WorldWideScience

Sample records for large wavelength shifts

  1. The response of wavelength shifting panels in large water Cherenkov systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakich, A.M.; Peak, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a series of tests performed with a panel Bicron wavelength shifting acrylic plastic (BC-480) coupled to an EMI 9623B photomultiplier tube. The aim was to effectively increase the cathode coverage and its sensitivity to incident Cherenkov radiation, so that such a system could be employed in a solar neutrino detector. Measurements of the uniformity and effective efficiency of the system have been made and compared with the results of various simulation runs. The effects of side mirrors, back reflector, water interface and possible shaping of the panel to enhance its response are also assessed. (orig.)

  2. Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Mori, Ryota; Kikunaga, Shuhei; Arai, Yasuhiko; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-06-15

    Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography that selectively extracts wavelength information from five wavelength-multiplexed holograms is presented. Specific phase shifts for respective wavelengths are introduced to remove the crosstalk components and extract only the object wave at the desired wavelength from the holograms. Object waves in multiple wavelengths are selectively extracted by utilizing 2π ambiguity and the subtraction procedures based on phase-shifting interferometry. Numerical results show the validity of the proposed technique. The proposed technique is also experimentally demonstrated.

  3. Fine tuning the emission wavelengths of the 7-hydroxy-1-indanone based nano-structure dyes: Near-infrared (NIR) dual emission generation with large stokes shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Hossein; Alizadeh, Parvaneh

    2018-05-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes have recently gained special attention due to their applications to use as molecular probes for imaging of biological targets and sensitive determination. In this study, photophysical properties of the 7-hydroxy-1-indanone based fluorophors A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and 3R-B2 (R = CF3, NH2, NO2 and OMe) in the gas and three solution phases were probed using TD-DFT method at PBE0/6-311++G(d,p) and M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory. In addition to structural and photophysical properties as well as ESIPT mechanism of all mentioned molecules, the FC and relaxed potential energy surfaces of B2 and 3R-B2 (R = CF3 and NH2) molecules were explored in gas phase and acetonitrile, cyclohexane and water solvents. It is predicted that the A1, A3 and 3R-B2 chromophores afford normal (615-670 nm) and NIR fluorescence emissions (770-940 nm; biological window) with the large Stokes shifts of >160 and >300 nm, respectively. A good aggrement was found between theoretical and experimental results. In sum, these new types of dyes may render the new approaches for the development of the most efficient NIR fluorescent probes for enhanced image contrast and optimal apparent brightness in biological applications.

  4. A readout system for the wavelength-shifting optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foesig, Carl-Christian; Boeser, Sebastian [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The success of IceCube and the plans for an IceCube-Gen2 stimulate the development of new photo sensors. The approach of the Wavelength-shifting Optical Module is to provide a device which has a low dark noise rate combined with a high detection efficiency. A small PMT is used to detect red shifted photons guided in a coated PMMA tube, originally emitted by a wavelength shifting coating that absorbs photons in the UV Region. We have studied several PMTs for their usability with the IceCube-Gen2 readout system. Relevant parameters are the pulse widths in relation to the bandwidth of the IceCube-Gen2 readout electronics and the dark noise rates.

  5. CBET Experiments with Wavelength Shifting at the Nike Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James; McKenty, P.; Bates, J.; Myatt, J.; Shaw, J.; Obenschain, K.; Oh, J.; Kehne, D.; Obenschain, S.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Tsung, F.; Schmitt, A. J.; Serlin, V.

    2016-10-01

    Studies conducted at NRL during 2015 searched for cross-beam energy transport (CBET) in small-scale plastic targets with strong gradients in planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. The targets were irradiated by two widely separated beam arrays in a geometry similar to polar direct drive. Data from these shots will be presented that show a lack of a clear CBET signature even with wavelength shifting of one set of beams. This poster will discuss the next campaign being planned, in part, with modelling codes developed at LLE. The next experiments will use a target configuration optimized to create stronger SBS growth. The primary path under consideration is to increase scale lengths 5-10x over the previous study by using exploding foils or low density foams. In addition to simulations, the presentation will also discuss improvements to the diagnostic suite and laser operations; for example, a new set of etalons will be available for the next campaign that should double the range of wavelength shifting between the two beam arrays. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  6. PMT signal increase using a wavelength shifting paint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allada, K. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hurlbut, Ch. [Eljen Technology, Sweetwater, TX 79556 (United States); Ou, L.; Schmookler, B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Shahinyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Wojtsekhowski, B., E-mail: bogdanw@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2015-05-11

    We report a 1.65 times increase of the PMT signal and a simple procedure of application of a new wavelength shifting (WLS) paint for PMTs with non-UV-transparent windows. Samples of four different WLS paints, made from hydrocarbon polymers and organic fluors, were tested on a 5-in. PMT (ET 9390KB) using Cherenkov radiation produced in fused silica disks by {sup 106}Ru electrons on a ‘table-top’ setup. The best performing paint was employed on two different types of 5-in. PMTs (ET 9390KB and XP4572B), installed in atmospheric pressure CO{sub 2} gas Cherenkov detectors, and tested using GeV electrons.

  7. Analysis of reflection-peak wavelengths of sampled fiber Bragg gratings with large chirp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xihua; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin

    2008-09-10

    The reflection-peak wavelengths (RPWs) in the spectra of sampled fiber Bragg gratings with large chirp (SFBGs-LC) are theoretically investigated. Such RPWs are divided into two parts, the RPWs of equivalent uniform SFBGs (U-SFBGs) and the wavelength shift caused by the large chirp in the grating period (CGP). We propose a quasi-equivalent transform to deal with the CGP. That is, the CGP is transferred into quasi-equivalent phase shifts to directly derive the Fourier transform of the refractive index modulation. Then, in the case of both the direct and the inverse Talbot effect, the wavelength shift is obtained from the Fourier transform. Finally, the RPWs of SFBGs-LC can be achieved by combining the wavelength shift and the RPWs of equivalent U-SFBGs. Several simulations are shown to numerically confirm these predicted RPWs of SFBGs-LC.

  8. A new plastic scintillator with large Stokes shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destruel, P.; Taufer, M.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a new plastic scintillator with the novel characteristic of highly localized light emission; scintillation and wavelength shifting take place within a few tens of micrometers of the primary ionization. The new scintillator consists of a scintillating polymer base [polyvinyl toluene (PVT) or polystyrene (PS)] doped with a single wavelength shifter, 1-phenyl-3-mesityl-2-pyrazoline (PMP), which has an exceptionally large Stokes shift and therefore a comparatively small self-absorption of its emitted light. In other characteristics (e.g. scintillation efficiency and decay time) the performance of the new scintillator is similar to a good quality commercial plastic scintillator such as NE110. (orig.)

  9. Progress on the WOM (Wavelength-shifting optical module) development for IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebecker, Dustin [DESY Zeuthen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For ongoing studies for the extension of the IceCube neutrino observatory to low energies (PINGU) and high energies the noise rate of the optical modules should be decreased and the effective area increased in order to improve energy resolution and overall sensitivity. The WOM (Wavelength-shifting optical module) targets this points by expanding the capture area while decreasing the size of the PMT and thus decreasing the noise rate. Photons are first captured in an organic wavelength-shifting material (WLS) that is coated on light guiding material to guide the light to two smaller PMTs. This allows to achieve a very large collection area and reduces the noise to the order of 10 Hz in comparison to 600-800 Hz (IceCube DOM). The progress on the necessary WLS paint development and substrate selection will be presented. Also a brief status / outlook on the prototype assembly will be given.

  10. Frequency domain phase retrieval of simultaneous multi-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Zhenxing; Zhong, Liyun; Xu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Wangping; Lu, Xiaoxu; Tian, Jindong

    2016-01-01

    In simultaneous multi-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry, we propose a novel frequency domain phase retrieval (FDPR) algorithm. First, using only a one-time phase-shifting operation, a sequence of simultaneous multi-wavelength phase-shifting interferograms (SPSMWIs) are captured by a monochrome charge-coupled device. Second, by performing a Fourier transform for each pixel of SPSMWIs, the wrapped phases of each wavelength can be retrieved from the complex amplitude located in the spectral peak of each wavelength. Finally, the phase of the synthetic wavelength can be obtained by the subtraction between the wrapped phases of a single wavelength. In this study, the principle and the application condition of the proposed approach are discussed. Both the simulation and the experimental result demonstrate the simple and convenient performance of the proposed FDPR approach. (paper)

  11. Wavelength shifting reflector foils for liquid Ar scintillation light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Manuel [Physik Institut, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Liquid argon is used as a scintillator in several present and upcoming experiments. In Gerda it is used as a coolant, shielding and will be instrumented to become an active veto in Phase II. Its scintillation light has a wavelength of 128 nm, that gets absorbed by quartz. In order to measure the light using photo multiplier tubes (PMT) for cryogenic temperatures which have a quartz window, it is converted to longer wavelength by coated reflector foils. The conversion efficiency and stability of several such coatings was optimized using VM2000 and Tetratex separately as reflector foils. The efficiency has been measured in a liquid Ar set up build especially for this purpose. It employs a 3'' low radioactivity PMT of type R11065-10 from Hamamatsu, the favorite photo sensor candidate to be used in Gerda.

  12. Enhanced UV light detection using wavelength-shifting properties of Silicon nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, S.; Xie, J.; Nayfeh, M.; Fizari, M.; Malloy, J.; Maximenko, Y.; Yu, H.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of UV photons is becoming increasingly necessary with the use of noble gases and liquids in elementary particle experiments. Cerenkov light in crystals and glasses, scintillation light in neutrino, dark matter, and rare decay experiments all require sensitivity to UV photons. New sensor materials are needed that can directly detect UV photons and/or absorb UV photons and re-emit light in the visible range measurable by existing photosensors. It has been shown that silicon nanoparticles are sensitive to UV light in a wavelength range around ∼ 200 nm. UV light is absorbed and re-emitted at wavelengths in the visible range depending on the size of the nanoparticles. Initial tests of the wavelength-shifting properties of silicon nanoparticles are presented here that indicate by placing a film of nanoparticles in front of a standard visible-wavelength detecting photosensor, the response of the sensor is significantly enhanced at wavelengths < 320 nm

  13. Wavelength shift in a whispering gallery microdisk due to bacterial sensing: A theoretical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ghali

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Whispering gallery mode microcavities have recently been studied as a means to achieve real-time label-free detection of biological targets such as virus particles, specific DNA sequences, or proteins. Binding of a biomolecule to the surface of a microresonator will increase its path length, leading to a shift in the resonance frequency according to the reactive sensing principle. In this paper, we develop a theoretical expression that will link the reactive shift to the bacteria and microdisk parameters and help quantify the number of bacteria that bind to the surface of a 200μm-diameter silica microdisk. Keywords: Optical microdisk, Wavelength shift, Bacterial sensing

  14. Wavelength shifting films on multianode PMTs with UV-extended window for the CBM RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldyreva, N. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M., E-mail: Michael.Duerr@ap.physik.uni-giessen.de [University Gießen (Germany); Eom, J. [Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Eschke, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Höhne, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kleipa, V. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kochenda, L. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kolb, B. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kopfer, J., E-mail: Jan.Kopfer@uni-wuppertal.de [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kravtsov, P. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E. [University Gießen (Germany); Leonova, E. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); and others

    2014-12-01

    Electron identification in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will be performed using a gaseous RICH detector. Due to the UV transparency of the CO{sub 2} radiator, a high photon detection efficiency of the PMTs in use at small wavelengths is favourable. The use of wavelength shifting (WLS) films aims at increasing the integral quantum efficiency of the photon sensors. WLS films absorb UV photons and re-emit photons at longer wavelengths where the quantum efficiency of common photocathodes is higher. As photon sensors, multianode PMTs (MAPMTs) with bialkali or superbialkali photocathodes and UV-extended windows are envisaged. We present quantum efficiency measurements with and without WLS coating for different types of MAPMTs as well as results from a beam test at the CERN PS. An increased photon yield was observed when using WLS films. In addition, we discuss the effect of WLS films on the spatial resolution of MAPMTs. - Highlights: • Wavelength shifting (WLS) films were applied on MAPMTs with UV-window. • WLS films considerably enhance MAPMT quantum efficiency in the UV range. • In-beam tests with a RICH detector show an enhanced total photon yield by approx. 20%. • Yield enhancement depends on the MAPMT window and photocathode materials. • No significant effect of WLS films on ring sharpness was detected.

  15. Mitigating of modal instabilities in linearly-polarized fiber amplifiers by shifting pump wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Rumao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of pump wavelength on the modal instabilities (MI) in high-power linearly polarized Yb-doped fiber amplifiers. We built a novel semi-analytical model to determine the frequency coupling characteristics and power threshold of MI, which indicates promising MI suppression through pumping at an appropriate wavelength. By pumping at 915 nm, the threshold can be enhanced by a factor of 2.1 as compared to that pumped at 976 nm. Based on a high-power linearly polarized fiber amplifier platform, we studied the influence of pump wavelength experimentally. A maximal enhancement factor of 1.9 has been achieved when pumped at 915 nm, which agrees with the theoretical calculation and verified our theoretical model. Furthermore, we show that MI suppression by detuning the pump wavelength is weakened for fiber with a large core-to-cladding ratio. (paper)

  16. Reduction of reabsorption effects in scintillators by employing solutes with large Stokes shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrah, L.A.; Renschler, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation or high energy particle responsive system is described useful as a scintillator, and comprising, a first component which interacts with the radiation or high energy particle to emit photons in a certain first wavelength range; and at least one additional solute component which absorbs the photons in the first wavelength range and thereupon emits photons in another wavelength range higher than the first range; the improvement wherein at least one of the components absorbs substantially no photons in the wavelength range in which it emits photons, due to large Stokes shift caused by an excited states intramolecular rearrangement, with the proviso that the component having a large Stokes shift is not methyl salicylate or salicyclic acid

  17. Development of a two-dimensional imaging detector based on a neutron scintillator with wavelength-shifting fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, K; Oku, T; Morimoto, K; Shimizu, H M; Tokanai, F; Gorin, A; Manuilov, I V; Ryazantsev, A; Ino, T; Kuroda, K; Suzuki, J

    2002-01-01

    For evaluating neutron optical devices, a two-dimensional (2D) detector based on a neutron scintillator with wavelength-shifting fibers has been developed at RIKEN. We have investigated a ZnS(Ag)+LiF and a Li glass plate as neutron scintillators with the coding technique for realizing the large sensitive area of 50 x 50 mm sup 2. After fabricating the 2D detector, its performance was tested using cold neutrons at JAERI. As a result, a spatial resolution of propor to 1.0 mm was obtained. (orig.)

  18. Correction of phase-shifting error in wavelength scanning digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiangchao; Xu, Min; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2018-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy is a promising method for measuring complex micro-structures with high slopes. A quasi-common path interferometric apparatus is adopted to overcome environmental disturbances, and an acousto-optic tunable filter is used to obtain multi-wavelength holograms. However, the phase shifting error caused by the acousto-optic tunable filter reduces the measurement accuracy and, in turn, the reconstructed topographies are erroneous. In this paper, an accurate reconstruction approach is proposed. It corrects the phase-shifting errors by minimizing the difference between the ideal interferograms and the recorded ones. The restriction on the step number and uniformity of the phase shifting is relaxed in the interferometry, and the measurement accuracy for complex surfaces can also be improved. The universality and superiority of the proposed method are demonstrated by practical experiments and comparison to other measurement methods.

  19. Liquid argon scintillation detection utilizing wavelength-shifting plates and light guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B.

    2018-02-01

    In DUNE, the event timing provided by the detection of the relatively prompt scintillation photons will improve spatial resolution in the drift direction of the time-projection chamber (TPC) and is especially useful for non-beam physics topics such as supernova neutrinos and nucleon decay. The baseline design for the first 10kt single phase TPC fits the photon detector system in the natural gap between the wire planes of adjacent TPC volumes. A prototype photon detector design utilizes wavelength-shifter coated plates to convert the vacuum ultraviolet scintillation light to the optical and commercially-produced wavelength-shifting light guides to trap some of this light and transport it to an array of silicon photomultipliers at the end. This system and the testing performed to characterize the system and determine the efficiency are discussed.

  20. Liquid Argon Scintillation Detection Utilizing Wavelength-Shifting Plates and Light Guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B. [Indiana U.

    2018-02-06

    In DUNE, the event timing provided by the detection of the relatively prompt scintillation photons will improve spatial resolution in the drift direction of the time-projection chamber (TPC) and is especially useful for non-beam physics topics such as supernova neutrinos and nucleon decay. The baseline design for the first 10kt single phase TPC fits the photon detector system in the natural gap between the wire planes of adjacent TPC volumes. A prototype photon detector design utilizes wavelength-shifter coated plates to convert the vacuum ultraviolet scintillation light to the optical and commercially-produced wavelength-shifting light guides to trap some of this light and transport it to an array of silicon photomultipliers at the end. This system and the testing performed to characterize the system and determine the efficiency are discussed.

  1. Phase retrieval from the phase-shift moiré fringe patterns in simultaneous dual-wavelength interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinlong; Gao, Zhishan; Bie, Shuyou; Dou, Yimeng; Ni, Ruihu; Yuan, Qun

    2018-02-01

    Simultaneous dual-wavelength interferometry (SDWI) could extend the measured range of each single-wavelength interferometry. The moiré fringe generated in SDWI indirectly represents the information of the measured long synthetic-wavelength ({λ }{{S}}) phase, thus the phase demodulation is rather arduous. To address this issue, we present a method to convert the moiré fringe pattern into a synthetic-wavelength interferogram (moiré to synthetic-wavelength, MTS). After the square of the moiré fringe pattern in the MTS method, the additive moiré pattern is turned into a multiplicative one. And the synthetic-wavelength interferogram could be obtained by a low-pass filtering in spectrum of the multiplicative moiré fringe pattern. Therefore, when the dual-wavelength interferometer is implemented with the π/2 phase shift at {λ }{{S}}, a sequence of synthetic-wavelength phase-shift interferograms with π/2 phase shift could be obtained after the MTS method processing on the captured moiré fringe patterns. And then the synthetic-wavelength phase could be retrieved by the conventional phase-shift algorithm. Compared with other methods in SDWI, the proposed MTS approach could reduce the restriction of the phase shift and frame numbers for the adoption of the conventional phase-shift algorithm. Following, numerical simulations are executed to evaluate the performance of the MTS method in processing time, frames of interferograms and the phase shift error compensation. And the necessary linear carrier for MTS method is less than 0.11 times of the traditional dual-wavelength spatial-domain Fourier transform method. Finally, the deviations for MTS method in experiment are 0.97% for a step with the height of 7.8 μm and 1.11% for a Fresnel lens with the step height of 6.2328 μm.

  2. Photoelectron yields of scintillation counters with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers read out with silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artikov, Akram; Baranov, Vladimir; Blazey, Gerald C.; Chen, Ningshun; Chokheli, Davit; Davydov, Yuri; Dukes, E. Craig; Dychkant, Alexsander; Ehrlich, Ralf; Francis, Kurt; Frank, M. J.; Glagolev, Vladimir; Group, Craig; Hansen, Sten; Magill, Stephen; Oksuzian, Yuri; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Rubinov, Paul; Simonenko, Aleksandr; Song, Enhao; Stetzler, Steven; Wu, Yongyi; Uzunyan, Sergey; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2018-05-01

    Photoelectron yields of extruded scintillation counters with titanium dioxide coating and embedded wavelength shifting fibers read out by silicon photomultipliers have been measured at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility using 120\\,GeV protons. The yields were measured as a function of transverse, longitudinal, and angular positions for a variety of scintillator compositions and reflective coating mixtures, fiber diameters, and photosensor sizes. Timing performance was also studied. These studies were carried out by the Cosmic Ray Veto Group of the Mu2e collaboration as part of their R\\&D program.

  3. Photoelectron yields of scintillation counters with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers read out with silicon photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artikov, Akram; Baranov, Vladimir; Blazey, Gerald C.; Chen, Ningshun; Chokheli, Davit; Davydov, Yuri; Dukes, E. Craig; Dychkant, Alexsander; Ehrlich, Ralf; Francis, Kurt; Frank, M. J.; Glagolev, Vladimir; Group, Craig; Hansen, Sten; Magill, Stephen; Oksuzian, Yuri; Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Rubinov, Paul; Simonenko, Aleksandr; Song, Enhao; Stetzler, Steven; Wu, Yongyi; Uzunyan, Sergey; Zutshi, Vishnu

    2018-05-01

    Photoelectron yields of extruded scintillation counters with titanium dioxide coating and embedded wavelength shifting fibers read out by silicon photomultipliers have been measured at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility using 120 GeV protons. The yields were measured as a function of transverse, longitudinal, and angular positions for a variety of scintillator compositions, reflective coating mixtures, and fiber diameters. Timing performance was also studied. These studies were carried out by the Cosmic Ray Veto Group of the Mu2e collaboration as part of their R&D program.

  4. A single photon sensor employing wavelength-shifting and light-guiding technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Lukas; Voge, Markus; Boeser, Sebastian; Kowalski, Marek [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In this work we describe a feasibility study of a novel type of single photon sensor that employs organic wavelength shifting materials (WLS) to capture photons and guide them to a PMT readout. Two different WLS materials, Saint Gobain BC-480 and BC-482A, have been tested as candidates for use in such a sensor. We address the photon detection efficiency, noise properties, time and spatial resolution, PMT readout, as well as some practical aspects relevant for the development and construction of a prototype sensor. Calculating the overall photon detection efficiency, we show that the effective photosensitive area of a prototype built with existing technology could easily exceed that of modules currently used e. g. in IceCube while having a dark noise rate up to two orders of magnitude smaller.

  5. Measurement of Cerenkov Radiation Induced by the Gamma-Rays of Co-60 Therapy Units Using Wavelength Shifting Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Won Jang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a wavelength shifting fiber that shifts ultra-violet and blue light to green light was employed as a sensor probe of a fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor. In order to characterize Cerenkov radiation generated in the developed wavelength shifting fiber and a plastic optical fiber, spectra and intensities of Cerenkov radiation were measured with a spectrometer. The spectral peaks of light outputs from the wavelength shifting fiber and the plastic optical fiber were measured at wavelengths of 500 and 510 nm, respectively, and the intensity of transmitted light output of the wavelength shifting fiber was 22.2 times higher than that of the plastic optical fiber. Also, electron fluxes and total energy depositions of gamma-ray beams generated from a Co-60 therapy unit were calculated according to water depths using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code. The relationship between the fluxes of electrons over the Cerenkov threshold energy and the energy depositions of gamma-ray beams from the Co-60 unit is a near-identity function. Finally, percentage depth doses for the gamma-ray beams were obtained using the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor, and the results were compared with those obtained by an ionization chamber. The average dose difference between the results of the fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor and those of the ionization chamber was about 2.09%.

  6. An amplified coarse wavelength division multiplexing self-referencing sensor network based on phase-shifted FBGs in transmissive configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elosua, C; Perez-Herrera, R A; Lopez-Amo, M; Bariain, C; Garcia-Olcina, R; Sales, S; Capmany, J

    2009-01-01

    A new amplified CWDM (coarse wavelength division multiplexing) self-referencing sensor network using phase-shifted fibre Bragg gratings (PS-FBGs) is experimentally demonstrated in this work. The network uses the PS-FBGs to address intensity sensors in a transmissive configuration, obtaining simultaneously in reflection a wavelength encoded reference signal. In order to enable the remote operation of the sensors, we have introduced optical amplification at the interrogation header of the network, using highly doped erbium fibre

  7. Artificial light pollution: Shifting spectral wavelengths to mitigate physiological and health consequences in a nocturnal marsupial mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimovski, Alicia M; Robert, Kylie A

    2018-05-02

    The focus of sustainable lighting tends to be on reduced CO 2 emissions and cost savings, but not on the wider environmental effects. Ironically, the introduction of energy-efficient lighting, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), may be having a great impact on the health of wildlife. These white LEDs are generated with a high content of short-wavelength 'blue' light. While light of any kind can suppress melatonin and the physiological processes it regulates, these short wavelengths are potent suppressors of melatonin. Here, we manipulated the spectral composition of LED lights and tested their capacity to mitigate the physiological and health consequences associated with their use. We experimentally investigated the impact of white LEDs (peak wavelength 448 nm; mean irradiance 2.87 W/m 2 ), long-wavelength shifted amber LEDs (peak wavelength 605 nm; mean irradiance 2.00 W/m 2 ), and no lighting (irradiance from sky glow light treatments. White LED exposed wallabies had significantly suppressed nocturnal melatonin compared to no light and amber LED exposed wallabies, while there was no difference in lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant capacity declined from baseline to week 10 under all treatments. These results provide further evidence that short-wavelength light at night is a potent suppressor of nocturnal melatonin. Importantly, we also illustrate that shifting the spectral output to longer wavelengths could mitigate these negative physiological impacts. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Performance study of wavelength shifting acrylic plastic for Cherenkov light detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckford, B., E-mail: beckford@aps.org [American Physical Society, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); De la Puente, A. [TRIUMF Laboratory, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Fujii, Y.; Hashimoto, O.; Kaneta, M.; Kanda, H.; Maeda, K.; Matsumura, A.; Nakamura, S.N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Perez, N.; Reinhold, J. [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Tang, L. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Tsukada, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2014-01-21

    The collection efficiency for Cherenkov light incident on a wavelength shifting plate (WLS) has been determined during a beam test at the Proton Synchrotron facility located in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK), Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the detector's response to photoelectrons converted from photons produced by a fused silica radiator; this allows for an approximation of the detector's quality. The yield of the photoelectrons produced through internally generated Cherenkov light as well as light incident from the radiator was measured as a function of the momentum of the incident hadron beam. The yield is proportional to sin{sup 2}θ{sub c}, where θ{sub c} is the opening angle of the Cherenkov light created. Based on estimations and results from similar conducted tests, where the collection efficiency was roughly 39%, the experimental result was expected to be around 40% for internally produced light from the WLS. The results of the experiment determined the photon collection response efficiency of the WLS to be roughly 62% for photons created in a fused silica radiator and 41% for light created in the WLS.

  9. Simulation and optimisation of a position sensitive scintillation detector with wavelength shifting fibers for thermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzkamp, Matthias; Engels, Ralf; Kemmerling, Guenter [ZEA-2, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Brueckel, Thomas [JCNS, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Stahl, Achim [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Waasen, Stefan van [ZEA-2, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Faculty of Engineering, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In neutron scattering experiments it is important to have position sensitive large scale detectors for thermal neutrons. A detector based on a neutron scintillator with wave length shifting fibers is a new kind of such a detector. We present the simulation of the detector based on the microscopic structure of the scintillation material of the mentioned detector. It consists of a converter and a scintillation powder bound in a matrix. The converter in our case is lithium fluoride with enriched lithium 6, to convert thermal neutrons into high energetic alpha and triton particles. The scintillation material is silver doped zinc sulfide. We show that pulse height spectra obtained by these scintillators can be be explained by the simple model of randomly distributed spheres of zinc sulfide and lithium fluoride. With this model, it is possible to optimise the mass ratio of zinc sulfide to lithium fluoride with respect to detection efficiency and/or energy deposition in zinc sulfide.

  10. Plasma shifts of C VI Lyman lines to shorter wavelengths. Final report, November 4, 1981-September 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.

    1984-07-01

    The first two years of this ongoing research program were devoted to experimental observations of shifts and widths of hydrogenic ion lines emitted by very dense plasmas. This search is an essential step in the general study of the properties of bound states of multiply charged ions in dense plasmas. This research is of importance in a number of areas, notably equilibrium statistical mechanics (equation of state), plasma radiation physics (energy transport and diagnostics) and calibration of wavelengths in the extreme vacuum uv region (10 A < lambda < 200 A). In the latter case, the wavelengths of lines from one-electron ions are generally accepted to be well known theoretically and are considered as standards for plate calibration. The question nevertheless arises whether or not significant changes in wavelength can occur, e.g., in low-inductance sparks or laser produced plasma which are often used as line sources

  11. Benzothiadiazole oligoene fatty acids: fluorescent dyes with large Stokes shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas J. Patalag

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report on the synthesis and characterization of novel fluorescent fatty acids with large Stokes shifts. Three examples consisting of the same number of carbon atoms and thus of similar chain length are presented differing in their degree of unsaturation. As major fluorogenic contributor at the terminus benzo[c][1,2,5]thiadiazole was used. Respective syntheses based on Wittig reactions followed by iodine-mediated isomerization are presented. The absorption properties are modulated by the number of conjugated C=C double bonds of the oligoene chain ranging from one to three. Large Stokes shifts of about 4900–5700 cm−1 and fluorescence quantum yields of up to 0.44 were observed.

  12. Synthesis of multi-wavelength temporal phase-shifting algorithms optimized for high signal-to-noise ratio and high detuning robustness using the frequency transfer function

    OpenAIRE

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises; Garnica, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of single-wavelength temporal phase-shifting algorithms (PSA) for interferometry is well-known and firmly based on the frequency transfer function (FTF) paradigm. Here we extend the single-wavelength FTF-theory to dual and multi-wavelength PSA-synthesis when several simultaneous laser-colors are present. The FTF-based synthesis for dual-wavelength PSA (DW-PSA) is optimized for high signal-to-noise ratio and minimum number of temporal phase-shifted interferograms. The DW-PSA synthesi...

  13. Enhancement and wavelength-shifted emission of Cerenkov luminescence using multifunctional microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Joanne; Dobrucki, Lawrence W; Marjanovic, Marina; Chaney, Eric J; Suslick, Kenneth S; Boppart, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Cerenkov luminescence (CL) imaging is a new molecular imaging modality that utilizes the photons emitted during radioactive decay when charged particles travel faster than the phase velocity of light in a dielectric medium. Here we present a novel agent to convert and increase CL emission at longer wavelengths using multimodal protein microspheres (MSs). The 64 Cu-labeled protein microspheres contain quantum dots (QDs) encapsulated within a high-refractive-index-oil core. Dark box imaging of the MSs was conducted to demonstrate the improvement in CL emission at longer wavelengths. To illustrate the versatile design of these MSs and the potential of CL in disease diagnosis, these MSs were utilized for in vitro cell targeting and ex vivo CL-excited QD fluorescence (CL-FL) imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in rats. It was shown that by utilizing both QDs and MSs with a high-refractive-index-oil core, the CL emission increases by four-fold at longer wavelengths. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these MSs generate both an in vivo and ex vivo contrast signal. The design concept of utilizing QDs and high-index core MSs may contribute to future developments of in vivo CL imaging. (paper)

  14. Estimation of time delay and wavelength shift for highly nonlinear multilayer waveguide by using time transformation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Roshmi; Basu, Mousumi

    2018-02-01

    The well known time transformation method is used here to derive the temporal and spectral electric field distribution at the output end of a multilayer waveguide which consists of different layers of Kerr nonlinear media. A highly nonlinear CS 3-68 glass is considered as one of the materials of the waveguide which mainly comprises of different chalcogenide glass layers. The results indicate that there is sufficient time delay as well as frequency shift between the input and output pulses which is associated with the phenomenon of adiabatic wavelength conversion (AWC). Depending on different arrangements of materials, the time delay and frequency shift can be changed. As a result an input pulse in visible green region can be blue-shifted or red-shifted according to the choices of refractive index of the non-dispersive Kerr nonlinear media. The results show that under certain conditions the input pulse is broadened or compressed for different combinations of materials. This process of AWC also includes the variation of temporal and spectral phase, time delay, temporal peak power etc. For different input pulse shapes the change in time delay is also presented. The study may be useful to find applications of AWC in optical resonators or optical signal processing to be applicable to different photonic devices.

  15. Concentration and size dependence of peak wavelength shift on quantum dots in colloidal suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Benjamin S.; Cao, Caroline G. L.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals that have significant advantages over organic fluorophores, including their extremely narrow Gaussian emission bands and broad absorption bands. Thus, QDs have a wide range of potential applications, such as in quantum computing, photovoltaic cells, biological sensing, and electronics. For these applications, aliasing provides a detrimental effect on signal identification efficiency. This can be avoided through characterization of the QD fluorescence signals. Characterization of the emissivity of CdTe QDs as a function of concentration (1 to 10 mg/ml aqueous) was conducted on 12 commercially available CdTe QDs (emission peaks 550 to 730 nm). The samples were excited by a 50-mW 405-nm laser with emission collected via a free-space CCD spectrometer. All QDs showed a redshift effect as concentration increased. On average, the CdTe QDs exhibited a maximum shift of +35.6 nm at 10 mg/ml and a minimum shift of +27.24 nm at 1 mg/ml, indicating a concentration dependence for shift magnitude. The concentration-dependent redshift function can be used to predict emission response as QD concentration is changed in a complex system.

  16. The legacy of large regime shifts in shallow lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstack Hobbs, Joy M; Hobbs, William O; Edlund, Mark B; Zimmer, Kyle D; Theissen, Kevin M; Hoidal, Natalie; Domine, Leah M; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Cotner, James B

    2016-12-01

    Ecological shifts in shallow lakes from clear-water macrophyte-dominated to turbid-water phytoplankton-dominated are generally thought of as rapid short-term transitions. Diatom remains in sediment records from shallow lakes in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America provide new evidence that the long-term ecological stability of these lakes is defined by the legacy of large regime shifts. We examine the modern and historical stability of 11 shallow lakes. Currently, four of the lakes are in a clear-water state, three are consistently turbid-water, and four have been observed to change state from year to year (transitional). Lake sediment records spanning the past 150-200 yr suggest that (1) the diatom assemblage is characteristic of either clear or turbid lakes, (2) prior to significant landscape alteration, all of the lakes existed in a regime of a stable clear-water state, (3) lakes that are currently classified as turbid or transitional have experienced one strong regime shift over the past 150-200 yr and have since remained in a regime where turbid-water predominates, and (4) top-down impacts to the lake food-web from fish introductions appear to be the dominant driver of strong regime shifts and not increased nutrient availability. Based on our findings we demonstrate a method that could be used by lake managers to identify lakes that have an ecological history close to the clear-turbid regime threshold; such lakes might more easily be returned to a clear-water state through biomanipulation. The unfortunate reality is that many of these lakes are now part of a managed landscape and will likely require continued intervention. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. A Time Difference Method for Measurement of Phase Shift between Distributed Feedback Laser Diode (DFB-LD Output Wavelength and Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A time difference method to conveniently measure the phase shift between output wavelength and intensity of distributed feedback laser diodes (DFB-LDs was proposed. This approach takes advantage of asymmetric absorption positions at the same wavelength during wavelength increase and decrease tuning processes in the intensity-time curve by current modulation. For its practical implementation, a measurement example of phase shift was demonstrated by measuring a time difference between the first time and the second time attendances of the same gas absorption line in the intensity-time curve during one sine or triangle modulation circle. The phase shifts at modulation frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 50 kHz were measured with a resolution of 0.001π. As the modulation frequency increased the shift value increased with a slowed growth rate.

  18. Control of the Rendition Wavelength Shifts of Color Lippmann Holograms Recorded in Single-layer panchromatic Silver-halide Emulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jianhua; GUO Lurong; LI Zuoyou; LIU Zhenqing

    2000-01-01

    Russian PFG-03C panchromatic ultra-high resolution silver-halide emulsion is regarded as the most successful material for the fabrication of color reflection holograms. But the lack of established and reliable processing sequences prevents its practical applications in business and everyday life. Though much attention is drawn upon the processing of PFG-03C color reflection holograms, the color desaturation is still a problem. The article describes the new processing of color holograms recorded in PFG- 03C plates which is demonstrated experimentally to have the capacity of controlling the rendition wavelength shifts and improving the color desaturation effectively. The rendition spectra of Red-Green-Blue (R. G. B. ) single-line reflection holographic gratings, and the color reflection hologram as well, are given in this paper.

  19. On very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) and long-wavelength patterns in turbine wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Asim; Meyers, Johan

    2017-11-01

    It is now widely accepted that very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) are a prominent feature of thermally-neutral atmospheric boundary layers (ABL). Up to date, the influence of these very long active motions on wind-energy harvesting is not sufficiently explored. This work is an effort in this direction. We perform large-eddy simulation of a turbine row operating under neutral conditions. The ABL data is produced separately in a very long domain of 240 δ . VLSMs are isolated from smaller-scale ABL and wake motions using a spectral cutoff at streamwise wavelength λx = 3.125 δ . Reynolds-averaging of low-pass filtered fields shows that the interaction of VLSMs and turbines produce very-long-wavelength motions in the wake region, which contain about 20 % of the Reynolds-shear stress, and 30 % of the streamwise kinetic energy. A conditional analysis of filtered fields further reveals that these long-wavelength wakes are produced by modification of very long velocity streaks in ABL. In particular, the turbine row acts as a sharp boundary between low and high velocity streaks, and accompanying roller structures remain relatively unaffected. This reorganization creates a two-way flux towards the wake region, which elucidates the side-way domination in turbulent transport. The authors acknowledg funding from ERC Grant No 306471.

  20. Detector for the FSD Fourier-diffractometer based on ZnS(Ag)/6LiF scintillation screen and wavelength shifting fibers readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, E.S.; Balagurov, A.M.; Bokuchava, G.D.; Zhuk, V.V.; Kudryashev, V.A.; Bulkin, A.P.; Trunov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    At the IBR-2 pulsed reactor (FLNP, JINR, Dubna), a specialized time-of-flight instrument Fourier-Stress-Diffractometer (FSD) intended for the measurement of internal stresses in bulk samples by using high-resolution neutron diffraction is under construction. One of the main components of the diffractometer is a new-type detector with combined electronic - geometrical focusing uniting a large solid angle and a small geometry contribution to the instrumental resolution. The first two modules of the detector, based on scintillation screen ZnS(Ag)/ 6 LiF with wavelength shifting fibers readout have been developed and tested. The design of the detector and associated electronics are described. The method of time focusing surface approximation, using the screen flexibility is proposed. Characteristics of the tested modules in comparison with a detector of the previous generation are presented and advantages of the new detector design for high-resolution diffractometry are discussed

  1. DNA abasic site-selective enhancement of sanguinarine fluorescence with a large emission shift.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wu

    Full Text Available Small molecules that can specifically bind to a DNA abasic site (AP site have received much attention due to their importance in DNA lesion identification, drug discovery, and sensor design. Herein, the AP site binding behavior of sanguinarine (SG, a natural alkaloid, was investigated. In aqueous solution, SG has a short-wavelength alkanolamine emission band and a long-wavelength iminium emission band. At pH 8.3, SG experiences a fluorescence quenching for both bands upon binding to fully matched DNAs without the AP site, while the presence of the AP site induces a strong SG binding and the observed fluorescence enhancement for the iminium band are highly dependent on the nucleobases flanking the AP site, while the alkanolamine band is always quenched. The bases opposite the AP site also exert some modifications on the SG's emission behavior. It was found that the observed quenching for DNAs with Gs and Cs flanking the AP site is most likely caused by electron transfer between the AP site-bound excited-state SG and the nearby Gs. However, the flanking As and Ts that are not easily oxidized favor the enhanced emission. This AP site-selective enhancement of SG fluorescence accompanies a band conversion in the dominate emission from the alkanolamine to iminium band thus with a large emission shift of about 170 nm. Absorption spectra, steady-state and transient-state fluorescence, DNA melting, and electrolyte experiments confirm that the AP site binding of SG occurs and the stacking interaction with the nearby base pairs is likely to prevent the converted SG iminium form from contacting with water that is thus emissive when the AP site neighbors are bases other than guanines. We expect that this fluorophore would be developed as a promising AP site binder having a large emission shift.

  2. Conceptual design of a large Spectral Shift Controlled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Menzel, G.P.

    1979-08-01

    Within the framework of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored the development of a conceptual design of a large Spectral Shift Controlled Reactor (SSCR). This report describes the results of the development program and assesses the performance of the conceptual SSCR on the basis of fuel resource utilization and total power costs. The point of departure of the design study was a 1270 MW(e) PWR using Combustion Engineering's System 80/sup TM/ reactor and Stone and Webster's Reference Plant Design. The initial phase of the study consisted of establishing an optimal core design for both the once-through uranium cycle and the denatured U-235/thorium cycle with uranium recycle. The performance of the SSCR was then also assessed for the denatured U-233/thorium cycle with uranium recycle and for the plutonium/thorium cycle with plutonium recycle. After the optimal core design was established, the design of the NSSS and balance of plant was developed

  3. Conceptual design of a large Spectral Shift Controlled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Menzel, G.P.

    1979-08-01

    Within the framework of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), the US Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored the development of a conceptual design of a large Spectral Shift Controlled Reactor (SSCR). The results are presented of the development program, and the performance of the conceptual SSCR is assessed on the basis of fuel resource utilization and total power costs. The point of departure of the design study was a 1270 MW(e) PWR using Combustion Engineering's System 80 reactor and Stone and Webster's Reference Plant Design. The initial phase of the study consisted of establishing an optimal core design for both the once-through uranium cycle and the denatured U-235/thorium cycle with uranium recycle. The performance of the SSCR was then also assessed for the denatured U-233/thorium cycle with uranium recycle and for the plutonium/thorium cycle with plutonium recycle. After the optimal core design was established, the design of the NSSS and balance of plant was developed

  4. Synthesis of multi-wavelength temporal phase-shifting algorithms optimized for high signal-to-noise ratio and high detuning robustness using the frequency transfer function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises; Garnica, Guillermo

    2016-05-02

    Synthesis of single-wavelength temporal phase-shifting algorithms (PSA) for interferometry is well-known and firmly based on the frequency transfer function (FTF) paradigm. Here we extend the single-wavelength FTF-theory to dual and multi-wavelength PSA-synthesis when several simultaneous laser-colors are present. The FTF-based synthesis for dual-wavelength (DW) PSA is optimized for high signal-to-noise ratio and minimum number of temporal phase-shifted interferograms. The DW-PSA synthesis herein presented may be used for interferometric contouring of discontinuous industrial objects. Also DW-PSA may be useful for DW shop-testing of deep free-form aspheres. As shown here, using the FTF-based synthesis one may easily find explicit DW-PSA formulae optimized for high signal-to-noise and high detuning robustness. To this date, no general synthesis and analysis for temporal DW-PSAs has been given; only ad hoc DW-PSAs formulas have been reported. Consequently, no explicit formulae for their spectra, their signal-to-noise, their detuning and harmonic robustness has been given. Here for the first time a fully general procedure for designing DW-PSAs (or triple-wavelengths PSAs) with desire spectrum, signal-to-noise ratio and detuning robustness is given. We finally generalize DW-PSA to higher number of wavelength temporal PSAs.

  5. An investigation of various wavelength-shifting compounds for improving counting efficiency when 32P-cerenkov radiation is measured in aqueous samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, G. van

    Various water-soluble wavelength-shifting compounds were investigated to assess their suitability for the improvement of counting efficiency when erenkov radiation from phosphorous-32 is measured in a liquid scintillation counter. Of these compounds esculin, β-methyl-umbelliferon and sodium

  6. Fabrication of Large Area Fishnet Optical Metamaterial Structures Operational at Near-IR Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis W. Prather

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a fabrication process for large area (2 mm × 2 mm fishnet metamaterial structures for near IR wavelengths. This process involves: (a defining a sacrificial Si template structure onto a quartz wafer using deep-UV lithography and a dry etching process (b deposition of a stack of Au-SiO2-Au layers and (c a ‘lift-off’ process which removes the sacrificial template structure to yield the fishnet structure. The fabrication steps in this process are compatible with today’s CMOS technology making it eminently well suited for batch fabrication. Also, depending on area of the exposure mask available for patterning the template structure, this fabrication process can potentially lead to optical metamaterials spanning across wafer-size areas.

  7. Wavelength-shifting fiber signal readout from Transparent RUbber SheeT (TRUST) type LiCaAlF{sub 6} neutron scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kenichi, E-mail: k-watanabe@nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yamazaki, Takuya; Sugimoto, Dai; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritani, Akira; Iguchi, Tetsuo [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro; Ishidu, Sumito [Tokuyama Corporation, Shunan 745-8648 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kita-kyushu 808-0196 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    As an alternative to the standard {sup 3}He neutron detector, we are developing the Transparent RUbber SheeT type (TRUST) Eu doped LiCaAlF{sub 6} (Eu:LiCAF) scintillator. This type of neutron scintillator can easily be fabricated as a large area sheet. In order to take advantage of a large area detector, we try to readout scintillation photons using a wavelength-shifting fiber (WLSF) from a TRUST Eu:LiCAF scintillator. The TRUST Eu:LiCAF scintillator with the size of 50×50×5 mm{sup 3} was mounted on the WLSF plate and the end of the WLSFs was connected with a PMT. In order to reject high pulse height events induced in the WLSFs, we applied the pulse shape discrimination technique. The gamma-ray intrinsic and neutron absolute detection efficiency is evaluated to be 8.8×10{sup −7} and 9×10{sup −3} cps/ng Cf (2 m) for the TRUST Eu:LiCAF scintillator with the size of 50×50×5 mm{sup 3}.

  8. Wavelength-shifting fiber signal readout from Transparent RUbber SheeT (TRUST) type LiCaAlF6 neutron scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Takuya; Sugimoto, Dai; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uritani, Akira; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Fukuda, Kentaro; Ishidu, Sumito; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to the standard 3 He neutron detector, we are developing the Transparent RUbber SheeT type (TRUST) Eu doped LiCaAlF 6 (Eu:LiCAF) scintillator. This type of neutron scintillator can easily be fabricated as a large area sheet. In order to take advantage of a large area detector, we try to readout scintillation photons using a wavelength-shifting fiber (WLSF) from a TRUST Eu:LiCAF scintillator. The TRUST Eu:LiCAF scintillator with the size of 50×50×5 mm 3 was mounted on the WLSF plate and the end of the WLSFs was connected with a PMT. In order to reject high pulse height events induced in the WLSFs, we applied the pulse shape discrimination technique. The gamma-ray intrinsic and neutron absolute detection efficiency is evaluated to be 8.8×10 −7 and 9×10 −3 cps/ng Cf (2 m) for the TRUST Eu:LiCAF scintillator with the size of 50×50×5 mm 3

  9. SimShiftDB; local conformational restraints derived from chemical shift similarity searches on a large synthetic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzinger, Simon W.; Coles, Murray

    2009-01-01

    We present SimShiftDB, a new program to extract conformational data from protein chemical shifts using structural alignments. The alignments are obtained in searches of a large database containing 13,000 structures and corresponding back-calculated chemical shifts. SimShiftDB makes use of chemical shift data to provide accurate results even in the case of low sequence similarity, and with even coverage of the conformational search space. We compare SimShiftDB to HHSearch, a state-of-the-art sequence-based search tool, and to TALOS, the current standard tool for the task. We show that for a significant fraction of the predicted similarities, SimShiftDB outperforms the other two methods. Particularly, the high coverage afforded by the larger database often allows predictions to be made for residues not involved in canonical secondary structure, where TALOS predictions are both less frequent and more error prone. Thus SimShiftDB can be seen as a complement to currently available methods

  10. SimShiftDB; local conformational restraints derived from chemical shift similarity searches on a large synthetic database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzinger, Simon W. [Center of Applied Molecular Engineering, University of Salzburg, Department of Molecular Biology, Division of Bioinformatics (Austria)], E-mail: simon@came.sbg.ac.at; Coles, Murray [Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology, Department of Protein Evolution (Germany)], E-mail: Murray.Coles@tuebingen.mpg.de

    2009-03-15

    We present SimShiftDB, a new program to extract conformational data from protein chemical shifts using structural alignments. The alignments are obtained in searches of a large database containing 13,000 structures and corresponding back-calculated chemical shifts. SimShiftDB makes use of chemical shift data to provide accurate results even in the case of low sequence similarity, and with even coverage of the conformational search space. We compare SimShiftDB to HHSearch, a state-of-the-art sequence-based search tool, and to TALOS, the current standard tool for the task. We show that for a significant fraction of the predicted similarities, SimShiftDB outperforms the other two methods. Particularly, the high coverage afforded by the larger database often allows predictions to be made for residues not involved in canonical secondary structure, where TALOS predictions are both less frequent and more error prone. Thus SimShiftDB can be seen as a complement to currently available methods.

  11. An investigation of various wavelength-shifting compounds for improving counting efficiency when 32P-Cerenkov radiation is measured in aqueous samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkel, G. van

    1980-01-01

    Various water-soluble wavelength-shifting compounds were investigated to assess their suitability for the improvement of counting efficiency when Cerenkov radiation from phosphorous-32 is measured in a liquid scintillation counter. Of these compounds esculin, β-methyl-umbelliferon and sodium salicylate led to the greatest improvement in counting efficiency. Especially esculin and β-methyl-umbelliferon are fairly stable under a variety of experimental conditions and improve counting efficiencies by a factor of about 1.3 and 1.2 respectively. The use of ethanol as a water-miscible solvent combined with wavelength shifters soluble in both solvents does not improve counting efficiency. (author)

  12. Initial frequency shift of large amplitude plasma wave, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, K.; Sugihara, R.; Ohsawa, Y.; Kamimura, T.

    1979-07-01

    A nonlinear complex frequency shift of the ion acoustic wave in the initial phase defined by 0 0 and ωsub(s)/k as long as ωsub(s) >> γsub( l), where phi 0 , ωsub(s), γsub( l) and t sub(c) are the initial value of the potential, the frequency of the wave, the linear Landau damping coefficient and the time for the first minimum of the amplitude oscillation, respectively. A simulation study is also carried out. The results confirm the validity of the theory. (author)

  13. Highly coherent red-shifted dispersive wave generation around 1.3 μm for efficient wavelength conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xia; Bi, Wanjun [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Wei; Xue, Tianfeng; Hu, Lili; Liao, Meisong, E-mail: liaomeisong@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Gao, Weiqing [School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-03-14

    This research investigates the mechanism of the optical dispersive wave (DW) and proposes a scheme that can realize an efficient wavelength conversion. In an elaborately designed photonic crystal fiber, a readily available ytterbium laser operating at ∼1 μm can be transferred to the valuable 1.3 μm wavelength range. A low-order soliton is produced to concentrate the energy of the DW into the target wavelength range and improve the degree of coherence. The input chirp is demonstrated to be a factor that enhances the wavelength conversion efficiency. With a positive initial chirp, 76.6% of the pump energy in the fiber can be transferred into a spectral range between 1.24 and 1.4 μm. With the use of a grating compressor, it is possible to compress the generated coherent DW of several picoseconds into less than 90 fs.

  14. Fabrication of dense wavelength division multiplexing filters with large useful area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Hsu, Jin-Cherng; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2006-08-01

    Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexers (DWDM), a kind of narrow band-pass filter, are extremely sensitive to the optical thickness error in each composite layer. Therefore to have a large useful coating area is extreme difficult because of the uniformity problem. To enlarge the useful coating area it is necessary to improve their design and their fabrication. In this study, we discuss how the tooling factors at different positions and for different materials are related to the optical performance of the design. 100GHz DWDM filters were fabricated by E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD). To improve the coating uniformity, an analysis technique called shaping tooling factor (STF) was used to analyze the deviation of the optical thickness in different materials so as to enlarge the useful coating area. Also a technique of etching the deposited layers with oxygen ions was introduced. When the above techniques were applied in the fabrication of 100 GHz DWDM filters, the uniformity was better than +/-0.002% over an area of 72 mm in diameter and better than +/-0.0006% over 20mm in diameter.

