WorldWideScience

Sample records for large wavelength range

  1. Plasmonic Nanowires for Wide Wavelength Range Molecular Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni

    2018-05-17

    In this paper, we propose the use of a standing nanowires array, constituted by plasmonic active gold wires grown on iron disks, and partially immersed in a supporting alumina matrix, for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applications. The galvanic process was used to fabricate nanowires in pores of anodized alumina template, making this device cost-effective. This fabrication method allows for the selection of size, diameter, and spatial arrangement of nanowires. The proposed device, thanks to a detailed design analysis, demonstrates a broadband plasmonic enhancement effect useful for many standard excitation wavelengths in the visible and NIR. The trigonal pores arrangement gives an efficiency weakly dependent on polarization. The devices, tested with 633 and 830 nm laser lines, show a significant Raman enhancement factor, up to around 6 × 10⁴, with respect to the flat gold surface, used as a reference for the measurements of the investigated molecules.

  2. Gas-filled cell as a narrow bandwidth bandpass filter in the VUV wavelength range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    We propose a method for spectrally filtering radiation in the VUV wavelength range by means of a monochromator constituted by a cell filled with a resonantly absorbing rare gas. Around particular wavelengths, the gas exhibits narrow-bandwidth absorbing resonances following the Fano profile. In particular, within the photon energy range 60 eV-65 eV, the correlation index of the Fano profiles for the photoionization spectra in Helium is equal to unity, meaning that the minimum of the cross-section is exactly zero. For sufficiently large column density in the gas cell, the spectrum of the incoming radiation will be attenuated by the background cross-section of many orders of magnitude, except for those wavelengths close to the point where the cross-section is zero. Remarkable advantages of a gas monochromator based on this principle are simplicity, efficiency and narrow-bandwidth. A gas monochromator installed in the experimental hall of a VUV SASE FEL facility would enable the delivery of a single-mode VUV laser beam. The design is identical to that of already existing gas attenuator systems for VUV or X-ray FELs. We present feasibility study and exemplifications for the FLASH facility in the VUV regime. (orig.)

  3. A proposed new method for the determination of the solar irradiance at EUV wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Uri; Doschek, G. A.; Seely, J. F.; Landi, E.; Dammasch, I.

    The solar irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and its time variability are important inputs to geospace models. It provides the primary mechanism for heating the earth's upper atmosphere and creating the ionosphere. Understanding various space weather phenomena requires reliable detailed knowledge of the solar EUV irradiance. Ideally one would like to have a single well-calibrated, high-resolution spectrometer that can continuously monitor the solar irradiance over the relevant wavelengths range. Since this is much too difficult to accomplish, a number of monitoring instruments were constructed in the past, each covering a fraction of the required wavelength range. Assembling solar irradiance from measurements by a number of instruments is extremely difficult and is usually plagued by large uncertainties. To overcome some of the difficulties resulting from such procedures, empirical models have been developed that rely in large part on solar activity levels as proxies. In recent years a different approach has been established for the determination of the solar irradiance, an approach independent of irradiance observations. The new approach is based on the line intensities calculated from emission measure (EM) distributions across the solar surface. The EM distributions are derived from spatially and spectrally resolved measurements of line intensities and describe the temperature and density structure of the basic large scale features of the solar atmosphere, specifically coronal holes, quiet Sun, and active regions. Recently, as a result of detailed analysis of solar upper atmosphere (SUA) spectra recorded by SUMER/SoHO it was discovered that, in contrast to earlier beliefs, the solar EM in 3x105 -4x106 K plasmas does not appear to vary continuously with temperature as previously assumed. Instead it appears to be composed of isothermal structures where each can attain but one of the following four main temperatures: 5x105 , 9x105

  4. Exploring the wavelength range of InP/AlGaInP QDs and application to dual-state lasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutts, Samuel; Elliott, Stella N; Smowton, Peter M; Krysa, Andrey B

    2015-01-01

    We explore the accessible wavelength range offered by InP/AlGaInP quantum dots (QD)s grown by metal–organic vapour phase epitaxy and explain how changes in growth temperature and wafer design can be used to influence the transition energy of the dot states and improve the performance of edge-emitting lasers. The self assembly growth method of these structures creates a multi-modal distribution of inhomogeneously broadened dot sizes, and via the effects of state-filling, allows access to a large range of lasing wavelengths. By characterising the optical properties of these dots, we have designed and demonstrated dual-wavelength lasers which operate at various difference-wavelengths between 8 and 63 nm. We show that the nature of QDs allows the difference-wavelength to be tuned by altering the operating temperature at a rate of up to 0.12 nm K −1 and we investigate the factors affecting intensity stability of the competing modes. (invited article)

  5. Broadband multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1500–1600 nm generated by four-wave mixing in a dual wavelength Brillouin fiber laser cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Jia, Z. X.; Weng, H. Z.; Li, Z. R.; Yang, Y. D.; Xiao, J. L.; Chen, S. W.; Huang, Y. Z.; Qin, W. P.; Qin, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate broadband multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1500–1600 nm and a frequency separation of ~9.28 GHz generated by four-wave mixing in a dual wavelength Brillouin fiber laser cavity. By using one continuous-wave laser as the pump source, multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers with an operating wavelength range of 1554–1574 nm were generated via cascaded Brillouin scattering and four-wave mixing. Interestingly, when pumped by two continuous-wave lasers with an appropriate frequency separation, the operating wavelength range of the multi-wavelength Brillouin lasers was increased to 1500–1600 nm due to cavity-enhanced cascaded four-wave mixing among the frequency components generated by two pump lasers in the dual wavelength Brillouin laser cavity.

  6. Brightness temperature of the ''quiet'' Sun in the millimeter wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelyushenko, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of recalibration of the data available for measurements of the solar brightness temperature Tsub(s) made by comparison with the lunar radio emission. A spectrum has been obtained of the ''quiet'' Sun radio emission in the range of 1-20 mm. The mean square spread of data does not exceed +-(from 3 to 4)%. The ''quiet'' Sun spectrum has a form of: Tsub(c)=(6150+-70)lambdasup(01+-0.01)[mm]K in the wavelength interval of lambda=(1-6) mm and Tsub(c)=(3470+-80)lambdasup(0.42+-0.01) [mm]K in the wavelength interval of lambda=(7-20) mm on approximation of recalibrated values of Tsub(c) with a linear dependence using the mean-square-root method. The obtained spectral characteristics of the ''quiet'' Sun radio frequency emission in the mullimeter wavelength range testify on the spectrum flatteming in the (1-6) mm wavelength range

  7. Metrological large range scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gaoliang; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Xu Min; Hasche, Klaus; Wilkening, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    We describe a metrological large range scanning probe microscope (LR-SPM) with an Abbe error free design and direct interferometric position measurement capability, aimed at versatile traceable topographic measurements that require nanometer accuracy. A dual-stage positioning system was designed to achieve both a large measurement range and a high measurement speed. This dual-stage system consists of a commercially available stage, referred to as nanomeasuring machine (NMM), with a motion range of 25 mmx25 mmx5 mm along x, y, and z axes, and a compact z-axis piezoelectric positioning stage (compact z stage) with an extension range of 2 μm. The metrological LR-SPM described here senses the surface using a stationary fixed scanning force microscope (SFM) head working in contact mode. During operation, lateral scanning of the sample is performed solely by the NMM. Whereas the z motion, controlled by the SFM signal, is carried out by a combination of the NMM and the compact z stage. In this case the compact z stage, with its high mechanical resonance frequency (greater than 20 kHz), is responsible for the rapid motion while the NMM simultaneously makes slower movements over a larger motion range. To reduce the Abbe offset to a minimum the SFM tip is located at the intersection of three interferometer measurement beams orientated in x, y, and z directions. To improve real time performance two high-end digital signal processing (DSP) systems are used for NMM positioning and SFM servocontrol. Comprehensive DSP firmware and Windows XP-based software are implemented, providing a flexible and user-friendly interface. The instrument is able to perform large area imaging or profile scanning directly without stitching small scanned images. Several measurements on different samples such as flatness standards, nanostep height standards, roughness standards as well as sharp nanoedge samples and 1D gratings demonstrate the outstanding metrological capabilities of the instrument

  8. Design of narrow band photonic filter with compact MEMS for tunable resonant wavelength ranging 100 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanquan Liang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of planar silicon photonic structure is designed and simulated to provide narrow resonant line-width (∼2 nm in a wide photonic band gap (∼210 nm with broad tunable resonant wavelength range (∼100 nm around the optical communication wavelength 1550 nm. This prototype is based on the combination of two modified basic photonic structures, i.e. a split tapered photonic crystal micro-cavity embedded in a photonic wire waveguide, and a slot waveguide with narrowed slabs. This prototype is then further integrated with a MEMS (microelectromechanical systems based electrostatic comb actuator to achieve “coarse tune” and “fine tune” at the same time for wide range and narrow-band filtering and modulating. It also provides a wide range tunability to achieve the designed resonance even fabrication imperfection occurs.

  9. A compact design for monochromatic OSL measurements in the wavelength range 380-1020 NM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Poolton, N.R.J.; Willumsen, F.

