networks and more customers. Research done by SINTEF Energy Research shows so far that the approaches within large-scale network management may be structured according to three main challenges: centralization, decentralization and out sourcing. The article is part of a planned series.

  4. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Marzinelli

    Full Text Available Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km and depths (15-60 m across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves.

  5. Japanese large-scale interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, K; Miyoki, S; Ishizuka, H; Taylor, C T; Yamamoto, K; Miyakawa, O; Fujimoto, M K; Kawamura, S; Takahashi, R; Yamazaki, T; Arai, K; Tatsumi, D; Ueda, A; Fukushima, M; Sato, S; Shintomi, T; Yamamoto, A; Suzuki, T; Saitô, Y; Haruyama, T; Sato, N; Higashi, Y; Uchiyama, T; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Ando, M; Takamori, A; Numata, K; Ueda, K I; Yoneda, H; Nakagawa, K; Musha, M; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Somiya, K; Araya, A; Kanda, N; Telada, S; Sasaki, M; Tagoshi, H; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Ohara, K

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the TAMA 300 interferometer was to develop advanced technologies for kilometre scale interferometers and to observe gravitational wave events in nearby galaxies. It was designed as a power-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer and was intended as a step towards a final interferometer in Japan. The present successful status of TAMA is presented. TAMA forms a basis for LCGT (large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope), a 3 km scale cryogenic interferometer to be built in the Kamioka mine in Japan, implementing cryogenic mirror techniques. The plan of LCGT is schematically described along with its associated R and D.

  6. The Gould's Belt very large array survey. III. The Orion region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Centro de Radiostronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Torres, Rosa M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Vallarta No. 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, CP 44130, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We present results from a high-sensitivity (60 μJy), large-scale (2.26 deg{sup 2}) survey obtained with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array as part of the Gould's Belt Survey program. We detected 374 and 354 sources at 4.5 and 7.5 GHz, respectively. Of these, 148 are associated with previously known young stellar objects (YSOs). Another 86 sources previously unclassified at either optical or infrared wavelengths exhibit radio properties that are consistent with those of young stars. The overall properties of our sources at radio wavelengths such as their variability and radio to X-ray luminosity relation are consistent with previous results from the Gould's Belt Survey. Our detections provide target lists for follow-up Very Long Baseline Array radio observations to determine their distances as YSOs are located in regions of high nebulosity and extinction, making it difficult to measure optical parallaxes.

  7. Scaling up community mobilisation through women's groups for maternal and neonatal health: experiences from rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Tasmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Program coverage is likely to be an important determinant of the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. Rigorous examination and documentation of methods to scale-up interventions and measure coverage are scarce, however. To address this knowledge gap, this paper describes the process and measurement of scaling-up coverage of a community mobilisation intervention for maternal, child and neonatal health in rural Bangladesh and critiques this real-life experience in relation to available literature on scaling-up. Methods Scale-up activities took place in nine unions in rural Bangladesh. Recruitment and training of those who deliver the intervention, communication and engagement with the community and other stakeholders and active dissemination of intervention activities are described. Process evaluation and population survey data are presented and used to measure coverage and the success of scale-up. Results The intervention was scaled-up from 162 women's groups to 810, representing a five-fold increase in population coverage. The proportion of women of reproductive age and pregnant women who were engaged in the intervention increased from 9% and 3%, respectively, to 23% and 29%. Conclusions Examination and documentation of how scaling-up was successfully initiated, led, managed and monitored in rural Bangladesh provide a deeper knowledge base and valuable lessons. Strong operational capabilities and institutional knowledge of the implementing organisation were critical to the success of scale-up. It was possible to increase community engagement with the intervention without financial incentives and without an increase in managerial staff. Monitoring and feedback systems that allow for periodic programme corrections and continued innovation are central to successful scale-up and require programmatic and operational flexibility.

  8. The ESO Diffuse Interstellar Bands Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES) . I. Project description, survey sample, and quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nick L. J.; Cami, Jan; Farhang, Amin; Smoker, Jonathan; Monreal-Ibero, Ana; Lallement, Rosine; Sarre, Peter J.; Marshall, Charlotte C. M.; Smith, Keith T.; Evans, Christopher J.; Royer, Pierre; Linnartz, Harold; Cordiner, Martin A.; Joblin, Christine; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Foing, Bernard H.; Bhatt, Neil H.; Bron, Emeric; Elyajouri, Meriem; de Koter, Alex; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Javadi, Atefeh; Kaper, Lex; Khosroshadi, Habib G.; Laverick, Mike; Le Petit, Franck; Mulas, Giacomo; Roueff, Evelyne; Salama, Farid; Spaans, Marco

    2017-10-01

    The carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are largely unidentified molecules ubiquitously present in the interstellar medium (ISM). After decades of study, two strong and possibly three weak near-infrared DIBs have recently been attributed to the C60^+ fullerene based on observational and laboratory measurements. There is great promise for the identification of the over 400 other known DIBs, as this result could provide chemical hints towards other possible carriers. In an effort tosystematically study the properties of the DIB carriers, we have initiated a new large-scale observational survey: the ESO Diffuse Interstellar Bands Large Exploration Survey (EDIBLES). The main objective is to build on and extend existing DIB surveys to make a major step forward in characterising the physical and chemical conditions for a statistically significant sample of interstellar lines-of-sight, with the goal to reverse-engineer key molecular properties of the DIB carriers. EDIBLES is a filler Large Programme using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. It is designed to provide an observationally unbiased view of the presence and behaviour of the DIBs towards early-spectral-type stars whose lines-of-sight probe the diffuse-to-translucent ISM. Such a complete dataset will provide a deep census of the atomic and molecular content, physical conditions, chemical abundances and elemental depletion levels for each sightline. Achieving these goals requires a homogeneous set of high-quality data in terms of resolution (R 70 000-100 000), sensitivity (S/N up to 1000 per resolution element), and spectral coverage (305-1042 nm), as well as a large sample size (100+ sightlines). In this first paper the goals, objectives and methodology of the EDIBLES programme are described and an initial assessment of the data is provided.

  9. Spatial scaling of bacterial community diversity at shallow hydrothermal vents: a global comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop Ristova, P.; Hassenrueck, C.; Molari, M.; Fink, A.; Bühring, S. I.

    2016-02-01

    Marine shallow hydrothermal vents are extreme environments, often characterized by discharge of fluids with e.g. high temperatures, low pH, and laden with elements toxic to higher organisms. They occur at continental margins around the world's oceans, but represent fragmented, isolated habitats of locally small areal coverage. Microorganisms contribute the main biomass at shallow hydrothermal vent ecosystems and build the basis of the food chain by autotrophic fixation of carbon both via chemosynthesis and photosynthesis, occurring simultaneously. Despite their importance and unique capacity to adapt to these extreme environments, little is known about the spatial scales on which the alpha- and beta-diversity of microbial communities vary at shallow vents, and how the geochemical habitat heterogeneity influences shallow vent biodiversity. Here for the first time we investigated the spatial scaling of microbial biodiversity patterns and their interconnectivity at geochemically diverse shallow vents on a global scale. This study presents data on the comparison of bacterial community structures on large (> 1000 km) and small (0.1 - 100 m) spatial scales as derived from ARISA and Illumina sequencing. Despite the fragmented global distribution of shallow hydrothermal vents, similarity of vent bacterial communities decreased with geographic distance, confirming the ubiquity of distance-decay relationship. Moreover, at all investigated vents, pH was the main factor locally structuring these communities, while temperature influenced both the alpha- and beta-diversity.

  10. Large scale model testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Filip, R.; Polachova, H.; Stepanek, S.

    1989-01-01

    Fracture mechanics and fatigue calculations for WWER reactor pressure vessels were checked by large scale model testing performed using large testing machine ZZ 8000 (with a maximum load of 80 MN) at the SKODA WORKS. The results are described from testing the material resistance to fracture (non-ductile). The testing included the base materials and welded joints. The rated specimen thickness was 150 mm with defects of a depth between 15 and 100 mm. The results are also presented of nozzles of 850 mm inner diameter in a scale of 1:3; static, cyclic, and dynamic tests were performed without and with surface defects (15, 30 and 45 mm deep). During cyclic tests the crack growth rate in the elastic-plastic region was also determined. (author). 6 figs., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  11. Distributed large-scale dimensional metrology new insights

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, Fiorenzo; Maisano, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Focuses on the latest insights into and challenges of distributed large scale dimensional metrology Enables practitioners to study distributed large scale dimensional metrology independently Includes specific examples of the development of new system prototypes

  12. Sustainability of small reservoirs and large scale water availability under current conditions and climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Krol, Martinus S.; de Vries, Marjella J.; van Oel, P.R.; Carlos de Araújo, José

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid river basins often rely on reservoirs for water supply. Small reservoirs may impact on large-scale water availability both by enhancing availability in a distributed sense and by subtracting water for large downstream user communities, e.g. served by large reservoirs. Both of these impacts of small reservoirs are subject to climate change. Using a case-study on North-East Brazil, this paper shows that climate change impacts on water availability may be severe, and impacts on distrib...

  13. Sub-bottom profiling for large-scale maritime archaeological survey An experience-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Ole; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2013-01-01

    and wrecks partially or wholly embedded in the sea-floor sediments demands the application of highresolution sub-bottom profilers. This paper presents a strategy for the cost-effective large-scale mapping of unknown sedimentembedded sites such as submerged Stone Age settlements or wrecks, based on sub...... of the submerged cultural heritage. Elements such as archaeological wreck sites exposed on the sea floor are mapped using side-scan and multi-beam techniques. These can also provide information on bathymetric patterns representing potential Stone Age settlements, whereas the detection of such archaeological sites...

  14. SCALE INTERACTION IN A MIXING LAYER. THE ROLE OF THE LARGE-SCALE GRADIENTS

    KAUST Repository

    Fiscaletti, Daniele; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Elsinga, Gerrit E.

    2015-01-01

    from physical considerations we would expect the scales to interact in a qualitatively similar way within the flow and across different turbulent flows. Therefore, instead of the large-scale fluctuations, the large-scale gradients modulation of the small scales has been additionally investigated.

  15. Towards a 'standard model' of large scale structure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1994-01-01

    We explore constraints on inflationary models employing data on large scale structure mainly from COBE temperature anisotropies and IRAS selected galaxy surveys. In models where the tensor contribution to the COBE signal is negligible, we find that the spectral index of density fluctuations n must exceed 0.7. Furthermore the COBE signal cannot be dominated by the tensor component, implying n > 0.85 in such models. The data favors cold plus hot dark matter models with n equal or close to unity and Ω HDM ∼ 0.2 - 0.35. Realistic grand unified theories, including supersymmetric versions, which produce inflation with these properties are presented. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs

  16. Negotiating development narratives within large-scale oil palm projects on village lands in Sarawak, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Egay, Kelvin

    2016-01-01

    the narratives that suggest that large-scale land development projects ‘bring development to the people’, utilising ‘idle lands’ and ‘creating employment’ to lift them out of poverty, we argue that political and economic processes related to cultivation of oil palm intersect with local community differences...

  17. The European Large Area ISO Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliver, S.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Alexander, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). ELAIS was the largest single Open Time project conducted by ISO, mapping an area of 12 deg(2) at 15 mu m with ISOCAM and at 90 mu m with ISOPHOT. Secondary surveys in other ISO bands were undertaken by the ELAIS team within the fields of the...

  18. Development of the Community Impact Scale Measuring Community Organization Perceptions of Partnership Benefits and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Tejaswinhi; Meenan, Chelsea E.; Drogin, Elizabeth; DePrince, Anne P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Community Impact Scale (CIS), a measure of benefits and costs of community-university partnerships across a range of outcomes as perceived by community partners. Scale development was carried out in two phases: (a) item generation, through which the research team, in close…

  19. Chinese large solar telescopes site survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu

    2017-04-01

    In order to observe the solar surface with unprecedentedly higher resolution, Chinse solar physics society decided to launch their solar site survey project in 2010 as the first step to look for the best candidate sites for the Chinese next-generation large-aperture solar telescopes, i.e., the 5-8 meter Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, and the 1 meter level coronagraph. We have built two long-term monitoring sites in Daocheng, with altitudes of around 4800 meters above the sea level located in the large Shangri-La mountain area, and we have collected systematic site data since 2014. Clear evidence, including the key parameters of seeing factor, sky brightness and water vapor content, has indicated that the large Shangri-La area owns the potential conditions of excellent seeing level and sufficient amount of clear-sky hours suitable for developing large solar telescopes. We will review the site survey progress and present the preliminary statistical results in this talk.

  20. A survey of large scale gamma irradiators in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, R.C.; Simmons, R.C.; Dougherty, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    NUS Corporation (NUS) was contracted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform a survey of Cs-137 and Co-60 irradiators in the US. The results of this survey, in the form of matrix listings of irradiators and their specifications, are included in subsequent sections of this report. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) will use the survey results as a preliminary guide for potential use in regionalized food irradiation research. The survey was limited to the identification of operable irradiators which are owned and/or operated by private industry, educational institutions, and government facilities. To the extent available, specific information for each unit was included in the report. This information includes radioactive material, chemical matrix of fuel, containment capsule material and form, curies per capsule and total activity, sample chamber size, and irradiator availability

  1. Behavioral responses of birds of prey to large scale energy development in southcentral Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.

    1985-02-01

    The types of raptorial and semi-raptorial birds that use the Hanford environs are discussed along with the impacts of past operations and the recent WPPSS project on their populations. These findings add to our understanding of the population dynamics of the birds of prey community at the Hanford Site and the expected impacts of the WPPSS energy facilities. The results may have implications toward other large scale energy facilities, and may aid us in management of bird of prey communities throughout the grasslands of the western United States. 110 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  2. A theoretical bilevel control scheme for power networks with large-scale penetration of distributed renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boroojeni, Kianoosh; Amini, M. Hadi; Nejadpak, Arash

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a bilevel control framework to achieve a highly-reliable smart distribution network with large-scale penetration of distributed renewable resources (DRRs). We assume that the power distribution network consists of several residential/commercial communities. In the first ...

  3. Community-Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja Sonnemann

    Full Text Available Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calculated community-weighted mean plant traits to test whether the functional plant community composition determines the small scale distribution of insect root herbivores. To analyze spatial patterns in plant species and trait composition and insect root herbivore abundance we computed Mantel correlograms. Insect root herbivores mainly comprised click beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae larvae (43% in the investigated grasslands. Total insect root herbivore numbers were positively related to community-weighted mean traits indicating high plant growth rates and biomass (specific leaf area, reproductive- and vegetative plant height, and negatively related to plant traits indicating poor tissue quality (leaf C/N ratio. Generalist Elaterid larvae, when analyzed independently, were also positively related to high plant growth rates and furthermore to root dry mass, but were not related to tissue quality. Insect root herbivore numbers were not related to plant cover, plant species richness and soil water content. Plant species composition and to a lesser extent plant trait composition displayed spatial autocorrelation, which was not influenced by land use intensity. Insect root herbivore abundance was not spatially autocorrelated. We conclude that in semi-natural grasslands with a high share of generalist insect root herbivores, insect root herbivores affiliate with large, fast growing plants, presumably because of availability of high quantities of food. Affiliation of

  4. BioPlex Display: An Interactive Suite for Large-Scale AP-MS Protein-Protein Interaction Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweppe, Devin K; Huttlin, Edward L; Harper, J Wade; Gygi, Steven P

    2018-01-05

    The development of large-scale data sets requires a new means to display and disseminate research studies to large audiences. Knowledge of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has become a principle interest of many groups within the field of proteomics. At the confluence of technologies, such as cross-linking mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid, protein cofractionation, and affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS), detection of PPIs can uncover novel biological inferences at a high-throughput. Thus new platforms to provide community access to large data sets are necessary. To this end, we have developed a web application that enables exploration and dissemination of the growing BioPlex interaction network. BioPlex is a large-scale interactome data set based on AP-MS of baits from the human ORFeome. The latest BioPlex data set release (BioPlex 2.0) contains 56 553 interactions from 5891 AP-MS experiments. To improve community access to this vast compendium of interactions, we developed BioPlex Display, which integrates individual protein querying, access to empirical data, and on-the-fly annotation of networks within an easy-to-use and mobile web application. BioPlex Display enables rapid acquisition of data from BioPlex and development of hypotheses based on protein interactions.

  5. Influence of coral cover and structural complexity on the accuracy of visual surveys of coral-reef fish communities

    KAUST Repository

    Coker, Darren James

    2017-04-20

    Using manipulated patch reefs with combinations of varying live-coral cover (low, medium and high) and structural complexity (low and high), common community metrics (abundance, diversity, richness and community composition) collected through standard underwater visual census techniques were compared with exhaustive collections using a fish anaesthetic (clove oil). This study showed that reef condition did not influence underwater visual census estimates at a community level, but reef condition can influence the detectability of some small and cryptic species and this may be exacerbated if surveys are conducted on a larger scale.

  6. Influence of coral cover and structural complexity on the accuracy of visual surveys of coral-reef fish communities

    KAUST Repository

    Coker, Darren James; Nowicki, J. P.; Graham, N. A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Using manipulated patch reefs with combinations of varying live-coral cover (low, medium and high) and structural complexity (low and high), common community metrics (abundance, diversity, richness and community composition) collected through standard underwater visual census techniques were compared with exhaustive collections using a fish anaesthetic (clove oil). This study showed that reef condition did not influence underwater visual census estimates at a community level, but reef condition can influence the detectability of some small and cryptic species and this may be exacerbated if surveys are conducted on a larger scale.

  7. Topology Analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. Scale and Luminosity Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young; Vogeley, Michael S.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Kim, Juhan; Hikage, Chiaki; Matsubara, Takahiko; Park, Myeong-Gu; Suto, Yasushi; Weinberg, David H.; SDSS Collaboration

    2005-11-01

    We measure the topology of volume-limited galaxy samples selected from a parent sample of 314,050 galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which is now complete enough to describe the fully three-dimensional topology and its dependence on galaxy properties. We compare the observed genus statistic G(νf) to predictions for a Gaussian random field and to the genus measured for mock surveys constructed from new large-volume simulations of the ΛCDM cosmology. In this analysis we carefully examine the dependence of the observed genus statistic on the Gaussian smoothing scale RG from 3.5 to 11 h-1 Mpc and on the luminosity of galaxies over the range -22.50meatball'' (i.e., cluster dominated) topology, while faint galaxies show a positive shift toward a ``bubble'' (i.e., void dominated) topology. The transition from negative to positive shift occurs approximately at the characteristic absolute magnitude Mr*=-20.4. Even in this analysis of the largest galaxy sample to date, we detect the influence of individual large-scale structures, as the shift parameter Δν and cluster multiplicity AC reflect (at ~3 σ) the presence of the Sloan Great Wall and an X-shaped structure that runs for several hundred megaparsecs across the survey volume.

  8. Trends in large-scale testing of reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    Large-scale tests of reactor structures have been conducted at Sandia National Laboratories since the late 1970s. This paper describes a number of different large-scale impact tests, pressurization tests of models of containment structures, and thermal-pressure tests of models of reactor pressure vessels. The advantages of large-scale testing are evident, but cost, in particular limits its use. As computer models have grown in size, such as number of degrees of freedom, the advent of computer graphics has made possible very realistic representation of results - results that may not accurately represent reality. A necessary condition to avoiding this pitfall is the validation of the analytical methods and underlying physical representations. Ironically, the immensely larger computer models sometimes increase the need for large-scale testing, because the modeling is applied to increasing more complex structural systems and/or more complex physical phenomena. Unfortunately, the cost of large-scale tests is a disadvantage that will likely severely limit similar testing in the future. International collaborations may provide the best mechanism for funding future programs with large-scale tests. (author)

  9. A population-based study on health-related quality of life among urban community residents in Shenyang, Northeast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tian; Ding, Yan-wei; Sun, Yan; He, Yi-Ni; Qi, Dian-Jun; Wu, Ying; Wu, Bin; Lang, Lang; Yu, Kai; Zhao, Xin; Zhu, Liang-liang; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Xiao-Song

    2015-09-19

    Due to the rising standard of living environment and advances in public health and medical care in China, it has been a tendency in recent years that health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been increasingly acknowledged in community health management. However, large-scale population-based study on evaluating HQRoL in northeast of China was not conducted. This article aims to investigate the HRQoL in community residents in Northeast China and explore the associated factors. Stratified multiple-stage sampling method was used in the cross-sectional survey to investigate HRQoL of community residents in northeast of China. Univariate analysis and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the factors associated to HRQoL of the community residents. The results were confirmed that HRQoL in general population was well performed for the first time in northeast of China in a large scale population. Community residents had better mental health than physical health. The factors influencing HRQoL included gender, age, educational level, marital status, ethnic group, chronic disease status, having breakfast frequency weekly and sleep quality. However, drinking and smoking habits did not affect residents' HRQoL. In this study, the result of the large-scale survey was satisfactory in northeast of China, providing HRQoL status of community residents. Policies on specific health management in community public health would emphasize on lifestyle behaviors especially eating habits in order to improving HRQoL.

  10. Depression among family caregivers of community-dwelling older people who used services under the Long Term Care Insurance program: a large-scale population-based study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yumiko; Kumamoto, Keigo; Mizuno, Yoko; Washio, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    To identify predictors for depression among family caregivers of community-dwelling older people under the Long Term Care Insurance (LTCI) program in Japan through a large-scale population-based survey. All 5938 older people with disabilities, using domiciliary services under the LTCI in the city of Toyama, and their family caregivers participated in this study. Caregiver depression was defined as scores of ≥16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Other caregiver measures included age, sex, hours spent caregiving, relationship to the care recipient, income adequacy, living arrangement, self-rated health, and work status. Care recipient measures included age, sex, level of functional disability, and severity of dementia. The data from 4128 pairs of the care recipients and their family caregivers were eligible for further analyses. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the predictors associated with being at risk of clinical depression (CES-D of ≥16). Overall, 34.2% of caregivers scored ≥16 on the CES-D. The independent predictors for depression by logistic regression analysis were six caregiver characteristics (female, income inadequacy, longer hours spent caregiving, worse subjective health, and co-residence with the care recipient) and one care-recipient characteristic (moderate dementia). This is one of the first population-based examinations of caregivers of older people who are enrolled in a national service system that provides affordable access to services. The results highlighted the importance of monitoring caregivers who manifest the identified predictors to attenuate caregiver depression at the population level under the LTCI.

  11. LARGE-SCALE STAR-FORMATION-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS AT 1 < z < 2 IN THE 3D-HST SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Britt F.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Bezanson, Rachel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine; Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbé, Ivo; Patel, Shannon; Da Cunha, Elizabete; Rix, Hans Walter; Schmidt, Kasper; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan Xiaohui; Kriek, Mariska; Marchesini, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    We present evidence of large-scale outflows from three low-mass (log(M * /M ☉ ) ∼ 9.75) star-forming (SFR > 4 M ☉ yr –1 ) galaxies observed at z = 1.24, z = 1.35, and z = 1.75 in the 3D-HST Survey. Each of these galaxies is located within a projected physical distance of 60 kpc around the sight line to the quasar SDSS J123622.93+621526.6, which exhibits well-separated strong (W λ2796 r ∼> 0.8 Å) Mg II absorption systems matching precisely to the redshifts of the three galaxies. We derive the star formation surface densities from the Hα emission in the WFC3 G141 grism observations for the galaxies and find that in each case the star formation surface density well exceeds 0.1 M ☉ yr –1 kpc –2 , the typical threshold for starburst galaxies in the local universe. From a small but complete parallel census of the 0.65 140 ∼ r > 0.8 Å Mg II covering fraction of star-forming galaxies at 1 r > 0.4 Å Mg II absorbing gas around star-forming galaxies may evolve from z ∼ 2 to the present, consistent with recent observations of an increasing collimation of star-formation-driven outflows with time from z ∼ 3.

  12. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  13. Isocurvature modes and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations II: gains from combining CMB and Large Scale Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Carmelita; Mangilli, Anna; Verde, Licia

    2011-01-01

    We consider cosmological parameters estimation in the presence of a non-zero isocurvature contribution in the primordial perturbations. A previous analysis showed that even a tiny amount of isocurvature perturbation, if not accounted for, could affect standard rulers calibration from Cosmic Microwave Background observations such as those provided by the Planck mission, affect Baryon Acoustic Oscillations interpretation, and introduce biases in the recovered dark energy properties that are larger than forecasted statistical errors from future surveys. Extending on this work, here we adopt a general fiducial cosmology which includes a varying dark energy equation of state parameter and curvature. Beside Baryon Acoustic Oscillations measurements, we include the information from the shape of the galaxy power spectrum and consider a joint analysis of a Planck-like Cosmic Microwave Background probe and a future, space-based, Large Scale Structure probe not too dissimilar from recently proposed surveys. We find that this allows one to break the degeneracies that affect the Cosmic Microwave Background and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations combination. As a result, most of the cosmological parameter systematic biases arising from an incorrect assumption on the isocurvature fraction parameter f iso , become negligible with respect to the statistical errors. We find that the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure combination gives a statistical error σ(f iso ) ∼ 0.008, even when curvature and a varying dark energy equation of state are included, which is smaller that the error obtained from Cosmic Microwave Background alone when flatness and cosmological constant are assumed. These results confirm the synergy and complementarity between Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure, and the great potential of future and planned galaxy surveys

  14. Small-scale microwave background anisotropies implied by large-scale data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the absence of reheating microwave background radiation (MBR) anisotropies on arcminute scales depend uniquely on the amplitude and the coherence length of the primordial density fluctuations (PDFs). These can be determined from the recent data on galaxy correlations, xi(r), on linear scales (APM survey). We develop here expressions for the MBR angular correlation function, C(theta), on arcminute scales in terms of the power spectrum of PDFs and demonstrate their accuracy by comparing with detailed calculations of MBR anisotropies. We then show how to evaluate C(theta) directly in terms of the observed xi(r) and show that the APM data give information on the amplitude, C(O), and the coherence angle of MBR anisotropies on small scales.

  15. A frequency-domain implementation of a sliding-window traffic sign detector for large scale panoramic datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusen, I.M.; Hazelhoff, L.; With, de P.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    In large-scale automatic traffic sign surveying systems, the primary computational effort is concentrated at the traffic sign detection stage. This paper focuses on reducing the computational load of particularly the sliding window object detection algorithm which is employed for traffic sign

  16. The burden of multiple sclerosis: A community health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turpin Karen VL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQL in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS who reside within the community relative to the general population is largely unknown. Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (CCHS 1.1 were used to compare HRQL of persons with MS and the general population. Methods A representative sample of adults (18 years or older from the cross sectional population health survey, CCHS 1.1, was examined to compare scores on the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3, a generic preference-based HRQL measure, of respondents with (n = 302 and without (n = 109,741 MS. Selected sociodemographic covariates were adjusted for in ANCOVA models. Normalized sampling weights and bootstrap variance estimates were used in the analysis. Results The mean difference in overall HUI3 scores between respondents with and without MS was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.31; eight times greater than the clinically important difference. The largest differences in scores were seen with the ambulation (0.26; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.32 and pain attributes (0.14; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.19. Clinically important differences with dexterity and cognition were also observed. Conclusion While the proportion of the Canadian population with MS is relatively small in comparison to other diseases, the magnitude of the burden is severe relative to the general population.

  17. Large-Scale 3D Printing: The Way Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassmi, Hamad Al; Najjar, Fady Al; Ismail Mourad, Abdel-Hamid

    2018-03-01

    Research on small-scale 3D printing has rapidly evolved, where numerous industrial products have been tested and successfully applied. Nonetheless, research on large-scale 3D printing, directed to large-scale applications such as construction and automotive manufacturing, yet demands a great a great deal of efforts. Large-scale 3D printing is considered an interdisciplinary topic and requires establishing a blended knowledge base from numerous research fields including structural engineering, materials science, mechatronics, software engineering, artificial intelligence and architectural engineering. This review article summarizes key topics of relevance to new research trends on large-scale 3D printing, particularly pertaining (1) technological solutions of additive construction (i.e. the 3D printers themselves), (2) materials science challenges, and (3) new design opportunities.

  18. The CTIO surveys for large redshift quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmer, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    Lyman α emission in large redshift quasars is readily detectable on slitless spectrograms taken with an objective combination on the 4m telescope. This provides a new survey method, independent of color for finding radio-quiet quasars in large numbers. Surveys by Smith with the Curtis Schmidt and Hoag and Smith with the 4 m telescope, have produced more than 200 candidates with 1.5< z<3.5 and 16< m<21. Spectroscopic observations with the CTIO SIT vidicon system have been carried out for more than 50 of the candidates, with the result that the basic properties of the surveys are known. To date three 16th magnitude quasars with zapproximately2.2 and six quasars with 3.0< z<3.25 have been found. One of the most important uses of the surveys will be the determination of the surface and surface densities of large redshift quasars. A preliminary analysis of the data indicates that the space density of quasars is at least constant, if not increasing, over the interval 1.0< z<3.25. However, the Hoag-Smith sample has only one candidate with z<3.2.(Auth.)

  19. Large scale treatment of total petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated groundwater using bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poi, Gregory; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Mok, Puah Chum; Ball, Andrew S

    2018-05-15

    Bioaugmentation or the addition of microbes to contaminated sites has been widely used to treat contaminated soil or water; however this approach is often limited to laboratory based studies. In the present study, large scale bioaugmentation has been applied to total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum facility. Initial TPH concentrations of 1564 mg L -1 in the field were reduced to 89 mg L -1 over 32 days. This reduction was accompanied by improved ecotoxicity, as shown by Brassica rapa germination numbers that increased from 52 at day 0 to 82% by the end of the treatment. Metagenomic analysis indicated that there was a shift in the microbial community when compared to the beginning of the treatment. The microbial community was dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes from day 0 to day 32, although differences at the genus level were observed. The predominant genera at the beginning of the treatment (day 0 just after inoculation) were Cloacibacterium, Sediminibacterium and Brevundimonas while at the end of the treatment members of Flavobacterium dominated, reaching almost half the population (41%), followed by Pseudomonas (6%) and Limnobacter (5.8%). To the author's knowledge, this is among the first studies to report the successful large scale biodegradation of TPH-contaminated groundwater (18,000 L per treatment session) at an offshore petrochemical facility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accelerating sustainability in large-scale facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    Marina Giampietro

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research centres and large-scale facilities are intrinsically energy intensive, but how can big science improve its energy management and eventually contribute to the environmental cause with new cleantech? CERN’s commitment to providing tangible answers to these questions was sealed in the first workshop on energy management for large scale scientific infrastructures held in Lund, Sweden, on the 13-14 October.   Participants at the energy management for large scale scientific infrastructures workshop. The workshop, co-organised with the European Spallation Source (ESS) and  the European Association of National Research Facilities (ERF), tackled a recognised need for addressing energy issues in relation with science and technology policies. It brought together more than 150 representatives of Research Infrastrutures (RIs) and energy experts from Europe and North America. “Without compromising our scientific projects, we can ...