  15. Reduced reabsorption and enhanced propagation induced by large Stokes shift in quantum dot-filled optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hua; Zhang, Yu, E-mail: yuzhang@jlu.edu.cn; Lu, Min; Liu, Wenyan [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics and College of Electronic Science and Engineering (China); Xu, Jian [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics (United States); Yu, William W., E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com [Jilin University, State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics and College of Electronic Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-07-15

    With tunable emission wavelength, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and broad absorption, colloidal quantum dots are attractive for the application in optical fiber as dopants. However, most of the quantum dots have a large overlap between their absorption and photoluminescence spectra, resulting in reabsorption loss which hinders the realization of long-distance waveguides. Therefore, ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots with large Stokes shift were proposed to fabricate a liquid-core optical fiber in this work. In this work, ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs with an average size of 3.3 nm were synthesized and the optical properties of the QD-filled fiber were also investigated as a function of fiber length and doping concentration. Compared to the control sample filled with CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots, the ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dot-based waveguides showed reduced reabsorption and enhanced signal propagation, which demonstrates great potential of large Stokes-shift quantum dots in optical waveguide devices.Graphical AbstractA reduced reabsorption and enhanced propagation of ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs-doped liquid-core optical fiber was achieved due to the large Stokes shift.

  16. Initial frequency shift of large amplitude plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Ryo; Yamanaka, Kaoru.

    1979-04-01

    A distribution function which is an exact solution to the collisionless Boltzmann equation is obtained in an expansion form in terms of the potential phi(x, t). A complex nonlinear frequency shift ωsub( n)(t) is obtained by use of the Poisson equation and the expansion. The theory is valid for arbitrary phi 0 and v sub(p) as long as ωsub(p) >> γsub( l), and in the initial phase defined by 0 0 , v sub(p), ωsub(p), γsub( l) and t sub(c) are the initial value of phi, the phase velocity, the Langmuir frequency, the linear Landau damping coefficient and the time for the first minimum of the amplitude oscillation. The ωsub( n)(0) does not vanish and Reωsub( n)(0)/γsub( l) > 1 holds even for e phi 0 /T 1 in the initial phase for v sub( p) > v sub( t). The theory reproduces main features of experimental results and that of simulations. (author)

  17. Damping and Frequency Shift of Large Amplitude Electron Plasma Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kenneth; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1983-01-01

    The initial evolution of large-amplitude one-dimensional electron waves is investigated by applying a numerical simulation. The initial wave damping is found to be strongly enhanced relative to the linear damping and it increases with increasing amplitude. The temporal evolution of the nonlinear...

  18. Modeling the focusing efficiency of lobster-eye optics for image shifting depending on the soft x-ray wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Luning; Li, Wei; Wu, Mingxuan; Su, Yun; Guo, Chongling; Ruan, Ningjuan; Yang, Bingxin; Yan, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Lobster-eye optics is widely applied to space x-ray detection missions and x-ray security checks for its wide field of view and low weight. This paper presents a theoretical model to obtain spatial distribution of focusing efficiency based on lobster-eye optics in a soft x-ray wavelength. The calculations reveal the competition mechanism of contributions to the focusing efficiency between the geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and the reflectivity of the iridium film. In addition, the focusing efficiency image depending on x-ray wavelengths further explains the influence of different geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and different soft x-ray wavelengths on focusing efficiency. These results could be beneficial to optimize parameters of lobster-eye optics in order to realize maximum focusing efficiency.

  19. Apparent wavelength shifts of H-like ions caused by the spectral fine structure observed in CHS plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Shin; Ida, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    A new charge exchange spectroscopy (CXS) system viewing the plasma from the upside and the downside simultaneously was installed on the Compact Helical System (CHS) to detect the absolute value of Doppler shift due to poloidal rotation velocity ( i ∼ 100 eV) and in the after-glow recombining phase (T i ∼ 30 eV). The apparent Doppler shift is always red-shift regardless the direction of plasma rotation and is explained as the effect of the spectral fine structure of hydrogen-like ions. (author)

  20. Fluorescent dyes with large Stokes shifts for super-resolution optical microscopy of biological objects: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sednev, Maksim V; Belov, Vladimir N; Hell, Stefan W

    2015-01-01

    The review deals with commercially available organic dyes possessing large Stokes shifts and their applications as fluorescent labels in optical microscopy based on stimulated emission depletion (STED). STED microscopy breaks Abbe’s diffraction barrier and provides optical resolution beyond the diffraction limit. STED microscopy is non-invasive and requires photostable fluorescent markers attached to biomolecules or other objects of interest. Up to now, in most biology-related STED experiments, bright and photoresistant dyes with small Stokes shifts of 20–40 nm were used. The rapid progress in STED microscopy showed that organic fluorophores possessing large Stokes shifts are indispensable in multi-color super-resolution techniques. The ultimate result of the imaging relies on the optimal combination of a dye, the bio-conjugation procedure and the performance of the optical microscope. Modern bioconjugation methods, basics of STED microscopy, as well as structures and spectral properties of the presently available fluorescent markers are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the spectral properties of the commercial dyes are tabulated and correlated with the available depletion wavelengths found in STED microscopes produced by LEICA Microsytems, Abberior Instruments and Picoquant GmbH. (topical review)

  1. On the phenomenon of large photoluminescence red shift in GaN nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Slimane, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    We report on the observation of broad photoluminescence wavelength tunability from n-type gallium nitride nanoparticles (GaN NPs) fabricated using the ultraviolet metal-assisted electroless etching method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements performed on the nanoparticles revealed large size dispersion ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Nanoparticles with broad tunable emission wavelength from 362 to 440 nm have been achieved by exciting the samples using the excitation power-dependent method. We attribute this large wavelength tunability to the localized potential fluctuations present within the GaN matrix and to vacancy-related surface states. Our results show that GaN NPs fabricated using this technique are promising for tunable-color-temperature white light-emitting diode applications. © 2013 Slimane et al.; licensee Springer.

  2. On the phenomenon of large photoluminescence red shift in GaN nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Slimane, Ahmed; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Elafandy, Rami T.; Najar, Adel; Ng, Tien Khee; San Roman Alerigi, Damian; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the observation of broad photoluminescence wavelength tunability from n-type gallium nitride nanoparticles (GaN NPs) fabricated using the ultraviolet metal-assisted electroless etching method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements performed on the nanoparticles revealed large size dispersion ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Nanoparticles with broad tunable emission wavelength from 362 to 440 nm have been achieved by exciting the samples using the excitation power-dependent method. We attribute this large wavelength tunability to the localized potential fluctuations present within the GaN matrix and to vacancy-related surface states. Our results show that GaN NPs fabricated using this technique are promising for tunable-color-temperature white light-emitting diode applications. © 2013 Slimane et al.; licensee Springer.

  3. Astronomers Break Ground on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) - World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from Europe, North America and Chile are breaking ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths . ALMA - the "Atacama Large Millimeter Array" - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located in the II Region of Chile, in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, at the Chajnantor altiplano, 5,000 metres above sea level. ALMA 's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimetre portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. " ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe" , said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA , also to young scientists and engineers" . " The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare

  4. Widely tunable dispersive wave generation and soliton self-frequency shift in a tellurite microstructured optical fiber pumped near the zero dispersion wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Tuan, Tong-Hoang; Liu, Lai; Gao, Wei-Qing; Kawamura, Harutaka; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2015-01-01

    Widely tunable dispersive waves (DW) and Raman solitons are generated in a tellurite microstructured optical fiber (TMOF) by pumping in the anomalous dispersion regime, close to the zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW). The DW can be generated from 1518.3 nm to 1315.5 nm, and the soliton can be shifted from the pump wavelength of 1570 nm to 1828.7 nm, by tuning the average pump power from 3 dBm to 17.5 dBm. After the average pump power is increased to 18.8 dBm, two DW peaks (centered at 1323 nm and 1260 nm) and three soliton peaks (centered at 1762 nm, 1825 nm, and 1896 nm) can be observed simultaneously. When the average pump power is greater than 23.4 dBm, a flat and broadband supercontinuum (SC) can be formed by the combined nonlinear effects of soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS), DW generation, and cross phase modulation (XPM). (paper)

  5. A new approach for white organic light-emitting diodes of single emitting layer using large stokes shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beomjin; Park, Youngil; Kim, Seungho; Lee, Younggu; Park, Jongwook

    2014-08-01

    DPPZ showed UV-Vis. and PL maximum values of 412 and 638 nm, meaning the large stokes shift. Blue host compound, TAT was synthesized and used for co-mixed white emission. TAT exhibited UV-Vis. and PL maximum values of 403 nm and 445 nm in film state. Thus, when two compounds are used as co-mixed emitter in OLED device, there is no energy transfer from blue emission of TAT to DPPZ due to large stokes shift of DPPZ. Based on the PL result, it is available to realize two-colored white in PL and EL spectra. As a result of this, two-mixed compounds showed vivid their own PL emission peaks of 449 and 631 nm in film state. Also, white OLED device using two-mixed compounds system was fabricated. EL spectrum shows 457 and 634 nm peaks and two separate EL peaks, respectively. As the operation voltage is increased from 7 to 11 V, EL spectrum does not change the peak shape and maximum wavelength values. EL performance of white device showed 0.29 cd/A, 0.14 lm/W, and CIE (0.325, 0.195) at 7 V.

  6. A new approach way for white organic light-emitting diodes based on single emitting layer and large stokes shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beomjin; Park, Youngil; Shin, Yunseop; Lee, Jiwon; Shin, Hwangyu; Park, Jongwook

    2014-07-01

    New red dopant, DPPZ based on porphyrin moiety was synthesized. DPPZ showed UV-Vis and PL maximum values of 412 and 638 nm, indicating the large stokes shift. New blue host compound, TATa was also synthesized and used for co-mixed white emission. TATa exhibited UV-Vis. and PL maximum values of 403 nm and 463 nm in film state. Thus, when two compounds are used as co-mixed emitter in OLED device, there is no energy transfer from blue emission of TATa to DPPZ due to large stokes shift of DPPZ. Based on the PL result, it is available to realize two-colored white in PL and EL spectra. As a result of this, two-mixed compounds showed vivid their own PL emission peaks of 466 and 638 nm in film state. Also, white OLED device using two-mixed compounds system was fabricated. EL spectrum shows 481 and 646 nm peaks and two separate EL peaks. As the operation voltage is increased from 8 to 11 V, EL spectrum does not change the peak shape and maximum wavelength values. EL performance of white device showed 0.041 cd/A, 0.018 Im/W, and CIE (0.457, 0.331) at 8 V.

  7. New-generation large-area muon scintillation counters with wavelength shifter fiber readout for CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.; Budagov, Yu.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.

    2006-01-01

    New scintillation counters have been designed and constructed for upgrading of the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. A novel light collection technique using wavelength shifting fibers, together with a high-quality polystyrene-based scintillator UPS 923A, has resulted in compact counters with good and stable light collection efficiency over their lengths extending up to 320 cm. Design, construction and performance of counters are presented. Properties of the fibers and the scintillator, such as light output, light attenuation, decay time and long-term stability, are investigated. It is found that the polystyrene-based scintillator, unlike the polyvinyltoluene-based one, has better properties adequate for long-term experiments

  8. Regime shifts in demersal assemblages of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem: a comparative assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkman, Stephen P.; Yemane, Dawit; Atkinson, Lara J.

    2015-01-01

    Using long‐term survey data, changes in demersal faunal communities in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem were analysed at community and population levels to provide a comparative overview of the occurrence and timing of regime shifts. For South Africa, the timing of a community‐level sh......Using long‐term survey data, changes in demersal faunal communities in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem were analysed at community and population levels to provide a comparative overview of the occurrence and timing of regime shifts. For South Africa, the timing of a community...

  9. Hybrid Ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber amplifier for long wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Poli, Federica

    2012-01-01

    A large-mode-area Ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier with build-in gain shaping is presented. The fiber cladding consists of a hexagonal lattice of air holes, where three rows are replaced with circular high-index inclusions. Seven missing air holes define the large-mode-area core. ...

  10. Noise tolerance in wavelength-selective switching of optical differential quadrature-phase-shift-keying pulse train by collinear acousto-optic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Yasumitsu

    2014-06-01

    Optical switching of high-bit-rate quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) pulse trains using collinear acousto-optic (AO) devices is theoretically discussed. Since the collinear AO devices have wavelength selectivity, the switched optical pulse trains suffer from distortion when the bandwidth of the pulse train is comparable to the pass bandwidth of the AO device. As the AO device, a sidelobe-suppressed device with a tapered surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) waveguide and a Butterworth-type filter device with a lossy SAW directional coupler are considered. Phase distortion of optical pulse trains at 40 to 100  Gsymbols/s in QPSK format is numerically analyzed. Bit-error-rate performance with additive Gaussian noise is also evaluated by the Monte Carlo method.

  11. Measurement of parameters of scintillating bars with wavelength-shifting fibres and silicon photomultiplier readout for the SHiP Muon Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, Alessandro; Baldini, Wander; Calcaterra, Alessandro; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Saputi, Alessandro; Khotyantsev, Alexey; Kudenko, Yury; Mefodev, Aleksandr; Mineev, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The light yield and the time resolution of different types of 3 m long scintillating bars instrumented with wavelength shifting fibres and read out by different models of silicon photomultipliers have been measured at a test beam at the T9 area at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The results obtained with different configurations are presented. A time resolution better than 800 ps, constant along the bar length within 20%, and a light yield of 140 (70) photo-electrons are obtained for bars 3 m long, 4.5 (5) cm wide and 2 (0.7) cm thick. These results nicely match the requirements for the Muon Detector of the SHiP experiment.

  12. Stability of highly shifted equilibria in a large aspect ratio low-field tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Leboeuf, J.-N.; Neches, R. Y.

    2007-01-01

    In the long run, the economics of fusion will dictate that reactors confine large plasma pressure rather efficiently. A possible route manifests itself as equilibria with large shift of the plasma magnetic axis. This shift compresses the flux surfaces on the outer part of the plasma, hereby increasing the allowable plasma pressure a machine can confine for a given toroidal magnetic field, which is the main cost of the device. As a first step toward a reactor, we propose investigating the stability of such configurations in a low magnetic field high aspect ratio machine. By focusing our arguments solely on the shape of the toroidal plasma current density profile we discuss the stability of highly shifted equilibria and their robustness to current profile variations that could occur in actual experiments. The evolution of the plasma parameters, as the beta poloidal is increased, is also examined to give a better understanding of the difference in performance between the various regimes

  13. Measurement of wavefront structure from large aperture optical components by phase shifting interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.; Kellam, M.; Maney, R.T.; Demiris, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of high spatial resolution measurement of the transmitted or reflected wavefront of optical components using phase shifting interferometry with a wavelength of 6328 angstrom. The optical components studied range in size from approximately 50 mm x 100 mm to 400 mm x 750 mm. Wavefront data, in the form of 3-D phase maps, have been obtained for three regimes of scale length: ''micro roughness'', ''mid-spatial scale'', and ''optical figure/curvature.'' Repetitive wavefront structure has been observed with scale lengths from 10 mm to 100 mm. The amplitude of this structure is typically λ/100 to λ/20. Previously unobserved structure has been detected in optical materials and on the surfaces of components. We are using this data to assist in optimizing laser system design, to qualify optical components and fabrication processes under study in our component development program

  14. Magnetic configuration dependence of the shafranov shift in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobuchi, T; Ida, K; Yamada, H; Yokoyama, M; Watanabe, K Y; Sakakibara, S; Yoshinuma, M [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-Cho, Toki-City, 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    The dependence of the Shafranov shift on magnetic field configuration, toroidicity and central rotational transform {iota}(0) in neutral beam heated plasma has been experimentally investigated in the Large Helical Device. The toroidicity of the plasma is controlled by the quadrupole field, while the central {iota}(0) is controlled by changing the distance of the current centre of the helical coil to the plasma. It is experimentally confirmed that both the lower toroidicity and the higher {iota}(0) contribute to the reduction of the Shafranov shift as predicted by the three-dimensional equilibrium code, VMEC.

  15. Scattering Properties of Large Irregular Cosmic Dust Particles at Visible Wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar-Cerezo, J.; Palmer, C.; Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Penttilä, A.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of internal inhomogeneities and surface roughness on the scattering behavior of large cosmic dust particles is studied by comparing model simulations with laboratory measurements. The present work shows the results of an attempt to model a dust sample measured in the laboratory with simulations performed by a ray-optics model code. We consider this dust sample as a good analogue for interplanetary and interstellar dust as it shares its refractive index with known materials in these media. Several sensitivity tests have been performed for both structural cases (internal inclusions and surface roughness). Three different samples have been selected to mimic inclusion/coating inhomogeneities: two measured scattering matrices of hematite and white clay, and a simulated matrix for water ice. These three matrices are selected to cover a wide range of imaginary refractive indices. The selection of these materials also seeks to study astrophysical environments of interest such as Mars, where hematite and clays have been detected, and comets. Based on the results of the sensitivity tests shown in this work, we perform calculations for a size distribution of a silicate-type host particle model with inclusions and surface roughness to reproduce the experimental measurements of a dust sample. The model fits the measurements quite well, proving that surface roughness and internal structure play a role in the scattering pattern of irregular cosmic dust particles.

  16. Scattering Properties of Large Irregular Cosmic Dust Particles at Visible Wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar-Cerezo, J.; Palmer, C.; Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F. [Instituto de Astrofìsica de Andalucìa, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomìa s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Penttilä, A.; Muinonen, K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-03-20

    The effect of internal inhomogeneities and surface roughness on the scattering behavior of large cosmic dust particles is studied by comparing model simulations with laboratory measurements. The present work shows the results of an attempt to model a dust sample measured in the laboratory with simulations performed by a ray-optics model code. We consider this dust sample as a good analogue for interplanetary and interstellar dust as it shares its refractive index with known materials in these media. Several sensitivity tests have been performed for both structural cases (internal inclusions and surface roughness). Three different samples have been selected to mimic inclusion/coating inhomogeneities: two measured scattering matrices of hematite and white clay, and a simulated matrix for water ice. These three matrices are selected to cover a wide range of imaginary refractive indices. The selection of these materials also seeks to study astrophysical environments of interest such as Mars, where hematite and clays have been detected, and comets. Based on the results of the sensitivity tests shown in this work, we perform calculations for a size distribution of a silicate-type host particle model with inclusions and surface roughness to reproduce the experimental measurements of a dust sample. The model fits the measurements quite well, proving that surface roughness and internal structure play a role in the scattering pattern of irregular cosmic dust particles.

  17. Geometry of the Large Magellanic Cloud Using Multi- wavelength Photometry of Classical Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sukanta; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Wysocki, Daniel; Kumar, Subhash

    2018-05-01

    We determine the geometrical and viewing angle parameters of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the Leavitt law based on a sample of more than 3500 common classical Cepheids (FU and FO) in optical (V, I), near-infrared (JHKs) and mid-infrared ([3.6] μm and [4.5] μm) photometric bands. Statistical reddening and distance modulus free from the effect of reddening to each of the individual Cepheids are obtained using the simultaneous multi-band fit to the apparent distance moduli from the analysis of the resulting Leavitt laws in these seven photometric bands. A reddening map of the LMC obtained from the analysis shows good agreement with the other maps available in the literature. Extinction free distance measurements along with the information of the equatorial coordinates (α, δ) for individual stars are used to obtain the corresponding Cartesian coordinates with respect to the plane of the sky. By fitting a plane solution of the form z = f(x, y) to the observed three dimensional distribution, the following viewing angle parameters of the LMC are obtained: inclination angle i = 25°.110 ± 0°.365, position angle of line of nodes θlon = 154°.702 ± 1°.378. On the other hand, modelling the observed three dimensional distribution of the Cepheids as a triaxial ellipsoid, the following values of the geometrical axes ratios of the LMC are obtained: 1.000 ± 0.003: 1.151 ± 0.003: 1.890 ± 0.014 with the viewing angle parameters: inclination angle of i = 11°.920 ± 0°.315 with respect to the longest axis from the line of sight and position angle of line of nodes θlon = 128°.871 ± 0°.569. The position angles are measured eastwards from north.

  18. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, H.; Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-01-01

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ∼3000 K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure

  19. Measurement of wavelengths and lamb shifts for inner-shell transitions in Fe XVIII-XXIV. [from solar flare X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, J. F.; Feldman, U.; Safronova, U. I.

    1986-01-01

    The wavelengths of inner-shell 1s-2p transitions in the ions Fe XVIII-XXIV have been measured in solar flare spectra recorded by the Naval Research Laboratory crystal spectrometer (SOLFLEX) on the Air Force P78-1 spacecraft. The measurements are compared with previous measurements and with recently calculated wavelengths. It is found that the measured wavelengths are systematically larger than the wavelengths calculated using the Z-expansion method by up to 0.65 mA. For the more highly charged ions, these differences can be attributed to the QED contributions to the transition energies that are not included in the Z-expansion calculations.

  20. Large solid-angle polarisation analysis at thermal neutron wavelengths using a sup 3 He spin filter

    CERN Document Server

    Heil, W; Cywinski, R; Humblot, H; Ritter, C; Roberts, T W; Stewart, J R

    2002-01-01

    The strongly spin-dependent absorption of neutrons in nuclear spin-polarised sup 3 He opens up the possibility of polarising neutrons from reactors and spallation sources over the full kinematical range of cold, thermal and hot neutrons. In this paper we describe the first large solid-angle polarisation analysis measurement using a sup 3 He neutron spin filter at thermal neutron wavelengths (lambda=2.5 A). This experiment was performed on the two-axis diffractometer D1B at the Institut Laue-Langevin using a banana-shaped filter cell (530 cm sup 3 ) filled with sup 3 He gas with a polarisation of P=52% at a pressure of 2.7 bar. A comparison is made with a previous measurement on D7 using a cold neutron beam on the same sample, i.e. amorphous ErY sub 6 Ni sub 3. Using uniaxial polarisation analysis both the nuclear and magnetic cross-sections could be extracted over the range of scattering-vectors [0.5<=Q(A sup - sup 1)<=3.5]. The results are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the D7-data, whe...

  1. Shifting wavelengths of ultraweak photon emissions from dying melanoma cells: their chemical enhancement and blocking are predicted by Cosic's theory of resonant recognition model for macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Blake T; Murugan, Nirosha J; Karbowski, Lukasz M; Lafrenie, Robert M; Persinger, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    During the first 24 h after removal from incubation, melanoma cells in culture displayed reliable increases in emissions of photons of specific wavelengths during discrete portions of this interval. Applications of specific filters revealed marked and protracted increases in infrared (950 nm) photons about 7 h after removal followed 3 h later by marked and protracted increases in near ultraviolet (370 nm) photon emissions. Specific wavelengths within the visible (400 to 800 nm) peaked 12 to 24 h later. Specific activators or inhibitors for specific wavelengths based upon Cosic's resonant recognition model elicited either enhancement or diminishment of photons at the specific wavelength as predicted. Inhibitors or activators predicted for other wavelengths, even within 10 nm, were less or not effective. There is now evidence for quantitative coupling between the wavelength of photon emissions and intrinsic cellular chemistry. The results are consistent with initial activation of signaling molecules associated with infrared followed about 3 h later by growth and protein-structural factors associated with ultraviolet. The greater-than-expected photon counts compared with raw measures through the various filters, which also function as reflective material to other photons, suggest that photons of different wavelengths might be self-stimulatory and could play a significant role in cell-to-cell communication.

  2. An organic dye with very large Stokes-shift and broad tunability of fluorescence: Potential two-photon probe for bioimaging and ultra-sensitive solid-state gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Tingchao; Tian, Xiaoqing; Lin, Xiaodong, E-mail: linxd@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wang, Yue; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Handong, E-mail: linxd@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, and Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies (CDPT), School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-01-04

    Light-emitting nonlinear optical molecules, especially those with large Stokes shifts and broad tunability of their emission wavelength, have attracted considerable attention for various applications including biomedical imaging and fluorescent sensors. However, most fluorescent chromophores have only limited potential for such applications due to small Stokes shifts, narrow tunability of fluorescence emissions, and small optical nonlinearity in highly polar solvents. In this work, we demonstrate that a two-photon absorbing stilbene chromophore exhibits a large two-photon absorption action cross-section (ηδ = 320 GM) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and shows broad fluorescence tunability (125 nm) by manipulating the polarity of the surrounding medium. Importantly, a very large Stokes shift of up to 227 nm is achieved in DMSO. Thanks to these features, this chromophore can be utilized as a two-photon probe for bioimaging applications and in an ultrasensitive solid-state gas detector.

  3. Large shift in source of fine sediment in the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, P.; Gran, K.B.; Schottler, S.P.; Wilcock, P.R.; Day, S.S.; Jennings, C.; Lauer, J.W.; Viparelli, E.; Willenbring, J.K.; Engstrom, D.R.; Parker, G.

    2011-01-01

    Although sediment is a natural constituent of rivers, excess loading to rivers and streams is a leading cause of impairment and biodiversity loss. Remedial actions require identification of the sources and mechanisms of sediment supply. This task is complicated by the scale and complexity of large watersheds as well as changes in climate and land use that alter the drivers of sediment supply. Previous studies in Lake Pepin, a natural lake on the Mississippi River, indicate that sediment supply to the lake has increased 10-fold over the past 150 years. Herein we combine geochemical fingerprinting and a suite of geomorphic change detection techniques with a sediment mass balance for a tributary watershed to demonstrate that, although the sediment loading remains very large, the dominant source of sediment has shifted from agricultural soil erosion to accelerated erosion of stream banks and bluffs, driven by increased river discharge. Such hydrologic amplification of natural erosion processes calls for a new approach to watershed sediment modeling that explicitly accounts for channel and floodplain dynamics that amplify or dampen landscape processes. Further, this finding illustrates a new challenge in remediating nonpoint sediment pollution and indicates that management efforts must expand from soil erosion to factors contributing to increased water runoff. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Large-scale shifts in phytoplankton groups in the Equatorial Pacific during ENSO cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Masotti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO drives important changes in the marine productivity of the Equatorial Pacific, in particular during major El Niño/La Niña transitions. Changes in environmental conditions associated with these climatic events also likely impact phytoplankton composition. In this work, the distribution of four major phytoplankton groups (nanoeucaryotes, Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and diatoms was examined between 1996 and 2007 by applying the PHYSAT algorithm to the ocean color data archive from the Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor (OCTS and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS. Coincident with the decrease in chlorophyll concentrations, a large-scale shift in the phytoplankton composition of the Equatorial Pacific, that was characterized by a decrease in Synechococcus and an increase in nanoeucaryote dominance, was observed during the early stages of both the strong El Niño of 1997 and the moderate El Niño of 2006. A significant increase in diatoms dominance was observed in the Equatorial Pacific during the 1998 La Niña and was associated with elevated marine productivity. An analysis of the environmental variables using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model (NEMO-PISCES suggests that the Synechococcus dominance decrease during the two El Niño events was associated with an abrupt decline in nutrient availability (−0.9 to −2.5 μM NO3 month−1. Alternatively, increased nutrient availability (3 μM NO3 month−1 during the 1998 La Niña resulted in Equatorial Pacific dominance diatom increase. Despite these phytoplankton community shifts, the mean composition is restored after a few months, which suggests resilience in community structure.

  5. Large Positive and Negative Lateral Shifts from an Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab Backed by a Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Cheng; Rong, Chen

    2009-01-01

    The lateral shift of a light beam at the surface of an anisotropic metamaterial (AMM) slab backed by a metal is investigated. Analytical expressions of the lateral shifts are derived using the stationary-phase method, in the case that total refection does and does not occur at the first interface. The sign of the lateral shift in two situations is discussed, and the necessary conditions for the lateral shift to be positive or negative are given. It is shown that the thickness and physical parameters of the AMM slab and the incident angle of the light beam strongly affect the properties of the lateral shift. Numerical results validate these conclusions. The lossy effect of the metamaterial on the lateral shift is also investigated

  6. Planation surfaces as a record of medium to large wavelength deformation: the example of the Lake Albert Rift (Uganda) on the East African Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Jean, Braun; Olivier, Dauteuil; Massimo, Dall'Asta

    2016-04-01

    African relief is characterized by planation surfaces, some of them of continental scale. These surfaces are slightly deformed according to different wavelengths (x10 km; x100 km, x1000 km) which record both mantle dynamics (very long wavelength, x 1000 km) and lithosphere deformation (long wavelength deformation, x 100 km). Different types of these planation surfaces are recognized: - Etchplains capped by iron-duricrust which correspond to erosional nearly flat weathered surfaces resulting from the growth of laterites under warm and humid conditions. - Pediments which define mechanical erosional surfaces with concave or rectilinear profiles delimited by upslope scarps connected upstream with the upper landforms. We here focused on the Lake Albert Rift at the northern termination of the western branch of the East African Rift System of which the two branches are surimposed on the East-African Dome. Different wavelengths of deformation were characterized based on the 3D mapping of stepped planation surfaces: (1) very long wavelength deformations resulting from the uplift of the East African Dome; (2) long wavelength deformations resulting from the opening of the eastern branch and (3) medium wavelength deformations represented by the uplift of rift shoulders like the Rwenzori Mountains. The paleo-landscape reconstruction of Uganda shows the existence of four generations of landforms dated according to their geometrical relationships with volcanic rocks. A four stepped evolution of the Ugandan landforms is proposed: • 70 - 22 Ma: generation of two weathered planation surfaces (etchplain Uw and Iw). The upper one (Uw) records a very humid period culminating at time of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (70-45 Ma). It corresponds to the African Surface. A first uplift of the East African Dome generates a second lower planation surface (Iw) connected to the Atlantic Ocean base level; • 17-2.7 Ma: planation of large pediplains connected to the local base level induced

  7. The shifting zoom: new possibilities for inverse scattering on electrically large domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; De Coster, Alberic; Lambot, Sebastien

    2017-04-01

    Inverse scattering is a subject of great interest in diagnostic problems, which are in their turn of interest for many applicative problems as investigation of cultural heritage, characterization of foundations or subservices, identification of unexploded ordnances and so on [1-4]. In particular, GPR data are usually focused by means of migration algorithms, essentially based on a linear approximation of the scattering phenomenon. Migration algorithms are popular because they are computationally efficient and do not require the inversion of a matrix, neither the calculation of the elements of a matrix. In fact, they are essentially based on the adjoint of the linearised scattering operator, which allows in the end to write the inversion formula as a suitably weighted integral of the data [5]. In particular, this makes a migration algorithm more suitable than a linear microwave tomography inversion algorithm for the reconstruction of an electrically large investigation domain. However, this computational challenge can be overcome by making use of investigation domains joined side by side, as proposed e.g. in ref. [3]. This allows to apply a microwave tomography algorithm even to large investigation domains. However, the joining side by side of sequential investigation domains introduces a problem of limited (and asymmetric) maximum view angle with regard to the targets occurring close to the edges between two adjacent domains, or possibly crossing these edges. The shifting zoom is a method that allows to overcome this difficulty by means of overlapped investigation and observation domains [6-7]. It requires more sequential inversion with respect to adjacent investigation domains, but the really required extra-time is minimal because the matrix to be inverted is calculated ones and for all, as well as its singular value decomposition: what is repeated more time is only a fast matrix-vector multiplication. References [1] M. Pieraccini, L. Noferini, D. Mecatti, C

  8. Phospholyl(borane) Amino Acids and Peptides: Stereoselective Synthesis and Fluorescent Properties with Large Stokes Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribat, Mathieu; Rémond, Emmanuelle; Clément, Sébastien; Lee, Arie Van Der; Cavelier, Florine

    2018-01-24

    The synthesis of phospholyl(borane) amino acids was stereoselectively achieved by reaction of phospholide anion with iodo α-amino ester derived from l-aspartic acid or l-serine, followed by in situ complexation with borane. Phospholyl(borane) amino acids are easy to store and can be subjected to direct transformation into the corresponding free phospholyl, gold complex, oxide or sulfur derivatives as well as phospholinium salts, thus offering a variety of side chains. After selective deprotection of carboxylic function or amine, C- or N- peptide coupling with an alanine moiety proved the possible incorporation into peptides. Such phospholyl amino acid and peptide derivatives exhibit fluorescent properties with a large Stokes shift (160 nm) and fluorescence up to 535 nm, depending on the phosphole aromaticity and the chemical environment. These phospholyl(borane) amino acids constitute a new class of unnatural amino acids useful for structure-activities relationship studies and appear to be promising fluorophores for the development of labeled peptides.

  9. Circular High-Q Resonating Isotropic Strain Sensors with Large Shift of Resonance Frequency under Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmi Volkan Demir

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present circular architecture bioimplant strain sensors that facilitate a strong resonance frequency shift with mechanical deformation. The clinical application area of these sensors is for in vivo assessment of bone fractures. Using a rectangular geometry, we obtain a resonance shift of 330 MHz for a single device and 170 MHz for its triplet configuration (with three side-by-side resonators on chip under an applied load of 3,920 N. Using the same device parameters with a circular isotropic architecture, we achieve a resonance frequency shift of 500 MHz for the single device and 260 MHz for its triplet configuration, demonstrating substantially increased sensitivity.

  10. Large Variations in HIV-1 Viral Load Explained by Shifting-Mosaic Metapopulation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lythgoe, Katrina A.; Blanquart, François

    2016-01-01

    The viral population of HIV-1, like many pathogens that cause systemic infection, is structured and differentiated within the body. The dynamics of cellular immune trafficking through the blood and within compartments of the body has also received wide attention. Despite these advances, mathematical models, which are widely used to interpret and predict viral and immune dynamics in infection, typically treat the infected host as a well-mixed homogeneous environment. Here, we present mathematical, analytical, and computational results that demonstrate that consideration of the spatial structure of the viral population within the host radically alters predictions of previous models. We study the dynamics of virus replication and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) within a metapopulation of spatially segregated patches, representing T cell areas connected by circulating blood and lymph. The dynamics of the system depend critically on the interaction between CTLs and infected cells at the within-patch level. We show that for a wide range of parameters, the system admits an unexpected outcome called the shifting-mosaic steady state. In this state, the whole body’s viral population is stable over time, but the equilibrium results from an underlying, highly dynamic process of local infection and clearance within T-cell centers. Notably, and in contrast to previous models, this new model can explain the large differences in set-point viral load (SPVL) observed between patients and their distribution, as well as the relatively low proportion of cells infected at any one time, and alters the predicted determinants of viral load variation. PMID:27706164

  11. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  12. Temperature-Induced Wavelength Shift of Electron-Beam-Pumped Lasers from CdSe, CdS, and ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1971-01-01

    Experimental results on the temperature dependence of the laser frequency and threshold pump power are presented in the range from liquid helium to room temperature for electron-beam-pumped CdSe, CdS, and ZnO lasers. A linear shift of the laser frequency at high temperatures and a relatively slow...

  13. Higher operation temperature quadrant photon detectors of 2-11 μm wavelength radiation with large photosensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, J.; Sosna, A.; Wojnowski, D.; Koźniewski, A.; Romanis, M.; Gawron, W.; Piotrowski, J.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the quadrant photon HgCdTe detectors optimized for 2-11 μm wavelength spectral range and Peltier or no cooling, and photosensitive area of a quad-cell of 1×1 to 4×4 mm. The devices are fabricated as photoconductors or multiple photovoltaic cells connected in series (PVM). The former are characterized by a relatively uniform photosensitive area. The PVM photovoltaic cells are distributed along the wafer surface, comprising a periodical stripe structure with a period of 20 μm. Within each period, there is an insensitive gap/trench spot of size close to the period, but becomes negligible for the optimal spot size comparable to a quadrant-cell area. The photoconductors produce 1/f noise with about 10 kHz knee frequency, due to bias necessary for their operation. The PVM photodiodes are typically operated at 0 V bias, so they generate no 1/f noise and operation from DC is enabled. At 230 K, upper corner frequency of 16 to 100 MHz is obtained for photoconductor and 60 to 80 MHz for PVM, normalized detectivity D* 6×107 cm×Hz1/2/W to >1.4×108 cm×Hz1/2/W for photoconductor and >1.7×108 cm·Hz1/2/W for PVM, allowing for position control of the radiation beam with submicron accuracy at 16 MHz, 10.6 μm wavelength of pulsed radiation spot of 0.8 mm dia at the close-to-maximal input radiation power density in a range of detector linear operation.

  14. Endogenous and Exogenous Attention Shifts are Mediated by the Same Large-Scale Neural Network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, M.V.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Theeuwes, J.

    2004-01-01

    Event-related fMRI was used to examine the neural basis of endogenous (top-down) and exogenous (bottom-up) spatial orienting. Shifts of attention were induced by central (endogenous) or peripheral (exogenous) cues. Reaction times on subsequently presented targets showed the expected pattern of

  15. Regime shift from phytoplankton to macrophyte dominance in a large river: Top-down versus bottom-up effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, Carles, E-mail: carles.ibanez@irta.cat [IRTA Aquatic Ecosystems, Carretera Poble Nou, Km 5.5, 43540 St. Carles de la Rapita, Catalonia (Spain); Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Rovira, Albert; Trobajo, Rosa [IRTA Aquatic Ecosystems, Carretera Poble Nou, Km 5.5, 43540 St. Carles de la Rapita, Catalonia (Spain); Alonso, Miguel [United Research Services S.L., Urgell 143, 08036 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Duran, Concha [Confederacion Hidrografica del Ebro, Sagasta 24-26, 50071 Zaragoza, Aragon (Spain); Jimenez, Pere J. [Grup Natura Freixe, Major 56, 43750 Flix, Catalonia (Spain); Munne, Antoni [Agencia Catalana de l' Aigua, Provenca 204-208, 08036 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Prat, Narcis [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona Catalonia (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    The lower Ebro River (Catalonia, Spain) has recently undergone a regime shift from a phytoplankton-dominated to a macrophyte-dominated system. This shift is well known in shallow lakes but apparently it has never been documented in rivers. Two initial hypotheses to explain the collapse of the phytoplankton were considered: a) the diminution of nutrients (bottom-up); b) the filtering effect due to the colonization of the zebra mussel (top-down). Data on water quality, hydrology and biological communities (phytoplankton, macrophytes and zebra mussel) was obtained both from existing data sets and new surveys. Results clearly indicate that the decrease in phosphorus is the main cause of a dramatic decrease in chlorophyll and large increase in water transparency, triggering the subsequent colonization of macrophytes in the river bed. A Generalized Linear Model analysis showed that the decrease in dissolved phosphorus had a relative importance 14 times higher than the increase in zebra mussel density to explain the variation of total chlorophyll. We suggest that the described changes in the lower Ebro River can be considered a novel ecosystem shift. This shift is triggering remarkable changes in the biological communities beyond the decrease of phytoplankton and the proliferation of macrophytes, such as massive colonization of Simulidae (black fly) and other changes in the benthic invertebrate communities that are currently investigated. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show a regime shift in a large river from phytoplankton to macrophyte dominance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two main hypotheses are considered: nutrient decrease and zebra mussel grazing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorus depletion is found to be the main cause of the phytoplankton decline. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We conclude that oligotrophication triggered the colonization of macrophytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This new regime shift in a river is similar to that described

  16. Regime shift from phytoplankton to macrophyte dominance in a large river: Top-down versus bottom-up effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibáñez, Carles; Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Rovira, Albert; Trobajo, Rosa; Alonso, Miguel; Duran, Concha; Jiménez, Pere J.; Munné, Antoni; Prat, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    The lower Ebro River (Catalonia, Spain) has recently undergone a regime shift from a phytoplankton-dominated to a macrophyte-dominated system. This shift is well known in shallow lakes but apparently it has never been documented in rivers. Two initial hypotheses to explain the collapse of the phytoplankton were considered: a) the diminution of nutrients (bottom-up); b) the filtering effect due to the colonization of the zebra mussel (top-down). Data on water quality, hydrology and biological communities (phytoplankton, macrophytes and zebra mussel) was obtained both from existing data sets and new surveys. Results clearly indicate that the decrease in phosphorus is the main cause of a dramatic decrease in chlorophyll and large increase in water transparency, triggering the subsequent colonization of macrophytes in the river bed. A Generalized Linear Model analysis showed that the decrease in dissolved phosphorus had a relative importance 14 times higher than the increase in zebra mussel density to explain the variation of total chlorophyll. We suggest that the described changes in the lower Ebro River can be considered a novel ecosystem shift. This shift is triggering remarkable changes in the biological communities beyond the decrease of phytoplankton and the proliferation of macrophytes, such as massive colonization of Simulidae (black fly) and other changes in the benthic invertebrate communities that are currently investigated. - Highlights: ► We show a regime shift in a large river from phytoplankton to macrophyte dominance. ► Two main hypotheses are considered: nutrient decrease and zebra mussel grazing. ► Phosphorus depletion is found to be the main cause of the phytoplankton decline. ► We conclude that oligotrophication triggered the colonization of macrophytes. ► This new regime shift in a river is similar to that described in shallow lakes.

  17. Hydrological regulation drives regime shifts: evidence from paleolimnology and ecosystem modeling of a large shallow Chinese lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangzhen; He, Qishuang; Yang, Bin; He, Wei; Xu, Fuliu; Janssen, Annette B G; Kuiper, Jan J; van Gerven, Luuk P A; Qin, Ning; Jiang, Yujiao; Liu, Wenxiu; Yang, Chen; Bai, Zelin; Zhang, Min; Kong, Fanxiang; Janse, Jan H; Mooij, Wolf M

    2017-02-01

    Quantitative evidence of sudden shifts in ecological structure and function in large shallow lakes is rare, even though they provide essential benefits to society. Such 'regime shifts' can be driven by human activities which degrade ecological stability including water level control (WLC) and nutrient loading. Interactions between WLC and nutrient loading on the long-term dynamics of shallow lake ecosystems are, however, often overlooked and largely underestimated, which has hampered the effectiveness of lake management. Here, we focus on a large shallow lake (Lake Chaohu) located in one of the most densely populated areas in China, the lower Yangtze River floodplain, which has undergone both WLC and increasing nutrient loading over the last several decades. We applied a novel methodology that combines consistent evidence from both paleolimnological records and ecosystem modeling to overcome the hurdle of data insufficiency and to unravel the drivers and underlying mechanisms in ecosystem dynamics. We identified the occurrence of two regime shifts: one in 1963, characterized by the abrupt disappearance of submerged vegetation, and another around 1980, with strong algal blooms being observed thereafter. Using model scenarios, we further disentangled the roles of WLC and nutrient loading, showing that the 1963 shift was predominantly triggered by WLC, whereas the shift ca. 1980 was attributed to aggravated nutrient loading. Our analysis also shows interactions between these two stressors. Compared to the dynamics driven by nutrient loading alone, WLC reduced the critical P loading and resulted in earlier disappearance of submerged vegetation and emergence of algal blooms by approximately 26 and 10 years, respectively. Overall, our study reveals the significant role of hydrological regulation in driving shallow lake ecosystem dynamics, and it highlights the urgency of using multi-objective management criteria that includes ecological sustainability perspectives when

  18. Ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber amplifier with gain shaping for use at long wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Poli, Federica

    2012-01-01

    A large-mode-area Ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier with efficient suppression of amplified spontaneous emission is presented. The fiber cladding consists of a hexagonal lattice of air holes, where three rows are replaced with circular high-index inclusions. Seven missing air holes...

  19. Directed-Assembly of Block Copolymers for Large-Scale, Three-Dimensional, Optical Metamaterials at Visible Wavelengths. Final LDRD Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiszpanski, Anna M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-26

    Metamaterials are composites with patterned subwavelength features where the choice of materials and subwavelength structuring bestows upon the metamaterials unique optical properties not found in nature, thereby enabling optical applications previously considered impossible. However, because the structure of optical metamaterials must be subwavelength, metamaterials operating at visible wavelengths require features on the order of 100 nm or smaller, and such resolution typically requires top-down lithographic fabrication techniques that are not easily scaled to device-relevant areas that are square centimeters in size. In this project, we developed a new fabrication route using block copolymers to make over large device-relevant areas optical metamaterials that operate at visible wavelengths. Our structures are smaller in size (sub-100 nm) and cover a larger area (cm2) than what has been achieved with traditional nanofabrication routes. To guide our experimental efforts, we developed an algorithm to calculate the expected optical properties (specifically the index of refraction) of such metamaterials that predicts that we can achieve surprisingly large changes in optical properties with small changes in metamaterials’ structure. In the course of our work, we also found that the ordered metal nanowires meshes produced by our scalable fabrication route for making optical metamaterials may also possibly act as transparent electrodes, which are needed in electrical displays and solar cells. We explored the ordered metal nanowires meshes’ utility for this application and developed design guidelines to aide our experimental efforts.

  20. Spectral shifts of mammalian ultraviolet-sensitive pigments (short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1) are associated with eye length and photic niche evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerling, Christopher A; Huynh, Hieu T; Nguyen, Minh A; Meredith, Robert W; Springer, Mark S

    2015-11-22

    Retinal opsin photopigments initiate mammalian vision when stimulated by light. Most mammals possess a short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1) pigment that is primarily sensitive to either ultraviolet or violet light, leading to variation in colour perception across species. Despite knowledge of both ultraviolet- and violet-sensitive SWS1 classes in mammals for 25 years, the adaptive significance of this variation has not been subjected to hypothesis testing, resulting in minimal understanding of the basis for mammalian SWS1 spectral tuning evolution. Here, we gathered data on SWS1 for 403 mammal species, including novel SWS1 sequences for 97 species. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that the most recent common ancestor of Theria possessed an ultraviolet SWS1 pigment, and that violet-sensitive pigments evolved at least 12 times in mammalian history. We also observed that ultraviolet pigments, previously considered to be a rarity, are common in mammals. We then used phylogenetic comparative methods to test the hypotheses that the evolution of violet-sensitive SWS1 is associated with increased light exposure, extended longevity and longer eye length. We discovered that diurnal mammals and species with longer eyes are more likely to have violet-sensitive pigments and less likely to possess UV-sensitive pigments. We hypothesize that (i) as mammals evolved larger body sizes, they evolved longer eyes, which limited transmittance of ultraviolet light to the retina due to an increase in Rayleigh scattering, and (ii) as mammals began to invade diurnal temporal niches, they evolved lenses with low UV transmittance to reduce chromatic aberration and/or photo-oxidative damage. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. A model for the Global Quantum Efficiency for a TPB-based wavelength-shifting system used with photomultiplier tubes in liquid argon in MicroBooNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, S. F.; Wester, T.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.; Henderson, E.; Jones, B. J. P.; McLean, A. I. L.; Moon, J. S.; Toups, M.; Wongjirad, T.

    2018-02-01

    We present a model for the Global Quantum Efficiency (GQE) of the MicroBooNE optical units. An optical unit consists of a flat, circular acrylic plate, coated with tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB), positioned near the photocathode of a 20.2-cm diameter photomultiplier tube. The plate converts the ultra-violet scintillation photons from liquid argon into visible-spectrum photons to which the cryogenic phototubes are sensitive. The GQE is the convolution of the efficiency of the plates that convert the 128 nm scintillation light from liquid argon to visible light, the efficiency of the shifted light to reach the photocathode, and the efficiency of the cryogenic photomultiplier tube. We develop a GEANT4-based model of the optical unit, based on first principles, and obtain the range of probable values for the expected number of detected photoelectrons (NPE) given the known systematic errors on the simulation parameters. We compare results from four measurements of the NPE determined using alpha-particle sources placed at two distances from a TPB-coated plate in a liquid argon cryostat test stand. We also directly measured the radial dependence of the quantum efficiency, and find that this has the same shape as predicted by our model. Our model results in a GQE of 0.0055±0.0009 for the MicroBooNE optical units. While the information shown here is MicroBooNE specific, the approach to the model and the collection of simulation parameters will be widely applicable to many liquid-argon-based light collection systems.

  2. Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings:Field Tests, Simulation and Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Zagreus, Leah

    2005-09-01

    The principle of pre-cooling and demand limiting is to pre-cool buildings at night or in the morning during off-peak hours, storing cooling in the building thermal mass and thereby reducing cooling loads and reducing or shedding related electrical demand during the peak periods. Cost savings are achieved by reducing on-peak energy and demand charges. The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies (Braun 1990, Ruud et al. 1990, Conniff 1991, Andresen and Brandemuehl 1992, Mahajan et al. 1993, Morris et al. 1994, Keeney and Braun 1997, Becker and Paciuk 2002, Xu et al. 2003). This technology appears to have significant potential for demand reduction if applied within an overall demand response program. The primary goal associated with this research is to develop information and tools necessary to assess the viability of and, where appropriate, implement demand response programs involving building thermal mass in buildings throughout California. The project involves evaluating the technology readiness, overall demand reduction potential, and customer acceptance for different classes of buildings. This information can be used along with estimates of the impact of the strategies on energy use to design appropriate incentives for customers.

  3. Cross-functional shifts in roadmapping : Sequence analysis of roadmapping practices at a large corporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonse, W.L.; Perks, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study unravels the nature of inter-functional integration in roadmapping. Roadmapping is indicated as an important innovation phenomenon and is practiced by multiple large organizations. Functional integration is widely acknowledged to play a significant role in enhancing new product success.

  4. Climatic drivers for multidecadal shifts in solute transport and methane production zones within a large peat basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Paul H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Reeve, Andrew S.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Corbett, J. Elizabeth; Dasgupta, Soumitri; Levy, Zeno

    2016-01-01

    Northern peatlands are an important source for greenhouse gases, but their capacity to produce methane remains uncertain under changing climatic conditions. We therefore analyzed a 43 year time series of the pore-water chemistry to determine if long-term shifts in precipitation altered the vertical transport of solutes within a large peat basin in northern Minnesota. These data suggest that rates of methane production can be finely tuned to multidecadal shifts in precipitation that drive the vertical penetration of labile carbon substrates within the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands. Tritium and cation profiles demonstrate that only the upper meter of these peat deposits was flushed by downwardly moving recharge from 1965 to 1983 during a Transitional Dry-to-Moist Period. However, a shift to a moister climate after 1984 drove surface waters much deeper, largely flushing the pore waters of all bogs and fens to depths of 2 m. Labile carbon compounds were transported downward from the rhizosphere to the basal peat at this time producing a substantial enrichment of methane in Δ14C with respect to the solid-phase peat from 1991 to 2008. These data indicate that labile carbon substrates can fuel deep production zones of methanogenesis that more than doubled in thickness across this large peat basin after 1984. Moreover, the entire peat profile apparently has the capacity to produce methane from labile carbon substrates depending on climate-driven modes of solute transport. Future changes in precipitation may therefore play a central role in determining the source strength of peatlands in the global methane cycle.