    1994-01-01

    automated Riso TL/OSL dating apparatus, thus allowing for either routine scanning or more detailed thermo-optical investigations. The high throughput efficiency of the unit means that the existing 75 W tungsten-halogen lamp can be directly used for such measurements on both quartz and feldspar samples......The development and performance of a compact module is described that allows for the monochromatic illumination of samples in the wavelength range 380-1020 nm, enabling the measurement of energy-resolved optically stimulated luminescence. The unit is designed to couple directly to the existing....... The design allows for rapid spectral scanning with a choice of resolution of anywhere between 10 and 80 nm: stray light levels are less than 0.01%. The unit can equally be used for recording wavelength-resolved emission spectra, whether photo-excited or thermally stimulated; the capabilities of the system...

  10. Optimization of a dual mode Rowland mount spectrometer used in the 120-950 nm wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. W.; Bouwer, H. K.

    In a recent article, several configurations were described whereby a Rowland mount spectrometer could be modified to cover a wavelength range of 120-950 nm. In one of these configurations, large additional image aberration is introduced which severely limits the spectral resolving power. In the present article, the theoretical imaging properties of this configuration are considered and a simple method is proposed to reduce this aberration. The optimized system possesses an image quality similar to the conventional Rowland mount with the image surface slightly displaced from the Rowland circle but concentric to it.

  11. A new diagnostic for the tritium phase of JET covering the visible and UV wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsi, H.W.; Hatzky, R.; Hellermann, M. von

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of an active-phase direct optical link between the JET tokamak and spectral instruments beyond the biological shield are manifold. The present optical fibre links, which are used as a standard at JET, may be subjected to much enhanced radiation levels in future operations with D-T plasmas, and a direct optical link, based on a system of remotely controllable relay mirrors, will be a vital test for future activated fusion devices. A further aim is to extend the spectral range of exploitable charge exchange (CX) lines to shorter wavelengths, which is presently limited by the transmission of quartz fibres to CX lines above 4000 A. The latter aspect is particularly relevant in the case of HeII where the sole CX line of HeII (n = 4 to 3) in the visible, is superimposed by a BeIV CX line (n = 8 to 6) at the same wavelength (4685 A). This fact constraints the present helium analysis to plasma conditions with n(Be)<0.3·n(He). For future alpha particle studies, especially at low alpha particle densities, this constraint may require either sophisticated analysis procedures or alternatively the use of other less ''disturbed'' lines, possibly in the UV wavelength range. Finally the UV link is intended to provide an optical transfer channel for short optical jumpers to other JET observation ports - for example coherent fibre bundles imaging the X-point strike zone - to the diagnostic instruments in the roof laboratory of JET. (author) 1 ref., 6 figs

  12. Analysis of reflection-peak wavelengths of sampled fiber Bragg gratings with large chirp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xihua; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin

    2008-09-10

    The reflection-peak wavelengths (RPWs) in the spectra of sampled fiber Bragg gratings with large chirp (SFBGs-LC) are theoretically investigated. Such RPWs are divided into two parts, the RPWs of equivalent uniform SFBGs (U-SFBGs) and the wavelength shift caused by the large chirp in the grating period (CGP). We propose a quasi-equivalent transform to deal with the CGP. That is, the CGP is transferred into quasi-equivalent phase shifts to directly derive the Fourier transform of the refractive index modulation. Then, in the case of both the direct and the inverse Talbot effect, the wavelength shift is obtained from the Fourier transform. Finally, the RPWs of SFBGs-LC can be achieved by combining the wavelength shift and the RPWs of equivalent U-SFBGs. Several simulations are shown to numerically confirm these predicted RPWs of SFBGs-LC.

  13. A HIGH-RESOLUTION, MULTI-EPOCH SPECTRAL ATLAS OF PECULIAR STARS INCLUDING RAVE, GAIA , AND HERMES WAVELENGTH RANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasella, Lina; Munari, Ulisse; Zwitter, Tomaz

    2010-01-01

    We present an Echelle+CCD, high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution (R = 20,000) spectroscopic atlas of 108 well-known objects representative of the most common types of peculiar and variable stars. The wavelength interval extends from 4600 to 9400 A and includes the RAVE, Gaia, and HERMES wavelength ranges. Multi-epoch spectra are provided for the majority of the observed stars. A total of 425 spectra of peculiar stars, which were collected during 56 observing nights between 1998 November and 2002 August, are presented. The spectra are given in FITS format and heliocentric wavelengths, with accurate subtraction of both the sky background and the scattered light. Auxiliary material useful for custom applications (telluric dividers, spectrophotometric stars, flat-field tracings) is also provided. The atlas aims to provide a homogeneous database of the spectral appearance of stellar peculiarities, a tool useful both for classification purposes and inter-comparison studies. It could also serve in the planning and development of automated classification algorithms designed for RAVE, Gaia, HERMES, and other large-scale spectral surveys. The spectrum of XX Oph is discussed in some detail as an example of the content of the present atlas.

  14. Spectral filter for splitting a beam with electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-Ray (Soft X) and the infrared (IR) wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik; van den Boogaard, Toine; van den Boogaard, A.J.R.; van der Meer, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral filter for splitting the primary radiation from a generated beam with primary electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation) or soft X-ray (soft X) wavelength range and parasitic radiation having a wavelength in the infrared wavelength range (IR

  15. Multi-wavelength metal-dielectric nonpolarizing beam splitters in the near-infrared range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Shi, Jin; Ping Wang, Zheng; Ying Guan, Chun; Yang, Jun; Shu Fu, Tian

    2011-04-01

    A 21-layer multi-wavelength metal-dielectric nonpolarizing cube beam splitter was designed by use of an optimization method and theoretically investigated in the near-infrared range. The angular dependence of the reflectance and differential phases induced by reflection and transmission were presented. The simulation results revealed that the non-polarizing effect could be achieved for both the amplitude and phase characteristics at 1310 and 1550 nm. The differences between the simulated and the target reflectance of 50% are less than 2% and differential phases are less than 5°in the range 1300-1320 nm and 1540-1550 nm for both p- and s-components.

  16. Multilayer X-ray mirrors for formation of sub-nanometer wavelength range beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhsakhalyan, A.A.; Akhsakhalyan, A.D.; Klyuenkov, E.B.; Murav'ev, V.A.; Salashchenko, N.N.; Kharitonov, A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Paper reviews the efforts undertaken in the RF Academy of Sciences IPM within recent 5 years to design multilayer mirror systems to produce X-ray wavelength subnanometer range beams. Paper describes a process to fabricate the mentioned systems covering the procedures to obtain supersmooth surfaces of the specified shape, to deposit gradient multilayer structures on the mentioned surfaces and describes the rules to calculate the optimal parameters of mirrors. Paper presents characteristics of mirror system two types: a mirror in the shape of a parabolic cylinder to collimate radiation in the DRON-4, DRON-6 production-type X-ray diffractometers and in the shape of a quadraelliptic reflector - a new wide-aperture four-corner focusing system [ru

  17. Novel method of optical image registration in wide wavelength range using matrix of piezoelectric crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigarev, Aleksey V.; Bazarov, Timur O.; Fedorov, Vladimir V.; Ryabushkin, Oleg A.

    2018-02-01

    Most modern systems of the optical image registration are based on the matrices of photosensitive semiconductor heterostructures. However, measurement of radiation intensities up to several MW/cm2 -level using such detectors is a great challenge because semiconductor elements have low optical damage threshold. Reflecting or absorbing filters that can be used for attenuation of radiation intensity, as a rule, distort beam profile. Furthermore, semiconductor based devices have relatively narrow measurement wavelength bandwidth. We introduce a novel matrix method of optical image registration. This approach doesn't require any attenuation when measuring high radiation intensities. A sensitive element is the matrix made of thin transparent piezoelectric crystals that absorb just a small part of incident optical power. Each crystal element has its own set of intrinsic (acoustic) vibration modes. These modes can be exited due to the inverse piezoelectric effect when the external electric field is applied to the crystal sample providing that the field frequency corresponds to one of the vibration mode frequencies. Such piezoelectric resonances (PR) can be observed by measuring the radiofrequency response spectrum of the crystal placed between the capacitor plates. PR frequencies strongly depend on the crystal temperature. Temperature calibration of PR frequencies is conducted in the uniform heating conditions. In the case a crystal matrix is exposed to the laser radiation the incident power can be obtained separately for each crystal element by measuring its PR frequency kinetics providing that the optical absorption coefficient is known. The operating wavelength range of such sensor is restricted by the transmission bandwidth of the applied crystals. A plane matrix constituting of LiNbO3 crystals was assembled in order to demonstrate the possibility of application of the proposed approach. The crystal elements were placed between two electrodes forming a capacitor which

  18. A superconducting wavelength shifter as primary radiometric source standard in the X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, R. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: roman.klein@ptb.de; Brandt, G.; Cibik, L.; Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Scheer, M. [BESSY GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-10-11

    For more than 20 years, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has been using the calculable radiation of bending magnets from the BESSY I and BESSY II electron storage rings in the visible, UV, vacuum-UV (VUV) and X-ray spectral range for radiometry, especially for the calibration of radiation sources and energy-dispersive detectors. Due to its-compared to bending magnets-higher magnetic field, wavelength shifters (WLS) have the potential to extend the usable spectral range for these applications to higher photon energies. Thus, the characteristic energies of BESSY II bending magnet radiation and a 6 T WLS radiation are 2.5 and 11.5 keV, respectively. Within the scope of this work, the properties of the synchrotron radiation from the 6 T WLS have been investigated and compared to theoretical predictions for photon energies up to 150 keV. Good agreement within the experimental uncertainty of several percent was found. Further improvements for a future radiometric use of WLS radiation with low uncertainties will be discussed.