  1. Implementation of a large-scale hospital information infrastructure for multi-unit health-care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sun K; Kim, Dong Keun; Kim, Jung C; Park, Youn Jung; Chang, Byung Chul

    2008-01-01

    With the increase in demand for high quality medical services, the need for an innovative hospital information system has become essential. An improved system has been implemented in all hospital units of the Yonsei University Health System. Interoperability between multi-units required appropriate hardware infrastructure and software architecture. This large-scale hospital information system encompassed PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications Systems), EMR (Electronic Medical Records) and ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning). It involved two tertiary hospitals and 50 community hospitals. The monthly data production rate by the integrated hospital information system is about 1.8 TByte and the total quantity of data produced so far is about 60 TByte. Large scale information exchange and sharing will be particularly useful for telemedicine applications.

  2. Large scale reflood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kemmei; Murao, Yoshio

    1980-01-01

    The large-scale reflood test with a view to ensuring the safety of light water reactors was started in fiscal 1976 based on the special account act for power source development promotion measures by the entrustment from the Science and Technology Agency. Thereafter, to establish the safety of PWRs in loss-of-coolant accidents by joint international efforts, the Japan-West Germany-U.S. research cooperation program was started in April, 1980. Thereupon, the large-scale reflood test is now included in this program. It consists of two tests using a cylindrical core testing apparatus for examining the overall system effect and a plate core testing apparatus for testing individual effects. Each apparatus is composed of the mock-ups of pressure vessel, primary loop, containment vessel and ECCS. The testing method, the test results and the research cooperation program are described. (J.P.N.)

  3. A survey of community child health audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, N J; Penlington, E

    1993-03-01

    Community child health medical audit is established in most districts surveyed. A minority have integrated audit with hospital paediatric units. Very few districts use an external auditor. Subject audit is preferred to individual performance audit and school health services were the most common services subjected to medical audit. The need for integrated audit and audit forms suitable for use in the community services is discussed.

  4. Cosmological parameters from large scale structure - geometric versus shape information

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Jan; Lesgourgues, Julien; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-01-01

    The matter power spectrum as derived from large scale structure (LSS) surveys contains two important and distinct pieces of information: an overall smooth shape and the imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We investigate the separate impact of these two types of information on cosmological parameter estimation, and show that for the simplest cosmological models, the broad-band shape information currently contained in the SDSS DR7 halo power spectrum (HPS) is by far superseded by geometric information derived from the baryonic features. An immediate corollary is that contrary to popular beliefs, the upper limit on the neutrino mass m_\

  5. State-of-the-art of large scale biogas plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prisum, J.M.; Noergaard, P.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of the technological state of large scale biogas plants in Europe treating manure is given. 83 plants are in operation at present. Of these, 16 are centralised digestion plants. Transport costs at centralised digestion plants amounts to between 25 and 40 percent of the total operational costs. Various transport equipment is used. Most large scale digesters are CSTRs, but serial, contact, 2-step, and plug-flow digesters are also found. Construction materials are mostly steel and concrete. Mesophilic digestion is most common (56%), thermophilic digestion is used in 17% of the plants, combined mesophilic and thermophilic digestion is used in 28% of the centralised plants. Mixing of digester content is performed with gas injection, propellers, and gas-liquid displacement. Heating is carried out using external or internal heat exchangers. Heat recovery is only used in Denmark. Gas purification equipment is commonplace, but not often needed. Several plants use separation of the digested manure, often as part of a post-treatment/-purification process or for the production of 'compost'. Screens, sieve belt separaters, centrifuges and filter presses are employed. The use of biogas varies considerably. In some cases, combined heat and power stations are supplying the grid and district heating systems. Other plants use only either the electricity or heat. (au)

  6. Challenges in Managing Trustworthy Large-scale Digital Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, B. J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The increased use of large-scale international digital science has opened a number of challenges for managing, handling, using and preserving scientific information. The large volumes of information are driven by three main categories - model outputs including coupled models and ensembles, data products that have been processing to a level of usability, and increasingly heuristically driven data analysis. These data products are increasingly the ones that are usable by the broad communities, and far in excess of the raw instruments data outputs. The data, software and workflows are then shared and replicated to allow broad use at an international scale, which places further demands of infrastructure to support how the information is managed reliably across distributed resources. Users necessarily rely on these underlying "black boxes" so that they are productive to produce new scientific outcomes. The software for these systems depend on computational infrastructure, software interconnected systems, and information capture systems. This ranges from the fundamentals of the reliability of the compute hardware, system software stacks and libraries, and the model software. Due to these complexities and capacity of the infrastructure, there is an increased emphasis of transparency of the approach and robustness of the methods over the full reproducibility. Furthermore, with large volume data management, it is increasingly difficult to store the historical versions of all model and derived data. Instead, the emphasis is on the ability to access the updated products and the reliability by which both previous outcomes are still relevant and can be updated for the new information. We will discuss these challenges and some of the approaches underway that are being used to address these issues.

  7. Increased sediment load during a large-scale dam removal changes nearshore subtidal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Rubin

    Full Text Available The coastal marine ecosystem near the Elwha River was altered by a massive sediment influx-over 10 million tonnes-during the staged three-year removal of two hydropower dams. We used time series of bathymetry, substrate grain size, remotely sensed turbidity, scuba dive surveys, and towed video observations collected before and during dam removal to assess responses of the nearshore subtidal community (3 m to 17 m depth. Biological changes were primarily driven by sediment deposition and elevated suspended sediment concentrations. Macroalgae, predominantly kelp and foliose red algae, were abundant before dam removal with combined cover levels greater than 50%. Where persistent sediment deposits formed, macroalgae decreased greatly or were eliminated. In areas lacking deposition, macroalgae cover decreased inversely to suspended sediment concentration, suggesting impacts from light reduction or scour. Densities of most invertebrate and fish taxa decreased in areas with persistent sediment deposition; however, bivalve densities increased where mud deposited over sand, and flatfish and Pacific sand lance densities increased where sand deposited over gravel. In areas without sediment deposition, most invertebrate and fish taxa were unaffected by increased suspended sediment or the loss of algae cover associated with it; however, densities of tubeworms and flatfish, and primary cover of sessile invertebrates increased suggesting benefits of increased particulate matter or relaxed competition with macroalgae for space. As dam removal neared completion, we saw evidence of macroalgal recovery that likely owed to water column clearing, indicating that long-term recovery from dam removal effects may be starting. Our results are relevant to future dam removal projects in coastal areas and more generally to understanding effects of increased sedimentation on nearshore subtidal benthic communities.

  8. Increased sediment load during a large-scale dam removal changes nearshore subtidal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Miller, Ian M.; Foley, Melissa M.; Berry, Helen D.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Hudson, Benjamin; Elder, Nancy E.; Beirne, Matthew M.; Warrick, Jonathan; McHenry, Michael L.; Stevens, Andrew; Eidam, Emily; Ogston, Andrea; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Pedersen, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The coastal marine ecosystem near the Elwha River was altered by a massive sediment influx—over 10 million tonnes—during the staged three-year removal of two hydropower dams. We used time series of bathymetry, substrate grain size, remotely sensed turbidity, scuba dive surveys, and towed video observations collected before and during dam removal to assess responses of the nearshore subtidal community (3 m to 17 m depth). Biological changes were primarily driven by sediment deposition and elevated suspended sediment concentrations. Macroalgae, predominantly kelp and foliose red algae, were abundant before dam removal with combined cover levels greater than 50%. Where persistent sediment deposits formed, macroalgae decreased greatly or were eliminated. In areas lacking deposition, macroalgae cover decreased inversely to suspended sediment concentration, suggesting impacts from light reduction or scour. Densities of most invertebrate and fish taxa decreased in areas with persistent sediment deposition; however, bivalve densities increased where mud deposited over sand, and flatfish and Pacific sand lance densities increased where sand deposited over gravel. In areas without sediment deposition, most invertebrate and fish taxa were unaffected by increased suspended sediment or the loss of algae cover associated with it; however, densities of tubeworms and flatfish, and primary cover of sessile invertebrates increased suggesting benefits of increased particulate matter or relaxed competition with macroalgae for space. As dam removal neared completion, we saw evidence of macroalgal recovery that likely owed to water column clearing, indicating that long-term recovery from dam removal effects may be starting. Our results are relevant to future dam removal projects in coastal areas and more generally to understanding effects of increased sedimentation on nearshore subtidal benthic communities.

  9. Study of multi-functional precision optical measuring system for large scale equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Lao, Dabao; Zhou, Weihu; Zhang, Wenying; Jiang, Xingjian; Wang, Yongxi

    2017-10-01

    The effective application of high performance measurement technology can greatly improve the large-scale equipment manufacturing ability. Therefore, the geometric parameters measurement, such as size, attitude and position, requires the measurement system with high precision, multi-function, portability and other characteristics. However, the existing measuring instruments, such as laser tracker, total station, photogrammetry system, mostly has single function, station moving and other shortcomings. Laser tracker needs to work with cooperative target, but it can hardly meet the requirement of measurement in extreme environment. Total station is mainly used for outdoor surveying and mapping, it is hard to achieve the demand of accuracy in industrial measurement. Photogrammetry system can achieve a wide range of multi-point measurement, but the measuring range is limited and need to repeatedly move station. The paper presents a non-contact opto-electronic measuring instrument, not only it can work by scanning the measurement path but also measuring the cooperative target by tracking measurement. The system is based on some key technologies, such as absolute distance measurement, two-dimensional angle measurement, automatically target recognition and accurate aiming, precision control, assembly of complex mechanical system and multi-functional 3D visualization software. Among them, the absolute distance measurement module ensures measurement with high accuracy, and the twodimensional angle measuring module provides precision angle measurement. The system is suitable for the case of noncontact measurement of large-scale equipment, it can ensure the quality and performance of large-scale equipment throughout the process of manufacturing and improve the manufacturing ability of large-scale and high-end equipment.

  10. Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Community-Scale Solar Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jim [Parametrix; Knight, Tawnie [Ute Mountain Ute Tribe

    2014-01-30

    Parametrix Inc. conducted a feasibility study for the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe to determine whether or not a community-scale solar farm would be feasible for the community. The important part of the study was to find where the best fit for the solar farm could be. In the end, a 3MW community-scale solar farm was found best fit with the location of two hayfield sites.

  11. Large Scale Cosmological Anomalies and Inhomogeneous Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros Perivolaropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of large scale observations hint towards possible modifications on the standard cosmological model which is based on a homogeneous and isotropic universe with a small cosmological constant and matter. These observations, also known as “cosmic anomalies” include unexpected Cosmic Microwave Background perturbations on large angular scales, large dipolar peculiar velocity flows of galaxies (“bulk flows”, the measurement of inhomogenous values of the fine structure constant on cosmological scales (“alpha dipole” and other effects. The presence of the observational anomalies could either be a large statistical fluctuation in the context of ΛCDM or it could indicate a non-trivial departure from the cosmological principle on Hubble scales. Such a departure is very much constrained by cosmological observations for matter. For dark energy however there are no significant observational constraints for Hubble scale inhomogeneities. In this brief review I discuss some of the theoretical models that can naturally lead to inhomogeneous dark energy, their observational constraints and their potential to explain the large scale cosmic anomalies.

  12. Large-scale patterns in Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardenberg, J. von; Parodi, A.; Passoni, G.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Rayleigh-Benard convection at large Rayleigh number is characterized by the presence of intense, vertically moving plumes. Both laboratory and numerical experiments reveal that the rising and descending plumes aggregate into separate clusters so as to produce large-scale updrafts and downdrafts. The horizontal scales of the aggregates reported so far have been comparable to the horizontal extent of the containers, but it has not been clear whether that represents a limitation imposed by domain size. In this work, we present numerical simulations of convection at sufficiently large aspect ratio to ascertain whether there is an intrinsic saturation scale for the clustering process when that ratio is large enough. From a series of simulations of Rayleigh-Benard convection with Rayleigh numbers between 10 5 and 10 8 and with aspect ratios up to 12π, we conclude that the clustering process has a finite horizontal saturation scale with at most a weak dependence on Rayleigh number in the range studied

  13. Responses of arthropods to large-scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale experimental manipulations of deadwood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large...

  14. Responses of Arthropods to large scale manipulations of dead wood in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; James Hanula

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale experimentalmanipulations of deadwood are needed to better understand its importance to animal communities in managed forests. In this experiment, we compared the abundance, species richness, diversity, and composition of arthropods in 9.3-ha plots in which either (1) all coarse woody debris was removed, (2) a large number of logs were added, (3) a large...

  15. Birth Satisfaction Scale/Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS/BSS-R): A large scale United States planned home birth and birth centre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Susan E; Donovan-Batson, Colleen; Burduli, Ekaterina; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Martin, Colin R

    2016-10-01

    to explore the prevalence of birth satisfaction for childbearing women planning to birth in their home or birth centers in the United States. Examining differences in birth satisfaction of the home and birth centers; and those who birthed in a hospital using the 30-item Birth Satisfaction Scale (BSS) and the 10-item Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R). a quantitative survey using the BSS and BSS-R were employed. Additional demographic data were collected using electronic linkages (Qualtrics ™ ). a convenience sample of childbearing women (n=2229) who had planned to birth in their home or birth center from the US (United States) participated. Participants were recruited via professional and personal contacts, primarily their midwives. the total 30-item BSS score mean was 128.98 (SD 16.92) and the 10-item BSS-R mean score was 31.94 (SD 6.75). Sub-scale mean scores quantified the quality of care provision, women's personal attributes, and stress experienced during labour. Satisfaction was higher for women with vaginal births compared with caesareans deliveries. In addition, satisfaction was higher for women who had both planned to deliver in a home or a birth centre, and who had actually delivered in a home or a birth center. total and subscale birth satisfaction scores were positive and high for the overall sample IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: the BSS and the BSS-R provide a robust tool to quantify women's experiences of childbirth between variables such as birth types, birth settings and providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen WQ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: a large scale school based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Phil W S; Wong, William C W; Chen, W Q; Tang, Catherine S K

    2008-09-29

    Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.

  18. Cluster galaxy dynamics and the effects of large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martin; Cohn, J. D.; Smit, Renske

    2010-11-01

    Advances in observational capabilities have ushered in a new era of multi-wavelength, multi-physics probes of galaxy clusters and ambitious surveys are compiling large samples of cluster candidates selected in different ways. We use a high-resolution N-body simulation to study how the influence of large-scale structure in and around clusters causes correlated signals in different physical probes and discuss some implications this has for multi-physics probes of clusters (e.g. richness, lensing, Compton distortion and velocity dispersion). We pay particular attention to velocity dispersions, matching galaxies to subhaloes which are explicitly tracked in the simulation. We find that not only do haloes persist as subhaloes when they fall into a larger host, but groups of subhaloes retain their identity for long periods within larger host haloes. The highly anisotropic nature of infall into massive clusters, and their triaxiality, translates into an anisotropic velocity ellipsoid: line-of-sight galaxy velocity dispersions for any individual halo show large variance depending on viewing angle. The orientation of the velocity ellipsoid is correlated with the large-scale structure, and thus velocity outliers correlate with outliers caused by projection in other probes. We quantify this orientation uncertainty and give illustrative examples. Such a large variance suggests that velocity dispersion estimators will work better in an ensemble sense than for any individual cluster, which may inform strategies for obtaining redshifts of cluster members. We similarly find that the ability of substructure indicators to find kinematic substructures is highly viewing angle dependent. While groups of subhaloes which merge with a larger host halo can retain their identity for many Gyr, they are only sporadically picked up by substructure indicators. We discuss the effects of correlated scatter on scaling relations estimated through stacking, both analytically and in the simulations

  19. Manufacturing test of large scale hollow capsule and long length cladding in the large scale oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Masayuki

    2004-04-01

    Mass production capability of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel cladding (9Cr) has being evaluated in the Phase II of the Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System. The cost for manufacturing mother tube (raw materials powder production, mechanical alloying (MA) by ball mill, canning, hot extrusion, and machining) is a dominant factor in the total cost for manufacturing ODS ferritic steel cladding. In this study, the large-sale 9Cr-ODS martensitic steel mother tube which is made with a large-scale hollow capsule, and long length claddings were manufactured, and the applicability of these processes was evaluated. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) Manufacturing the large scale mother tube in the dimension of 32 mm OD, 21 mm ID, and 2 m length has been successfully carried out using large scale hollow capsule. This mother tube has a high degree of accuracy in size. (2) The chemical composition and the micro structure of the manufactured mother tube are similar to the existing mother tube manufactured by a small scale can. And the remarkable difference between the bottom and top sides in the manufactured mother tube has not been observed. (3) The long length cladding has been successfully manufactured from the large scale mother tube which was made using a large scale hollow capsule. (4) For reducing the manufacturing cost of the ODS steel claddings, manufacturing process of the mother tubes using a large scale hollow capsules is promising. (author)

  20. Amplification of large-scale magnetic field in nonhelical magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit

    2017-08-11

    It is typically assumed that the kinetic and magnetic helicities play a crucial role in the growth of large-scale dynamo. In this paper, we demonstrate that helicity is not essential for the amplification of large-scale magnetic field. For this purpose, we perform nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and show that the large-scale magnetic field can grow in nonhelical MHD when random external forcing is employed at scale 1/10 the box size. The energy fluxes and shell-to-shell transfer rates computed using the numerical data show that the large-scale magnetic energy grows due to the energy transfers from the velocity field at the forcing scales.

  1. Mapping neighborhood scale survey responses with uncertainty metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Robert Ehlschlaeger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology of mapping population-centric social, infrastructural, and environmental metrics at neighborhood scale. This methodology extends traditional survey analysis methods to create cartographic products useful in agent-based modeling and geographic information analysis. It utilizes and synthesizes survey microdata, sub-upazila attributes, land use information, and ground truth locations of attributes to create neighborhood scale multi-attribute maps. Monte Carlo methods are employed to combine any number of survey responses to stochastically weight survey cases and to simulate survey cases' locations in a study area. Through such Monte Carlo methods, known errors from each of the input sources can be retained. By keeping individual survey cases as the atomic unit of data representation, this methodology ensures that important covariates are retained and that ecological inference fallacy is eliminated. These techniques are demonstrated with a case study from the Chittagong Division in Bangladesh. The results provide a population-centric understanding of many social, infrastructural, and environmental metrics desired in humanitarian aid and disaster relief planning and operations wherever long term familiarity is lacking. Of critical importance is that the resulting products have easy to use explicit representation of the errors and uncertainties of each of the input sources via the automatically generated summary statistics created at the application's geographic scale.

  2. Recent Trends in Veteran Unemployment as Measured in the Current Population Survey and the American Community Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savych, Bogdan; Klerman, Jacob A; Loughran, David S

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explores recent trends in the unemployment of recent veterans as estimated from two nationally representative surveys, the Current Population Survey "CPS" and the American Community Survey "ACS...

  3. Superconducting materials for large scale applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew-Hughes, D.

    1975-01-01

    Applications of superconductors capable of carrying large current densities in large-scale electrical devices are examined. Discussions are included on critical current density, superconducting materials available, and future prospects for improved superconducting materials. (JRD)

  4. Digital Archiving of People Flow by Recycling Large-Scale Social Survey Data of Developing Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Y.; Watanabe, A.; Nakamura, T.; Horanont, T.

    2012-07-01

    Data on people flow has become increasingly important in the field of business, including the areas of marketing and public services. Although mobile phones enable a person's position to be located to a certain degree, it is a challenge to acquire sufficient data from people with mobile phones. In order to grasp people flow in its entirety, it is important to establish a practical method of reconstructing people flow from various kinds of existing fragmentary spatio-temporal data such as social survey data. For example, despite typical Person Trip Survey Data collected by the public sector showing the fragmentary spatio-temporal positions accessed, the data are attractive given the sufficiently large sample size to estimate the entire flow of people. In this study, we apply our proposed basic method to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) PT data pertaining to developing cities around the world, and we propose some correction methods to resolve the difficulties in applying it to many cities and stably to infrastructure data.

  5. Large-scale influences in near-wall turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Nicholas; Marusic, Ivan

    2007-03-15

    Hot-wire data acquired in a high Reynolds number facility are used to illustrate the need for adequate scale separation when considering the coherent structure in wall-bounded turbulence. It is found that a large-scale motion in the log region becomes increasingly comparable in energy to the near-wall cycle as the Reynolds number increases. Through decomposition of fluctuating velocity signals, it is shown that this large-scale motion has a distinct modulating influence on the small-scale energy (akin to amplitude modulation). Reassessment of DNS data, in light of these results, shows similar trends, with the rate and intensity of production due to the near-wall cycle subject to a modulating influence from the largest-scale motions.

  6. Community Based Survey on Psychiatric Morbidity in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Mohan Shyangwa

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Community prevalence rate of some common psychiatric disorders is high which calls for special attention to address depressive and alcohol related disorder from all quarters of society particularly from government. Keywords: community survey; mental illness; psychiatric morbidity.

  7. The function of communities in protein interaction networks at multiple scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Nick S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If biology is modular then clusters, or communities, of proteins derived using only protein interaction network structure should define protein modules with similar biological roles. We investigate the link between biological modules and network communities in yeast and its relationship to the scale at which we probe the network. Results Our results demonstrate that the functional homogeneity of communities depends on the scale selected, and that almost all proteins lie in a functionally homogeneous community at some scale. We judge functional homogeneity using a novel test and three independent characterizations of protein function, and find a high degree of overlap between these measures. We show that a high mean clustering coefficient of a community can be used to identify those that are functionally homogeneous. By tracing the community membership of a protein through multiple scales we demonstrate how our approach could be useful to biologists focusing on a particular protein. Conclusions We show that there is no one scale of interest in the community structure of the yeast protein interaction network, but we can identify the range of resolution parameters that yield the most functionally coherent communities, and predict which communities are most likely to be functionally homogeneous.

  8. Transitioning a home telehealth project into a sustainable, large-scale service: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Victoria A; Taylor, Alan D; Kidd, Michael R; Carati, Colin

    2016-05-16

    This study was a component of the Flinders Telehealth in the Home project, which tested adding home telehealth to existing rehabilitation, palliative care and geriatric outreach services. Due to the known difficulty of transitioning telehealth projects services, a qualitative study was conducted to produce a preferred implementation approach for sustainable and large-scale operations, and a process model that offers practical advice for achieving this goal. Initially, semi-structured interviews were conducted with senior clinicians, health service managers and policy makers, and a thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was undertaken to identify the range of options for ongoing operations, plus the factors affecting sustainability. Subsequently, the interviewees and other decision makers attended a deliberative forum in which participants were asked to select a preferred model for future implementation. Finally, all data from the study was synthesised by the researchers to produce a process model. 19 interviews with senior clinicians, managers, and service development staff were conducted, finding strong support for home telehealth but a wide diversity of views on governance, models of clinical care, technical infrastructure operations, and data management. The deliberative forum worked through these options and recommended a collaborative consortium approach for large-scale implementation. The process model proposes that the key factor for large-scale implementation is leadership support, which is enabled by 1) showing solutions to the problems of service demand, budgetary pressure and the relationship between hospital and primary care, 2) demonstrating how home telehealth aligns with health service policies, and 3) achieving clinician acceptance through providing evidence of benefit and developing new models of clinical care. Two key actions to enable change were marketing telehealth to patients, clinicians and policy-makers, and building a community of

  9. Large-Scale Environment Properties of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies at z < 0.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Järvelä, Emilia [Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Lähteenmäki, A. [Metsähovi Radio Observatory, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Tartu Observatory, Tõravere (Estonia); Lietzen, H., E-mail: emilia.jarvela@aalto.fi [Tartu Observatory, Tõravere (Estonia)

    2017-11-30

    The large-scale environment is believed to affect the evolution and intrinsic properties of galaxies. It offers a new perspective on narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1) which have not been extensively studied in this context before. We study a large and diverse sample of 960 NLS1 galaxies using a luminosity-density field constructed using Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We investigate how the large-scale environment is connected to the properties of NLS1 galaxies, especially their radio loudness. Furthermore, we compare the large-scale environment properties of NLS1 galaxies with other active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes, for example, other jetted AGN and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies, to shed light on their possible relations. In general NLS1 galaxies reside in less dense large-scale environments than any of our comparison samples, thus supporting their young age. The average luminosity-density and distribution to different luminosity-density regions of NLS1 sources is significantly different compared to BLS1 galaxies. This contradicts the simple orientation-based unification of NLS1 and BLS1 galaxies, and weakens the hypothesis that BLS1 galaxies are the parent population of NLS1 galaxies. The large-scale environment density also has an impact on the intrinsic properties of NLS1 galaxies; the radio loudness increases with the increasing luminosity-density. However, our results suggest that the NLS1 population is indeed heterogeneous, and that a considerable fraction of them are misclassified. We support a suggested description that the traditional classification based on the radio loudness should be replaced with the division to jetted and non-jetted sources.

  10. Distributed small-scale wind in New Zealand: Advantages, barriers and policy support instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Martin; Chapman, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    If future climate change goals being negotiated internationally are to have any chance of being achieved, developed countries need to undertake a major transition in their energy systems. This will require a rapid expansion of renewable energy generation, including wind electricity. Wind energy in New Zealand is commercially viable in many cases, yet opportunities for its exploitation are far from fully utilised. Many communities are showing resistance to wind farm developments, since large wind farms are often seen as intrusive. Building wind farms on a small scale may be a useful way of overcoming this problem. This study examines the pattern of recent wind industry development in New Zealand. It is argued that two key characteristics have emerged that are limiting the potential development of the industry: a trend towards large scale, leading to increased local opposition; and a small number of investors. Research methods include a review of international and local literature, and a rural mail survey questionnaire, with 338 respondents. We provide survey evidence that small wind farms, and community ownership of them, may be attractive to local communities, and that this point of advantage is helpful for the rapid expansion of wind generation in New Zealand.

  11. A fast approach to generate large-scale topographic maps based on new Chinese vehicle-borne Lidar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmei, Han; Bogang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Large -scale topographic maps are important basic information for city and regional planning and management. Traditional large- scale mapping methods are mostly based on artificial mapping and photogrammetry. The traditional mapping method is inefficient and limited by the environments. While the photogrammetry methods(such as low-altitude aerial mapping) is an economical and effective way to map wide and regulate range of large scale topographic map but doesn't work well in the small area due to the high cost of manpower and resources. Recent years, the vehicle-borne LIDAR technology has a rapid development, and its application in surveying and mapping is becoming a new topic. The main objective of this investigation is to explore the potential of vehicle-borne LIDAR technology to be used to fast mapping large scale topographic maps based on new Chinese vehicle-borne LIDAR system. It studied how to use the new Chinese vehicle-borne LIDAR system measurement technology to map large scale topographic maps. After the field data capture, it can be mapped in the office based on the LIDAR data (point cloud) by software which programmed by ourselves. In addition, the detailed process and accuracy analysis were proposed by an actual case. The result show that this new technology provides a new fast method to generate large scale topographic maps, which is high efficient and accuracy compared to traditional methods

  12. PKI security in large-scale healthcare networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, Georgios; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios; Komninos, Nikos

    2012-06-01

    During the past few years a lot of PKI (Public Key Infrastructures) infrastructures have been proposed for healthcare networks in order to ensure secure communication services and exchange of data among healthcare professionals. However, there is a plethora of challenges in these healthcare PKI infrastructures. Especially, there are a lot of challenges for PKI infrastructures deployed over large-scale healthcare networks. In this paper, we propose a PKI infrastructure to ensure security in a large-scale Internet-based healthcare network connecting a wide spectrum of healthcare units geographically distributed within a wide region. Furthermore, the proposed PKI infrastructure facilitates the trust issues that arise in a large-scale healthcare network including multi-domain PKI infrastructures.

  13. Large-scale protein-protein interaction analysis in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts by split firefly luciferase complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Feng; Bush, Jenifer; Xiong, Yan; Li, Lei; McCormack, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) constitute the regulatory network that coordinates diverse cellular functions. There are growing needs in plant research for creating protein interaction maps behind complex cellular processes and at a systems biology level. However, only a few approaches have been successfully used for large-scale surveys of PPIs in plants, each having advantages and disadvantages. Here we present split firefly luciferase complementation (SFLC) as a highly sensitive and noninvasive technique for in planta PPI investigation. In this assay, the separate halves of a firefly luciferase can come into close proximity and transiently restore its catalytic activity only when their fusion partners, namely the two proteins of interest, interact with each other. This assay was conferred with quantitativeness and high throughput potential when the Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast system and a microplate luminometer were employed for protein expression and luciferase measurement, respectively. Using the SFLC assay, we could monitor the dynamics of rapamycin-induced and ascomycin-disrupted interaction between Arabidopsis FRB and human FKBP proteins in a near real-time manner. As a proof of concept for large-scale PPI survey, we further applied the SFLC assay to testing 132 binary PPIs among 8 auxin response factors (ARFs) and 12 Aux/IAA proteins from Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrated that the SFLC assay is ideal for in vivo quantitative PPI analysis in plant cells and is particularly powerful for large-scale binary PPI screens.