  5. Climatic Drivers for Multi-Decadal Shifts in Solute Transport and Methane Production Zones within a Large Peat Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Paul H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Reeve, Andrew S.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Corbett, J. Elizabeth; Dasgupta, Soumitri; Levy, Zeno

    2016-01-01

    Northern peatlands are an important source for greenhouse gases but their capacity to produce methane remains uncertain under changing climatic conditions. We therefore analyzed a 43-year time series of pore-water chemistry to determine if long-term shifts in precipitation altered the vertical transport of solutes within a large peat basin in northern Minnesota. These data suggest that rates of methane production can be finely tuned to multi-decadal shifts in precipitation that drive the vertical penetration of labile carbon substrates within the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatlands. Tritium and cation profiles demonstrate that only the upper meter of these peat deposits was flushed by downwardly moving recharge from 1965 through 1983 during a Transitional Dry-to-Moist Period. However, a shift to a moister climate after 1984 drove surface waters much deeper, largely flushing the pore waters of all bogs and fens to depths of 2 m. Labile carbon compounds were transported downward from the rhizosphere to the basal peat at this time producing a substantial enrichment of methane in Delta C-14 with respect to the solid-phase peat from 1991 to 2008. These data indicate that labile carbon substrates can fuel deep production zones of methanogenesis that more than doubled in thickness across this large peat basin after 1984. Moreover, the entire peat profile apparently has the capacity to produce methane from labile carbon substrates depending on climate-driven modes of solute transport. Future changes in precipitation may therefore play a central role in determining the source strength of peatlands in the global methane cycle.

  6. Long-lived hot-carrier light emission and large blue shift in formamidinium tin triiodide perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Adjokatse, Sampson; Shao, Shuyan; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2018-01-01

    A long-lived hot carrier population is critical in order to develop working hot carrier photovoltaic devices with efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we report photoluminescence from hot-carriers with unexpectedly long lifetime (a few ns) in formamidinium tin triiodide. An unusual large blue shift of the time-integrated photoluminescence with increasing excitation power (150 meV at 24 K and 75 meV at 293 K) is displayed. On the basis of the analysis of energy-resolved an...

  7. Improving the Accuracy of NMR Structures of Large Proteins Using Pseudocontact Shifts as Long-Range Restraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaponenko, Vadim [National Cancer Institute, Structural Biophysics Laboratory (United States); Sarma, Siddhartha P. [Indian Institute of Science, Molecular Biophysics Unit (India); Altieri, Amanda S. [National Cancer Institute, Structural Biophysics Laboratory (United States); Horita, David A. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Li, Jess; Byrd, R. Andrew [National Cancer Institute, Structural Biophysics Laboratory (United States)], E-mail: rabyrd@ncifcrf.gov

    2004-03-15

    We demonstrate improved accuracy in protein structure determination for large ({>=}30 kDa), deuterated proteins (e.g. STAT4{sub NT}) via the combination of pseudocontact shifts for amide and methyl protons with the available NOEs in methyl-protonated proteins. The improved accuracy is cross validated by Q-factors determined from residual dipolar couplings measured as a result of magnetic susceptibility alignment. The paramagnet is introduced via binding to thiol-reactive EDTA, and multiple sites can be serially engineered to obtain data from alternative orientations of the paramagnetic anisotropic susceptibility tensor. The technique is advantageous for systems where the target protein has strong interactions with known alignment media.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS ON THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD SEEN AT 20-600 μm WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakićević, Maša; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl; Roman-Duval, Julia; Seale, Jonathan; Bot, Caroline; Babler, Brian; Bolatto, Alberto; Engelbracht, Chad; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Filipović, Miroslav; Hony, Sacha; Okumura, K.; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Sauvage, Marc; Indebetouw, Remy; Patat, Ferdinando; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths; however, their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified blackbody to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7 −2.5 +7.5 M ☉ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of 0.037 −0.025 +0.075 M ☉ yr –1 due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of 2 −1.3 +4.0 ×10 7 yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS ON THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD SEEN AT 20-600 μm WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakićević, Maša; Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl; Roman-Duval, Julia; Seale, Jonathan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 north Charter St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bolatto, Alberto [Laboratory of Millimeter Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 29742 (United States); Engelbracht, Chad; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Filipović, Miroslav [University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797 (Australia); Hony, Sacha; Okumura, K.; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Sauvage, Marc [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Patat, Ferdinando [European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Sonneborn, George, E-mail: m.lakicevic@keele.ac.uk [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2015-01-20

    We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths; however, their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified blackbody to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7{sub −2.5}{sup +7.5} M {sub ☉} of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of 0.037{sub −0.025}{sup +0.075} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of 2{sub −1.3}{sup +4.0}×10{sup 7} yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

  10. Long-lived hot-carrier light emission and large blue shift in formamidinium tin triiodide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Adjokatse, Sampson; Shao, Shuyan; Even, Jacky; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2018-01-16

    A long-lived hot carrier population is critical in order to develop working hot carrier photovoltaic devices with efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit. Here, we report photoluminescence from hot-carriers with unexpectedly long lifetime (a few ns) in formamidinium tin triiodide. An unusual large blue shift of the time-integrated photoluminescence with increasing excitation power (150 meV at 24 K and 75 meV at 293 K) is displayed. On the basis of the analysis of energy-resolved and time-resolved photoluminescence, we posit that these phenomena are associated with slow hot carrier relaxation and state-filling of band edge states. These observations are both important for our understanding of lead-free hybrid perovskites and for an eventual future development of efficient lead-free perovskite photovoltaics.

  11. Isotopic shifts in chemical exchange systems. 1. Large isotope effects in the complexation of Na+ isotopes by macrocyclic polyethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoechel, A.; Wilken, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The complexation of 24 Na + and 22 Na + by 18 of the most widely used macrocyclic polyethers (crown ethers and monocyclic and bicyclic aminopolyethers) has been investigated in view of possible equilibrium isotope shifts. Solvated salts and polyether complexes were distributed differently into two phases and isotope ratios determined in both phases. Chloroform/water systems were shown to be particularly suitable to the investigations allowing favorable distribution for Na + and 13 of the 18 polyethers employed. With crown ethers 24 Na + enrichment varied from nonsignficant values (for large crown ethers) up to 3.1 +- 0.4% (18-crown-6). In the case of bicyclic aminopolyethers, ligands with cages of optimum size to accommodate Na + showed 24 Na + enrichment between O (nonsignificant) (2.2/sub B/2./sub B/) and 5.2 +- 1.8% (2.2.1). In contrast, for 2.2.2. and its derivatives, being too large for Na + , 22 Na + enrichment varying from O (nonsignificant) (2.2.2.p) up to 5.4 +- 0.5% (2.2.2.) has been observed. These values are remarkably high. They are explained by different bonding in solvate structure and polyether complex by using the theoretical approach of Bigeleisen

  12. Shift of large-scale atmospheric systems over Europe during late MIS 3 and implications for Modern Human dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreht, Igor; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Zeeden, Christian; Bösken, Janina; Stevens, Thomas; Marković, Slobodan B; Klasen, Nicole; Brill, Dominik; Burow, Christoph; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2017-07-19

    Understanding the past dynamics of large-scale atmospheric systems is crucial for our knowledge of the palaeoclimate conditions in Europe. Southeastern Europe currently lies at the border between Atlantic, Mediterranean, and continental climate zones. Past changes in the relative influence of associated atmospheric systems must have been recorded in the region's palaeoarchives. By comparing high-resolution grain-size, environmental magnetic and geochemical data from two loess-palaeosol sequences in the Lower Danube Basin with other Eurasian palaeorecords, we reconstructed past climatic patterns over Southeastern Europe and the related interaction of the prevailing large-scale circulation modes over Europe, especially during late Marine Isotope Stage 3 (40,000-27,000 years ago). We demonstrate that during this time interval, the intensification of the Siberian High had a crucial influence on European climate causing the more continental conditions over major parts of Europe, and a southwards shift of the Westerlies. Such a climatic and environmental change, combined with the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 volcanic eruption, may have driven the Anatomically Modern Human dispersal towards Central and Western Europe, pointing to a corridor over the Eastern European Plain as an important pathway in their dispersal.

  13. Wavelength tuning of porous silicon microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, J.; Reece, P.; Zheng, W.H.; Lerondel, G.; Sun, B.; Gal, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last decade much attention has been given to porous silicon (PS) for optoelectronic applications, which include efficient room temperature light emission as well as microcavity formation. Due to the large specific surface area, the use of porous silicon microcavities (PSMs) has been proposed for chemical sensing. Large wavelength shifts have indicated that the optical properties of PSMs are indeed strongly dependent on the environment. In this paper, we report the shifting of the resonance frequency of high quality PSMs, with the aim of tuning a future PS device to a certain required wavelength. The PSM samples were prepared by anodically etching p + -doped (5mΩcm) bulk silicon wafer in a solution (25%) of aqueous HF and ethanol. The device structure consisted of a PS layer sandwiched between 2 stacks of thin PS layers with alternating high and low effective refractive indices (RI), i.e. distributed Bragg mirrors (DBM). The layer thickness depends on the etch time while the porosity and hence refractive index is determined by the current density as the Si is etched. The position and the width of the stop-band can be fully controlled by the design of the DBMs, with the microcavity resonance mode sitting within the stop-band. We achieved tuning of the microcavity resonance by a number of methods, including temperature dependent tuning. The temperature induced wavelength shift was found to be of the order of 10 -15 nm. Computer modeling of these changes in the reflectivity spectra allowed us to quantify the changes of the effective refractive index and the respective layer thicknesses

  14. Unusually large chemical potential shift in a degenerate semiconductor: Angle-resolved photoemission study of SnSe and Na-doped SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Mizokawa, T.; Saini, N. L.; Arita, M.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Tan, G.; Zhao, L. D.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of SnSe and Na-doped SnSe by means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The valence-band top reaches the Fermi level by the Na doping, indicating that Na-doped SnSe can be viewed as a degenerate semiconductor. However, in the Na-doped system, the chemical potential shift with temperature is unexpectedly large and is apparently inconsistent with the degenerate semiconductor picture. The large chemical potential shift and anomalous spectral shape are key ingredients for an understanding of the novel metallic state with the large thermoelectric performance in Na-doped SnSe.

  15. Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, John D. C.; Broseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

    2010-05-01

    The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development through the period 1996-2008, as management has become significantly more sophisticated and better informed by the increased availability of scientific data. During this period the population has been through a period of high quotas and population decline caused by fragmented management authority and overoptimistic estimates of lynx reproduction, followed by a period of recovery due to quota reductions. The modern management regime is placed in the context of shifting policy during the last 160 years, during which management goals have moved from extermination stimulated by bounties, through a short phase of protection, and now to quota-regulated harvest. Much management authority has also been delegated from central to local levels. We conclude that adaptive management has the potential to keep the population within some bounded limits, although there will inevitably be fluctuation.

  16. Large-scale impact of climate change vs. land-use change on future biome shifts in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boit, Alice; Sakschewski, Boris; Boysen, Lena; Cano-Crespo, Ana; Clement, Jan; Garcia-alaniz, Nashieli; Kok, Kasper; Kolb, Melanie; Langerwisch, Fanny; Rammig, Anja; Sachse, René; Eupen, van Michiel; Bloh, von Werner; Clara Zemp, Delphine; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and land-use change are two major drivers of biome shifts causing habitat and biodiversity loss. What is missing is a continental-scale future projection of the estimated relative impacts of both drivers on biome shifts over the course of this century. Here, we provide such a

  17. Dissolved organic matter fluorescence at wavelength 275/342 nm as a key indicator for detection of point-source contamination in a large Chinese drinking water lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-02-01

    Surface drinking water sources have been threatened globally and there have been few attempts to detect point-source contamination in these waters using chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence. To determine the optimal wavelength derived from CDOM fluorescence as an indicator of point-source contamination in drinking waters, a combination of field campaigns in Lake Qiandao and a laboratory wastewater addition experiment was used. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified six components, including three humic-like, two tryptophan-like, and one tyrosine-like component. All metrics showed strong correlation with wastewater addition (r(2) > 0.90, p CDOM fluorescence at 275/342 nm was the most responsive wavelength to the point-source contamination in the lake. Our results suggest that pollutants in Lake Qiandao had the highest concentrations in the river mouths of upstream inflow tributaries and the single wavelength at 275/342 nm may be adapted for online or in situ fluorescence measurements as an early warning of contamination events. This study demonstrates the potential utility of CDOM fluorescence to monitor water quality in surface drinking water sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  19. Large-scale impact of climate change vs. land-use change on future biome shifts in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boit, Alice; Sakschewski, Boris; Boysen, Lena; Cano-Crespo, Ana; Clement, Jan; Garcia-Alaniz, Nashieli; Kok, Kasper; Kolb, Melanie; Langerwisch, Fanny; Rammig, Anja; Sachse, René; van Eupen, Michiel; von Bloh, Werner; Clara Zemp, Delphine; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2016-11-01

    Climate change and land-use change are two major drivers of biome shifts causing habitat and biodiversity loss. What is missing is a continental-scale future projection of the estimated relative impacts of both drivers on biome shifts over the course of this century. Here, we provide such a projection for the biodiverse region of Latin America under four socio-economic development scenarios. We find that across all scenarios 5-6% of the total area will undergo biome shifts that can be attributed to climate change until 2099. The relative impact of climate change on biome shifts may overtake land-use change even under an optimistic climate scenario, if land-use expansion is halted by the mid-century. We suggest that constraining land-use change and preserving the remaining natural vegetation early during this century creates opportunities to mitigate climate-change impacts during the second half of this century. Our results may guide the evaluation of socio-economic scenarios in terms of their potential for biome conservation under global change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Individual variation in ontogenetic niche shifts in habitat use and movement patterns of a large estuarine predator (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matich, Philip; Heithaus, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Ontogenetic niche shifts are common among animals, yet most studies only investigate niche shifts at the population level, which may overlook considerable differences among individuals in the timing and dynamics of these shifts. Such divergent behaviors within size-/age-classes have important implications for the roles a population-and specific age-classes-play in their respective ecosystem(s). Using acoustic telemetry, we tracked the movements of juvenile bull sharks in the Shark River Estuary of Everglades National Park, Florida, and found that sharks increased their use of marine microhabitats with age to take advantage of more abundant resources, but continued to use freshwater and estuarine microhabitats as refuges from marine predators. Within this population-level ontogenetic niche shift, however, movement patterns varied among individual sharks, with 47 % of sharks exhibiting condition-dependent habitat use and 53 % appearing risk-averse regardless of body condition. Among sharks older than age 0, fifty percent made regular movements between adjacent regions of the estuary, while the other half made less predictable movements that often featured long-term residence in specific regions. Individual differences were apparently shaped by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including individual responses to food-risk trade-offs and body condition. These differences appear to develop early in the lives of bull sharks, and persist throughout their residencies in nursery habitats. The widespread occurrence of intraspecific variation in behavior among mobile taxa suggests it is important in shaping population dynamics of at least some species, and elucidating the contexts and timing in which it develops and persists is important for understanding its role within communities.

  1. Long-term regional shifts in plant community composition are largely explained by local deer impact experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Frerker

    Full Text Available The fact that herbivores and predators exert top-down effects to alter community composition and dynamics at lower trophic levels is no longer controversial, yet we still lack evidence of the full nature, extent, and longer-term effects of these impacts. Here, we use results from a set of replicated experiments on the local impacts of white-tailed deer to evaluate the extent to which such impacts could account for half-century shifts in forest plant communities across the upper Midwest, USA. We measured species' responses to deer at four sites using 10-20 year-old deer exclosures. Among common species, eight were more abundant outside the exclosures, seven were commoner inside, and 16 had similar abundances in- and outside. Deer herbivory greatly increased the abundance of ferns and graminoids and doubled the abundance of exotic plants. In contrast, deer greatly reduced tree regeneration, shrub cover (100-200 fold in two species, plant height, plant reproduction, and the abundance of forbs. None of 36 focal species increased in reproduction or grew taller in the presence of deer, contrary to expectations. We compared these results to data on 50-year regional shifts in species abundances across 62 sites. The effects of herbivory by white-tailed deer accurately account for many of the long-term regional shifts observed in species' abundances (R2 = 0.41. These results support the conjecture that deer impacts have driven many of the regional shifts in forest understory cover and composition observed in recent decades. Our ability to link results from shorter-term, local experiments to regional long-term studies of ecological change strengthens the inferences we can draw from both approaches.

  2. A 12 GHz wavelength spacing multi-wavelength laser source for wireless communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P. C.; Shiu, R. K.; Bitew, M. A.; Chang, T. L.; Lai, C. H.; Junior, J. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a multi-wavelength laser source with 12 GHz wavelength spacing based on a single distributed feedback laser. A light wave generated from the distributed feedback laser is fed into a frequency shifter loop consisting of 50:50 coupler, dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator, optical amplifier, optical filter, and polarization controller. The frequency of the input wavelength is shifted and then re-injected into the frequency shifter loop. By re-injecting the shifted wavelengths multiple times, we have generated 84 optical carriers with 12 GHz wavelength spacing and stable output power. For each channel, two wavelengths are modulated by a wireless data using the phase modulator and transmitted through a 25 km single mode fiber. In contrast to previously developed schemes, the proposed laser source does not incur DC bias drift problem. Moreover, it is a good candidate for radio-over-fiber systems to support multiple users using a single distributed feedback laser.

  3. Quasi-self-trapped Frenkel-exciton near-UV luminescence with large Stokes shift in wide-bandgap Cs4PbCl6 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumeng; Fan, Baolu; Liu, Yuzhen; Li, Hongxia; Deng, Kaiming; Fan, Jiyang

    2018-04-01

    Inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have attracted great interest owing to their superior luminescence and optoelectronic properties. In comparison to cubic CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, or I) that has visible luminescence, trigonal Cs4PbX6 has a much larger bandgap and distinct optical properties. Little has been known about the luminescence properties of the Cs4PbX6 NCs. In this study, we synthesize the well-crystallized Cs4PbCl6 NCs with sizes of 2.2-11.8 nm, which exhibit stable and near-UV luminescence (with a lifetime of 19.7-24.2 ns) with a remarkable quantum confinement effect at room temperature. In comparison to the negligible Stokes shift in the CsPbCl3 NCs, the Stokes shift of the Cs4PbCl6 NCs is very large (0.91 eV). The experimental results in combination with the first-principles calculations reveal that the near-UV luminescence of the Cs4PbCl6 NCs stems from the Frenkel excitons self-trapped in the isolated PbCl64- octahedrons. This is different from the CsPbCl3 NCs whose luminescence originates from the free Wannier excitons. The theoretical model based on the lattice relaxation is proposed to account for the large Stokes shift and its abnormal decrease with the decreasing particle size.

  4. Dual-Analyte Fluorescent Sensor Based on [5]Helicene Derivative with Super Large Stokes Shift for the Selective Determinations of Cu2+ or Zn2+ in Buffer Solutions and Its Application in a Living Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakunkaewkasem, Siwakorn; Petdum, Anuwut; Panchan, Waraporn; Sirirak, Jitnapa; Charoenpanich, Adisri; Sooksimuang, Thanasat; Wanichacheva, Nantanit

    2018-05-10

    A new fluorescent sensor, M201-DPA, based on [5]helicene derivative was utilized as dual-analyte sensor for determination of Cu 2+ or Zn 2+ in different media and different emission wavelengths. The sensor could provide selective and bifunctional determination of Cu 2+ in HEPES buffer containing Triton-X100 and Zn 2+ in Tris buffer/methanol without interference from each other and other ions. In HEPES buffer, M201-DPA demonstrated the selective ON-OFF fluorescence quenching at 524 nm toward Cu 2+ . On the other hand, in Tris buffer/methanol, M201-DPA showed the selective OFF-ON fluorescence enhancement upon the addition of Zn 2+ , which was specified by the hypsochromic shift at 448 nm. Additionally, M201-DPA showed extremely large Stokes shifts up to ∼150 nm. By controlling the concentration of Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ in a living cell, the imaging of a HepG2 cellular system was performed, in which the fluorescence of M201-DPA in the blue channel was decreased upon addition of Cu 2+ and was enhanced in UV channel upon addition of Zn 2+ . The detection limits of M201-DPA for Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ in buffer solutions were 5.6 and 3.8 ppb, respectively. Importantly, the Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ detection limits of the developed sensors were significantly lower than permitted Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ concentrations in drinking water as established by the U.S. EPA and WHO.

  5. Very large phase shift of microwave signals in a 6 nm Hf x Zr1-x O2 ferroelectric at ±3 V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, Mircea; Modreanu, Mircea; Povey, Ian M.; Iordanescu, Sergiu; Aldrigo, Martino; Romanitan, Cosmin; Vasilache, Dan; Dinescu, Adrian; Dragoman, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    In this letter, we report for the first time very large phase shifts of microwaves in the 1-10 GHz range, in a 1 mm long gold coplanar interdigitated structure deposited over a 6 nm Hf x Zr1-x O2 ferroelectric grown directly on a high resistivity silicon substrate. The phase shift is larger than 60° at 1 GHz and 13° at 10 GHz at maximum applied DC voltages of ±3 V, which can be supplied by a simple commercial battery. In this way, we demonstrate experimentally that the new ferroelectrics based on HfO2 could play an important role in the future development of wireless communication systems for very low power applications.

  6. Long-lived and largely red-shifted photoluminescence of solid-state rhodamine dyes: Molecular exciton coupling and structural effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xian-Fu; Zhang, Ya-Kui

    2015-01-01

    The optical absorption and fluorescence properties of five rhodamine dyes in solid-state are measured and show large difference from that in their gas phase or liquid solvents. All solid-state rhodamine dyes strongly absorb all light in UV and visible region, but emit only red and NIR fluorescence (680–800 nm, >100 nm red-shifted from that in solution). Further more, the absorption maxima of a solid-state rhodamine show a large red-shifted band (~100 nm) and blue-shifted peak (~125 nm) compared to that in solutions, indicating a strong molecular exciton coupling between molecules. All solid-state rhodamines still show reasonably good fluorescence quantum yield (Φ f ). In particular, solid-state Rhodamine B butyl ester and sulfonyl Rhodamine B showed a much longer emission lifetime (τ f ) than that of the corresponding molecular rhodamine, i.e. 4.12 and 4.14 ns in solid state compared to 1.61 and 2.47 ns in solution. The chemical structure of a rhodamine molecule showed dramatic effect on Φ f and τ f values for solid state rhodamine. The larger substituent in the benzene moiety favors higher Φ f and τ f values of rhodamine solids. These effects can be elucidated by the relation between structure-molecular distance and molecular exciton couplings. - Highlights: • Optical properties of solid rhodamines show large difference from that in solutions. • Solid-state rhodamine dyes emit red and NIR fluorescence (680–800 nm). • Solid-state rhodamines still show reasonably good fluorescence quantum yield. • Solid-state rhodamines have much longer fluorescence lifetimes than that in solutions

  7. Long-lived and largely red-shifted photoluminescence of solid-state rhodamine dyes: Molecular exciton coupling and structural effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xian-Fu, E-mail: zhangxianfu@tsinghua.org.cn [Institute of Applied Photochemistry & Center of Analysis and Measurements, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei Province (China); MPC Technologies, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 3H4 (Canada); Zhang, Ya-Kui [Institute of Applied Photochemistry & Center of Analysis and Measurements, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei Province (China)

    2015-10-15

    The optical absorption and fluorescence properties of five rhodamine dyes in solid-state are measured and show large difference from that in their gas phase or liquid solvents. All solid-state rhodamine dyes strongly absorb all light in UV and visible region, but emit only red and NIR fluorescence (680–800 nm, >100 nm red-shifted from that in solution). Further more, the absorption maxima of a solid-state rhodamine show a large red-shifted band (~100 nm) and blue-shifted peak (~125 nm) compared to that in solutions, indicating a strong molecular exciton coupling between molecules. All solid-state rhodamines still show reasonably good fluorescence quantum yield (Φ{sub f}). In particular, solid-state Rhodamine B butyl ester and sulfonyl Rhodamine B showed a much longer emission lifetime (τ{sub f}) than that of the corresponding molecular rhodamine, i.e. 4.12 and 4.14 ns in solid state compared to 1.61 and 2.47 ns in solution. The chemical structure of a rhodamine molecule showed dramatic effect on Φ{sub f} and τ{sub f} values for solid state rhodamine. The larger substituent in the benzene moiety favors higher Φ{sub f} and τ{sub f} values of rhodamine solids. These effects can be elucidated by the relation between structure-molecular distance and molecular exciton couplings. - Highlights: • Optical properties of solid rhodamines show large difference from that in solutions. • Solid-state rhodamine dyes emit red and NIR fluorescence (680–800 nm). • Solid-state rhodamines still show reasonably good fluorescence quantum yield. • Solid-state rhodamines have much longer fluorescence lifetimes than that in solutions.

  8. ICT-Isomerization-Induced Turn-On Fluorescence Probe with a Large Emission Shift for Mercury Ion: Application in Combinational Molecular Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Sushil Ranjan; Mondal, Bijan; Vijaykumar, Gonela; Thakur, Arunabha

    2017-10-02

    A unique turn-on fluorescent device based on a ferrocene-aminonaphtholate derivative specific for Hg 2+ cation was developed. Upon binding with Hg 2+ ion, the probe shows a dramatic fluorescence enhancement (the fluorescence quantum yield increases 58-fold) along with a large red shift of 68 nm in the emission spectrum. The fluorescence enhancement with a red shift may be ascribed to the combinational effect of C═N isomerization and an extended intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) mechanism. The response was instantaneous with a detection limit of 2.7 × 10 -9 M. Upon Hg 2+ recognition, the ferrocene/ferrocenium redox peak was anodically shifted by ΔE 1/2 = 72 mV along with a "naked eye" color change from faint yellow to pale orange for this metal cation. Further, upon protonation of the imine nitrogen, the present probe displays a high fluorescence output due to suppression of the C═N isomerization process. Upon deprotonation using strong base, the fluorescence steadily decreases, which indicates that H + and OH - can be used to regulate the off-on-off fluorescence switching of the present probe. Density functional theory studies revealed that the addition of acid leads to protonation of the imine N (according to natural bond orbital analysis), and the resulting iminium proton forms a strong H-bond (2.307 Å) with one of the triazole N atoms to form a five-membered ring, which makes the molecule rigid; hence, enhancement of the ICT process takes place, thereby leading to a fluorescence enhancement with a red shift. The unprecedented combination of H + , OH - , and Hg 2+ ions has been used to generate a molecular system exhibiting the INHIBIT-OR combinational logic operation.

  9. Large area quantitative X-ray mapping of (U,Pu)O2 nuclear fuel pellets using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremier, S.; Haas, D.; Somers, J.; Walker, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    The work presented is an example of how large area compositional mapping (≥1 mm 2 ) can be used to provide quantitative information on element distribution and specimen homogeneity. High-resolution was accomplished by producing a collage of X-ray maps acquired using classical conditions; magnification x400, spatial resolution 256x256 pixels. The individual images, each measuring roughly 250x250 μm, were converted to quantitative maps using the HIMAX reg software package and the XMAS reg matrix correction from SAMx. The quantitative gray-level large area X-ray picture was pieced together using the 'Multiple Image Alignment' function of the ANALYSIS reg image processing software. This software was also used to convert the gray-level pictures to false color images. The specimens investigated were transverse sections of MOX fuel pellets. Results are presented for the distribution of Pu by area fraction and cumulative area fraction, the size distribution of regions of high Pu concentration and average separation of these regions

  10. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  11. Construction of a single/multiple wavelength RZ optical pulse source at 40 GHz by use of wavelength conversion in a high-nonlinearity DSF-NOLM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Yujun, Qian; Jeppesen, Palle

    2001-01-01

    A single or multiple wavelength RZ optical pulse source at 40 GHz is successfully obtained by using wavelength conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror consisting of high nonlinearity-dispersion shifted fiber.......A single or multiple wavelength RZ optical pulse source at 40 GHz is successfully obtained by using wavelength conversion in a nonlinear optical loop mirror consisting of high nonlinearity-dispersion shifted fiber....

  12. Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloy, K.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10 -18 and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.

  13. Temperature Characteristics of Monolithically Integrated Wavelength-Selectable Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Liang-Shun; Zhu Hong-Liang; Zhang Can; Ma Li; Liang Song; Wang Wei

    2013-01-01

    The temperature characteristics of monolithically integrated wavelength-selectable light sources are experimentally investigated. The wavelength-selectable light sources consist of four distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, a multimode interferometer coupler, and a semiconductor optical amplifier. The oscillating wavelength of the DFB laser could be modulated by adjusting the device operating temperature. A wavelength range covering over 8.0nm is obtained with stable single-mode operation by selecting the appropriate laser and chip temperature. The thermal crosstalk caused by the lateral heat spreading between lasers operating simultaneously is evaluated by oscillating-wavelength shift. The thermal crosstalk approximately decreases exponentially as the increasing distance between lasers

  14. Temperature-Induced Large Broadening and Blue Shift in the Electronic Band Structure and Optical Absorption of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia-Yue; Hu, Ming

    2017-08-17

    The power conversion efficiency of hybrid halide perovskite solar cells is profoundly influenced by the operating temperature. Here we investigate the temperature influence on the electronic band structure and optical absorption of cubic CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 from first-principles by accounting for both the electron-phonon interaction and thermal expansion. Within the framework of density functional perturbation theory, the electron-phonon coupling induces slightly enlarged band gap and strongly broadened electronic relaxation time as temperature increases. The large broadening effect is mainly due to the presence of cation organic atoms. Consequently, the temperature-dependent absorption peak exhibits blue-shift position, decreased amplitude, and broadened width. This work uncovers the atomistic origin of temperature influence on the optical absorption of cubic CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and can provide guidance to design high-performance hybrid halide perovskite solar cells at different operating temperatures.

  15. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  16. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Two-wavelength HeNe laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granneman, E.H.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an interferometer set-up in which two wavelengths are used simultaneously. This enables one to determine separately the phase shifts caused by changes in plasma density and by mechanical vibrations of the interferometer structure

  18. Tapping in synchrony with a perturbed metronome: the phase correction response to small and large phase shifts as a function of tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Bruno H

    2011-01-01

    When tapping is paced by an auditory sequence containing small phase shift (PS) perturbations, the phase correction response (PCR) of the tap following a PS increases with the baseline interonset interval (IOI), leading eventually to overcorrection (B. H. Repp, 2008). Experiment 1 shows that this holds even for fixed-size PSs that become imperceptible as the IOI increases (here, from 400 to 1200 ms). Earlier research has also shown (but only for IOI=500 ms) that the PCR is proportionally smaller for large than for small PSs (B. H. Repp, 2002a, 2002b). Experiment 2 introduced large PSs and found smaller PCRs than in Experiment 1, at all of the same IOIs. In Experiments 3A and 3B, the author investigated whether the change in slope of the sigmoid function relating PCR and PS magnitudes occurs at a fixed absolute or relative PS magnitude across different IOIs (600, 1000, 1400 ms). The results suggest no clear answer; the exact shape of the function may depend on the range of PSs used in an experiment. Experiment 4 examined the PCR in the IOI range from 1000 to 2000 ms and found overcorrection throughout, but with the PCR increasing much more gradually than in Experiment 1. These results provide important new information about the phase correction process and pose challenges for models of sensorimotor synchronization, which presently cannot explain nonlinear PCR functions and overcorrection. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. Rational design of tetraphenylethylene-based luminescent down-shifting molecules: photophysical studies and photovoltaic applications in a CdTe solar cell from small to large units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yilin; Li, Zhipeng; Ablekim, Tursunjan; Ren, Tianhui; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2014-12-21

    A rational design strategy of novel fluorophores for luminescent down-shifting (LDS) application was proposed and tested in this paper. Three new fluorophores (1a-c) with specific intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics were synthesized as LDS molecules for increasing the output short circuit current density (Jsc) of a CdTe solar cell. Photophysical studies of their solution and solid states, and photovoltaic measurements of their PMMA solid films applied on a CdTe solar cell suggested that the specific spectroscopic properties and Jsc enhancement effects of these molecules were highly related to their chemical structures. The Jsc enhancement effects of these fluorophores were measured on both a CdTe small cell and a large panel. An increase in the output Jsc by as high as 5.69% for a small cell and 8.88% for a large panel was observed. Compared to a traditional LDS molecule, Y083, these fluorophores exhibited more superior capabilities of LDS.

  20. Large-scale intersubspecific recombination in the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is associated with the host shift to mulberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunney, Leonard; Schuenzel, Erin L; Scally, Mark; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Homologous recombination plays an important role in the structuring of genetic variation of many bacteria; however, its importance in adaptive evolution is not well established. We investigated the association of intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) with the shift to a novel host (mulberry) by the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Mulberry leaf scorch was identified about 25 years ago in native red mulberry in the eastern United States and has spread to introduced white mulberry in California. Comparing a sequence of 8 genes (4,706 bp) from 21 mulberry-type isolates to published data (352 isolates representing all subspecies), we confirmed previous indications that the mulberry isolates define a group distinct from the 4 subspecies, and we propose naming the taxon X. fastidiosa subsp. morus. The ancestry of its gene sequences was mixed, with 4 derived from X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (introduced from Central America), 3 from X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (considered native to the United States), and 1 chimeric, demonstrating that this group originated by large-scale IHR. The very low within-type genetic variation (0.08% site polymorphism), plus the apparent inability of native X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex to infect mulberry, suggests that this host shift was achieved after strong selection acted on genetic variants created by IHR. Sequence data indicate that a single ancestral IHR event gave rise not only to X. fastidiosa subsp. morus but also to the X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex recombinant group which infects several hosts but is the only type naturally infecting blueberry, thus implicating this IHR in the invasion of at least two novel native hosts, mulberry and blueberry.

  1. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  2. Wavelength dependence of superhumps in VW Hyi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerongen, S. van; Bovenschen, H.; Paradijs, J. van

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented of five-colour photometric observations of the SU UMa system VW Hyi, made on six nights during the November 1984 superoutburst. The light curve is dominated by superhump variations, whose amplitude in all passbands decreases with time (in the V-band from 0.16 mag about 4.5 day after the superoutburst reached maximum brightness, to 0.10 mag about 5 day later). The superhump light curve depends strongly on wavelength. In particular it appears that the light curves in different passbands are mutually shifted: the larger the wavelength, the more the light curve is delayed. (author)

  3. Sentiment analysis methods for understanding large-scale texts: a case for using continuum-scored words and word shift graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Reagan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The emergence and global adoption of social media has rendered possible the real-time estimation of population-scale sentiment, an extraordinary capacity which has profound implications for our understanding of human behavior. Given the growing assortment of sentiment-measuring instruments, it is imperative to understand which aspects of sentiment dictionaries contribute to both their classification accuracy and their ability to provide richer understanding of texts. Here, we perform detailed, quantitative tests and qualitative assessments of 6 dictionary-based methods applied to 4 different corpora, and briefly examine a further 20 methods. We show that while inappropriate for sentences, dictionary-based methods are generally robust in their classification accuracy for longer texts. Most importantly they can aid understanding of texts with reliable and meaningful word shift graphs if (1 the dictionary covers a sufficiently large portion of a given text’s lexicon when weighted by word usage frequency; and (2 words are scored on a continuous scale.

  4. Large shift and small broadening of Br2 valence band upon dimer formation with H2O: an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin-Mergarejo, Ricardo; Rubayo-Soneira, Jesus; Halberstadt, Nadine; Ayed, Tahra; Bernal-Uruchurtu, Margarita I; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón; Janda, Kenneth C

    2011-06-16

    Valence electronic excitation spectra are calculated for the H(2)O···Br(2) complex using highly correlated ab initio potentials for both the ground and the valence electronic excited states and a 2-D approximation for vibrational motion. Due to the strong interaction between the O-Br and the Br-Br stretching motions, inclusion of these vibrations is the minimum necessary for the spectrum calculation. A basis set calculation is performed to determine the vibrational wave functions for the ground electronic state and a wave packet simulation is conducted for the nuclear dynamics on the excited state surfaces. The effects of both the spin-orbit interaction and temperature on the spectra are explored. The interaction of Br(2) with a single water molecule induces nearly as large a shift in the spectrum as is observed for an aqueous solution. In contrast, complex formation has a remarkably small effect on the T = 0 K width of the valence bands due to the fast dissociation of the dihalogen bond upon excitation. We therefore conclude that the widths of the spectra in aqueous solution are mostly due to inhomogeneous broadening. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model...... is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken...

  6. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  7. The dynamics of interacting nonlinearities governing long wavelength driftwave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    Because of the ubiquitous nature of turbulence and the vast array of different systems which have turbulent solutions, the study of turbulence is an area of active research. Much present day understanding of turbulence is rooted in the well established properties of homogeneous Navier-Stokes turbulence, which, due to its relative simplicity, allows for approximate analytic solutions. This work examines a group of turbulent systems with marked differences from Navier-Stokes turbulence, and attempts to quantify some of their properties. This group of systems represents a variety of drift wave fluctuations believed to be of fundamental importance in laboratory fusion devices. From extensive simulation of simple local fluid models of long wavelength drift wave turbulence in tokamaks, a reasonably complete picture of the basic properties of spectral transfer and saturation has emerged. These studies indicate that many conventional notions concerning directions of cascades, locality and isotropy of transfer, frequencies of fluctuations, and stationarity of saturation are not valid for moderate to long wavelengths. In particular, spectral energy transfer at long wavelengths is dominated by the E x B nonlinearity, which carries energy to short scale in a manner that is highly nonlocal and anisotropic. In marked contrast to the canonical self-similar cascade dynamics of Kolmogorov, energy is efficiently passed between modes separated by the entire spectrum range in a correlation time. At short wavelengths, transfer is dominated by the polarization drift nonlinearity. While the standard dual cascade applies in this subrange, it is found that finite spectrum size can produce cascades that are reverse directed and are nonconservative in enstrophy and energy similarity ranges. In regions where both nonlinearities are important, cross-coupling between the nolinearities gives rise to large no frequency shifts as well as changes in the spectral dynamics

  8. Wavelength converter placement for different RWA algorithms in wavelength-routed all-optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaowen; Li, Bo; Chlamtac, Imrich

    2002-07-01

    Sparse wavelength conversion and appropriate routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithms are the two key factors in improving the blocking performance in wavelength-routed all-optical networks. It has been shown that the optimal placement of a limited number of wavelength converters in an arbitrary mesh network is an NP complete problem. There have been various heuristic algorithms proposed in the literature, in which most of them assume that a static routing and random wavelength assignment RWA algorithm is employed. However, the existing work shows that fixed-alternate routing and dynamic routing RWA algorithms can achieve much better blocking performance. Our study in this paper further demonstrates that the wavelength converter placement and RWA algorithms are closely related in the sense that a well designed wavelength converter placement mechanism for a particular RWA algorithm might not work well with a different RWA algorithm. Therefore, the wavelength converter placement and the RWA have to be considered jointly. The objective of this paper is to investigate the wavelength converter placement problem under fixed-alternate routing algorithm and least-loaded routing algorithm. Under the fixed-alternate routing algorithm, we propose a heuristic algorithm called Minimum Blocking Probability First (MBPF) algorithm for wavelength converter placement. Under the least-loaded routing algorithm, we propose a heuristic converter placement algorithm called Weighted Maximum Segment Length (WMSL) algorithm. The objective of the converter placement algorithm is to minimize the overall blocking probability. Extensive simulation studies have been carried out over three typical mesh networks, including the 14-node NSFNET, 19-node EON and 38-node CTNET. We observe that the proposed algorithms not only outperform existing wavelength converter placement algorithms by a large margin, but they also can achieve almost the same performance comparing with full wavelength

  9. Wavelength sweepable laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength sweepable laser source is disclosed, wherein the laser source is a semiconductor laser source adapted for generating laser light at a lasing wavelength. The laser source comprises a substrate, a first reflector, and a second reflector. The first and second reflector together defines...... and having a rest position, the second reflector and suspension together defining a microelectromechanical MEMS oscillator. The MEMS oscillator has a resonance frequency and is adapted for oscillating the second reflector on either side of the rest position.; The laser source further comprises electrical...... connections adapted for applying an electric field to the MEMS oscillator. Furthermore, a laser source system and a method of use of the laser source are disclosed....

  10. High power multiple wavelength diode laser stack for DPSSL application without temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dong; Yin, Xia; Wang, Jingwei; Chen, Shi; Zhan, Yun; Li, Xiaoning; Fan, Yingmin; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-02-01

    High power diode laser stack is widely used in pumping solid-state laser for years. Normally an integrated temperature control module is required for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser, as the output power of the solid-state laser highly depends on the emission wavelength and the wavelength shift of diode lasers according to the temperature changes. However the temperature control module is inconvenient for this application, due to its large dimension, high electric power consumption and extra adding a complicated controlling system. Furthermore, it takes dozens of seconds to stabilize the output power when the laser system is turned on. In this work, a compact hard soldered high power conduction cooled diode laser stack with multiple wavelengths is developed for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser in a certain temperature range. The stack consists of 5 laser bars with the pitch of 0.43mm. The peak output power of each bar in the diode laser stack reaches as much as 557W and the combined lasing wavelength spectrum profile spans 15nm. The solidstate laser, structured with multiple wavelength diode laser stacks, allows the ambient temperature change of 65°C without suddenly degrading the optical performance.

  11. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  12. A dual-emission and large Stokes shift fluorescence probe for real-time discrimination of ROS/RNS and imaging in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Cui, Lei; Shen, Jiaoning; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Weiping; Xu, Yufang; Qian, Xuhong

    2013-03-04

    A novel dual-emission fluorescence probe has been developed for specific and sensitive detection of hypochlorite (ClO(-)). Upon addition of ClO(-), significant changes in fluorescence emission intensity at two discrete wavelengths were observed. Meanwhile OONO(-) led to only a single-channel fluorescence enhancement. This feature makes it a clear advantage in distinguishing ClO(-), RNS from other ROS.

  13. MIT wavelength tables. Volume 2. Wavelengths by element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, F.M. III.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is the first stage of a project to expand and update the MIT wavelength tables first compiled in the 1930's. For 109,325 atomic emission lines, arranged by element, it presents wavelength in air, wavelength in vacuum, wave number and intensity. All data are stored on computer-readable magnetic tape

  14. An automated system designed for large scale NMR data deposition and annotation: application to over 600 assigned chemical shift data entries to the BioMagResBank from the Riken Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative internal database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Naohiro; Harano, Yoko; Tochio, Naoya; Nakatani, Eiichi; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Mading, Steve; Ulrich, Eldon L.; Markley, John L.; Akutsu, Hideo; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2012-01-01

    Biomolecular NMR chemical shift data are key information for the functional analysis of biomolecules and the development of new techniques for NMR studies utilizing chemical shift statistical information. Structural genomics projects are major contributors to the accumulation of protein chemical shift information. The management of the large quantities of NMR data generated by each project in a local database and the transfer of the data to the public databases are still formidable tasks because of the complicated nature of NMR data. Here we report an automated and efficient system developed for the deposition and annotation of a large number of data sets including 1 H, 13 C and 15 N resonance assignments used for the structure determination of proteins. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our system by applying it to over 600 entries from the internal database generated by the RIKEN Structural Genomics/Proteomics Initiative (RSGI) to the public database, BioMagResBank (BMRB). We have assessed the quality of the deposited chemical shifts by comparing them with those predicted from the PDB coordinate entry for the corresponding protein. The same comparison for other matched BMRB/PDB entries deposited from 2001–2011 has been carried out and the results suggest that the RSGI entries greatly improved the quality of the BMRB database. Since the entries include chemical shifts acquired under strikingly similar experimental conditions, these NMR data can be expected to be a promising resource to improve current technologies as well as to develop new NMR methods for protein studies.

  15. Lambda shifted photonic crystal cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Martin; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Ek, Sara

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an alternative type of photonic crystal laser design that shifts all the holes in the lattice by a fixed fraction of the targeted emission wavelength. The structures are realized in InGaAsP =1.15 with InGaAsP quantum wells =1.52 as gain material. Cavities with shifts of...

  16. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  17. Challenges and opportunities for large landscape-scale management in a shifting climate: The importance of nested adaptation responses across geospatial and temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M. Tabor; Anne Carlson; Travis Belote

    2014-01-01

    The Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative (Y2Y) was established over 20 years ago as an experiment in large landscape conservation. Initially, Y2Y emerged as a response to large scale habitat fragmentation by advancing ecological connectivity. It also laid the foundation for large scale multi-stakeholder conservation collaboration with almost 200 non-...

  18. Long wavelength irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    OpenAIRE

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D. T.; Fejer, Bela G.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the radar interferometer technique at Jicamarca to study in detail irregularities with wavelengths of a few kilometers generated in the unstable equatorial electrojet plasma during strong type 1 conditions. In-situ rocket observations of the same instability process are discussed in a companion paper. These large scale primary waves travel essentially horizontally and have large amplitudes. The vertical electron drift velocities driven by the horizontal wave electric fields reach...

  19. Market shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  20. Tough Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    people to change their behavior at home. Leveraging prior research on encouraging reductions in residential energy use through game play, we introduce ShareBuddy: a casual mobile game intended to encourage players not only to reduce, but also to shift their electricity use. We conducted two field studies...... real-world resource use into a game....

  1. Patterning of self-assembled monolayers by phase-shifting mask and its applications in large-scale assembly of nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fan; Zhang, Dakuan; Wang, Jianyu; Sheng, Yun; Wang, Xinran; Chen, Kunji; Zhou, Minmin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan, Shancheng [Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Geography and Biological Information, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Shen, Jiancang; Pan, Lijia; Shi, Yi, E-mail: yshi@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Micro-structures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-01-26

    A nonselective micropatterning method of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) based on laser and phase-shifting mask (PSM) is demonstrated. Laser beam is spatially modulated by a PSM, and periodic SAM patterns are generated sequentially through thermal desorption. Patterned wettability is achieved with alternating hydrophilic/hydrophobic stripes on octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayers. The substrate is then used to assemble CdS semiconductor nanowires (NWs) from a solution, obtaining well-aligned NWs in one step. Our results show valuably the application potential of this technique in engineering SAMs for integration of functional devices.

  2. Multicolor Holography With Phase Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1996-01-01

    Prototype apparatus constructed to test feasibility of two-color holographic interferometric scheme in which data for reconstructing holographic wavefront obtained with help of phase-shifting technique. Provides two sets of data needed to solve equations for effects of temperature and concentration. Concept extended to holography at three or more wavelengths to measure three or more phenomena associated with significant variations in index of refraction

  3. A facile method to prepare "green" nano-phosphors with a large Stokes-shift and solid-state enhanced photophysical properties based on surface-modified gold nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C H; Huang, H Y; Talite, M J; Chou, W C; Yeh, J M; Yuan, C T

    2017-12-15

    Colloidal nano-materials, such as quantum dots (QDs) have been applied to light-conversion nano-phosphors due to their unique tunable emission. However, most of the QDs involve toxic elements and are synthesized in a hazardous solvent. In addition, conventional QD nano-phosphors with a small Stokes shift suffered from reabsorption losses and aggregation-induced quenching in the solid state. Here, we demonstrate a facile, matrix-free method to prepare eco-friendly nano-phosphors with a large Stokes shift based on aqueous thiolate-stabilized gold nanoclusters (GSH-AuNCs) with simple surface modifications. Our method is just to drop GSH-AuNCs solution on the aluminum foil and then surface-modified AuNCs (Al-GSH-AuNCs) can be spontaneously precipitated out of the aqueous solution. Compared with pristine GSH-AuNCs in solution, the Al-GSH-AuNCs exhibit enhanced solid-state PL quantum yields, lengthened PL lifetime, and spectral blue shift, which can be attributed to the aggregation-induced emission enhancement facilitated by surface modifications. Such surface-treatment induced aggregation of AuNCs can restrict the surface-ligand motion, leading to the enhancement of PL properties in the solid state. In addition, the Al-GSH-AuNCs nano-phosphors with a large Stokes shift can mitigate the aggregation-induced PL quenching and reabsorption losses, which would be potential candidates for "green" nano-phosphors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Long wavelength irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D.T.; Fejer, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the radar interferometer technique at Jicamarca to study in detail irregularities with wavelengths of a few kilometers generated in the unstable equatorial electrojet plasma during strong type 1 conditions. In-situ rocket observations of the same instability process are discussed in a companion paper. These large scale primary waves travel essentially horizontally and have large amplitudes. The vertical electron drift velocities driven by the horizontal wave electric fields reach or exceed the ion-acoustic velocity even though the horizontal phase velocity of the wave is considerably smaller. A straightforward extension to the long wavelength regime of the usual linear theory of the electrojet instability explains this and several other observed features of these dominant primary waves

  5. Hyperfine structure of the MnH X 7Sigma + state: A large gas-to-matrix shift in the Fermi contact interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Field, Robert W.; Merer, Anthony J.

    1990-06-01

    Sub-Doppler spectra of the A 7Π-X 7Σ+ (0,0) band of gas phase MnH near 5680 Å were recorded by intermodulated fluorescence spectroscopy. The spectra reveal hyperfine splittings arising from both the 55Mn and 1H nuclear spins. Internal hyperfine perturbations have been observed between the different spin components of the ground state at low N`. From a preliminary analysis of several rotational lines originating from the isolated and unperturbed F1(J`=3) spin component of the X 7Σ+(N`=0) level, the 55Mn Fermi contact interaction in the ground state has been measured as bF=Aiso =276(1) MHz. This value is 11% smaller than the value obtained by Weltner et al. from an electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) study of MnH in an argon matrix at 4 K. This unprecedented gas-to-matrix shift in the Fermi contact parameter is discussed.

  6. Hyperfine structure of the MnH X 7Σ+ state: A large gas-to-matrix shift in the Fermi contact interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varberg, T.D.; Field, R.W.; Merer, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Sub-Doppler spectra of the A 7 Π--X 7 Σ + (0,0) band of gas phase MnH near 5680 A were recorded by intermodulated fluorescence spectroscopy. The spectra reveal hyperfine splittings arising from both the 55 Mn and 1 H nuclear spins. Internal hyperfine perturbations have been observed between the different spin components of the ground state at low N double-prime. From a preliminary analysis of several rotational lines originating from the isolated and unperturbed F 1 (J double-prime=3) spin component of the X 7 Σ + (N double-prime=0) level, the 55 Mn Fermi contact interaction in the ground state has been measured as b F =A iso =276(1) MHz. This value is 11% smaller than the value obtained by Weltner et al. from an electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) study of MnH in an argon matrix at 4 K. This unprecedented gas-to-matrix shift in the Fermi contact parameter is discussed

  7. A degradation debt? Large-scale shifts in community composition and loss of biomass in a tropical forest fragment after 40 years of isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahawi, Rakan A; Oviedo-Brenes, Federico; Peterson, Chris J

    2017-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. We examined forest dynamics in a mid-elevation 365-ha fragment in southern Costa Rica. The fragment was isolated in the mid-1970s and belongs to the Las Cruces Biological Station. A 2.25-ha permanent plot was established in the center of the old-growth forest (>400 m to nearest edge boundary) and all plants >5 cm DBH were censused, mapped, and identified to species in two surveys taken ~5-6 years apart (>3,000 stems/survey). Although the reserve maintains high species richness (>200 spp.), with many rare species represented by only one individual, we document a strong shift in composition with a two-fold increase in the number of soft-wooded pioneer individuals. The dominant late-successional understory tree species, Chrysochlamys glauca (Clusiaceae), and most species in the Lauraceae, declined dramatically. Turnover was high: 22.9% of stems in the first survey were lost, and 27.8% of stems in the second survey represented new recruits. Mean tree diameter decreased significantly and there was a 10% decrease in overall biomass. Such alteration has been documented previously but only in smaller fragments or within ~100 m of an edge boundary. Further penetration into this fragment was perhaps driven by a progressive invasion of disturbance-adapted species into the fragment's core over time; the loss of once-dominant late successional species could be a contributing factor. The pattern found is of particular concern given that such fragments represent a substantial portion of today's remaining tropical habitat; further studies in similar-sized fragments that have been isolated for similar prolonged periods are called for.