  19. A superconducting wavelength shifter as primary radiometric source standard in the X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.; Brandt, G.; Cibik, L.; Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G.; Scheer, M.

    2007-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has been using the calculable radiation of bending magnets from the BESSY I and BESSY II electron storage rings in the visible, UV, vacuum-UV (VUV) and X-ray spectral range for radiometry, especially for the calibration of radiation sources and energy-dispersive detectors. Due to its-compared to bending magnets-higher magnetic field, wavelength shifters (WLS) have the potential to extend the usable spectral range for these applications to higher photon energies. Thus, the characteristic energies of BESSY II bending magnet radiation and a 6 T WLS radiation are 2.5 and 11.5 keV, respectively. Within the scope of this work, the properties of the synchrotron radiation from the 6 T WLS have been investigated and compared to theoretical predictions for photon energies up to 150 keV. Good agreement within the experimental uncertainty of several percent was found. Further improvements for a future radiometric use of WLS radiation with low uncertainties will be discussed

  20. A superconducting wavelength shifter as primary radiometric source standard in the X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R.; Brandt, G.; Cibik, L.; Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Müller, P.; Ulm, G.; Scheer, M.

    2007-10-01

    For more than 20 years, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has been using the calculable radiation of bending magnets from the BESSY I and BESSY II electron storage rings in the visible, UV, vacuum-UV (VUV) and X-ray spectral range for radiometry, especially for the calibration of radiation sources and energy-dispersive detectors. Due to its—compared to bending magnets—higher magnetic field, wavelength shifters (WLS) have the potential to extend the usable spectral range for these applications to higher photon energies. Thus, the characteristic energies of BESSY II bending magnet radiation and a 6 T WLS radiation are 2.5 and 11.5 keV, respectively. Within the scope of this work, the properties of the synchrotron radiation from the 6 T WLS have been investigated and compared to theoretical predictions for photon energies up to 150 keV. Good agreement within the experimental uncertainty of several percent was found. Further improvements for a future radiometric use of WLS radiation with low uncertainties will be discussed.

  1. GIARPS@TNG: GIANO-B and HARPS-N together for a wider wavelength range spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudi, R.; Benatti, S.; Carleo, I.; Ghedina, A.; Guerra, J.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Oliva, E.; Rainer, M.; Tozzi, A.; Baffa, C.; Baruffolo, A.; Buchschacher, N.; Cecconi, M.; Cosentino, R.; Fantinel, D.; Fini, L.; Ghinassi, F.; Giani, E.; Gonzalez, E.; Gonzalez, M.; Gratton, R.; Harutyunyan, A.; Hernandez, N.; Lodi, M.; Malavolta, L.; Maldonado, J.; Origlia, L.; Sanna, N.; Sanjuan, J.; Scuderi, S.; Seemann, U.; Sozzetti, A.; Perez Ventura, H.; Hernandez Diaz, M.; Galli, A.; Gonzalez, C.; Riverol, L.; Riverol, C.

    2017-08-01

    Since 2012, thanks to the installation of the high-resolution echelle spectrograph in the optical range HARPS-N, the Italian telescope TNG (La Palma) became one of the key facilities for the study of the extrasolar planets. In 2014 TNG also offered GIANO to the scientific community, providing a near-infrared (NIR) cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy covering 0.97-2.45μm at a resolution of 50000. GIANO, although designed for direct light-feed from the telescope at the Nasmyth-B focus, was provisionally mounted on the rotating building and connected via fibers to only available interface at the Nasmyth-A focal plane. The synergy between these two instruments is particularly appealing for a wide range of science cases, especially for the search of exoplanets around young and active stars and the characterisation of their atmosphere. Through the funding scheme "WOW" (a Way to Others Worlds), the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) proposed to position GIANO at the focal station for which it was originally designed and the simultaneous use of these spectrographs with the aim to achieve high-resolution spectroscopy in a wide wavelength range (0.383-2.45μm) obtained in a single exposure, giving rise to the project called GIARPS (GIANO-B & HARPS-N). Because of its characteristics, GIARPS can be considered the first and unique worldwide instrument providing not only high resolution in a large wavelength band, but also a high-precision radial velocity measurement both in the visible and in the NIR arm, since in the next future GIANO-B will be equipped with gas absorption cells.

  2. Dependence of wavelength of Xe ion-induced rippled structures on the fluence in the medium ion energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Institute of Physics, University of Siegen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Ion-beam eroded self-organized nanostructures on semiconductors offer new ways for the fabrication of high density memory and optoelectronic devices. It is known that wavelength and amplitude of noble gas ion-induced rippled structures tune with the ion energy and the fluence depending on the energy range, ion type and substrate. The linear theory by Makeev predicts a linear dependence of the ion energy on the wavelength for low temperatures. For Ar{sup +} and O{sub 2}{sup +} it was observed by different groups that the wavelength grows with increasing fluence after being constant up to an onset fluence and before saturation. In this coarsening regime power-law or exponential behavior of the wavelength with the fluence was monitored. So far, investigations for Xe ions on silicon surfaces mainly concentrated on energies below 1 keV. We found a linear dependence of both the ion energy and the fluence on the wavelength and amplitude of rippled structures over a wide range of the Xe{sup +} ion energy between 5 and 70 keV. Moreover, we estimated the ratio of wavelength to amplitude to be constant meaning a shape stability when a threshold fluence of 2.10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} was exceeded.

  3. Wide wavelength range tunable one-dimensional silicon nitride nano-grating guided mode resonance filter based on azimuthal rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Yukino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe wavelength tuning in a one dimensional (1D silicon nitride nano-grating guided mode resonance (GMR structure under conical mounting configuration of the device. When the GMR structure is rotated about the axis perpendicular to the surface of the device (azimuthal rotation for light incident at oblique angles, the conditions for resonance are different than for conventional GMR structures under classical mounting. These resonance conditions enable tuning of the GMR peak position over a wide range of wavelengths. We experimental demonstrate tuning over a range of 375 nm between 500 nm˜875 nm. We present a theoretical model to explain the resonance conditions observed in our experiments and predict the peak positions with show excellent agreement with experiments. Our method for tuning wavelengths is simpler and more efficient than conventional procedures that employ variations in the design parameters of structures or conical mounting of two-dimensional (2D GMR structures and enables a single 1D GMR device to function as a high efficiency wavelength filter over a wide range of wavelengths. We expect tunable filters based on this technique to be applicable in a wide range of fields including astronomy and biomedical imaging.

  4. On very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) and long-wavelength patterns in turbine wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Asim; Meyers, Johan

    2017-11-01

    It is now widely accepted that very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) are a prominent feature of thermally-neutral atmospheric boundary layers (ABL). Up to date, the influence of these very long active motions on wind-energy harvesting is not sufficiently explored. This work is an effort in this direction. We perform large-eddy simulation of a turbine row operating under neutral conditions. The ABL data is produced separately in a very long domain of 240 δ . VLSMs are isolated from smaller-scale ABL and wake motions using a spectral cutoff at streamwise wavelength λx = 3.125 δ . Reynolds-averaging of low-pass filtered fields shows that the interaction of VLSMs and turbines produce very-long-wavelength motions in the wake region, which contain about 20 % of the Reynolds-shear stress, and 30 % of the streamwise kinetic energy. A conditional analysis of filtered fields further reveals that these long-wavelength wakes are produced by modification of very long velocity streaks in ABL. In particular, the turbine row acts as a sharp boundary between low and high velocity streaks, and accompanying roller structures remain relatively unaffected. This reorganization creates a two-way flux towards the wake region, which elucidates the side-way domination in turbulent transport. The authors acknowledg funding from ERC Grant No 306471.

  5. Attenuation on an Earth-space path measured in the wavelength range of 8 to 14 micrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R W

    1970-06-19

    A telescope operating over the wavelength range of 8 to 14 micrometers has been added to the Crawford Hill sun tracker for the purpose of measuring attenuation in that atmospheric window. Over a 9-month period the attenuation (typically from clouds) exceeded 10, 20, and 30 decibels for 48, 43, and 34 percent of the time.