  14. Large-scale protein-protein interaction analysis in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts by split firefly luciferase complementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Feng Li

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions (PPIs constitute the regulatory network that coordinates diverse cellular functions. There are growing needs in plant research for creating protein interaction maps behind complex cellular processes and at a systems biology level. However, only a few approaches have been successfully used for large-scale surveys of PPIs in plants, each having advantages and disadvantages. Here we present split firefly luciferase complementation (SFLC as a highly sensitive and noninvasive technique for in planta PPI investigation. In this assay, the separate halves of a firefly luciferase can come into close proximity and transiently restore its catalytic activity only when their fusion partners, namely the two proteins of interest, interact with each other. This assay was conferred with quantitativeness and high throughput potential when the Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast system and a microplate luminometer were employed for protein expression and luciferase measurement, respectively. Using the SFLC assay, we could monitor the dynamics of rapamycin-induced and ascomycin-disrupted interaction between Arabidopsis FRB and human FKBP proteins in a near real-time manner. As a proof of concept for large-scale PPI survey, we further applied the SFLC assay to testing 132 binary PPIs among 8 auxin response factors (ARFs and 12 Aux/IAA proteins from Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrated that the SFLC assay is ideal for in vivo quantitative PPI analysis in plant cells and is particularly powerful for large-scale binary PPI screens.

  15. Emerging large-scale solar heating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.P.; McClung, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Currently the market for solar heating applications in Canada is dominated by outdoor swimming pool heating, make-up air pre-heating and domestic water heating in homes, commercial and institutional buildings. All of these involve relatively small systems, except for a few air pre-heating systems on very large buildings. Together these applications make up well over 90% of the solar thermal collectors installed in Canada during 2007. These three applications, along with the recent re-emergence of large-scale concentrated solar thermal for generating electricity, also dominate the world markets. This paper examines some emerging markets for large scale solar heating applications, with a focus on the Canadian climate and market. (author)

  16. Emerging large-scale solar heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, W.P.; McClung, J.L. [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC Canada), Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Currently the market for solar heating applications in Canada is dominated by outdoor swimming pool heating, make-up air pre-heating and domestic water heating in homes, commercial and institutional buildings. All of these involve relatively small systems, except for a few air pre-heating systems on very large buildings. Together these applications make up well over 90% of the solar thermal collectors installed in Canada during 2007. These three applications, along with the recent re-emergence of large-scale concentrated solar thermal for generating electricity, also dominate the world markets. This paper examines some emerging markets for large scale solar heating applications, with a focus on the Canadian climate and market. (author)

  17. Quantifying expert consensus against the existence of a secret, large-scale atmospheric spraying program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Christine; West, Mick; Caldeira, Ken; Davis, Steven J.

    2016-08-01

    Nearly 17% of people in an international survey said they believed the existence of a secret large-scale atmospheric program (SLAP) to be true or partly true. SLAP is commonly referred to as ‘chemtrails’ or ‘covert geoengineering’, and has led to a number of websites purported to show evidence of widespread chemical spraying linked to negative impacts on human health and the environment. To address these claims, we surveyed two groups of experts—atmospheric chemists with expertize in condensation trails and geochemists working on atmospheric deposition of dust and pollution—to scientifically evaluate for the first time the claims of SLAP theorists. Results show that 76 of the 77 scientists (98.7%) that took part in this study said they had not encountered evidence of a SLAP, and that the data cited as evidence could be explained through other factors, including well-understood physics and chemistry associated with aircraft contrails and atmospheric aerosols. Our goal is not to sway those already convinced that there is a secret, large-scale spraying program—who often reject counter-evidence as further proof of their theories—but rather to establish a source of objective science that can inform public discourse.

  18. Implicit solvers for large-scale nonlinear problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, David E; Reynolds, Daniel R; Woodward, Carol S

    2006-01-01

    Computational scientists are grappling with increasingly complex, multi-rate applications that couple such physical phenomena as fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, radiation transport, chemical and nuclear reactions, and wave and material propagation in inhomogeneous media. Parallel computers with large storage capacities are paving the way for high-resolution simulations of coupled problems; however, hardware improvements alone will not prove enough to enable simulations based on brute-force algorithmic approaches. To accurately capture nonlinear couplings between dynamically relevant phenomena, often while stepping over rapid adjustments to quasi-equilibria, simulation scientists are increasingly turning to implicit formulations that require a discrete nonlinear system to be solved for each time step or steady state solution. Recent advances in iterative methods have made fully implicit formulations a viable option for solution of these large-scale problems. In this paper, we overview one of the most effective iterative methods, Newton-Krylov, for nonlinear systems and point to software packages with its implementation. We illustrate the method with an example from magnetically confined plasma fusion and briefly survey other areas in which implicit methods have bestowed important advantages, such as allowing high-order temporal integration and providing a pathway to sensitivity analyses and optimization. Lastly, we overview algorithm extensions under development motivated by current SciDAC applications

  19. The Landscape Evolution Observatory: a large-scale controllable infrastructure to study coupled Earth-surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, Luke A.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Abramson, Nate; Adams, John; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Breshears, David D.; Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Dietrich, William E.; Dontsova, Katerina; Durcik, Matej; Espeleta, Javier; Ferré, T.P.A.; Ferriere, Regis; Henderson, Whitney; Hunt, Edward A.; Huxman, Travis E.; Millar, David; Murphy, Brendan; Niu, Guo-Yue; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch; Pelletier, Jon D.; Rasmussen, Craig; Ruiz, Joaquin; Saleska, Scott; Schaap, Marcel; Sibayan, Michael; Troch, Peter A.; Tuller, Markus; van Haren, Joost; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-01-01

    Zero-order drainage basins, and their constituent hillslopes, are the fundamental geomorphic unit comprising much of Earth's uplands. The convergent topography of these landscapes generates spatially variable substrate and moisture content, facilitating biological diversity and influencing how the landscape filters precipitation and sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide. In light of these significant ecosystem services, refining our understanding of how these functions are affected by landscape evolution, weather variability, and long-term climate change is imperative. In this paper we introduce the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO): a large-scale controllable infrastructure consisting of three replicated artificial landscapes (each 330 m2 surface area) within the climate-controlled Biosphere 2 facility in Arizona, USA. At LEO, experimental manipulation of rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed are possible at unprecedented scale. The Landscape Evolution Observatory was designed as a community resource to advance understanding of how topography, physical and chemical properties of soil, and biological communities coevolve, and how this coevolution affects water, carbon, and energy cycles at multiple spatial scales. With well-defined boundary conditions and an extensive network of sensors and samplers, LEO enables an iterative scientific approach that includes numerical model development and virtual experimentation, physical experimentation, data analysis, and model refinement. We plan to engage the broader scientific community through public dissemination of data from LEO, collaborative experimental design, and community-based model development.

  20. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobov, A. V.; Rubin, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era

  1. Large-scale regions of antimatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grobov, A. V., E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com; Rubin, S. G., E-mail: sgrubin@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Amodified mechanism of the formation of large-scale antimatter regions is proposed. Antimatter appears owing to fluctuations of a complex scalar field that carries a baryon charge in the inflation era.

  2. Large-scaled biomonitoring of trace-element air pollution: goals and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitoring is often used in multi-parameter approaches in especially larger scaled surveys. The information obtained may consist of thousands of data points, which can be processed in a variety of mathematical routines to permit a condensed and strongly-smoothed presentation of results and conclusions. Although reports on larger-scaled biomonitoring surveys are 'easy- to-read' and often include far-reaching interpretations, it is not possible to obtain an insight into the real meaningfulness or quality of the survey performed. In any set-up, the aims of the survey should be put forward as clear as possible. Is the survey to provide information on atmospheric element levels, or on total, wet and dry deposition, what should be the time- or geographical scale and resolution of the survey, which elements should be determined, is the survey to give information on emission or immission characteristics? Answers to all these questions are of paramount importance, not only regarding the choice of the biomonitoring species or necessary handling/analysis techniques, but also with respect to planning and personnel, and, not to forget, the expected/available means of data interpretation. In considering a survey set-up, rough survey dimensions may follow directly from the goals; in practice, however, they will be governed by other aspects such as available personnel, handling means/capacity, costs, etc. In what sense and to what extent these factors may cause the survey to drift away from the pre-set goals should receive ample attention: in extreme cases the survey should not be carried out. Bearing in mind the above considerations, the present paper focuses on goals, quality and approaches of larger-scaled biomonitoring surveys on trace element air pollution. The discussion comprises practical problems, options, decisions, analytical means, quality measures, and eventual survey results. (author)

  3. Anaerobic digestion foaming in full-scale biogas plants: A survey on causes and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; O-Thong, Sompong

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is a common operation problem in biogas plants with negative impacts on the biogas plants economy and environment. A survey of 16 Danish full-scale biogas plants on foaming problems revealed that most of them had experienced foaming in their processes up to three times...... of foaming in this case. Moreover, no difference in bacterial communities between the foaming and non-foaming reactors was observed, showing that filamentous bacteria were not the main reason for foaming in this case. © IWA Publishing 2014....

  4. Large-Scale Analysis of Art Proportions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square) and with majo......While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square...

  5. The Expanded Large Scale Gap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    NSWC TR 86-32 DTIC THE EXPANDED LARGE SCALE GAP TEST BY T. P. LIDDIARD D. PRICE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT ’ ~MARCH 1987 Ap~proved for public...arises, to reduce the spread in the LSGT 50% gap value.) The worst charges, such as those with the highest or lowest densities, the largest re-pressed...Arlington, VA 22217 PE 62314N INS3A 1 RJ14E31 7R4TBK 11 TITLE (Include Security CIlmsilficatiorn The Expanded Large Scale Gap Test . 12. PEIRSONAL AUTHOR() T

  6. Large scale and big data processing and management

    CERN Document Server

    Sakr, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Large Scale and Big Data: Processing and Management provides readers with a central source of reference on the data management techniques currently available for large-scale data processing. Presenting chapters written by leading researchers, academics, and practitioners, it addresses the fundamental challenges associated with Big Data processing tools and techniques across a range of computing environments.The book begins by discussing the basic concepts and tools of large-scale Big Data processing and cloud computing. It also provides an overview of different programming models and cloud-bas

  7. Scale-Dependence of Processes Structuring Dung Beetle Metacommunities Using Functional Diversity and Community Deconstruction Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Community structure is driven by mechanisms linked to environmental, spatial and temporal processes, which have been successfully addressed using metacommunity framework. The relative importance of processes shaping community structure can be identified using several different approaches. Two approaches that are increasingly being used are functional diversity and community deconstruction. Functional diversity is measured using various indices that incorporate distinct community attributes. Community deconstruction is a way to disentangle species responses to ecological processes by grouping species with similar traits. We used these two approaches to determine whether they are improvements over traditional measures (e.g., species composition, abundance, biomass) for identification of the main processes driving dung beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in a fragmented mainland-island landscape in southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We sampled five sites in each of four large forest areas, two on the mainland and two on the island. Sampling was performed in 2012 and 2013. We collected abundance and biomass data from 100 sampling points distributed over 20 sampling sites. We studied environmental, spatial and temporal effects on dung beetle community across three spatial scales, i.e., between sites, between areas and mainland-island. The γ-diversity based on species abundance was mainly attributed to β-diversity as a consequence of the increase in mean α- and β-diversity between areas. Variation partitioning on abundance, biomass and functional diversity showed scale-dependence of processes structuring dung beetle metacommunities. We identified two major groups of responses among 17 functional groups. In general, environmental filters were important at both local and regional scales. Spatial factors were important at the intermediate scale. Our study supports the notion of scale-dependence of environmental, spatial and temporal processes in the distribution

  8. Large-scale modeling on the fate and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in multimedia over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, M.; Wada, Y.; He, X.; Sun, X.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, with rapid economic growth, industrial development and urbanization, expanding pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has become a diversified and complicated phenomenon in China. However, the availability of sufficient monitoring activities for PAHs in multi-compartment and the corresponding multi-interface migration processes are still limited, especially at a large geographic area. In this study, we couple the Multimedia Fate Model (MFM) to the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model in order to consider the fugacity and the transient contamination processes. This coupled dynamic contaminant model can evaluate the detailed local variations and mass fluxes of PAHs in different environmental media (e.g., air, surface film, soil, sediment, water and vegetation) across different spatial (a county to country) and temporal (days to years) scales. This model has been applied to a large geographical domain of China at a 36 km by 36 km grid resolution. The model considers response characteristics of typical environmental medium to complex underlying surface. Results suggest that direct emission is the main input pathway of PAHs entering the atmosphere, while advection is the main outward flow of pollutants from the environment. In addition, both soil and sediment act as the main sink of PAHs and have the longest retention time. Importantly, the highest PAHs loadings are found in urbanized and densely populated regions of China, such as Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. This model can provide a good scientific basis towards a better understanding of the large-scale dynamics of environmental pollutants for land conservation and sustainable development. In a next step, the dynamic contaminant model will be integrated with the continental-scale hydrological and water resources model (i.e., Community Water Model, CWatM) to quantify a more accurate representation and feedbacks between the hydrological cycle and water quality at

  9. Large-Scale Agriculture and Outgrower Schemes in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    , the impact of large-scale agriculture and outgrower schemes on productivity, household welfare and wages in developing countries is highly contentious. Chapter 1 of this thesis provides an introduction to the study, while also reviewing the key debate in the contemporary land ‘grabbing’ and historical large...... sugarcane outgrower scheme on household income and asset stocks. Chapter 5 examines the wages and working conditions in ‘formal’ large-scale and ‘informal’ small-scale irrigated agriculture. The results in Chapter 2 show that moisture stress, the use of untested planting materials, and conflict over land...... commands a higher wage than ‘formal’ large-scale agriculture, while rather different wage determination mechanisms exist in the two sectors. Human capital characteristics (education and experience) partly explain the differences in wages within the formal sector, but play no significant role...

  10. Disruption of circumstellar discs by large-scale stellar magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ud-Doula, Asif; Owocki, Stanley P.; Kee, Nathaniel Dylan

    2018-05-01

    Spectropolarimetric surveys reveal that 8-10% of OBA stars harbor large-scale magnetic fields, but thus far no such fields have been detected in any classical Be stars. Motivated by this, we present here MHD simulations for how a pre-existing Keplerian disc - like that inferred to form from decretion of material from rapidly rotating Be stars - can be disrupted by a rotation-aligned stellar dipole field. For characteristic stellar and disc parameters of a near-critically rotating B2e star, we find that a polar surface field strength of just 10 G can significantly disrupt the disc, while a field of 100 G, near the observational upper limit inferred for most Be stars, completely destroys the disc over just a few days. Our parameter study shows that the efficacy of this magnetic disruption of a disc scales with the characteristic plasma beta (defined as the ratio between thermal and magnetic pressure) in the disc, but is surprisingly insensitive to other variations, e.g. in stellar rotation speed, or the mass loss rate of the star's radiatively driven wind. The disc disruption seen here for even a modest field strength suggests that the presumed formation of such Be discs by decretion of material from the star would likely be strongly inhibited by such fields; this provides an attractive explanation for why no large-scale fields are detected from such Be stars.

  11. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  12. Large-scale survey for novel genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance gene pfcrt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Nobuyuki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Plasmodium falciparum, resistance to chloroquine (CQ is conferred by a K to T mutation at amino acid position 76 (K76T in the P. falciparum CQ transporter (PfCRT. To date, at least 15 pfcrt genotypes, which are represented by combinations of five amino acids at positions 72-76, have been described in field isolates from various endemic regions. To identify novel mutant pfcrt genotypes and to reveal the genetic relatedness of pfcrt genotypes, a large-scale survey over a wide geographic area was performed. Methods Sequences for exon 2 in pfcrt, including known polymorphic sites at amino acid positions 72, 74, 75 and 76, were obtained from 256 P. falciparum isolates collected from eight endemic countries in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao P.D.R., the Philippines and Thailand, Melanesia (Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu and Africa (Ghana. A haplotype network was constructed based on six microsatellite markers located -29 kb to 24 kb from pfcrt in order to examine the genetic relatedness among mutant pfcrt genotypes. Results In addition to wild type (CVMNK at positions 72-76, four mutant pfcrt were identified; CVIET, CVIDT, SVMNT and CVMNT (mutated amino acids underlined. Haplotype network revealed that there were only three mutant pfcrt lineages, originating in Indochina, Philippines and Melanesia. Importantly, the Indochina lineage contained two mutant pfcrt genotypes, CVIET (n = 95 and CVIDT (n = 14, indicating that CVIDT shares a common origin with CVIET. Similarly, one major haplotype in the Melanesian lineage contained two pfcrt genotypes; SVMNT (n = 71 and CVMNT (n = 3. In Africa, all mutant pfcrt genotypes were the CVIET of the Indochina lineage, probably resulting from the intercontinental migration of CQ resistance from Southeast Asia. Conclusions The number of CQ-mutant lineages observed in this study was identical to that found in previous studies. This supports the hypothesis that the emergence of novel CQ resistance

  13. Large scale chromatographic separations using continuous displacement chromatography (CDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, V.T.; Doty, A.W.; Byers, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    A process for large scale chromatographic separations using a continuous chromatography technique is described. The process combines the advantages of large scale batch fixed column displacement chromatography with conventional analytical or elution continuous annular chromatography (CAC) to enable large scale displacement chromatography to be performed on a continuous basis (CDC). Such large scale, continuous displacement chromatography separations have not been reported in the literature. The process is demonstrated with the ion exchange separation of a binary lanthanide (Nd/Pr) mixture. The process is, however, applicable to any displacement chromatography separation that can be performed using conventional batch, fixed column chromatography

  14. DIGITAL ARCHIVING OF PEOPLE FLOW BY RECYCLING LARGE-SCALE SOCIAL SURVEY DATA OF DEVELOPING CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sekimoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on people flow has become increasingly important in the field of business, including the areas of marketing and public services. Although mobile phones enable a person's position to be located to a certain degree, it is a challenge to acquire sufficient data from people with mobile phones. In order to grasp people flow in its entirety, it is important to establish a practical method of reconstructing people flow from various kinds of existing fragmentary spatio-temporal data such as social survey data. For example, despite typical Person Trip Survey Data collected by the public sector showing the fragmentary spatio-temporal positions accessed, the data are attractive given the sufficiently large sample size to estimate the entire flow of people. In this study, we apply our proposed basic method to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA PT data pertaining to developing cities around the world, and we propose some correction methods to resolve the difficulties in applying it to many cities and stably to infrastructure data.

  15. Age-related differences in the relations between individualised HRM and organisational performance: a large-scale employer survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; Dorenbosch, L.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between individualised HRM practices and several measures of organisational performance, including the moderating role of employee age in these relationships. A large-scale representative study among 4,591 organisations in the Netherlands

  16. Nitrogen availability alters macrofungal basidiomycete Blackwell Publishing, Ltd. community structure in optimally fertilized loblolly pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan P. Edwards; Jennifer L. Cripliver; Andrew R. Gillespie; Kurt H. Johnsen; M. Scholler; Ronald F. Turco

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of an optimal nutrition strategy designed to maximize loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) growth on the rank abundance structure and diversity of associated basidiomycete communities.We conducted both small- and large-scale below-ground surveys 10 years after the initiation of optimal...

  17. Large Scale Processes and Extreme Floods in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; AghaKouchak, A.; Lall, U.

    2016-12-01

    Persistent large scale anomalies in the atmospheric circulation and ocean state have been associated with heavy rainfall and extreme floods in water basins of different sizes across the world. Such studies have emerged in the last years as a new tool to improve the traditional, stationary based approach in flood frequency analysis and flood prediction. Here we seek to advance previous studies by evaluating the dominance of large scale processes (e.g. atmospheric rivers/moisture transport) over local processes (e.g. local convection) in producing floods. We consider flood-prone regions in Brazil as case studies and the role of large scale climate processes in generating extreme floods in such regions is explored by means of observed streamflow, reanalysis data and machine learning methods. The dynamics of the large scale atmospheric circulation in the days prior to the flood events are evaluated based on the vertically integrated moisture flux and its divergence field, which are interpreted in a low-dimensional space as obtained by machine learning techniques, particularly supervised kernel principal component analysis. In such reduced dimensional space, clusters are obtained in order to better understand the role of regional moisture recycling or teleconnected moisture in producing floods of a given magnitude. The convective available potential energy (CAPE) is also used as a measure of local convection activities. We investigate for individual sites the exceedance probability in which large scale atmospheric fluxes dominate the flood process. Finally, we analyze regional patterns of floods and how the scaling law of floods with drainage area responds to changes in the climate forcing mechanisms (e.g. local vs large scale).

  18. Large-scale correlations in gas traced by Mg II absorbers around low-mass galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere

    2018-03-01

    The physical origin of the large-scale conformity in the colours and specific star formation rates of isolated low-mass central galaxies and their neighbours on scales in excess of 1 Mpc is still under debate. One possible scenario is that gas is heated over large scales by feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), leading to coherent modulation of cooling and star formation between well-separated galaxies. In this Letter, the metal line absorption catalogue of Zhu & Ménard is used to probe gas out to large projected radii around a sample of a million galaxies with stellar masses ˜1010M⊙ and photometric redshifts in the range 0.4 Survey imaging data. This galaxy sample covers an effective volume of 2.2 Gpc3. A statistically significant excess of Mg II absorbers is present around the red-low-mass galaxies compared to their blue counterparts out to projected radii of 10 Mpc. In addition, the equivalent width distribution function of Mg II absorbers around low-mass galaxies is shown to be strongly affected by the presence of a nearby (Rp < 2 Mpc) radio-loud AGNs out to projected radii of 5 Mpc.

  19. A Combined Ethical and Scientific Analysis of Large-scale Tests of Solar Climate Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, T. P.

    2017-12-01

    Our research group recently published an analysis of the combined ethical and scientific issues surrounding large-scale testing of stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI; Lenferna et al., 2017, Earth's Future). We are expanding this study in two directions. The first is extending this same analysis to other geoengineering techniques, particularly marine cloud brightening (MCB). MCB has substantial differences to SAI in this context because MCB can be tested over significantly smaller areas of the planet and, following injection, has a much shorter lifetime of weeks as opposed to years for SAI. We examine issues such as the role of intent, the lesser of two evils, and the nature of consent. In addition, several groups are currently considering climate engineering governance tools such as a code of ethics and a registry. We examine how these tools might influence climate engineering research programs and, specifically, large-scale testing. The second direction of expansion is asking whether ethical and scientific issues associated with large-scale testing are so significant that they effectively preclude moving ahead with climate engineering research and testing. Some previous authors have suggested that no research should take place until these issues are resolved. We think this position is too draconian and consider a more nuanced version of this argument. We note, however, that there are serious questions regarding the ability of the scientific research community to move to the point of carrying out large-scale tests.

  20. The Topology of Large-Scale Structure in the 1.2 Jy IRAS Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protogeros, Zacharias A. M.; Weinberg, David H.

    1997-11-01

    We measure the topology (genus) of isodensity contour surfaces in volume-limited subsets of the 1.2 Jy IRAS redshift survey, for smoothing scales λ = 4, 7, and 12 h-1 Mpc. At 12 h-1 Mpc, the observed genus curve has a symmetric form similar to that predicted for a Gaussian random field. At the shorter smoothing lengths, the observed genus curve shows a modest shift in the direction of an isolated cluster or ``meatball'' topology. We use mock catalogs drawn from cosmological N-body simulations to investigate the systematic biases that affect topology measurements in samples of this size and to determine the full covariance matrix of the expected random errors. We incorporate the error correlations into our evaluations of theoretical models, obtaining both frequentist assessments of absolute goodness of fit and Bayesian assessments of models' relative likelihoods. We compare the observed topology of the 1.2 Jy survey to the predictions of dynamically evolved, unbiased, gravitational instability models that have Gaussian initial conditions. The model with an n = -1 power-law initial power spectrum achieves the best overall agreement with the data, though models with a low-density cold dark matter power spectrum and an n = 0 power-law spectrum are also consistent. The observed topology is inconsistent with an initially Gaussian model that has n = -2, and it is strongly inconsistent with a Voronoi foam model, which has a non-Gaussian, bubble topology.

  1. Computing in Large-Scale Dynamic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruteanu, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Software applications developed for large-scale systems have always been difficult to de- velop due to problems caused by the large number of computing devices involved. Above a certain network size (roughly one hundred), necessary services such as code updating, topol- ogy discovery and data

  2. Fires in large scale ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.S.; Martin, R.A.; White, B.W.; Nichols, B.D.; Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H.; Fenton, D.L.; Gunaji, M.V.; Blythe, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experience gained simulating fires in large scale ventilation systems patterned after ventilation systems found in nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The series of experiments discussed included: (1) combustion aerosol loading of 0.61x0.61 m HEPA filters with the combustion products of two organic fuels, polystyrene and polymethylemethacrylate; (2) gas dynamic and heat transport through a large scale ventilation system consisting of a 0.61x0.61 m duct 90 m in length, with dampers, HEPA filters, blowers, etc.; (3) gas dynamic and simultaneous transport of heat and solid particulate (consisting of glass beads with a mean aerodynamic diameter of 10μ) through the large scale ventilation system; and (4) the transport of heat and soot, generated by kerosene pool fires, through the large scale ventilation system. The FIRAC computer code, designed to predict fire-induced transients in nuclear fuel cycle facility ventilation systems, was used to predict the results of experiments (2) through (4). In general, the results of the predictions were satisfactory. The code predictions for the gas dynamics, heat transport, and particulate transport and deposition were within 10% of the experimentally measured values. However, the code was less successful in predicting the amount of soot generation from kerosene pool fires, probably due to the fire module of the code being a one-dimensional zone model. The experiments revealed a complicated three-dimensional combustion pattern within the fire room of the ventilation system. Further refinement of the fire module within FIRAC is needed. (orig.)

  3. A large-scale study of misophonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Erfanian, M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aim to elucidate misophonia, a condition in which particular sounds elicit disproportionally strong aversive reactions. Method A large online study extensively surveyed personal, developmental, and clinical characteristics of over 300 misophonics. Results Most participants indicated

  4. Large-scale Complex IT Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Ian; Cliff, Dave; Calinescu, Radu; Keen, Justin; Kelly, Tim; Kwiatkowska, Marta; McDermid, John; Paige, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the issues around the construction of large-scale complex systems which are built as 'systems of systems' and suggests that there are fundamental reasons, derived from the inherent complexity in these systems, why our current software engineering methods and techniques cannot be scaled up to cope with the engineering challenges of constructing such systems. It then goes on to propose a research and education agenda for software engineering that identifies the major challen...

  5. Large-scale complex IT systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Ian; Cliff, Dave; Calinescu, Radu; Keen, Justin; Kelly, Tim; Kwiatkowska, Marta; McDermid, John; Paige, Richard

    2012-01-01

    12 pages, 2 figures This paper explores the issues around the construction of large-scale complex systems which are built as 'systems of systems' and suggests that there are fundamental reasons, derived from the inherent complexity in these systems, why our current software engineering methods and techniques cannot be scaled up to cope with the engineering challenges of constructing such systems. It then goes on to propose a research and education agenda for software engineering that ident...

  6. Galaxies distribution in the universe: large-scale statistics and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurogordato, Sophie

    1988-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the distribution of galaxies in the Universe, and more particularly large scale statistics and structures. Based on an assessment of the main used statistical techniques, the author outlines the need to develop additional tools to correlation functions in order to characterise the distribution. She introduces a new indicator: the probability of a volume randomly tested in the distribution to be void. This allows a characterisation of void properties at the work scales (until 10h"-"1 Mpc) in the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Redshift Survey, or CfA catalog. A systematic analysis of statistical properties of different sub-samples has then been performed with respect to the size and location, luminosity class, and morphological type. This analysis is then extended to different scenarios of structure formation. A program of radial speed measurements based on observations allows the determination of possible relationships between apparent structures. The author also presents results of the search for south extensions of Perseus supernova [fr

  7. First Mile Challenges for Large-Scale IoT

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed; Elsawy, Hesham; Gharbieh, Mohammad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Adinoyi, Abdulkareem; Alshaalan, Furaih

    2017-01-01

    The Internet of Things is large-scale by nature. This is not only manifested by the large number of connected devices, but also by the sheer scale of spatial traffic intensity that must be accommodated, primarily in the uplink direction. To that end

  8. Large-scale recovery of an endangered amphibian despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Roland A.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Vrendenburg, Vance T.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Briggs, Cheryl J.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, with 32% of species at risk for extinction. Given this imperiled status, is the disappearance of a large fraction of the Earth’s amphibians inevitable, or are some declining species more resilient than is generally assumed? We address this question in a species that is emblematic of many declining amphibians, the endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae). Based on >7,000 frog surveys conducted across Yosemite National Park over a 20-y period, we show that, after decades of decline and despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors, including introduced fish, the recently emerged disease chytridiomycosis, and pesticides, R. sierrae abundance increased sevenfold during the study and at a rate of 11% per year. These increases occurred in hundreds of populations throughout Yosemite, providing a rare example of amphibian recovery at an ecologically relevant spatial scale. Results from a laboratory experiment indicate that these increases may be in part because of reduced frog susceptibility to chytridiomycosis. The disappearance of nonnative fish from numerous water bodies after cessation of stocking also contributed to the recovery. The large-scale increases in R. sierrae abundance that we document suggest that, when habitats are relatively intact and stressors are reduced in their importance by active management or species’ adaptive responses, declines of some amphibians may be partially reversible, at least at a regional scale. Other studies conducted over similarly large temporal and spatial scales are critically needed to provide insight and generality about the reversibility of amphibian declines at a global scale.

  9. Measuring physical and mental health using the SF-12: implications for community surveys of mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Timothy D; Rodgers, Bryan; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2006-09-01

    The effects of using different approaches to scoring the SF-12 summary scales of physical and mental health were examined with a view to informing the design and interpretation of community-based survey research. Data from a population-based study of 7485 participants in three cohorts aged 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were used to examine relationships among measures of physical and mental health calculated from the same items using the SF-12 and RAND-12 approaches to scoring, and other measures of chronic physical conditions and psychological distress. A measure of physical health constructed using the RAND-12 scoring showed a monotonic negative association with psychological distress as measured by the Goldberg depression and anxiety scales. However, a non-monotonic association was evident in the relationship between SF-12 physical health scores and distress, with very high SF-12 physical health scores corresponding with high levels of distress. These relationships highlight difficulties in interpretation that can arise when using the SF-12 summary scales in some analytical contexts. It is recommended that community surveys that measure physical and mental functioning using the SF-12 items generate summary scores using the RAND-12 protocol in addition to the SF-12 approach. In general, researchers should be wary of using factor scores based on orthogonal rotation, which assumes that measures are uncorrelated, to represent constructs that have an actual association.