  8. An encodable lanthanide binding tag with reduced size and flexibility for measuring residual dipolar couplings and pseudocontact shifts in large proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barb, Adam W., E-mail: abarb@iastate.edu; Subedi, Ganesh P. [Iowa State University, Roy J. Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Metal ions serve important roles in structural biology applications from long-range perturbations seen in magnetic resonance experiments to electron-dense signatures in X-ray crystallography data; however, the metal ion must be secured in a molecular framework to achieve the maximum benefit. Polypeptide-based lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs) represent one option that can be directly encoded within a recombinant protein expression construct. However, LBTs often exhibit significant mobility relative to the target molecule. Here we report the characterization of improved LBTs sequences for insertion into a protein loop. These LBTs were inserted to connect two parallel alpha helices of an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding Z domain platform. Variants A and B bound Tb{sup 3+} with high affinity (0.70 and 0.13 μM, respectively) and displayed restricted LBT motion. Compared to the parent construct, the metal-bound A experienced a 2.5-fold reduction in tag motion as measured by magnetic field-induced residual dipolar couplings and was further studied in a 72.2 kDa complex with the human IgG1 fragment crystallizable (IgG1 Fc) glycoprotein. The appearance of both pseudo-contact shifts (−0.221 to 0.081 ppm) and residual dipolar couplings (−7.6 to 14.3 Hz) of IgG1 Fc resonances in the IgG1 Fc:(variant A:Tb{sup 3+}){sub 2} complex indicated structural restriction of the LBT with respect to the Fc. These studies highlight the applicability of improved LBT sequences with reduced mobility to probe the structure of macromolecular systems.

  9. A degradation debt? Large-scale shifts in community composition and loss of biomass in a tropical forest fragment after 40 years of isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakan A Zahawi

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. We examined forest dynamics in a mid-elevation 365-ha fragment in southern Costa Rica. The fragment was isolated in the mid-1970s and belongs to the Las Cruces Biological Station. A 2.25-ha permanent plot was established in the center of the old-growth forest (>400 m to nearest edge boundary and all plants >5 cm DBH were censused, mapped, and identified to species in two surveys taken ~5-6 years apart (>3,000 stems/survey. Although the reserve maintains high species richness (>200 spp., with many rare species represented by only one individual, we document a strong shift in composition with a two-fold increase in the number of soft-wooded pioneer individuals. The dominant late-successional understory tree species, Chrysochlamys glauca (Clusiaceae, and most species in the Lauraceae, declined dramatically. Turnover was high: 22.9% of stems in the first survey were lost, and 27.8% of stems in the second survey represented new recruits. Mean tree diameter decreased significantly and there was a 10% decrease in overall biomass. Such alteration has been documented previously but only in smaller fragments or within ~100 m of an edge boundary. Further penetration into this fragment was perhaps driven by a progressive invasion of disturbance-adapted species into the fragment's core over time; the loss of once-dominant late successional species could be a contributing factor. The pattern found is of particular concern given that such fragments represent a substantial portion of today's remaining tropical habitat; further studies in similar-sized fragments that have been isolated for similar prolonged periods are called for.

  10. An encodable lanthanide binding tag with reduced size and flexibility for measuring residual dipolar couplings and pseudocontact shifts in large proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barb, Adam W.; Subedi, Ganesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Metal ions serve important roles in structural biology applications from long-range perturbations seen in magnetic resonance experiments to electron-dense signatures in X-ray crystallography data; however, the metal ion must be secured in a molecular framework to achieve the maximum benefit. Polypeptide-based lanthanide-binding tags (LBTs) represent one option that can be directly encoded within a recombinant protein expression construct. However, LBTs often exhibit significant mobility relative to the target molecule. Here we report the characterization of improved LBTs sequences for insertion into a protein loop. These LBTs were inserted to connect two parallel alpha helices of an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding Z domain platform. Variants A and B bound Tb 3+ with high affinity (0.70 and 0.13 μM, respectively) and displayed restricted LBT motion. Compared to the parent construct, the metal-bound A experienced a 2.5-fold reduction in tag motion as measured by magnetic field-induced residual dipolar couplings and was further studied in a 72.2 kDa complex with the human IgG1 fragment crystallizable (IgG1 Fc) glycoprotein. The appearance of both pseudo-contact shifts (−0.221 to 0.081 ppm) and residual dipolar couplings (−7.6 to 14.3 Hz) of IgG1 Fc resonances in the IgG1 Fc:(variant A:Tb 3+ ) 2 complex indicated structural restriction of the LBT with respect to the Fc. These studies highlight the applicability of improved LBT sequences with reduced mobility to probe the structure of macromolecular systems

  11. Topology optimised wavelength dependent splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, K. K.; Burgos Leon, J.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    A photonic crystal wavelength dependent splitter has been constructed by utilising topology optimisation1. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1). The topology optimised wavelength dependent splitter demonstrates promising 3D FDTD simulation results....... This complex photonic crystal structure is very sensitive against small fabrication variations from the expected topology optimised design. A wavelength dependent splitter is an important basic building block for high-performance nanophotonic circuits. 1J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund, App. Phys. Lett. 84, 2022...

  12. AWG Filter for Wavelength Interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard J. (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Faridian, Fereydoun (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Sotoudeh, Vahid (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength interrogator is coupled to a circulator which couples optical energy from a broadband source to an optical fiber having a plurality of sensors, each sensor reflecting optical energy at a unique wavelength and directing the reflected optical energy to an AWG. The AWG has a detector coupled to each output, and the reflected optical energy from each grating is coupled to the skirt edge response of the AWG such that the adjacent channel responses form a complementary pair response. The complementary pair response is used to convert an AWG skirt response to a wavelength.

  13. Fully reconfigurable 2x2 optical cross-connect using tunable wavelength switching modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Zheng, Xueyan; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud

    2001-01-01

    A modular tunable wavelength switching module is proposed and used to construct 2x2 fully reconfigurable optical cross-connects. Large size optical switch is avoided in the OXC and it is easy to upgrade to more wavelength channels.......A modular tunable wavelength switching module is proposed and used to construct 2x2 fully reconfigurable optical cross-connects. Large size optical switch is avoided in the OXC and it is easy to upgrade to more wavelength channels....

  14. The New world of ';Big Data' Analytics and High Performance Data: A Paradigm shift in the way we interact with very large Earth Observation datasets (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purss, M. B.; Lewis, A.; Ip, A.; Evans, B.

    2013-12-01

    The next decade promises an exponential increase in volumes of open data from Earth observing satellites. The ESA Sentinels, the Japan Meteorological Agency's Himawari 8/9 geostationary satellites, various NASA missions, and of course the many EO satellites planned from China, will produce petabyte scale datasets of national and global significance. It is vital that we develop new ways of managing, accessing and using this ';big-data' from satellites, to produce value added information within realistic timeframes. A paradigm shift is required away from traditional ';scene based' (and labour intensive) approaches with data storage and delivery for processing at local sites, to emerging High Performance Data (HPD) models where the data are organised and co-located with High Performance Computational (HPC) infrastructures in a way that enables users to bring themselves, their algorithms and the HPC processing power to the data. Automated workflows, that allow the entire archive of data to be rapidly reprocessed from raw data to fully calibrated products, are a crucial requirement for the effective stewardship of these datasets. New concepts such as arranging and viewing data as ';data objects' which underpin the delivery of ';information as a service' are also integral to realising the transition into HPD analytics. As Australia's national remote sensing and geoscience agency, Geoscience Australia faces a pressing need to solve the problems of ';big-data', in particular around the 25-year archive of calibrated Landsat data. The challenge is to ensure standardised information can be extracted from the entire archive and applied to nationally significant problems in hazards, water management, land management, resource development and the environment. Ultimately, these uses justify government investment in these unique systems. A key challenge was how best to organise the archive of calibrated Landsat data (estimated to grow to almost 1 PB by the end of 2014) in a way

  15. From laboratory to the sky: Th-Ar wavelength standards for the cryogenic infrared echelle spectrograph (CRIRES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerber, Florian; Bristow, Paul [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nave, Gillian; Sansonetti, Craig J [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)], E-mail: fkerber@eso.org, E-mail: gillian.nave@nist.gov, E-mail: craig.sansonetti@nist.gov, E-mail: bristowp@eso.org

    2009-05-15

    We report on the collaborative effort of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to establish-through laboratory measurements-wavelength standards in the near-infrared (IR) emission line spectrum of a low current Th-Ar hollow cathode lamp. These standards are now routinely used for the wavelength calibration of the cryogenic infrared echelle spectrograph (CRIRES) operated at one of the unit telescopes of the very large telescope (VLT) at ESO's La Silla Paranal Observatory in Chile. The availability of highly accurate wavelength standards from a commercially available calibration source permits a shift to a new operational paradigm for high-resolution IR spectroscopy. Wavelength calibration no longer has to rely on atmospheric features but can make use of laboratory traceable reference data as is normally done in the ultraviolet and visible regions. This opens the door for more quantitative spectroscopic work in the near-IR. To illustrate the potential impact of this development, we briefly review the current state of affairs in IR astronomy and its projected future. With the advent of the next generation of extremely large ground-based telescopes the IR region will become the most powerful window on the universe within the next 10-15 years. We conclude with a short outlook on the contribution atomic physics can make to this evolution.

  16. Doppler-shift spectra of Hα lines from negative-ion-based neutral beams for large helical device neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Asano, E.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Grisham, L.; Umeda, N.; Honda, A.; Ikeda, Y.; Yamamoto, T.

    2006-01-01

    The velocity spectra of the negative-ion-(H - ) based neutral beams are studied in high-performance large-area ion sources during injection into large helical device fusion plasmas. We are conducting systematic observations in standard neutral beam injection to correlate beam spectra with source operating conditions. Almost all of the transmitted beam power was at full acceleration energy (∼170 keV). The small stripping beam component which was produced in the extraction gap was evaluated to be about 9%-22% by amplitude of the measured spectra for the sources in beam lines 1 and 2. H - production uniformity from the spectrum profile was 86%-90% for three sources. For the longest pulse injection during 74 and 128 s, a full energy component tended to decrease with time, while the accelerator gap stripping tail tended to increase slightly with time, which is attributed to beam-induced outgassing in the accelerator. A higher conductance multislot ground grid accelerator appeared to show little growth in the accelerator gap beam stripping during long pulses compared to the conventional multiaperture ground grid. The beam uniformity appeared to vary in part with the Cs uniformity on the plasma grid

  17. Invasive mussels alter the littoral food web of a large lake: stable isotopes reveal drastic shifts in sources and flow of energy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Ozersky

    Full Text Available We investigated how establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels impacted the structure and energy sources of the littoral benthic food web of a large temperate lake. We combined information about pre- and postdreissenid abundance, biomass, and secondary production of the littoral benthos with results of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of archival (predreissenid and recent (postdreissenid samples of all common benthic taxa. This approach enabled us to determine the importance of benthic and sestonic carbon to the littoral food web before, and more than a decade after dreissenid establishment. Long term dreissenid presence was associated with a 32-fold increase in abundance, 6-fold increase in biomass, and 14-fold increase in secondary production of the littoral benthos. Dreissenids comprised a large portion of the post-invasion benthos, making up 13, 38, and 56% of total abundance, biomass, and secondary production, respectively. The predreissenid food web was supported primarily by benthic primary production, while sestonic material was relatively more important to the postdreissenid food web. The absolute importance of both sestonic material and benthic primary production to the littoral benthos increased considerably following dreissenid establishment. Our results show drastic alterations to food web structure and suggest that dreissenid mussels redirect energy and material from the water column to the littoral benthos both through biodeposition of sestonic material as well as stimulation of benthic primary production.

  18. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  19. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  20. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program

  1. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-11-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FEL's offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FEL's will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.

  2. Wavelength conversion of QAM signals in a low loss CMOS compatible spiral waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate wavelength conversion of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signals, including 32-GBd quadrature phase-shift keying and 10-GBd 16-QAM, in a 50-cm long high index doped glass spiral waveguide. The quality of the generated idlers for up to 20 nm of wavelength shift is sufficient...... to achieve a BER performance below the hard decision forward error correction threshold BER performance (...

  3. Heterodyne detection of CPFSK signals with and without wavelength conversion up to 5 Gb/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Ebskamp, F.; Mikkelsen, Benny

    1993-01-01

    Detection of wavelength converted signals by a coherent continuous-phase frequency-shift-keying receiver is reported. The signals are wavelength converted over 35 nm, and record receiver sensitivities of -38.7 dBm at 4.0Gb/s and -35.6 dBm at 4.8Gb/s are obtained. Comparison between results...

  4. Controlling the emission wavelength in group III-V semiconductor laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.; Majid, Mohammed Abdul; Afandy, Rami; Aljabr, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Methods are provided for modifying the emission wavelength of a semiconductor quantum well laser diode, e.g. by blue shifting the emission wavelength. The methods can be applied to a variety of semiconductor quantum well laser diodes, e.g. group III

  5. From Dark to Light to Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET): Polarity-Sensitive Aggregation-Induced Emission (AIE)-Active Tetraphenylethene-Fused BODIPY Dyes with a Very Large Pseudo-Stokes Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Esra; Meral, Kadem; Atılgan, Serdar

    2016-01-11

    The work presented herein is devoted to the fabrication of large Stokes shift dyes in both organic and aqueous media by combining dark resonance energy transfer (DRET) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in one donor-acceptor system. In this respect, a series of donor-acceptor architectures of 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY) dyes substituted by one, two, or three tetraphenylethene (TPE) luminogens were designed and synthesised. The photophysical properties of these three chromophore systems were studied to provide insight into the nature of donor-acceptor interactions in both THF and aqueous media. Because the generation of emissive TPE donor(s) is strongly polarity dependent, due to its aggregation-induced emission (AIE) feature, one might expect the formation of appreciable fluorescence emission intensity with a very large pseudo-Stokes shift in aqueous media when considering FRET process. Interestingly, similar results were also recorded in THF for the chromophore systems, although the TPE fragment(s) of the dyes are non-emissive. The explanation for this photophysical behaviour lies in the DRET. This is the first report on combining two energy-transfer processes, namely, FRET and DRET, in one polarity-sensitive donor-acceptor pair system. The accuracy of the dark-emissive donor property of the TPE luminogen is also presented for the first time as a new feature for AIE phenomena. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Chemical shift imaging: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brateman, L.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical shift is the phenomenon that is seen when an isotope possessing a nuclear magnetic dipole moment resonates at a spectrum of resonance frequencies in a given magnetic field. These resonance frequencies, or chemical shifts, depend on the chemical environments of particular nuclei. Mapping the spatial distribution of nuclei associated with a particular chemical shift (e.g., hydrogen nuclei associated with water molecules or with lipid groups) is called chemical shift imaging. Several techniques of proton chemical shift imaging that have been applied in vivo are presented, and their clinical findings are reported and summarized. Acquiring high-resolution spectra for large numbers of volume elements in two or three dimensions may be prohibitive because of time constraints, but other methods of imaging lipid of water distributions (i.e., selective excitation, selective saturation, or variations in conventional magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences) can provide chemical shift information. These techniques require less time, but they lack spectral information. Since fat deposition seen by chemical shift imaging may not be demonstrated by conventional magnetic resonance imaging, certain applications of chemical shift imaging, such as in the determination of fatty liver disease, have greater diagnostic utility than conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, edge artifacts caused by chemical shift effects can be eliminated by certain selective methods of data acquisition employed in chemical shift imaging

  7. Wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavko, G.E.

    1974-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization was measured for twelve stars in three regions of the Milky Way. A 120A bandpass was used to measure the polarization at a maximum of sixteen wavelengths evenly spaced between 2.78μ -1 (3600A) and 1.28μ -1 (7800A). For such a wide wavelength range, the wavelength resolution is superior to that of any previously reported polarization measurements. The new scanning polarimeter built by W. A. Hiltner of the University of Michigan was used for the observations. Very broad structure was found in the wavelength dependence of the polarization. Extensive investigations were carried out to show that the structure was not caused by instrumental effects. The broad structure observed is shown to be in agreement with concurrent extinction measurements for the same stars. Also, the observed structure is of the type predicted when a homogeneous silicate grain model is fitted to the observed extinction. The results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the very broad band structure seen in the extinction is produced by the grains. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  8. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    Taking into account the requirements to the converters e.g., bit rate transparency (at least up to 10 Gbit/s), polarisation independence, wavelength independence, moderate input power levels, high signal-to-noise ratio and high extinction ratio interferometric wavelength convertors are very...... interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  9. Sub-wavelength plasmon laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-04-19

    A plasmonic laser device has resonant nanocavities filled with a gain medium containing an organic dye. The resonant plasmon frequencies of the nanocavities are tuned to align with both the absorption and emission spectra of the dye. Variables in the system include the nature of the dye and the wavelength of its absorption and emission, the wavelength of the pumping radiation, and the resonance frequencies of the nanocavities. In addition the pumping frequency of the dye is selected to be close to the absorption maximum.

  10. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN

    2012-01-01

    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  11. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A

    2001-12-10

    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam.

  12. Wavelength stabilized multi-kW diode laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Bernd; Unger, Andreas; Kindervater, Tobias; Drovs, Simon; Wolf, Paul; Hubrich, Ralf; Beczkowiak, Anna; Auch, Stefan; Müntz, Holger; Biesenbach, Jens

    2015-03-01

    We report on wavelength stabilized high-power diode laser systems with enhanced spectral brightness by means of Volume Holographic Gratings. High-power diode laser modules typically have a relatively broad spectral width of about 3 to 6 nm. In addition the center wavelength shifts by changing the temperature and the driving current, which is obstructive for pumping applications with small absorption bandwidths. Wavelength stabilization of high-power diode laser systems is an important method to increase the efficiency of diode pumped solid-state lasers. It also enables power scaling by dense wavelength multiplexing. To ensure a wide locking range and efficient wavelength stabilization the parameters of the Volume Holographic Grating and the parameters of the diode laser bar have to be adapted carefully. Important parameters are the reflectivity of the Volume Holographic Grating, the reflectivity of the diode laser bar as well as its angular and spectral emission characteristics. In this paper we present detailed data on wavelength stabilized diode laser systems with and without fiber coupling in the spectral range from 634 nm up to 1533 nm. The maximum output power of 2.7 kW was measured for a fiber coupled system (1000 μm, NA 0.22), which was stabilized at a wavelength of 969 nm with a spectral width of only 0.6 nm (90% value). Another example is a narrow line-width diode laser stack, which was stabilized at a wavelength of 1533 nm with a spectral bandwidth below 1 nm and an output power of 835 W.

  13. Intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent photoluminescence emission in the blue-violet region from phosphorene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuaipeng; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale phosphorene quantum dots (PQDs) with few-layer structures were fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of a bulk black phosphorus target in diethyl ether. An intense and stable photoluminescence (PL) emission of the PQDs in the blue-violet wavelength region is clearly observed for the first time, which is attributed to electronic transitions from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and occupied molecular orbitals below the HOMO (H-1, H-2), respectively. Surprisingly, the PL emission peak positions of the PQDs are not red-shifted with progressively longer excitation wavelengths, which is in contrast to the cases of graphene and molybdenum disulphide quantum dots. This excitation wavelength-independence is derived from the saturated passivation on the periphery and surfaces of the PQDs by large numbers of electron-donating functional groups which cause the electron density on the PQDs to be dramatically increased and the band gap to be insensitive to the quantum size effect in the PQDs. This work suggests that PQDs with intense, stable and excitation wavelength-independent PL emission in the blue-violet region have a potential application as semiconductor-based blue-violet light irradiation sources. PMID:27265198

  14. Interrogation of weak Bragg grating sensors based on dual-wavelength differential detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Xia, Li

    2016-11-15

    It is shown that for weak Bragg gratings the logarithmic ratio of reflected intensities at any two wavelengths within the spectrum follows a linear relationship with the Bragg wavelength shift, with a slope proportional to their wavelength spacing. This finding is exploited to develop a flexible, efficient, and cheap interrogation solution of weak fiber Bragg grating (FBGs), especially ultra-short FBGs, in distributed sensing based on dual-wavelength differential detection. The concept is experimentally studied in both single and distributed sensing systems with ultra-short FBG sensors. The work may form the basis of new and promising FBG interrogation techniques based on detecting discrete rather than continuous spectra.

  15. A dual-wavelength tunable laser with superimposed fiber Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Tamayo, R I; Durán-Sánchez, M; Pottiez, O; Ibarra-Escamilla, B; Kuzin, E A; Cruz, J L; Andrés, M V

    2013-01-01

    We report a dual-wavelength tunable fiber laser. The cavity is formed by two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and a temperature tunable high-birefringence fiber optical loop mirror (FOLM). FBGs with wavelengths of 1548.5 and 1538.5 nm were printed in the same section of a fiber using two different masks. The superimposed FBGs were placed on a mechanical mount that allows stretch or compression of the FBGs. As a result of the FBG strain both lines are shifted simultaneously. Dual-wavelength generation requires a fine adjustment of the cavity loss for both wavelengths. (paper)

  16. Wavelength calibration of imaging spectrometer using atmospheric absorption features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin

    2012-11-01

    Imaging spectrometer is a promising remote sensing instrument widely used in many filed, such as hazard forecasting, environmental monitoring and so on. The reliability of the spectral data is the determination to the scientific communities. The wavelength position at the focal plane of the imaging spectrometer will change as the pressure and temperature vary, or the mechanical vibration. It is difficult for the onboard calibration instrument itself to keep the spectrum reference accuracy and it also occupies weight and the volume of the remote sensing platform. Because the spectral images suffer from the atmospheric effects, the carbon oxide, water vapor, oxygen and solar Fraunhofer line, the onboard wavelength calibration can be processed by the spectral images themselves. In this paper, wavelength calibration is based on the modeled and measured atmospheric absorption spectra. The modeled spectra constructed by the atmospheric radiative transfer code. The spectral angle is used to determine the best spectral similarity between the modeled spectra and measured spectra and estimates the wavelength position. The smile shape can be obtained when the matching process across all columns of the data. The present method is successful applied on the Hyperion data. The value of the wavelength shift is obtained by shape matching of oxygen absorption feature and the characteristics are comparable to that of the prelaunch measurements.

  17. Review of short wavelength lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references

  18. Review of short wavelength lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-03-18

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

  19. Long-wavelength microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.W.; Rewoldt, G.

    1993-01-01

    Realistic kinetic toroidal eigenmode calculations have been carried out to support a proper assessment of the influence of long-wavelength microturbulence on transport in tokamak plasmas. In order to efficiently evaluate large-scale kinetic behavior extending over many rational surfaces, significant improvements have been made to a toroidal finite element code used to analyze the fully two-dimensional (r,θ) mode structures of trapped-ion and toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities. It is found that even at very long wavelengths, these eigenmodes exhibit a strong ballooning character with the associated radial structure relatively insensitive to ion Landau damping at the rational surfaces. In contrast to the long-accepted picture that the radial extent of trapped-ion instabilities is characterized by the ion-gyroradius-scale associated with strong localization between adjacent rational surfaces, present results demonstrate that under realistic conditions, the actual scale is governed by the large-scale variations in the equilibrium gradients. Applications to recent measurements of fluctuation properties in TFTR L-mode plasmas indicate that the theoretical trends appear consistent with spectral characteristics as well as rough heuristic estimates of the transport level. Benchmarking calculations in support of the development of a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic code indicate reasonable agreement with respect to both the properties of the eigenfunctions and the magnitude of the eigenvalues during the linear phase of the simulations of toroidal ITG instabilities

  20. Switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a tapered in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuxin; Wang, Xin; Tang, Zijuan; Lou, Shuqin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a tapered in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer is proposed. The in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer is fabricated by splicing a large-core fiber between two segments of single mode fibers, in which the first splicing point is tapered and the second splicing point is connected directly. By carefully rotating the polarization controller, switchable single-, dual-, triple- and quad-wavelength lasing outputs can be obtained with a side mode suppression ratio higher than 50 dB. The maximal peak power difference of multi-wavelength lasing is 3.67 dB, demonstrating a good power equalization performance. Furthermore, the proposed laser is proven to be very stable at room temperature. The wavelength shifts and peak power fluctuations are less than 0.02 nm and 1.3 dB over half an hour. In addition, stable quintuple-wavelength lasing with a side mode suppression ratio higher than 50 dB can also be realized when the filter length is changed.

  1. Computer simulations on the nonlinear frequency shift and nonlinear modulation of ion-acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Yukiharu; Kamimura, Tetsuo.

    1976-11-01

    The nonlinear behavior of ion-acoustic waves with rather short wave-length, k lambda sub(De) asymptotically equals 1, is investigated by computer sumulations. It is observed that the nonlinear frequency shift is negative and is proportional to square root of the initial wave amplitude when the amplitude is not too large. This proportionality breaks down and the frequency shift can become positive (for large Te/Ti), when (n tilde sub(i)/n 0 )sup(1/2)>0.25, where n tilde sub(i) is the ion density perturbation and n 0 the average plasma density. Nonlinear modulation of the wave-packet is clearly seen; however, modulational instability was not observed. The importance of the effects of trapped ions to these phenomena is emphasized. (auth.)

  2. Goos-Haenchen shift in complex crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Staliunas, Kestutis [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Instituci Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanats (ICREA), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The Goos-Haenchen (GH) effect for wave scattering from complex PT-symmetric periodic potentials (complex crystals) is theoretically investigated, with specific reference to optical GH shift in photonic crystal slabs with a sinusoidal periodic modulation of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The analysis highlights some distinct and rather unique features as compared to the GH shift found in ordinary crystals. In particular, as opposed to GH shift in ordinary crystals, which is large at the band gap edges, in complex crystals the GH shift can be large inside the reflection (amplification) band and becomes extremely large as the PT symmetry-breaking threshold is approached.

  3. Coherence techniques at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The renaissance of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) optics in recent years is mainly driven by the desire of printing and observing ever smaller features, as in lithography and microscopy. This attribute is complemented by the unique opportunity for element specific identification presented by the large number of atomic resonances, essentially for all materials in this range of photon energies. Together, these have driven the need for new short-wavelength radiation sources (e.g. third generation synchrotron radiation facilities), and novel optical components, that in turn permit new research in areas that have not yet been fully explored. This dissertation is directed towards advancing this new field by contributing to the characterization of spatial coherence properties of undulator radiation and, for the first time, introducing Fourier optical elements to this short-wavelength spectral region. The first experiment in this dissertation uses the Thompson-Wolf two-pinhole method to characterize the spatial coherence properties of the undulator radiation at Beamline 12 of the Advanced Light Source. High spatial coherence EUV radiation is demonstrated with appropriate spatial filtering. The effects of small vertical source size and beamline apertures are observed. The difference in the measured horizontal and vertical coherence profile evokes further theoretical studies on coherence propagation of an EUV undulator beamline. A numerical simulation based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle is performed.

  4. Bright broadband coherent fiber sources emitting strongly blue-shifted resonant dispersive wave pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Zhang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We predict and realize the targeted wavelength conversion from the 1550-nm band of a fs Er:fiber laser to an isolated band inside 370-850 nm, corresponding to a blue-shift of 700-1180 nm. The conversion utilizes resonant dispersive wave generation in widely available optical fibers with good...... efficiency (~7%). The converted band has a large pulse energy (~1 nJ), high spectral brightness (~1 mW/nm), and broad Gaussian-like spectrum compressible to clean transform-limited ~17 fs pulses. The corresponding coherent fiber sources open up portable applications of optical parametric oscillators and dual......-output synchronized ultrafast lasers....

  5. Wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors using tapered hollow Bragg waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, C; Allen, T W; Azar, A; Melnyk, A; Dennison, C R; DeCorby, R G

    2014-10-15

    We describe an integrated system for wavelength interrogation, which uses tapered hollow Bragg waveguides coupled to an image sensor. Spectral shifts are extracted from the wavelength dependence of the light radiated at mode cutoff. Wavelength shifts as small as ~10  pm were resolved by employing a simple peak detection algorithm. Si/SiO₂-based cladding mirrors enable a potential operational range of several hundred nanometers in the 1550 nm wavelength region for a taper length of ~1  mm. Interrogation of a strain-tuned grating was accomplished using a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source, and potential for single-chip interrogation of multiplexed sensor arrays is demonstrated.

  6. Making Displaced Holograms At Two Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, William K.; Ecker, Andreas

    1989-01-01

    Two-wavelength holographic system augmented with pair of prisms to introduce small separation between holograms formed simultaneously at two wavelengths on holographic plate. Principal use in study of flows. Gradients in index of refraction of fluid caused by variations in temperature, concentration, or both. Holography at one wavelength cannot be used to distinguish between two types of variations. Difference between spacings of fringes in photographs reconstructed from holograms taken simultaneously at two different wavelengths manipulated mathematically to determine type of variation.

  7. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A class of photonic crystal resonant reflectors known as guided mode resonant filters are optical structures that are widely used in the field of refractive index sensing, particularly in biosensing. For the purposes of understanding and design, their behavior has traditionally been modeled numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken into account. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the model is valid beyond the limit of low grating modulation, for periodically discontinuous waveguide layers, high refractive index contrasts, and highly dispersive media.

  8. Modeling Multi-wavelength Stellar Astrometry. III. Determination of the Absolute Masses of Exoplanets and Their Host Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, J. L.; López-Morales, Mercedes

    2012-05-01

    Astrometric measurements of stellar systems are becoming significantly more precise and common, with many ground- and space-based instruments and missions approaching 1 μas precision. We examine the multi-wavelength astrometric orbits of exoplanetary systems via both analytical formulae and numerical modeling. Exoplanets have a combination of reflected and thermally emitted light that causes the photocenter of the system to shift increasingly farther away from the host star with increasing wavelength. We find that, if observed at long enough wavelengths, the planet can dominate the astrometric motion of the system, and thus it is possible to directly measure the orbits of both the planet and star, and thus directly determine the physical masses of the star and planet, using multi-wavelength astrometry. In general, this technique works best for, though is certainly not limited to, systems that have large, high-mass stars and large, low-mass planets, which is a unique parameter space not covered by other exoplanet characterization techniques. Exoplanets that happen to transit their host star present unique cases where the physical radii of the planet and star can be directly determined via astrometry alone. Planetary albedos and day-night contrast ratios may also be probed via this technique due to the unique signature they impart on the observed astrometric orbits. We develop a tool to examine the prospects for near-term detection of this effect, and give examples of some exoplanets that appear to be good targets for detection in the K to N infrared observing bands, if the required precision can be achieved.

  9. MODELING MULTI-WAVELENGTH STELLAR ASTROMETRY. III. DETERMINATION OF THE ABSOLUTE MASSES OF EXOPLANETS AND THEIR HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlin, J. L.; López-Morales, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Astrometric measurements of stellar systems are becoming significantly more precise and common, with many ground- and space-based instruments and missions approaching 1 μas precision. We examine the multi-wavelength astrometric orbits of exoplanetary systems via both analytical formulae and numerical modeling. Exoplanets have a combination of reflected and thermally emitted light that causes the photocenter of the system to shift increasingly farther away from the host star with increasing wavelength. We find that, if observed at long enough wavelengths, the planet can dominate the astrometric motion of the system, and thus it is possible to directly measure the orbits of both the planet and star, and thus directly determine the physical masses of the star and planet, using multi-wavelength astrometry. In general, this technique works best for, though is certainly not limited to, systems that have large, high-mass stars and large, low-mass planets, which is a unique parameter space not covered by other exoplanet characterization techniques. Exoplanets that happen to transit their host star present unique cases where the physical radii of the planet and star can be directly determined via astrometry alone. Planetary albedos and day-night contrast ratios may also be probed via this technique due to the unique signature they impart on the observed astrometric orbits. We develop a tool to examine the prospects for near-term detection of this effect, and give examples of some exoplanets that appear to be good targets for detection in the K to N infrared observing bands, if the required precision can be achieved.

  10. Long-wavelength microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1993-01-01

    Realistic kinetic toroidal eigenmode calculations have been carried out to support a proper assessment of the influence of long-wavelength microturbulence on transport in tokamak plasmas. In order to efficiently evaluate large-scale kinetic behavior extending over many rational surfaces, significant improvements have been made to a toroidal finite element code used to analyze the fully two-dimensional (r,θ) mode structures of trapped-ion and toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities. It is found that even at very long wavelengths, these eigenmodes exhibit a strong ballooning character with the associated radial structure relatively insensitive to ion Landau damping at the rational surfaces. In contrast to the long-accepted picture that the radial extent of trapped-ion instabilities is characterized by the ion-gyroradius-scale associated with strong localization between adjacent rational surfaces, present results demonstrate that under realistic conditions, the actual scale is governed by the large-scale variations in the equilibrium gradients. Applications to recent measurements of fluctuation properties in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Nucl. Fusion Res. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), Vol. 1, p. 29] L-mode plasmas indicate that the theoretical trends appear consistent with spectral characteristics as well as rough heuristic estimates of the transport level. Benchmarking calculations in support of the development of a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic code indicate reasonable agreement with respect to both the properties of the eigenfunctions and the magnitude of the eigenvalues during the linear phase of the simulations of toroidal ITG instabilities

  11. Comparison of different wavelength pump sources for Tm subnanosecond amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserteg, Andras; Guillemet, Sébastien; Hernandez, Yves; Giannone, Domenico

    2012-06-01

    We report here a comparison of different pumping wavelengths for short pulse Thulium fibre amplifiers. We compare the results in terms of efficiency and required fibre length. As we operate the laser in the sub-nanosecond regime, the fibre length is a critical parameter regarding non linear effects. With 793 nm clad-pumping, a 4 m long active fibre was necessary, leading to strong spectral deformation through Self Phase Modulation (SPM). Core-pumping scheme was then more in-depth investigated with several wavelengths tested. Good results with Erbium and Raman shifted pumping sources were obtained, with very short fibre length, aiming to reach a few micro-joules per pulse without (or with limited) SPM.

  12. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.E.

    1977-10-01

    The use of modulation spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of solids has been very productive. The construction of a wide range Wavelength Modulation Spectrometer to study the optical properties of solids is described in detail. Extensions of the working range of the spectrometer into the vacuum ultraviolet are discussed. Measurements of the reflectivity and derivative reflectivity spectra of the lead chalcogenides, the chalcopyrite ZnGeP/sub 2/, the layer compounds GaSe and GaS and their alloys, the ferroelectric SbSI, layer compounds SnS/sub 2/ and SnSe/sub 2/, and HfS/sub 2/ were made. The results of these measurements are presented along with their interpretation in terms of band structure calculations.

  13. Novel thermal annealing methodology for permanent tuning polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings to longer wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospori, A; Marques, C A F; Sagias, G; Lamela-Rivera, H; Webb, D J

    2018-01-22

    The Bragg wavelength of a polymer optical fiber Bragg grating can be permanently shifted by utilizing the thermal annealing method. In all the reported fiber annealing cases, the authors were able to tune the Bragg wavelength only to shorter wavelengths, since the polymer fiber shrinks in length during the annealing process. This article demonstrates a novel thermal annealing methodology for permanently tuning polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings to any desirable spectral position, including longer wavelengths. Stretching the polymer optical fiber during the annealing process, the period of Bragg grating, which is directly related with the Bragg wavelength, can become permanently longer. The methodology presented in this article can be used to multiplex polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings at any desirable spectral position utilizing only one phase-mask for their photo-inscription, reducing thus their fabrication cost in an industrial setting.

  14. Design of multi-wavelength tunable filter based on Lithium Niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailing; Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Song, Hongyun

    2018-05-01

    A multi-wavelength tunable filter is designed. It consists of multiple waveguides among multiple waveguide gratings. A pair of electrodes were placed on both sides of each waveguide. The tunable filter uses the electro-optic effect of Lithium Niobate to tune the phase caused by each waveguide. Consequently, the wavelength and wavelength spacing of the filter are tuned by changing external voltages added on the electrode pairs. The tunable property of the filter is analyzed by phase matching condition and transfer-matrix method. Numerical results show that not only multiple wavelengths with narrow bandwidth are tuned with nearly equal spacing by synchronously changing the voltages added on all electrode pairs, but also the number of wavelengths is determined by the number of phase shifts caused by electrode pairs. Furthermore, due to the electro-optic effect of Lithium Niobate, the tuning speed of the filter can reach the order of ns.

  15. Stable Dual-Wavelength Fibre Laser with Bragg Gratings Fabricated in a Polarization-Maintaining Erbium-Doped Fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wang; Feng-Ping, Yan; Xiang-Qiao, Mao; Shui-Sheng, Jian

    2008-01-01

    A new polarization-independent dual-wavelength fibre laser by fabricating a uniform FBG and a chirped FBG in a polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fibre (PM-EDF) is proposed and demonstrated. The wavelength spacing is 0.18nm and the optical signal-to-noise ratio is greater than 50dB with pump power of 246mW. Chirped FBG is used to make the reflectivity wavelengths of two PM-FBGs match easier. Since both EDF and FBGs are polarization-maintaining without splices and the two wavelengths are polarization-independent, the maximum amplitude variation and wavelength shifts for both lasing wavelength with 3-min intervals over a period of six hours are less than 0.2 dB and 0.005 nm, respectively, which shows stable dual-wavelength output

  16. In-plane wavelength division de-multiplexing using photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders; Hede, K. K.

    We demonstrate a novel concept for in-plane coarse wavelength division de-multiplexing in integrated photonic circuits utilizing planar photonic crystal waveguides (PhCWs) fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material. The filtering of wavelength channels is realized by shifting the cut......-off frequency of the fundamental photonic bandgap mode. The shift is obtained by modifying the size of the border holes in consecutive sections of the PhCW1. Simulations and experimental proof-of-principle of the four-channel de-multiplexer will be presented. 1A. Adibi et al., Electron. Lett. 36, 1376...

  17. Wavelength-encoded OCDMA system using opto-VLSI processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 2.5 Gbits/sper user wavelength-encoded optical code-division multiple-access encoder-decoder structure based on opto-VLSI processing. Each encoder and decoder is constructed using a single 1D opto-very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) processor in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array of different Bragg wavelengths. The FBG array spectrally and temporally slices the broadband input pulse into several components and the opto-VLSI processor generates codewords using digital phase holograms. System performance is measured in terms of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  18. Wavelength-encoded OCDMA system using opto-VLSI processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 2.5 Gbits/sper user wavelength-encoded optical code-division multiple-access encoder-decoder structure based on opto-VLSI processing. Each encoder and decoder is constructed using a single 1D opto-very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) processor in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array of different Bragg wavelengths. The FBG array spectrally and temporally slices the broadband input pulse into several components and the opto-VLSI processor generates codewords using digital phase holograms. System performance is measured in terms of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  19. Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmaier, M.; Ebert, J.; Pernice, W. H. P., E-mail: wolfram.pernice@kit.edu [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Meckbach, J. M.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M. [Institute of Micro- und Nanoelectronic Systems, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-03-03

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) has recently emerged as a promising material for integrated photonics due to a large bandgap and attractive optical properties. Exploiting the wideband transparency, we demonstrate waveguiding in AlN-on-Insulator circuits from near-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths using nanophotonic components with dimensions down to 40 nm. By measuring the propagation loss over a wide spectral range, we conclude that both scattering and absorption of AlN-intrinsic defects contribute to strong attenuation at short wavelengths, thus providing guidelines for future improvements in thin-film deposition and circuit fabrication.

  20. A long-term multi-proxy record of varved sediments highlights climate-induced mixing-regime shift in a large hard-water lake ~5000 years ago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Finsinger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem dynamics spanning between approximately 6200 and 4800 cal BP were investigated using pollen, diatoms, pigments, charcoal, and geochemistry from varved sediments collected in a large stratified perialpine lake, Lago Grande di Avigliana, in the Italian Alps. Marked changes were detected in diatom and pigment assemblages and in sediment composition at ~4900 cal BP. Organic matter rapidly increased and diatom assemblages shifted from oligotrophic to oligo-mesotrophic planktonic assemblages suggesting that nutrients increased at that time. Because land cover, erosion, and fire frequency did not change significantly, external nutrient sources were possibly not essential in controlling the lake-ecosystem dynamics. This is also supported by redundancy analysis, which showed that variables explaining significant amounts of variance in the diatom data were not the ones related to changes in the catchment. Instead, the broad coincidence between the phytoplankton dynamics and rising lake-levels, cooler temperatures, and stronger spring winds in the northern Mediterranean borderlands possibly points to the effects of climate change on the nutrient recycling in the lake by means of the control that climate can exert on mixing depth. We hypothesize that the increased P-release rates and higher organic-matter accumulation rates, proceeded by enhanced precipitation of iron sulphides, were possibly caused by deeper and stronger mixing leading to enhanced input of nutrients from the anoxic hypolimnion into the epilimnion. Although we cannot completely rule out the influence of minor land-cover changes due to human activities, it may be hypothesized that climate-induced cumulative effects related to mixing regime and P-recycling from sediments influenced the aquatic-ecosystem dynamics.

  1. An efficient and novel computation method for simulating diffraction patterns from large-scale coded apertures on large-scale focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrekenhamer, Abraham; Gottesman, Stephen R.

    2012-10-01

    A novel and memory efficient method for computing diffraction patterns produced on large-scale focal planes by largescale Coded Apertures at wavelengths where diffraction effects are significant has been developed and tested. The scheme, readily implementable on portable computers, overcomes the memory limitations of present state-of-the-art simulation codes such as Zemax. The method consists of first calculating a set of reference complex field (amplitude and phase) patterns on the focal plane produced by a single (reference) central hole, extending to twice the focal plane array size, with one such pattern for each Line-of-Sight (LOS) direction and wavelength in the scene, and with the pattern amplitude corresponding to the square-root of the spectral irradiance from each such LOS direction in the scene at selected wavelengths. Next the set of reference patterns is transformed to generate pattern sets for other holes. The transformation consists of a translational pattern shift corresponding to each hole's position offset and an electrical phase shift corresponding to each hole's position offset and incoming radiance's direction and wavelength. The set of complex patterns for each direction and wavelength is then summed coherently and squared for each detector to yield a set of power patterns unique for each direction and wavelength. Finally the set of power patterns is summed to produce the full waveband diffraction pattern from the scene. With this tool researchers can now efficiently simulate diffraction patterns produced from scenes by large-scale Coded Apertures onto large-scale focal plane arrays to support the development and optimization of coded aperture masks and image reconstruction algorithms.

  2. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element with the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  3. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element wit the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  4. Experimental verification of a very low crosstalk wavelength router construction using arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Peucheret, Christophe

    1999-01-01

    A very low crosstalk N×N wavelength router construction based on 1×N AWG multi/demultiplexers has been proposed. The peak crosstalk level of -53 dB is measured in such an 8×8 wavelength router and the power penalty from the router is negligible. Rather large wavelength routing networks can be built...

  5. Red-shift of the photoluminescent emission peaks of CdTe quantum dots due to the synergistic interaction with carbon quantum dot mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelayo, E; Zazueta, A; López-Delgado, R; Ayón, A; Saucedo, E; Ruelas, R

    2016-01-01

    We report the relatively large red-shift effect observed in down-shifting carbon quantum dots (CQDs) that is anticipated to have a positive impact on the power conversion efficiency of solar cells. Specifically, with an excitation wavelength of 390 nm, CQDs of different sizes, exhibited down-shifted emission peaks centered around 425 nm. However, a solution comprised of a mixture of CQDs of different sizes, was observed to have an emission peak red-shifted to 515 nm. The effect could arise when larger carbon quantum dots capture the photons emitted by their smaller counterparts followed by the subsequent re-emission at longer wavelengths. Furthermore, the red-shift effect was also observed in CdTe QDs when added to a solution with the aforementioned mixture of Carbon QDs. Thus, whereas a solution solely comprised of a collection of CdTe QDs of different sizes, exhibited a down-shifted photoluminescence centered around 555 nm, the peak was observed to be further red-shifted to 580 nm when combined with the solution of CQDs of different sizes. The quantum dot characterization included crystal structure analysis as well as photon absorption and photoluminescence wavelengths. Subsequently, the synthesized QDs were dispersed in a polymeric layer of poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and incorporated on functional and previously characterized solar cells, to quantify their influence in the electrical performance of the photovoltaic structures. We discuss the synthesis and characterization of the produced Carbon and CdTe QDs, as well as the observed improvement in the power conversion efficiency of the fabricated photovoltaic devices. (paper)

  6. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  7. Performance test and analysis to the prototype of fiber-based portable large area surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Yantao; Liu Yang; Wang Wei; Wang Ying; Hou Jie

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of using large area plastic scintillation (sensitive area up to 1200 cm 2 ) and wavelength-shifting fiber (WLS) to measure β surface contamination that led to a tentative adoption of direct coupling method of wavelength-shifting fiber array and plastic scintillator. Based on above, a calculation program was established, by which the optical transmission was simulated enabling optimizations to the design of the system such as the size of the plastic scintillator, the quantity of the wavelength-shifting fiber and the configuration mode of the wavelength-shifting fiber. As a result, a special experimental prototype was developed and tested. Results prove that the sensitive detection area is up to 1200 cm 2 , the detection efficiency is about 15.4%, the inconsistency of the different sensitive area is about 9.7%, and the minimum detectable limit is about 0.05 Bq/cm 2 , all of which indicate that the experimental prototype could satisfy requirements of surface pollution monitoring for both normal and accident conditions. (authors)

  8. Solar Observations at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, P.

    We review earlier to recent observational evidences and theoretical motivations leading to a renewed interest to observe flares in the submillimeter (submm) - infrared (IR) range of wavelengths. We describe the new solar dedicated submillimeter wave telescope which began operations at El Leoncito in the Argentina Andes: the SST project. It consists of focal plane arrays of two 405 GHz and four 212 GHz radiometers placed in a 1.5-m radome-enclosed Cassegrain antenna, operating simultaneously with one millisecond time resolution. The first solar events analyzed exhibited the onset of rapid submm-wave spikes (100-300 ms), well associated to other flare manifestations, especially at X-rays. The spikes positions were found scattered over the flaring source by tens of arcseconds. For one event an excellent association was found between the gamma-ray emission time profile and the rate of occurrence of submm-wave rapid spikes. The preliminary results favour the idea that bulk burst emissions are a response to numerous fast energetic injections, discrete in time, produced at different spatial positions over the flaring region. Coronal mass ejections were associated to the events studied. Their trajectories extrapolated to the solar surface appear to correspond to the onset time of the submm-wave spikes, which might represent an early signature of the CME's initial acceleration process.

  9. MULTI-WAVELENGTH AFTERGLOWS OF FAST RADIO BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The physical origin of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is unknown. Detecting electromagnetic counterparts to FRBs in other wavelengths is essential to measure their distances and to determine their physical origin. Assuming that at least some of them are of cosmological origin, we calculate their afterglow light curves in multiple wavelengths (X-rays, optical, and radio) by assuming a range of total kinetic energies and redshifts. We focus on forward shock emission, but also consider the possibility that some of the FRBs might have bright reverse shock emission. In general, FRB afterglows are too faint to be detected by current detectors. Only if an FRB has a very low radiative efficiency in radio (hence, a very large kinetic energy), and when it is close enough to observe can its afterglow be detected in the optical and radio bands. We discuss observational strategies for detecting these faint afterglows using future telescopes such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and Expanded Very Large Array

  10. Effective wavelength calibration for moire fringe projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, Daryl; Davies, Angela; Farahi, Faramarz

    2006-01-01

    The fringe patterns seen when using moire instruments are similar to the patterns seen in traditional interferometry but differ in the spacing between consecutive fringes. In traditional interferometry, the spacing is constant and related to the wavelength of the source. In moire fringe projection, the spacing (the effective wavelength) may not be constant over the field of view and the spacing depends on the system geometry. In these cases, using a constant effective wavelength over the field of view causes inaccurate surface height measurements. We examine the calibration process of the moirefringe projection measurement, which takes this varying wavelength into account to produce a pixel-by-pixel wavelength map. The wavelength calibration procedure is to move the object in the out-of-plane direction a known distance until every pixel intensity value goes through at least one cycle. A sinusoidal function is then fit to the data to extract the effective wavelength pixel by pixel, yielding an effective wavelength map. A calibrated step height was used to validate the effective wavelength map with results within 1% of the nominal value of the step height. The error sources that contributed to the uncertainty in determining the height of the artifact are also investigated

  11. Pole Inflation - Shift Symmetry and Universal Corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broy, Benedict J.; Galante, Mario; Roest, Diederik; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    An appealing explanation for the Planck data is provided by inflationary models with a singular non-canonical kinetic term: a Laurent expansion of the kinetic function translates into a potential with a nearly shift-symmetric plateau in canonical fields. The shift symmetry can be broken at large

  12. Understanding and controlling chromaticity shift in LED devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Perkins, Curtis; Bobashev, Georgiy; Young, Joseph; Yaga, Robert; Johnson, Cortina

    2017-05-30

    Chromaticity shift in light-emitting diode (LED) devices arises from multiple mechanisms, and at least five different chromaticity shift modes (CSMs) have been identified to date. This paper focuses on the impacts of irreversible phosphor degradation as a cause of chromaticity shifts in LED devices. The nitride phosphors used to produce warm white LEDs are especially vulnerable to degradation due to thermal and chemical effects such as reactions with oxygen and water. As a result, LED devices utilizing these phosphors were found to undergo either a green shift or, less commonly, a red shift depending on the phosphor mix in the LED devices. These types of chromaticity shifts are classified as CSM-2 (green shift) and CSM-5 (red shift). This paper provides an overview of the kinetic processes responsible for green and red chromaticity shifts along with examples from accelerated stress testing of 6” downlights. Both CSMs appear to proceed through analogous mechanisms that are initiated at the surface of the phosphor. A green shift is produced by the surface oxidation of the nitride phosphor that changes the emission profile to lower wavelengths. As the surface oxidation reaction proceeds, reactant limitations slow the rate and bulk oxidation processes become more prevalent. We found that a red chromaticity shift arises from quenching of the green phosphor, also possibly due to surface reactions of oxygen, which shift the emission chromaticity in the red direction. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings on projecting chromaticity.

  13. Wavelength-Dependent Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy: Selectively Imaging Nanoparticle Probes in Live Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning; and Yeung, Edward S.