  6. Fiber optics frequency comb enabled linear optical sampling with operation wavelength range extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ruolin; Wu, Zhichao; Fu, Songnian; Zhu, Shengnan; Yu, Zhe; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming

    2018-02-01

    Although the linear optical sampling (LOS) technique is powerful enough to characterize various advanced modulation formats with high symbol rates, the central wavelength of a pulsed local oscillator (LO) needs to be carefully set according to that of the signal under test, due to the coherent mixing operation. Here, we experimentally demonstrate wideband LOS enabled by a fiber optics frequency comb (FOFC). Meanwhile, when the broadband FOFC acts as the pulsed LO, we propose a scheme to mitigate the enhanced sampling error arising in the non-ideal response of a balanced photodetector. Finally, precise characterizations of arbitrary 128 Gbps PDM-QPSK wavelength channels from 1550 to 1570 nm are successfully achieved, when a 101.3 MHz frequency spaced comb with a 3 dB spectral power ripple of 20 nm is used.

  7. A recent investigation of neutron total cross section of zirconium in the wavelength range (0.1-1.25) Ao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Ela, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The neutron total cross section of zirconium has been investigated in the neutron wavelength range (0.1 -1.52) A o by using slow neutron time of flight spectrometer, installed in front of the horizontal channel No.6 of the ETRR-1 reactor (2MW). The results have showed that the neutrons with short wavelength (0.1 - 0.76) A o cannot interact with the crystal structure while it can interact with the free bound atom to give the value (6.2 +0.1) barns for the potential scattering cross section or (the scattering length = 6.2 fermi)). The present measured value is in good agreement with the international published values by different technique. The neutrons with longer wavelength (0.76 - 1.52) A o have showed dependence of the total cross section on the neutron wavelength. Such dependence between the total cross section and the neutron wavelength can not be observed in the reported previous measurements, which can be attributed to the limited number of the measured values. 4 figs

  8. Study and use of an infrared camera optimized for ground based observations in the 10 micron wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, Sophie

    1991-01-01

    Astronomical observations in the 10 micron atmospheric window provide very important information for many of astrophysical topics. But because of the very large terrestrial photon background at that wavelength, ground based observations have been impeded. On the other band, the ground based telescopes offer a greater angular resolution than the spatially based telescopes. The recent development of detector arrays for the mid infrared range made easier the development of infrared cameras with optimized detectors for astronomical observations from the ground. The CAMIRAS infrared camera, built by the 'Service d'Astrophysique' in Saclay is the instrument we have studied and we present its performances. Its sensitivity, given for an integration time of one minute on source and a signal to noise ratio of 3, is 0.15 Jy for punctual sources, and 20 mJy arcs"-"2 for extended sources. But we need to get rid of the enormous photon background so we have to find a better way of observation based on modulation techniques as 'chopping' or 'nodding'. Thus we show that a modulation about 1 Hz is satisfactory with our detectors arrays without perturbing the signal to noise ratio. As we have a good instrument and because we are able to get rid of the photon background, we can study astronomical objects. Results from a comet, dusty stellar disks, and an ultra-luminous galaxy are presented. (author) [fr

  9. Vertically integrated (Ga, In)N nanostructures for future single photon emitters operating in the telecommunication wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winden, A; Mikulics, M; Grützmacher, D; Hardtdegen, H

    2013-01-01

    Important technological steps are discussed and realized for future room-temperature operation of III-nitride single photon emitters. First, the growth technology of positioned single pyramidal InN nanostructures capped by Mg-doped GaN is presented. The optimization of their optical characteristics towards narrowband emission in the telecommunication wavelength range is demonstrated. In addition, a device concept and technology was developed so that the nanostructures became singularly addressable. It was found that the nanopyramids emit in the telecommunication wavelength range if their size is chosen appropriately. A p-GaN contacting layer was successfully produced as a cap to the InN pyramids and the top p-contact was achievable using an intrinsically conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS, allowing a 25% increase in light transmittance compared to standard Ni/Au contact technology. Single nanopyramids were successfully integrated into a high-frequency device layout. These decisive technology steps provide a promising route to electrically driven and room-temperature operating InN based single photon emitters in the telecommunication wavelength range. (paper)

  10. Wavelength dependence of the single pulse femtosecond laser ablation threshold of indium phosphide in the 400-2050 nm range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowiec, A.; Tiedje, H.F.; Haugen, H.K.

    2005-01-01

    We present single pulse femtosecond laser ablation threshold measurements of InP obtained by optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopy. The experiments were conducted with laser pulses 65-175 fs in duration, in the wavelength range from 400 to 2050 nm, covering the photon energy region above and below the bandgap of InP. The ablation thresholds determined from depth and volume measurements varied from 87 mJ/cm 2 at 400 nm to 250 mJ/cm 2 at 2050 nm. In addition, crater depths and volumes were measured over a range of laser fluences extending well above the ablation threshold

  11. Fabrication of Large Area Fishnet Optical Metamaterial Structures Operational at Near-IR Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis W. Prather

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a fabrication process for large area (2 mm × 2 mm fishnet metamaterial structures for near IR wavelengths. This process involves: (a defining a sacrificial Si template structure onto a quartz wafer using deep-UV lithography and a dry etching process (b deposition of a stack of Au-SiO2-Au layers and (c a ‘lift-off’ process which removes the sacrificial template structure to yield the fishnet structure. The fabrication steps in this process are compatible with today’s CMOS technology making it eminently well suited for batch fabrication. Also, depending on area of the exposure mask available for patterning the template structure, this fabrication process can potentially lead to optical metamaterials spanning across wafer-size areas.

  12. Spectroscopic studies of xenon EUV emission in the 40-80 nm wavelength range using an absolutely calibrated monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merabet, H [Mathematic and Sciences Unit, Dhofar University, Salalah 211, Sultanate of (Oman); Bista, R [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Bruch, R [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Fuelling, S [Department of Physics, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2007-03-01

    We have measured and identified numerous Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) radiative line structures arising from xenon (Xe) ions in charge state q = 1 to 10 in the wavelength range 40-80 nm. To obtain reasonable intensities of different charged Xe ions, we have used a compact microwave plasma source which was designed and developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The EUV emission of the ECR plasma has been measured by a 1.5 m grazing incidence monochromator that was absolutely calibrated in the 10-80 nm wavelength range using well known and calibrated EUV light at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), LBNL. This calibration has enabled us to determine absolute intensities of previously measured EUV radiative lines in the wavelengths regions investigated for different ionization stages of Xe. In addition, emission spectra of xenon ions for corresponding measured lines have been calculated. The calculations have been carried out within the relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. Results of calculations are found to be in good agreement with current and available experimental and theoretical data.

  13. High efficiency AlGaInN-based light emitting diode in the 360-380 nm wavelength range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Hisao; Wang, Hong-Xing; Sato, Daisuke; Takaki, Ryohei; Wada, Naoki; Tanahashi, Tetsuya; Yamashita, Kenji; Kawano, Shunsuke; Mizobuchi, Takashi; Dempo, Akihiko; Morioka, Kenji; Kimura, Masahiro; Nohda, Suguru [Nitride Semiconductors Co., Ltd., 115-7 Itayajima, Akinokami, Seto-cho, Naruto, Tokushima 771-0360 (Japan); Sugahara, Tomoya [Satellite Venture Business Laboratory, The University of Tokushima (Japan); Sakai, Shiro [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minami-josanjima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    High performance LEDs emitting in the wavelength range 360-380 nm, are fabricated on sapphire substrates by one-time metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) without using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) or similar techniques. By improving layer structures and growth conditions, the output power of the LEDs was much improved. The light output power of the LEDs at an injection current of 20 mA is 3.2 mW, 2.5 mW and 1 mW at wavelengths of 378 nm, 373 nm and 363 nm, which correspond to an external quantum efficiency of 4.8%, 3.8% and 1.4%, respectively. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, H.; Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-01-01

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ∼3000 K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure

  15. Selective treatment of carious dentin using a mid-infrared tunable pulsed laser at 6 μm wavelength range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Masayuki; Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshikawa, Kazushi; Yasuo, Kenzo; Yamamoto, Kazuyo; Awazu, Kunio

    2011-03-01

    Optical technologies have good potential for caries detection, prevention, excavation, and the realization of minimal intervention dentistry. This study aimed to develop a selective excavation technique of carious tissue using the specific absorption in 6 μm wavelength range. Bovine dentin demineralized with lactic acid solution was used as a carious dentin model. A mid-infrared tunable pulsed laser was obtained by difference-frequency generation technique. The wavelength was tuned to 6.02 and 6.42 μm which correspond to absorption bands called amide I and amide II, respectively. The laser delivers 5 ns pulse width at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The morphological change after irradiation was observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the measurement of ablation depth was performed with a confocal laser microscope. At λ = 6.02 μm and the average power density of 15 W/cm2, demineralized dentin was removed selectively with less-invasive effect on sound dentin. The wavelength of 6.42 μm also showed the possibility of selective removal. High ablation efficiency and low thermal side effect were observed using the nanosecond pulsed laser with λ = 6.02 μm. In the near future, development of compact laser device will open the minimal invasive laser treatment to the dental clinic.