  10. A Survey of Job Loss in Selected Communities around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Survey of Job Loss in Selected Communities around Johannesburg, South Africa. ... They experienced a feeling of lowered self-esteem. However, although seriously afflicted by the ravages of job loss within their communities, the majority of the respondents did not express a desire to relocate to other places.

  11. Effects of landscape gradients on wetland vegetation communities: information for large-scale restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Christa L.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2008-01-01

    Projects of the scope of the restoration of the Florida Everglades require substantial information regarding ecological mechanisms, and these are often poorly understood. We provide critical base knowledge for Everglades restoration by characterizing the existing vegetation communities of an Everglades remnant, describing how present and historic hydrology affect wetland vegetation community composition, and documenting change from communities described in previous studies. Vegetation biomass samples were collected along transects across Water Conservation Area 3A South (3AS). Ten community types were present between November 2002 and 2005. Separate analyses for key a priori groups (slough, wet prairie, and sawgrass) provided detailed conclusions about effects of historic hydrology on the vegetation of 3AS. Communities were affected by hydrologic variables LIP to four years previous to the sample. We identified wet prairie/slough species such as Eleocharis spp. and Nymphaea odorata as short-term sentinel species of community change. Sawgrass and N. odorata should be monitored for long-term change. Comparisons to preceding studies indicated that many of the communities of previous times, when conditions were drier, no longer exist in our study area and have been replaced by deeper water community types.

  12. American Community Survey (ACS) 5-Year Estimates for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population every year. These data have been apportioned...

  13. Economic Investigation of Community-Scale Versus Building Scale Net-Zero Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Reddy, T. A.

    2009-12-31

    The study presented in this report examines issues concerning whether achieving net-zero energy performance at the community scale provides economic and potentially overall efficiency advantages over strategies focused on individual buildings.

  14. Development of a community commitment scale with cross-sectional survey validation for preventing social isolation in older Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Ayumi; Tadaka, Etsuko; Kanaya, Yukiko; Dai, Yuka; Itoi, Waka; Imamatsu, Yuki

    2012-10-24

    Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC), but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS) to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008) and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of "belonging" and "socializing" in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach's alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS) was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions "belonging" and "socializing", among the local volunteers and general

  15. Development of a Community Commitment Scale with Cross-sectional Survey Validation for Preventing Social Isolation in Older Japanese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono Ayumi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC, but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. Methods A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008 and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Results Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of “belonging” and “socializing” in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach’s alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. Conclusions These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions

  16. Large-scale volcanism associated with coronae on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K. Magee; Head, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The formation and evolution of coronae on Venus are thought to be the result of mantle upwellings against the crust and lithosphere and subsequent gravitational relaxation. A variety of other features on Venus have been linked to processes associated with mantle upwelling, including shield volcanoes on large regional rises such as Beta, Atla and Western Eistla Regiones and extensive flow fields such as Mylitta and Kaiwan Fluctus near the Lada Terra/Lavinia Planitia boundary. Of these features, coronae appear to possess the smallest amounts of associated volcanism, although volcanism associated with coronae has only been qualitatively examined. An initial survey of coronae based on recent Magellan data indicated that only 9 percent of all coronae are associated with substantial amounts of volcanism, including interior calderas or edifices greater than 50 km in diameter and extensive, exterior radial flow fields. Sixty-eight percent of all coronae were found to have lesser amounts of volcanism, including interior flooding and associated volcanic domes and small shields; the remaining coronae were considered deficient in associated volcanism. It is possible that coronae are related to mantle plumes or diapirs that are lower in volume or in partial melt than those associated with the large shields or flow fields. Regional tectonics or variations in local crustal and thermal structure may also be significant in determining the amount of volcanism produced from an upwelling. It is also possible that flow fields associated with some coronae are sheet-like in nature and may not be readily identified. If coronae are associated with volcanic flow fields, then they may be a significant contributor to plains formation on Venus, as they number over 300 and are widely distributed across the planet. As a continuation of our analysis of large-scale volcanism on Venus, we have reexamined the known population of coronae and assessed quantitatively the scale of volcanism associated

  17. Monitoring carnivore populations at the landscape scale: occupancy modelling of tigers from sign surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Kota Ullas; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Kumar, Narayanarao Samba; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Nichols, James D.; MacKenzie, Darryl I.

    2011-01-01

    1. Assessing spatial distributions of threatened large carnivores at landscape scales poses formidable challenges because of their rarity and elusiveness. As a consequence of logistical constraints, investigators typically rely on sign surveys. Most survey methods, however, do not explicitly address the central problem of imperfect detections of animal signs in the field, leading to underestimates of true habitat occupancy and distribution. 2. We assessed habitat occupancy for a tiger Panthera tigris metapopulation across a c. 38 000-km2 landscape in India, employing a spatially replicated survey to explicitly address imperfect detections. Ecological predictions about tiger presence were confronted with sign detection data generated from occupancy sampling of 205 sites, each of 188 km2. 3. A recent occupancy model that considers Markovian dependency among sign detections on spatial replicates performed better than the standard occupancy model (ΔAIC = 184·9). A formulation of this model that fitted the data best showed that density of ungulate prey and levels of human disturbance were key determinants of local tiger presence. Model averaging resulted in a replicate-level detection probability [inline image] = 0·17 (0·17) for signs and a tiger habitat occupancy estimate of [inline image] = 0·665 (0·0857) or 14 076 (1814) km2 of potential habitat of 21 167 km2. In contrast, a traditional presence-versus-absence approach underestimated occupancy by 47%. Maps of probabilities of local site occupancy clearly identified tiger source populations at higher densities and matched observed tiger density variations, suggesting their potential utility for population assessments at landscape scales. 4. Synthesis and applications. Landscape-scale sign surveys can efficiently assess large carnivore spatial distributions and elucidate the factors governing their local presence, provided ecological and observation processes are both explicitly modelled. Occupancy

  18. Prospects for large scale electricity storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Ekman, Claus; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2010-01-01

    In a future power systems with additional wind power capacity there will be an increased need for large scale power management as well as reliable balancing and reserve capabilities. Different technologies for large scale electricity storage provide solutions to the different challenges arising w...

  19. Income Inequality and Adolescent Gambling Severity: Findings from a Large-Scale Italian Representative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale Canale

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that problems related to adult gambling have a geographical and social gradient. For instance, adults experiencing gambling-related harms live in areas of greater deprivation; are unemployed, and have lower income. However, little is known about the impact of socioeconomic inequalities on adolescent problem gambling. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the contextual influences of income inequality on at-risk or problem gambling (ARPG in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian adolescents. A secondary aim was to analyze the association between perceived social support (from family, peers, teachers, and classmates and ARPG.Methods: Data from the 2013–2014 Health Behavior in School-aged Children Survey (HBSC Study was used for cross-sectional analyses of ARPG. A total of 20,791 15-year-old students completed self-administered questionnaires. Region-level data on income inequality (GINI index and overall wealth (GDP per capita were retrieved from the National Institute of Statistics (Istat. The data were analyzed using the multi-level logistic regression analysis, with students at the first level and regions at the second level.Results: The study demonstrated a North–South gradient for the prevalence of ARPG, with higher prevalence of ARPG in the Southern/Islands/Central Regions (e.g., 11% in Sicily than in Northern Italy (e.g., 2% in Aosta Valley. Students in regions of high-income inequality were significantly more likely than those in regions of low-income inequality to be at-risk or problem gamblers (following adjustment for sex, family structure, family affluence, perceived social support, and regionale wealth. Additionally, perceived social support from parents and teachers were negatively related to ARPG.Conclusions: Income inequality may have a contextual influence on ARPG. More specifically, living in regions of highest income inequality appeared to be a potential

  20. Scaling community land protection in the face of large-land ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A mix of research methods will examine the institutional and policy barriers to securing tenure, how land registration processes and community-level rules can protect ... It will also develop and test approaches to enhancing their participation in decision-making over communal land and during negotiations with investors.

  1. Evolution of scaling emergence in large-scale spatial epidemic spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yi-Qing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Kan

    2011-01-01

    Zipf's law and Heaps' law are two representatives of the scaling concepts, which play a significant role in the study of complexity science. The coexistence of the Zipf's law and the Heaps' law motivates different understandings on the dependence between these two scalings, which has still hardly been clarified. In this article, we observe an evolution process of the scalings: the Zipf's law and the Heaps' law are naturally shaped to coexist at the initial time, while the crossover comes with the emergence of their inconsistency at the larger time before reaching a stable state, where the Heaps' law still exists with the disappearance of strict Zipf's law. Such findings are illustrated with a scenario of large-scale spatial epidemic spreading, and the empirical results of pandemic disease support a universal analysis of the relation between the two laws regardless of the biological details of disease. Employing the United States domestic air transportation and demographic data to construct a metapopulation model for simulating the pandemic spread at the U.S. country level, we uncover that the broad heterogeneity of the infrastructure plays a key role in the evolution of scaling emergence. The analyses of large-scale spatial epidemic spreading help understand the temporal evolution of scalings, indicating the coexistence of the Zipf's law and the Heaps' law depends on the collective dynamics of epidemic processes, and the heterogeneity of epidemic spread indicates the significance of performing targeted containment strategies at the early time of a pandemic disease.

  2. Large-Scale Structure and Hyperuniformity of Amorphous Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fausto; Torquato, Salvatore; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Car, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the large-scale structure of amorphous ices and transitions between their different forms by quantifying their large-scale density fluctuations. Specifically, we simulate the isothermal compression of low-density amorphous ice (LDA) and hexagonal ice to produce high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Both HDA and LDA are nearly hyperuniform; i.e., they are characterized by an anomalous suppression of large-scale density fluctuations. By contrast, in correspondence with the nonequilibrium phase transitions to HDA, the presence of structural heterogeneities strongly suppresses the hyperuniformity and the system becomes hyposurficial (devoid of "surface-area fluctuations"). Our investigation challenges the largely accepted "frozen-liquid" picture, which views glasses as structurally arrested liquids. Beyond implications for water, our findings enrich our understanding of pressure-induced structural transformations in glasses.

  3. Malware Analysis: From Large-Scale Data Triage to Targeted Attack Recognition (Dagstuhl Seminar 17281)

    OpenAIRE

    Zennou, Sarah; Debray, Saumya K.; Dullien, Thomas; Lakhothia, Arun

    2018-01-01

    This report summarizes the program and the outcomes of the Dagstuhl Seminar 17281, entitled "Malware Analysis: From Large-Scale Data Triage to Targeted Attack Recognition". The seminar brought together practitioners and researchers from industry and academia to discuss the state-of-the art in the analysis of malware from both a big data perspective and a fine grained analysis. Obfuscation was also considered. The meeting created new links within this very diverse community.

  4. Fast unfolding of communities in large networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, Vincent D; Guillaume, Jean-Loup; Lambiotte, Renaud; Lefebvre, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    We propose a simple method to extract the community structure of large networks. Our method is a heuristic method that is based on modularity optimization. It is shown to outperform all other known community detection methods in terms of computation time. Moreover, the quality of the communities detected is very good, as measured by the so-called modularity. This is shown first by identifying language communities in a Belgian mobile phone network of 2 million customers and by analysing a web graph of 118 million nodes and more than one billion links. The accuracy of our algorithm is also verified on ad hoc modular networks

  5. Point process models for spatio-temporal distance sampling data from a large-scale survey of blue whales

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Yuan; Bachl, Fabian E.; Lindgren, Finn; Borchers, David L.; Illian, Janine B.; Buckland, Stephen T.; Rue, Haavard; Gerrodette, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Distance sampling is a widely used method for estimating wildlife population abundance. The fact that conventional distance sampling methods are partly design-based constrains the spatial resolution at which animal density can be estimated using these methods. Estimates are usually obtained at survey stratum level. For an endangered species such as the blue whale, it is desirable to estimate density and abundance at a finer spatial scale than stratum. Temporal variation in the spatial structure is also important. We formulate the process generating distance sampling data as a thinned spatial point process and propose model-based inference using a spatial log-Gaussian Cox process. The method adopts a flexible stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach to model spatial structure in density that is not accounted for by explanatory variables, and integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) for Bayesian inference. It allows simultaneous fitting of detection and density models and permits prediction of density at an arbitrarily fine scale. We estimate blue whale density in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean from thirteen shipboard surveys conducted over 22 years. We find that higher blue whale density is associated with colder sea surface temperatures in space, and although there is some positive association between density and mean annual temperature, our estimates are consistent with no trend in density across years. Our analysis also indicates that there is substantial spatially structured variation in density that is not explained by available covariates.

  6. Point process models for spatio-temporal distance sampling data from a large-scale survey of blue whales

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Yuan

    2017-12-28

    Distance sampling is a widely used method for estimating wildlife population abundance. The fact that conventional distance sampling methods are partly design-based constrains the spatial resolution at which animal density can be estimated using these methods. Estimates are usually obtained at survey stratum level. For an endangered species such as the blue whale, it is desirable to estimate density and abundance at a finer spatial scale than stratum. Temporal variation in the spatial structure is also important. We formulate the process generating distance sampling data as a thinned spatial point process and propose model-based inference using a spatial log-Gaussian Cox process. The method adopts a flexible stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach to model spatial structure in density that is not accounted for by explanatory variables, and integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) for Bayesian inference. It allows simultaneous fitting of detection and density models and permits prediction of density at an arbitrarily fine scale. We estimate blue whale density in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean from thirteen shipboard surveys conducted over 22 years. We find that higher blue whale density is associated with colder sea surface temperatures in space, and although there is some positive association between density and mean annual temperature, our estimates are consistent with no trend in density across years. Our analysis also indicates that there is substantial spatially structured variation in density that is not explained by available covariates.

  7. Epidemic spreading in weighted scale-free networks with community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Xiangwei; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2009-01-01

    Many empirical studies reveal that the weights and community structure are ubiquitous in various natural and artificial networks. In this paper, based on the SI disease model, we investigate the epidemic spreading in weighted scale-free networks with community structure. Two exponents, α and β, are introduced to weight the internal edges and external edges, respectively; and a tunable probability parameter q is also introduced to adjust the strength of community structure. We find the external weighting exponent β plays a much more important role in slackening the epidemic spreading and reducing the danger brought by the epidemic than the internal weighting exponent α. Moreover, a novel result we find is that the strong community structure is no longer helpful for slackening the danger brought by the epidemic in the weighted cases. In addition, we show the hierarchical dynamics of the epidemic spreading in the weighted scale-free networks with communities which is also displayed in the famous BA scale-free networks

  8. Getting leverage on inflation with a large photometric redshift survey

    CERN Document Server

    Basse, Tobias; Hannestad, Steen; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2015-01-01

    We assess the potential of a future large-volume photometric redshift survey to constrain observational inflationary parameters using three large-scale structure observables: the angular shear and galaxy power spectra, and the cluster mass function measured through weak lensing. When used in combination with Planck-like CMB measurements, we find that the spectral index n_s can be constrained to a 1 sigma precision of up to 0.0025. The sensitivity to the running of the spectral index can potentially improve to 0.0017, roughly a factor of five better than the present 1 sigma~constraint from Planck and auxiliary CMB data, allowing us to test the assumptions of the slow-roll scenario with unprecedented accuracy. Interestingly, neither CMB+shear nor CMB+galaxy nor CMB+clusters alone can achieve this level of sensitivity; it is the combined power of all three probes that conspires to break the different parameter degeneracies inherent in each type of observations. We make our forecast software publicly available vi...

  9. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hassanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress, measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results. The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β=0.19, anxiety (β=0.25, depression (β=0.15, and their collective profile score (β=0.20, with greater associations in females (β=0.28 than in males (β=0.13 (all P<0.001. In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion. Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems.

  10. Association of Stressful Life Events with Psychological Problems: A Large-Scale Community-Based Study Using Grouped Outcomes Latent Factor Regression with Latent Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Heidari, Zahra; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Afshar, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Objective The current study is aimed at investigating the association between stressful life events and psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adults. Method In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4763 Iranian adults, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Grouped outcomes latent factor regression on latent predictors was used for modeling the association of psychological problems (depression, anxiety, and psychological distress), measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), as the grouped outcomes, and stressful life events, measured by a self-administered stressful life events (SLEs) questionnaire, as the latent predictors. Results The results showed that the personal stressors domain has significant positive association with psychological distress (β = 0.19), anxiety (β = 0.25), depression (β = 0.15), and their collective profile score (β = 0.20), with greater associations in females (β = 0.28) than in males (β = 0.13) (all P < 0.001). In addition, in the adjusted models, the regression coefficients for the association of social stressors domain and psychological problems profile score were 0.37, 0.35, and 0.46 in total sample, males, and females, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion Results of our study indicated that different stressors, particularly those socioeconomic related, have an effective impact on psychological problems. It is important to consider the social and cultural background of a population for managing the stressors as an effective approach for preventing and reducing the destructive burden of psychological problems. PMID:29312459

  11. Recent Developments in Language Assessment and the Case of Four Large-Scale Tests of ESOL Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoynoff, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This review article surveys recent developments and validation activities related to four large-scale tests of L2 English ability: the iBT TOEFL, the IELTS, the FCE, and the TOEIC. In addition to describing recent changes to these tests, the paper reports on validation activities that were conducted on the measures. The results of this research…

  12. A Web-based Distributed Voluntary Computing Platform for Large Scale Hydrological Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Agliamzanov, R.

    2014-12-01

    Distributed volunteer computing can enable researchers and scientist to form large parallel computing environments to utilize the computing power of the millions of computers on the Internet, and use them towards running large scale environmental simulations and models to serve the common good of local communities and the world. Recent developments in web technologies and standards allow client-side scripting languages to run at speeds close to native application, and utilize the power of Graphics Processing Units (GPU). Using a client-side scripting language like JavaScript, we have developed an open distributed computing framework that makes it easy for researchers to write their own hydrologic models, and run them on volunteer computers. Users will easily enable their websites for visitors to volunteer sharing their computer resources to contribute running advanced hydrological models and simulations. Using a web-based system allows users to start volunteering their computational resources within seconds without installing any software. The framework distributes the model simulation to thousands of nodes in small spatial and computational sizes. A relational database system is utilized for managing data connections and queue management for the distributed computing nodes. In this paper, we present a web-based distributed volunteer computing platform to enable large scale hydrological simulations and model runs in an open and integrated environment.

  13. Communities in Large Networks: Identification and Ranking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of identifying and ranking the members of a community in a very large network with link analysis only, given a set of representatives of the community. We define the concept of a community justified by a formal analysis of a simple model of the evolution of a directed graph. ...... and its immediate surroundings. The members are ranked with a “local” variant of the PageRank algorithm. Results are reported from successful experiments on identifying and ranking Danish Computer Science sites and Danish Chess pages using only a few representatives....

  14. Double inflation: A possible resolution of the large-scale structure problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Villumsen, J.V.; Vittorio, N.; Silk, J.; Juszkiewicz, R.

    1986-11-01

    A model is presented for the large-scale structure of the universe in which two successive inflationary phases resulted in large small-scale and small large-scale density fluctuations. This bimodal density fluctuation spectrum in an Ω = 1 universe dominated by hot dark matter leads to large-scale structure of the galaxy distribution that is consistent with recent observational results. In particular, large, nearly empty voids and significant large-scale peculiar velocity fields are produced over scales of ∼100 Mpc, while the small-scale structure over ≤ 10 Mpc resembles that in a low density universe, as observed. Detailed analytical calculations and numerical simulations are given of the spatial and velocity correlations. 38 refs., 6 figs

  15. Large-scale fracture mechancis testing -- requirements and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.

    1993-01-01

    Application of fracture mechanics to very important and/or complicated structures, like reactor pressure vessels, brings also some questions about the reliability and precision of such calculations. These problems become more pronounced in cases of elastic-plastic conditions of loading and/or in parts with non-homogeneous materials (base metal and austenitic cladding, property gradient changes through material thickness) or with non-homogeneous stress fields (nozzles, bolt threads, residual stresses etc.). For such special cases some verification by large-scale testing is necessary and valuable. This paper discusses problems connected with planning of such experiments with respect to their limitations, requirements to a good transfer of received results to an actual vessel. At the same time, an analysis of possibilities of small-scale model experiments is also shown, mostly in connection with application of results between standard, small-scale and large-scale experiments. Experience from 30 years of large-scale testing in SKODA is used as an example to support this analysis. 1 fig

  16. Ethics of large-scale change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn

    2006-01-01

    , which kind of attitude is appropriate when dealing with large-scale changes like these from an ethical point of view. Three kinds of approaches are discussed: Aldo Leopold's mountain thinking, the neoclassical economists' approach, and finally the so-called Concentric Circle Theories approach...

  17. A PRACTICAL ONTOLOGY FOR THE LARGE-SCALE MODELING OF SCHOLARLY ARTIFACTS AND THEIR USAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RODRIGUEZ, MARKO A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BOLLEN, JOHAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; VAN DE SOMPEL, HERBERT [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-30

    The large-scale analysis of scholarly artifact usage is constrained primarily by current practices in usage data archiving, privacy issues concerned with the dissemination of usage data, and the lack of a practical ontology for modeling the usage domain. As a remedy to the third constraint, this article presents a scholarly ontology that was engineered to represent those classes for which large-scale bibliographic and usage data exists, supports usage research, and whose instantiation is scalable to the order of 50 million articles along with their associated artifacts (e.g. authors and journals) and an accompanying 1 billion usage events. The real world instantiation of the presented abstract ontology is a semantic network model of the scholarly community which lends the scholarly process to statistical analysis and computational support. They present the ontology, discuss its instantiation, and provide some example inference rules for calculating various scholarly artifact metrics.

  18. Comparison Between Overtopping Discharge in Small and Large Scale Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, Einar; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper presents overtopping measurements from small scale model test performed at the Haudraulic & Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University, Denmark and large scale model tests performed at the Largde Wave Channel,Hannover, Germany. Comparison between results obtained from...... small and large scale model tests show no clear evidence of scale effects for overtopping above a threshold value. In the large scale model no overtopping was measured for waveheights below Hs = 0.5m as the water sunk into the voids between the stones on the crest. For low overtopping scale effects...

  19. The community structure of over-wintering larval and small juvenile fish in a large estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Peter; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Casini, Michele; Rudolphi, Ann-Christin

    2014-02-01

    The Skagerrak and Kattegat are estuarine straits of high hydrographical and ecological diversity, situated between the saline waters of the North Sea and the brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. These sustain important nursery grounds of many fish species, of which several overwinter during the larval and early juvenile stages. In order to give more insight into the communities of the overwintering ichthyoplankton in estuarine areas, we examine an annual series of observations from a standard survey carried out 1992-2010. Species differences and annual variability in distributions and abundances are described, and linkages between ichthyoplankton abundances and corresponding hydrographical information are analysed by GAM methods. Communities were dominated by herring, gobies, butterfish, sprat, pipefishes, lemon sole and European eel (i.e. glass eel), and all the sampled species showed large annual fluctuations in abundances. The species showed quite specific patterns of distribution although species assemblages with common distributional characteristics were identified. Within these assemblages, the ichthyoplankton abundances showed linkage to environmental characteristics described by bottom-depth and surface temperature and salinity. Hence the study points to a significant structuring of overwintering ichthyoplankton communities in large estuaries, based on the species habitat choice and its response to physical gradients.

  20. Diagnosing Disaster Resilience of Communities as Multi-scale Complex Socio-ecological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mochizuki, Junko; Keating, Adriana; Mechler, Reinhard; Williges, Keith; Hochrainer, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Global environmental change, growing anthropogenic influence, and increasing globalisation of society have made it clear that disaster vulnerability and resilience of communities cannot be understood without knowledge on the broader social-ecological system in which they are embedded. We propose a framework for diagnosing community resilience to disasters, as a form of disturbance to social-ecological systems, with feedbacks from the local to the global scale. Inspired by iterative multi-scale analysis employed by Resilience Alliance, the related socio-ecological systems framework of Ostrom, and the sustainable livelihood framework, we developed a multi-tier framework for thinking of communities as multi-scale social-ecological systems and analyzing communities' disaster resilience and also general resilience. We highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on communities that exist from lower (e.g., household) to higher (e.g., regional, national) scales. The conceptual framework is then applied to a real-world resilience assessment situation, to illustrate how key components of socio-ecological systems, including natural hazards, natural and man-made environment, and community capacities can be delineated and analyzed.

  1. Study of depression influencing factors with zero-inflated regression models in a large-scale population survey

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tao; Zhu, Guangjin; Han, Shaomei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The number of depression symptoms can be considered as count data in order to get complete and accurate analyses findings in studies of depression. This study aims to compare the goodness of fit of four count outcomes models by a large survey sample to identify the optimum model for a risk factor study of the number of depression symptoms. Methods 15 820 subjects, aged 10 to 80 years old, who were not suffering from serious chronic diseases and had not run a high fever in the past ...

  2. African aerosol and large-scale precipitation variability over West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jingfeng; Zhang Chidong; Prospero, Joseph M

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the large-scale connection between African aerosol and precipitation in the West African Monsoon (WAM) region using 8-year (2000-2007) monthly and daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol products (aerosol optical depth, fine mode fraction) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation and rain type. These high-quality data further confirmed our previous results that the large-scale link between aerosol and precipitation in this region undergoes distinct seasonal and spatial variability. Previously detected suppression of precipitation during months of high aerosol concentration occurs in both convective and stratiform rain, but not systematically in shallow rain. This suggests the suppression of deep convection due to the aerosol. Based on the seasonal cycle of dust and smoke and their geographical distribution, our data suggest that both dust (coarse mode aerosol) and smoke (fine mode aerosol) contribute to the precipitation suppression. However, the dust effect is evident over the Gulf of Guinea while the smoke effect is evident over both land and ocean. A back trajectory analysis further demonstrates that the precipitation reduction is statistically linked to the upwind aerosol concentration. This study suggests that African aerosol outbreaks in the WAM region can influence precipitation in the local monsoon system which has direct societal impact on the local community. It calls for more systematic investigations to determine the modulating mechanisms using both observational and modeling approaches.

  3. Large-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean: a footprint of human pressures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A Ward-Paige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades, large pelagic and coastal shark populations have declined dramatically with increased fishing; however, the status of sharks in other systems such as coral reefs remains largely unassessed despite a long history of exploitation. Here we explore the contemporary distribution and sighting frequency of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean and assess the possible role of human pressures on observed patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed 76,340 underwater surveys carried out by trained volunteer divers between 1993 and 2008. Surveys were grouped within one km2 cells, which allowed us to determine the contemporary geographical distribution and sighting frequency of sharks. Sighting frequency was calculated as the ratio of surveys with sharks to the total number of surveys in each cell. We compared sighting frequency to the number of people in the cell vicinity and used population viability analyses to assess the effects of exploitation on population trends. Sharks, with the exception of nurse sharks occurred mainly in areas with very low human population or strong fishing regulations and marine conservation. Population viability analysis suggests that exploitation alone could explain the large-scale absence; however, this pattern is likely to be exacerbated by additional anthropogenic stressors, such as pollution and habitat degradation, that also correlate with human population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human pressures in coastal zones have lead to the broad-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean. Preventing further loss of sharks requires urgent management measures to curb fishing mortality and to mitigate other anthropogenic stressors to protect sites where sharks still exist. The fact that sharks still occur in some densely populated areas where strong fishing regulations are in place indicates the possibility of success and encourages the implementation of conservation measures.

  4. Large-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean: a footprint of human pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Paige, Christine A; Mora, Camilo; Lotze, Heike K; Pattengill-Semmens, Christy; McClenachan, Loren; Arias-Castro, Ery; Myers, Ransom A

    2010-08-05

    In recent decades, large pelagic and coastal shark populations have declined dramatically with increased fishing; however, the status of sharks in other systems such as coral reefs remains largely unassessed despite a long history of exploitation. Here we explore the contemporary distribution and sighting frequency of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean and assess the possible role of human pressures on observed patterns. We analyzed 76,340 underwater surveys carried out by trained volunteer divers between 1993 and 2008. Surveys were grouped within one km2 cells, which allowed us to determine the contemporary geographical distribution and sighting frequency of sharks. Sighting frequency was calculated as the ratio of surveys with sharks to the total number of surveys in each cell. We compared sighting frequency to the number of people in the cell vicinity and used population viability analyses to assess the effects of exploitation on population trends. Sharks, with the exception of nurse sharks occurred mainly in areas with very low human population or strong fishing regulations and marine conservation. Population viability analysis suggests that exploitation alone could explain the large-scale absence; however, this pattern is likely to be exacerbated by additional anthropogenic stressors, such as pollution and habitat degradation, that also correlate with human population. Human pressures in coastal zones have lead to the broad-scale absence of sharks on reefs in the greater-Caribbean. Preventing further loss of sharks requires urgent management measures to curb fishing mortality and to mitigate other anthropogenic stressors to protect sites where sharks still exist. The fact that sharks still occur in some densely populated areas where strong fishing regulations are in place indicates the possibility of success and encourages the implementation of conservation measures.