    2009-11-15

    Gold and silver nanoparticles display extraordinarily large apparent refractive indices near their plasmon resonance (PR) wavelengths. These nanoparticles show good contrast in a narrow spectral band but are poorly resolved at other wavelengths in differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The wavelength dependence of DIC contrast of gold/silver nanoparticles is interpreted in terms of Mie's theory and DIC working principles. We further exploit this wavelength dependence by modifying a DIC microscope to enable simultaneous imaging at two wavelengths. We demonstrate that gold/silver nanoparticles immobilized on the same glass slides through hybridization can be differentiated and imaged separately. High-contrast, video-rate images of living cells can be recorded both with and without illuminating the gold nanoparticle probes, providing definitive probe identification. Dual-wavelength DIC microscopy thus presents a new approach to the simultaneous detection of multiple probes of interest for high-speed live-cell imaging.

  14. PROTECTIVE COATINGS OF FIBER BRAGG GRATING FOR MINIMIZING OF MECHANICAL IMPACT ON ITS WAVELENGTH CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Munko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the scheme for the study of the Bragg wavelength shift dependence on the applied tensile force. Samples of fiber Bragg gratings with different coatings have been studied: the restored acrylate coating, the heatshrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve without metal rod, the heat-shrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve with a metal rod, the metal capillary, polyvinylchloride tube. For different coatings of diffractive structure, dependences of wavelength shift for the Bragg grating resonance have been obtained on the tensile strength applied to the ends of an optical fiber. It was determined that the studied FBG coatings give the possibility to reduce the mechanical impact on the Bragg wavelength shift for 1.1-15 times as compared to an uncoated waveguide. The most effective version of coated fiber Bragg grating is the heatshrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve with a metal rod. When the force (equal to 6 N is applied to the 100 mm optical fiber area with the inscribed diffractive structure, the Bragg wavelength shift is 7.5 nm for the unprotected sample and 0.5 nm for the one coated with the heat-shrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve.

  15. On-chip microparticle detection and sizing using a dual-wavelength waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward H.; van der Werf, Kees O; Hollink, Anton J F; Worhoff, Kerstin; De Ridder, Rene M.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Pollnau, Markus

    2013-01-01

    An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-phase-shift, dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in Al2O3:Yb3+ is presented. Real-time detection and accurate size measurement of single microparticles with diameters ranging between 1 μm and 20 μm are

  16. On-chip microparticle detection and sizing using a dual-wavelength waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward; van der Werf, Kees; Hollink, Anton; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Pollnau, Markus

    An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-phase-shift, dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in ytterbium-doped aluminium oxide is presented. Single micro-particles with diameters ranging between 1 μm and 20 μm are detected.

  17. Wavelength scaling of laser plasma coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of shorter wavelength laser light both enhances collisional absorption and reduces deleterious collective plasma effects. Coupling processes which can be important in reactor-size targets are briefly reviewed. Simple estimates are presented for the intensity-wavelength regime in which collisional absorption is high and collective effects are minimized

  18. A criticism of big bang cosmological models based on interpretation of the red shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierein, J.W. (Ball Aerospace Systems Div., Boulder, CO (USA))

    1988-08-01

    The interaction of light with the intergalactic plasma produces the Hubble red shift versus distance relationship. This interaction also produces an isotopic long wavelength background radiation from the plasma. Intrinsic red shifts in quasars and other objects are similarly explained, showing why they are exceptions to Hubble's law. Because the red shift is not doppler-shifted, big bang cosmological models should be replaced with static models. (author).

  19. Choice Shifts in Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kfir Eliaz; Debraj Ray

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of "choice shifts" in group decision-making is fairly ubiquitous in the social psychology literature. Faced with a choice between a ``safe" and ``risky" decision, group members appear to move to one extreme or the other, relative to the choices each member might have made on her own. Both risky and cautious shifts have been identified in different situations. This paper demonstrates that from an individual decision-making perspective, choice shifts may be viewed as a systematic...

  20. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  1. Insomnia in shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Stokes shift spectroscopy for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyasingh, Ebenezar; Prakashrao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (SSS) for normal and different pathological breast tissues such as fibroadenoma and infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The SS spectra is measured by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological breast tissues were observed. The SS spectra of normal and different pathological breast tissues shows the distinct peaks around 300, 350, 450, 500 and 600 nm may be attributed to tryptophan, collagen, NADH, flavin and porphyrin respectively. Using SSS technique one can obtain all the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological breast tissues are verified by different ratio parameters.

  3. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carried...

  4. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  5. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  6. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops

  7. Enabling Searches on Wavelengths in a Hyperspectral Indices Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñuela, F.; Cerra, D.; Müller, R.

    2017-10-01

    Spectral indices derived from hyperspectral reflectance measurements are powerful tools to estimate physical parameters in a non-destructive and precise way for several fields of applications, among others vegetation health analysis, coastal and deep water constituents, geology, and atmosphere composition. In the last years, several micro-hyperspectral sensors have appeared, with both full-frame and push-broom acquisition technologies, while in the near future several hyperspectral spaceborne missions are planned to be launched. This is fostering the use of hyperspectral data in basic and applied research causing a large number of spectral indices to be defined and used in various applications. Ad hoc search engines are therefore needed to retrieve the most appropriate indices for a given application. In traditional systems, query input parameters are limited to alphanumeric strings, while characteristics such as spectral range/ bandwidth are not used in any existing search engine. Such information would be relevant, as it enables an inverse type of search: given the spectral capabilities of a given sensor or a specific spectral band, find all indices which can be derived from it. This paper describes a tool which enables a search as described above, by using the central wavelength or spectral range used by a given index as a search parameter. This offers the ability to manage numeric wavelength ranges in order to select indices which work at best in a given set of wavelengths or wavelength ranges.

  8. Josephson shift registers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  9. Robust time-shifted spoke pulse design in the presence of large B0 variations with simultaneous reduction of through-plane dephasing, B1+ effects, and the specific absorption rate using parallel transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Bastien; Stockmann, Jason P; Baboli, Mehran; Torrado-Carvajal, Angel; Stenger, Andrew V; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    To design parallel transmission spokes pulses with time-shifted profiles for joint mitigation of intensity variations due to B1+ effects, signal loss due to through-plane dephasing, and the specific absorption rate (SAR) at 7T. We derived a slice-averaged small tip angle (SA-STA) approximation of the magnetization signal at echo time that depends on the B1+ transmit profiles, the through-slice B0 gradient and the amplitude and time-shifts of the spoke waveforms. We minimize a magnitude least-squares objective based on this signal equation using a fast interior-point approach with analytical expressions of the Jacobian and Hessian. Our algorithm runs in less than three minutes for the design of two-spoke pulses subject to hundreds of local SAR constraints. On a B0/B1+ head phantom, joint optimization of the channel-dependent time-shifts and spoke amplitudes allowed signal recovery in high-B0 regions at no increase of SAR. Although the method creates uniform magnetization profiles (ie, uniform intensity), the flip angle varies across the image, which makes it ill-suited to T1-weighted applications. The SA-STA approach presented in this study is best suited to T2*-weighted applications with long echo times that require signal recovery around high B0 regions. Magn Reson Med 76:540-554, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Multi-wavelength lasers using AWGs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Multiwavelength lasers using AWGs can be used as digitally tunable lasers with simple channel selection, and for generating multiple wavelengths simultanously. In this paper a number of different configurations is reviewed.

  11. Long-wavelength photonic integrated circuits and avalanche photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Yi-Jen D.; Zaytsev, Sergey; Pauchard, Alexandre; Hummel, Steve; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2001-10-01

    Fast-growing internet traffic volume require high data communication bandwidth over longer distances. Access network bottlenecks put pressure on short-range (SR) telecommunication systems. To effectively address these datacom and telecom market needs, low-cost, high-speed laser modules at 1310 to 1550 nm wavelengths and avalanche photodetectors are required. The great success of GaAs 850nm VCSEls for Gb/s Ethernet has motivated efforts to extend VCSEL technology to longer wavelengths in the 1310 and 1550 nm regimes. However, the technological challenges associated with materials for long wavelength VCSELs are tremendous. Even with recent advances in this area, it is believed that significant additional development is necessary before long wavelength VCSELs that meet commercial specifications will be widely available. In addition, the more stringent OC192 and OC768 specifications for single-mode fiber (SMF) datacom may require more than just a long wavelength laser diode, VCSEL or not, to address numerous cost and performance issues. We believe that photonic integrated circuits (PICs), which compactly integrate surface-emitting lasers with additional active and passive optical components with extended functionality, will provide the best solutions to today's problems. Photonic integrated circuits have been investigated for more than a decade. However, they have produced limited commercial impact to date primarily because the highly complicated fabrication processes produce significant yield and device performance issues. In this presentation, we will discuss a new technology platform of InP-based PICs compatible with surface-emitting laser technology, as well as a high data rate externally modulated laser module. Avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are the key component in the receiver to achieve high data rate over long transmission distance because of their high sensitivity and large gain- bandwidth product. We have used wafer fusion technology to achieve In

  12. Local Analysis Approach for Short Wavelength Geopotential Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The value of global spherical harmonic analyses for determining 15 day to 30 day changes in the Earth's gravity field has been demonstrated extensively using data from the GRACE mission and previous missions. However, additional useful information appears to be obtainable from local analyses of the data. A number of such analyses have been carried out by various groups. In the energy approximation, the changes in the height of the satellite altitude geopotential can be determined from the post-fit changes in the satellite separation during individual one-revolution arcs of data from a GRACE-type pair of satellites in a given orbit. For a particular region, it is assumed that short wavelength spatial variations for the arcs crossing that region during a time T of interest would be used to determine corrections to the spherical harmonic results. The main issue in considering higher measurement accuracy in future missions is how much improvement in spatial resolution can be achieved. For this, the shortest wavelengths that can be determined are the most important. And, while the longer wavelength variations are affected by mass distribution changes over much of the globe, the shorter wavelength ones hopefully will be determined mainly by more local changes in the mass distribution. Future missions are expected to have much higher accuracy for measuring changes in the satellite separation than GRACE. However, how large an improvement in the derived results in hydrology will be achieved is still very much a matter of study, particularly because of the effects of uncertainty in the time variations in the atmospheric and oceanic mass distributions. To be specific, it will be assumed that improving the spatial resolution in continental regions away from the coastlines is the objective, and that the satellite altitude is in the range of roughly 290 to 360 km made possible for long missions by drag-free operation. The advantages of putting together the short wavelength

  13. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharti, Vineet [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Wasan, Ajay [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Natarajan, Vasant [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-07-15

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch—near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers. - Highlights: • Wavelength mismatch effect is investigated in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). • An experimental realization of 4-level vee + ladder system using energy levels of rubidium atom is presented. • EIA resonances are studied under different conditions of wavelength mismatch. • Possibility of observation of EIA using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  14. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Vineet; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch—near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers. - Highlights: • Wavelength mismatch effect is investigated in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). • An experimental realization of 4-level vee + ladder system using energy levels of rubidium atom is presented. • EIA resonances are studied under different conditions of wavelength mismatch. • Possibility of observation of EIA using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  15. Plasmon Geometric Phase and Plasmon Hall Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.

    2018-04-01

    The collective plasmonic modes of a metal comprise a simple pattern of oscillating charge density that yields enhanced light-matter interaction. Here we unveil that beneath this familiar facade plasmons possess a hidden internal structure that fundamentally alters its dynamics. In particular, we find that metals with nonzero Hall conductivity host plasmons with an intricate current density configuration that sharply departs from that of ordinary zero Hall conductivity metals. This nontrivial internal structure dramatically enriches the dynamics of plasmon propagation, enabling plasmon wave packets to acquire geometric phases as they scatter. At boundaries, these phases accumulate allowing plasmon waves that reflect off to experience a nonreciprocal parallel shift. This plasmon Hall shift, tunable by Hall conductivity as well as plasmon wavelength, displaces the incident and reflected plasmon trajectories and can be readily probed by near-field photonics techniques. Anomalous plasmon geometric phases dramatically enrich the nanophotonics toolbox, and yield radical new means for directing plasmonic beams.

  16. Nurses' shift reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify reporting practices that feature in studies of nurses' shift reports across diverse nursing specialities. The objectives were to perform an exhaustive systematic literature search and to critically review the quality and findings of qualitative field studies...... of nurses' shift reports. BACKGROUND: Nurses' shift reports are routine occurrences in healthcare organisations that are viewed as crucial for patient outcomes, patient safety and continuity of care. Studies of communication between nurses attend primarily to 1:1 communication and analyse the adequacy...... and accuracy of patient information and feature handovers at the bedside. Still, verbal reports between groups of nurses about patients are commonplace. Shift reports are obvious sites for studying the situated accomplishment of professional nursing at the group level. This review is focused exclusively...

  17. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  18. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  19. Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring a plurality of spectral wavelengths present in electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buican, Tudor N.; Martin, John C.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method simultaneously measures a plurality of spectral wavelengths present in electromagnetic radiation. A modulatable birefringent optical element is employed to divide a polarized light beam into two components, thereby producing a phase difference in two resulting light beams such that the two beams can be made to interfere with one another when recombined, the interference pattern providing the wavelength information required for the analysis of the incident light. The interferometer thus created performs in a similar manner to a Michelson interferometer, but with no moving parts, and with a resolution dependent on the degree of phase shift introduced by the modulator.

  20. Ultra-high-speed wavelength conversion in a silicon photonic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua; Galili, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated all-optical wavelength conversion of a 640-Gbit/s line-rate return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) signal based on low-power four wave mixing (FWM) in a silicon photonic chip with a switching energy of only ~110 fJ/bit. The waveguide dispersion...... of the silicon nanowire is nano-engineered to optimize phase matching for FWM and the switching power used for the signal processing is low enough to reduce nonlinear absorption from twophoton- absorption (TPA). These results demonstrate that high-speed wavelength conversion is achievable in silicon chips...

  1. Wavelength Conversion of DP-QPSK Signals in a Silicon Polarization Diversity Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Schroeder, Jochen; Ding, Yunhong

    2015-01-01

    Multichannel wavelength conversion is experimentally demonstrated for high-speed 128 Gb/s dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift keying signals using four-wave mixing in a polarization diversity circuit with silicon nanowires as nonlinear elements. The wavelength conversion performance is inves...... is investigated for both single-and three-channel input signals, showing quality factors well >9.8 dB (corresponding to bit-error-ratios better than 10(-3)) and with a negligible power penalty compared with the back-to-back case....

  2. Wavelength dependence of the Brillouin spectral width of boron doped germanosilicate optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Pi-Cheng; Dragic, Peter D

    2010-08-30

    Boron co-doped germanosilicate fibers are investigated via the Brillouin light scattering technique using two wavelengths, 1534 nm and 1064 nm. Several fibers are investigated, including four drawn from the same preform but at different draw temperatures. The Stokes' shifts and the Brillouin spectral widths are found to increase with increasing fiber draw temperature. A frequency-squared law has adequately described the wavelength dependence of the Brillouin spectral width of conventional Ge-doped fibers. However, it is found that unlike conventional Ge-doped fibers these fibers do not follow the frequency-squared law. This is explained through a frequency-dependent dynamic viscosity that modifies this law.

  3. Soliton-based ultrafast multi-wavelength nonlinear switching in dual-core photonic crystal fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajanca, P; Pysz, D; Michalka, M; Bugar, I; Andriukaitis, G; Balciunas, T; Fan, G; Baltuska, A

    2014-01-01

    Systematic experimental study of ultrafast multi-wavelength all-optical switching performance in a dual-core photonic crystal fibre is presented. The focus is on nonlinearly induced switching between the two output ports at non-excitation wavelengths, which are generated during nonlinear propagation of femtosecond pulses in the anomalous dispersion region of a dual-core photonic crystal fibre made of multicomponent glass. Spatial and spectral characteristics of the fibre output radiation were measured separately for both fibre cores under various polarization and intensity conditions upon selective, individual excitation of each fibre core. Polarization-controlled nonlinear switching performance at multiple non-excitation wavelengths was demonstrated in the long-wavelength optical communication bands and beyond. Depending on the input pulse polarization, narrowband switching operation at 1560 nm and 1730 nm takes place with double core extinction ratio contrasts of 9 dB and 14.5 dB, respectively. Moreover, our approach allows switching with simultaneous wavelength shift from 1650 to 1775 nm with extinction ratio contrast larger than 18 dB. In addition, non-reciprocal behaviour of the soliton fission process under different fibre core excitations was observed and its effect on the multi-wavelength nonlinear switching performance was explained, taking into account the slight dual-core structure asymmetry. The obtained results represent ultrafast all-optical switching with an extended dimension of wavelength shift, controllable with both the input radiation intensity and the polarization by simple propagation along a 14 mm long fibre. (paper)

  4. Design of a muon tomography system with a plastic scintillator and wavelength-shifting fiber arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyun-Il; An, Su Jung; Lee, Chae Young [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Cheol-Ha [Department of Radiological Science, Dongseo University, Busan 617-716 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong Hyun, E-mail: ychung@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-21

    Recently, monitoring nuclear materials to avoid nuclear terrorism has become an important area of national security. It can be difficult to detect gamma rays from nuclear material because they are easily shielded by shielding material. Muon tomography using multiple -Coulomb scattering derived from muons can be utilized to detect special nuclear materials (SNMs) such as uranium-235 and plutonium-239. We designed a muon tomography system composed of four detector modules. The incident and scattered muon tracks can be calculated by two top and two bottom detectors, respectively. 3D tomographic images are obtained by extracting the crossing points of muon tracks with a point-of-closest-approach algorithm. The purpose of this study was to optimize the muon tomography system using Monte Carlo simulation code. The effects of the geometric parameters of the muon tomography system on material Z-discrimination capability were simulated and evaluated.

  5. Phase and fringe order determination in wavelength scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetti, Giuseppe; Forbes, Alistair; Leach, Richard K; Jiang, Xiang; O'Connor, Daniel

    2016-04-18

    A method to obtain unambiguous surface height measurements using wavelength scanning interferometry with an improved repeatability, comparable to that obtainable using phase shifting interferometry, is reported. Rather than determining the conventional fringe frequency-derived z height directly, the method uses the frequency to resolve the fringe order ambiguity, and combine this information with the more accurate and repeatable fringe phase derived z height. A theoretical model to evaluate the method's performance in the presence of additive noise is derived and shown to be in good agreement with experiments. The measurement repeatability is improved by a factor of ten over that achieved when using frequency information alone, reaching the sub-nanometre range. Moreover, the z-axis non-linearity (bleed-through or ripple error) is reduced by a factor of ten. These order of magnitude improvements in measurement performance are demonstrated through a number of practical measurement examples.

  6. Giant Lamb shift in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuehua; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Gu Benyuan

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a general result for the Lamb shift of excited states of multilevel atoms in inhomogeneous electromagnetic structures and apply it to study atomic hydrogen in inverse-opal photonic crystals. We find that the photonic-crystal environment can lead to very large values of the Lamb shift, as compared to the case of vacuum. We also suggest that the position-dependent Lamb shift should extend from a single level to a miniband for an assembly of atoms with random distribution in space, similar to the velocity-dependent Doppler effect in atomic/molecular gases

  7. Soft theorems for shift-symmetric cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Bernardo; Goon, Garrett; Pajer, Enrico; Santoni, Luca

    2018-03-01

    We derive soft theorems for single-clock cosmologies that enjoy a shift symmetry. These so-called consistency conditions arise from a combination of a large diffeomorphism and the internal shift symmetry and fix the squeezed limit of all correlators with a soft scalar mode. As an application, we show that our results reproduce the squeezed bispectrum for ultra-slow-roll inflation, a particular shift-symmetric, nonattractor model which is known to violate Maldacena's consistency relation. Similar results have been previously obtained by Mooij and Palma using background-wave methods. Our results shed new light on the infrared structure of single-clock cosmological spacetimes.

  8. Dispersion-optimized optical fiber for high-speed long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jindong; Chen, Liuhua; Li, Qingguo; Wu, Wenwen; Sun, Keyuan; Wu, Xingkun

    2011-07-01

    Four non-zero-dispersion-shifted fibers with almost the same large effective area (Aeff) and optimized dispersion properties are realized by novel index profile designing and modified vapor axial deposition and modified chemical vapor deposition processes. An Aeff of greater than 71 μm2 is obtained for the designed fibers. Three of the developed fibers with positive dispersion are improved by reducing the 1550nm dispersion slope from 0.072ps/nm2/km to 0.063ps/nm2/km or 0.05ps/nm2/km, increasing the 1550nm dispersion from 4.972ps/nm/km to 5.679ps/nm/km or 7.776ps/nm/km, and shifting the zero-dispersion wavelength from 1500nm to 1450nm. One of these fibers is in good agreement with G655D and G.656 fibers simultaneously, and another one with G655E and G.656 fibers; both fibers are beneficial to high-bit long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing systems over S-, C-, and L-bands. The fourth developed fiber with negative dispersion is also improved by reducing the 1550nm dispersion slope from 0.12ps/nm2/km to 0.085ps/nm2/km, increasing the 1550nm dispersion from -4ps/nm/km to -6.016ps/nm/km, providing facilities for a submarine transmission system. Experimental measurements indicate that the developed fibers all have excellent optical transmission and good macrobending and splice performances.

  9. Multi-wavelength approach towards on-product overlay accuracy and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Noot, Marc; Chang, Hammer; Liao, Sax; Chang, Ken; Gosali, Benny; Su, Eason; Wang, Cathy; den Boef, Arie; Fouquet, Christophe; Huang, Guo-Tsai; Chen, Kai-Hsiung; Cheng, Kevin; Lin, John

    2018-03-01

    Success of diffraction-based overlay (DBO) technique1,4,5 in the industry is not just for its good precision and low toolinduced shift, but also for the measurement accuracy2 and robustness that DBO can provide. Significant efforts are put in to capitalize on the potential that DBO has to address measurement accuracy and robustness. Introduction of many measurement wavelength choices (continuous wavelength) in DBO is one of the key new capabilities in this area. Along with the continuous choice of wavelengths, the algorithms (fueled by swing-curve physics) on how to use these wavelengths are of high importance for a robust recipe setup that can avoid the impact from process stack variations (symmetric as well as asymmetric). All these are discussed. Moreover, another aspect of boosting measurement accuracy and robustness is discussed that deploys the capability to combine overlay measurement data from multiple wavelength measurements. The goal is to provide a method to make overlay measurements immune from process stack variations and also to report health KPIs for every measurement. By combining measurements from multiple wavelengths, a final overlay measurement is generated. The results show a significant benefit in accuracy and robustness against process stack variation. These results are supported by both measurement data as well as simulation from many product stacks.

  10. The large hadron collider beauty experiment calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.; LHCb Collaboration; Martens, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment (LHCb), one of the four largest experiments at the LHC at CERN, is dedicated to precision studies of CP violation and other rare effects, in particular in the b and c quark sectors. It aims at precisely measuring the Standard Model parameters and searching for effects inconsistent with this picture. The LHCb calorimeter system comprises a scintillating pad detector, a pre-shower (PS), electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic calorimeters, all of these employing the principle of transporting the light from scintillating layers with wavelength shifting fibers to photomultipliers. The fast response of the calorimeters ensures their key role in the LHCb trigger, which has to cope with the LHC collision rate of 40MHz. After discussing the design and expected performance of the LHCb calorimeter system, one addresses the time and energy calibration issues. The results obtained with the calorimeter system from the first LHC data will be shown.

  11. Water vapor spectroscopy in the 815-nm wavelength region for Differential Absorption Lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsardin, Patrick; Browell, Edward V.

    1995-01-01

    The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique was first applied to the remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles from airborne platforms in 1981. The successful interpretation of the lidar profiles relies strongly on an accurate knowledge of specific water vapor absorption line parameters: line strength, pressure broadening coefficient, pressure-induced shift coefficient and the respective temperature-dependence factors. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and is currently testing an autonomous airborne water vapor lidar system: LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment). This DIAL system uses a Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser seeded by a diode laser as a lidar transmitter. The tunable diode has been selected to operate in the 813-818 nm wavelength region. This 5-nm spectral interval offers a large distribution of strengths for temperature-insensitive water vapor absorption lines. In support of the LASE project, a series of spectroscopic measurements were conducted for the 16 absorption lines that have been identified for use in the LASE measurements. Prior to this work, the experimental data for this water vapor absorption band were limited - to our knowledge - to the line strengths and to the line positions.

  12. Wavelength division multiplexing a practical engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Grobe, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In this book, Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is approached from a strictly practical and application-oriented point of view. Based on the characteristics and constraints of modern fiber-optic components, transport systems and fibers, the text provides relevant rules of thumb and practical hints for technology selection, WDM system and link dimensioning, and also for network-related aspects such as wavelength assignment and resilience mechanisms. Actual 10/40 Gb/s WDM systems are considered, and a preview of the upcoming 100 Gb/s systems and technologies for even higher bit rate

  13. Short wavelength sources and atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of ionizing radiation with atoms and ions is a key fundamental process. Experimental progress has depended in particular on the development of short wavelength light sources. Laser-plasma and synchrotron sources have been exploited for several decades and most recently the development of short wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) sources is revolutionizing the field. This paper introduces laser plasma and synchrotron sources through examples of their use in studies of the interaction of ionizing radiation with atoms and ions, ranging from few-electron atomic and ionic systems to the many-electron high atomic number actinides. The new FEL source (FLASH) at DESY is introduced. (author)

  14. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A

    2002-09-10

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.

  15. Research with high-power short-wavelength lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Campbell, E.M.; Lindl, J.D.; Storm, E.

    1985-01-01

    Three important high-temperature, high-density experiments were conducted recently using the 10-TW, short-wavelength Novette laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These experiments demonstrated successful solutions to problems that arose during previous experiments with long wavelength lasers (lambda greater than or equal to 1μm) in which inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray laser, and other high-temperature physics concepts were being tested. The demonstrations were: (1) large-scale plasmas (typical dimensions of up to 1000 laser wavelengths) were produced in which potentially deleterious laser-plasma instabilities were collisionally damped. (2) Deuterium-tritium fuel was imploded to a density of 20 g/cm 3 and a pressure of 10 10 atm. (3) A 700-fold amplification of soft x rays by stimulated emission at 206 and 209 A (62 eV) from Se +24 ions was observed in a laser-generated plasma. Isoelectronic scaling to 155 A (87 eV) in Y +29 was also demonstrated

  16. Photoacoustic imaging at 1064nm wavelength with exogenous contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Jiang, Yuyan; Pu, Kanyi; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a promising imaging modality for both preclinical research and clinical practices. Laser wavelengths in the first near infrared window (NIR-I, 650-950 nm) have been widely used for photoacoustic imaging. As compared with NIR-I window, scattering of photons by biological tissues is largely reduced in the second NIR (NIR-II) window, leading to enhanced imaging fidelity. However, the lack of biocompatible NIR-II absorbing exogenous agents prevented the use of this window for in vivo imaging. In recent years, few studies have been reported on photoacoustic imaging in NIR-II window using exogenous contrast agents. In this work, we discuss the recent work on PA imaging using 1064 nm wavelength, the fundamental of Nd:YAG laser, as an excitation wavelength. The PA imaging at 1064 nm is advantageous because of the low and homogeneous signal from tissue background, enabling high contrast in PA imaging when NIR-II absorbing contrast agents are employed.

  17. SPLASH-SXDF Multi-wavelength Photometric Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang; Scarlata, Claudia; Capak, Peter; Davidzon, Iary; Faisst, Andreas; Hsieh, Bau Ching; Ilbert, Olivier; Jarvis, Matt; Laigle, Clotilde; Phillips, John; Silverman, John; Strauss, Michael A.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Bowler, Rebecca; Coupon, Jean; Foucaud, Sébastien; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Masters, Daniel; McCracken, Henry Joy; Mobasher, Bahram; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2018-04-01

    We present a multi-wavelength catalog in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF) as part of the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH). We include the newly acquired optical data from the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program, accompanied by IRAC coverage from the SPLASH survey. All available optical and near-infrared data is homogenized and resampled on a common astrometric reference frame. Source detection is done using a multi-wavelength detection image including the u-band to recover the bluest objects. We measure multi-wavelength photometry and compute photometric redshifts as well as physical properties for ∼1.17 million objects over ∼4.2 deg2, with ∼800,000 objects in the 2.4 deg2 HSC-Ultra-Deep coverage. Using the available spectroscopic redshifts from various surveys over the range of 0 fraction of 3.2%. The SPLASH-SXDF catalog is a valuable, publicly available resource, perfectly suited for studying galaxies in the early universe and tracing their evolution through cosmic time.

  18. Competition for FDI and Profit Shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jie; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    When countries compete for the location of a new multinational plant they need to be aware of the profit shifting opportunities this new plant creates for the global multinational firm. By modelling explicitly the multinational’s intra-firm transactions, we show that the home market advantage...... that large countries have due to their size will be counteracted by such profit shifting opportunities. As a result of this, large countries will not be able to capitalize on their size and sustain high corporate taxes. We show that, on the basis of these profit shifting opportunities, a small country can...... easily win the location game ahead of a large country. How lenient the small country is in implementing transfer pricing regulations turns out to be an important variable in such location games....

  19. Wavelength tunable ultrafast fiber laser via reflective mirror with taper structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Huang, Chuyun; Liu, Ting; Gogneau, Noelle; Bourhis, Eric; Gierak, Jacques; Oudar, Jean-Louis

    2016-12-20

    Laser sources with a controllable flexible wavelength have found widespread applications in optical fiber communication, optical sensing, and microscopy. Here, we report a tunable mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene-based saturable absorber and a tapered mirror as an end mirror in the cavity. The phase layer in the mirror is precisely etched by focused ion beam (FIB) milling technology, and the resonant wavelength of the mirror shifts correspond to the different etch depths. By scanning the tapered mirror mechanically, the center wavelength of a mode-locked fiber laser can be continuously tuned from 1562 to 1532 nm, with a pulse width in the sub-ps level and repetition rate of 27 MHz.

  20. Strain induced tunable wavelength filters based on flexible polymer waveguide Bragg reflector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Jo; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2008-02-04

    A tunable wavelength filter is demonstrated by imposing a strain on a polymeric Bragg reflection waveguide fabricated on a flexible substrate. The highly elastic property of flexible polymer device enables much wider tuning than the silica fiber. To produce a uniform grating pattern on a flexible plastic substrate, a post lift-off process along with an absorbing layer is incorporated. The flexible Bragg reflector shows narrow bandwidth, which is convincing the uniformity of the grating structure fabricated on plastic film. By stretching the flexible polymer device, the Bragg reflection wavelength is tuned continuously up to 45 nm for the maximum strain of 31,690 muepsilon, which is determined by the elastic expansion limit of waveguide polymer. From the linear wavelength shift proportional to the strain, the photoelastic coefficient of the ZPU polymer is found.

  1. Simulation of simultaneously obtaining ocean temperature and salinity using dual-wavelength Brillouin lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yin; Ma, Yong; Li, Hao; Huang, Jun; Fang, Yu; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Bo

    2014-01-01

    A method for simultaneously obtaining the ocean temperature and salinity based on dual-wavelength Brillouin lidar is proposed in this letter. On the basis of the relationships between the temperature and salinity and the Brillouin shifts, a retrieval model for retrieving the temperature and salinity is established. By using the retrieval model, the ocean temperature and salinity can be simultaneously obtained through the Brillouin shifts. Simulation based on dual-wavelength Brillouin lidar is also carried out for verification of the accuracy of the retrieval model. Results show that the errors of the retrieval model for temperature and salinity are ±0.27 °C and ±0.33‰. (letter)

  2. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  3. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  4. Topology Optimization of Sub-Wavelength Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We propose a topology optimization strategy for the systematic design of a three-dimensional (3D), conductor-based sub-wavelength antenna. The post-processed finite-element (FE) models of the optimized structure are shown to be self-resonant, efficient and exhibit distorted omnidirectional...

  5. Characterization of ethanol concentrations at ultraviolet wavelength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the measurement of optical absorption spectrum for different concentrations of ethanol at ultraviolet wavelength. Ethanol absorption spectrum was measured using portable spectroscopy setup from Avantes. It consists of Balanced Deuterium Halogen light source and spectrometer. The light source can ...

  6. Smart wavelength meter for integrated photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benelajla, Meryem; Taballione, Caterina; Boller, Klaus J.

    2017-01-01

    Thermally tunable SiN waveguide microring resonators in connection with neural network readout algorithms appear promising for use as integrated optical wavelength meters. So far, we have observed long-term reliability and a temperature immunity of the readout across several degrees of ambient

  7. An automated wavelength selection for flame spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurteau, M.; Mislan, J.P.; Ashley, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electro-mechanical programming system is described for use with a flame spectrophotometer. Its application for automated sequential multi-element analysis is illustrated. Reproducibility of wavelength settings are within +-0.5 A. Precision and sensitivities are at least as good as those obtained for single element determinations. (author)

  8. Alien wavelength modeling tool and field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, N.; Sgambelluri, A.; Secondini, M.

    2015-01-01

    A modeling tool is presented for pre-FEC BER estimation of PM-QPSK alien wavelength signals. A field trial is demonstrated and used as validation of the tool's correctness. A very close correspondence between the performance of the field trial and the one predicted by the modeling tool has been...

  9. Two-wavelength spatial-heterodyne holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.; Simpson, John T.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Voelkl, Edgar

    2007-12-25

    Systems and methods are described for obtaining two-wavelength differential-phase holograms. A method includes determining a difference between a filtered analyzed recorded first spatially heterodyne hologram phase and a filtered analyzed recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram phase.

  10. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

    1993-05-18

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  11. Characteristics of Smith-Purcell radiation in millimeter wavelength region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumenko, G A; Potylitsyn, A P; Sukhikh, L G; Shevelev, M V; Popov, Yu; Karataev, P; Bleko, V

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) were began with non-relativistic electron beams with some unexpected experimental results. Further the experimental investigations were performed with relativistic electron beams for application to beam diagnostics. Large discrepancy between different theoretical models significantly increases the role of experimental studies of this phenomenon. In this report we present some problems and features of experimental investigations of SPR in millimeter wavelength region. The problems of prewave zone and coherent effects are considered. The shadowing effect, focusing of radiation using a parabolic SPR target and effect of inclination of target strips were investigated with moderately relativistic electron beam. (paper)

  12. Angular characteristics of a multimode fibre surface plasmon resonance sensor under wavelength interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Zhixin; Hao, Xin; Li, Xuejin; Chen, Yuzhi; Hong, Xueming; Fan, Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the angular characteristics of a multimode fibre SPR sensor are theoretically investigated. By separating the contributions of beams incident at different angles, a compact model is presented to predict the shift of the resonance wavelength with respect to the angle and the environmental refractive index. The result suggests that the performance of conventional fibre SPR sensors can be substantially improved by optimizing the incident angle. Furthermore, our investigation suggests some problems in previous reports. (paper)

  13. Theoretical study of the effect of pump wavelength drift on mode instability in a high-power fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yakun; Tao, Rumao; Su, Rongtao; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Pengfei; Zhang, Hanwei; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the effect of pump wavelength drift on the threshold of mode instability (MI) in high-power ytterbium-doped fiber lasers. By using a semi-analytical model, we study the effects of pump wavelength drift with a central pump wavelength around 976 nm and 915 nm, respectively. The influences of the pump absorption coefficient and total pump absorption are considered simultaneously. The results indicate that the effect of pump wavelength drift around 976 nm is stronger than that around 915 nm. For more efficient suppression of MI by shifting the pump wavelength, efficient absorption of pump power is required. The MI thresholds for fibers with different total pump absorptions and cladding diameters are compared. When the total pump absorption is increased, the gain saturation is enhanced, which results in the MI being mitigated more effectively and being more sensitive to pump wavelength drift. The MI threshold in gain fibers with larger inner cladding diameter is higher but more dependent upon pump wavelength. The results of this work can help in optimizing the pump wavelength and fiber parameters and suppressing MI in high-power fiber lasers.

  14. Blue and red shifted temperature dependence of implicit phonon shifts in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sarita; Jindal, V. K.

    2017-07-01

    We have calculated the implicit shift for various modes of frequency in a pure graphene sheet. Thermal expansion and Grüneisen parameter which are required for implicit shift calculation have already been studied and reported. For this calculation, phonon frequencies are obtained using force constants derived from dynamical matrix calculated using VASP code where the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) is used in interface with phonopy software. The implicit phonon shift shows an unusual behavior as compared to the bulk materials. The frequency shift is large negative (red shift) for ZA and ZO modes and the value of negative shift increases with increase in temperature. On the other hand, blue shift arises for all other longitudinal and transverse modes with a similar trend of increase with increase in temperature. The q dependence of phonon shifts has also been studied. Such simultaneous red and blue shifts in transverse or out plane modes and surface modes, respectively leads to speculation of surface softening in out of plane direction in preference to surface melting.

  15. Short-Wavelength Countermeasures for Circadian Desynchrony

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heller, H. C; Smith, Mark

    2008-01-01

    .... Exposure of humans to bright light for an hour or more at the right phase of the circadian cycle produces significant phase shifts of circadian rhythms speeding recovery from jet-lag, and optimizing...

  16. Lung function studies before and after a work shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, R G

    1983-05-01

    The lung function of 23 underground coal workers and eight surface workers at a Scottish colliery was measured immediately before and after a work shift. Changes in lung function were assessed in relation to the measured respirable dust exposure and the time of day in which the shift was worked. Large, and statistically significant, decrements of lung function during the shift were found in night-shift workers compared with workers on other shifts. Measurements derived from the forced expiratory manoeuvre, particularly FEV1, Vmax50, and Vmax25, after three vital capacity breaths of an 80% He/20% O2 mixture, showed large reductions in night-shift men, smaller reductions in afternoon-shift men, and small increases or decreases in morning-shift underground and surface workers. Within-shift changes for other tests, such as closing volume, N2 index, and volume of isoflow, did not differ significantly between shifts. No significant relationship was found between dust exposure and functional changes during a shift for any test. Lung function changes in a control group of 25 female workers not exposed to dust (hospital nurses) did not show the same large variations between day and night shifts. Examination of a further control group of 16 office workers did not show any difference in diurnal changes between smokers and non-smokers. It is concluded that these coal miners, even on permanent shift patterns, had widely different changes in their lung function cycle depending on which shift they were working. These changes did not appear to be related to dust exposure or cigarette smoking and were not consistent with other biological adaptations known to result from regular night-shift working.

  17. Solar Prominence Modelling and Plasma Diagnostics at ALMA Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Andrew; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Our aim is to test potential solar prominence plasma diagnostics as obtained with the new solar capability of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We investigate the thermal and plasma diagnostic potential of ALMA for solar prominences through the computation of brightness temperatures at ALMA wavelengths. The brightness temperature, for a chosen line of sight, is calculated using the densities of electrons, hydrogen, and helium obtained from a radiative transfer code under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) conditions, as well as the input internal parameters of the prominence model in consideration. Two distinct sets of prominence models were used: isothermal-isobaric fine-structure threads, and large-scale structures with radially increasing temperature distributions representing the prominence-to-corona transition region. We compute brightness temperatures over the range of wavelengths in which ALMA is capable of observing (0.32 - 9.6 mm), however, we particularly focus on the bands available to solar observers in ALMA cycles 4 and 5, namely 2.6 - 3.6 mm (Band 3) and 1.1 - 1.4 mm (Band 6). We show how the computed brightness temperatures and optical thicknesses in our models vary with the plasma parameters (temperature and pressure) and the wavelength of observation. We then study how ALMA observables such as the ratio of brightness temperatures at two frequencies can be used to estimate the optical thickness and the emission measure for isothermal and non-isothermal prominences. From this study we conclude that for both sets of models, ALMA presents a strong thermal diagnostic capability, provided that the interpretation of observations is supported by the use of non-LTE simulation results.

  18. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  19. A novel fast phase correlation algorithm for peak wavelength detection of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, A; Vanlanduit, S; De Pauw, B; Berghmans, F

    2014-03-24

    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) can be used as sensors for strain, temperature and pressure measurements. For this purpose, the ability to determine the Bragg peak wavelength with adequate wavelength resolution and accuracy is essential. However, conventional peak detection techniques, such as the maximum detection algorithm, can yield inaccurate and imprecise results, especially when the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and the wavelength resolution are poor. Other techniques, such as the cross-correlation demodulation algorithm are more precise and accurate but require a considerable higher computational effort. To overcome these problems, we developed a novel fast phase correlation (FPC) peak detection algorithm, which computes the wavelength shift in the reflected spectrum of a FBG sensor. This paper analyzes the performance of the FPC algorithm for different values of the SNR and wavelength resolution. Using simulations and experiments, we compared the FPC with the maximum detection and cross-correlation algorithms. The FPC method demonstrated a detection precision and accuracy comparable with those of cross-correlation demodulation and considerably higher than those obtained with the maximum detection technique. Additionally, FPC showed to be about 50 times faster than the cross-correlation. It is therefore a promising tool for future implementation in real-time systems or in embedded hardware intended for FBG sensor interrogation.

  20. Dual-wavelength external cavity laser device for fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuting; Cai, Zhijian; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in the detection of drugs, pesticides, explosives, food additives and environmental pollutants, for its characteristics of fast measurement, easy sample preparation, and molecular structure analyzing capability. However, fluorescence disturbance brings a big trouble to these applications, with strong fluorescence background covering up the weak Raman signals. Recently shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) not only can completely remove the fluorescence background, but also can be easily integrated into portable Raman spectrometers. Usually, SERDS uses two lasers with small wavelength gap to excite the sample, then acquires two spectra, and subtracts one to the other to get the difference spectrum, where the fluorescence background will be rejected. So, one key aspects of successfully applying SERDS method is to obtain a dual-wavelength laser source. In this paper, a dual-wavelength laser device design based on the principles of external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is proposed, which is low-cost and compact. In addition, it has good mechanical stability because of no moving parts. These features make it an ideal laser source for SERDS technique. The experiment results showed that the device can emit narrow-spectral-width lasers of two wavelengths, with the gap smaller than 2 nanometers. The laser power corresponding to each wavelength can be up to 100mW.

  1. Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift (CAPS) Monitor Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The CAPS PMex monitor is a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction instrument. It operates as an optical extinction spectrometer, using a visible-light-emitting diode (LED) as the light source, a sample cell incorporating two high-reflectivity mirrors centered at the wavelength of the LED, and a vacuum photodiode detector. Its efficacy is based on the fact that aerosols are broadband scatterers and absorbers of light.

  2. Design alternatives for wavelength routing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliotis, K.; Papadimitriou, G. I.; Pomportsis, A. S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper attempts to provide a high level overview of many of the technologies employed in optical networks with a focus on wavelength-routing networks. Optical networks involve a number of technologies from the physics of light through protocols and networks architectures. In fact there is so much technology and know-how that most people involved with optical networks only have a full understanding of the narrow area they deal with. We start first examining the principles that govern light and its use as a wave guide, and then turn our focus to the various components that constitute an optical network and conclude with the description of all optical networks and wavelength-routed networks in greater detail.

  3. Nutritional ecology and digestive response to dietary shift in the large South American fox, Pseudalopex culpaeus Ecología nutricional y respuesta digestiva a cambios en la dieta en el zorro sudamericano grande, Pseudalopex culpaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO I. SILVA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We tested the role of dietary shifts (from rodents to fruits and to mixed diets on the nutritional ecology of the culpeo fox Pseudalopex culpaeus, a native canid of South America. We studied the effects of food quality on digestive processes, nutrition, and mass balance, and the implications of diet quality for fox survival. We observed at the end of the nutritional trials that body mass differed significantly between the three diet groups (fruits, rats and mixed diets, while percentage of body mass change differed significantly only in the fruit diet treatment. Foxes fed with fruits consumed more food to meet their dietary and metabolic needs. Across diets, dry-matter as well as energy digestibility increased significantly with diet quality. Also, mean retention time was negatively and significantly correlated with dry-matter intake. We put forth that mixed diet may yield higher assimilation efficiencies and hence higher nutrient intakes than those predicted from the ingestion and assimilation of pure diets (i.e,. only rats, only fruits. We hypothesize that during periods of low availability of mammalian prey, a mixed diet should yield a positive energy/mass balance for the fox. We conclude that temporal and spatial variation in nutrient, energy, and water contents of prey available in a given habitat could have an important effect on fox nutrition, energy use, and mass balance. Finally, we postulate that P. culpaeus could not survive on fruits only past seven daysSometimos a prueba el papel del cambio de dieta (desde roedores a frutos y dieta mixta sobre la ecología nutricional del zorro culpeo Pseudalopex culpaeus, especie nativa de Sudamérica. Estudiamos el efecto de la calidad del alimento sobre los procesos digestivos, nutrición, balance de masas y las implicancias de la calidad de la dieta sobre la sobrevivencia de los zorros. La masa corporal al final de los ensayos nutricionales difirió significativamente entre los tres grupos de

  4. Optical Detection in Ultrafast Short Wavelength Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K.; Hall, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to coherent detection of ionising radiation is briefly motivated and recounted. The approach involves optical scattering of coherent light fields by colour centres in transparent solids. It has significant potential for diffractive imaging applications that require high detection dynamic range from pulsed high brilliance short wavelength sources. It also motivates new incarnations of Bragg's X-ray microscope for pump-probe studies of ultrafast molecular structure-dynamics.

  5. Short wavelength striations on expanding plasma clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Gary, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The growth and evolution of short wavelength (< ion gyroradius) flute modes on a plasma expanding across an ambient magnetic field have been actively studied in recent years, both by means of experiments in the laboratory as well as in space and through numerical simulations. We review the relevant observations and simulations results, discuss the instability mechanism and related linear theory, and describe recent work to bring experiments and theory into better agreement. 30 refs., 6 figs

  6. Development and operation of a high-throughput accurate-wavelength lens-based spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Ronald E., E-mail: rbell@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A high-throughput spectrometer for the 400–820 nm wavelength range has been developed for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy or general spectroscopy. A large 2160 mm{sup −1} grating is matched with fast f/1.8 200 mm lenses, which provide stigmatic imaging. A precision optical encoder measures the grating angle with an accuracy ≤0.075 arc sec. A high quantum efficiency low-etaloning CCD detector allows operation at longer wavelengths. A patch panel allows input fibers to interface with interchangeable fiber holders that attach to a kinematic mount at the entrance slit. Computer-controlled hardware allows automated control of wavelength, timing, f-number, automated data collection, and wavelength calibration.

  7. Optically coupled cavities for wavelength switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad, E-mail: pcostanzo@ing.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: granieri@rose-hulman.edu, E-mail: siahmako@rose-hulman.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    An optical bistable device which presents hysteresis behavior is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The system finds applications in wavelength switching, pulse reshaping and optical bistability. It is based on two optically coupled cavities named master and slave. Each cavity includes a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), acting as the gain medium of the laser, and two pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) which define the lasing wavelength (being different in each cavity). Finally, a variable optical coupler (VOC) is employed to couple both cavities. Experimental characterization of the system performance is made analyzing the effects of the coupling coefficient between the two cavities and the driving current in each SOA. The properties of the hysteretic bistable curve and switching can be controlled by adjusting these parameters and the loss in the cavities. By selecting the output wavelength ({lambda}{sub 1} or {lambda}{sub 2}) with an external filter it is possible to choose either the invert or non-invert switched signal. Experiments were developed employing both optical discrete components and a photonic integrated circuit. They show that for 8 m-long cavities the maximum switching frequency is about 500 KHz, and for 4 m-long cavities a minimum rise-time about 21 ns was measured. The switching time can be reduced by shortening the cavity lengths and using photonic integrated circuits.

  8. Wavelength switching in an optical klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Smith, T.I.

    1995-01-01

    A symmetric optical klystron consists of two identical undulator sections separated a dispersive section. For a device of a given length, an optical klystron is capable of producing much more bunching, and therefore more gain, than a traditional undulator. Another consequence of introducing dispersion between two undulator sections is that the overall spontaneous radiation pattern results from the interference between the two undulator sections, and as such resembles a standard undulator radiation pattern modulated by a sinusoidal interference term. The presence of several wavelength peaks in the spontaneous lineshape implies an equal number of peaks in the gain spectrum. If the strength of the dispersion section is adjusted to provide nearly equal gain on the two largest of these peaks, then they will compete, and the FEL may switch wavelengths based on noise, cavity length, or other perturbations. We provide the first observations of this behavior, using the FIREFLY system at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center. In FIREFLY, relative wavelength switching by more than 3%--more than twice the laser linewidth-has been observed by varying dispersion section strength, while at intermediate points stable switching has also been observed as a function of cavity length

  9. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs

  10. Contributors to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses working rotating shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye-Sun; Lee, Bokim

    2015-05-01

    Shift workers have rapidly increased in South Korea; however, there is no published research exploring shift work tolerance among South Korean workers. This study aimed to investigate factors related to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses. The sample comprised of 660 nurses who worked shifts in a large hospital in South Korea. A structured questionnaire included following comprehensive variables: demographic (age and number of children), individual (morningness and self-esteem), psychosocial (social support and job stress), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, physical activity, and BMI), and working condition factors (number of night shifts and working hours). Shift work tolerance was measured in terms of insomnia, fatigue, and depression. The results of hierarchical regressions indicate that all variables, except for three, number of children, BMI, and working hours, were related to at least one of the symptoms associated with shift work tolerance. Based on these results, we offer some practical implications to help improve shift work tolerance of workers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Wavelength conversion from C- to L-band at 10 Gbit/s including transmission over 80 km of SSMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Clausen, Anders

    2000-01-01

    As the need for capacity increases, means to accommodate the growth is getting increasingly important. Hence, higher bit rates and an ever increasing number of WDM channels is being employed. This has led to the introduction of the L-band (ranging from 1570 to 1610 nm) as the new transmission...... window, opening up for-in conjunction with the C-band-an astonishing 80 nm of available bandwidth. However, as the number of wavelength channels increases, the need for wavelength conversion is becoming ever more pronounced. To perform the wavelength conversion, interferometric structures...... such as the monolithically integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometers (SOA-MZI) using semiconductor optical amplifiers as phase-shifting elements have proven excellent candidates. Here we present the conversion and transmission properties of a fully packaged device capable of wavelength conversion from C- to L-band having more...