  16. Parameter changes in silicon IMPATT diodes for mm wavelength range exposed to gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbina, L.V.; Torchinskaya, T.V.; Shcherbina, E.S.; Polupan, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the p + -n-n + -silicon mesa-diodes fabricated using batch technique whose breakdown voltage was 19±1 V. The exposition of IMPATT diodes to 60 Co gamma-radiation was made in the 10 3 to 10 7 Gy dose range. When the gamma-irradiation dose was increased up to (5-8)*10 5 Gy, then the thermal-generation component of the reverse current was monotonously decreasing. The breakdown voltage remained the same during gamma-irradiation. It was shown experimentally that exposition of diodes to (5-8)*10 5 Gy doses of gamma-irradiation led to some drop of both the number of microplasmas in the avalanche breakdown region and the micro plasma noise level. 60 Co gamma-irradiation in the 10 3 -8*10 5 Gy dose range led also to the growth of the microwave output power P out . The decrease of the micro plasma number in the avalanche breakdown region and Pout growth may be explained if one assumes that gamma-irradiation in the 10 3 - 8*10 5 Gy dose range leads to 'healing' of structural defects in the semiconductor due to their interaction with the radiation-induced point defects. The gamma-irradiation dose increase over 8*10 5 Gy results in a storage of some radiation-induced defects in the IMPATT diode base and electrical parameters of diodes are degrading

  17. High-power cw laser bars of the 750 – 790-nm wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyareva, N S; Kondakov, S A; Mikayelyan, G T; Gorlachuk, P V; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A; Ryaboshtan, Yu L; Yarotskaya, I V

    2013-01-01

    We have developed the effective design of semiconductor heterostructures, which allow one to fabricate cw laser diodes emitting in the 750 – 790-nm spectral range. The optimal conditions for fabrication of GaAsP/AlGaInP/GaAs heterostructures by MOCVD have been determined. It is shown that the use of quantum wells with a precisely defined quantity mismatch reduces the threshold current density and increases the external differential efficiency. The results of studies of characteristics of diode laser bars fabricated from these heterostructures are presented. (lasers)

  18. A two-level model of rise time in quantum cascade laser materials applied to 5 micron, 9 micron and terahertz-range wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J F; Yong, K S C; Haldar, M K

    2014-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulation of a two-level rate equation model for quantum cascade laser (QCL) materials is used to study the turn on delay and rise time for three QCLs with 5 micron, 9 micron and terahertz-range wavelengths. In order to do this it is necessary that the model can deal with large signal responses and not be restricted to small signal responses; the model used here is capable of this. The effect of varying some of the characteristic times in the model is also investigated. The comparison of the terahertz wave QCL with the others is particularly important given the increased interest in terahertz sources which have a large range of important applications, such as in medical imaging

  19. Auroral radar measurements at 16-cm wavelength with high range and time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, K.; Turunen, T.; Moorcroft, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Auroral radar measurements performed with the EISCAT facility are presented. Backscatter cross sections of the irregularities produced by the two-stream (Farley-Buneman) or gradient drift plasma instabilities have been recorded with a range separation of 1.5 km, corresponding to a spacing of successive values in height of about 0.4 km. The apparent height profiles of the backscatter have a width of about 5-6 km and occur between 95 and 112 km altitude, with a mean at 104 km. Very often, fast motions of the backscatter layers are observed which can be explained as fast moving ionospheric structures controlled by magnetospheric convection. The maximal time resolution of the measurements is 12.5 ms. The statistics of the backscatter amplitudes at this time resolution is close to a Rice distribution with a Rice parameter a ∼ 3.7. The observed backscatter spectra do not change significantly in shape when the integration time is reduced from 5 s to 100 ms

  20. Fabrication of dense wavelength division multiplexing filters with large useful area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Hsu, Jin-Cherng; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2006-08-01

    Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexers (DWDM), a kind of narrow band-pass filter, are extremely sensitive to the optical thickness error in each composite layer. Therefore to have a large useful coating area is extreme difficult because of the uniformity problem. To enlarge the useful coating area it is necessary to improve their design and their fabrication. In this study, we discuss how the tooling factors at different positions and for different materials are related to the optical performance of the design. 100GHz DWDM filters were fabricated by E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD). To improve the coating uniformity, an analysis technique called shaping tooling factor (STF) was used to analyze the deviation of the optical thickness in different materials so as to enlarge the useful coating area. Also a technique of etching the deposited layers with oxygen ions was introduced. When the above techniques were applied in the fabrication of 100 GHz DWDM filters, the uniformity was better than +/-0.002% over an area of 72 mm in diameter and better than +/-0.0006% over 20mm in diameter.

  1. First Results of Using a UVTron Flame Sensor to Detect Alpha-Induced Air Fluorescence in the UVC Wavelength Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita J. Crompton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a robust stand-off alpha detection method using the secondary effects of alpha radiation has been sought. Alpha particles ionise the surrounding atmosphere as they travel. Fluorescence photons produced as a consequence of this can be used to detect the source of the alpha emissions. This paper details experiments carried out to detect this fluorescence, with the focus on photons in the ultraviolet C (UVC wavelength range (180–280 nm. A detector, UVTron R9533 (Hamamatsu, 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Pref., 430-8587, Japan, designed to detect the UVC emissions from flames for fire alarm purposes, was tested in various gas atmospheres with a 210Po alpha source to determine if this could provide an avenue for stand-off alpha detection. The results of the experiments show that this detector is capable of detecting alpha-induced air fluorescence in normal indoor lighting conditions, as the interference from daylight and artificial lighting is less influential on this detection system which operates below the UVA and UVB wavelength ranges (280–315 nm and 315–380 nm respectively. Assuming a standard 1 r 2 drop off in signal, the limit of detection in this configuration can be calculated to be approximately 240 mm, well beyond the range of alpha-particles in air, which indicates that this approach could have potential for stand-off alpha detection. The gas atmospheres tested produced an increase in the detector count, with xenon having the greatest effect with a measured 52% increase in the detector response in comparison to the detector response in an air atmosphere. This type of alpha detection system could be operated at a distance, where it would potentially provide a more cost effective, safer, and faster solution in comparison with traditional alpha detection methods to detect and characterise alpha contamination in nuclear decommissioning and security applications.

  2. Large solid-angle polarisation analysis at thermal neutron wavelengths using a sup 3 He spin filter

    CERN Document Server

    Heil, W; Cywinski, R; Humblot, H; Ritter, C; Roberts, T W; Stewart, J R

    2002-01-01

    The strongly spin-dependent absorption of neutrons in nuclear spin-polarised sup 3 He opens up the possibility of polarising neutrons from reactors and spallation sources over the full kinematical range of cold, thermal and hot neutrons. In this paper we describe the first large solid-angle polarisation analysis measurement using a sup 3 He neutron spin filter at thermal neutron wavelengths (lambda=2.5 A). This experiment was performed on the two-axis diffractometer D1B at the Institut Laue-Langevin using a banana-shaped filter cell (530 cm sup 3 ) filled with sup 3 He gas with a polarisation of P=52% at a pressure of 2.7 bar. A comparison is made with a previous measurement on D7 using a cold neutron beam on the same sample, i.e. amorphous ErY sub 6 Ni sub 3. Using uniaxial polarisation analysis both the nuclear and magnetic cross-sections could be extracted over the range of scattering-vectors [0.5<=Q(A sup - sup 1)<=3.5]. The results are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the D7-data, whe...

  3. Michelson interferometer design for Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) applications in the 15-1.5 Aa wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, Roman

    2000-01-01

    In recent years the continuing development of linac-driven X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XRFEL) designs has significantly expanded the parameter space associated with 3rd and earlier-generation synchrotron radiation sources. In particular, in contrast to the >100 ps pulse durations typical of storage rings, temporal lengths extending down to the <100 fs regime will become available. For example, for the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) a pulse duration of ∼200-300 fs with finer temporal features extending down to ∼1 fs is anticipated. The characterization of the phase space distributions of such pulses poses a significant challenge for instrumentation design both with regard to the brevity of the pulse structure as well as the X-ray (15-1.5 Aa) wavelength range of the FEL line. In this paper we assess a Michelson interferometer design aimed at characterizing the coherence length of the SLAC LCLS and discuss considerations related to its operation

  4. Development of photonic-crystal-fiber-based optical coupler with a broad operating wavelength range of 800 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Min-Seok; Kwon, Oh-Jang; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Chu, Su-Ho; Kim, Gil-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Bae; Han, Young-Geun

    2010-01-01

    We developed a broadband optical coupler based on a photonic crystal fiber (PCF), which is very useful for applications to optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PCF-based coupler is fabricated by using a fused biconical tapering (FBT) method. The PCF has six hexagonally-stacked layers of air holes. The PCF-based coupler has a nearly-flat 50/50 coupling ratio in a broad bandwidth range of 800 nm, which is much wider than that previously reported for a PCF-based coupler and a singlemode-fiber-based coupler. The bandwidth and the bandedge wavelength of the broadband coupler are controlled by changing the elongation length. The fabricated broadband optical coupler has great potential for realizing a broadband interferogram with a high resolution in an OCT system.