  5. Infrastructure for large-scale quality-improvement projects: early lessons from North Carolina Improving Performance in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Warren P; Lefebvre, Ann; Donahue, Katrina E; Bacon, Thomas; Dobson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    Little is known regarding how to accomplish large-scale health care improvement. Our goal is to improve the quality of chronic disease care in all primary care practices throughout North Carolina. Methods for improvement include (1) common quality measures and shared data system; (2) rapid cycle improvement principles; (3) quality-improvement consultants (QICs), or practice facilitators; (4) learning networks; and (5) alignment of incentives. We emphasized a community-based strategy and developing a statewide infrastructure. Results are reported from the first 2 years of the North Carolina Improving Performance in Practice (IPIP) project. A coalition was formed to include professional societies, North Carolina AHEC, Community Care of North Carolina, insurers, and other organizations. Wave One started with 18 practices in 2 of 9 regions of the state. Quality-improvement consultants recruited practices. Over 80 percent of practices attended all quarterly regional meetings. In 9 months, almost all diabetes measures improved, and a bundled asthma measure improved from 33 to 58 percent. Overall, the magnitude of improvement was clinically and statistically significant (P = .001). Quality improvements were maintained on review 1 year later. Wave Two has spread to 103 practices in all 9 regions of the state, with 42 additional practices beginning the enrollment process. Large-scale health care quality improvement is feasible, when broadly supported by statewide leadership and community infrastructure. Practice-collected data and lack of a control group are limitations of the study design. Future priorities include maintaining improved sustainability for practices and communities. Our long-term goal is to transform all 2000 primary-care practices in our state.

  6. Survey and research for the enhancement of large-scale technology development 1. Japan's large-scale technology development and the effects; Ogata gijutsu kaihatsu suishin no tame no chosa kenkyu. 1. Nippon no daikibo gijutsu kaihatsu to sono koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    A survey is conducted into the effects of projects implemented under the large-scale industrial technology research and development system. In the development of 'ultraperformance computers,' each of the technologies is being widely utilized, and the data service system of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation and the large computer (HITAC8800) owe much for their success to the fruits of the development endeavor. In the development of the 'desulfurization technology,' the fruits are in use by Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., and Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., incorporated into their desulfurization systems. Although there is no practical plant based on the 'great-depth remotely controlled submarine oil drilling rig,' yet oceanic technologies and control methods are being utilized in various fields. The 'seawater desalination and by-product utilization' technologies have enabled the establishment of technologies of the top level in the world thanks to the resultant manufacture of concrete evaporator and related technologies. Eleven plants have been completed utilizing the fruits of the development. In the field of 'electric vehicle,' there is no commercialization in progress due to problems in cost effectiveness though remarkable improvement has been achieved in terms of performance. Technologies about weight reduction, semiconductor devices, battery parts and components, etc., are being utilized in many fields. (NEDO)

  7. Needs, opportunities, and options for large scale systems research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.L.

    1984-10-01

    The Office of Energy Research was recently asked to perform a study of Large Scale Systems in order to facilitate the development of a true large systems theory. It was decided to ask experts in the fields of electrical engineering, chemical engineering and manufacturing/operations research for their ideas concerning large scale systems research. The author was asked to distribute a questionnaire among these experts to find out their opinions concerning recent accomplishments and future research directions in large scale systems research. He was also requested to convene a conference which included three experts in each area as panel members to discuss the general area of large scale systems research. The conference was held on March 26--27, 1984 in Pittsburgh with nine panel members, and 15 other attendees. The present report is a summary of the ideas presented and the recommendations proposed by the attendees.

  8. Large-scale structure of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The problems, discussed at the ''Large-scale Structure of the Universe'' symposium are considered on a popular level. Described are the cell structure of galaxy distribution in the Universe, principles of mathematical galaxy distribution modelling. The images of cell structures, obtained after reprocessing with the computer are given. Discussed are three hypothesis - vortical, entropic, adiabatic, suggesting various processes of galaxy and galaxy clusters origin. A considerable advantage of the adiabatic hypothesis is recognized. The relict radiation, as a method of direct studying the processes taking place in the Universe is considered. The large-scale peculiarities and small-scale fluctuations of the relict radiation temperature enable one to estimate the turbance properties at the pre-galaxy stage. The discussion of problems, pertaining to studying the hot gas, contained in galaxy clusters, the interactions within galaxy clusters and with the inter-galaxy medium, is recognized to be a notable contribution into the development of theoretical and observational cosmology

  9. Seismic safety in conducting large-scale blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashukov, I. V.; Chaplygin, V. V.; Domanov, V. P.; Semin, A. A.; Klimkin, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    In mining enterprises to prepare hard rocks for excavation a drilling and blasting method is used. With the approach of mining operations to settlements the negative effect of large-scale blasts increases. To assess the level of seismic impact of large-scale blasts the scientific staff of Siberian State Industrial University carried out expertise for coal mines and iron ore enterprises. Determination of the magnitude of surface seismic vibrations caused by mass explosions was performed using seismic receivers, an analog-digital converter with recording on a laptop. The registration results of surface seismic vibrations during production of more than 280 large-scale blasts at 17 mining enterprises in 22 settlements are presented. The maximum velocity values of the Earth’s surface vibrations are determined. The safety evaluation of seismic effect was carried out according to the permissible value of vibration velocity. For cases with exceedance of permissible values recommendations were developed to reduce the level of seismic impact.

  10. Image-based Exploration of Large-Scale Pathline Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2014-05-27

    While real-time applications are nowadays routinely used in visualizing large nu- merical simulations and volumes, handling these large-scale datasets requires high-end graphics clusters or supercomputers to process and visualize them. However, not all users have access to powerful clusters. Therefore, it is challenging to come up with a visualization approach that provides insight to large-scale datasets on a single com- puter. Explorable images (EI) is one of the methods that allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, it combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. In this thesis, we propose a novel image-based method that applies the concept of EI in visualizing large flow-field pathlines data. The goal of our work is to provide an optimized image-based method, which scales well with the dataset size. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathlines segments. With this view-dependent method it is possible to filter, color-code and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  11. Investigating the Influence of Climate Changes on Rodent Communities at a Regional-Scale (MIS 1-3, Southwestern France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Royer

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystems have continuously evolved throughout the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene, deeply affected by both progressive environmental and climatic modifications, as well as by abrupt and large climatic changes such as the Heinrich or Dansgaard-Oeschger events. Yet, the impacts of these different events on terrestrial mammalian communities are poorly known, as is the role played by potential refugia on geographical species distributions. This study examines community changes in rodents of southwestern France between 50 and 10 ky BP by integrating 94 dated faunal assemblages coming from 37 archaeological sites. This work reveals that faunal distributions were modified in response to abrupt and brief climatic events, such as Heinrich events, without actually modifying the rodent community on a regional scale. However, the succession of events which operated between the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene gradually led to establishing a new rodent community at the regional scale, with intermediate communities occurring between the Bølling and the Allerød.

  12. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the HPV Clinical Trial Survey for Parents (CTSP-HPV) Using Traditional Survey Development Methods and Community Engagement Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jennifer; Wallston, Kenneth A; Wilkins, Consuelo H; Hull, Pamela C; Miller, Stephania T

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of HPV Clinical Trial Survey for Parents with Children Aged 9 to 15 (CTSP-HPV) using traditional instrument development methods and community engagement principles. An expert panel and parental input informed survey content and parents recommended study design changes (e.g., flyer wording). A convenience sample of 256 parents completed the final survey measuring parental willingness to consent to HPV clinical trial (CT) participation and other factors hypothesized to influence willingness (e.g., HPV vaccine benefits). Cronbach's a, Spearman correlations, and multiple linear regression were used to estimate internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and predictively validity, respectively. Internal reliability was confirmed for all scales (a ≥ 0.70.). Parental willingness was positively associated (p < 0.05) with trust in medical researchers, adolescent CT knowledge, HPV vaccine benefits, advantages of adolescent CTs (r range 0.33-0.42), supporting convergent validity. Moderate discriminant construct validity was also demonstrated. Regression results indicate reasonable predictive validity with the six scales accounting for 31% of the variance in parents' willingness. This instrument can inform interventions based on factors that influence parental willingness, which may lead to the eventual increase in trial participation. Further psychometric testing is warranted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Community child psychiatric medication experiences measured by an internet-based, prospective parent survey of retail pharmacy customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Robert; Wolf, Christine; Koprowicz, Kent; Thomas, Elizabeth; Chandler, Mary; Hao, Xiao Lei; Russell, Matthew; Le, Tung; Hooks, Lee; King, Bryan

    2014-02-01

    One thousand five hundred parents filling a psychiatric prescription for their 6-18 year old child with a multi-state retail pharmacy chain received a single mailed invitation to complete a detailed online survey. 276 parents responded (18.4%). 60% of children on medications had a parent rated CBCL scale score in the clinically significant range at enrollment (T score ≥65), with a similar frequency of clinically significant CBCL scores through 15 months of survey followup. 47% of medication regimens were noted to be causing persistent side effects. This simple community based data collection method can offer a unique way to investigate naturalistic treatment outcomes.

  14. Homogenization of Large-Scale Movement Models in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, M.J.; Powell, J.A.; Hooten, M.B.; McFarlane, L.R.

    2011-01-01

    A difficulty in using diffusion models to predict large scale animal population dispersal is that individuals move differently based on local information (as opposed to gradients) in differing habitat types. This can be accommodated by using ecological diffusion. However, real environments are often spatially complex, limiting application of a direct approach. Homogenization for partial differential equations has long been applied to Fickian diffusion (in which average individual movement is organized along gradients of habitat and population density). We derive a homogenization procedure for ecological diffusion and apply it to a simple model for chronic wasting disease in mule deer. Homogenization allows us to determine the impact of small scale (10-100 m) habitat variability on large scale (10-100 km) movement. The procedure generates asymptotic equations for solutions on the large scale with parameters defined by small-scale variation. The simplicity of this homogenization procedure is striking when compared to the multi-dimensional homogenization procedure for Fickian diffusion,and the method will be equally straightforward for more complex models. ?? 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  15. Development of lichen response indexes using a regional gradient modeling approach for large-scale monitoring of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Peter Neitlich

    2010-01-01

    Development of a regional lichen gradient model from community data is a powerful tool to derive lichen indexes of response to environmental factors for large-scale and long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service includes lichens in its national inventory of forests of...

  16. High-Performance Monitoring Architecture for Large-Scale Distributed Systems Using Event Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, K.

    1998-01-01

    with the monitoring architecture to reduce the volume of event traffic flow in the system, and thereby reduce the intrusiveness of the monitoring process. We are developing an event filtering architecture to efficiently process the large volume of event traffic generated by LSD systems (such as distributed interactive applications). This filtering architecture is used to monitor collaborative distance learning application for obtaining debugging and feedback information. Our architecture supports the dynamic (re)configuration and optimization of event filters in large-scale distributed systems. Our work represents a major contribution by (1) survey and evaluating existing event filtering mechanisms In supporting monitoring LSD systems and (2) devising an integrated scalable high- performance architecture of event filtering that spans several kev application domains, presenting techniques to improve the functionality, performance and scalability. This paper describes the primary characteristics and challenges of developing high-performance event filtering for monitoring LSD systems. We survey existing event filtering mechanisms and explain key characteristics for each technique. In addition, we discuss limitations with existing event filtering mechanisms and outline how our architecture will improve key aspects of event filtering.

  17. Communities of Transformation and Their Work Scaling STEM Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezar, Adrianna; Gehrke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined four STEM communities (BioQUEST, Project Kaleidoscope, the POGIL Project, and SENCER) in order to better understand the roles of these communities in advancing the goals of scaling STEM education reform. The project explored three key questions: (1) How do members and leaders of communities of practice (CoPs1)…

  18. A Subaru galaxy redshift survey: WFMOS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, M

    2008-01-01

    A planned galaxy redshift survey with the Subaru 8.2m telescope, the WFMOS survey, offers a unique opportunity for probing detailed properties of large-scale structure formation in the expanding universe by measuring clustering strength of galaxy distribution as a function of distance scale and redshift. In particular, the precise measurement of the galaxy power spectrum, combined with the cosmic microwave background experiments, allows us to obtain stringent constraints on or even determine absolute mass scales of the Big-Bang relic neutrinos as the neutrinos imprint characteristic scale- and redshift-dependent modifications onto the galaxy power spectrum shape. Here we describe the basic concept of how the galaxy clustering measurement can be used to explore the neutrino masses, with particular emphasis on advantages of the WFMOS survey over the existing low-redshift surveys such as SDSS

  19. Status: Large-scale subatmospheric cryogenic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.

    1989-01-01

    In the late 1960's and early 1970's an interest in testing and operating RF cavities at 1.8K motivated the development and construction of four large (300 Watt) 1.8K refrigeration systems. in the past decade, development of successful superconducting RF cavities and interest in obtaining higher magnetic fields with the improved Niobium-Titanium superconductors has once again created interest in large-scale 1.8K refrigeration systems. The L'Air Liquide plant for Tore Supra is a recently commissioned 300 Watt 1.8K system which incorporates new technology, cold compressors, to obtain the low vapor pressure for low temperature cooling. CEBAF proposes to use cold compressors to obtain 5KW at 2.0K. Magnetic refrigerators of 10 Watt capacity or higher at 1.8K are now being developed. The state of the art of large-scale refrigeration in the range under 4K will be reviewed. 28 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Community Health Worker Employer Survey: Perspectives on CHW Workforce Development in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, Virginia; Palmer-Wackerly, Angela L; Trout, Kate E

    2018-05-30

    A statewide Community Health Worker Employer Survey was administered to various clinical, community, and faith-based organizations (n = 240) across a range of rural and urban settings in the Midwest. At least 80% of participants agreed or strongly agreed that items characterized as supervisory support were present in their work environment. Thirty-six percent of respondents currently employed CHWs, over half (51%) of survey respondents reported seeing the need to hire/work with more CHWs, and 44% saw the need for CHWs increasing in the future. Regarding CHW support, a majority of respondents indicated networking opportunities (63%), paid time for networking (80%), adequate time for supervision (75%), orientation training (78%), mandatory training (78%), ongoing training (79%), and paid time for training (82%). Open-ended responses to the question "In your organization, what needs could CHWs meet?" resulted in the largest number of respondents reporting mental health issues as a priority, followed by connecting people with services or resources, educating the public on preventive health, family support, and home care/visitations. Our findings suggest that respondents, who largely have supervisory or managerial roles, view workplace environments in Nebraska favorably, despite the fact that nearly two-thirds of respondents typically work well over 40 h per week. In addition, CHWs could help address mental and physical health needs in a variety of community and clinical settings through primary and secondary prevention activities, such as provision of health screenings, health and nutrition education, connecting people to resources and empowering community members through these activities and more.

  1. Pittsburgh American Community Survey Data 2015 - Household Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The data on relationship to householder were derived from answers to Question 2 in the 2015 American Community Survey (ACS), which was asked of all people in...

  2. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - American Community Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes select data from the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (ACS) on the percent of adults who bike or walk to work. This data is used...

  3. A topological analysis of large-scale structure, studied using the CMASS sample of SDSS-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parihar, Prachi; Gott, J. Richard III; Vogeley, Michael S.; Choi, Yun-Young; Kim, Juhan; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Speare, Robert; Brownstein, Joel R.; Brinkmann, J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the three-dimensional genus topology of large-scale structure using the northern region of the CMASS Data Release 10 (DR10) sample of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We select galaxies with redshift 0.452 < z < 0.625 and with a stellar mass M stellar > 10 11.56 M ☉ . We study the topology at two smoothing lengths: R G = 21 h –1 Mpc and R G = 34 h –1 Mpc. The genus topology studied at the R G = 21 h –1 Mpc scale results in the highest genus amplitude observed to date. The CMASS sample yields a genus curve that is characteristic of one produced by Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The data thus support the standard model of inflation where random quantum fluctuations in the early universe produced Gaussian random phase initial conditions. Modest deviations in the observed genus from random phase are as expected from shot noise effects and the nonlinear evolution of structure. We suggest the use of a fitting formula motivated by perturbation theory to characterize the shift and asymmetries in the observed genus curve with a single parameter. We construct 54 mock SDSS CMASS surveys along the past light cone from the Horizon Run 3 (HR3) N-body simulations, where gravitationally bound dark matter subhalos are identified as the sites of galaxy formation. We study the genus topology of the HR3 mock surveys with the same geometry and sampling density as the observational sample and find the observed genus topology to be consistent with ΛCDM as simulated by the HR3 mock samples. We conclude that the topology of the large-scale structure in the SDSS CMASS sample is consistent with cosmological models having primordial Gaussian density fluctuations growing in accordance with general relativity to form galaxies in massive dark matter halos.

  4. Large-scale weakly supervised object localization via latent category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong Wang; Kaiqi Huang; Weiqiang Ren; Junge Zhang; Maybank, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Localizing objects in cluttered backgrounds is challenging under large-scale weakly supervised conditions. Due to the cluttered image condition, objects usually have large ambiguity with backgrounds. Besides, there is also a lack of effective algorithm for large-scale weakly supervised localization in cluttered backgrounds. However, backgrounds contain useful latent information, e.g., the sky in the aeroplane class. If this latent information can be learned, object-background ambiguity can be largely reduced and background can be suppressed effectively. In this paper, we propose the latent category learning (LCL) in large-scale cluttered conditions. LCL is an unsupervised learning method which requires only image-level class labels. First, we use the latent semantic analysis with semantic object representation to learn the latent categories, which represent objects, object parts or backgrounds. Second, to determine which category contains the target object, we propose a category selection strategy by evaluating each category's discrimination. Finally, we propose the online LCL for use in large-scale conditions. Evaluation on the challenging PASCAL Visual Object Class (VOC) 2007 and the large-scale imagenet large-scale visual recognition challenge 2013 detection data sets shows that the method can improve the annotation precision by 10% over previous methods. More importantly, we achieve the detection precision which outperforms previous results by a large margin and can be competitive to the supervised deformable part model 5.0 baseline on both data sets.

  5. Large-scale networks in engineering and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Findeisen, Rolf; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Reichl, Udo; Sundmacher, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume provides insights into and tools for the modeling, analysis, optimization, and control of large-scale networks in the life sciences and in engineering. Large-scale systems are often the result of networked interactions between a large number of subsystems, and their analysis and control are becoming increasingly important. The chapters of this book present the basic concepts and theoretical foundations of network theory and discuss its applications in different scientific areas such as biochemical reactions, chemical production processes, systems biology, electrical circuits, and mobile agents. The aim is to identify common concepts, to understand the underlying mathematical ideas, and to inspire discussions across the borders of the various disciplines.  The book originates from the interdisciplinary summer school “Large Scale Networks in Engineering and Life Sciences” hosted by the International Max Planck Research School Magdeburg, September 26-30, 2011, and will therefore be of int...

  6. The TeraShake Computational Platform for Large-Scale Earthquake Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yifeng; Olsen, Kim; Chourasia, Amit; Moore, Reagan; Maechling, Philip; Jordan, Thomas

    Geoscientific and computer science researchers with the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) are conducting a large-scale, physics-based, computationally demanding earthquake system science research program with the goal of developing predictive models of earthquake processes. The computational demands of this program continue to increase rapidly as these researchers seek to perform physics-based numerical simulations of earthquake processes for larger meet the needs of this research program, a multiple-institution team coordinated by SCEC has integrated several scientific codes into a numerical modeling-based research tool we call the TeraShake computational platform (TSCP). A central component in the TSCP is a highly scalable earthquake wave propagation simulation program called the TeraShake anelastic wave propagation (TS-AWP) code. In this chapter, we describe how we extended an existing, stand-alone, wellvalidated, finite-difference, anelastic wave propagation modeling code into the highly scalable and widely used TS-AWP and then integrated this code into the TeraShake computational platform that provides end-to-end (initialization to analysis) research capabilities. We also describe the techniques used to enhance the TS-AWP parallel performance on TeraGrid supercomputers, as well as the TeraShake simulations phases including input preparation, run time, data archive management, and visualization. As a result of our efforts to improve its parallel efficiency, the TS-AWP has now shown highly efficient strong scaling on over 40K processors on IBM’s BlueGene/L Watson computer. In addition, the TSCP has developed into a computational system that is useful to many members of the SCEC community for performing large-scale earthquake simulations.

  7. An Novel Architecture of Large-scale Communication in IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wubin; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, many scholars have done a great deal of research on the development of Internet of Things and networked physical systems. However, few people have made the detailed visualization of the large-scale communications architecture in the IOT. In fact, the non-uniform technology between IPv6 and access points has led to a lack of broad principles of large-scale communications architectures. Therefore, this paper presents the Uni-IPv6 Access and Information Exchange Method (UAIEM), a new architecture and algorithm that addresses large-scale communications in the IOT.

  8. Benefits of transactive memory systems in large-scale development

    OpenAIRE

    Aivars, Sablis

    2016-01-01

    Context. Large-scale software development projects are those consisting of a large number of teams, maybe even spread across multiple locations, and working on large and complex software tasks. That means that neither a team member individually nor an entire team holds all the knowledge about the software being developed and teams have to communicate and coordinate their knowledge. Therefore, teams and team members in large-scale software development projects must acquire and manage expertise...

  9. Study of a large scale neutron measurement channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarouayache, Anissa; Ben Hadid, Hayet.

    1982-12-01

    A large scale measurement channel allows the processing of the signal coming from an unique neutronic sensor, during three different running modes: impulses, fluctuations and current. The study described in this note includes three parts: - A theoretical study of the large scale channel and its brief description are given. The results obtained till now in that domain are presented. - The fluctuation mode is thoroughly studied and the improvements to be done are defined. The study of a fluctuation linear channel with an automatic commutation of scales is described and the results of the tests are given. In this large scale channel, the method of data processing is analogical. - To become independent of the problems generated by the use of a an analogical processing of the fluctuation signal, a digital method of data processing is tested. The validity of that method is improved. The results obtained on a test system realized according to this method are given and a preliminary plan for further research is defined [fr

  10. 78 FR 70015 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Large Pelagic Fishing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Large Pelagic Fishing Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies... Pelagics Headboat Survey (LPHS) component. Increase the annual Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS...

  11. Capabilities of the Large-Scale Sediment Transport Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    pump flow meters, sediment trap weigh tanks , and beach profiling lidar. A detailed discussion of the original LSTF features and capabilities can be...ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-88 April 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Capabilities of the Large-Scale Sediment Transport...describes the Large-Scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF) and recent upgrades to the measurement systems. The purpose of these upgrades was to increase

  12. Epidemic Wave Dynamics Attributable to Urban Community Structure: A Theoretical Characterization of Disease Transmission in a Large Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggo, Rosalind M; Lenczner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple waves of transmission during infectious disease epidemics represent a major public health challenge, but the ecological and behavioral drivers of epidemic resurgence are poorly understood. In theory, community structure—aggregation into highly intraconnected and loosely interconnected social groups—within human populations may lead to punctuated outbreaks as diseases progress from one community to the next. However, this explanation has been largely overlooked in favor of temporal shifts in environmental conditions and human behavior and because of the difficulties associated with estimating large-scale contact patterns. Objective The aim was to characterize naturally arising patterns of human contact that are capable of producing simulated epidemics with multiple wave structures. Methods We used an extensive dataset of proximal physical contacts between users of a public Wi-Fi Internet system to evaluate the epidemiological implications of an empirical urban contact network. We characterized the modularity (community structure) of the network and then estimated epidemic dynamics under a percolation-based model of infectious disease spread on the network. We classified simulated epidemics as multiwave using a novel metric and we identified network structures that were critical to the network’s ability to produce multiwave epidemics. Results We identified robust community structure in a large, empirical urban contact network from which multiwave epidemics may emerge naturally. This pattern was fueled by a special kind of insularity in which locally popular individuals were not the ones forging contacts with more distant social groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that ordinary contact patterns can produce multiwave epidemics at the scale of a single urban area without the temporal shifts that are usually assumed to be responsible. Understanding the role of community structure in epidemic dynamics allows officials to anticipate epidemic

  13. Spatiotemporal property and predictability of large-scale human mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Zhu, Tao; Fu, Dongfei; Xu, Bowen; Han, Xiao-Pu; Chen, Duxin

    2018-04-01

    Spatiotemporal characteristics of human mobility emerging from complexity on individual scale have been extensively studied due to the application potential on human behavior prediction and recommendation, and control of epidemic spreading. We collect and investigate a comprehensive data set of human activities on large geographical scales, including both websites browse and mobile towers visit. Numerical results show that the degree of activity decays as a power law, indicating that human behaviors are reminiscent of scale-free random walks known as Lévy flight. More significantly, this study suggests that human activities on large geographical scales have specific non-Markovian characteristics, such as a two-segment power-law distribution of dwelling time and a high possibility for prediction. Furthermore, a scale-free featured mobility model with two essential ingredients, i.e., preferential return and exploration, and a Gaussian distribution assumption on the exploration tendency parameter is proposed, which outperforms existing human mobility models under scenarios of large geographical scales.

  14. Comparison of neighborhood-scale residential wood smoke emissions inventories using limited and intensive survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, T.E.

    1998-01-01

    Emission inventory based estimations of pollutants resulting from residential combustion of wood are typically determined by collecting survey data that represent a single but relatively large area. While the pollutants in wood smoke emissions may represent a relatively low fraction (<10%) of an area's total annual emissions mass inventory, they can concentrate within the specific neighborhood areas where emitted. Thus, while the representativeness of a large-area survey approach is valid and useful, its application for estimating wood smoke pollutant levels within any particular neighborhood may be limited. The ability to obtain a better estimation of pollutant levels for evaluating potential health-related impacts within neighborhoods where wood smoke pollutants can concentrate requires survey data more representative of the particular area. This study compares residential wood combustion survey data collected from six residential neighborhoods in the metropolitan area of Flagstaff, Arizona. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the ability of data collected from a limited neighborhood-scale survey effort to represent that neighborhood's wood fuel consumption characteristics and wood smoke emissions. In addition, the variation that occurs between different neighborhoods regarding residential consumption of wood is also evaluated. Residential wood combustion survey data were collected compare wood burning device distribution, wood types and quantities burned, and emission rates. One neighborhood was surveyed once at approximately a 10% distribution rate and again at a 100% distribution rate providing data for evaluating the ability of a limited-effort survey to represent a more intensive survey. Survey methodology, results and recommendations are presented

  15. Involvement of herbal medicine as a cause of mesenteric phlebosclerosis: results from a large-scale nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taku; Tomioka, Hideo; Ohtsu, Kensei; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2017-03-01

    Mesenteric phlebosclerosis (MP) is a rare disease characterized by venous calcification extending from the colonic wall to the mesentery, with chronic ischemic changes from venous return impairment in the intestine. It is an idiopathic disease, but increasing attention has been paid to the potential involvement of herbal medicine, or Kampo, in its etiology. Until now, there were scattered case reports, but no large-scale studies have been conducted to unravel the clinical characteristics and etiology of the disease. A nationwide survey was conducted using questionnaires to assess possible etiology (particularly the involvement of herbal medicine), clinical manifestations, disease course, and treatment of MP. Data from 222 patients were collected. Among the 169 patients (76.1 %), whose history of herbal medicine was obtained, 147 (87.0 %) used herbal medicines. The use of herbal medicines containing sanshishi (gardenia fruit, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) was reported in 119 out of 147 patients (81.0 %). Therefore, the use of herbal medicine containing sanshishi was confirmed in 70.4 % of 169 patients whose history of herbal medicine was obtained. The duration of sanshishi use ranged from 3 to 51 years (mean 13.6 years). Patients who discontinued sanshishi showed a better outcome compared with those who continued it. The use of herbal medicine containing sanshishi is associated with the etiology of MP. Although it may not be the causative factor, it is necessary for gastroenterologists to be aware of the potential risk of herbal medicine containing sanshishi for the development of MP.

  16. Problems of large-scale vertically-integrated aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, H H; Riordan, P F

    1976-01-01

    The problems of vertically-integrated aquaculture are outlined; they are concerned with: species limitations (in the market, biological and technological); site selection, feed, manpower needs, and legal, institutional and financial requirements. The gaps in understanding of, and the constraints limiting, large-scale aquaculture are listed. Future action is recommended with respect to: types and diversity of species to be cultivated, marketing, biotechnology (seed supply, disease control, water quality and concerted effort), siting, feed, manpower, legal and institutional aids (granting of water rights, grants, tax breaks, duty-free imports, etc.), and adequate financing. The last of hard data based on experience suggests that large-scale vertically-integrated aquaculture is a high risk enterprise, and with the high capital investment required, banks and funding institutions are wary of supporting it. Investment in pilot projects is suggested to demonstrate that large-scale aquaculture can be a fully functional and successful business. Construction and operation of such pilot farms is judged to be in the interests of both the public and private sector.

  17. Drivers and barriers for municipal retrofitting activities – Evidence from a large-scale survey of German local authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polzin, Friedemann|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413317404; Nolden, Colin; von Flotow, Paschen

    2018-01-01

    Local authorities are key actors for implementing innovative energy efficiency technologies (retrofitting) to reduce end-use energy demand and consequently reduce negative effects of high energy use such as climate change and public budget deficits. This paper reports the results of a large-scale

  18. Large-scale computing with Quantum Espresso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannozzi, P.; Cavazzoni, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a short introduction to Quantum Espresso: a distribution of software for atomistic simulations in condensed-matter physics, chemical physics, materials science, and to its usage in large-scale parallel computing.