  12. Identical and shifted identical bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, R.S; Jones, E.F.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of 252 Cm was studied with 72 large Compton suppressed Ge detectors in Gamma sphere. New isotopes 160 Sm and 162 Gd were identified. Through X-ray-γ and γ-γ-γ) coincidence measurements, level energies were established to spins 14 + to 20 + in 152 , 154 156 60 Nd 92 94 96 , 156 , 158 , 160 62 Sm 94 , 96 , 98 , and 160 , 162 64 Gd 96 , 98 . These nuclei exhibit a remarkable variety of identical bands and bands where the energies and moments of inertia are shifted by the same constant amount for every spin state from 2 + to 12 + for various combinations of nuclei differing by 2n, 4n, 2p, 4p, and α

  13. Large liquid-scintillator trackers for neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Benussi, L; D'Ambrosio, N; Déclais, Y; Dupraz, J P; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Fanti, V; Forton, E; Frekers, D; Frenkel, A; Girerd, C; Golovkin, S V; Grégoire, G; Harrison, K; Jonkmans, G; Jonsson, P; Katsanevas, S; Kreslo, I; Marteau, J; Martellotti, G; Martínez, S; Medvedkov, A M; Moret, G; Niwa, K; Novikov, V; Van Beek, G; Penso, G; Vasilchenko, V G; Vuilleumier, J L; Wilquet, G; Zucchelli, P; Kreslo, I E

    2002-01-01

    Results are given on tests of large particle trackers for the detection of neutrino interactions in long-baseline experiments. Module prototypes have been assembled using TiO$_2$-doped polycarbonate panels. These were subdivided into cells of $\\sim 1$~cm$^2$ cross section and 6~m length, filled with liquid scintillator. A wavelength-shifting fibre inserted in each cell captured a part of the scintillation light emitted when a cell was traversed by an ionizing particle. Two different fibre-readout systems have been tested: an optoelectronic chain comprising an image intensifier and an Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD); and a hybrid photodiode~(HPD). New, low-cost liquid scintillators have been investigated for applications in large underground detectors. Testbeam studies have been performed using a commercially available liquid scintillator. The number of detected photoelectrons for minimum-ionizing particles crossing a module at different distances from the fibre readout end was 6 to 12 with the EBCCD chain and ...

  14. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mega Scale Constructions and Art on Deep Gulf of Mexico Sonar Images Reveal Extensive Very Ancient Civilizations. Radical Holocene Climate Changes May Relate to Large Shifts in Gulf Surface Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced images from subsea sonar scanning of the Western Gulf of Mexico have revealed quite large temples (4 km. in length), ruins of cities (14 km. by 11 km.), pyramids, amphitheaters, and many other structures. Some human faces have beards implying much earlier migrations of Europeans or North Africans. Several temples have paleo astronomy alignments and similarities to Stone Henge. Southern and Southwestern USA satellite land images display characteristics in common with several subsea designs. Water depths indicate that many structures go back about as far as the late Ice Age and are likely to be over ten thousand years old. Chronologies of civilizations, especially in North America will need to be seriously reconsidered. Greatly rising sea levels and radical climate changes must have helped to destroy relatively advanced cultures. Suprisingly deep water depths of many architectures provide evidence for closures within the Gulf of Mexico to open seas. Closures and openings may have influenced ancient radical climate swings between warmth and cooling as Gulf contributions to water temperatures contracted or expanded. These creations of very old and surprisingly advanced civilizations need protection.

  16. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  17. Spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  18. Ecosystem regime shifts disrupt trophic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempson, Tessa N; Graham, Nicholas A J; MacNeil, M Aaron; Hoey, Andrew S; Wilson, Shaun K

    2018-01-01

    Regime shifts between alternative stable ecosystem states are becoming commonplace due to the combined effects of local stressors and global climate change. Alternative states are characterized as substantially different in form and function from pre-disturbance states, disrupting the delivery of ecosystem services and functions. On coral reefs, regime shifts are typically characterized by a change in the benthic composition from coral to macroalgal dominance. Such fundamental shifts in the benthos are anticipated to impact associated fish communities that are reliant on the reef for food and shelter, yet there is limited understanding of how regime shifts propagate through the fish community over time, relative to initial or recovery conditions. This study addresses this knowledge gap using long-term data of coral reef regime shifts and recovery on Seychelles reefs following the 1998 mass bleaching event. It shows how trophic structure of the reef fish community becomes increasingly dissimilar between alternative reef ecosystem states (regime-shifted vs. recovering) with time since disturbance. Regime-shifted reefs developed a concave trophic structure, with increased biomass in base trophic levels as herbivorous species benefitted from increased algal resources. Mid trophic level species, including specialists such as corallivores, declined with loss of coral habitat, while biomass was retained in upper trophic levels by large-bodied, generalist invertivores. Recovering reefs also experienced an initial decline in mid trophic level biomass, but moved toward a bottom-heavy pyramid shape, with a wide range of feeding groups (e.g., planktivores, corallivores, omnivores) represented at mid trophic levels. Given the importance of coral reef fishes in maintaining the ecological function of coral reef ecosystems and their associated fisheries, understanding the effects of regime shifts on these communities is essential to inform decisions that enhance ecological

  19. The role of the second zero-dispersion wavelength in generation of supercontinua and brigth-bright soliton-pairs across the zero-dispersion wavelength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch; Falk, Peter Andreas; Bang, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Supercontinuum generation with femtosecond pulses in photonic crystal fibers with two zero-dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) is investigated numerically. The role of the higher ZDW is examined for 5 fiber designs with a nearly constant lower ZDW. It is found that the resulting spectrum is mainly....... Further, the generation of a bright-bright soliton-pair from an initial single red-shifted soliton is found. The soliton-pair has one color in the anomalous dispersion region and the other color in the normal dispersion region, which has not previously been described for bright-bright soliton-pairs....

  20. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  1. A medium-term intervention study on the impact of high- and low-fat snacks varying in sweetness and fat content: large shifts in daily fat intake but good compensation for daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, C L; Delargy, H J; Smith, F C; Hamilton, V; Blundell, J E

    1998-08-01

    Thirty-six normal-weight, habitual snackers (eighteen males, eighteen females) completed a medium-term intervention study designed to examine the tendency of four different types of snacks, varying in nutrient (low- (LF) or high-fat (HF) and sensory properties (sweet (SW) or non-sweet (NSW)), to influence the control of appetite and to adjust daily energy intake. Subjects were exposed to each snack category for a 3-week period and were asked to consume a minimum number of snacks each day so that at least 25% of their daily energy intake would be derived from the test snacks. Energy and macronutrient intakes from the test snacks were calculated every day and also from other eating episodes (using 3 d food diary records) during the third week of snack exposure. Subjects consumed more energy/d from the SW snacks than from the NSW snacks, with most energy being consumed from the HF/SW snacks (3213 kJ) and least energy from the LF/NSW snacks (1628 kJ). This differential snack intake remained stable across the whole snack exposure period. Total daily energy intake did not differ significantly during exposure to any of the four snack types. Furthermore, the encouragement to eat freely from the test snacks did not lead to daily overconsumption of energy when compared with pre-study intakes. Hence, the level of snack consumption was largely compensated for by the energy consumed from the rest of the eating pattern. Although daily energy intake during exposure to the HF snacks was an average of 364 kJ higher (NS) than that during exposure to the LF snacks, the clearest and most significant effect of snack consumption was on daily macronutrient intake. Appreciable consumption of the HF snacks raised the percentage of total daily energy intake consumed as fat from 37 to 41% (P snacks reduced daily fat intake to 33.5% (LF/SW, P snacks, when compared with HF snacks, is an effective strategy to reduce fat intake so that it approaches the recommendations of dietary guidelines

  2. Shift Work: Improving Daytime Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... night. Good daytime sleep is possible, though, if shift work is a necessary part of your work life. ... mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/expert-answers/shift-work/faq-20057991 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  3. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L; Folkard, S; Tucker, P; Macdonald, I

    1998-04-01

    Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.

  4. Adaptation of Shift Sequence Based Method for High Number in Shifts Rostering Problem for Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Liogys

    2013-08-01

    is inefficient, because of large amount of shifts sequences (feasible shifts sequences are approximately 260 thousands.In order to speed up roster construction process shifts are grouped to four groups: morning shifts, day shifts, night shifts and duty shifts. There are only 64 feasible shifts sequences, in this case.After roster construction shift groups are replaced with the one of shift belonging to that group of shifts.When all shifts are added to roster, computation of workload for each schedule is performed. If computed workload is equal to the one defined in working contract, then this schedule is complete, else begin shifts revision process. During revision process those schedules are considered which do not meet work contract requirements.If computed workload is larger than the one defined in working contract, each shift is replaced with the shift, if it’s possible, with lesser duration time. If computed workload is lesser than the one defined in working contract, each shift is replaced with the shift, if it’s possible, with larger duration time.This process continues while schedule does not meet workload requirement defined in working contract or no further improvement can be made.Research limitations/implications—Problem dimension: 27 health care workers, 15 shifts, over 20 soft constraints, rostering period—one calendar month.Practical implications – modifications made to shift sequence based approach allows to construct a roster for one of the major Lithuania’s hospitals personnel in shorter time.Originality/Value—modification of shift sequence based approach is proposed.Research type: research paper.

  5. Adaptation of Shift Sequence Based Method for High Number in Shifts Rostering Problem for Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Liogys

    2011-08-01

    problem is inefficient, because of large amount of shifts sequences (feasible shifts sequences are approximately 260 thousands.In order to speed up roster construction process shifts are grouped to four groups: morning shifts, day shifts, night shifts and duty shifts. There are only 64 feasible shifts sequences, in this case.After roster construction shift groups are replaced with the one of shift belonging to that group of shifts.When all shifts are added to roster, computation of workload for each schedule is performed. If computed workload is equal to the one defined in working contract, then this schedule is complete, else begin shifts revision process. During revision process those schedules are considered which do not meet work contract requirements.If computed workload is larger than the one defined in working contract, each shift is replaced with the shift, if it’s possible, with lesser duration time. If computed workload is lesser than the one defined in working contract, each shift is replaced with the shift, if it’s possible, with larger duration time.This process continues while schedule does not meet workload requirement defined in working contract or no further improvement can be made.Research limitations/implications—Problem dimension: 27 health care workers, 15 shifts, over 20 soft constraints, rostering period—one calendar month.Practical implications – modifications made to shift sequence based approach allows to construct a roster for one of the major Lithuania’s hospitals personnel in shorter time.Originality/Value—modification of shift sequence based approach is proposed.

  6. Pixel super resolution using wavelength scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    13 Celebi ME, Schaefer G. Color Medical Image Analysis. Netherlands: Springer. 2013. 14 Yamaguchi I, Matsumura T, Kato J. Phase-shifting color...2016.60 15 Kato J, Yamaguchi I, Matsumura T. Multicolor digital holography with an achromatic phase shifter. Opt Lett 2002; 27: 1403–1405. 16 Ferraro P

  7. Lanthanide shift reagents, binding, shift mechanisms and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.W.M. de

    1977-01-01

    Paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, when added to a solution of a substrate, induce shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the substrate molecules. The induced shifts contain information about the structure of the shift reagent substrate complex. The structural information, however, may be difficult to extract because of the following effects: (1) different complexes between shift reagent and substrate may be present in solution, e.g. 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, and the shift observed is a weighed average of the shifts of the substrate nuclei in the different complexes; (2) the Fermi contact interaction, arising from the spin density at the nucleus, contributes to the induced shift; (3) chemical exchange effects may complicate the NMR spectrum. In this thesis, the results of an investigation into the influence of these effects on the NMR spectra of solutions containing a substrate and LSR are presented. The equations describing the pseudo contact and the Fermi contact shift are derived. In addition, it is shown how the modified Bloch equations describing the effect of the chemical exchange processes occurring in the systems studied can be reduced to the familiar equations for a two-site exchange case. The binding of mono- and bifunctional ethers to the shift reagent are reported. An analysis of the induced shifts is given. Finally, the results of the experiments performed to study the exchange behavior of dimethoxyethane and heptafluorodimethyloctanedionato ligands are presented

  8. Faktor Dan Penjadualan Shift Kerja

    OpenAIRE

    Maurits, Lientje Setyawati; Widodo, Imam Djati

    2008-01-01

    Work shift has negative effect in physical and mental health, work performance and job accident. Disturbance of circadian rhythms is indicated as source of the problems. This article explores some researches related to the impacts of work shift and establishes basic principles of work shift scheduling that considers human need and limitation.

  9. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  10. A radiation research apparatus sensitive to wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The apparatus described is equipped with a radiation source with a tuning device for the generation of X radiation of at least two different wavelength spectra. The detector with ionisation chamber is able to discriminate between these spectra. This is done with the aid of an auxillary electrode between the entrance window and a high voltage electrode. With a lower source of voltage this electrode has a potential equal to the high voltage electrode potential and with a higher voltage source it has a potential equal to the signal electrode potential. (Th.P.)

  11. Wavelength-agnostic WDM-PON System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Zou, S.

    2016-01-01

    on the standardization status of this lowcost system in the new ITU-T G.metro draft recommendation, in the context of autonomous tuning. We also discuss some low-effort implementations of the pilot-tone labels and investigate the impact of these labels on the transmission channels.......Next-generation WDM-PON solutions for metro and access systems will take advantage of remotely controlled wavelength-tunable ONUs to keep system costs as low as possible. For such a purpose, each ONU signal can be labeled by a pilot tone modulated onto the optical data stream. We report...

  12. Sub-wavelength imaging at radio frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, M C K; Pendry, J B; Hajnal, J V

    2006-01-01

    A slab of material with a negative permeability can act as a super-lens for magnetic fields and generate images with a sub-wavelength resolution. We have constructed an effective medium using a metamaterial with negative permeability in the region of 24 MHz, and used this to form images in free space of radio frequency magnetic sources. Measurements of these images show that a resolution of approximately λ/64 has been achieved, consistent with both analytical and numerical predictions. (letter to the editor)

  13. Gold Photoluminescence: Wavelength and Polarization Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian Kim Hjælm; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes...... and dimensions of gold nanoparticles influences the GSPR wavelength and polarization characteristics, thereby allowing us to enhance and spectrally mold the plasmon-assisted PL while simultaneously controlling its polarization. In order to understand the underlying physics behind the plasmon-enhanced PL, we...

  14. Multi-client quantum key distribution using wavelength division multiplexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grice, Warren P.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Earl, Dennis Duncan; Evans, Philip G.; Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.; Schaake, Jason; Williams, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) exploits the rules of quantum mechanics to generate and securely distribute a random sequence of bits to two spatially separated clients. Typically a QKD system can support only a single pair of clients at a time, and so a separate quantum link is required for every pair of users. We overcome this limitation with the design and characterization of a multi-client entangled-photon QKD system with the capacity for up to 100 clients simultaneously. The time-bin entangled QKD system includes a broadband down-conversion source with two unique features that enable the multi-user capability. First, the photons are emitted across a very large portion of the telecom spectrum. Second, and more importantly, the photons are strongly correlated in their energy degree of freedom. Using standard wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) hardware, the photons can be routed to different parties on a quantum communication network, while the strong spectral correlations ensure that each client is linked only to the client receiving the conjugate wavelength. In this way, a single down-conversion source can support dozens of channels simultaneously--and to the extent that the WDM hardware can send different spectral channels to different clients, the system can support multiple client pairings. We will describe the design and characterization of the down-conversion source, as well as the client stations, which must be tunable across the emission spectrum.

  15. Remote sub-wavelength focusing of ultrasonically activated Lorentz current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhi, Angad S.; Arbabian, Amin

    2017-04-01

    We propose the use of a combination of ultrasonic and magnetic fields in conductive media for the creation of RF electrical current via the Lorentz force, in order to achieve current generation with extreme sub-wavelength resolution at large depth. We demonstrate the modeling, generation, and measurement of Lorentz current in a conductive solution and show that this current can be localized at a distance of 13 cm from the ultrasonic source to a region about three orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding wavelength of electromagnetic waves at the same operation frequency. Our results exhibit greater depth, tighter localization, and closer agreement with prediction than previous work on the measurement of Lorentz current in a solution of homogeneous conductivity. The proposed method of RF current excitation overcomes the trade-off between focusing and propagation that is fundamental in the use of RF electromagnetic excitation alone and has the potential to improve localization and depth of operation for RF current-based biomedical applications.

  16. Enhanced UV light detection using a p-terphenyl wavelength shifter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, S.; Kaczanowicz, E.; Ungaro, M.; Rehfuss, M.; Johnston, K.; Meziani, Z.-E.

    2017-10-01

    UV-glass photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have poor photon detection efficiency for wavelengths below 300 nm due to the opaqueness of the window material. Costly quartz PMTs could be used to enhance the efficiency below 300 nm. A less expensive solution that dramatically improves this efficiency is the application of a thin film of a p-terphenyl (PT) wavelength shifter on UV-glass PMTs. This improvement was quantified for Photonis XP4500B PMTs for wavelengths between 200 nm and 400 nm. The gain factor ranges up to 5 . 4 ± 0 . 5 at a wavelength of 215 nm, with a material load of 110 ± 10 μg /cm2 (894 nm). The wavelength shifter was found to be fully transparent for wavelengths greater than 300 nm. The resulting gain in detection efficiency, when used in a typical C̆erenkov counter, was estimated to be of the order of 40%. Consistent coating quality was assured by a rapid gain testing procedure using narrow-band UV LEDs. Based on these results, 200 Photonis XP4500B PMTs were treated with PT for the upgraded low-threshold C̆erenkov counter (LTCC) to be used in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer upgraded detector (CLAS12) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  17. Wavelength converter placement in optical networks with dynamic traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jakob Due; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate the connection provisioning performance of GMPLS-controlled wavelength routed networks under dynamic traffic load and using three different wavelength converter placement heuristics. Results show that a simple uniform placement heuristic matches the performance of complex heuristics...

  18. The shift in windpower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    1992-01-01

    Despite new production records, the near-term market for new windpower projects in the US remains bleak. Congressional incentives and project proposals in the mid-1990s offer promise, but for now most development has shifted to Europe. During 1992 and 1993 the largest wind projects developed by US companies will not be in the US, but in the United Kingdom and Spain. Indeed, most of the US's windpower industry is going abroad, establishing offices overseas. This move toward Europe comes as little surprise. New project development for US firms has faltered at home while the European market has burgeoned. The topics of the article include the move to Europe, a reduction in California's share of producing wind power plants, a rise in Europe's share of producing wind power plants, the future market for wind power in the US, and reawakening California's market

  19. Special offer for early shift takers!

    CERN Multimedia

    Muriel

    Peter Jenni, spokesperson of the ATLAS collaboration, just made the following announcement. "Despite the few problems that we are encountering, which of course are unavoidable in such a large project, I am very pleased with the way the ATLAS experiment is taking shape. With the imminence of data taking, I would like to make a special gesture as a thank you to all of you who are working so hard for ATLAS to meet its many deadlines. The first 100 ATLAS members who will sign up for shifts will receive twice the standard OTSMOU credit." You can sign up for shifts as of April 1st by sending an e-mail to Atlas.Shifts@cern.ch.

  20. Short-wavelength electrostatic waves in the earth's magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Recent observations with the ISEE 1 spacecraft have found electric field emissions in the dayside magnetosheath whose frequency spectrum is modulated at twice the spacecraft spin period. The upper frequency cutoff in the frequency-time spectrum of the emission has a characteristic parabola shape or ''festoon'' shape. The low-frequency cutoff ranges from 100 to 400 Hz, while the high-frequency limit ranges from about 1 to 4 kHz. The bandwidth is found to minimize for antenna orientations parallel to the wave vectors. The wave vector does not appear to be related to the local magnetic field, the plasma flow velocity, or the spacecraft-sun directions. The spacecraft observed frequency spectrum results from the spacecraft antenna response to the Doppler-shifted wave vector spectrum which exists in the plasma. Imposed constraints on the plasma rest frame wave vectors and frequencies indicate that emissions occur within the frequency range from about 150 Hz to 1 kHz, with wavelengths between about 40 and 600 m. These constraints strongly suggest that the festoon-shaped emissions are ion-acoustic waves. The small group velocity and k direction of the ion-acoustic mode are consistent with wave generation upstream at the bow shock and convection downstream to locations within the outer dayside magnetosheath

  1. Short wavelength electrostatic waves in the earth's magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent observations with the ISEE-1 spacecraft have found electric field emissions in the dayside magnetosheath whose frequency spectrum is modulated at twice the spacecraft spin period. The upper frequency cutoff in the frequency-time spectrum of the emissions has a characteristic parabola shape or ''festoon'' shape. The low frequency cutoff ranges from 100 Hz to 400 Hz, while the high frequency limit ranges from about 1kHz to 4kHz. The bandwidth is found to minimize for antenna orientations parallel to these wave number vectors, requiring the confinement of those vectors to a plane which contains the geocentric solar eclilptic coordinate z-axis. The spacecraft observed frequency spectrum results from the spacecraft antenna response to the Doppler shifted wave vector spectrum which exists in the plasma. Imposed constraints on the plasma rest-frame wave vectors and frequencies indicate that the emissions occur within the frequency range from about 150 Hz to 1 kHz, with wavelengths between about 30 meters and 600 meters. These constraints strongly suggest that the festoon-shaped emissions are ion-acoustic waves. The small group velocity and k vector direction of the ion-acoustic mode are consistent with wave generation upstream at the bow shock and convection downstream to locations within the outer dayside magnetosheath

  2. On the influence of crystal size and wavelength on native SAD phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Senda, Miki; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-06-01

    Native SAD is an emerging phasing technique that uses the anomalous signal of native heavy atoms to obtain crystallographic phases. The method does not require specific sample preparation to add anomalous scatterers, as the light atoms contained in the native sample are used as marker atoms. The most abundant anomalous scatterer used for native SAD, which is present in almost all proteins, is sulfur. However, the absorption edge of sulfur is at low energy (2.472 keV = 5.016 Å), which makes it challenging to carry out native SAD phasing experiments as most synchrotron beamlines are optimized for shorter wavelength ranges where the anomalous signal of sulfur is weak; for longer wavelengths, which produce larger anomalous differences, the absorption of X-rays by the sample, solvent, loop and surrounding medium (e.g. air) increases tremendously. Therefore, a compromise has to be found between measuring strong anomalous signal and minimizing absorption. It was thus hypothesized that shorter wavelengths should be used for large crystals and longer wavelengths for small crystals, but no thorough experimental analyses have been reported to date. To study the influence of crystal size and wavelength, native SAD experiments were carried out at different wavelengths (1.9 and 2.7 Å with a helium cone; 3.0 and 3.3 Å with a helium chamber) using lysozyme and ferredoxin reductase crystals of various sizes. For the tested crystals, the results suggest that larger sample sizes do not have a detrimental effect on native SAD data and that long wavelengths give a clear advantage with small samples compared with short wavelengths. The resolution dependency of substructure determination was analyzed and showed that high-symmetry crystals with small unit cells require higher resolution for the successful placement of heavy atoms.

  3. Passively synchronized dual-wavelength Q-switched lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp

    We present a simple and efficient way of generating synchronized Q-switched pulses at wavelengths hundreds of nanometers apart. This principle can result in new pulsed all-solid-state light sources at new wavelengths based on SFG.......We present a simple and efficient way of generating synchronized Q-switched pulses at wavelengths hundreds of nanometers apart. This principle can result in new pulsed all-solid-state light sources at new wavelengths based on SFG....

  4. Simple approach to three-color two-photon microscopy by a fiber-optic wavelength convertor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuen-Che; Huang, Lynn L H; Liang, Jhih-Hao; Chan, Ming-Che

    2016-11-01

    A simple approach to multi-color two-photon microscopy of the red, green, and blue fluorescent indicators was reported based on an ultra-compact 1.03-μm femtosecond laser and a nonlinear fiber. Inside the nonlinear fiber, the 1.03-μm laser pulses were simultaneously blue-shifted to 0.6~0.8 μm and red-shifted to 1.2~1.4 μm region by the Cherenkov radiation and fiber Raman gain effects. The wavelength-shifted 0.6~0.8 μm and 1.2~1.4 μm radiations were co-propagated with the residual non-converted 1.03-μm pulses inside the same nonlinear fiber to form a fiber-output three-color femtosecond source. The application of the multi-wavelength sources on multi-color two-photon fluorescence microscopy were also demonstrated. Overall, due to simple system configuration, convenient wavelength conversion, easy wavelength tunability within the entire 0.7~1.35 μm bio-penetration window and less requirement for high power and bulky light sources, the simple approach to multi-color two-photon microscopy could be widely applicable as an easily implemented and excellent research tool for future biomedical and possibly even clinical applications.

  5. Meter-wavelength VLBI. III. Pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, N.R.; Clark, T.A.; Clark, W.C.; Erickson, W.C.; Resch, G.M.; Broderick, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The results and analysis of observations of pulsars, especially the Crab Nebula pulsar, taken during a series of meter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiments are discussed. Based on a crude 144 MHz visibility curve which is consistent with a Gaussian brightness distribution, the measured visibilities at 196, 111, and 74 MHz were interpreted to yield apparent angular diameters (at half-power) of 0 .03 +- 0 .01, 0 .07 +- 0 .01, and 0 .18 +- 0 .01, respectively. These sizes scale approximately as wavelength-squared, and the 74 MHz size agrees with recent observations using interplanetary scintillation techniques.The VLBI-measured total flux densities lie on the extrapolation from higher frequencies of the pulsing flux densities. Variations in the total flux density up to 25 percent were observed. A lack of fine structure other than the pulsar in the nebula is indicated by our simple visibility curves. The pulse shapes observed with the interferometer are similar to single-dish measurements at 196 MHz but reveal a steady, nonpulsing component at 111 MHz. The ratio of pulsing to total power was approximately equal to one-half but varied with time. No pulsing power was detected at 74 MHz. It was found that four strong, low-dispersion pulsars were only slightly resolved

  6. Dye mixtures for ultrafast wavelength shifters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Liu, L.; Palsule, C.; Borst, W.; Wigmans, R. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Barashkov, N. [Karpov Inst. of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Particle detectors based on scintillation processes have been used since the discovery of radium about 100 years ago. The fast signals that can be obtained with these detectors, although often considered a nice asset, were rarely essential for the success of experiments. However, the new generation of high energy particle accelerators require particle detectors with fast response time. The authors have produced fast wavelength shifters using mixtures of various Coumarin dyes with DCM in epoxy-polymers (DGEBA+HHPA) and measured the properties of these wavelength shifters. The particular mixtures were chosen because there is a substantial overlap between the emission spectrum of Coumarin and the absorption spectrum of DCM. The continuous wave and time-resolved fluorescence spectra have been studied as a function of component concentration to optimize the decay times, emission peaks and quantum yields. The mean decay times of these mixtures are in the range of 2.5--4.5 ns. The mean decay time increases with an increase in Coumarin concentration at a fixed DCM concentration or with a decrease in DCM concentration at a fixed Coumarin concentration. This indicates that the energy transfer is radiative at lower relative DCM concentrations and becomes non-radiative at higher DCM concentrations.

  7. Dye mixtures for ultrafast wavelength shifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Liu, L.; Palsule, C.; Borst, W.; Wigmans, R.

    1994-01-01

    Particle detectors based on scintillation processes have been used since the discovery of radium about 100 years ago. The fast signals that can be obtained with these detectors, although often considered a nice asset, were rarely essential for the success of experiments. However, the new generation of high energy particle accelerators require particle detectors with fast response time. The authors have produced fast wavelength shifters using mixtures of various Coumarin dyes with DCM in epoxy-polymers (DGEBA+HHPA) and measured the properties of these wavelength shifters. The particular mixtures were chosen because there is a substantial overlap between the emission spectrum of Coumarin and the absorption spectrum of DCM. The continuous wave and time-resolved fluorescence spectra have been studied as a function of component concentration to optimize the decay times, emission peaks and quantum yields. The mean decay times of these mixtures are in the range of 2.5--4.5 ns. The mean decay time increases with an increase in Coumarin concentration at a fixed DCM concentration or with a decrease in DCM concentration at a fixed Coumarin concentration. This indicates that the energy transfer is radiative at lower relative DCM concentrations and becomes non-radiative at higher DCM concentrations

  8. WDM cross-connect cascade based on all-optical wavelength converters for routing and wavelength slot interchanging using a reduced number of internal wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Mikkelsen, Benny; Jørgensen, Bo Foged

    1998-01-01

    interchanging can be used to create a robust and nonblocking OXC. However, for an OXC with n fiber inlets each carrying m wavelengths the OXC requires n×m internal wavelengths, which constrains the size of the cross-connect. In this paper we therefore propose and demonstrate an architecture that uses a reduced......Optical transport layers need rearrangeable wavelength-division multiplexing optical cross-connects (OXCs) to increase the capacity and flexibility of the network. It has previously been shown that a cross-connect based on all-optical wavelength converters for routing as well as wavelength slot...... set of internal wavelengths without sacrificing cross-connecting capabilities. By inserting a partly equipped OXC with the new architecture in a 10-Gbit/s re-circulating loop setup we demonstrate the possibility of cascading up to ten OXCs. Furthermore, we investigate the regenerating effect...

  9. Extending 3D near-cloud corrections from shorter to longer wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Várnai, Tamás; Wen, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model [18]. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov [9] proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths. - Highlights:

  10. Application of holographic sub-wavelength diffraction gratings for monitoring of kinetics of bioprocesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šeperys, Rimas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Daugelavičius, Rimantas

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Refractive index sensor based on DLC holographic sub-wavelength period grating. ► Spectroscopic analysis of polarized white light reflected from the grating. ► Control of critical wavelength shift and reflectivity changes. ► Testing of model liquid analyte materials. ► Evaluation of interaction between B. subtilis cells and lysozyme. - Abstract: In this work we present a refractive index (RI) sensor based on a sub-wavelength holographic diffraction grating. The sensor chip was fabricated by dry etching of the finely spaced (d = 428 nm) diffraction grating in SiO x doped diamond like carbon (DLC) film. It is shown that employing a fabricated sensor chip, and using the proposed method of analysis of data, one can inspect kinetics of processes in liquids occurring in the vicinity of the grating surface. The method is based on the spectral composition analysis of polarized polychromatic light reflected from the sub-wavelength diffraction grating. The RI measurement system was tested with different model liquid analytes including 25 wt.%, 50 wt.% sugar water solutions, 10 °C, 50 °C distilled water, also Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis interaction with ion-permeable channels forming antibiotic gramicidin D and a murolytic enzyme lysozyme. Analysis of the data set of specular reflection spectra enabled us to follow the kinetics of the RI changes in the analyte with millisecond resolution. Detectable changes in the effective RI were not worse than Δn = 10 −4 .

  11. Tunable multi-wavelength polymer laser based on a triangular-lattice photonic crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wenbin; Pu, Donglin; Qiao, Wen; Wan, Wenqiang; Liu, Yanhua; Ye, Yan; Wu, Shaolong; Chen, Linsen

    2016-01-01

    A continuously tunable multi-wavelength polymer laser based on a triangular-lattice photonic crystal cavity is demonstrated. The triangular-lattice resonator was initially fabricated through multiple interference exposure and was then replicated into a low refractive index polymer via UV-nanoimprinting. The blend of a blue-emitting conjugated polymer and a red-emitting one was used as the gain medium. Three periods in the scalene triangular-lattice structure yield stable tri-wavelength laser emission (625.5 nm, 617.4 nm and 614.3 nm) in six different directions. A uniformly aligned liquid crystal (LC) layer was incorporated into the cavity as the top cladding layer. Upon heating, the orientation of LC molecules and thus the effective refractive index of the lasing mode changes which continuously shifts the lasing wavelength. A maximum tuning range of 12.2 nm was observed for the lasing mode at 625.5 nm. This tunable tri-wavelength polymer laser is simple constructed and cost-effective. It may find application in the fields of biosensors and photonic integrated circuits. (paper)

  12. Integrated Wavelength-Tunable Light Source for Optical Gas Sensing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact instrument consisting of a distributed feedback laser (DFB at 1.65 μm was developed as a light source for gas sensing systems using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS technique. The wavelength of laser is tuned by adjusting the laser working temperature and injection current, which are performed by self-developed temperature controller and current modulator respectively. Stability test shows the fluctuation of the laser temperature is within the range of ±0.02°C. For gas detection experiments, the wavelength is tuned around the gas absorption line by adjusting laser temperature and is then shifted periodically to scan across the absorption line by the laser current modulator, which generates a 10 Hz saw wave signal. In addition, the current modulator is able to generate sine wave signal for gas sensing systems using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS technique involving extraction of harmonic signals. The spectrum test proves good stability that the spectrum was measured 6 times every 10 minutes at the constant temperature and current condition. This standalone instrument can be applied as a light source for detection systems of different gases by integrating lasers at corresponding wavelength.

  13. Regime shifts, resilience and recovery of a cod stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; Diekmann, Rabea; Möllmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the North and Baltic seas Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks collapsed as part or one of the major factors inducing large-scale ecosystem regime shifts. Determining the relative contribution of overfishing and climate variability in causing these shifts has proven difficult. While facing similar...

  14. Negotiating Academic Teacher Identity Shifts during Higher Education Contextual Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Susan Maree; Billot, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Higher education teachers' roles and identities are constantly shifting in response to contextual change. Pedagogy, values, and professional and personal narratives of self are all affected, particularly by technological change. This paper explores the role and identity shifts of academics during the introduction of large-class videoconferencing.…

  15. In-line digital holography with phase-shifting Greek-ladder sieves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhang, Junyong; Zhang, Yanli; Zhou, Shenlei; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2018-04-01

    Phase shifting is the key technique in in-line digital holography, but traditional phase shifters have their own limitations in short wavelength regions. Here, phase-shifting Greek-ladder sieves with amplitude-only modulation are introduced into in-line digital holography, which are essentially a kind of diffraction lens with three-dimensional array diffraction-limited foci. In the in-line digital holographic experiment, we design two kinds of sieves by lithography and verify the validity of their phase-shifting function by measuring a 1951 U.S. Air Force resolution test target and three-dimensional array foci. With advantages of high resolving power, low cost, and no limitations at shorter wavelengths, phase-shifting Greek-ladder sieves have great potential in X-ray holography or biochemical microscopy for the next generation of synchrotron light sources.

  16. Optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy for spatially, temperature, and wavelength dependent refractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Joel D.

    A microfluidic refractometer was designed based on previous optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) chips utilized to distinguish healthy and cancerous cells. The optofluidic cavity is realized by adding high reflectivity dielectric mirrors to the top and bottom of a microfluidic channel. This creates a plane-plane Fabry-Perot optical cavity in which the resonant wavelengths are highly dependent on the optical path length inside the cavity. Refractometry is a useful method to determine the nature of fluids, including the concentration of a solute in a solvent as well as the temperature of the fluid. Advantages of microfluidic systems are the easy integration with lab-on-chip devices and the need for only small volumes of fluid. The unique abilities of the microfluidic refractometer in this thesis include its spatial, temperature, and wavelength dependence. Spatial dependence of the transmission spectrum is inherent through a spatial filtering process implemented with an optical fiber and microscope objective. A sequence of experimental observations guided the change from using the OFIS chip as a cell discrimination device to a complimentary refractometer. First, it was noted the electrode structure within the microfluidic channel, designed to trap and manipulate biological cells with dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces, caused the resonant wavelengths to blue-shift when the electrodes were energized. This phenomenon is consistent with the negative dn/dT property of water and water-based solutions. Next, it was necessary to develop a method to separate the optical path length into physical path length and refractive index. Air holes were placed near the microfluidic channel to exclusively measure the cavity length with the known refractive index of air. The cavity length was then interpolated across the microfluidic channel, allowing any mechanical changes to be taken into account. After the separation of physical path length and refractive index, it was of interest

  17. High-Sensitivity AGN Polarimetry at Sub-Millimeter Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Martí-Vidal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The innermost regions of radio loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN jets are heavily affected by synchrotron self-absorption, due to the strong magnetic fields and high particle densities in these extreme zones. The only way to overcome this absorption is to observe at sub-millimeter wavelengths, although polarimetric observations at such frequencies have so far been limited by sensitivity and calibration accuracy. However, new generation instruments such as the Atacama Large mm/sub-mm Array (ALMA overcome these limitations and are starting to deliver revolutionary results in the observational studies of AGN polarimetry. Here we present an overview of our state-of-the-art interferometric mm/sub-mm polarization observations of AGN jets with ALMA (in particular, the gravitationally-lensed sources PKS 1830−211 and B0218+359, which allow us to probe the magneto-ionic conditions at the regions closest to the central black holes.

  18. Estimation of Snow Parameters from Dual-Wavelength Airborne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert; Iguchi, Toshio; Detwiler, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Estimation of snow characteristics from airborne radar measurements would complement In-situ measurements. While In-situ data provide more detailed information than radar, they are limited in their space-time sampling. In the absence of significant cloud water contents, dual-wavelength radar data can be used to estimate 2 parameters of a drop size distribution if the snow density is assumed. To estimate, rather than assume, a snow density is difficult, however, and represents a major limitation in the radar retrieval. There are a number of ways that this problem can be investigated: direct comparisons with in-situ measurements, examination of the large scale characteristics of the retrievals and their comparison to cloud model outputs, use of LDR measurements, and comparisons to the theoretical results of Passarelli(1978) and others. In this paper we address the first approach and, in part, the second.

  19. Real-Time and Meter-Scale Absolute Distance Measurement by Frequency-Comb-Referenced Multi-Wavelength Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guochao Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a frequency-comb-referenced absolute interferometer which instantly measures long distance by integrating multi-wavelength interferometry with direct synthetic wavelength interferometry. The reported interferometer utilizes four different wavelengths, simultaneously calibrated to the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser, to implement subwavelength distance measurement, while direct synthetic wavelength interferometry is elaborately introduced by launching a fifth wavelength to extend a non-ambiguous range for meter-scale measurement. A linearity test performed comparatively with a He–Ne laser interferometer shows a residual error of less than 70.8 nm in peak-to-valley over a 3 m distance, and a 10 h distance comparison is demonstrated to gain fractional deviations of ~3 × 10−8 versus 3 m distance. Test results reveal that the presented absolute interferometer enables precise, stable, and long-term distance measurements and facilitates absolute positioning applications such as large-scale manufacturing and space missions.

  20. Real-Time and Meter-Scale Absolute Distance Measurement by Frequency-Comb-Referenced Multi-Wavelength Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guochao; Tan, Lilong; Yan, Shuhua

    2018-02-07

    We report on a frequency-comb-referenced absolute interferometer which instantly measures long distance by integrating multi-wavelength interferometry with direct synthetic wavelength interferometry. The reported interferometer utilizes four different wavelengths, simultaneously calibrated to the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser, to implement subwavelength distance measurement, while direct synthetic wavelength interferometry is elaborately introduced by launching a fifth wavelength to extend a non-ambiguous range for meter-scale measurement. A linearity test performed comparatively with a He-Ne laser interferometer shows a residual error of less than 70.8 nm in peak-to-valley over a 3 m distance, and a 10 h distance comparison is demonstrated to gain fractional deviations of ~3 × 10 -8 versus 3 m distance. Test results reveal that the presented absolute interferometer enables precise, stable, and long-term distance measurements and facilitates absolute positioning applications such as large-scale manufacturing and space missions.

  1. Dynamic Sensor Interrogation Using Wavelength-Swept Laser with a Polygon-Scanner-Based Wavelength Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Seok; Ko, Myeong Ock; Jung, Mi Sun; Park, Ik Gon; Kim, Namje; Han, Sang-Pil; Ryu, Han-Cheol; Park, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2013-01-01

    We report a high-speed (∼2 kHz) dynamic multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation using a wavelength-swept laser (WSL) with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter. The scanning frequency of the WSL is 18 kHz, and the 10 dB scanning bandwidth is more than 90 nm around a center wavelength of 1,540 nm. The output from the WSL is coupled into the multiplexed FBG array, which consists of five FBGs. The reflected Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are 1,532.02 nm, 1,537.84 nm, 1,543.48 nm, 1,547.98 nm, and 1,553.06 nm, respectively. A dynamic periodic strain ranging from 500 Hz to 2 kHz is applied to one of the multiplexed FBGs, which is fixed on the stage of the piezoelectric transducer stack. Good dynamic performance of the FBGs and recording of their fast Fourier transform spectra have been successfully achieved with a measuring speed of 18 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio and the bandwidth over the whole frequency span are determined to be more than 30 dB and around 10 Hz, respectively. We successfully obtained a real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the periodic strain. The dynamic FBG sensor interrogation system can be read out with a WSL for high-speed and high-sensitivity real-time measurement. PMID:23899934

  2. Photoluminescence wavelength variation of monolayer MoS2 by oxygen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Su; Nam, Giwoong; Park, Seki; Kim, Hyun; Han, Gang Hee; Lee, Jubok; Dhakal, Krishna P.; Leem, Jae-Young; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Jeongyong

    2015-01-01

    We performed nanoscale confocal photoluminescence (PL), Raman, and absorption spectral imaging measurements to investigate the optical and structural properties of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) monolayers synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method and subjected to oxygen plasma treatment for 10 to 120 s under high vacuum (1.3 × 10 −3 Pa). Oxygen plasma treatment induced red shifts of ~ 20 nm in the PL emission peaks corresponding to A and B excitons. Similarly, the peak positions corresponding to A and B excitons of the absorption spectra were red-shifted following oxygen plasma treatment. Based on the confocal PL, absorption, and Raman microscopy results, we suggest that the red-shifting of the A and B exciton peaks originated from shallow defect states generated by oxygen plasma treatment. - Highlights: • Effects of oxygen plasma on optical properties of monolayer MoS 2 were investigated. • Confocal photoluminescence, Raman, and absorption spectral maps are presented. • Wavelength tuning up to ~ 20 nm for the peak emission wavelength was achieved

  3. Photoluminescence wavelength variation of monolayer MoS{sub 2} by oxygen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Su [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Giwoong [Department of Nanoscience & Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seki; Kim, Hyun [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Gang Hee [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jubok; Dhakal, Krishna P. [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Leem, Jae-Young [Department of Nanoscience & Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hee [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeongyong, E-mail: j.kim@skku.edu [Center for Integrated Nanostructure Physics (CINAP), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    We performed nanoscale confocal photoluminescence (PL), Raman, and absorption spectral imaging measurements to investigate the optical and structural properties of molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) monolayers synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method and subjected to oxygen plasma treatment for 10 to 120 s under high vacuum (1.3 × 10{sup −3} Pa). Oxygen plasma treatment induced red shifts of ~ 20 nm in the PL emission peaks corresponding to A and B excitons. Similarly, the peak positions corresponding to A and B excitons of the absorption spectra were red-shifted following oxygen plasma treatment. Based on the confocal PL, absorption, and Raman microscopy results, we suggest that the red-shifting of the A and B exciton peaks originated from shallow defect states generated by oxygen plasma treatment. - Highlights: • Effects of oxygen plasma on optical properties of monolayer MoS{sub 2} were investigated. • Confocal photoluminescence, Raman, and absorption spectral maps are presented. • Wavelength tuning up to ~ 20 nm for the peak emission wavelength was achieved.

  4. Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M.; Scheffel, J.

    1987-12-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m ≥ 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for P > P and large β

  5. Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.; Schefffel, J.

    1987-01-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m ≥ 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for Psub(perpendicular) > Psub(parallel) and large βsub(perpendicular). (author)

  6. Stability of small axial wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.; Scheffel, J.

    1987-03-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m>=1)modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also constant current density equilibria can be stabilized for P per >P par and large β per . (authors)

  7. Triangular metal wedges for subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding at telecom wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Volkov, V.S.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard

    2008-01-01

    We report on subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding by triangular metal wedges at telecom wavelengths. A high-quality fabrication procedure for making gold wedge waveguides, which is also mass- production compatible offering large-scale parallel fabrication of plasmonic components, is developed...

  8. Analysis of subsystems in wavelength-division-multiplexing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai

    2001-01-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology together with optical amplification has created a new era for optical communication. Transmission capacity is greatly increased by adding more and more wavelength channels into a single fiber, as well as by increasing the line rate of each channel...... in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), and dispersion managed fiber sections. New subsystems are also proposed in the thesis: a modular 2×2 multiwavelength cross-connect using wavelength switching blocks, a wavelength converter based on cross phase modulation in a semiconductor modulator, a wavelength...

  9. Fast charged-coupled device spectrometry using zoom-wavelength optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carolan, P.G.; Conway, N.J.; Bunting, C.A.; Leahy, P.; OConnell, R.; Huxford, R.; Negus, C.R.; Wilcock, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Fast charge-coupled device (CCD) detector arrays placed at the output of visible spectrometers are used for multichord Doppler shift analyses on the COMPASS-D and START tokamaks. Unequal magnification in the horizontal and vertical axes allows for optimal matching of throughput and spectral resolution at the CCD detector. This involves cylindrical lenses in an anamorphic mounting. Optical acuity is preserved over a very wide range of wavelengths (220 nm→700 nm) by separate repositioning of all the optical elements which is accomplished by the use of zoom mechanisms. This facilitates rapid changes of wavelength allowing edge and core observations depending on the location of the emitting impurity ions. Changes to the ion temperature and velocity are recorded using 20 chords simultaneously with typical accuracies of Δv i -1 and ΔT i /T i <10% with a time resolution of <1 ms. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Multiple soliton self-frequency shift cancellations in a temporally tailored photonic crystal fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lai; Kang, Zhe; Li, Qing; Gao, Xuejian; Qin, Guanshi, E-mail: qings@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wpqin@jlu.edu.cn; Qin, Weiping, E-mail: qings@jlu.edu.cn, E-mail: wpqin@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Liao, Meisong; Hu, Lili [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Ohishi, Yasutake [Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2014-11-03

    We report the generation of multiple soliton self-frequency shift cancellations in a temporally tailored tellurite photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The temporally regulated group velocity dispersion (GVD) is generated in the fiber by soliton induced optical Kerr effect. Two red-shifted dispersive waves spring up when two Raman solitons meet their own second zero-dispersion-wavelengths in the PCF. These results show how, through temporally tailored GVD, nonlinearities can be harnessed to generate unexpected effects.

  11. Underdense radiation sources: Moving towards longer wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, C.A.; Kilkenny, J.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States); Seely, J.F.; Weaver, J.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., Ellicott City, MD (United States); Tommasini, R.; Glendinning, S.G.; Chung, H.K.; Rosen, M.; Lee, R.W.; Scott, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California (United States); Tillack, M. [U. C. San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Underdense radiation sources have been developed to provide efficient laboratory multi-keV radiation sources for radiography and radiation hardening studies. In these plasmas laser absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung leads to high x-ray conversion efficiency because of efficient ionization of the low density aerogel or gas targets. Now we performing experiments in the soft x-ray energy regime where the atomic physics models are much more complicated. In recent experiments at the NIKE laser, we have irradiated a Ti-doped SiO{sub 2} aerogel with up to 1650 J of 248 nm wavelength light. The absolute Ti L-shell emission in the 200-800 eV range is measured with a diagnostic that uses a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. We will give an overview of the temporally-resolved absolutely calibrated spectra obtained over a range of conditions. (authors)

  12. Underdense radiation sources: Moving towards longer wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Seely, J.F.; Weaver, J.L.; Feldman, U.; Tommasini, R.; Glendinning, S.G.; Chung, H.K.; Rosen, M.; Lee, R.W.; Scott, H.A.; Tillack, M.

    2006-01-01

    Underdense radiation sources have been developed to provide efficient laboratory multi-keV radiation sources for radiography and radiation hardening studies. In these plasmas laser absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung leads to high x-ray conversion efficiency because of efficient ionization of the low density aerogel or gas targets. Now we performing experiments in the soft x-ray energy regime where the atomic physics models are much more complicated. In recent experiments at the NIKE laser, we have irradiated a Ti-doped SiO 2 aerogel with up to 1650 J of 248 nm wavelength light. The absolute Ti L-shell emission in the 200-800 eV range is measured with a diagnostic that uses a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. We will give an overview of the temporally-resolved absolutely calibrated spectra obtained over a range of conditions. (authors)

  13. Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Zeuner, Franziska; Li, Xin; Reineke, Bernhard; He, Shan; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian; Zhang, Shuang; Zentgraf, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Metasurfaces, as the ultrathin version of metamaterials, have caught growing attention due to their superior capability in controlling the phase, amplitude and polarization states of light. Among various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurface that encodes a geometric or Pancharatnam-Berry phase into the orientation angle of the constituent meta-atoms has shown great potential in controlling light in both linear and nonlinear optical regimes. The robust and dispersionless nature of the geometric phase simplifies the wave manipulation tremendously. Benefitting from the continuous phase control, metasurface holography has exhibited advantages over conventional depth controlled holography with discretized phase levels. Here we report on spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography, which allows construction of multiple target holographic images carried independently by the fundamental and harmonic generation waves of different spins. The nonlinear holograms provide independent, nondispersive and crosstalk-free post-selective channels for holographic multiplexing and multidimensional optical data storages, anti-counterfeiting, and optical encryption.

  14. Aligning of single and multiple wavelength chromatographic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels-Peter Vest; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    1998-01-01

    optimised warping (COW) using two input parameters which can be estimated from the observed peak width. COW is demonstrated on constructed single trace chromatograms and on single and multiple wavelength chromatograms obtained from HPLC diode detection analyses of fungal extractsA copy of the C program......The use of chemometric data processing is becoming an important part of modern chromatography. Most chemometric analyses are performed on reduced data sets using areas of selected peaks detected in the chromatograms, which means a loss of data and introduces the problem of extracting peak data from...... to utilise the entire data matrix or rely on peak detection, thus having the same limitations as the commonly used chemometric procedures. The method presented uses the entire chromatographic data matrices and does not require any preprocessing e.g., peak detection. It relies on piecewise linear correlation...

  15. Single wavelength standard wiggler for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunk, W.; Fischer, G.; Spencer, J.

    1979-03-01

    A 1lambda planar wiggler has been designed that will be used for the initial operation of the 4 to 18 GeV storage ring PEP. Three of these wigglers will be installed symmetrically around the ring at 120 0 intervals in three of six available 5 m straight sections with the purpose of providing: (1) beam size control to obtain better luminosities below 15 GeV, and (2) decreased damping times to obtain better injection rates at lower energies. Design goals are discussed and a description of the final system including cost estimates is given. Expected results and usage in PEP are discussed. Some possibilities for production of synchrotron radiation and beam monitoring with shorter wavelength, multiple-period wigglers at PEP energies are also discussed. Comparison to a wiggler now operating in SPEAR is given

  16. Using chemical shift perturbation to characterise ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mike P

    2013-08-01

    Chemical shift perturbation (CSP, chemical shift mapping or complexation-induced changes in chemical shift, CIS) follows changes in the chemical shifts of a protein when a ligand is added, and uses these to determine the location of the binding site, the affinity of the ligand, and/or possibly the structure of the complex. A key factor in determining the appearance of spectra during a titration is the exchange rate between free and bound, or more specifically the off-rate koff. When koff is greater than the chemical shift difference between free and bound, which typically equates to an affinity Kd weaker than about 3μM, then exchange is fast on the chemical shift timescale. Under these circumstances, the observed shift is the population-weighted average of free and bound, which allows Kd to be determined from measurement of peak positions, provided the measurements are made appropriately. (1)H shifts are influenced to a large extent by through-space interactions, whereas (13)Cα and (13)Cβ shifts are influenced more by through-bond effects. (15)N and (13)C' shifts are influenced both by through-bond and by through-space (hydrogen bonding) interactions. For determining the location of a bound ligand on the basis of shift change, the most appropriate method is therefore usually to measure (15)N HSQC spectra, calculate the geometrical distance moved by the peak, weighting (15)N shifts by a factor of about 0.14 compared to (1)H shifts, and select those residues for which the weighted shift change is larger than the standard deviation of the shift for all residues. Other methods are discussed, in particular the measurement of (13)CH3 signals. Slow to intermediate exchange rates lead to line broadening, and make Kd values very difficult to obtain. There is no good way to distinguish changes in chemical shift due to direct binding of the ligand from changes in chemical shift due to allosteric change. Ligand binding at multiple sites can often be characterised, by

  17. Passive directional discrimination in laser-Doppler anemometry by the two-wavelength quadrature homodyne technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Czarske, Jürgen

    2003-07-01

    We report a method for passive optical directional discrimination in laser-Doppler anemometers. For this purpose frequency-shift elements such as acousto-optic modulators, which are bulky and difficult to align during assembly, have traditionally been employed. We propose to use a quadrature homodyne technique to achieve directional discrimination of the fluid flow without any frequency-shift elements. It is based on the employment of two laser wavelengths, which generate two interference fringe systems with a phase shift of a quarter of the common fringe spacing. Measurement signal pairs with a direction-dependent phase shift of +/- pi/2 are generated. As a robust signal-processing technique, the cross-correlation technique is used. The principles of quadrature homodyne laser-Doppler anemometry are investigated. A setup that provides a constant phase shift of pi/2 throughout the entire measurement volume was achieved with both single-mode and multimode radiation. The directional discrimination was successfully verified with wind tunnel measurements. The complete passive technique offers the potential of building miniaturized measurement heads that can be integrated, e.g., into wind tunnel models.