  5. Study of the Wavelength Dependence in Laser Ablation of Advanced Ceramics and Glass-Ceramic Materials in the Nanosecond Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Daniel; Peña, Jose I

    2013-11-19

    In this work, geometrical dimensions and ablation yields as a function of the machining method and reference position were studied when advanced ceramics and glass-ceramic materials were machined with pulsed lasers in the nanosecond range. Two laser systems, emitting at 1064 and 532 nm, were used. It was shown that the features obtained depend on whether the substrate is processed by means of pulse bursts or by grooves. In particular, when the samples were processed by grooves, machined depth, removed volume and ablation yields reached their maximum, placing the sample out of focus. It was shown that these characteristics do not depend on the processing conditions, the wavelength or the optical configuration, and that this is intrinsic behavior of the processing method. Furthermore, the existence of a close relation between material hardness and ablation yields was demonstrated.

  6. III-V-on-Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits for Spectroscopic Sensing in the 2-4 μm Wavelength Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruijun; Vasiliev, Anton; Muneeb, Muhammad; Malik, Aditya; Sprengel, Stephan; Boehm, Gerhard; Amann, Markus-Christian; Šimonytė, Ieva; Vizbaras, Augustinas; Vizbaras, Kristijonas; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Gunther

    2017-08-04

    The availability of silicon photonic integrated circuits (ICs) in the 2-4 μm wavelength range enables miniature optical sensors for trace gas and bio-molecule detection. In this paper, we review our recent work on III-V-on-silicon waveguide circuits for spectroscopic sensing in this wavelength range. We first present results on the heterogeneous integration of 2.3 μm wavelength III-V laser sources and photodetectors on silicon photonic ICs for fully integrated optical sensors. Then a compact 2 μm wavelength widely tunable external cavity laser using a silicon photonic IC for the wavelength selective feedback is shown. High-performance silicon arrayed waveguide grating spectrometers are also presented. Further we show an on-chip photothermal transducer using a suspended silicon-on-insulator microring resonator used for mid-infrared photothermal spectroscopy.

  7. III–V-on-Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits for Spectroscopic Sensing in the 2–4 μm Wavelength Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruijun; Vasiliev, Anton; Muneeb, Muhammad; Malik, Aditya; Sprengel, Stephan; Boehm, Gerhard; Amann, Markus-Christian; Šimonytė, Ieva; Vizbaras, Augustinas; Vizbaras, Kristijonas; Baets, Roel; Roelkens, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    The availability of silicon photonic integrated circuits (ICs) in the 2–4 μm wavelength range enables miniature optical sensors for trace gas and bio-molecule detection. In this paper, we review our recent work on III–V-on-silicon waveguide circuits for spectroscopic sensing in this wavelength range. We first present results on the heterogeneous integration of 2.3 μm wavelength III–V laser sources and photodetectors on silicon photonic ICs for fully integrated optical sensors. Then a compact 2 μm wavelength widely tunable external cavity laser using a silicon photonic IC for the wavelength selective feedback is shown. High-performance silicon arrayed waveguide grating spectrometers are also presented. Further we show an on-chip photothermal transducer using a suspended silicon-on-insulator microring resonator used for mid-infrared photothermal spectroscopy. PMID:28777291

  8. ANALYTICAL MODEL OF A DIFFERENTIAL METHOD FOR RECEIVING AND PROCESSING SIGNALS OF THE INFRARED RANGE OF WAVELENGTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Akinshin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the classic methods to improve the noise immunity of passive detection of infrared wavelength range (IKSO is a differential inclusion of pyrocatechol, placed at some distance. An analytical model of a differential method of receiving infrared radiation from moving objects is introduced. A comparison with experimental results for moving objects of different types is made. Differential inclusion of sensors can be used not only to compensate the external interference, but also to determine the boundaries of a temporary "slot", inside which the movable object is most likely to be detected. The temporal boundaries are used for the decision making about the type and parameters of the movable object in complexional device of object classification.The principle of operation of ikso, which is to record signals with diversity of pyrocatechol into the appropriate memory registers and output detection of the differential signal envelope. Subsequently, from the memory registers portions of a recording signal posted pyrocatechol are selected which are later processed to determine the temporal provisions of minimum minimore and maximum maximore. The direction of movement of the object abeam is determined by the delay or advance of the extrema of the signals of one sensor relative to another within a given temporal "slot".It is shown that aggregation should be the following – the tool with a maximum radius of the zone of sensitivity should be active and the basic, but if there is a more reliable piece of information about the detected object which can implement a more refined classification of the object (for example, a group of people, wheeled vehicles-tracked vehicles, etc.. The conclusion is made about the advantages of differential option to include spaced sensors.The results can be used in the development of infrared wavelengths passive detection in the conceptual design phase.

  9. Astronomers Break Ground on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) - World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from Europe, North America and Chile are breaking ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths . ALMA - the "Atacama Large Millimeter Array" - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located in the II Region of Chile, in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, at the Chajnantor altiplano, 5,000 metres above sea level. ALMA 's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimetre portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. " ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe" , said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA , also to young scientists and engineers" . " The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare

  10. 2 μm wavelength range InP-based type-II quantum well photodiodes heterogeneously integrated on silicon photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruijun; Sprengel, Stephan; Muneeb, Muhammad; Boehm, Gerhard; Baets, Roel; Amann, Markus-Christian; Roelkens, Gunther

    2015-10-05

    The heterogeneous integration of InP-based type-II quantum well photodiodes on silicon photonic integrated circuits for the 2 µm wavelength range is presented. A responsivity of 1.2 A/W at a wavelength of 2.32 µm and 0.6 A/W at 2.4 µm wavelength is demonstrated. The photodiodes have a dark current of 12 nA at -0.5 V at room temperature. The absorbing active region of the integrated photodiodes consists of six periods of a "W"-shaped quantum well, also allowing for laser integration on the same platform.

  11. The response of wavelength shifting panels in large water Cherenkov systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakich, A.M.; Peak, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a series of tests performed with a panel Bicron wavelength shifting acrylic plastic (BC-480) coupled to an EMI 9623B photomultiplier tube. The aim was to effectively increase the cathode coverage and its sensitivity to incident Cherenkov radiation, so that such a system could be employed in a solar neutrino detector. Measurements of the uniformity and effective efficiency of the system have been made and compared with the results of various simulation runs. The effects of side mirrors, back reflector, water interface and possible shaping of the panel to enhance its response are also assessed. (orig.)

  12. Scattering Properties of Large Irregular Cosmic Dust Particles at Visible Wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar-Cerezo, J.; Palmer, C.; Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F.; Penttilä, A.; Muinonen, K.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of internal inhomogeneities and surface roughness on the scattering behavior of large cosmic dust particles is studied by comparing model simulations with laboratory measurements. The present work shows the results of an attempt to model a dust sample measured in the laboratory with simulations performed by a ray-optics model code. We consider this dust sample as a good analogue for interplanetary and interstellar dust as it shares its refractive index with known materials in these media. Several sensitivity tests have been performed for both structural cases (internal inclusions and surface roughness). Three different samples have been selected to mimic inclusion/coating inhomogeneities: two measured scattering matrices of hematite and white clay, and a simulated matrix for water ice. These three matrices are selected to cover a wide range of imaginary refractive indices. The selection of these materials also seeks to study astrophysical environments of interest such as Mars, where hematite and clays have been detected, and comets. Based on the results of the sensitivity tests shown in this work, we perform calculations for a size distribution of a silicate-type host particle model with inclusions and surface roughness to reproduce the experimental measurements of a dust sample. The model fits the measurements quite well, proving that surface roughness and internal structure play a role in the scattering pattern of irregular cosmic dust particles.

  13. Scattering Properties of Large Irregular Cosmic Dust Particles at Visible Wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar-Cerezo, J.; Palmer, C.; Muñoz, O.; Moreno, F. [Instituto de Astrofìsica de Andalucìa, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomìa s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Penttilä, A.; Muinonen, K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-03-20

    The effect of internal inhomogeneities and surface roughness on the scattering behavior of large cosmic dust particles is studied by comparing model simulations with laboratory measurements. The present work shows the results of an attempt to model a dust sample measured in the laboratory with simulations performed by a ray-optics model code. We consider this dust sample as a good analogue for interplanetary and interstellar dust as it shares its refractive index with known materials in these media. Several sensitivity tests have been performed for both structural cases (internal inclusions and surface roughness). Three different samples have been selected to mimic inclusion/coating inhomogeneities: two measured scattering matrices of hematite and white clay, and a simulated matrix for water ice. These three matrices are selected to cover a wide range of imaginary refractive indices. The selection of these materials also seeks to study astrophysical environments of interest such as Mars, where hematite and clays have been detected, and comets. Based on the results of the sensitivity tests shown in this work, we perform calculations for a size distribution of a silicate-type host particle model with inclusions and surface roughness to reproduce the experimental measurements of a dust sample. The model fits the measurements quite well, proving that surface roughness and internal structure play a role in the scattering pattern of irregular cosmic dust particles.