  19. Linking Large-Scale Reading Assessments: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    E. A. Hanushek points out in this commentary that applied researchers in education have only recently begun to appreciate the value of international assessments, even though there are now 50 years of experience with these. Until recently, these assessments have been stand-alone surveys that have not been linked, and analysis has largely focused on…

  20. Large-scale fortification of condiments and seasonings as a public health strategy: equity considerations for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Gerardo; Flores-Urrutia, Mónica Crissel; Mayén, Ana-Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Fortification of staple foods with vitamins and minerals is an effective approach to increase micronutrient intake and improve nutritional status. The specific use of condiments and seasonings as vehicles in large-scale fortification programs is a relatively new public health strategy. This paper underscores equity considerations for the implementation of large-scale fortification of condiments and seasonings as a public health strategy by examining nonexhaustive examples of programmatic experiences and pilot projects in various settings. An overview of conceptual elements in implementation research and equity is presented, followed by an examination of equity considerations for five implementation strategies: (1) enhancing the capabilities of the public sector, (2) improving the performance of implementing agencies, (3) strengthening the capabilities and performance of frontline workers, (3) empowering communities and individuals, and (4) supporting multiple stakeholders engaged in improving health. Finally, specific considerations related to intersectoral action are considered. Large-scale fortification of condiments and seasonings cannot be a standalone strategy and needs to be implemented with concurrent and coordinated public health strategies, which should be informed by a health equity lens. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. VESPA: Very large-scale Evolutionary and Selective Pressure Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Webb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses of protein coding sequences requires a number of preparatory inter-related steps from finding gene families, to generating alignments and phylogenetic trees and assessing selective pressure variation. Each phase of these analyses can represent significant challenges, particularly when working with entire proteomes (all protein coding sequences in a genome from a large number of species. Methods We present VESPA, software capable of automating a selective pressure analysis using codeML in addition to the preparatory analyses and summary statistics. VESPA is written in python and Perl and is designed to run within a UNIX environment. Results We have benchmarked VESPA and our results show that the method is consistent, performs well on both large scale and smaller scale datasets, and produces results in line with previously published datasets. Discussion Large-scale gene family identification, sequence alignment, and phylogeny reconstruction are all important aspects of large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses. VESPA provides flexible software for simplifying these processes along with downstream selective pressure variation analyses. The software automatically interprets results from codeML and produces simplified summary files to assist the user in better understanding the results. VESPA may be found at the following website: http://www.mol-evol.org/VESPA.

  2. Large scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Testi, Leonardo; Ginsburg, Adam; Walmsley, Malcolm; Molinari, Sergio; Schisano, Eugenio

    2015-08-01

    The ubiquity of filamentary structure at various scales through out the Galaxy has triggered a renewed interest in their formation, evolution, and role in star formation. The largest filaments can reach up to Galactic scale as part of the spiral arm structure. However, such large scale filaments are hard to identify systematically due to limitations in identifying methodology (i.e., as extinction features). We present a new approach to directly search for the largest, coldest, and densest filaments in the Galaxy, making use of sensitive Herschel Hi-GAL data complemented by spectral line cubes. We present a sample of the 9 most prominent Herschel filaments from a pilot search field. These filaments measure 37-99 pc long and 0.6-3.0 pc wide with masses (0.5-8.3)×104 Msun, and beam-averaged (28", or 0.4-0.7 pc) peak H2 column densities of (1.7-9.3)x1022 cm-2. The bulk of the filaments are relatively cold (17-21 K), while some local clumps have a dust temperature up to 25-47 K due to local star formation activities. All the filaments are located within spiral arm model incorporating the latest parallax measurements, we find that 7/9 of them reside within arms, but most are close to arm edges. These filaments are comparable in length to the Galactic scale height and therefore are not simply part of a grander turbulent cascade. These giant filaments, which often contain regularly spaced pc-scale clumps, are much larger than the filaments found in the Herschel Gould's Belt Survey, and they form the upper ends in the filamentary hierarchy. Full operational ALMA and NOEMA will be able to resolve and characterize similar filaments in nearby spiral galaxies, allowing us to compare the star formation in a uniform context of spiral arms.

  3. Diverse honeydew-consuming fungal communities associated with scale insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet K Dhami

    Full Text Available Sooty mould fungi are ubiquitous, abundant consumers of insect-honeydew that have been little-studied. They form a complex of unrelated fungi that coexist and compete for honeydew, which is a chemically complex resource. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy in combination with T-RFLP community profiling and ITS-based tag-pyrosequencing to extensively describe the sooty mould community associated with the honeydews of two ecologically important New Zealand coelostomidiid scale insects, Coelostomidia wairoensis and Ultracoelostoma brittini. We tested the influence of host plant on the community composition of associated sooty moulds, and undertook limited analyses to examine the influence of scale insect species and geographic location. We report here a previously unknown degree of fungal diversity present in this complex, with pyrosequencing detecting on average 243 operational taxonomic units across the different sooty mould samples. In contrast, T-RFLP detected only a total of 24 different "species" (unique peaks. Nevertheless, both techniques identified similar patterns of diversity suggesting that either method is appropriate for community profiling. The composition of the microbial community associated with individual scale insect species varied although the differences may in part reflect variation in host preference and site. Scanning electron microscopy visualised an intertwined mass of fungal hyphae and fruiting bodies in near-intact physical condition, but was unable to distinguish between the different fungal communities on a morphological level, highlighting the need for molecular research. The substantial diversity revealed for the first time by pyrosequencing and our inability to identify two-thirds of the diversity to further than the fungal division highlights the significant gap in our knowledge of these fungal groups. This study provides a first extensive look at the community diversity of the fungal community

  4. RESTRUCTURING OF THE LARGE-SCALE SPRINKLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kozaczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the best ways for agriculture to become independent from shortages of precipitation is irrigation. In the seventies and eighties of the last century a number of large-scale sprinklers in Wielkopolska was built. At the end of 1970’s in the Poznan province 67 sprinklers with a total area of 6400 ha were installed. The average size of the sprinkler reached 95 ha. In 1989 there were 98 sprinklers, and the area which was armed with them was more than 10 130 ha. The study was conducted on 7 large sprinklers with the area ranging from 230 to 520 hectares in 1986÷1998. After the introduction of the market economy in the early 90’s and ownership changes in agriculture, large-scale sprinklers have gone under a significant or total devastation. Land on the State Farms of the State Agricultural Property Agency has leased or sold and the new owners used the existing sprinklers to a very small extent. This involved a change in crop structure, demand structure and an increase in operating costs. There has also been a threefold increase in electricity prices. Operation of large-scale irrigation encountered all kinds of barriers in practice and limitations of system solutions, supply difficulties, high levels of equipment failure which is not inclined to rational use of available sprinklers. An effect of a vision of the local area was to show the current status of the remaining irrigation infrastructure. The adopted scheme for the restructuring of Polish agriculture was not the best solution, causing massive destruction of assets previously invested in the sprinkler system.

  5. Alignment between Satellite and Central Galaxies in the SDSS DR7: Dependence on Large-scale Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Luo, Yu; Kang, Xi; Libeskind, Noam I.; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Youcai; Tempel, Elmo; Guo, Quan

    2018-06-01

    The alignment between satellites and central galaxies has been studied in detail both in observational and theoretical works. The widely accepted fact is that satellites preferentially reside along the major axis of their central galaxy. However, the origin and large-scale environmental dependence of this alignment are still unknown. In an attempt to determine these variables, we use data constructed from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 to investigate the large-scale environmental dependence of this alignment with emphasis on examining the alignment’s dependence on the color of the central galaxy. We find a very strong large-scale environmental dependence of the satellite–central alignment (SCA) in groups with blue centrals. Satellites of blue centrals in knots are preferentially located perpendicular to the major axes of the centrals, and the alignment angle decreases with environment, namely, when going from knots to voids. The alignment angle strongly depends on the {}0.1(g-r) color of centrals. We suggest that the SCA is the result of a competition between satellite accretion within large-scale structure (LSS) and galaxy evolution inside host halos. For groups containing red central galaxies, the SCA is mainly determined by the evolution effect, while for blue central dominated groups, the effect of the LSS plays a more important role, especially in knots. Our results provide an explanation for how the SCA forms within different large-scale environments. The perpendicular case in groups and knots with blue centrals may also provide insight into understanding similar polar arrangements, such as the formation of the Milky Way and Centaurus A’s satellite system.

  6. Large-scale synthesis of YSZ nanopowder by Pechini method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    structure and chemical purity of 99⋅1% by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy on a large scale. Keywords. Sol–gel; yttria-stabilized zirconia; large scale; nanopowder; Pechini method. 1. Introduction. Zirconia has attracted the attention of many scientists because of its tremendous thermal, mechanical ...

  7. The build up of the correlation between halo spin and the large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Kang, Xi

    2018-01-01

    Both simulations and observations have confirmed that the spin of haloes/galaxies is correlated with the large-scale structure (LSS) with a mass dependence such that the spin of low-mass haloes/galaxies tend to be parallel with the LSS, while that of massive haloes/galaxies tend to be perpendicular with the LSS. It is still unclear how this mass dependence is built up over time. We use N-body simulations to trace the evolution of the halo spin-LSS correlation and find that at early times the spin of all halo progenitors is parallel with the LSS. As time goes on, mass collapsing around massive halo is more isotropic, especially the recent mass accretion along the slowest collapsing direction is significant and it brings the halo spin to be perpendicular with the LSS. Adopting the fractional anisotropy (FA) parameter to describe the degree of anisotropy of the large-scale environment, we find that the spin-LSS correlation is a strong function of the environment such that a higher FA (more anisotropic environment) leads to an aligned signal, and a lower anisotropy leads to a misaligned signal. In general, our results show that the spin-LSS correlation is a combined consequence of mass flow and halo growth within the cosmic web. Our predicted environmental dependence between spin and large-scale structure can be further tested using galaxy surveys.

  8. RECOVERY OF LARGE ANGULAR SCALE CMB POLARIZATION FOR INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYING VARIABLE-DELAY POLARIZATION MODULATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J.; Marriage, T. A.; Appel, J. W.; Bennett, C. L.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Harrington, K.; Rostem, K.; Watts, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chuss, D. T. [Department of Physics, Villanova University, 800 E Lancaster, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Wollack, E. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Switzer, E. R., E-mail: Nathan.J.Miller@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) are currently being implemented in experiments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large angular scales because of their capability for providing rapid, front-end polarization modulation and control over systematic errors. Despite the advantages provided by the VPM, it is important to identify and mitigate any time-varying effects that leak into the synchronously modulated component of the signal. In this paper, the effect of emission from a 300 K VPM on the system performance is considered and addressed. Though instrument design can greatly reduce the influence of modulated VPM emission, some residual modulated signal is expected. VPM emission is treated in the presence of rotational misalignments and temperature variation. Simulations of time-ordered data are used to evaluate the effect of these residual errors on the power spectrum. The analysis and modeling in this paper guides experimentalists on the critical aspects of observations using VPMs as front-end modulators. By implementing the characterizations and controls as described, front-end VPM modulation can be very powerful for mitigating 1/f noise in large angular scale polarimetric surveys. None of the systematic errors studied fundamentally limit the detection and characterization of B-modes on large scales for a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r = 0.01. Indeed, r < 0.01 is achievable with commensurately improved characterizations and controls.

  9. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  10. Biogeography and change among regional coral communities across the Western Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R McClanahan

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are biodiverse ecosystems structured by abiotic and biotic factors operating across many spatial scales. Regional-scale interactions between climate change, biogeography and fisheries management remain poorly understood. Here, we evaluated large-scale patterns of coral communities in the western Indian Ocean after a major coral bleaching event in 1998. We surveyed 291 coral reef sites in 11 countries and over 30° of latitude between 2004 and 2011 to evaluate variations in coral communities post 1998 across gradients in latitude, mainland-island geography and fisheries management. We used linear mixed-effect hierarchical models to assess total coral cover, the abundance of four major coral families (acroporids, faviids, pocilloporids and poritiids, coral genus richness and diversity, and the bleaching susceptibility of the coral communities. We found strong latitudinal and geographic gradients in coral community structure and composition that supports the presence of a high coral cover and diversity area that harbours temperature-sensitive taxa in the northern Mozambique Channel between Tanzania, northern Mozambique and northern Madagascar. Coral communities in the more northern latitudes of Kenya, Seychelles and the Maldives were generally composed of fewer bleaching-tolerant coral taxa and with reduced richness and diversity. There was also evidence for continued declines in the abundance of temperature-sensitive taxa and community change after 2004. While there are limitations of our regional dataset in terms of spatial and temporal replication, these patterns suggest that large-scale interactions between biogeographic factors and strong temperature anomalies influence coral communities while smaller-scale factors, such as the effect of fisheries closures, were weak. The northern Mozambique Channel, while not immune to temperature disturbances, shows continued signs of resistance to climate disturbances and remains a priority for

  11. Small scale hydroelectric power potential in Nevada: a preliminary reconnaissance survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, G.F.; Fordham, J.W.; Richard, K.; Loux, R.

    1981-04-01

    This preliminary reconnaissance survey is intended to: develop a first estimate as to the potential number, location and characteristics of small-scale (50 kW to 15 MW) hydroelectric sites in Nevada; provide a compilation of various Federal and state laws and regulations, including tax and financing regulations, that affect small-scale hydroelectric development and provide information on sources of small-scale hydroelectric generation hardware and consultants/ contractors who do small scale hydroelectric work. The entire survey has been conducted in the office working with various available data bases. The site survey and site evaluation methods used are described, and data are tabulated on the flow, power potential, predicted capital expenditures required, etc. for 61 potential sites with measured flows and for 77 sites with derived flows. A map showing potential site locations is included. (LCL)

  12. Geospatial Optimization of Siting Large-Scale Solar Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quinby, Ted [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Caulfield, Emmet [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Gerritsen, Margot [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Diffendorfer, Jay [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States); Haines, Seth [U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Recent policy and economic conditions have encouraged a renewed interest in developing large-scale solar projects in the U.S. Southwest. However, siting large-scale solar projects is complex. In addition to the quality of the solar resource, solar developers must take into consideration many environmental, social, and economic factors when evaluating a potential site. This report describes a proof-of-concept, Web-based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tool that evaluates multiple user-defined criteria in an optimization algorithm to inform discussions and decisions regarding the locations of utility-scale solar projects. Existing siting recommendations for large-scale solar projects from governmental and non-governmental organizations are not consistent with each other, are often not transparent in methods, and do not take into consideration the differing priorities of stakeholders. The siting assistance GIS tool we have developed improves upon the existing siting guidelines by being user-driven, transparent, interactive, capable of incorporating multiple criteria, and flexible. This work provides the foundation for a dynamic siting assistance tool that can greatly facilitate siting decisions among multiple stakeholders.

  13. Large-scale Agricultural Land Acquisitions in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will examine large-scale agricultural land acquisitions in nine West African countries -Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Benin, Mali, Togo, Senegal, Niger, and Côte d'Ivoire. ... They will use the results to increase public awareness and knowledge about the consequences of large-scale land acquisitions.

  14. Neighborhood Discriminant Hashing for Large-Scale Image Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinhui; Li, Zechao; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Ruizhen

    2015-09-01

    With the proliferation of large-scale community-contributed images, hashing-based approximate nearest neighbor search in huge databases has aroused considerable interest from the fields of computer vision and multimedia in recent years because of its computational and memory efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing method named neighborhood discriminant hashing (NDH) (for short) to implement approximate similarity search. Different from the previous work, we propose to learn a discriminant hashing function by exploiting local discriminative information, i.e., the labels of a sample can be inherited from the neighbor samples it selects. The hashing function is expected to be orthogonal to avoid redundancy in the learned hashing bits as much as possible, while an information theoretic regularization is jointly exploited using maximum entropy principle. As a consequence, the learned hashing function is compact and nonredundant among bits, while each bit is highly informative. Extensive experiments are carried out on four publicly available data sets and the comparison results demonstrate the outperforming performance of the proposed NDH method over state-of-the-art hashing techniques.

  15. State of the Art in Large-Scale Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Tyson E.; Cosh, Michael Harold; Cuenca, Richard H.; Dorigo, Wouter; Draper, Clara S.; Hagimoto, Yutaka; Kerr, Yan H.; Larson, Kristine M.; Njoku, Eni Gerald; Small, Eric E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Soil moisture is an essential climate variable influencing land atmosphere interactions, an essential hydrologic variable impacting rainfall runoff processes, an essential ecological variable regulating net ecosystem exchange, and an essential agricultural variable constraining food security. Large-scale soil moisture monitoring has advanced in recent years creating opportunities to transform scientific understanding of soil moisture and related processes. These advances are being driven by researchers from a broad range of disciplines, but this complicates collaboration and communication. For some applications, the science required to utilize large-scale soil moisture data is poorly developed. In this review, we describe the state of the art in large-scale soil moisture monitoring and identify some critical needs for research to optimize the use of increasingly available soil moisture data. We review representative examples of 1) emerging in situ and proximal sensing techniques, 2) dedicated soil moisture remote sensing missions, 3) soil moisture monitoring networks, and 4) applications of large-scale soil moisture measurements. Significant near-term progress seems possible in the use of large-scale soil moisture data for drought monitoring. Assimilation of soil moisture data for meteorological or hydrologic forecasting also shows promise, but significant challenges related to model structures and model errors remain. Little progress has been made yet in the use of large-scale soil moisture observations within the context of ecological or agricultural modeling. Opportunities abound to advance the science and practice of large-scale soil moisture monitoring for the sake of improved Earth system monitoring, modeling, and forecasting.

  16. Comparison of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale to predict falls in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the predictive properties of Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales, in a group of independently-functioning community dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-seven community-dwelling older adults (male=39, female=58) who were capable of walking independently on assessment were included in this study. A binary logistic regression analysis of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores was used to investigate a predictive model for fall risk. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted for each, to determine the cut-off for optimal levels of sensitivity and specificity. [Results] The overall prediction success rate was 89.7%; the total Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale scores were significant in predicting fall risk. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined that a cut-off score of 40 out of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.82) and specificity (0.67), and a cut-off score of 22 out of 40 on the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale produced the highest sensitivity (0.85) and specificity (0.65) in predicting faller status. [Conclusion] The Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales can predict fall risk, when used for independently-functioning community-dwelling older adults.

  17. Controls of dissolved organic matter quality: Evidence from a large-scale boreal lake survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothawala, D.N.; Stedmon, Colin; Müller, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Inland waters transport large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial environments to the oceans, but DOM also reacts en route, with substantial water column losses by mineralization and sedimentation. For DOM transformations along the aquatic continuum, lakes play an important...... role as they retain waters in the landscape allowing for more time to alter DOM. We know DOM losses are significant at the global scale, yet little is known about how the reactivity of DOM varies across landscapes and climates. DOM reactivity is inherently linked to its chemical composition. We used...... analyzed in relation to lake chemistry, catchment, and climate characteristics. Land cover, particularly the percentage of water in the catchment, was a primary factor explaining variability in PARAFAC components. Likewise, lake water retention time influenced DOM quality. These results suggest...

  18. Comparison of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale to predict falls in community-dwelling adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Yong-Jin; Kim, Gyoung-Mo

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the predictive properties of Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance Scales, in a group of independently-functioning community dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety-seven community-dwelling older adults (male=39, female=58) who were capable of walking independently on assessment were included in this study. A binary logistic regression analysis of the Berg Balance Scale and Fullerton Advanced Balance S...

  19. A route to explosive large-scale magnetic reconnection in a super-ion-scale current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available How to trigger magnetic reconnection is one of the most interesting and important problems in space plasma physics. Recently, electron temperature anisotropy (αeo=Te⊥/Te|| at the center of a current sheet and non-local effect of the lower-hybrid drift instability (LHDI that develops at the current sheet edges have attracted attention in this context. In addition to these effects, here we also study the effects of ion temperature anisotropy (αio=Ti⊥/Ti||. Electron anisotropy effects are known to be helpless in a current sheet whose thickness is of ion-scale. In this range of current sheet thickness, the LHDI effects are shown to weaken substantially with a small increase in thickness and the obtained saturation level is too low for a large-scale reconnection to be achieved. Then we investigate whether introduction of electron and ion temperature anisotropies in the initial stage would couple with the LHDI effects to revive quick triggering of large-scale reconnection in a super-ion-scale current sheet. The results are as follows. (1 The initial electron temperature anisotropy is consumed very quickly when a number of minuscule magnetic islands (each lateral length is 1.5~3 times the ion inertial length form. These minuscule islands do not coalesce into a large-scale island to enable large-scale reconnection. (2 The subsequent LHDI effects disturb the current sheet filled with the small islands. This makes the triggering time scale to be accelerated substantially but does not enhance the saturation level of reconnected flux. (3 When the ion temperature anisotropy is added, it survives through the small island formation stage and makes even quicker triggering to happen when the LHDI effects set-in. Furthermore the saturation level is seen to be elevated by a factor of ~2 and large-scale reconnection is achieved only in this case. Comparison with two-dimensional simulations that exclude the LHDI effects confirms that the saturation level

  20. Large-scale Labeled Datasets to Fuel Earth Science Deep Learning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, M.; Ramachandran, R.; Miller, J.

    2017-12-01

    Deep learning has revolutionized computer vision and natural language processing with various algorithms scaled using high-performance computing. However, generic large-scale labeled datasets such as the ImageNet are the fuel that drives the impressive accuracy of deep learning results. Large-scale labeled datasets already exist in domains such as medical science, but creating them in the Earth science domain is a challenge. While there are ways to apply deep learning using limited labeled datasets, there is a need in the Earth sciences for creating large-scale labeled datasets for benchmarking and scaling deep learning applications. At the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, we are using deep learning for a variety of Earth science applications where we have encountered the need for large-scale labeled datasets. We will discuss our approaches for creating such datasets and why these datasets are just as valuable as deep learning algorithms. We will also describe successful usage of these large-scale labeled datasets with our deep learning based applications.

  1. Using a framework to implement large-scale innovation in medical education with the intent of achieving sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Judith N; Farmer, Elizabeth A; Weston, Kathryn M; Bushnell, John A

    2015-01-16

    Particularly when undertaken on a large scale, implementing innovation in higher education poses many challenges. Sustaining the innovation requires early adoption of a coherent implementation strategy. Using an example from clinical education, this article describes a process used to implement a large-scale innovation with the intent of achieving sustainability. Desire to improve the effectiveness of undergraduate medical education has led to growing support for a longitudinal integrated clerkship (LIC) model. This involves a move away from the traditional clerkship of 'block rotations' with frequent changes in disciplines, to a focus upon clerkships with longer duration and opportunity for students to build sustained relationships with supervisors, mentors, colleagues and patients. A growing number of medical schools have adopted the LIC model for a small percentage of their students. At a time when increasing medical school numbers and class sizes are leading to competition for clinical supervisors it is however a daunting challenge to provide a longitudinal clerkship for an entire medical school class. This challenge is presented to illustrate the strategy used to implement sustainable large scale innovation. A strategy to implement and build a sustainable longitudinal integrated community-based clerkship experience for all students was derived from a framework arising from Roberto and Levesque's research in business. The framework's four core processes: chartering, learning, mobilising and realigning, provided guidance in preparing and rolling out the 'whole of class' innovation. Roberto and Levesque's framework proved useful for identifying the foundations of the implementation strategy, with special emphasis on the relationship building required to implement such an ambitious initiative. Although this was innovation in a new School it required change within the school, wider university and health community. Challenges encountered included some resistance to

  2. A comparison of the effectiveness of three parenting programmes in improving parenting skills, parent mental-well being and children's behaviour when implemented on a large scale in community settings in 18 English local authorities: the parenting early intervention pathfinder (PEIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoff; Strand, Steve; Davis, Hilton

    2011-12-30

    There is growing evidence that parenting programmes can improve parenting skills and thereby the behaviour of children exhibiting or at risk of developing antisocial behaviour. Given the high prevalence of childhood behaviour problems the task is to develop large scale application of effective programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the UK government funded implementation of the Parenting Early Intervention Pathfinder (PEIP). This involved the large scale rolling out of three programmes to parents of children 8-13 years in 18 local authorities (LAs) over a 2 year period. The UK government's Department for Education allocated each programme (Incredible Years, Triple P and Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities) to six LAs which then developed systems to intervene using parenting groups. Implementation fidelity was supported by the training of group facilitators by staff of the appropriate parenting programme supplemented by supervision. Parents completed measures of parenting style, efficacy, satisfaction, and mental well-being, and also child behaviour. A total of 1121 parents completed pre- and post-course measures. There were significant improvements on all measures for each programme; effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranged across the programmes from 0.57 to 0.93 for parenting style; 0.33 to 0.77 for parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy; and from 0.49 to 0.88 for parental mental well-being. Effectiveness varied between programmes: Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities was significantly less effective than both the other two programmes in improving parental efficacy, satisfaction and mental well-being. Improvements in child behaviour were found for all programmes: effect sizes for reduction in conduct problems ranged from -0.44 to -0.71 across programmes, with Strengthening Families Strengthening Communities again having significantly lower reductions than Incredible Years. Evidence-based parenting programmes can be implemented

  3. Comparing Effects of Lake- and Watershed-Scale Influences on Communities of Aquatic Invertebrates in Shallow Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark A.; Herwig, Brian R.; Zimmer, Kyle D.; Fieberg, John; Vaughn, Sean R.; Wright, Robert G.; Younk, Jerry A.

    2012-01-01

    Constraints on lake communities are complex and are usually studied by using limited combinations of variables derived from measurements within or adjacent to study waters. While informative, results often provide limited insight about magnitude of simultaneous influences operating at multiple scales, such as lake- vs. watershed-scale. To formulate comparisons of such contrasting influences, we explored factors controlling the abundance of predominant aquatic invertebrates in 75 shallow lakes in western Minnesota, USA. Using robust regression techniques, we modeled relative abundance of Amphipoda, small and large cladocera, Corixidae, aquatic Diptera, and an aggregate taxon that combined Ephemeroptera-Trichoptera-Odonata (ETO) in response to lake- and watershed-scale characteristics. Predictor variables included fish and submerged plant abundance, linear distance to the nearest wetland or lake, watershed size, and proportion of the watershed in agricultural production. Among-lake variability in invertebrate abundance was more often explained by lake-scale predictors than by variables based on watershed characteristics. For example, we identified significant associations between fish presence and community type and abundance of small and large cladocera, Amphipoda, Diptera, and ETO. Abundance of Amphipoda, Diptera, and Corixidae were also positively correlated with submerged plant abundance. We observed no associations between lake-watershed variables and abundance of our invertebrate taxa. Broadly, our results seem to indicate preeminence of lake-level influences on aquatic invertebrates in shallow lakes, but historical land-use legacies may mask important relationships. PMID:22970275

  4. An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Community of Inquiry Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Uyanik, Gülden Kaya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine validity and reliability of Community of Inquiry Scale commonly used in online learning by the means of Item Response Theory. For this purpose, Community of Inquiry Scale version 14 is applied on 1,499 students of a distance education center's online learning programs at a Turkish state university via internet.…

  5. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  6. Challenges to the provision of diabetes care in first nations communities: results from a national survey of healthcare providers in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macaulay Ann C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal peoples globally, and First Nations peoples in Canada particularly, suffer from high rates of type 2 diabetes and related complications compared with the general population. Research into the unique barriers faced by healthcare providers working in on-reserve First Nations communities is essential for developing effective quality improvement strategies. Methods In Phase I of this two-phased study, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were held with 24 healthcare providers in the Sioux Lookout Zone in north-western Ontario. A follow-up survey was conducted in Phase II as part of a larger project, the Canadian First Nations Diabetes Clinical Management and Epidemiologic (CIRCLE study. The survey was completed with 244 healthcare providers in 19 First Nations communities in 7 Canadian provinces, representing three isolation levels (isolated, semi-isolated, non-isolated. Interviews, focus groups and survey questions all related to barriers to providing optimal diabetes care in First Nations communities. Results the key factors emerging from interviews and focus group discussions were at the patient, provider, and systemic level. Survey results indicated that, across three isolation levels, healthcare providers' perceived patient factors as having the largest impact on diabetes care. However, physicians and nurses were more likely to rank patient factors as having a large impact on care than community health representatives (CHRs and physicians were significantly less likely to rank patient-provider communication as having a large impact than CHRs. Conclusions Addressing patient factors was considered the highest impact strategy for improving diabetes care. While this may reflect "patient blaming," it also suggests that self-management strategies may be well-suited for this context. Program planning should focus on training programs for CHRs, who provide a unique link between patients and clinical services

  7. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-01-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of ∼10 deg 2 of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R ∼ 20) spectra in 2-5 μm for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 μm, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 μm. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 μm can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near

  8. Large-scale structure observables in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We review recent studies that rigorously define several key observables of the large-scale structure of the Universe in a general relativistic context. Specifically, we consider (i) redshift perturbation of cosmic clock events; (ii) distortion of cosmic rulers, including weak lensing shear and magnification; and (iii) observed number density of tracers of the large-scale structure. We provide covariant and gauge-invariant expressions of these observables. Our expressions are given for a linearly perturbed flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric including scalar, vector, and tensor metric perturbations. While we restrict ourselves to linear order in perturbation theory, the approach can be straightforwardly generalized to higher order. (paper)

  9. Fatigue Analysis of Large-scale Wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yongli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper does research on top flange fatigue damage of large-scale wind turbine generator. It establishes finite element model of top flange connection system with finite element analysis software MSC. Marc/Mentat, analyzes its fatigue strain, implements load simulation of flange fatigue working condition with Bladed software, acquires flange fatigue load spectrum with rain-flow counting method, finally, it realizes fatigue analysis of top flange with fatigue analysis software MSC. Fatigue and Palmgren-Miner linear cumulative damage theory. The analysis result indicates that its result provides new thinking for flange fatigue analysis of large-scale wind turbine generator, and possesses some practical engineering value.

  10. Real-time simulation of large-scale floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Qin, Y.; Li, G. D.; Liu, Z.; Cheng, D. J.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2016-08-01

    According to the complex real-time water situation, the real-time simulation of large-scale floods is very important for flood prevention practice. Model robustness and running efficiency are two critical factors in successful real-time flood simulation. This paper proposed a robust, two-dimensional, shallow water model based on the unstructured Godunov- type finite volume method. A robust wet/dry front method is used to enhance the numerical stability. An adaptive method is proposed to improve the running efficiency. The proposed model is used for large-scale flood simulation on real topography. Results compared to those of MIKE21 show the strong performance of the proposed model.

  11. FFTLasso: Large-Scale LASSO in the Fourier Domain

    KAUST Repository

    Bibi, Adel Aamer

    2017-11-09

    In this paper, we revisit the LASSO sparse representation problem, which has been studied and used in a variety of different areas, ranging from signal processing and information theory to computer vision and machine learning. In the vision community, it found its way into many important applications, including face recognition, tracking, super resolution, image denoising, to name a few. Despite advances in efficient sparse algorithms, solving large-scale LASSO problems remains a challenge. To circumvent this difficulty, people tend to downsample and subsample the problem (e.g. via dimensionality reduction) to maintain a manageable sized LASSO, which usually comes at the cost of losing solution accuracy. This paper proposes a novel circulant reformulation of the LASSO that lifts the problem to a higher dimension, where ADMM can be efficiently applied to its dual form. Because of this lifting, all optimization variables are updated using only basic element-wise operations, the most computationally expensive of which is a 1D FFT. In this way, there is no need for a linear system solver nor matrix-vector multiplication. Since all operations in our FFTLasso method are element-wise, the subproblems are completely independent and can be trivially parallelized (e.g. on a GPU). The attractive computational properties of FFTLasso are verified by extensive experiments on synthetic and real data and on the face recognition task. They demonstrate that FFTLasso scales much more effectively than a state-of-the-art solver.