  18. Wavelength stabilized high pulse power laser diodes for automotive LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, A.; Klehr, A.; Wenzel, H.; Zeghuzi, A.; Fricke, J.; Maaßdorf, A.; Liero, A.; Tränkle, G.

    2018-03-01

    Diode lasers generating optical pulses with high peak power and lengths in the nanosecond range are key components of systems for free-space communication, metrology, material processing, spectroscopy, and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) as needed for object detection and autonomous driving. Automotive LiDAR systems demand additionally a good beam quality and low wavelength shift with temperature due to the wide operating temperature span. We present here internally wavelength stabilized lasers emitting ns optical pulses from an emission aperture between 30 μm and 100 μm with peak powers of tens of Watts at wavelengths around 905 nm. The vertical structure based on AlGaAs (confinement and cladding layers) and InGaAs (active quantum well) is especially optimized for pulsed operation with respect to the implementation of a surface Bragg grating with a high reflectivity. The fabricated 6 mm long distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) broad area (BA) lasers are electrically driven by an in-house developed high-speed unit generating 3 to 10 ns long nearly rectangular shaped current pulses with amplitudes of up to 250 A. Such lasers emit optical pulses with a peak power of more than 30 W at 95 A pulse current up to a temperature of 85°C with a wavelength shift as low as 65 pm/K and a lateral beam propagation factor less than 10. The influence of the lateral aperture width and the pulse length on the beam quality will be shown. A monolithic integration of 3 DBR BA lasers on a single chip whose emission can be combined into a single beam raises the output power to more than 100 W.

  19. Chemical shift homology in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, Barbara C.M.; Chazin, Walter J.

    1998-01-01

    The degree of chemical shift similarity for homologous proteins has been determined from a chemical shift database of over 50 proteins representing a variety of families and folds, and spanning a wide range of sequence homologies. After sequence alignment, the similarity of the secondary chemical shifts of C α protons was examined as a function of amino acid sequence identity for 37 pairs of structurally homologous proteins. A correlation between sequence identity and secondary chemical shift rmsd was observed. Important insights are provided by examining the sequence identity of homologous proteins versus percentage of secondary chemical shifts that fall within 0.1 and 0.3 ppm thresholds. These results begin to establish practical guidelines for the extent of chemical shift similarity to expect among structurally homologous proteins

  20. Shifted-modified Chebyshev filters

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENGÜL, Metin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of filter approximation method that utilizes shifted-modified Chebyshev filters. Construction of the new filters involves the use of shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials that are formed using the roots of conventional Chebyshev polynomials. The study also includes 2 tables containing the shifted-modified Chebyshev polynomials and the normalized element values for the low-pass prototype filters up to degree 6. The transducer power gain, group dela...

  1. Portable shift register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Bourret, S.C.; Hansen, W.J.; Hicks, D.V.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Krick, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M 3 CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M 3 CA; like the M 3 CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel

  2. Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion in a dispersion-engineered silicon waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate polarization-insensitive all optical wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s DPSK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide with an angled-pump scheme. Dispersion engineering is applied to the silicon waveguide to obtain similar four-wave mixing convers...... conversion performances for both the TE and TM modes. Bit-error rate measurements are performed and error-free operation is achieved. We also demonstrate polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion with a large separation between the idler and signal using a dual-pump configuration....

  3. Emotional Branding The shift in branding paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Mei Yan

    2004-01-01

    An extensive amount of academic papers have acknowledged that consumers’ decision making process involves not only tangible but also intangible attributes (Copeland, 1925; Sharitt, 1992; Paul & Olson, 1994; Antonides & Raaij, 1998; Aakar, 1991; Kotler, 1996; Zaltman, 2003) However, the power of emotion has been largely neglected by most companies in the past few decades. Recently, as some practitioners recognised the shift of economy and increasing expectation derived from consumers, the bran...

  4. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  5. An algebraic substructuring using multiple shifts for eigenvalue computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jin Hwan; Jung, Sung Nam; Byun, Do Young; Bai, Zhaojun

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic substructuring (AS) is a state-of-the-art method in eigenvalue computations, especially for large-sized problems, but originally it was designed to calculate only the smallest eigenvalues. Recently, an updated version of AS has been introduced to calculate the interior eigenvalues over a specified range by using a shift concept that is referred to as the shifted AS. In this work, we propose a combined method of both AS and the shifted AS by using multiple shifts for solving a considerable number of eigensolutions in a large-sized problem, which is an emerging computational issue of noise or vibration analysis in vehicle design. In addition, we investigated the accuracy of the shifted AS by presenting an error criterion. The proposed method has been applied to the FE model of an automobile body. The combined method yielded a higher efficiency without loss of accuracy in comparison to the original AS

  6. Wavelength-stepped, actively mode-locked fiber laser based on wavelength-division-multiplexed optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjoo; Kim, Byoung Yoon

    2017-12-01

    We propose a new scheme for an actively mode-locked wavelength-swept fiber laser that produces a train of discretely wavelength-stepped pulses from a short fiber cavity. Pulses with different wavelengths are split and combined by standard wavelength division multiplexers with fiber delay lines. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate a laser using an erbium doped fiber amplifier and commercially available wavelength-division multiplexers with wavelength spacing of 0.8 nm. The results show simultaneous mode-locking at three different wavelengths. Laser output parameters in time domain, optical and radio frequency spectral domain, and the noise characteristics are presented. Suggestions for the improved design are discussed.

  7. Enhancement of Faraday effect in one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystal including a magnetic layer with wavelength dependent off-diagonal elements of dielectric constant tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inui, Chie; Ozaki, Shinsuke; Kura, Hiroaki; Sato, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystal (1-D MPC) prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating method, including a magnetic defect layer composed of mixture of CoFe 2 O 4 and SiO 2 , are investigated from both the experimental and theoretical standpoints. The resonant transmission of light was observed around 570 nm in the photonic band gap. The Faraday rotation angle θ F showed two maxima at 490 and 640 nm, and the wavelength dependence of θ F above 760 nm was similar to that of the CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 single-layer film. The two maxima of θ F are attributed to the enhanced Faraday rotation of nonmagnetic TiO 2 layers in the cavity structure and that in magnetic CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 layer through the light localization in MPC. The maximum value of θ F due to the magnetic CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 layer in the MPC was 22-times larger than that in the single-layer film. The simulation study of MPC with CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 magnetic defect layer, based on the matrix approach method, showed that the resonant light transmission was accompanied by the localization of electric field, and large enhancement of θ F appeared at different wavelengths so as to agree with the experimental features. This can be explained in terms of the wavelength dependent off-diagonal components of the dielectric constant tensor in addition to the large extinction coefficient in the CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 magnetic defect layer. - Highlights: → 1-D magnetic photonic crystal (MPC) prepared by sol-gel method. → Enhancement of Faraday rotation due to the magnetic defect layer of CoFe 2 O 4 . → Shift of wavelength of Faraday rotation maximum from resonant light transmission.

  8. Parallel implementation of the PHOENIX generalized stellar atmosphere program. II. Wavelength parallelization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, E.; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    1998-01-01

    We describe an important addition to the parallel implementation of our generalized nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) stellar atmosphere and radiative transfer computer program PHOENIX. In a previous paper in this series we described data and task parallel algorithms we have developed for radiative transfer, spectral line opacity, and NLTE opacity and rate calculations. These algorithms divided the work spatially or by spectral lines, that is, distributing the radial zones, individual spectral lines, or characteristic rays among different processors and employ, in addition, task parallelism for logically independent functions (such as atomic and molecular line opacities). For finite, monotonic velocity fields, the radiative transfer equation is an initial value problem in wavelength, and hence each wavelength point depends upon the previous one. However, for sophisticated NLTE models of both static and moving atmospheres needed to accurately describe, e.g., novae and supernovae, the number of wavelength points is very large (200,000 - 300,000) and hence parallelization over wavelength can lead both to considerable speedup in calculation time and the ability to make use of the aggregate memory available on massively parallel supercomputers. Here, we describe an implementation of a pipelined design for the wavelength parallelization of PHOENIX, where the necessary data from the processor working on a previous wavelength point is sent to the processor working on the succeeding wavelength point as soon as it is known. Our implementation uses a MIMD design based on a relatively small number of standard message passing interface (MPI) library calls and is fully portable between serial and parallel computers. copyright 1998 The American Astronomical Society

  9. Feasibility Study of Multi-Wavelength Differential Absorption LIDAR for CO2 Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a better understanding of carbon cycle and accurate climate prediction models, highly accurate and temporal resolution observation of atmospheric CO2 is necessary. Differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL remote sensing is a promising technology to detect atmospheric CO2. However, the traditional DIAL system is the dual-wavelength DIAL (DW-DIAL, which has strict requirements for wavelength accuracy and stability. Moreover, for on-line and off-line wavelengths, the system’s optical efficiency and the change of atmospheric parameters are assumed to be the same in the DW-DIAL system. This assumption inevitably produces measurement errors, especially under rapid aerosol changes. In this study, a multi-wavelength DIAL (MW-DIAL is proposed to map atmospheric CO2 concentration. The MW-DIAL conducts inversion with one on-line and multiple off-line wavelengths. Multiple concentrations of CO2 are then obtained through difference processing between the single on-line and each of the off-line wavelengths. In addition, the least square method is adopted to optimize inversion results. Consequently, the inversion concentration of CO2 in the MW-DIAL system is found to be the weighted average of the multiple concentrations. Simulation analysis and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the inversion precision of MW-DIAL. For comparison, traditional DW-DIAL simulations were also conducted. Simulation analysis demonstrated that, given the drifting wavelengths of the laser, the detection accuracy of CO2 when using MW-DIAL is higher than that when using DW-DIAL, especially when the drift is large. A laboratory experiment was also performed to verify the simulation analysis.

  10. Continuous Faraday measurement of spin precession without light shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperse, M.; Kewming, M. Â. J.; Fischer, S. Â. N.; Pakkiam, P.; Anderson, R. Â. P.; Turner, L. Â. D.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a dispersive Faraday optical probe of atomic spin which performs a weak measurement of spin projection of a quantum gas continuously for more than one second. To date, focusing bright far-off-resonance probes onto quantum gases has proved invasive due to strong scalar and vector light shifts exerting dipole and Stern-Gerlach forces. We show that tuning the probe near the magic-zero wavelength at 790 nm between the fine-structure doublet of 87Rb cancels the scalar light shift, and careful control of polarization eliminates the vector light shift. Faraday rotations due to each fine-structure line reinforce at this wavelength, enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio for a fixed rate of probe-induced decoherence. Using this minimally invasive spin probe, we perform microscale atomic magnetometry at high temporal resolution. Spectrogram analysis of the Larmor precession signal of a single spinor Bose-Einstein condensate measures a time-varying magnetic field strength with 1 μ G accuracy every 5 ms; or, equivalently, makes more than 200 successive measurements each at 10 pT /√{Hz } sensitivity.

  11. Development of a large area thermal neutron detector based on a scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the development and construction of a detector prototype based on wavelength shifting fiber in combination with a scintillator has been investigated and optimized. This development aims at an alternative for large area neutron detectors based on "3He detectors, which was the main construction in the past. After the study of the components and assemblies, such as: the scintillator, the wavelength-shifting-fibers and available photomultiplier tubes, the construction of the first prototype module begun. The neutron converter was selected as a "6LiF/ZnS scintillator, which produces a big light yield per absorbed neutron. The prototype itself is square and has an edge length of 30 cm in combination with two orthogonal layers of crossed wavelength-shifting-fibers. The top fiber layer, which is closer to the "6LiF/ZnS top scintillator produces the x-coordinates and the lower layer produces the y-coordinates for each event. In the prototype, MSJ-fibers from the company Kuraray were used with 1 mm diameter and spacing in the top layer of 1.5 mm and 1 mm in the lower layer. Due to the orthogonal arrangement of the wires in the two layers, one may identify where the neutron was absorbed in the scintillator and produced the light yield. In order to reduce the light loss of the absorbed photons inside the fibers, a bending radius of greater than 20 mm was used and achieved by warming up the fibers to 80 C during the bending process. The increased temperature reduces the crack formation in the fibers which increases the light loss. At this time it is expected that a photomultiplier from Hamamatsu with 256 individual pixels for readout will be used. This H9500 flat panel photomultiplier has the advantage of readout of all fibers of the prototype in one photomultiplier housing. In combination with integrated readout electronics one can minimize the homogeneity/gain differences of the photocathode pixels, the different light loss in each fiber, and the gain

  12. Tempo of Diversification of Global Amphibians: One-Constant Rate, One-Continuous Shift or Multiple-Discrete Shifts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this brief report, alternative time-varying diversification rate models were fitted onto the phylogeny of global amphibians by considering one-constant-rate (OCR, one-continuous-shift (OCS and multiplediscrete- shifts (MDS situations. The OCS diversification model was rejected by γ statistic (γ=-5.556, p⁄ 0.001, implying the existence of shifting diversification rates for global amphibian phylogeny. Through model selection, MDS diversification model outperformed OCS and OCR models using “laser” package under R environment. Moreover, MDS models, implemented using another R package “MEDUSA”, indicated that there were sixteen shifts over the internal nodes for amphibian phylogeny. Conclusively, both OCS and MDS models are recommended to compare so as to better quantify rate-shifting trends of species diversification. MDS diversification models should be preferential for large phylogenies using “MEDUSA” package in which any arbitrary numbers of shifts are allowed to model.

  13. S – C – L triple wavelength superluminescent source based on an ultra-wideband SOA and FBGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H; Zulkifli, M Z; Hassan, N A; Muhammad, F D; Harun, S W

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a wide-band semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based triple-wavelength superluminescent source with the output in the S-, C- and L-band regions. The proposed systems uses an ultra-wideband SOA with an amplification range from 1440 to 1620 nm as the linear gain medium. Three fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) with centre wavelengths of 1500, 1540 and 1580 nm are used to generate the lasing wavelengths in the S-, Cand L-bands respectively, while a variable optical attenuator is used to finely balance the optical powers of the lasing wavelengths. The ultra-wideband SOA generates an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum with a peak power of -33 dBm at the highest SOA drive current, and also demonstrates a down-shift in the centre wavelength of the generated spectrum due to the spatial distribution of the carrier densities. The S-band wavelength is the dominant wavelength at high drive currents, with an output power of -6 dBm as compared to the C- and L-bands, which only have powers of -11 and -10 dBm, respectively. All wavelengths have a high average signal-to-noise ratio more than 60 dB at the highest drive current of 390 mA, and the system also shows a high degree of stability, with power fluctuations of less than 3 dB within 70 min. The proposed system can find many applications where a wide-band and stable laser source is crucial, such as in communications and sensing. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  14. S – C – L triple wavelength superluminescent source based on an ultra-wideband SOA and FBGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, H; Zulkifli, M Z; Hassan, N A; Muhammad, F D; Harun, S W [Photonics Research Center (Department of Physics), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-10-31

    We propose and demonstrate a wide-band semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based triple-wavelength superluminescent source with the output in the S-, C- and L-band regions. The proposed systems uses an ultra-wideband SOA with an amplification range from 1440 to 1620 nm as the linear gain medium. Three fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) with centre wavelengths of 1500, 1540 and 1580 nm are used to generate the lasing wavelengths in the S-, Cand L-bands respectively, while a variable optical attenuator is used to finely balance the optical powers of the lasing wavelengths. The ultra-wideband SOA generates an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum with a peak power of -33 dBm at the highest SOA drive current, and also demonstrates a down-shift in the centre wavelength of the generated spectrum due to the spatial distribution of the carrier densities. The S-band wavelength is the dominant wavelength at high drive currents, with an output power of -6 dBm as compared to the C- and L-bands, which only have powers of -11 and -10 dBm, respectively. All wavelengths have a high average signal-to-noise ratio more than 60 dB at the highest drive current of 390 mA, and the system also shows a high degree of stability, with power fluctuations of less than 3 dB within 70 min. The proposed system can find many applications where a wide-band and stable laser source is crucial, such as in communications and sensing. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  15. Wavelength detection in FBG sensor networks using least squares support vector regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Tundong; Fu, Xiaoli

    2014-04-01

    A wavelength detection method for a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network is proposed based on least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR). As a kind of promising machine learning technique, LS-SVR is employed to approximate the inverse function of the reflection spectrum. The LS-SVR detection model is established from the training samples, and then the Bragg wavelength of each FBG can be directly identified by inputting the measured spectrum into the well-trained model. We also discuss the impact of the sample size and the preprocess of the input spectrum on the performance of the training effectiveness. The results demonstrate that our approach is effective in improving the accuracy for sensor networks with a large number of FBGs.

  16. Noninvasive diagnosis of oral cancer by Stokes shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Aruna, Prakasrao; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (S3) for normal, precancer and cancerous oral lesions in vivo. The SS spectra were recorded in the 250 - 650 nm spectral range by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions observed around 300, 355, 395, and 420 nm which are attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. Using S3 technique one can obtain the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions are verified by different ratio parameters.

  17. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas at Submillimeter Wavelengths for Terahertz Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Skalare, Anders; Lee, Choonsup; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Most optical systems require antennas with directive patterns. This means that the physical area of the antenna will be large in terms of the wavelength. When non-cooled systems are used, the losses of microstrip or coplanar waveguide lines impede the use of standard patch or slot antennas for a large number of elements in a phased array format. Traditionally, this problem has been solved by using silicon lenses. However, if an array of such highly directive antennas is to be used for imaging applications, the fabrication of many closely spaced lenses becomes a problem. Moreover, planar antennas are usually fed by microstrip or coplanar waveguides while the mixer or the detector elements (usually Schottky diodes) are coupled in a waveguide environment. The coupling between the antenna and the detector/ mixer can be a fabrication challenge in an imaging array at submillimeter wavelengths. Antennas excited by a waveguide (TE10) mode makes use of dielectric superlayers to increase the directivity. These antennas create a kind of Fabry- Perot cavity between the ground plane and the first layer of dielectric. In reality, the antenna operates as a leaky wave mode where a leaky wave pole propagates along the cavity while it radiates. Thanks to this pole, the directivity of a small antenna is considerably enhanced. The antenna consists of a waveguide feed, which can be coupled to a mixer or detector such as a Schottky diode via a standard probe design. The waveguide is loaded with a double-slot iris to perform an impedance match and to suppress undesired modes that can propagate on the cavity. On top of the slot there is an air cavity and on top, a small portion of a hemispherical lens. The fractional bandwidth of such antennas is around 10 percent, which is good enough for heterodyne imaging applications.The new geometry makes use of a silicon lens instead of dielectric quarter wavelength substrates. This design presents several advantages when used in the submillimeter

  18. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  19. First ever full size CdTE luminescent down-shifting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, D.; Alonso-Alvarez, D.; Fritsche, J.; Bauer, M.; Debije, M.G.; Fifield, R.M.; Richards, B.S.

    2012-01-01

    For the first time a luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layer has been applied to a full size PV module to improve its short-wavelength response. An average 4.3% relative increase in the short-circuit current density (JSC) was recorded for the Calyxo cadmium telluride (CdTe) modules after the best LDS

  20. How to distinguish elastically scattered light from Stokes shifted light for solid-state lighting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meretska, Maryna; Lagendijk, Aart; Thyrrestrup Nielsen, Henri; Mosk, Allard; IJzerman, W.L.; Vos, Willem L.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the transport of light through phosphor diffuser plates that are used in commercial solid-state lighting modules (Fortimo). These polymer plates contain YAG:Ce+3phosphor particles that both elastically scatter and Stokes shift light in the visible wavelength range (400–700 nm). We

  1. Optical signal inverter of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet with red shift of laser diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Y

    1994-08-10

    An optical signal inverter was demonstrated in a simple structure that combined a laser diode with Er-doped YAG crystal. The optical signal inversion occurred at a response time of 7 ns and was caused by the decrease of transmission of Er:YAG against the red shift of the wavelength of the laser diode.

  2. Moiré phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings in polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Rui; Marques, Carlos; Bang, Ole

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple way to fabricate phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating in polymer optical fibers as a narrowband transmission filter for a variety of applications at telecom wavelengths. The filters have been fabricated by overlapping two uniform fiber Bragg gratings with slightly different...

  3. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  4. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  5. Stresses and Temperature Stability of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Filters Prepared by Reactive Ion-Assisted E-Gun Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao-Tsang; Shieh, Han-Ping D.

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, we report the in situ measurement of the temperature stability of narrow-band-pass filters on different types of substrate, for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) filters in optical-fiber transmission systems. The DWDM filters were designed as all-dielectric Fabry-Perot filters and fabricated by reactive ion-assisted deposition. Ta2O5 and SiO2 were used as high- and low-refractive-index layers, respectively, for constructing the DWDM filters. The accuracy and stability of the coating process were evaluated for fabricating the DWDM filters for the temperature stability of the center wavelength. The center wavelength shift was determined to be greatly dependent on the coefficient of thermal expansion of the substrate on which the filter is deposited.

  6. Soliton self-frequency shift controlled by a weak seed laser in tellurite photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lai; Meng, Xiangwei; Yin, Feixiang; Liao, Meisong; Zhao, Dan; Qin, Guanshi; Ohishi, Yasutake; Qin, Weiping

    2013-08-01

    We report the first demonstration of soliton self-frequency shift (SSFS) controlled by a weak continuous-wave (CW) laser, from a tellurite photonic crystal fiber pumped by a 1560 nm femtosecond fiber laser. The control of SSFS is performed by the cross-gain modulation of the 1560 nm femtosecond laser. By varying the input power of the weak CW laser (1560 nm) from 0 to 1.17 mW, the soliton generated in the tellurite photonic crystal fiber blue shifts from 1935 to 1591 nm. The dependence of the soliton wavelength on the operation wavelength of the weak CW laser is also measured. The results show the CW laser with a wavelength tunable range of 1530-1592 nm can be used to control the SSFS generation.

  7. Metasurface axicon lens design at visible wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyammahi, Saleimah; Zhan, Qiwen

    2017-08-01

    The emerging field of metasurfaces is promising to realize novel optical devices with miniaturized flat format and added functionalities. Metasurfaces have been demonstrated to exhibit full control of amplitude, phase and polarization of electromagnetic waves. Using the metasurface, the wavefront of light can be manipulated permitting new functionalities such as focusing and steering of the beams and imaging. One optical component which can be designed using metasurfaces is the axicon. Axicons are conical lenses used to convert Gaussian beams into nondiffraction Bessel beams. These unique devices are utilized in different applications ranging from optical trapping and manipulation, medical imaging, and surgery. In this work, we study axicon lens design comprising of planar metasurfaces which generate non-diffracting Bessel beams at visible wavelengths. Dielectric metasurfaces have been used to achieve high efficiency and low optical loss. We measured the spot size of the resulted beams at different planes to demonstrate the non-diffraction properties of the resulted beams. We also investigated how the spot size is influenced by the axicon aperture. Furthermore, we examined the achromatic properties of the designed axicon. Comparing with the conventional lens, the metasurface axicon lens design enables the creation of flat optical device with wide range of depth of focus along its optical axis.

  8. Spectral reconstruction for shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuxia; Chernavskaia, Olga; Popp, Jürgen; Bocklitz, Thomas

    2018-08-15

    Fluorescence emission is one of the major obstacles to apply Raman spectroscopy in biological investigations. It is usually several orders more intense than Raman scattering and hampers further analysis. In cases where the fluorescence emission is too intense to be efficiently removed via routine mathematical baseline correction algorithms, an alternative approach is needed. One alternative approach is shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS), where two Raman spectra are recorded with two slightly different excitation wavelengths. Ideally, the fluorescence emission at the two excitations does not change while the Raman spectrum shifts according to the excitation wavelength. Hence the fluorescence is removed in the difference of the two recorded Raman spectra. For better interpretability a spectral reconstruction procedure is necessary to recover the fluorescence-free Raman spectrum. This is challenging due to the intensity variations between the two recorded Raman spectra caused by unavoidable experimental changes as well as the presence of noise. Existent approaches suffer from drawbacks like spectral resolution loss, fluorescence residual, and artefacts. In this contribution, we proposed a reconstruction method based on non-negative least squares (NNLS), where the intensity variations between the two measurements are utilized in the reconstruction model. The method achieved fluorescence-free reconstruction on three real-world SERDS datasets without significant information loss. Thereafter, we quantified the performance of the reconstruction based on artificial datasets from four aspects: reconstructed spectral resolution, precision of reconstruction, signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and fluorescence residual. The artificial datasets were constructed with varied Raman to fluorescence intensity ratio (RFIR), SNR, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), excitation wavelength shift, and fluorescence variation between the two spectra. It was demonstrated that

  9. Wavelength encoding technique for particle analyses in hematology analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongeat, Nelly; Brunel, Patrick; Gineys, Jean-Philippe; Cremien, Didier; Couderc, Vincent; Nérin, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to combine multiple excitation wavelengths in order to improve accuracy of fluorescence characterization of labeled cells. The experimental demonstration is realized with a hematology analyzer based on flow cytometry and a CW laser source emitting two visible wavelengths. A given optical encoding associated to each wavelength allows fluorescence identification coming from specific fluorochromes and avoiding the use of noisy compensation method.

  10. Photonic crystal fibre enables short-wavelength two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy with fura-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Gail; Riis, Erling

    2004-01-01

    We report on a novel and compact reliable laser source capable of short-wavelength two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy based on soliton self-frequency shift effects in photonic crystal fibre. We demonstrate the function of the system by performing two-photon microscopy of smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes from the rat pulmonary vein and Chinese hamster ovary cells loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator fura-2/AM

  11. All optical wavelength conversion and parametric amplification in Ti:PPLN channel waveguides for telecommunication applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouroozi, Rahman

    2010-10-19

    Efficient ultra-fast integrated all-optical wavelength converters and parametric amplifiers transparent to the polarization, phase, and modulation-level and -format are investigated. The devices take advantage of the optical nonlinearity of Ti:PPLN waveguides exploiting difference frequency generation (DFG). In a DFG, the signal ({lambda}{sub s}) is mixed with a pump ({lambda}{sub p}) to generate a wavelength shifted idler (1/{lambda}{sub i}=1/{lambda}{sub p}-1/{lambda}{sub s}). Efficient generation of the pump in Ti:PPLN channel guides is investigated using different approaches. In the waveguide resonators, first a resonance of the fundamental wave alone is considered. It is shown that the maximum power enhancement of the fundamental wave, and therefore the maximum second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency, can be achieved with low loss matched resonators. By this way, SHG efficiency of {proportional_to}10300%/W (10.3 %/mW) has been achieved in a 65 mm long waveguide resonator. Its operation for cSHG/DFG requires narrowband reflector for fundamental wave only. Thus, the SH (pump) wave resonator is investigated. The SH-wave resonator enhances the intracavity SH power only. Based on this scheme, an improvement of {proportional_to}10 dB for cSHG/DFG based wavelength conversion efficiency has been achieved with 50 mW of coupled fundamental power in a 30 mm long Ti:PPLN. However, operation was limited to relatively small fundamental power levels (<50 mW) due to the onset of photorefractive instabilities destroying the cavity stabilization. The cSHG/DFG efficiency can be considerably improved by using a double-pass configuration in which all the interacting waves were reflected by a broadband dielectric mirror deposited on the one endface of the waveguide. Three different approaches are investigated and up to 9 dB improvement of the wavelength conversion efficiency in comparison with the single-pass configuration is achieved. Polarization-insensitive wavelength

  12. Performance evaluation of distributed wavelength assignment in WDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Tomohiro; Wang, Xi; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Aoyama, Tomonori

    2004-04-01

    In WDM wavelength routed networks, prior to a data transfer, a call setup procedure is required to reserve a wavelength path between the source-destination node pairs. A distributed approach to a connection setup can achieve a very high speed, while improving the reliability and reducing the implementation cost of the networks. However, along with many advantages, several major challenges have been posed by the distributed scheme in how the management and allocation of wavelength could be efficiently carried out. In this thesis, we apply a distributed wavelength assignment algorithm named priority based wavelength assignment (PWA) that was originally proposed for the use in burst switched optical networks to the problem of reserving wavelengths of path reservation protocols in the distributed control optical networks. Instead of assigning wavelengths randomly, this approach lets each node select the "safest" wavelengths based on the information of wavelength utilization history, thus unnecessary future contention is prevented. The simulation results presented in this paper show that the proposed protocol can enhance the performance of the system without introducing any apparent drawbacks.

  13. Span Restoration in Optical Networks with Limited Wavelength Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Buron, Jakob Due; Andriolli, N

    2007-01-01

    Next generation optical networks provide functionalities to dynamically provision and recover connections, while emerging technologies allow for the conversion between wavelengths. These devices are however expensive and hence it is likely that only few are deployed throughout the network...... converter-saving wavelength assignment in GMPLS networks. The converter saving property of the Suggested Vector is particularly desirable in span restoration, where the pre-failure path stubs have to be merged to the restoration path at the failure-adjacent nodes. In order to avoid wavelength conversion....... Furthermore, we describe different scenarios to extend the suggested vector wavelength assignment scheme to multi-domain networks with focus on span restoration....

  14. Tapered amplifier laser with frequency-shifted feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bayerle, S. Tzanova, P. Vlaar, B. Pasquiou, F. Schreck

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a frequency-shifted feedback (FSF laser based on a tapered amplifier. The laser operates as a coherent broadband source with up to 370GHz spectral width and 2.3us coherence time. If the FSF laser is seeded by a continuous-wave laser a frequency comb spanning the output spectrum appears in addition to the broadband emission. The laser has an output power of 280mW and a center wavelength of 780nm. The ease and flexibility of use of tapered amplifiers makes our FSF laser attractive for a wide range of applications, especially in metrology.

  15. Software for imaging phase-shift interference microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovski, I.; França, R. S.; Couceiro, I. B.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years absolute interference microscope was created at National Metrology Institute of Brazil (INMETRO). The instrument by principle of operation is imaging phase-shifting interferometer (PSI) equipped with two stabilized lasers of different colour as traceable reference wavelength sources. We report here some progress in development of the software for this instrument. The status of undergoing internal validation and verification of the software is also reported. In contrast with standard PSI method, different methodology of phase evaluation is applied. Therefore, instrument specific procedures for software validation and verification are adapted and discussed.

  16. MULTI-WAVELENGTH RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION STUDIES OF DUST-FREE RED GIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gorman, Eamon; Harper, Graham M. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Drake, Stephen [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Richards, Anita M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Multi-wavelength centimeter continuum observations of non-dusty, non-pulsating K spectral-type red giants directly sample their chromospheres and wind acceleration zones. Such stars are feeble emitters at these wavelengths, however, and previous observations have provided only a small number of modest signal-to-noise measurements slowly accumulated over three decades. We present multi-wavelength Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array thermal continuum observations of the wind acceleration zones of two dust-free red giants, Arcturus (α Boo: K2 III) and Aldebaran (α Tau: K5 III). Importantly, most of our observations of each star were carried out over just a few days, so that we obtained a snapshot of the different stellar atmospheric layers sampled at different wavelengths, independent of any long-term variability. We report the first detections at several wavelengths for each star including a detection at 10 cm (3.0 GHz: S band) for both stars and a 20 cm (1.5 GHz: L band) detection for α Boo. This is the first time single (non-binary) luminosity class III red giants have been detected at these continuum wavelengths. Our long-wavelength data sample the outer layers of α Boo's atmosphere where its wind velocity is approaching (or possibly has reached) its terminal value and the ionization balance is becoming frozen-in. For α Tau, however, our long-wavelength data are still sampling its inner atmosphere, where the wind is still accelerating probably due to its lower mass-loss rate. We compare our data with published semi-empirical models based on ultraviolet data, and the marked deviations highlight the need for new atmospheric models to be developed. Spectral indices are used to discuss the possible properties of the stellar atmospheres, and we find evidence for a rapidly cooling wind in the case of α Boo. Finally, we develop a simple analytical wind model for α Boo based on our new long-wavelength flux measurements.

  17. MULTI-WAVELENGTH RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION STUDIES OF DUST-FREE RED GIANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, Eamon; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Drake, Stephen; Richards, Anita M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-wavelength centimeter continuum observations of non-dusty, non-pulsating K spectral-type red giants directly sample their chromospheres and wind acceleration zones. Such stars are feeble emitters at these wavelengths, however, and previous observations have provided only a small number of modest signal-to-noise measurements slowly accumulated over three decades. We present multi-wavelength Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array thermal continuum observations of the wind acceleration zones of two dust-free red giants, Arcturus (α Boo: K2 III) and Aldebaran (α Tau: K5 III). Importantly, most of our observations of each star were carried out over just a few days, so that we obtained a snapshot of the different stellar atmospheric layers sampled at different wavelengths, independent of any long-term variability. We report the first detections at several wavelengths for each star including a detection at 10 cm (3.0 GHz: S band) for both stars and a 20 cm (1.5 GHz: L band) detection for α Boo. This is the first time single (non-binary) luminosity class III red giants have been detected at these continuum wavelengths. Our long-wavelength data sample the outer layers of α Boo's atmosphere where its wind velocity is approaching (or possibly has reached) its terminal value and the ionization balance is becoming frozen-in. For α Tau, however, our long-wavelength data are still sampling its inner atmosphere, where the wind is still accelerating probably due to its lower mass-loss rate. We compare our data with published semi-empirical models based on ultraviolet data, and the marked deviations highlight the need for new atmospheric models to be developed. Spectral indices are used to discuss the possible properties of the stellar atmospheres, and we find evidence for a rapidly cooling wind in the case of α Boo. Finally, we develop a simple analytical wind model for α Boo based on our new long-wavelength flux measurements

  18. Multi-wavelength Radio Continuum Emission Studies of Dust-free Red Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eamon; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Dranke, Stephen; Richards, Anita M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-wavelength centimeter continuum observations of non-dusty, non-pulsating K spectral-type red giants directly sample their chromospheres and wind acceleration zones. Such stars are feeble emitters at these wavelengths, however, and previous observations have provided only a small number of modest signal-to-noise measurements slowly accumulated over three decades. We present multi-wavelength Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array thermal continuum observations of the wind acceleration zones of two dust-free red giants, Arcturus (alpha Boo: K2 III) and Aldebaran (alpha Tau: K5 III). Importantly, most of our observations of each star were carried out over just a few days, so that we obtained a snapshot of the different stellar atmospheric layers sampled at different wavelengths, independent of any long-term variability. We report the first detections at several wavelengths for each star including a detection at 10 cm (3.0 GHz: S band) for both stars and a 20 cm (1.5 GHz: L band) detection for alpha Boo. This is the first time single (non-binary) luminosity class III red giants have been detected at these continuum wavelengths. Our long-wavelength data sample the outer layers of alpha Boo's atmosphere where its wind velocity is approaching (or possibly has reached) its terminal value and the ionization balance is becoming frozen-in. For alpha Tau, however, our long-wavelength data are still sampling its inner atmosphere, where the wind is still accelerating probably due to its lower mass-loss rate. We compare our data with published semi-empirical models based on ultraviolet data, and the marked deviations highlight the need for new atmospheric models to be developed. Spectral indices are used to discuss the possible properties of the stellar atmospheres, and we find evidence for a rapidly cooling wind in the case of alpha Boo. Finally, we develop a simple analytical wind model for alpha Boo based on our new long-wavelength flux measurements.

  19. Critical de Broglie wavelength in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talantsev, E. F.

    2018-03-01

    There are growing numbers of experimental evidences that the self-field critical currents, Jc(sf,T), are a new instructive tool to investigate fundamental properties of superconductors ranging from atomically thin films [M. Liao et al., Nat. Phys. 6 (2018), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-017-0031-6; E. F. Talantsev et al., 2D Mater. 4 (2017) 025072; A. Fete et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 109 (2016) 192601] to millimeter-scale samples [E. F. Talantsev et al., Sci. Rep. 7 (2017) 10010]. The basic empirical equation which quantitatively accurately described experimental Jc(sf,T) was proposed by Talantsev and Tallon [Nat. Commun. 6 (2015) 7820] and it was the relevant critical field (i.e. thermodynamic field, Bc, for type-I and lower critical field, Bc1, for type-II superconductors) divided by the London penetration depth, λL. In this paper, we report new findings relating to this empirical equation. It is that the critical wavelength of the de Broglie wave, λdB,c, of the superconducting charge carrier which within a numerical pre-factor is equal to the largest of two characteristic lengths of Ginzburg-Landau theory, i.e. the coherence length, ξ, for type-I superconductors or the London penetration depth, λL, for type-II superconductors. We also formulate a microscopic criterion for the onset of dissipative transport current flow: ps ṡ 2ṡλL ln(1+2ṡ(λL ξ )) ≥ 1 2 ṡ ( h 2π), where ps is the charge carrier momentum, h is Planck’s constant and the inequality sign “ <” is reserved for the dissipation-free flow.

  20. Growth of Au nanoparticle films and the effect of nanoparticle shape on plasmon peak wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikoshi, S., E-mail: horikoshi@sstl.info; Matsumoto, N.; Kato, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Omata, Y. [Application and Technical Support, Elionix, Inc., 3-7-6 Motoyokoyama Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0063 (Japan)

    2014-05-21

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and thus have potential for use in a wide range of applications. A facile technique for the preparation of NP films using an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma sputtering method without a dewetting process is described. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observations revealed that the Au NPs grew independently as island-like particles during the first stage of sputtering and then coalesced with one another as sputtering time increased to ultimately form a continuous film. A plasmon absorption peak was observed via optical measurement of absorption efficiency. The LSPR peak shifted toward longer wavelengths (red shift) with an increase in sputtering time. The cause of this plasmon peak shift was theoretically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain calculation method. A realistic statistical distribution of the particle shapes based on FE-SEM observations was applied for the analysis, which has not been previously reported. It was determined that the change in the shape of the NPs from spheroidal to oval or slender due to coalescence with neighbouring NPs caused the LSPR peak shift. These results may enable the design of LSPR devices by controlling the characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as their size, shape, number density, and coverage.

  1. Growth of Au nanoparticle films and the effect of nanoparticle shape on plasmon peak wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, S.; Matsumoto, N.; Omata, Y.; Kato, T.

    2014-05-01

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and thus have potential for use in a wide range of applications. A facile technique for the preparation of NP films using an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma sputtering method without a dewetting process is described. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observations revealed that the Au NPs grew independently as island-like particles during the first stage of sputtering and then coalesced with one another as sputtering time increased to ultimately form a continuous film. A plasmon absorption peak was observed via optical measurement of absorption efficiency. The LSPR peak shifted toward longer wavelengths (red shift) with an increase in sputtering time. The cause of this plasmon peak shift was theoretically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain calculation method. A realistic statistical distribution of the particle shapes based on FE-SEM observations was applied for the analysis, which has not been previously reported. It was determined that the change in the shape of the NPs from spheroidal to oval or slender due to coalescence with neighbouring NPs caused the LSPR peak shift. These results may enable the design of LSPR devices by controlling the characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as their size, shape, number density, and coverage.

  2. Procedure to decouple reflectance and down-shifting effects in luminescent down-shifting enhanced photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Ahmed M; Walker, Alexandre W; Wilkins, Matthew M; Kleiman, Rafael; Hinzer, Karin

    2017-06-12

    The down-shifting (DS) process is a purely optical approach used to improve the short-wavelength response of a solar cell by shifting high-energy photons to the visible range, which can be more efficiently absorbed by the solar cell. In addition to the DS effect, coupling a DS layer to the top surface of a solar cell results in a change in surface reflectance. The two effects are intermixed and therefore, usually reported as a single effect. Here we propose a procedure to decouple the two effects. Analytical equations are derived to decouple the two effects, that consider the experimentally measured quantum efficiency of the solar cell with and without the DS layer, in addition to transfer matrix simulations of the parasitic absorption in the device structure. In this work, an overall degradation of 0.46 mA/cm 2 is observed when adding a DS layer composed of silicon nanocrystals embedded in a quartz matrix to a silicon solar cell of 11% baseline efficiency. To fully understand the contribution from each effect, the surface reflectance and DS effects are decoupled and quantified using the described procedure. We observe an enhancement of 0.27 mA/cm 2 in short-circuit current density due to the DS effect, while the surface reflectance effect leads to a degradation of 0.73 mA/cm 2 in short-circuit current density.

  3. Broadband and high efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for wavefront steering with easily obtained phase shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Deng, Yan

    2017-12-01

    All-dielectric metasurfaces for wavefront deflecting and optical vortex generating with broadband and high efficiency are demonstrated. The unit cell of the metasurfaces is optimized to function as a half wave-plate with high polarization conversion efficiency (94%) and transmittance (94.5%) at the telecommunication wavelength. Under such a condition, we can get rid of the complicated parameter sweep process for phase shift selecting. Hence, a phase coverage ranges from 0 to 2 π can be easily obtained by introducing the Pancharatnam-Berry phase. Metasurfaces composed of the two pre-designed super cells are demonstrated for optical beam deflecting and vortex beam generating. It is found that the metasurfaces with more phase shift sampling points (small phase shift increment) exhibit better performance. Moreover, optical vortex beams can be generated by the designed metasurfaces within a wavelength range of 200 nm. These results will provide a viable route for designing broadband and high efficiency devices related to phase modulation.

  4. Compactly packaged monolithic four-wavelength VCSEL array with 100-GHz wavelength spacing for future-proof mobile fronthaul transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Gu; Mun, Sil-Gu; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Jyung Chan; Lee, Jong Hyun

    2015-01-12

    We report a cost-effective transmitter optical sub-assembly using a monolithic four-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array with 100-GHz wavelength spacing for future-proof mobile fronthaul transport using the data rate of common public radio interface option 6. The wavelength spacing is achieved using selectively etched cavity control layers and fine current adjustment. The differences in operating current and output power for maintaining the wavelength spacing of four VCSELs are fiber without any dispersion-compensation techniques.

  5. Highly accurate Michelson type wavelength meter that uses a rubidium stabilized 1560 nm diode laser as a wavelength reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Shin; Kanoh, Eiji; Irisawa, Akiyoshi; Niki, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the accuracy limitation of a wavelength meter installed in a vacuum chamber to enable us to develop a highly accurate meter based on a Michelson interferometer in 1550 nm optical communication bands. We found that an error of parts per million order could not be avoided using famous wavelength compensation equations. Chromatic dispersion of the refractive index in air can almost be disregarded when a 1560 nm wavelength produced by a rubidium (Rb) stabilized distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser is used as a reference wavelength. We describe a novel dual-wavelength self-calibration scheme that maintains high accuracy of the wavelength meter. The method uses the fundamental and second-harmonic wavelengths of an Rb-stabilized DFB diode laser. Consequently, a highly accurate Michelson type wavelength meter with an absolute accuracy of 5x10 -8 (10 MHz, 0.08 pm) over a wide wavelength range including optical communication bands was achieved without the need for a vacuum chamber.

  6. Excitation wavelength selection for quantitative analysis of carotenoids in tomatoes using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Risa; Ishigaki, Mika; Kitahama, Yasutaka; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Genkawa, Takuma

    2018-08-30

    The difference in Raman spectra for different excitation wavelengths (532 nm, 785 nm, and 1064 nm) was investigated to identify an appropriate wavelength for the quantitative analysis of carotenoids in tomatoes. For the 532 nm-excited Raman spectra, the intensity of the peak assigned to the carotenoid has no correlation with carotenoid concentration, and the peak shift reflects carotenoid composition changing from lycopene to β-carotene and lutein. Thus, 532 nm-excited Raman spectra are useful for the qualitative analysis of carotenoids. For the 785 nm- and 1064 nm-excited Raman spectra, the peak intensity of the carotenoid showed good correlation with carotenoid concentration; thus, regression models for carotenoid concentration were developed using these Raman spectra and partial least squares regression. A regression model designed using the 785 nm-excited Raman spectra showed a better result than the 532 nm- and 1064 nm-excited Raman spectra. Therefore, it can be concluded that 785 nm is the most suitable excitation wavelength for the quantitative analysis of carotenoid concentration in tomatoes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced Deformation of Azobenzene-Modified Liquid Crystal Polymers under Dual Wavelength Exposure: A Photophysical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Onck, Patrick R.

    2017-08-01

    Azobenzene-embedded liquid crystal polymers can undergo mechanical deformation in response to ultraviolet (UV) light. The natural rodlike trans state azobenzene absorbs UV light and isomerizes to a bentlike cis state, which disturbs the order of the polymer network, leading to an anisotropic deformation. The current consensus is that the magnitude of the photoinduced deformation is related to the statistical building up of molecules in the cis state. However, a recent experimental study [Liu and Broer, Nat. Commun. 6 8334 (2015)., 10.1038/ncomms9334] shows that a drastic (fourfold) increase of the photoinduced deformation can be generated by exposing the samples simultaneously to 365 nm (UV) and 455 nm (visible) light. To elucidate the physical mechanism that drives this increase, we develop a two-light attenuation model and an optomechanical constitutive relation that not only accounts for the statistical accumulation of cis azobenzenes, but also for the dynamic trans-cis-trans oscillatory isomerization process. Our experimentally calibrated model predicts that the optimal single-wavelength exposure is 395 nm light, a pronounced shift towards the visible spectrum. In addition, we identify a range of optimal combinations of two-wavelength lights that generate a favorable response for a given amount of injected energy. Our model provides mechanistic insight into the different (multi)wavelength exposures used in experiments and, at the same time, opens new avenues towards enhanced, multiwavelength optomechanical behavior.

  8. Effect of algae and water on water color shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengguang; Xia, Daying; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Jun

    1991-03-01

    This study showed that the combined effect of absorption of planktonic algae and water on water color shift can be simulated approximately by the exponential function: Log( E {100cm/ W }+ E {100cm/ Xch1})=0.002λ-2.5 where E {100/cm W }, E {100cm/ Xchl} are, respectively, extinction coefficients of seawater and chlorophyll—a (concentration is equal to X mg/m3), and λ (nm) is wavelength. This empirical regression equation is very useful for forecasting the relation between water color and biomass in water not affected by terrigenous material. The main factor affecting water color shift in the ocean should be the absorption of blue light by planktonic algae.

  9. Wavelength properties of DCG holograms under the conditions of different temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujie; Li, Wenqiang; Ding, Quanxin; Yan, Zhanjun

    2014-12-01

    Holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG) are usually sealed with a glass plate cemented with an epoxy glue to protect the holograms from moisture in the environment. An investigation of the wavelength properties of sealed DCG holograms had been carried out paying attention to holograms which were exposed to different temperature and humidity environment in this work. The investigation had revealed that (a) exposing the sealed DCG holograms to high relative humidity (RH=98%) environment or immersing them in room-temperature water for 20 hours can not affect the holograms; (b) the sealed DCG holograms can be used at temperature below 50°C without showing undue detrimental effects regarding their optical properties; (c) the peak wavelength of sealed DCG holograms can cause blue shift of several nanometers at 70°C~85°C and the velocity of blue shift is proportional to the environmental temperature; (d) the holograms can be destroyed at 100° or above. The experimental results above will be analyzed and discussed in this paper. A method to improve the stability of sealed DCG holograms is proposed: baking the sealed DCG holograms at proper temperature (e.g., 85°C in this study).

  10. Interband emission energy in a dilute nitride quaternary semiconductor quantum dot for longer wavelength applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageshwari, P. Uma; Peter, A. John; Lee, Chang Woo; Duque, C. A.

    2016-07-01

    Excitonic properties are studied in a strained Ga1-xInxNyAs1-y/GaAs cylindrical quantum dot. The optimum condition for the desired band alignment for emitting wavelength 1.55 μm is investigated using band anticrossing model and the model solid theory. The band gap and the band discontinuities of a Ga1-xInxNyAs1-y/GaAs quantum dot on GaAs are computed with the geometrical confinement effect. The binding energy of the exciton, the oscillator strength and its radiative life time for the optimum condition are found taking into account the spatial confinement effect. The effects of geometrical confinement and the nitrogen incorporation on the interband emission energy are brought out. The result shows that the desired band alignment for emitting wavelength 1.55 μm is achieved for the inclusion of alloy contents, y=0.0554% and x=0.339% in Ga1-xInxNyAs1-y/GaAs quantum dot. And the incorporation of nitrogen and indium shows the red-shift and the geometrical confinement shows the blue-shift. And it can be applied for fibre optical communication networks.

  11. Self-phase modulation enabled, wavelength-tunable ultrafast fiber laser sources: an energy scalable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Chen; Zhang, Zhigang; Kärtner, Franz X; Chang, Guoqing

    2016-07-11

    We propose and demonstrate a new approach to implement a wavelength-tunable ultrafast fiber laser source suitable for multiphoton microscopy. We employ fiber-optic nonlinearities to broaden a narrowband optical spectrum generated by an Yb-fiber laser system and then use optical bandpass filters to select the leftmost or rightmost spectral lobes from the broadened spectrum. Detailed numerical modeling shows that self-phase modulation dominates the spectral broadening, self-steepening tends to blue shift the broadened spectrum, and stimulated Raman scattering is minimal. We also find that optical wave breaking caused by fiber dispersion slows down the shift of the leftmost/rightmost spectral lobes and therefore limits the wavelength tuning range of the filtered spectra. We show both numerically and experimentally that shortening the fiber used for spectral broadening while increasing the input pulse energy can overcome this dispersion-induced limitation; as a result, the filtered spectral lobes have higher power, constituting a powerful and practical approach for energy scaling the resulting femtosecond sources. We use two commercially available photonic crystal fibers to verify the simulation results. More specific, use of 20-mm fiber NL-1050-ZERO-2 enables us to implement an Yb-fiber laser based ultrafast source, delivering femtosecond (70-120 fs) pulses tunable from 825 nm to 1210 nm with >1 nJ pulse energy.