  14. Large dynamic range pressure sensor based on two semicircle-holes microstructured fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyong; Htein, Lin; Lee, Kang-Kuen; Lau, Kin-Tak; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2018-01-08

    This paper presents a sensitive and large dynamic range pressure sensor based on a novel birefringence microstructured optical fiber (MOF) deployed in a Sagnac interferometer configuration. The MOF has two large semicircle holes in the cladding and a rectangular strut with germanium-doped core in the center. The fiber structure permits surrounding pressure to induce large effective index difference between the two polarized modes. The calculated and measured group birefringence of the fiber are 1.49 × 10 -4 , 1.23 × 10 -4 , respectively, at the wavelength of 1550 nm. Experimental results shown that the pressure sensitivity of the sensor varied from 45,000 pm/MPa to 50,000 pm/MPa, and minimum detectable pressure of 80 Pa and dynamic range of better than 116 dB could be achieved with the novel fiber sensor. The proposed sensor could be used in harsh environment and is an ideal candidate for downhole applications where high pressure measurement at elevated temperature up to 250 °C is needed.

  15. Range-Free Localization Schemes for Large Scale Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Tian; Huang, Chengdu; Blum, Brain M; Stankovic, John A; Abdelzaher, Tarek

    2003-01-01

    .... Because coarse accuracy is sufficient for most sensor network applications, solutions in range-free localization are being pursued as a cost-effective alternative to more expensive range-based approaches...

  16. Hybrid Ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber amplifier for long wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Poli, Federica

    2012-01-01

    A large-mode-area Ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier with build-in gain shaping is presented. The fiber cladding consists of a hexagonal lattice of air holes, where three rows are replaced with circular high-index inclusions. Seven missing air holes define the large-mode-area core. ...

  17. Wide range operation of regenerative optical parametric wavelength converter using ASE-degraded 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingyi; Kurumida, Junya; Namiki, Shu

    2011-11-07

    For sustainable growth of the Internet, wavelength-tunable optical regeneration is the key to scaling up high energy-efficiency dynamic optical path networks while keeping the flexibility of the network. Wavelength-tunable optical parametric regenerator (T-OPR) based on the gain saturation effect of parametric amplification in a highly nonlinear fiber is promising for noise reduction in phase-shift keying signals. In this paper, we experimentally evaluated the T-OPR performance for ASE-degraded 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals over a 20-nm input wavelength range between 1527 nm and 1547 nm. As a result, we achieved improved power penalty performance for the regenerated idler with a proper pump power range.

  18. Mutation induction by and mutational interaction between monochromatic wavelength radiations in the near-ultraviolet and visible ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrrell, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    The induction of mutations (reversion to tryptophan independence) by various UV (254, 313, 334 and 365 nm) and visible (405 and 434 nm) wavelengths was measured in exponential phase populations of Escherichia coli B/r thy trp and B/r thy trp uvr A by assay of irradiated populations on semi-enriched media. No mutations were induced in the repair proficient strain at wavelengths longer than 313 nm. Mutations were induced to the excisionless strain at wavelengths as long as 405 nm but less than expected from the known amount of DNA damage induced. Irradiation at the long wavelenths (434, 405, 365 and 334 nm) suppressed the appearance of 254- or 313 nm-induced mutations in the repair competent strain but not in the excision deficient strain. The relative dose-requirement for mutation suppression was related to the relative efficiency of these wavelengths in inducing growth delay. These results suggest that the growth delay induced by near-UV and visible wavelenghts allows more time for the 'error-free' excision repair process to act on the potentially mutagenic lesions induced by 254- and 313-nm radiations, thereby reducing the mutation frequency observed in the repair-proficient strain. The level of near-UV mutation induced in the excision deficient strain is lower than expected from the DNA damage known to be induced. It is possible that near-UV radiation induces a class of lethal lesions that are not susceptible to error-prone repair. (author)

  19. Analysis of subpulse generation from delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter for wide carrier recovery rate range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakaguchi, J.; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Ohira, T.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of subpulses in delayed-interference signal-wavelength converters (DISCS) had been suspected as a Curse of waveform degradation in their application in ultrafast (similar to 160GHz) optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) communication systems. We reported its first observation...

  20. Dealing with inaccuracies in the analysis on solvent-induced swelling of transparent thin films using in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry in the visible wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelman, Kristianne; Kappert, Emiel; Raaijmaker, Michiel J.T.; Wormeester, Herbert; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of transparent polymer films in the visible wavelength range is greatly reduced in the presence of a liquid ambient. The relatively high refractive index of a liquid ambient strongly amplifies the effects of experimental non-idealities, such as

  1. The potential for extending the spectral range accessible to the european X-ray free electron laser in the direction of longer wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Saldin, E L; Yurkov, M V

    2004-01-01

    The baseline specifications of European XFEL give a range of wavelengths between 0.1 nm and 2 nm. This wavelength range at fixed electron beam energy 17.5 GeV can be covered by operating the SASE FEL with three undulators which have different period and tunable gap. A study of the potential for the extending the spectral range accessible to the XFEL in the direction of longer wavelengths is presented. The extension of the wavelength range to 6 nm would be cover the water window in the VUV region, opening the facility to a new class of experiments. There are at least two possible sources of VUV radiation associated with the X-ray FEL; the "low (2.5 GeV) energy electron beam dedicated" and the " 17.5 GeV spent beam parasitic" (or "after-burner") source modes. The second alternative, "after-burner undulator" is the one we regard as most favorable. It is possible to place an undulator as long as 80 meters after 2 nm undulator. Ultimately, VUV undulator would be able to deliver output power approaching 100 GW. A b...

  2. 56 Gb/s DMT transmission with VCSELs in 1.5 um wavelength range over up to 12 km for DWDM intra-data center connects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dochhan, Annika; Eiselt, Nicklas; Hohenleitner, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate up to 12 km, 56 Gb/s DMT transmission using high-speed VCSELs in the 1.5 um wavelength range for future 400Gb/s intra-data center connects, enabled by vestigial sideband filtering of the transmit signal....

  3. Epitaxial growth of quantum dots on InP for device applications operating at the 1.55 μm wavelength range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Elizaveta; Kulkova, Irina; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima

    2014-01-01

    . In order to extract the QD benefits for the longer telecommunication wavelength range the technology of QD fabrication should be developed for InP based materials. In our work, we take advantage of both QD fabrication methods Stranski-Krastanow (SK) and selective area growth (SAG) employing block copolymer...

  4. Improvement of input power dynamic range for 20 Gbit/s optical WDM switch nodes using an integrated Michelson wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    be improved compared to switch blocks without IWCs. This is especially important at high bit rates where the cascadability of the SOA gates decreases. Here, more than 15 dB improvement of the input power dynamic range is achieved at 20 Gbit/s using a high-speed Michelson interferometer wavelength converter...

  5. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Ye Weiguo; Han Hui; Li Pengyu

    2003-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronic is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  6. A high resolution large dynamic range TDC circuit implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Wuhu; Liu Songqiu; Li Pengyu; Han Hui; Ye Yanlin

    2005-01-01

    Time measurement technology is usually used in nuclear experimentation. There are many methods of time measurement. The implementation method of Time to Digital Conversion (TDC) by means of electronics is a classical technology. The range and resolution of TDC is different according with different usage. A wide range and high resolution TDC circuit, including its theory and implementation way, is introduced in this paper. The test result is also given. (authors)

  7. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days),

  8. Wavelength-Modulated Differential Photoacoustic (WM-DPA) imaging: a high dynamic range modality towards noninvasive diagnosis of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Choi, Sung soo Sean; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    This study explores wavelength-modulated differential photo-acoustic (WM-DPA) imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection via sensitive characterization of functional information such as hemoglobin oxygenation (sO2) levels. Well-known benchmarks of tumor formation such as angiogenesis and hypoxia can be addressed this way. While most conventional photo-acoustic imaging has almost entirely employed high-power pulsed lasers, frequency-domain photo-acoustic radar (FD-PAR) has seen significant development as an alternative technique. It employs a continuous wave laser source intensity-modulated and driven by frequency-swept waveforms. WM-DPA imaging utilizes chirp modulated laser beams at two distinct wavelengths for which absorption differences between oxy- and deoxygenated hemoglobin are minimum (isosbestic point, 805 nm) and maximum (680 nm) to simultaneously generate two signals detected using a standard commercial array transducer as well as a single-element transducer that scans the sample. Signal processing is performed using Lab View and Matlab software developed in-house. Minute changes in total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and oxygenation levels are detectable using this method since background absorption is suppressed due to the out-of-phase modulation of the laser sources while the difference between the two signals is amplified, thus allowing pre-malignant tumors to become identifiable. By regulating the signal amplitude ratio and phase shift the system can be tuned to applications like cancer screening, sO2 quantification and hypoxia monitoring in stroke patients. Experimental results presented demonstrate WM-DPA imaging of sheep blood phantoms in comparison to single-wavelength FD-PAR imaging. Future work includes the functional PA imaging of small animals in vivo.

  9. Simplified local density model for adsorption over large pressure ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangarajan, B.; Lira, C.T.; Subramanian, R.