  12. FFTLasso: Large-Scale LASSO in the Fourier Domain

    KAUST Repository

    Bibi, Adel Aamer; Itani, Hani; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the LASSO sparse representation problem, which has been studied and used in a variety of different areas, ranging from signal processing and information theory to computer vision and machine learning. In the vision community, it found its way into many important applications, including face recognition, tracking, super resolution, image denoising, to name a few. Despite advances in efficient sparse algorithms, solving large-scale LASSO problems remains a challenge. To circumvent this difficulty, people tend to downsample and subsample the problem (e.g. via dimensionality reduction) to maintain a manageable sized LASSO, which usually comes at the cost of losing solution accuracy. This paper proposes a novel circulant reformulation of the LASSO that lifts the problem to a higher dimension, where ADMM can be efficiently applied to its dual form. Because of this lifting, all optimization variables are updated using only basic element-wise operations, the most computationally expensive of which is a 1D FFT. In this way, there is no need for a linear system solver nor matrix-vector multiplication. Since all operations in our FFTLasso method are element-wise, the subproblems are completely independent and can be trivially parallelized (e.g. on a GPU). The attractive computational properties of FFTLasso are verified by extensive experiments on synthetic and real data and on the face recognition task. They demonstrate that FFTLasso scales much more effectively than a state-of-the-art solver.

  13. Large-scale numerical simulations of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The recent trend of large scales simulations of fusion plasma and processing plasmas is briefly summarized. Many advanced simulation techniques have been developed for fusion plasmas and some of these techniques are now applied to analyses of processing plasmas. (author)

  14. The Saskatchewan River Basin - a large scale observatory for water security research (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2013-12-01

    The 336,000 km2 Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Western Canada illustrates many of the issues of Water Security faced world-wide. It poses globally-important science challenges due to the diversity in its hydro-climate and ecological zones. With one of the world's more extreme climates, it embodies environments of global significance, including the Rocky Mountains (source of the major rivers in Western Canada), the Boreal Forest (representing 30% of Canada's land area) and the Prairies (home to 80% of Canada's agriculture). Management concerns include: provision of water resources to more than three million inhabitants, including indigenous communities; balancing competing needs for water between different uses, such as urban centres, industry, agriculture, hydropower and environmental flows; issues of water allocation between upstream and downstream users in the three prairie provinces; managing the risks of flood and droughts; and assessing water quality impacts of discharges from major cities and intensive agricultural production. Superimposed on these issues is the need to understand and manage uncertain water futures, including effects of economic growth and environmental change, in a highly fragmented water governance environment. Key science questions focus on understanding and predicting the effects of land and water management and environmental change on water quantity and quality. To address the science challenges, observational data are necessary across multiple scales. This requires focussed research at intensively monitored sites and small watersheds to improve process understanding and fine-scale models. To understand large-scale effects on river flows and quality, land-atmosphere feedbacks, and regional climate, integrated monitoring, modelling and analysis is needed at large basin scale. And to support water management, new tools are needed for operational management and scenario-based planning that can be implemented across multiple scales and

  15. Nearly incompressible fluids: Hydrodynamics and large scale inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunana, P.; Zank, G. P.; Shaikh, D.

    2006-01-01

    A system of hydrodynamic equations in the presence of large-scale inhomogeneities for a high plasma beta solar wind is derived. The theory is derived under the assumption of low turbulent Mach number and is developed for the flows where the usual incompressible description is not satisfactory and a full compressible treatment is too complex for any analytical studies. When the effects of compressibility are incorporated only weakly, a new description, referred to as 'nearly incompressible hydrodynamics', is obtained. The nearly incompressible theory, was originally applied to homogeneous flows. However, large-scale gradients in density, pressure, temperature, etc., are typical in the solar wind and it was unclear how inhomogeneities would affect the usual incompressible and nearly incompressible descriptions. In the homogeneous case, the lowest order expansion of the fully compressible equations leads to the usual incompressible equations, followed at higher orders by the nearly incompressible equations, as introduced by Zank and Matthaeus. With this work we show that the inclusion of large-scale inhomogeneities (in this case time-independent and radially symmetric background solar wind) modifies the leading-order incompressible description of solar wind flow. We find, for example, that the divergence of velocity fluctuations is nonsolenoidal and that density fluctuations can be described to leading order as a passive scalar. Locally (for small lengthscales), this system of equations converges to the usual incompressible equations and we therefore use the term 'locally incompressible' to describe the equations. This term should be distinguished from the term 'nearly incompressible', which is reserved for higher-order corrections. Furthermore, we find that density fluctuations scale with Mach number linearly, in contrast to the original homogeneous nearly incompressible theory, in which density fluctuations scale with the square of Mach number. Inhomogeneous nearly

  16. Net Community Metabolism and Seawater Carbonate Chemistry Scale Non-intuitively with Coral Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N. Page

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Coral cover and reef health have been declining globally as reefs face local and global stressors including higher temperature and ocean acidification (OA. Ocean warming and acidification will alter rates of benthic reef metabolism (i.e., primary production, respiration, calcification, and CaCO3 dissolution, but our understanding of community and ecosystem level responses is limited in terms of functional, spatial, and temporal scales. Furthermore, dramatic changes in coral cover and benthic metabolism could alter seawater carbonate chemistry on coral reefs, locally alleviating or exacerbating OA. This study examines how benthic metabolic rates scale with changing coral cover (0–100%, and the subsequent influence of these coral communities on seawater carbonate chemistry based on mesocosm experiments in Bermuda and Hawaii. In Bermuda, no significant differences in benthic metabolism or seawater carbonate chemistry were observed for low (40% and high (80% coral cover due to large variability within treatments. In contrast, significant differences were detected between treatments in Hawaii with benthic metabolic rates increasing with increasing coral cover. Observed increases in daily net community calcification and nighttime net respiration scaled proportionally with coral cover. This was not true for daytime net community organic carbon production rates, which increased the most between 0 and 20% coral cover and then less so between 20 and 100%. Consequently, diel variability in seawater carbonate chemistry increased with increasing coral cover, but absolute values of pH, Ωa, and pCO2 were not significantly different during daytime. To place the results of the mesocosm experiments into a broader context, in situ seawater carbon dioxide (CO2 at three reef sites in Bermuda and Hawaii were also evaluated; reefs with higher coral cover experienced a greater range of diel CO2 levels, complementing the mesocosm results. The results from this study

  17. Performance Health Monitoring of Large-Scale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamony, Ram [IBM Research, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-11-20

    This report details the progress made on the ASCR funded project Performance Health Monitoring for Large Scale Systems. A large-­scale application may not achieve its full performance potential due to degraded performance of even a single subsystem. Detecting performance faults, isolating them, and taking remedial action is critical for the scale of systems on the horizon. PHM aims to develop techniques and tools that can be used to identify and mitigate such performance problems. We accomplish this through two main aspects. The PHM framework encompasses diagnostics, system monitoring, fault isolation, and performance evaluation capabilities that indicates when a performance fault has been detected, either due to an anomaly present in the system itself or due to contention for shared resources between concurrently executing jobs. Software components called the PHM Control system then build upon the capabilities provided by the PHM framework to mitigate degradation caused by performance problems.

  18. The impact of changes in parameterizations of surface drag and vertical diffusion on the large-scale circulation in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvall, Jenny; Svensson, Gunilla; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    Simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) are used to analyze the sensitivity of the large-scale circulation to changes in parameterizations of orographic surface drag and vertical diffusion. Many GCMs and NWP models use enhanced turbulent mixing in stable conditions to improve simulations, while CAM5 cuts off all turbulence at high stabilities and instead employs a strong orographic surface stress parameterization, known as turbulent mountain stress (TMS). TMS completely dominates the surface stress over land and reduces the near-surface wind speeds compared to simulations without TMS. It is found that TMS is generally beneficial for the large-scale circulation as it improves zonal wind speeds, Arctic sea level pressure and zonal anomalies of the 500-hPa stream function, compared to ERA-Interim. It also alleviates atmospheric blocking frequency biases in the Northern Hemisphere. Using a scheme that instead allows for a modest increase of turbulent diffusion at higher stabilities only in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) appears to in some aspects have a similar, although much smaller, beneficial effect as TMS. Enhanced mixing throughout the atmospheric column, however, degrades the CAM5 simulation. Evaluating the simulations in comparison with detailed measurements at two locations reveals that TMS is detrimental for the PBL at the flat grassland ARM Southern Great Plains site, giving too strong wind turning and too deep PBLs. At the Sodankylä forest site, the effect of TMS is smaller due to the larger local vegetation roughness. At both sites, all simulations substantially overestimate the boundary layer ageostrophic flow.

  19. Correlates of Psychopathic Personality Traits in Everyday Life:Results from a Large Community Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott O Lilienfeld

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the traits of psychopathic personality (psychopathy have received extensive attention from researchers in forensic psychology, psychopathology, and personality psychology, the relations of these traits to aspects of everyday functioning are poorly understood. Using a large internet survey of members of the general population (N=3398, we examined the association between psychopathic traits, as measured by a brief but well-validated self-report measure, and occupational choice, political orientation, religious affiliation, and geographical residence. Psychopathic traits, especially those linked to fearless dominance, were positively and moderately associated with holding leadership and management positions, as well as high-risk occupations. In addition, psychopathic traits were positively associated with political conservatism, lack of belief in God, and living in Europe as opposed to the United States, although the magnitudes of these statistical effects were generally small in magnitude. Our findings offer preliminary evidence that psychopathic personality traits display meaningful response penetration into daily functioning, and raise provocative questions for future research.

  20. Statistics and Dynamics in the Large-scale Structure of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Takahiko

    2006-01-01

    In cosmology, observations and theories are related to each other by statistics in most cases. Especially, statistical methods play central roles in analyzing fluctuations in the universe, which are seeds of the present structure of the universe. The confrontation of the statistics and dynamics is one of the key methods to unveil the structure and evolution of the universe. I will review some of the major statistical methods in cosmology, in connection with linear and nonlinear dynamics of the large-scale structure of the universe. The present status of analyses of the observational data such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the future prospects to constrain the nature of exotic components of the universe such as the dark energy will be presented

  1. A survey of modelling methods for high-fidelity wind farm simulations using large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breton, Simon-Philippe; Sumner, J.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2017-01-01

    surveys the most common schemes available to model the rotor, atmospheric conditions and terrain effects within current state-of-the-art LES codes, of which an overview is provided. A summary of the experimental research data available for validation of LES codes within the context of single and multiple......Large eddy simulations (LES) of wind farms have the capability to provide valuable and detailed information about the dynamics of wind turbine wakes. For this reason, their use within the wind energy research community is on the rise, spurring the development of new models and methods. This review...

  2. Community Surveys Low Dose Radiation. Fernald, Ohio and Rocky Flats, Colorado

    CERN Document Server

    Mertz, C K; Johnson, S; MacGregor, D G; Satterfield, T

    2002-01-01

    This report is intended to present a basic description of the data from the two community surveys and to document the text of the questions; the methods used for the survey data collection; and a brief overview of the results. Completed surveys were conducted at local communities near the Rocky Flats, Colorado and the Fernald, Ohio sites; no survey was conducted for the Brookhaven, New York site. Fernald. The Fernald sample was randomly selected from 98% of all potential residential telephones in the townships of Ross, Morgan, and Crosby. The only telephone exchanges not used for the Fernald study had 4%, or fewer, of the holders of the telephone numbers actually living in either of the three target townships. Surveying started on July 24, 2001 and finished on August 30, 2001. A total of 399 completed interviews were obtained resulting in a CASRO response rate of 41.8%. The average length of an interview was 16.5 minutes. Rocky Flats. The sample was randomly selected from all potential residential telephones ...

  3. Sampling large landscapes with small-scale stratification-User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This manual explains procedures for partitioning a large landscape into plots, assigning the plots to strata, and selecting plots in each stratum to be surveyed. These steps are referred to as the "sampling large landscapes (SLL) process." We assume that users of the manual have a moderate knowledge of ArcGIS and Microsoft ® Excel. The manual is written for a single user but in many cases, some steps will be carried out by a biologist designing the survey and some steps will be carried out by a quantitative assistant. Thus, the manual essentially may be passed back and forth between these users. The SLL process primarily has been used to survey birds, and we refer to birds as subjects of the counts. The process, however, could be used to count any objects. ®

  4. Learning from large scale neural simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale neural simulations have the marks of a distinct methodology which can be fruitfully deployed to advance scientific understanding of the human brain. Computer simulation studies can be used to produce surrogate observational data for better conceptual models and new how...

  5. Phenomenology of two-dimensional stably stratified turbulence under large-scale forcing

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Abhishek; Verma, Mahendra K.; Sukhatme, Jai

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we characterise the scaling of energy spectra, and the interscale transfer of energy and enstrophy, for strongly, moderately and weakly stably stratified two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, restricted in a vertical plane, under large-scale random forcing. In the strongly stratified case, a large-scale vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF) coexists with small scale turbulence. The VSHF consists of internal gravity waves and the turbulent flow has a kinetic energy (KE) spectrum that follows an approximate k−3 scaling with zero KE flux and a robust positive enstrophy flux. The spectrum of the turbulent potential energy (PE) also approximately follows a k−3 power-law and its flux is directed to small scales. For moderate stratification, there is no VSHF and the KE of the turbulent flow exhibits Bolgiano–Obukhov scaling that transitions from a shallow k−11/5 form at large scales, to a steeper approximate k−3 scaling at small scales. The entire range of scales shows a strong forward enstrophy flux, and interestingly, large (small) scales show an inverse (forward) KE flux. The PE flux in this regime is directed to small scales, and the PE spectrum is characterised by an approximate k−1.64 scaling. Finally, for weak stratification, KE is transferred upscale and its spectrum closely follows a k−2.5 scaling, while PE exhibits a forward transfer and its spectrum shows an approximate k−1.6 power-law. For all stratification strengths, the total energy always flows from large to small scales and almost all the spectral indicies are well explained by accounting for the scale-dependent nature of the corresponding flux.

  6. Phenomenology of two-dimensional stably stratified turbulence under large-scale forcing

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Abhishek

    2017-01-11

    In this paper, we characterise the scaling of energy spectra, and the interscale transfer of energy and enstrophy, for strongly, moderately and weakly stably stratified two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, restricted in a vertical plane, under large-scale random forcing. In the strongly stratified case, a large-scale vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF) coexists with small scale turbulence. The VSHF consists of internal gravity waves and the turbulent flow has a kinetic energy (KE) spectrum that follows an approximate k−3 scaling with zero KE flux and a robust positive enstrophy flux. The spectrum of the turbulent potential energy (PE) also approximately follows a k−3 power-law and its flux is directed to small scales. For moderate stratification, there is no VSHF and the KE of the turbulent flow exhibits Bolgiano–Obukhov scaling that transitions from a shallow k−11/5 form at large scales, to a steeper approximate k−3 scaling at small scales. The entire range of scales shows a strong forward enstrophy flux, and interestingly, large (small) scales show an inverse (forward) KE flux. The PE flux in this regime is directed to small scales, and the PE spectrum is characterised by an approximate k−1.64 scaling. Finally, for weak stratification, KE is transferred upscale and its spectrum closely follows a k−2.5 scaling, while PE exhibits a forward transfer and its spectrum shows an approximate k−1.6 power-law. For all stratification strengths, the total energy always flows from large to small scales and almost all the spectral indicies are well explained by accounting for the scale-dependent nature of the corresponding flux.

  7. Incorporation of Spatial Interactions in Location Networks to Identify Critical Geo-Referenced Routes for Assessing Disease Control Measures on a Large-Scale Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzai-Hung Wen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases mainly spread through interpersonal contact. Class suspension is the most direct strategy to prevent the spread of disease through elementary or secondary schools by blocking the contact network. However, as university students usually attend courses in different buildings, the daily contact patterns on a university campus are complicated, and once disease clusters have occurred, suspending classes is far from an efficient strategy to control disease spread. The purpose of this study is to propose a methodological framework for generating campus location networks from a routine administration database, analyzing the community structure of the network, and identifying the critical links and nodes for blocking respiratory disease transmission. The data comes from the student enrollment records of a major comprehensive university in Taiwan. We combined the social network analysis and spatial interaction model to establish a geo-referenced community structure among the classroom buildings. We also identified the critical links among the communities that were acting as contact bridges and explored the changes in the location network after the sequential removal of the high-risk buildings. Instead of conducting a questionnaire survey, the study established a standard procedure for constructing a location network on a large-scale campus from a routine curriculum database. We also present how a location network structure at a campus could function to target the high-risk buildings as the bridges connecting communities for blocking disease transmission.

  8. Exploring the large-scale structure of Taylor–Couette turbulence through Large-Eddy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto

    2018-04-01

    Large eddy simulations (LES) of Taylor-Couette (TC) flow, the flow between two co-axial and independently rotating cylinders are performed in an attempt to explore the large-scale axially-pinned structures seen in experiments and simulations. Both static and dynamic LES models are used. The Reynolds number is kept fixed at Re = 3.4 · 104, and the radius ratio η = ri /ro is set to η = 0.909, limiting the effects of curvature and resulting in frictional Reynolds numbers of around Re τ ≈ 500. Four rotation ratios from Rot = ‑0.0909 to Rot = 0.3 are simulated. First, the LES of TC is benchmarked for different rotation ratios. Both the Smagorinsky model with a constant of cs = 0.1 and the dynamic model are found to produce reasonable results for no mean rotation and cyclonic rotation, but deviations increase for increasing rotation. This is attributed to the increasing anisotropic character of the fluctuations. Second, “over-damped” LES, i.e. LES with a large Smagorinsky constant is performed and is shown to reproduce some features of the large-scale structures, even when the near-wall region is not adequately modeled. This shows the potential for using over-damped LES for fast explorations of the parameter space where large-scale structures are found.

  9. Large-scale fuel cycle centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, S.H.; Black, K.M.

    1977-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has considered the nuclear energy centre concept for fuel cycle plants in the Nuclear Energy Centre Site Survey 1975 (NECSS-75) Rep. No. NUREG-0001, an important study mandated by the US Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which created the NRC. For this study, the NRC defined fuel cycle centres as consisting of fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants, and optional high-level waste and transuranic waste management facilities. A range of fuel cycle centre sizes corresponded to the fuel throughput of power plants with a total capacity of 50,000-300,000MW(e). The types of fuel cycle facilities located at the fuel cycle centre permit the assessment of the role of fuel cycle centres in enhancing the safeguard of strategic special nuclear materials - plutonium and mixed oxides. Siting fuel cycle centres presents a smaller problem than siting reactors. A single reprocessing plant of the scale projected for use in the USA (1500-2000t/a) can reprocess fuel from reactors producing 50,000-65,000MW(e). Only two or three fuel cycle centres of the upper limit size considered in the NECSS-75 would be required in the USA by the year 2000. The NECSS-75 fuel cycle centre evaluation showed that large-scale fuel cycle centres present no real technical siting difficulties from a radiological effluent and safety standpoint. Some construction economies may be achievable with fuel cycle centres, which offer opportunities to improve waste-management systems. Combined centres consisting of reactors and fuel reprocessing and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plants were also studied in the NECSS. Such centres can eliminate shipment not only of Pu but also mixed-oxide fuel. Increased fuel cycle costs result from implementation of combined centres unless the fuel reprocessing plants are commercial-sized. Development of Pu-burning reactors could reduce any economic penalties of combined centres. The need for effective fissile

  10. The Role of Remote Sensing for Understanding Large-Scale Rubber Concession Expansion in Southern Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Özdoğan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for natural rubber began in the mid-2000s and led to large-scale expansion of plantations in Laos until rubber latex prices declined greatly beginning in 2011. The expansion of rubber did not, however, occur uniformly across the country. While the north and central Laos experienced mostly local and smallholder plantations, rubber expansion in the south was dominated by transnational companies from Vietnam, China and Thailand through large-scale land concessions, often causing conflicts with local communities. In this study we use satellite remote sensing to identify and map the expansion of large-scale rubber plantations in Champasak Province—the first area in southern Laos to host large-scale rubber development—and document the biophysical impacts on the local landscape, which of course is linked to social impacts on local people. Our study demonstrates that the expansion of rubber in the province was rapid and did not always conform to approved concession area locations. The mono-culture nature of rubber plantations also had the effect of homogenizing the landscape, eclipsing the changes caused by local populations. We argue that by providing a relatively inexpensive way to track the expansion of rubber plantations over space and time, remote sensing has the potential to provide advocates and other civil society groups with data that might otherwise remain limited to the restricted domains of state regulation and private sector reporting. However, we also caution that while remote sensing has the potential to provide strong public evidence about plantation expansion, access to and control of this information ultimately determines its value.

  11. Public appraisal of government efforts and participation intent in medico-ethical policymaking in Japan: a large scale national survey concerning brain death and organ transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime; Akabayashi, Akira; Kai, Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Background Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted. Methods Using the data from a large-scale national opinion survey, this study evaluates public appraisal of past government efforts to legalize organ transplant from brain-dead bodies in Japan, and examines the public's intent to participate in future policy. Results A relatively large percentage of people became aware of the issue when government actions were initiated, and many increasingly formed their own opinions on the policy in question. However, a significant number (43.3%) remained unaware of any legislative efforts, and only 26.3% of those who were aware provided positive appraisals of the policymaking process. Furthermore, a majority of respondents (61.8%) indicated unwillingness to participate in future policy discussions of bioethical issues. Multivariate analysis revealed the following factors are associated with positive appraisals of policy development: greater age; earlier opinion formation; and familiarity with donor cards. Factors associated with likelihood of future participation in policy discussion include younger age, earlier attention to the issue, and knowledge of past government efforts. Those unwilling to participate cited as their reasons that experts are more knowledgeable and that the issues are too complex. Conclusions Results of an opinion survey in Japan were presented, and a set of factors statistically associated with them were discussed. Further efforts to improve policy making process on bioethical issues are desirable. PMID:15661080

  12. Contributions of Small-Scale Community-Owned Infrastructure (SCI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contributions of Small-Scale Community-Owned Infrastructure (SCI) and Asset ... Descriptive analysis was employed to explain access to productive rural ... for asset maintenance and replacement; support targeted value chains given the ...

  13. Large-scale preparation of hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jun; Li, Fu; Bai, Yu-Jun; Han, Fu-Dong; Qi, Yong-Xin; Lun, Ning; Lu, Xi-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNSs) were synthesized on large scale by a simple reaction between glucose and Mg at 550 °C in an autoclave. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrates the formation of HGCNSs with an average diameter of 10 nm or so and a wall thickness of a few graphenes. The HGCNSs exhibit a reversible capacity of 391 mAh g −1 after 60 cycles when used as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. -- Graphical abstract: Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres could be prepared on large scale by the simple reaction between glucose and Mg at 550 °C, which exhibit superior electrochemical performance to graphite. Highlights: ► Hollow graphitic carbon nanospheres (HGCNSs) were prepared on large scale at 550 °C ► The preparation is simple, effective and eco-friendly. ► The in situ yielded MgO nanocrystals promote the graphitization. ► The HGCNSs exhibit superior electrochemical performance to graphite.

  14. Accelerating large-scale phase-field simulations with GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new package for accelerating large-scale phase-field simulations was developed by using GPU based on the semi-implicit Fourier method. The package can solve a variety of equilibrium equations with different inhomogeneity including long-range elastic, magnetostatic, and electrostatic interactions. Through using specific algorithm in Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA, Fourier spectral iterative perturbation method was integrated in GPU package. The Allen-Cahn equation, Cahn-Hilliard equation, and phase-field model with long-range interaction were solved based on the algorithm running on GPU respectively to test the performance of the package. From the comparison of the calculation results between the solver executed in single CPU and the one on GPU, it was found that the speed on GPU is enormously elevated to 50 times faster. The present study therefore contributes to the acceleration of large-scale phase-field simulations and provides guidance for experiments to design large-scale functional devices.

  15. First Mile Challenges for Large-Scale IoT

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-03-16

    The Internet of Things is large-scale by nature. This is not only manifested by the large number of connected devices, but also by the sheer scale of spatial traffic intensity that must be accommodated, primarily in the uplink direction. To that end, cellular networks are indeed a strong first mile candidate to accommodate the data tsunami to be generated by the IoT. However, IoT devices are required in the cellular paradigm to undergo random access procedures as a precursor to resource allocation. Such procedures impose a major bottleneck that hinders cellular networks\\' ability to support large-scale IoT. In this article, we shed light on the random access dilemma and present a case study based on experimental data as well as system-level simulations. Accordingly, a case is built for the latent need to revisit random access procedures. A call for action is motivated by listing a few potential remedies and recommendations.

  16. Small-scale and reconnaissance surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Jonathan; Andres, Brad A.; Elliott, Kyle; Francis, Charles M.; Johnston, Victoria; Morrison, R.I.G.; Pierce, Elin P.; Rausch, Jennie; Bart, Jonathan; Johnston, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This brief chapter addresses two related issues: how effort should be allocated to different parts of the sampling plan and, given optimal allocation, how large a sample will be required to achieve the PRISM accuracy target. Simulations based on data collected to date showed that 2 plots per cluster on rapid surveys, 2 intensive camps per field crew-year, 2-4 intensive plots per intensive camp, and 2-3 rapid surveys per intensive plot is the most efficient allocation of resources. Using this design, we investigated how crew-years should be allocated to each region in order to meet the PRISM accuracy target most efficiently. The analysis indicated that 40-50 crew-years would achieve the accuracy target for 18-24 of the 26 species breeding widely in the Arctic. This analysis was based on assuming that two rounds of surveys were conducted and that a 50% decline occurred between them. We discuss the complexity of making these estimates and why they should be viewed as first approximations.

  17. Large-scale, high-definition Ground Penetrating Radar prospection in archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, I.; Kucera, M.; Hinterleitner, A.; Löcker, K.; Nau, E.; Neubauer, W.; Zitz, T.

    2012-04-01

    The future demands on professional archaeological prospection will be its ability to cover large areas in a time and cost efficient manner with very high spatial resolution and accuracy. The objective of the 2010 in Vienna established Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (LBI ArchPro) in collaboration with its eight European partner organisations is the advancement of state-of-the-art archaeological sciences. The application and specific further development of remote sensing, geophysical prospection and virtual reality applications, as well as of novel integrated interpretation approaches dedicated to non-invasive spatial archaeology combining near-surface prospection methods with advanced computer science is crucial for modern archaeology. Within the institute's research programme different areas for distinct case studies in Austria, Germany, Norway, Sweden and the UK have been selected as basis for the development and testing of new concepts for efficient and universally applicable tools for spatial, non-invasive archaeology. In terms of geophysical prospection the investigation of entire archaeological landscapes for the exploration and protection of Europe's buried cultural heritage requires new measurement devices, which are fast, accurate and precise. Therefore the further development of motorized, multichannel survey systems and advanced navigation solutions is required. The use of motorized measurement devices for archaeological prospection implicates several technological and methodological challenges. Latest multichannel Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) arrays mounted in front off, or towed behind motorized survey vehicles permit large-scale GPR prospection surveys with unprecedented spatial resolution. In particular the motorized 16 channel 400 MHz MALÅ Imaging Radar Array (MIRA) used by the LBI ArchPro in combination with latest automatic data positioning and navigation solutions permits the reliable high

  18. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  19. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-28

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  20. Thermal power generation projects ``Large Scale Solar Heating``; EU-Thermie-Projekte ``Large Scale Solar Heating``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebler, R.; Fisch, M.N. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebaeude- und Solartechnik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is the preparation of the ``Large-Scale Solar Heating`` programme for an Europe-wide development of subject technology. The following demonstration programme was judged well by the experts but was not immediately (1996) accepted for financial subsidies. In November 1997 the EU-commission provided 1,5 million ECU which allowed the realisation of an updated project proposal. By mid 1997 a small project was approved, that had been requested under the lead of Chalmes Industriteteknik (CIT) in Sweden and is mainly carried out for the transfer of technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist die Vorbereitung eines Schwerpunktprogramms `Large Scale Solar Heating`, mit dem die Technologie europaweit weiterentwickelt werden sollte. Das daraus entwickelte Demonstrationsprogramm wurde von den Gutachtern positiv bewertet, konnte jedoch nicht auf Anhieb (1996) in die Foerderung aufgenommen werden. Im November 1997 wurden von der EU-Kommission dann kurzfristig noch 1,5 Mio ECU an Foerderung bewilligt, mit denen ein aktualisierter Projektvorschlag realisiert werden kann. Bereits Mitte 1997 wurde ein kleineres Vorhaben bewilligt, das unter Federfuehrung von Chalmers Industriteknik (CIT) in Schweden beantragt worden war und das vor allem dem Technologietransfer dient. (orig.)

  1. Re-thinking china's densified biomass fuel policies: Large or small scale?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Ming; Li, Dingkai; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Current policies and strategies related to the utilization of densified biomass fuel (DBF) in China are mainly focused on medium- or large-scale manufacturing modes, which cannot provide feasible solutions to solve the household energy problems in China's rural areas. To simplify commercial processes related to the collection of DBF feedstock and the production and utilization of fuel, a novel village-scale DBF approach is proposed. Pilot demonstration projects have shown the feasibility and flexibility of this new approach in realizing sustainable development in rural China. Effective utilization of DBF in rural China will lead to gains for global, regional, and local energy savings, environmental protection, sustainable development, and related social benefits. It could also benefit other developing countries for better utilization of biomass as a viable household energy source. This proposal therefore delivers the possibility of reciprocal gains, and as such deserves the attention of policy makers and various stakeholders. - Highlights: •A field survey of Chinese densified biomass fuel (DBF) development is conducted. •The current situation and problems related to China's DBF industry are analyzed. •A novel and viable village-scale DBF utilization mode is proposed. •Further actions are suggested to boost the utilization of DBF in rural China.