  12. Controlling the emission wavelength in group III-V semiconductor laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-12-29

    Methods are provided for modifying the emission wavelength of a semiconductor quantum well laser diode, e.g. by blue shifting the emission wavelength. The methods can be applied to a variety of semiconductor quantum well laser diodes, e.g. group III-V semiconductor quantum wells. The group III-V semiconductor can include AlSb, AlAs, Aln, AlP, BN, GaSb, GaAs, GaN, GaP, InSb, InAs, InN, and InP, and group III-V ternary semiconductors alloys such as AlxGai.xAs. The methods can results in a blue shifting of about 20 meV to 350 meV, which can be used for example to make group III-V semiconductor quantum well laser diodes with an emission that is orange or yellow. Methods of making semiconductor quantum well laser diodes and semiconductor quantum well laser diodes made therefrom are also provided.

  13. Extended averaging phase-shift schemes for Fizeau interferometry on high-numerical-aperture spherical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jan

    2010-08-01

    Phase-shifting Fizeau interferometry on spherical surfaces is impaired by phase-shift errors increasing with the numerical aperture, unless a custom optical set-up or wavelength shifting is used. This poses a problem especially for larger numerical apertures, and requires good error tolerance of the phase-shift method used; but it also constitutes a useful testing facility for phase-shift formulae, because a vast range of phase-shift intervals can be tested in a single measurement. In this paper I show how the "characteristic polynomials" method can be used to generate a phase-shifting method for the actual numerical aperture, and analyse residual cyclical phase errors by comparing a phase map from an interferogram with a few fringes to a phase mpa from a nulled fringe. Unrelated to the phase-shift miscalibration, thirdharmonic error fringes are found. These can be dealt with by changing the nominal phase shift from 90°/step to 60°/step and re-tailoring the evaluation formula for third-harmonic rejection. The residual error has the same frequency as the phase-shift signal itself, and can be removed by averaging measurements. Some interesting features of the characteristic polynomials for the averaged formulae emerge, which also shed some light on the mechanism that generates cyclical phase errors.

  14. ACCURATE LABORATORY WAVELENGTHS OF THE e 3 Σ-(ν' = 5) - X 1 Σ+(ν'' = 0) BAND OF 12C16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickenson, G. D.; Nortje, A. C.; Steenkamp, C. M.; Rohwer, E. G.; Du Plessis, A.

    2010-01-01

    The forbidden singlet-triplet transitions of carbon monoxide (CO) are important in the interpretation of vacuum ultraviolet interstellar absorption spectra and in particular for the measurement of large CO column densities. Twenty rovibronic lines of the e 3 Σ - (ν' = 5) - X 1 Σ + (ν'' = 0) band of 12 C 16 O for which laboratory wavelengths were previously unavailable were identified in laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectra. Wavelengths were assigned to five rovibronic transitions to an average accuracy of 0.0028 A. A further 15 lines could not be fully resolved and average wavelengths were measured for these groups of closely spaced lines. A wavelength difference of 0.011 ± 0.0028 A between the measured wavelengths and the calculated wavelengths in the atlas of Eidelsberg and Rostas demonstrates the need for more experimental data on CO.

  15. Accurate Laboratory Wavelengths of the e 3 Σ-(ν' = 5) - X 1 Σ+(ν'' = 0) Band of 12C16O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, G. D.; Nortje, A. C.; Steenkamp, C. M.; Rohwer, E. G.; Du Plessis, A.

    2010-05-01

    The forbidden singlet-triplet transitions of carbon monoxide (CO) are important in the interpretation of vacuum ultraviolet interstellar absorption spectra and in particular for the measurement of large CO column densities. Twenty rovibronic lines of the e 3Σ-(ν' = 5) - X 1Σ+(ν'' = 0) band of 12 C 16O for which laboratory wavelengths were previously unavailable were identified in laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectra. Wavelengths were assigned to five rovibronic transitions to an average accuracy of 0.0028 Å. A further 15 lines could not be fully resolved and average wavelengths were measured for these groups of closely spaced lines. A wavelength difference of 0.011 ± 0.0028 Å between the measured wavelengths and the calculated wavelengths in the atlas of Eidelsberg & Rostas demonstrates the need for more experimental data on CO.

  16. Isolating long-wavelength fluctuation from structural relaxation in two-dimensional glass: cage-relative displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Hayato; Keim, Peter; Kawasaki, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    It has recently been revealed that long-wavelength fluctuation exists in two-dimensional (2D) glassy systems, having the same origin as that given by the Mermin-Wagner theorem for 2D crystalline solids. In this paper, we discuss how to characterise quantitatively the long-wavelength fluctuation in a molecular dynamics simulation of a lightly supercooled liquid. We employ the cage-relative mean-square displacement (MSD), defined on relative displacement to its cage, to quantitatively separate the long-wavelength fluctuation from the original MSD. For increasing system size the amplitude of acoustic long wavelength fluctuations not only increases but shifts to later times causing a crossover with structural relaxation of caging particles. We further analyse the dynamic correlation length using the cage-relative quantities. It grows as the structural relaxation becomes slower with decreasing temperature, uncovering an overestimation by the four-point correlation function due to the long-wavelength fluctuation. These findings motivate the usage of cage-relative MSD as a starting point for analysis of 2D glassy dynamics.

  17. Wavelength Conversion of a 9.35-Gb/s RZ OOK Signal in an InP Photonic Crystal Nanocavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Yu, Yi; Heuck, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s (9.35 Gb/s net rate) return-to-zero ON-OFF keying signal is demonstrated using a simple InP photonic crystal H0 nanocavity with Lorentzian line shape. The shifting of the resonance induced by the generation of free-carriers enables the pump intensity modulation...

  18. Wavelength conversion of a 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signal using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Andreas; Tokle, Torger; Geng, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Wavelength conversion of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying signal is demonstrated in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNL-PCF) for the first time. A conversion efficiency of -20 dB for a pump power of 23 dBm and a conversion bandwidth of 31 nm, essentially limited...

  19. Inequalities for scattering phase shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, B.; Grosse, H.

    1985-01-01

    A recently developed method, which was used to derive bounds on energy levels, is applied to continuous spectra and gives relations between scattering phase shifts of various angular momenta. (Author)

  20. Isotope shifts in unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    1980-05-01

    Current experimental investigations of isotope shifts in atomic spectra of unstable nuclei and the resulting information about size and shape of nuclei far off stability are discussed with reference to some representative examples. (orig.)

  1. Regime shifts and resilience in China's coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke

    2016-02-01

    Regime shift often results in large, abrupt, and persistent changes in the provision of ecosystem services and can therefore have significant impacts on human wellbeing. Understanding regime shifts has profound implications for ecosystem recovery and management. China's coastal ecosystems have experienced substantial deterioration within the past decades, at a scale and speed the world has never seen before. Yet, information about this coastal ecosystem change from a dynamics perspective is quite limited. In this review, I synthesize existing information on coastal ecosystem regime shifts in China and discuss their interactions and cascading effects. The accumulation of regime shifts in China's coastal ecosystems suggests that the desired system resilience has been profoundly eroded, increasing the potential of abrupt shifts to undesirable states at a larger scale, especially given multiple escalating pressures. Policy and management strategies need to incorporate resilience approaches in order to cope with future challenges and avoid major losses in China's coastal ecosystem services.

  2. Effects of shift operation according to theory and in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, W.; Reinartz, G.

    1985-01-01

    The specific conditions applicable during rotating shift work including night work represent an additional qualitative impairment of the performance assumptions relating to maintenance personnel in addition to other work stresses. Factors affecting performance during rotating shift work in nuclear power plant operationhave been investigated as part of a research project. The basic chronobiological data were developed and the features of shift systems being practized and the operating principles of the structure of shift systems have been deduced by means of a literature survey and consulations with power plant operators. The investigation has shown that - with various compromise solutions - industrial medicine and social requirements and also operational objectives are to a large extent mutually compatible when the five or six shift systems which prevail in nuclear power stations are considered. (orig.) [de

  3. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths

  4. Technologies for all-optical wavelength conversion in DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfson, David; Fjelde, Tina; Kloch, Allan

    2001-01-01

    Different techniques for all-optical wavelength conversion are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages seen from a system perspective are highlighted. All-optical wavelength conversion will play a major role in making cost-effective network nodes in future high-speed WDM networks, where...

  5. Experimental determination of the slow-neutron wavelength distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Mikke, K.; Sledziewska-Blocka, D.

    1970-01-01

    Different experiments for determining the slow-neutron wavelength distribution in the region 227-3 meV have been carried out, and the results compared. It is concluded that the slow-neutron wave-length distribution can be determined accurately by elastic scattering on a pure incoherent or a pure...

  6. Emission wavelength of multilayer distributed feedback dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Brøkner Christiansen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Precise emission wavelength modeling is essential for understanding and optimization of distributed feedback (DFB) lasers. An analytical approach for determining the emission wavelength based on setting the propagation constant of the Bragg condition and solving for the resulting slab waveguide m...

  7. Sub-wavelength resonances in polygonal metamaterial cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that the sub-wavelength resonances of circular MTM cylinders also occur for polygonal MTM cylinders. This is the case for lossless and non-dispersive cylinders as well as lossy and dispersive cylinders. The sub-wavelength resonances are thus not limited to structures of canonical...

  8. Systematic wavelength selection for improved multivariate spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Edward V.; Robinson, Mark R.; Haaland, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for determining in a biological material one or more unknown values of at least one known characteristic (e.g. the concentration of an analyte such as glucose in blood or the concentration of one or more blood gas parameters) with a model based on a set of samples with known values of the known characteristics and a multivariate algorithm using several wavelength subsets. The method includes selecting multiple wavelength subsets, from the electromagnetic spectral region appropriate for determining the known characteristic, for use by an algorithm wherein the selection of wavelength subsets improves the model's fitness of the determination for the unknown values of the known characteristic. The selection process utilizes multivariate search methods that select both predictive and synergistic wavelengths within the range of wavelengths utilized. The fitness of the wavelength subsets is determined by the fitness function F=.function.(cost, performance). The method includes the steps of: (1) using one or more applications of a genetic algorithm to produce one or more count spectra, with multiple count spectra then combined to produce a combined count spectrum; (2) smoothing the count spectrum; (3) selecting a threshold count from a count spectrum to select these wavelength subsets which optimize the fitness function; and (4) eliminating a portion of the selected wavelength subsets. The determination of the unknown values can be made: (1) noninvasively and in vivo; (2) invasively and in vivo; or (3) in vitro.

  9. Sub-wavelength metamaterial cylinders with multiple dipole resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that the sub-wavelength resonances of the individual MTM cylinders also occur for electrically small configurations combining 2 or 4 cylinders. For the 2-and 4-cylinder configurations the overall size is 1/20 and 1/12.5 of the smallest wavelength, respectively. These MTM...... configuration thus offer the possibility for multi-resonant electrically small configurations....

  10. Modulating wavelength discrimination in goldfish with ethambutol and stimulus intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerdsma, T.; Kamermans, M.; Spekreijse, H.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelength discrimination in goldfish was measured behaviourally. Both acute application of ethambutol injected into the eye and chronic application by feeding the animals daily 25 mg ethambutol for 1 month had the same effect on wavelength discrimination in the range of 560-640 nm. This means that:

  11. Calibrated Phase-Shifting Digital Holographic Microscope Using a Sampling Moiré Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A calibrated phase-shifting digital holographic microscope system capable of improving the quality of reconstructed images is proposed. Phase-shifting errors are introduced in phase-shifted holograms for numerous reasons, such as the non-linearity of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs, wavelength fluctuations in lasers, and environmental disturbances, leading to poor-quality reconstructions. In our system, in addition to the camera used to record object information, an extra camera is used to record interferograms, which are used to analyze phase-shifting errors using a sampling Moiré technique. The quality of the reconstructed object images can be improved by the phase-shifting error compensation algorithm. Both the numerical simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  12. Optimal wavelength band clustering for multispectral iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yazhuo; Zhang, David; Shi, Pengfei; Yan, Jingqi

    2012-07-01

    This work explores the possibility of clustering spectral wavelengths based on the maximum dissimilarity of iris textures. The eventual goal is to determine how many bands of spectral wavelengths will be enough for iris multispectral fusion and to find these bands that will provide higher performance of iris multispectral recognition. A multispectral acquisition system was first designed for imaging the iris at narrow spectral bands in the range of 420 to 940 nm. Next, a set of 60 human iris images that correspond to the right and left eyes of 30 different subjects were acquired for an analysis. Finally, we determined that 3 clusters were enough to represent the 10 feature bands of spectral wavelengths using the agglomerative clustering based on two-dimensional principal component analysis. The experimental results suggest (1) the number, center, and composition of clusters of spectral wavelengths and (2) the higher performance of iris multispectral recognition based on a three wavelengths-bands fusion.

  13. Tune-shift with amplitude due to nonlinear kinematic effect

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, W

    1999-01-01

    Tracking studies of the Muon Collider 50 on 50 GeV collider ring show that the on-momentum dynamic aperture is limited to around 10 sigma even with the chromaticity sextupoles turned off. Numerical results from the normal form algorithm show that the tune-shift with amplitude is surprisingly large. Both analytical and numerical results are presented to show that nonlinear kinematic effect originated from the large angles of particles in the interaction region is responsible for the large tune-shift which in turn limits the dynamic aperture. A comparative study of the LHC collider ring is also presented to demonstrate the difference between the two machines. (14 refs).

  14. Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy based on a swiftly determined wavelength-modulation frequency response function of a DFB laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Tan, Wei; Hou, Jiajia; Qiu, Xiaodong; Ma, Weiguang; Li, Zhixin; Dong, Lei; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Axner, Ove; Jia, Suotang

    2016-01-25

    A methodology for calibration-free wavelength modulation spectroscopy (CF-WMS) that is based upon an extensive empirical description of the wavelength-modulation frequency response (WMFR) of DFB laser is presented. An assessment of the WMFR of a DFB laser by the use of an etalon confirms that it consists of two parts: a 1st harmonic component with an amplitude that is linear with the sweep and a nonlinear 2nd harmonic component with a constant amplitude. Simulations show that, among the various factors that affect the line shape of a background-subtracted peak-normalized 2f signal, such as concentration, phase shifts between intensity modulation and frequency modulation, and WMFR, only the last factor has a decisive impact. Based on this and to avoid the impractical use of an etalon, a novel method to pre-determine the parameters of the WMFR by fitting to a background-subtracted peak-normalized 2f signal has been developed. The accuracy of the new scheme to determine the WMFR is demonstrated and compared with that of conventional methods in CF-WMS by detection of trace acetylene. The results show that the new method provides a four times smaller fitting error than the conventional methods and retrieves concentration more accurately.

  15. Effects of the new fast forward rotating five-shift roster at a Dutch steel company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Leede, J. de; Goudswaard, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a field study of a shift roster change in a large steel producer. The changes in the roster are threefold: (1) from backward rotating to forward rotating; (2) from rather slow (three) to fast rotating (two consecutive shifts); (3) the number of days off after the night shifts

  16. Application of holographic sub-wavelength diffraction gratings for monitoring of kinetics of bioprocesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulevicius, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.tamulevicius@ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science of Kaunas University of Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 271, LT-50131, Kaunas (Lithuania); Seperys, Rimas; Andrulevicius, Mindaugas; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meskinis, Sarunas; Tamulevicius, Sigitas [Institute of Materials Science of Kaunas University of Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 271, LT-50131, Kaunas (Lithuania); Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Daugelavicius, Rimantas [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnologies of Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos St. 8, LT-44404 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refractive index sensor based on DLC holographic sub-wavelength period grating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic analysis of polarized white light reflected from the grating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Control of critical wavelength shift and reflectivity changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Testing of model liquid analyte materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of interaction between B. subtilis cells and lysozyme. - Abstract: In this work we present a refractive index (RI) sensor based on a sub-wavelength holographic diffraction grating. The sensor chip was fabricated by dry etching of the finely spaced (d = 428 nm) diffraction grating in SiO{sub x} doped diamond like carbon (DLC) film. It is shown that employing a fabricated sensor chip, and using the proposed method of analysis of data, one can inspect kinetics of processes in liquids occurring in the vicinity of the grating surface. The method is based on the spectral composition analysis of polarized polychromatic light reflected from the sub-wavelength diffraction grating. The RI measurement system was tested with different model liquid analytes including 25 wt.%, 50 wt.% sugar water solutions, 10 Degree-Sign C, 50 Degree-Sign C distilled water, also Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis interaction with ion-permeable channels forming antibiotic gramicidin D and a murolytic enzyme lysozyme. Analysis of the data set of specular reflection spectra enabled us to follow the kinetics of the RI changes in the analyte with millisecond resolution. Detectable changes in the effective RI were not worse than {Delta}n = 10{sup -4}.

  17. Wavelength dependent loading of traps in the persistent phosphor SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, Dy{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, H.; Lovy, D. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Quai E. Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Yoon, S.; Pokrant, S. [Laboratory Materials for Energy Conversion, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600, Dübendorf (Switzerland); Gartmann, N.; Walfort, B. [LumiNova AG, Speicherstrasse 60a, CH-9053, Teufen (Switzerland); Bierwagen, J., E-mail: Jakob.Bierwagen@unige.ch [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Quai E. Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    The persistent phosphorescence and thermoluminescence of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}:Dy{sup 3+} is reported for a variety of different excitation wavelengths and excitation temperatures, to provide new insights in the mechanism of the trapping and detrapping. These measurements reveal that the trapping is strongly dependent on the wavelength and temperature. First, with increasing loading temperature, the thermoluminescence peak shifts to lower temperatures which corresponds to a change of trap population. Secondly, the integrated thermoluminescent intensity increases with increasing loading temperature. All wavelength and temperature dependent experiments indicate that the loading of the traps is a thermally activated processes. Utilizing different wavelengths for loading, this effect can be enhanced or reduced. Furthermore excitation with UV-B-light reveals a tendency for detrapping the phosphor, reducing the resulting thermoluminescent intensity and changing the population of the traps.

  18. Associations between shift schedule characteristics with sleep, need for recovery, health and performance measures for regular (semi-)continuous 3-shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Hardy A; Brouwer, Sandra; Koolhaas, Wendy; Goudswaard, Anneke; de Looze, Michiel P; Kecklund, Göran; Almansa, Josue; Bültmann, Ute; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2016-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study associations were examined between eight shift schedule characteristics with shift-specific sleep complaints and need for recovery and generic health and performance measures. It was hypothesized that shift schedule characteristics meeting ergonomic recommendations are associated with better sleep, need for recovery, health and performance. Questionnaire data were collected from 491 shift workers of 18 companies with 9 regular (semi)-continuous shift schedules. The shift schedule characteristics were analyzed separately and combined using multilevel linear regression models. The hypothesis was largely not confirmed. Relatively few associations were found, of which the majority was in the direction as expected. In particular early starts of morning shifts and many consecutive shifts seem to be avoided. The healthy worker effect, limited variation between included schedules and the cross-sectional design might explain the paucity of significant results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-wavelength search for complex molecules in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C. A.; Cordiner, M. A.; Greathouse, T. K.; Richter, M.; Kisiel, Z.; Irwin, P. G.; Teanby, N. A.; Kuan, Y. J.; Charnley, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Titan's atmosphere is one of the most complex astrochemical environments known: the photochemistry of methane and nitrogen, induced by solar UV and Saturn magnetospheric electron impacts, creates a bonanza of organic molecules like no other place in the solar system. Cassini has unveiled the first glimpses of Titan's chemical wonderland, but many gaps remain. In particular, interpreting the mass spectra of Titan's upper atmosphere requires external knowledge, to disentangle the signature of molecules from their identical-mass brethren. Cassini infrared spectroscopy with CIRS has helped to some extent, but is also limited by low spectral resolution. Potentially to the rescue, comes high-resolution spectroscopy from the Earth at infrared and sub-millimeter wavelengths, where molecules exhibit vibrational and rotational transitions respectively. In this presentation, we describe the quest to make new, unique identifications of large molecules in Titan's atmosphere, focusing specifically on cyclic molecules including N-heterocycles. This molecular family is of high astrobiological significance, forming the basic ring structure for DNA nucleobases. We present the latest spectroscopic observations of Titan from ALMA and NASA's IRTF telescope, discussing present findings and directions for future work.

  20. Acute effects of different light spectra on simulated night-shift work without circadian alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canazei, Markus; Pohl, Wilfried; Bliem, Harald R; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Short-wavelength and short-wavelength-enhanced light have a strong impact on night-time working performance, subjective feelings of alertness and circadian physiology. In the present study, we investigated acute effects of white light sources with varied reduced portions of short wavelengths on cognitive and visual performance, mood and cardiac output.Thirty-one healthy subjects were investigated in a balanced cross-over design under three light spectra in a simulated night-shift paradigm without circadian adaptation.Exposure to the light spectrum with the largest attenuation of short wavelengths reduced heart rate and increased vagal cardiac parameters during the night compared to the other two light spectra without deleterious effects on sustained attention, working memory and subjective alertness. In addition, colour discrimination capability was significantly decreased under this light source.To our knowledge, the present study for the first time demonstrates that polychromatic white light with reduced short wavelengths, fulfilling current lighting standards for indoor illumination, may have a positive impact on cardiac physiology of night-shift workers without detrimental consequences for cognitive performance and alertness.

  1. Shifting schedules: the health effects of reorganizing shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare L; Whitehead, Margaret M; Sowden, Amanda J; Akers, Joanne; Petticrew, Mark P

    2008-05-01

    Approximately one fifth of workers are engaged in some kind of shift work. The harmful effects of shift work on the health and work-life balance of employees are well known. A range of organizational interventions has been suggested to address these negative effects. This study undertook the systematic review (following Quality Of Reporting Of Meta [QUORUM] analyses guidelines) of experimental and quasi-experimental studies, from any country (in any language) that evaluated the effects on health and work-life balance of organizational-level interventions that redesign shift work schedules. Twenty-seven electronic databases (medical, social science, economic) were searched. Data extraction and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent reviewers. Narrative synthesis was performed. The review was conducted between October 2005 and November 2006. Twenty-six studies were found relating to a variety of organizational interventions. No one type of intervention was found to be consistently harmful to workers. However, three types were found to have beneficial effects on health and work-life balance: (1) switching from slow to fast rotation, (2) changing from backward to forward rotation, and (3) self-scheduling of shifts. Improvements were usually at little or no direct organizational cost. However, there were concerns about the generalizability of the evidence, and no studies reported on impacts on health inequalities. This review reinforces the findings of epidemiologic and laboratory-based research by suggesting that certain organizational-level interventions can improve the health of shift workers, their work-life balance, or both. This evidence could be useful when designing interventions to improve the experience of shift work.

  2. Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, M.; Schefffel, J.

    1987-12-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m greater than or equal to 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for Psub(perpendicular) > Psub(parallel) and large ..beta..sub(perpendicular).

  3. First Resolved Images of the Mira AB Symbiotic Binary at Centimeter Wavelengths

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Lynn D.; Karovska, Margarita

    2005-01-01

    We report the first spatially resolved radio continuum measurements of the Mira AB symbiotic binary system, based on observations obtained with the Very Large Array (VLA). This is the first time that a symbiotic binary has been resolved unambiguously at centimeter wavelengths. We describe the results of VLA monitoring of both stars over a ten month period, together with constraints on their individual spectral energy distributions, variability, and radio emission mechanisms. The emission from...

  4. Common-mode rejection in Martin-Puplett spectrometers for astronomical observations at millimeter wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; de Bernardis, Paolo; Masi, Silvia; Schillaci, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    The Martin-Puplett interferometer (MPI) is a differential Fourier transform spectrometer that measures the difference between spectral brightness at two input ports. This unique feature makes the MPI an optimal zero instrument, able to detect small brightness gradients embedded in a large common background. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the common-mode rejection achievable in the MPI at millimeter wavelengths, and discuss the use of the instrument to measure the spectrum of cosmic microwave background anisotropy.

  5. SAT in shift manager training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, F.

    1995-01-01

    EDF has improved the organization of the operation shift teams with the replacement of shift supervisor in shift manager function. The shift manager is not only responsible for tasks associated to plant operation (production), but he is also responsible for safety of these tasks and for management of shift team members. A job analysis of this new job position has been performed in order to design the training programme. It resulted in a 10-month training programme that includes 8 weeks in safety-related topics and 12 weeks in soft-skills related topics. The safety related training courses are mandatory, the other courses are optional courses depending on individual trainee needs. The training also includes the development of management competencies. During the 10 month period, each trainee develops an individual project that is evaluated by NPP manager. As well, as group project is undertaken by the trainees and overseen by a steering committee. The steering committee participates in the evaluation process and provides operational experience feedback to the trainee groups and to the overall programme

  6. Switching speeds in NCAP displays: dependence on collection angle and wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamey, Robert H.; Montoya, Wayne; Wartenberg, Mark

    1991-06-01

    The on and off switching speeds of nematic droplet-polymer films (NCAP) are shown to depend on the collection angle (f/#) and the wavelength of the light used in the measurement. Conventional twisted nematic liquid crystal displays have switching speeds which depend little on these factors. The switching speed dependence on collection angle (f/#) and wavelength for nematic droplet-polymer films is inherent to the mechanism by which light is modulated in these films. This mechanism is the scattering of light by the nematic droplets. The on times become faster and the off times become slower as the collection angle of detection is increased. The overall change in switching speed can be large. Greater than 100X changes in off time have been observed. As the wavelength of the light used to interrogate the sample is increased (blue yields green yields red) the on times become faster and the off times become slower. This dependence of switching speed on wavelength is apparent at all collection angles. An awareness of these effects is necessary when developing nematic droplet-polymer films for display applications and when comparing switching speed data from different sources.

  7. Wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate of the Es layer instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Cosgrove

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown, by computation of the linear growth rate, that midlatitude sporadic-E (Es layers are subject to a large scale electrodynamic instability. This instability is a logical candidate to explain certain frontal structuring events, and polarization electric fields, which have been observed in Es layers by ionosondes, by coherent scatter radars, and by rockets. However, the original growth rate derivation assumed an infinitely thin Es layer, and therefore did not address the short wavelength cutoff. Also, the same derivation ignored the effects of F region loading, which is a significant wavelength dependent effect. Herein is given a generalized derivation that remedies both these short comings, and thereby allows a computation of the wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate, as well as computations of various threshold conditions. The wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate is compared with observed periodicities, and the role of the zeroth order meridional wind is explored. A three-dimensional paper model is used to explain the instability geometry, which has been defined formally in previous works.

  8. Electronic band-gap modified passive silicon optical modulator at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Qingming; Wang, Jiyang

    2015-11-13

    The silicon optical modulator is considered to be the workhorse of a revolution in communications. In recent years, the capabilities of externally driven active silicon optical modulators have dramatically improved. Self-driven passive modulators, especially passive silicon modulators, possess advantages in compactness, integration, low-cost, etc. Constrained by a large indirect band-gap and sensitivity-related loss, the passive silicon optical modulator is scarce and has been not advancing, especially at telecommunications wavelengths. Here, a passive silicon optical modulator is fabricated by introducing an impurity band in the electronic band-gap, and its nonlinear optics and applications in the telecommunications-wavelength lasers are investigated. The saturable absorption properties at the wavelength of 1.55 μm was measured and indicates that the sample is quite sensitive to light intensity and has negligible absorption loss. With a passive silicon modulator, pulsed lasers were constructed at wavelengths at 1.34 and 1.42 μm. It is concluded that the sensitive self-driven passive silicon optical modulator is a viable candidate for photonics applications out to 2.5 μm.

  9. Intracluster dust, circumstellar shells, and the wavelength dependence of polarization in orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breger, M.

    1977-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of polarization of 21 polarized stars near the Orion Nebula has been measured. Most stars fit the standard interstellar law. The wavelength of maximum linear polarization, lambda/sub max/, ranges from normal values to 0.71μm. The polarimetric, spectroscopic, and photometric data support a normal reddening law (Rapprox. =3) for most Orion stars, and present evidence for unusually large grain sizes in front of some Orion stars. For the stars BR 545 and BR 885 large values of lambda/sub max/ are associated with unusually large values of total to selective extinction.A division of the observed polarization into intracluster dust and circumstellar shell components shows that the presence of shells does not usually lead to linear polarization in the optical wavelength region. Also, no association of polarization with known light variability could be found. The nature of the intracluster dust clouds is discussed briefly.The results of searches for circular polarization as well as short-period variability are presented in two appendices

  10. Ontogenetic shifts of heart position in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Lillywhite, Steven M

    2017-08-01

    Heart position relative to total body length (TL) varies among snakes, with anterior hearts in arboreal species and more centrally located hearts in aquatic or ground-dwelling species. Anterior hearts decrease the cardiac work associated with cranial blood flow and minimize drops in cranial pressure and flow during head-up climbing. Here, we investigate whether heart position shifts intraspecifically during ontogenetic increases in TL. Insular Florida cottonmouth snakes, Agkistrodon conanti, are entirely ground-dwelling and have a mean heart position that is 33.32% TL from the head. In contrast, arboreal rat snakes, Pantherophis obsoleta, of similar lengths have a mean heart position that is 17.35% TL from the head. In both species, relative heart position shifts craniad during ontogeny, with negative slopes = -.035 and -.021% TL/cm TL in Agkistrodon and Pantherophis, respectively. Using a large morphometric data set available for Agkistrodon (N = 192 individuals, 23-140 cm TL), we demonstrate there is an anterior ontogenetic shift of the heart position within the trunk (= 4.56% trunk length from base of head to cloacal vent), independent of head and tail allometry which are both negative. However, in longer snakes > 100 cm, the heart position reverses and shifts caudally in longer Agkistrodon but continues toward the head in longer individuals of Pantherophis. Examination of data sets for two independent lineages of fully marine snakes (Acrochordus granulatus and Hydrophis platurus), which do not naturally experience postural gravity stress, demonstrate both ontogenetic patterns for heart position that are seen in the terrestrial snakes. The anterior migration of the heart is greater in the terrestrial species, even if TL is standardized to that of the longer P. obsoleta, and compensates for about 5 mmHg gravitational pressure head if they are fully upright. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Large Binocular Telescope Observations of Europa Occulting Io's Volcanoes at 4.8 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrutskie, Michael F.; Conrad, Albert; Resnick, Aaron; Leisenring, Jarron; Hinz, Phil; de Pater, Imke; de Kleer, Katherine; Spencer, John; Skemer, Andrew; Woodward, Charles E.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Defrére, Denis

    2015-11-01

    On 8 March 2015 Europa passed nearly centrally in front of Io. The Large Binocular Telescope observed this event in dual-aperture AO-corrected Fizeau interferometric imaging mode using the mid-infrared imager LMIRcam operating behind the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) at a broadband wavelength of 4.8 μm (M-band). Occultation light curves generated from frames recorded every 123 milliseconds show that both Loki and Pele/Pillan were well resolved. Europa's center shifted by 2 kilometers relative to Io from frame-to-frame. The derived light curve for Loki is consistent with the double-lobed structure reported by Conrad et al. (2015) using direct interferometric imaging with LBTI.

  12. The Anti-Coincidence Detector for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseev, A.A.; Hartman, R.C.; Ormes, J.F.; Thompson, D.J.; Amato, M.J.; Johnson, T.E.; Segal, K.N.; Sheppard, D.A.

    2007-03-23

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of the Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT). The ACD is LAT's first-level defense against the charged cosmic ray background that outnumbers the gamma rays by 3-5 orders of magnitude. The ACD covers the top and 4 sides of the LAT tracking detector, requiring a total active area of {approx}8.3 square meters. The ACD detector utilizes plastic scintillator tiles with wave-length shifting fiber readout. In order to suppress self-veto by shower particles at high gamma-ray energies, the ACD is segmented into 89 tiles of different sizes. The overall ACD efficiency for detection of singly charged relativistic particles entering the tracking detector from the top or sides of the LAT exceeds the required 0.9997.

  13. Single Mode Fiber Optic Transceiver Using Short Wavelength Active Devices In Long Wavelength Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Frederick J.; Campbell, Daniel R.; Corke, Michael; Stowe, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Presently, single mode optical fiber technology is being utilized in systems to supply telephone service to the subscriber. However, in an attempt to be competitive with copper based systems, there are many development programs underway to determine the most cost effective solution while still providing a service that will either satisfy or be upgradeable to satisfy the demands of the consumer for the next 10 to 20 years. One such approach is to combine low cost laser transmitters and silicon receivers, which have been developed for the "compact disc" industry, with fiber that operates in the single mode regime at 1300 nm. In this paper, an optical transceiver will be presented, consisting of a compact disc laser, a silicon detector and a single mode coupler at 1300 nm. A possible system layout is presented which operates at 780 nm bi-directionally for POTS and upgradeable to 1300 nm for video services. There are several important design criteria that have to be considered in the development of such a system which will be addressed. These include: 1. Optimization of coupled power from laser to fiber while maintaining stable launched conditions over a wide range of environmental conditions. 2. Consideration of the multimode operation of the 1300 nm single mode fiber while operating in the 780 nm wavelength region. 3. Development of a low cost pseudo-wavelength division multiplexer for 1300 nm single mode/780 nm multimode operation and a low cost dual mode 50/50, 780 nm splitter using 1300 nm fiber. Details will be given of the design criteria and solution in terms of optimized design. Results of the performance of several prototype devices will be given with indications of the merits of this approach and where further development effort should be applied.

  14. Does the ARFIMA really shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have long-memory features similar to those associated to processes generated under fractional integration. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification, that allows to disentangle the level...... the highest power compared to other existing tests for spurious long-memory. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approach on the daily series of bipower variation and share turnover and on the monthly inflation series of G7 countries....... shift term from the ARFIMA component. The estimation is carried out via a state-space methodology and it leads to a robust estimate of the fractional integration parameter also in presence of level shifts.The Monte Carlo simulations show that this approach produces unbiased estimates of the fractional...

  15. Rational choices for the wavelengths of a two color interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.

    1995-07-01

    If in a two color interferometer for plasma density measurements, the two wavelengths are chosen to have a ratio that is a rational number, and if the signals from each of the wavelengths are multiplied in frequency by the appropriate integer of the rational number and then heterodyned together, the resultant signal will have all effects of component motion nulled out. A phase measurement of this signal will have only plasma density information in it. With CO 2 lasers, it is possible to find suitable wavelength pairs which are close enough to rational numbers to produce an improvement of about 100 in density resolution, compared to standard two color interferometers

  16. Radiative flux calculations at UV and visible wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    A radiative transfer model to calculate the short wavelength fluxes at altitudes between 0 and 80 km has been developed at LLNL. The wavelength range extends from 175--735 nm. This spectral range covers the UV-B wavelength region, 250--350 nm, with sufficient resolution to allow comparison of UV-B measurements with theoretical predictions. Validation studies for the model have been made for both UV-B ground radiation calculations and tropospheric solar radiative forcing calculations for various ozone distributions. These studies indicate that the model produces results which agree well with respect to existing UV calculations from other published models

  17. Estimates of SASE power in the short wavelength region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang-Je.

    1992-03-01

    Given a sufficiently bright electron beam, the self-amplified-spontaneous emission (SASE) can provide gigawatts of short wavelength coherent radiation. The advantages of SASE approach are that is requires neither optical cavity nor an imput seed laser. In this note, we estimate the peak power performance of SASE for wavelengths shorter than 1000 Angstrom. At each wavelength, we calculate the saturated power from a uniform parameter undulator and the enhanced power from a tapered undulator. The method described here is an adaptation of that discussed by L.H. Yu, who discussed the harmonic generation scheme with seeded laser, to the case of SASE

  18. Infrared speckle observations of the binary Ross 614 AB - combined shift-and-add and zero-and-add analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, B.L.K.; Bates, R.H.T.; Cocke, W.J.; Mccarthy, D.W. Jr.; Christou, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    One-dimensional infrared speckle scans of Ross 614 AB were recorded at a wavelength of 2.2 microns, and the three bins corresponding to the three best seeing conditions were further processed by applying a shift-and-add algorithm to the set of images contained within each bin, generating three shift-and-add images with differing shift-and-add point-spread functions. A zero-and-add technique was used to deconvolve the three shift-and-add images in order to obtain parameters corresponding to the separation and the brightness ratio of a two-component model of Ross 614 Ab. Least-squares analysis results reveal a separation of 1.04 arcsec and a brightness ratio of 4.3 for the binary system at this wavelength. 31 refs

  19. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  20. Progressive Red Shifts in the Late-Time Spectra of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christine; Fesen, Robert; Parrent, Jerod

    2017-01-01

    We examine the evolution of late-time, optical nebular features of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using a sample consisting of 160 spectra of 27 normal SNe Ia taken from the literature as well as unpublished spectra of SN 2008Q and ASASSN-14lp. Particular attention is given to nebular features between 4000-6000 Ang in terms of temporal changes in width and central wavelength. Analysis of the prominent late-time 4700 Ang feature shows a progressive central wavelength shift from ˜4600 Ang to longer wavelengths out to at least day +300 for our entire sample. We find no evidence for the feature’s red-ward shift slowing or halting at an [Fe III] blend centroid ˜4700 Ang as has been proposed. Two weaker adjacent features at around 4850 and 5000 Ang exhibit similar red shifts to that of the 4700 Ang feature. We conclude that the ubiquitous red shift of these common late-time SN Ia spectral features is not mainly due to a decrease in line velocities of forbidden Fe emissions, but the result of decreasing line velocities and opacity of permitted Fe absorption lines.

  1. The ALICE Glance Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Silva, H.; Abreu Da Silva, I.; Ronchetti, F.; Telesca, A.; Maidantchik, C.

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider) studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma. The experiment operation requires a 24 hours a day and 7 days a week shift crew at the experimental site, composed by the ALICE collaboration members. Shift duties are calculated for each institute according to their correlated members. In order to ensure the full coverage of the experiment operation as well as its good quality, the ALICE Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS) is used to manage the shift bookings as well as the needed training. ALICE SAMS is the result of a joint effort between the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and the ALICE Collaboration. The Glance technology, developed by the UFRJ and the ATLAS experiment, sits at the basis of the system as an intermediate layer isolating the particularities of the databases. In this paper, we describe the ALICE SAMS development process and functionalities. The database has been modelled according to the collaboration needs and is fully integrated with the ALICE Collaboration repository to access members information and respectively roles and activities. Run, period and training coordinators can manage their subsystem operation and ensure an efficient personnel management. Members of the ALICE collaboration can book shifts and on-call according to pre-defined rights. ALICE SAMS features a user profile containing all the statistics and user contact information as well as the Institutes profile. Both the user and institute profiles are public (within the scope of the collaboration) and show the credit balance in real time. A shift calendar allows the Run Coordinator to plan data taking periods in terms of which subsystems shifts are enabled or disabled and on-call responsible people and slots. An overview display presents the shift crew present in the control room and allows the Run Coordination team to confirm the presence

  2. Morphisms Between Sofic Shift Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Agentoft

    The lower entropy factor problem asks for necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a factor map from a (mixing) sofic shift space onto another (mixing) sofic subshift of lower entropy. The problem was posed by Mike Boyle in 1984. It remains an open problem, but the present thesis...... gives a re-formulation which can be used to effectively decide the question for a larger class of sofic shifts than all previous results. In addition, the methods are used to make progress on the corresponding embedding problem which asks for necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence...

  3. Shift-Variant Multidimensional Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-29

    x,y;u,v) is the system response at (x,y) to an unit impulse applied at (u,v). The presence of additive noise in the preceding input-output model of a...space model developed works very effi- ciently to deblur images affected by 2-D linear shift- varying blurs, its use, in presence of noise needs to be...causal linear shift-variant (LSV) system, whose impulse res- ponse is a K-th order degenerate sequence, a K-th order state-space model was obtained

  4. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  5. Carbon dioxide on the satellites of Saturn: Results from the Cassini VIMS investigation and revisions to the VIMS wavelength scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D.P.; Meyer, A.W.; Brown, R.H.; Clark, R.N.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Sandford, S.A.; Mastrapa, R.M.E.; Filacchione, G.; Ore, C.M.D.; Nicholson, P.D.; Buratti, B.J.; McCord, T.B.; Nelson, R.M.; Dalton, J.B.; Baines, K.H.; Matson, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Several of the icy satellites of Saturn show the spectroscopic signature of the asymmetric stretching mode of C-O in carbon dioxide (CO2) at or near the nominal solid-phase laboratory wavelength of 4.2675 ??m (2343.3 cm-1), discovered with the Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on the Cassini spacecraft. We report here on an analysis of the variation in wavelength and width of the CO2 absorption band in the spectra of Phoebe, Iapetus, Hyperion, and Dione. Comparisons are made to laboratory spectra of pure CO2, CO2 clathrates, ternary mixtures of CO2 with other volatiles, implanted and adsorbed CO2 in non-volatile materials, and ab initio theoretical calculations of CO2 * nH2O. At the wavelength resolution of VIMS, the CO2 on Phoebe is indistinguishable from pure CO2 ice (each molecule's nearby neighbors are also CO2) or type II clathrate of CO2 in H2O. In contrast, the CO2 band on Iapetus, Hyperion, and Dione is shifted to shorter wavelengths (typically ???4.255 ??m (???2350.2 cm-1)) and broadened. These wavelengths are characteristic of complexes of CO2 with different near-neighbor molecules that are encountered in other volatile mixtures such as with H2O and CH3OH, and non-volatile host materials like silicates, some clays, and zeolites. We suggest that Phoebe's CO2 is native to the body as part of the initial inventory of condensates and now exposed on the surface, while CO2 on the other three satellites results at least in part from particle or UV irradiation of native H2O plus a source of C, implantation or accretion from external sources, or redistribution of native CO2 from the interior. The analysis presented here depends on an accurate VIMS wavelength scale. In preparation for this work, the baseline wavelength calibration for the Cassini VIMS was found to be distorted around 4.3 ??m, apparently as a consequence of telluric CO2 gas absorption in the pre-launch calibration. The effect can be reproduced by convolving a sequence of model detector

  6. Validation of archived chemical shifts through atomic coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieping, Wolfgang; Vranken, Wim F

    2010-01-01

    The public archives containing protein information in the form of NMR chemical shift data at the BioMagResBank (BMRB) and of 3D structure coordinates at the Protein Data Bank are continuously expanding. The quality of the data contained in these archives, however, varies. The main issue for chemical shift values is that they are determined relative to a reference frequency. When this reference frequency is set incorrectly, all related chemical shift values are systematically offset. Such wrongly referenced chemical shift values, as well as other problems such as chemical shift values that are assigned to the wrong atom, are not easily distinguished from correct values and effectively reduce the usefulness of the archive. We describe a new method to correct and validate protein chemical shift values in relation to their 3D structure coordinates. This method classifies atoms using two parameters: the per-atom solvent accessible surface area (as calculated from the coordinates) and the secondary structure of the parent amino acid. Through the use of Gaussian statistics based on a large database of 3220 BMRB entries, we obtain per-entry chemical shift corrections as well as Z scores for the individual chemical shift values. In addition, information on the error of the correction value itself is available, and the method can retain only dependable correction values. We provide an online resource with chemical shift, atom exposure, and secondary structure information for all relevant BMRB entries (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pdbe/nmr/vasco) and hope this data will aid the development of new chemical shift-based methods in NMR. Proteins 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20602353

  7. WAVELENGTH ACCURACY OF THE KECK HIRES SPECTROGRAPH AND MEASURING CHANGES IN THE FINE STRUCTURE CONSTANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, Kim; Whitmore, Jonathan B.; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Howk, J. Christopher; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    We report on an attempt to accurately wavelength calibrate four nights of data taken with the Keck HIRES spectrograph on QSO PHL957, for the purpose of determining whether the fine structure constant was different in the past. Using new software and techniques, we measured the redshifts of various Ni II, Fe II, Si II, etc. lines in a damped Lyα system at z = 2.309. Roughly half the data were taken through the Keck iodine cell which contains thousands of well calibrated iodine lines. Using these iodine exposures to calibrate the normal Th-Ar Keck data pipeline output, we found absolute wavelength offsets of 500 m s -1 to 1000 m s -1 with drifts of more than 500 m s -1 over a single night, and drifts of nearly 2000 m s -1 over several nights. These offsets correspond to an absolute redshift of uncertainty of about Δz ∼ 10 -5 (Δλ ∼ 0.02 A), with daily drifts of around Δz ∼ 5 x 10 -6 (Δλ ∼ 0.01 A), and multiday drifts of nearly Δz ∼ 2 x 10 -5 (∼0.04 A). The causes of the wavelength offsets are not known, but since claimed shifts in the fine structure constant would result in velocity shifts of less than 100 m s -1 , this level of systematic uncertainty may make it difficult to use Keck HIRES data to constrain the change in the fine structure constant. Using our calibrated data, we applied both our own fitting software and standard fitting software to measure Δα/α, but discovered that we could obtain results ranging from significant detection of either sign, to strong null limits, depending upon which sets of lines and which fitting method were used. We thus speculate that the discrepant results on Δα/α reported in the literature may be due to random fluctuations coming from underestimated systematic errors in wavelength calibration and fitting procedure.

  8. Effect of wavelength shifters on water Cherenkov detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badino, G; Galeotti, P; Periale, L; Saavedra, O; Turtelli, A [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale)

    1981-06-15

    We report the results of a test showing that concentrations of approx. equal to 2 mg/l of wavelength shifter in water give almost the maximum efficiency of detection without losing the directionality of Cherenkov light.

  9. Multi-wavelength Ocean Profiling and Atmospheric Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to build and demonstrate the world's first multi-wavelength ocean-profiling high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). The lidar will provide profiles of...

  10. Isoplanatic patch of the human eye for arbitrary wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guoqing; Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Wang, Yukun; Li, Dayu; Wang, Shaoxin; Xu, Zihao; Wu, Daosheng; Hu, Lifa; Xuan, Li

    2018-03-01

    The isoplanatic patch of the human eye is a key parameter for the adaptive optics system (AOS) designed for retinal imaging. The field of view (FOV) usually sets to the same size as the isoplanatic patch to obtain high resolution images. However, it has only been measured at a specific wavelength. Here we investigate the wavelength dependence of this important parameter. An optical setup is initially designed and established in a laboratory to measure the isoplanatic patch at various wavelengths (655 nm, 730 nm and 808 nm). We established the Navarro wide-angle eye model in Zemax software to further validate our results, which suggested high consistency between the two. The isoplanatic patch as a function of wavelength was obtained within the range of visible to near-infrared, which can be expressed as: θ=0.0028 λ - 0 . 74. This work is beneficial for the AOS design for retinal imaging.

  11. Portable Long-Wavelength Infrared Camera for Civilian Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Krabach, T. N.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the performance of this portable long-wavelength infrared camera in quantum efficiency, NEAT, minimum resolvable temperature differnce (MRTD), uniformity, etc. and its application in science, medicine and defense.

  12. Infrared presensitization photography at deuterium fluoride laser wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geary, J.M.; Ross, K.; Suter, K.

    1989-01-01

    Near-field irradiance distributions of a deuterium flouride laser system are obtained using infrared presensitization photography. This represents the shortest wavelength region to employ this technique thus far

  13. Shifting bone marrow edema of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosikasuwan, Josh B.; Schultz, Elizabeth; Miller, Theodore T.; Math, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to describe shifting bone marrow edema in the knee as the MR imaging feature of intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis of the knee. Five men, aged 45-73 years, were referred by orthopedic surgeons for MR imaging evaluation of knee pain, which had been present for 2 weeks to 6 months. One patient had a prior history of blunt trauma. None had risk factors for osteonecrosis. Four patients had two MR examinations and the patient with prior blunt trauma had four. Plain radiographs were obtained in all patients. In all cases, a large area of marrow edema initially involved a femoral condyle, with migration of the bone marrow edema to the other femoral condyle, tibia, and/or patella occurring over a 2- to 4-month period. Adjacent soft tissue edema was present in all five patients, while none had a joint effusion. Radiographs of two patients showed generalized osteopenia. In the absence of acute trauma or clinical suspicion of infection, a large area of bone marrow edema without a zone of demarcation may represent intra-articular regional migratory osteoporosis. Demonstration of shifting bone marrow edema on follow-up examinations suggests this diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Enormous periodic doppler shifts in SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margon, B.; Ford, H.C.; Grandi, S.A.; Stone, R.P.S.

    1979-01-01

    We have previously reported prominent ''moving' emission lines in the visible spectrum of Stephenson-Sanduleak 433, the optical counterpart of a variable radio and X-ray source. Further observations show that despite the implausible velocities and changes in velocities implied if the moving features are interpreted as Doppler-shifted Balmer lines, this explanation is indeed correct. Spectroscopy of SS 433 on 51 mights in 1978--1979 reveals that the unidentified features are two sets of Balmer and He I lines, one with large and changing redshift, and the other with large and changing blueshift. Combining our data with published earlier observations, we obtain Doppler shifts on 80 nights in the period 1978 June to 1979 June. These data indicate that the velocity variations are cyclical, repeating in both the blueshift and redshift systems with a period of 164 +- 3 days. The two systems have thus far been observed to reach maximum positive and negative radial velocities of +50,000 and -35,000 km s -1 , respectively, are always symmetric about redshift z=0.04, and follow roughly sinusoidal velocity curves. We discuss in addition a variety of interesting short-term spectroscopic details, including minor but highly significant deviations of the radial velocity from the sinusoid, and nightly line profile changes, sometimes appearing as mirror-image events in the redshift and blueshift systems. The behavior of SS 433 is unprecedented

  15. Leadership Shifts in Changing Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    As groups representing local and state education players struggle to remain relevant in a policy conversation often dominated by foundations, think tanks, new advocacy groups, and political and business figures, a shift in leadership has been under way at major associations. Most of the changes have come as part of the natural churn; former…

  16. Crichton's phase-shift ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P.W.; Mehta, N.; Roo, M. de

    1973-01-01

    A re-examination of the SPD phase-shift ambiguity is made with a view to understanding certain singular features of the elastic unitarity constraint. An explicit solution of Crichton's equations is presented, and certain features of this solution are displayed graphically. In particular, it is shown

  17. Environmental Protection: a shifting focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ir. Jan Venselaar

    2004-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a fundamental change in the way chemistry handles environmental issues. A shift in focus has occurred from 'end-of-pipe' to prevention and process integration. Presently an even more fundamental change is brought about by the need for sustainable development. It is

  18. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  19. Self-amplified spontaneous emission for short wavelength coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Xie, M.

    1992-09-01

    We review the recent progress in our understanding of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), emphasizing the application to short wavelength generation. Simple formulae are given for the start-up, exponential gain and the saturation of SASE. Accelerator technologies producing high brightness electron beams required for short wavelength SASE are discussed. An example utilizing electron beams from a photocathode-linac system to produce 4nm SASE in the multigigawatt range is presented

  20. Valuing spectrum at mm wavelengths for cellular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, B. A.; Beltrán, H. F.; Sowerby, K. W.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic value of spectrum at mm wavelengths. The analysis uses four techniques to value spectrum, namely a benchmarking comparison, a discounted cash flow analysis, a real options approach and a deprival method. The methods to calculate spectrum value presented in this paper can be used for any spectrum band and in any country. However, to determine the value of mm wavelengths for cellular networks, we have used data from New Zealand, specifically for the existing...