  2. Seismic texture and amplitude analysis of large scale fluid escape pipes using time lapses seismic surveys: examples from the Loyal Field (Scotland, UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestrelli, Daniele; Jihad, Ali; Iacopini, David; Bond, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Fluid escape pipes are key features of primary interest for the analysis of vertical fluid flow and secondary hydrocarbon migration in sedimentary basin. Identified worldwide (Løset et al., 2009), they acquired more and more importance as they represent critical pathways for supply of methane and potential structure for leakage into the storage reservoir (Cartwright & Santamarina, 2015). Therefore, understanding their genesis, internal characteristics and seismic expression, is of great significance for the exploration industry. Here we propose a detailed characterization of the internal seismic texture of some seal bypass system (e.g fluid escape pipes) from a 4D seismic survey (released by the BP) recently acquired in the Loyal Field. The seal by pass structure are characterized by big-scale fluid escape pipes affecting the Upper Paleogene/Neogene stratigraphic succession in the Loyal Field, Scotland (UK). The Loyal field, is located on the edge of the Faroe-Shetland Channel slope, about 130 km west of Shetland (Quadrants 204/205 of the UKCS) and has been recently re-appraised and re developed by a consortium led by BP. The 3D detailed mapping analysis of the full and partial stack survey (processed using amplitude preservation workflows) shows a complex system of fluid pipe structure rooted in the pre Lista formation and developed across the paleogene and Neogene Units. Geometrical analysis show that pipes got diameter varying between 100-300 m and a length of 500 m to 2 km. Most pipes seem to terminate abruptly at discrete subsurface horizons or in diffuse termination suggesting multiple overpressured events and lateral fluid migration (through Darcy flows) across the overburden units. The internal texture analysis of the large pipes, (across both the root and main conduit zones), using near, medium and far offset stack dataset (processed through an amplitude preserved PSTM workflow) shows a tendency of up-bending of reflection (rather than pulls up artefacts

  3. Large-scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Testi, Leonardo; Ginsburg, Adam; Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Molinari, Sergio; Schisano, Eugenio

    2015-07-01

    The ubiquity of filamentary structure at various scales throughout the Galaxy has triggered a renewed interest in their formation, evolution, and role in star formation. The largest filaments can reach up to Galactic scale as part of the spiral arm structure. However, such large-scale filaments are hard to identify systematically due to limitations in identifying methodology (i.e. as extinction features). We present a new approach to directly search for the largest, coldest, and densest filaments in the Galaxy, making use of sensitive Herschel Hi-GAL (Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey) data complemented by spectral line cubes. We present a sample of the nine most prominent Herschel filaments, including six identified from a pilot search field plus three from outside the field. These filaments measure 37-99 pc long and 0.6-3.0 pc wide with masses (0.5-8.3) × 104 M⊙, and beam-averaged (28 arcsec, or 0.4-0.7 pc) peak H2 column densities of (1.7-9.3)× 1022 cm- 2. The bulk of the filaments are relatively cold (17-21 K), while some local clumps have a dust temperature up to 25-47 K. All the filaments are located within ≲60 pc from the Galactic mid-plane. Comparing the filaments to a recent spiral arm model incorporating the latest parallax measurements, we find that 7/9 of them reside within arms, but most are close to arm edges. These filaments are comparable in length to the Galactic scaleheight and therefore are not simply part of a grander turbulent cascade.

  4. Large-scale retrieval for medical image analytics: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyu; Zhang, Xiaofan; Müller, Henning; Zhang, Shaoting

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, medical image analytics was greatly facilitated by the explosion of digital imaging techniques, where huge amounts of medical images were produced with ever-increasing quality and diversity. However, conventional methods for analyzing medical images have achieved limited success, as they are not capable to tackle the huge amount of image data. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art approaches for large-scale medical image analysis, which are mainly based on recent advances in computer vision, machine learning and information retrieval. Specifically, we first present the general pipeline of large-scale retrieval, summarize the challenges/opportunities of medical image analytics on a large-scale. Then, we provide a comprehensive review of algorithms and techniques relevant to major processes in the pipeline, including feature representation, feature indexing, searching, etc. On the basis of existing work, we introduce the evaluation protocols and multiple applications of large-scale medical image retrieval, with a variety of exploratory and diagnostic scenarios. Finally, we discuss future directions of large-scale retrieval, which can further improve the performance of medical image analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photorealistic large-scale urban city model reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullis, Charalambos; You, Suya

    2009-01-01

    The rapid and efficient creation of virtual environments has become a crucial part of virtual reality applications. In particular, civil and defense applications often require and employ detailed models of operations areas for training, simulations of different scenarios, planning for natural or man-made events, monitoring, surveillance, games, and films. A realistic representation of the large-scale environments is therefore imperative for the success of such applications since it increases the immersive experience of its users and helps reduce the difference between physical and virtual reality. However, the task of creating such large-scale virtual environments still remains a time-consuming and manual work. In this work, we propose a novel method for the rapid reconstruction of photorealistic large-scale virtual environments. First, a novel, extendible, parameterized geometric primitive is presented for the automatic building identification and reconstruction of building structures. In addition, buildings with complex roofs containing complex linear and nonlinear surfaces are reconstructed interactively using a linear polygonal and a nonlinear primitive, respectively. Second, we present a rendering pipeline for the composition of photorealistic textures, which unlike existing techniques, can recover missing or occluded texture information by integrating multiple information captured from different optical sensors (ground, aerial, and satellite).

  6. Prototype Vector Machine for Large Scale Semi-Supervised Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Kwok, James T.; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-04-29

    Practicaldataminingrarelyfalls exactlyinto the supervisedlearning scenario. Rather, the growing amount of unlabeled data poses a big challenge to large-scale semi-supervised learning (SSL). We note that the computationalintensivenessofgraph-based SSLarises largely from the manifold or graph regularization, which in turn lead to large models that are dificult to handle. To alleviate this, we proposed the prototype vector machine (PVM), a highlyscalable,graph-based algorithm for large-scale SSL. Our key innovation is the use of"prototypes vectors" for effcient approximation on both the graph-based regularizer and model representation. The choice of prototypes are grounded upon two important criteria: they not only perform effective low-rank approximation of the kernel matrix, but also span a model suffering the minimum information loss compared with the complete model. We demonstrate encouraging performance and appealing scaling properties of the PVM on a number of machine learning benchmark data sets.

  7. Research on the Application of Rapid Surveying and Mapping for Large Scare Topographic Map by Uav Aerial Photography System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z.; Song, Y.; Li, C.; Zeng, F.; Wang, F.

    2017-08-01

    Rapid acquisition and processing method of large scale topographic map data, which relies on the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) low-altitude aerial photogrammetry system, is studied in this paper, elaborating the main work flow. Key technologies of UAV photograph mapping is also studied, developing a rapid mapping system based on electronic plate mapping system, thus changing the traditional mapping mode and greatly improving the efficiency of the mapping. Production test and achievement precision evaluation of Digital Orth photo Map (DOM), Digital Line Graphic (DLG) and other digital production were carried out combined with the city basic topographic map update project, which provides a new techniques for large scale rapid surveying and has obvious technical advantage and good application prospect.

  8. Large-area Soil Moisture Surveys Using a Cosmic-ray Rover: Approaches and Results from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawdon, A. A.; McJannet, D. L.; Renzullo, L. J.; Baker, B.; Searle, R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent improvements in satellite instrumentation has increased the resolution and frequency of soil moisture observations, and this in turn has supported the development of higher resolution land surface process models. Calibration and validation of these products is restricted by the mismatch of scales between remotely sensed and contemporary ground based observations. Although the cosmic ray neutron soil moisture probe can provide estimates soil moisture at a scale useful for the calibration and validation purposes, it is spatially limited to a single, fixed location. This scaling issue has been addressed with the development of mobile soil moisture monitoring systems that utilizes the cosmic ray neutron method, typically referred to as a `rover'. This manuscript describes a project designed to develop approaches for undertaking rover surveys to produce soil moisture estimates at scales comparable to satellite observations and land surface process models. A custom designed, trailer-mounted rover was used to conduct repeat surveys at two scales in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. A broad scale survey was conducted at 36 x 36 km covering an area of a standard SMAP pixel and an intensive scale survey was conducted over a 10 x 10 km portion of the broad scale survey, which is at a scale equivalent to that used for national water balance modelling. We will describe the design of the rover, the methods used for converting neutron counts into soil moisture and discuss factors controlling soil moisture variability. We found that the intensive scale rover surveys produced reliable soil moisture estimates at 1 km resolution and the broad scale at 9 km resolution. We conclude that these products are well suited for future analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals and finer scale soil moisture models.

  9. On the scaling features of high-latitude geomagnetic field fluctuations during a large geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michelis, Paola; Federica Marcucci, Maria; Consolini, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Recently we have investigated the spatial distribution of the scaling features of short-time scale magnetic field fluctuations using measurements from several ground-based geomagnetic observatories distributed in the northern hemisphere. We have found that the scaling features of fluctuations of the horizontal magnetic field component at time scales below 100 minutes are correlated with the geomagnetic activity level and with changes in the currents flowing in the ionosphere. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the dynamical changes of the magnetic field scaling features as a function of the geomagnetic activity level during the well-known large geomagnetic storm occurred on July, 15, 2000 (the Bastille event). The observed dynamical changes are discussed in relationship with the changes of the overall ionospheric polar convection and potential structure as reconstructed using SuperDARN data. This work is supported by the Italian National Program for Antarctic Research (PNRA) - Research Project 2013/AC3.08 and by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme ([FP7/2007-2013]) under Grant no. 313038/STORM and

  10. Implementation of highly parallel and large scale GW calculations within the OpenAtom software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    The need to describe electronic excitations with better accuracy than provided by band structures produced by Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been a long-term enterprise for the computational condensed matter and materials theory communities. In some cases, appropriate theoretical frameworks have existed for some time but have been difficult to apply widely due to computational cost. For example, the GW approximation incorporates a great deal of important non-local and dynamical electronic interaction effects but has been too computationally expensive for routine use in large materials simulations. OpenAtom is an open source massively parallel ab initiodensity functional software package based on plane waves and pseudopotentials (http://charm.cs.uiuc.edu/OpenAtom/) that takes advantage of the Charm + + parallel framework. At present, it is developed via a three-way collaboration, funded by an NSF SI2-SSI grant (ACI-1339804), between Yale (Ismail-Beigi), IBM T. J. Watson (Glenn Martyna) and the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (Laxmikant Kale). We will describe the project and our current approach towards implementing large scale GW calculations with OpenAtom. Potential applications of large scale parallel GW software for problems involving electronic excitations in semiconductor and/or metal oxide systems will be also be pointed out.

  11. Spinal Cord Injury Community Survey: Understanding the Needs of Canadians with SCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreau, Luc; Noonan, Vanessa K; Cobb, John; Leblond, Jean; Dumont, Frédéric S

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of literature regarding service needs of people with SCI living in the community. Better assessment of expressed and met and unmet needs would help in the development of effective service delivery. From a national SCI Community Survey in Canada, the aim was to identify the most critical service needs of people living in the community at least 1 year post discharge from rehabilitation and the support they received to meet their needs. Data were collected mainly through a secure Web site and encompassed demographics, personal and household income, an SCI severity measure, and an SCI community needs measure containing information on 13 SCI-related needs. A total of 1,549 persons with SCI (traumatic lesion, n = 1,137; nontraumatic lesion, n = 412) across Canada completed the survey. Most critical needs for community integration were expressed by a substantial proportion of survey participants, but significantly more expressed and met needs were reported by persons with a traumatic than a nontraumatic lesion. Personal and environmental characteristics influenced the probability of expressing and meeting needs (eg, severity of injury and household income). Help and support to meet expressed needs were received from government agencies, community organizations, and friends or family. Better assessment of expressed and met or unmet needs for services remains a challenge but will serve as a tool to optimize service delivery in the community. Environmental barriers to services, particularly the process of getting needs met and associated costs, remain an issue that requires a reconsideration of some aspects of access to services.

  12. Minimizing the stochasticity of halos in large-scale structure surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Seljak, Uroš; Desjacques, Vincent; Smith, Robert E.; Baldauf, Tobias

    2010-08-01

    In recent work (Seljak, Hamaus, and Desjacques 2009) it was found that weighting central halo galaxies by halo mass can significantly suppress their stochasticity relative to the dark matter, well below the Poisson model expectation. This is useful for constraining relations between galaxies and the dark matter, such as the galaxy bias, especially in situations where sampling variance errors can be eliminated. In this paper we extend this study with the goal of finding the optimal mass-dependent halo weighting. We use N-body simulations to perform a general analysis of halo stochasticity and its dependence on halo mass. We investigate the stochasticity matrix, defined as Cij≡⟨(δi-biδm)(δj-bjδm)⟩, where δm is the dark matter overdensity in Fourier space, δi the halo overdensity of the i-th halo mass bin, and bi the corresponding halo bias. In contrast to the Poisson model predictions we detect nonvanishing correlations between different mass bins. We also find the diagonal terms to be sub-Poissonian for the highest-mass halos. The diagonalization of this matrix results in one large and one low eigenvalue, with the remaining eigenvalues close to the Poisson prediction 1/n¯, where n¯ is the mean halo number density. The eigenmode with the lowest eigenvalue contains most of the information and the corresponding eigenvector provides an optimal weighting function to minimize the stochasticity between halos and dark matter. We find this optimal weighting function to match linear mass weighting at high masses, while at the low-mass end the weights approach a constant whose value depends on the low-mass cut in the halo mass function. This weighting further suppresses the stochasticity as compared to the previously explored mass weighting. Finally, we employ the halo model to derive the stochasticity matrix and the scale-dependent bias from an analytical perspective. It is remarkably successful in reproducing our numerical results and predicts that the

  13. Red Geyser: A New Class of Galaxy with Large-scale AGN-driven Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Namrata; Bundy, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond; MaNGA Team

    2018-01-01

    A new class of quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies harboring possible AGN-driven winds have been discovered using the spatially resolved optical spectroscopy from the ongoing SDSS-IV MaNGA (Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) survey. These galaxies named "red geysers" constitute 5%-10% of the local quiescent galaxy population and are characterized by narrow bisymmetric ionized gas emission patterns. These enhanced patterns are seen in equivalent width maps of Hα, [OIII] and other strong emission lines. They are co-aligned with the ionized gas velocity gradients but significantly misaligned with stellar velocity gradients. They also show very high gas velocity dispersions (~200 km/s). Considering these observations in light of models of the gravitational potential, Cheung et al. argued that red geysers host large-scale AGN-driven winds of ionized gas that may play a role in suppressing star formation at late times. In this work, we test the hypothesis that AGN activity is ultimately responsible for the red geyser phenomenon. We compare the nuclear radio activity of the red geysers to a matched control sample of galaxies of similar stellar mass, redshift, rest frame NUV–r color and axis ratio. and additionally, control for the presence of ionized gas. We have used 1.4 GHz radio continuum data from the VLA FIRST Survey to stack the radio flux from the red geyser sample and control sample. We find that the red geysers have a higher average radio flux than the control galaxies at > 3σ significance. Our sample is restricted to rest-frame NUV–r color > 5, thus ruling out possible radio emission due to star formation activity. We conclude that red geysers are associated with more active AGN, supporting a feedback picture in which episodic AGN activity drives large-scale but relatively weak ionized winds in many in many early-type galaxies.

  14. Large-Scale Survey Findings Inform Patients’ Experiences in Using Secure Messaging to Engage in Patient-Provider Communication and Self-Care Management: A Quantitative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nitin R; Lind, Jason D; Antinori, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background Secure email messaging is part of a national transformation initiative in the United States to promote new models of care that support enhanced patient-provider communication. To date, only a limited number of large-scale studies have evaluated users’ experiences in using secure email messaging. Objective To quantitatively assess veteran patients’ experiences in using secure email messaging in a large patient sample. Methods A cross-sectional mail-delivered paper-and-pencil survey study was conducted with a sample of respondents identified as registered for the Veteran Health Administrations’ Web-based patient portal (My HealtheVet) and opted to use secure messaging. The survey collected demographic data, assessed computer and health literacy, and secure messaging use. Analyses conducted on survey data include frequencies and proportions, chi-square tests, and one-way analysis of variance. Results The majority of respondents (N=819) reported using secure messaging 6 months or longer (n=499, 60.9%). They reported secure messaging to be helpful for completing medication refills (n=546, 66.7%), managing appointments (n=343, 41.9%), looking up test results (n=350, 42.7%), and asking health-related questions (n=340, 41.5%). Notably, some respondents reported using secure messaging to address sensitive health topics (n=67, 8.2%). Survey responses indicated that younger age (P=.039) and higher levels of education (P=.025) and income (P=.003) were associated with more frequent use of secure messaging. Females were more likely to report using secure messaging more often, compared with their male counterparts (P=.098). Minorities were more likely to report using secure messaging more often, at least once a month, compared with nonminorities (P=.086). Individuals with higher levels of health literacy reported more frequent use of secure messaging (P=.007), greater satisfaction (P=.002), and indicated that secure messaging is a useful (P=.002) and easy

  15. Large-Scale Survey Findings Inform Patients' Experiences in Using Secure Messaging to Engage in Patient-Provider Communication and Self-Care Management: A Quantitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Jolie N; Patel, Nitin R; Lind, Jason D; Antinori, Nicole

    2015-12-21

    Secure email messaging is part of a national transformation initiative in the United States to promote new models of care that support enhanced patient-provider communication. To date, only a limited number of large-scale studies have evaluated users' experiences in using secure email messaging. To quantitatively assess veteran patients' experiences in using secure email messaging in a large patient sample. A cross-sectional mail-delivered paper-and-pencil survey study was conducted with a sample of respondents identified as registered for the Veteran Health Administrations' Web-based patient portal (My HealtheVet) and opted to use secure messaging. The survey collected demographic data, assessed computer and health literacy, and secure messaging use. Analyses conducted on survey data include frequencies and proportions, chi-square tests, and one-way analysis of variance. The majority of respondents (N=819) reported using secure messaging 6 months or longer (n=499, 60.9%). They reported secure messaging to be helpful for completing medication refills (n=546, 66.7%), managing appointments (n=343, 41.9%), looking up test results (n=350, 42.7%), and asking health-related questions (n=340, 41.5%). Notably, some respondents reported using secure messaging to address sensitive health topics (n=67, 8.2%). Survey responses indicated that younger age (P=.039) and higher levels of education (P=.025) and income (P=.003) were associated with more frequent use of secure messaging. Females were more likely to report using secure messaging more often, compared with their male counterparts (P=.098). Minorities were more likely to report using secure messaging more often, at least once a month, compared with nonminorities (P=.086). Individuals with higher levels of health literacy reported more frequent use of secure messaging (P=.007), greater satisfaction (P=.002), and indicated that secure messaging is a useful (P=.002) and easy-to-use (P≤.001) communication tool, compared

  16. Connecting the small scale to the large scale: young massive stars and their environments from the Red MSX Source Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, James S.; Morgan, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed multi-wavelength investigation of a variety of massive star forming regions in order to characterise the impact of the interactions between the substructure of the dense protostellar clumps and their local environment, including feedback from the embedded proto-cluster.A selection of 70 MYSOs and HII regions identified by the RMS survey have been followed up with observations of the ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions made with the KFPA on the GBT. These maps have been combined with archival CO data to investigate the thermal and kinematic structure of the extended envelopes down to the dense clumps. We complement this larger-scale picture with high resolution near- and mid-infrared images to probe the properties of the embedded objects themselves.We present an overview of several sources from this sample that illustrate some of the the interactions that we observe. We find that high molecular column densities and kinetic temperatures are coincident with embedded sources and with shocks and outflows as exhibited in gas kinematics.

  17. Conducting a large, multi-site survey about patients’ views on broad consent: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen E. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As biobanks play an increasing role in the genomic research that will lead to precision medicine, input from diverse and large populations of patients in a variety of health care settings will be important in order to successfully carry out such studies. One important topic is participants’ views towards consent and data sharing, especially since the 2011 Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM, and subsequently the 2015 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM were issued by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS and Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP. These notices required that participants consent to research uses of their de-identified tissue samples and most clinical data, and allowing such consent be obtained in a one-time, open-ended or “broad” fashion. Conducting a survey across multiple sites provides clear advantages to either a single site survey or using a large online database, and is a potentially powerful way of understanding the views of diverse populations on this topic. Methods A workgroup of the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE Network, a national consortium of 9 sites (13 separate institutions, 11 clinical centers supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI that combines DNA biorepositories with electronic medical record (EMR systems for large-scale genetic research, conducted a survey to understand patients’ views on consent, sample and data sharing for future research, biobank governance, data protection, and return of research results. Results Working across 9 sites to design and conduct a national survey presented challenges in organization, meeting human subjects guidelines at each institution, and survey development and implementation. The challenges were met through a committee structure to address each aspect of the project with representatives from all sites. Each committee’s output was integrated into the overall survey plan. A

  18. Recent Progress in Large-Scale Structure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    I will discuss recent progress in the understanding of how to model galaxy clustering. While recent analyses have focussed on the baryon acoustic oscillations as a probe of cosmology, galaxy redshift surveys contain a lot more information than the acoustic scale. In extracting this additional information three main issues need to be well understood: nonlinear evolution of matter fluctuations, galaxy bias and redshift-space distortions. I will present recent progress in modeling these three effects that pave the way to constraining cosmology and galaxy formation with increased precision.

  19. Cohort profile: the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Araujo, Andre B; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2014-02-01

    The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey is a community-based, random sample, epidemiologic cohort of n = 5502 Boston (MA) residents. The baseline BACH Survey (2002-05) was designed to explore the mechanisms conferring increased health risks on minority populations with a particular focus on urologic signs/symptoms and type 2 diabetes. To this end, the cohort was designed to include adequate numbers of US racial/ethnic minorities (Black, Hispanic, White), both men and women, across a broad age of distribution. Follow-up surveys were conducted ∼5 (BACH II, 2008) and 7 (BACH III, 2010) years later, which allows for both within- and between-person comparisons over time. The BACH Survey's measures were designed to cover the following seven broad categories: socio-demographics, health care access/utilization, lifestyles, psychosocial factors, health status, physical measures and biochemical parameters. The breadth of measures has allowed BACH researchers to identify disparities and quantify contributions to social disparities in a number of health conditions including urologic conditions (e.g. nocturia, lower urinary tract symptoms, prostatitis), type 2 diabetes, obesity, bone mineral content and density, and physical function. BACH I data are available through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories (www.niddkrepository.org). Further inquiries can be made through the New England Research Institutes Inc. website (www.neriscience.com/epidemiology).

  20. Reconstructing Information in Large-Scale Structure via Logarithmic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapudi, Istvan

    We propose to develop a new method to extract information from large-scale structure data combining two-point statistics and non-linear transformations; before, this information was available only with substantially more complex higher-order statistical methods. Initially, most of the cosmological information in large-scale structure lies in two-point statistics. With non- linear evolution, some of that useful information leaks into higher-order statistics. The PI and group has shown in a series of theoretical investigations how that leakage occurs, and explained the Fisher information plateau at smaller scales. This plateau means that even as more modes are added to the measurement of the power spectrum, the total cumulative information (loosely speaking the inverse errorbar) is not increasing. Recently we have shown in Neyrinck et al. (2009, 2010) that a logarithmic (and a related Gaussianization or Box-Cox) transformation on the non-linear Dark Matter or galaxy field reconstructs a surprisingly large fraction of this missing Fisher information of the initial conditions. This was predicted by the earlier wave mechanical formulation of gravitational dynamics by Szapudi & Kaiser (2003). The present proposal is focused on working out the theoretical underpinning of the method to a point that it can be used in practice to analyze data. In particular, one needs to deal with the usual real-life issues of galaxy surveys, such as complex geometry, discrete sam- pling (Poisson or sub-Poisson noise), bias (linear, or non-linear, deterministic, or stochastic), redshift distortions, pro jection effects for 2D samples, and the effects of photometric redshift errors. We will develop methods for weak lensing and Sunyaev-Zeldovich power spectra as well, the latter specifically targetting Planck. In addition, we plan to investigate the question of residual higher- order information after the non-linear mapping, and possible applications for cosmology. Our aim will be to work out

  1. Analyzing the cosmic variance limit of remote dipole measurements of the cosmic microwave background using the large-scale kinetic Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrana, Alexandra; Johnson, Matthew C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Harris, Mary-Jean, E-mail: aterrana@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: mharris8@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: mjohnson@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    Due to cosmic variance we cannot learn any more about large-scale inhomogeneities from the primary cosmic microwave background (CMB) alone. More information on large scales is essential for resolving large angular scale anomalies in the CMB. Here we consider cross correlating the large-scale kinetic Sunyaev Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect and probes of large-scale structure, a technique known as kSZ tomography. The statistically anisotropic component of the cross correlation encodes the CMB dipole as seen by free electrons throughout the observable Universe, providing information about long wavelength inhomogeneities. We compute the large angular scale power asymmetry, constructing the appropriate transfer functions, and estimate the cosmic variance limited signal to noise for a variety of redshift bin configurations. The signal to noise is significant over a large range of power multipoles and numbers of bins. We present a simple mode counting argument indicating that kSZ tomography can be used to estimate more modes than the primary CMB on comparable scales. A basic forecast indicates that a first detection could be made with next-generation CMB experiments and galaxy surveys. This paper motivates a more systematic investigation of how close to the cosmic variance limit it will be possible to get with future observations.

  2. Correlation between asthma and climate in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlato, Giuseppe; Calabrese, Rolando; De Marco, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    The European Community Respiratory Health Survey, performed during 1991-1993, found a remarkable geographical variability in the prevalence of asthma and asthma-like symptoms in individuals aged 20-44 yr. The highest values occurred in the English-speaking centers. In the present investigation, the ecological relationship between climate and symptom prevalence was evaluated in the 48 centers of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Meteorological variables were derived from the Global Historical Climatology Network and were averaged over an 11-yr period (i.e., 1980-1990). Respiratory symptom prevalence was directly related to temperature in the coldest month and was related inversely to the temperature in the hottest month. Warm winters and cool summers are features of oceanic climate found in most English-speaking centers of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (i.e., England, New Zealand, and Oregon). In conclusion, climate can account for significant geographic variability in respiratory symptom prevalence.

  3. Large Whale Biology Survey (DE9908, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The large whale biology survey primarily focuses on right whales in the coastal and continental shelf areas, with the following objectives: 1) Develop a better...

  4. Accelerating Relevance Vector Machine for Large-Scale Data on Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevance vector machine (RVM is a machine learning algorithm based on a sparse Bayesian framework, which performs well when running classification and regression tasks on small-scale datasets. However, RVM also has certain drawbacks which restricts its practical applications such as (1 slow training process, (2 poor performance on training large-scale datasets. In order to solve these problem, we propose Discrete AdaBoost RVM (DAB-RVM which incorporate ensemble learning in RVM at first. This method performs well with large-scale low-dimensional datasets. However, as the number of features increases, the training time of DAB-RVM increases as well. To avoid this phenomenon, we utilize the sufficient training samples of large-scale datasets and propose all features boosting RVM (AFB-RVM, which modifies the way of obtaining weak classifiers. In our experiments we study the differences between various boosting techniques with RVM, demonstrating the performance of the proposed approaches on Spark. As a result of this paper, two proposed approaches on Spark for different types of large-scale datasets are available.

  5. The SPHEREx All-Sky Spectral Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; SPHEREx Science Team

    2018-01-01

    SPHEREx, a mission in NASA's Medium Explorer (MIDEX) program that was selected for Phase A in August 2017, is an all-sky survey satellite designed to address all three science goals in NASA's astrophysics division, with a single instrument, a wide-field spectral imager. SPHEREx will probe the physics of inflation by measuring non-Gaussianity by studying large-scale structure, surveying a large cosmological volume at low redshifts, complementing high-z surveys optimized to constrain dark energy. The origin of water and biogenic molecules will be investigated in all phases of planetary system formation - from molecular clouds to young stellar systems with protoplanetary disks - by measuring ice absorption spectra. We will chart the origin and history of galaxy formation through a deep survey mapping large-scale spatial power in two deep fields located near the ecliptic poles. Following in the tradition of all-sky missions such as IRAS, COBE and WISE, SPHEREx will be the first all-sky near-infrared spectral survey. SPHEREx will create spectra (0.75 – 4.2 um at R = 41; and 4.2 – 5 um at R = 135) with high sensitivity making background-limited observations using a passively-cooled telescope with a wide field-of-view for large mapping speed. During its two-year mission, SPHEREx will produce four complete all-sky maps that will serve as a rich archive for the astronomy community. With over a billion detected galaxies, hundreds of millions of high-quality stellar and galactic spectra, and over a million ice absorption spectra, the archive will enable diverse scientific investigations including studies of young stellar systems, brown dwarfs, high-redshift quasars, galaxy clusters, the interstellar medium, asteroids and comets. All aspects of the instrument and spacecraft have high heritage. SPHEREx requires no new technologies and carries large technical and resource margins on every aspect of the design. SPHEREx is a partnership between Caltech and JPL, following the

  6. Social science constructs in ecosystem assessments: revisiting community capacity and community resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue; Victoria E. Sturtevant

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development of sociological constructs in community assessment components of large-scale ecosystem assessments. We compare the conceptual and operational development of the constructs of community capacity and community resiliency used in three community assessments in the western United States: the Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team...

  7. Bayesian hierarchical model for large-scale covariance matrix estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongxiao; Hero, Alfred O

    2007-12-01

    Many bioinformatics problems implicitly depend on estimating large-scale covariance matrix. The traditional approaches tend to give rise to high variance and low accuracy due to "overfitting." We cast the large-scale covariance matrix estimation problem into the Bayesian hierarchical model framework, and introduce dependency betwee