    1995-01-01

    Physical adsorption of high-pressure fluids onto solids is of interest in the transportation and storage of fuel and radioactive gases; the separation and purification of lower hydrocarbons; solid-phase extractions; adsorbent regenerations using supercritical fluids; supercritical fluid chromatography; and critical point drying. A mean-field model is developed that superimposes the fluid-solid potential on a fluid equation of state to predict adsorption on a flat wall from vapor, liquid, and supercritical phases. A van der Waals-type equation of state is used to represent the fluid phase, and is simplified with a local density approximation for calculating the configurational energy of the inhomogeneous fluid. The simplified local density approximation makes the model tractable for routine calculations over wide pressure ranges. The model is capable of prediction of Type 2 and 3 subcritical isotherms for adsorption on a flat wall, and shows the characteristic cusplike behavior and crossovers seen experimentally near the fluid critical point

  10. Geometry of the Large Magellanic Cloud Using Multi- wavelength Photometry of Classical Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sukanta; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Wysocki, Daniel; Kumar, Subhash

    2018-05-01

    We determine the geometrical and viewing angle parameters of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the Leavitt law based on a sample of more than 3500 common classical Cepheids (FU and FO) in optical (V, I), near-infrared (JHKs) and mid-infrared ([3.6] μm and [4.5] μm) photometric bands. Statistical reddening and distance modulus free from the effect of reddening to each of the individual Cepheids are obtained using the simultaneous multi-band fit to the apparent distance moduli from the analysis of the resulting Leavitt laws in these seven photometric bands. A reddening map of the LMC obtained from the analysis shows good agreement with the other maps available in the literature. Extinction free distance measurements along with the information of the equatorial coordinates (α, δ) for individual stars are used to obtain the corresponding Cartesian coordinates with respect to the plane of the sky. By fitting a plane solution of the form z = f(x, y) to the observed three dimensional distribution, the following viewing angle parameters of the LMC are obtained: inclination angle i = 25°.110 ± 0°.365, position angle of line of nodes θlon = 154°.702 ± 1°.378. On the other hand, modelling the observed three dimensional distribution of the Cepheids as a triaxial ellipsoid, the following values of the geometrical axes ratios of the LMC are obtained: 1.000 ± 0.003: 1.151 ± 0.003: 1.890 ± 0.014 with the viewing angle parameters: inclination angle of i = 11°.920 ± 0°.315 with respect to the longest axis from the line of sight and position angle of line of nodes θlon = 128°.871 ± 0°.569. The position angles are measured eastwards from north.

  11. Higher operation temperature quadrant photon detectors of 2-11 μm wavelength radiation with large photosensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluczyk, J.; Sosna, A.; Wojnowski, D.; Koźniewski, A.; Romanis, M.; Gawron, W.; Piotrowski, J.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the quadrant photon HgCdTe detectors optimized for 2-11 μm wavelength spectral range and Peltier or no cooling, and photosensitive area of a quad-cell of 1×1 to 4×4 mm. The devices are fabricated as photoconductors or multiple photovoltaic cells connected in series (PVM). The former are characterized by a relatively uniform photosensitive area. The PVM photovoltaic cells are distributed along the wafer surface, comprising a periodical stripe structure with a period of 20 μm. Within each period, there is an insensitive gap/trench spot of size close to the period, but becomes negligible for the optimal spot size comparable to a quadrant-cell area. The photoconductors produce 1/f noise with about 10 kHz knee frequency, due to bias necessary for their operation. The PVM photodiodes are typically operated at 0 V bias, so they generate no 1/f noise and operation from DC is enabled. At 230 K, upper corner frequency of 16 to 100 MHz is obtained for photoconductor and 60 to 80 MHz for PVM, normalized detectivity D* 6×107 cm×Hz1/2/W to >1.4×108 cm×Hz1/2/W for photoconductor and >1.7×108 cm·Hz1/2/W for PVM, allowing for position control of the radiation beam with submicron accuracy at 16 MHz, 10.6 μm wavelength of pulsed radiation spot of 0.8 mm dia at the close-to-maximal input radiation power density in a range of detector linear operation.

  12. TE-polarized design for metallic slit lenses: a way to deep-subwavelength focusing over a broad wavelength range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yechuan; Yuan, Weizheng; Li, Wenli; Sun, Hao; Qi, Kunlun; Yu, Yiting

    2018-01-15

    Slit arrays based on noble metals have been widely proposed as planar transverse-magnetic (TM)-lenses, illuminated by a linearly polarized light with the polarization perpendicular to slits and implementing the focusing capability beyond the diffraction limit. However, due to intrinsic plasmonic losses, these TM-lenses cannot work efficiently in the ultraviolet wavelengths. In this Letter, taking advantage of the unique transmission through metallic slits not involving plasmonic losses, a metallic slit array with transverse-electric (TE)-polarized design is proposed, showing for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the realization of sub-diffraction-limit focusing for ultraviolet light. Additionally, in contrast to the situations of TM-lenses, a wider slit leads to a greater phase delay and much larger slits can be arranged to construct the TE-lenses, which is quite beneficial for practical fabrication. Furthermore, deep-subwavelength focusing can be achieved by utilizing the immersing technology.

  13. Room-temperature continuous-wave operation in the telecom wavelength range of GaSb-based lasers monolithically grown on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, A.; Cerutti, L.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Narcy, G.; Garreau, A.; Lelarge, F.; Tournié, E.

    2017-06-01

    We report on electrically pumped GaSb-based laser diodes monolithically grown on Si and operating in a continuous wave (cw) in the telecom wavelength range. The laser structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on 6°-off (001) substrates. The devices were processed in coplanar contact geometry. 100 μm × 1 mm laser diodes exhibited a threshold current density of 1 kA/cm-2 measured under pulsed operation at 20 °C. CW operation was achieved up to 35 °C with 10 μm × 1 mm diodes. The output power at 20 °C was around 3 mW/uncoated facet, and the cw emission wavelength 1.59 μm, in the C/L-band of telecom systems.

  14. Room-temperature continuous-wave operation in the telecom wavelength range of GaSb-based lasers monolithically grown on Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Castellano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on electrically pumped GaSb-based laser diodes monolithically grown on Si and operating in a continuous wave (cw in the telecom wavelength range. The laser structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on 6°-off (001 substrates. The devices were processed in coplanar contact geometry. 100 μm × 1 mm laser diodes exhibited a threshold current density of 1 kA/cm−2 measured under pulsed operation at 20 °C. CW operation was achieved up to 35 °C with 10 μm × 1 mm diodes. The output power at 20 °C was around 3 mW/uncoated facet, and the cw emission wavelength 1.59 μm, in the C/L-band of telecom systems.

  15. Spectral Aerosol Extinction (SpEx): A New Instrument for In situ Ambient Aerosol Extinction Measurements Across the UV/Visible Wavelength Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Corr, C. A.; Dibb, J. E.; Greenslade, M. E.; Martin, R. F.; Moore, R. H.; Scheuer, E.; Shook, M. A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new instrument for the measurement of in situ ambient aerosol extinction over the 300-700 nm wavelength range, the Spectral Aerosol Extinction (SpEx) instrument. This measurement capability is envisioned to complement existing in situ instrumentation, allowing for simultaneous measurement of the evolution of aerosol optical, chemical, and physical characteristics in the ambient environment. In this work, a detailed description of the instrument is provided along with characterization tests performed in the laboratory. Measured spectra of NO2 and polystyrene latex spheres agreed well with theoretical calculations. Good agreement was also found with simultaneous aerosol extinction measurements at 450, 530, and 630 nm using CAPS PMex instruments in a series of 22 tests including non-absorbing compounds, dusts, soot, and black and brown carbon analogs. SpEx can more accurately distinguish the presence of brown carbon from other absorbing aerosol due to its 300 nm lower wavelength limit compared to measurements limited to visible wavelengths. In addition, the spectra obtained by SpEx carry more information than can be conveyed by a simple power law fit that is typically defined by the use of Angstrom Exponents. Future improvements aim at lowering detection limits and ruggedizing the instrument for mobile operation.

  16. Chiroptical methods in a wide wavelength range for obtaining Ln3+ complexes with circularly polarized luminescence of practical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin; Carpita, Luca; Arrico, Lorenzo; Zinna, Francesco; Di Bari, Lorenzo

    2018-05-29

    We studied enantiopure chiral trivalent lanthanide (Ln3+ = La3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tm3+, and Yb3+) complexes with two fluorinated achiral tris(β-diketonate) ligands (HFA = hexafluoroacetylacetonate and TTA = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate), incorporating a chiral bis(oxazolinyl)pyridine (PyBox) unit as a neutral ancillary ligand, by the combined use of optical and chiroptical methods, ranging from UV to IR both in absorption and circular dichroism (CD), and including circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). Ultimately, all the spectroscopic information is integrated into a total and a chiroptical super-spectrum, which allows one to characterize a multidimensional chemical space, spanned by the different Ln3+ ions, the acidity and steric demand of the diketone and the chirality of the PyBox ligand. In all cases, the Ln3+ ions endow the systems with peculiar chiroptical properties, either allied to f-f transitions or induced by the metal onto the ligand. In more detail, we found that Sm3+ complexes display interesting CPL features, which partly superimpose and partly integrate the more common Eu3+ properties. Especially, in the context of security tags, the pair Sm/Eu may be a winning choice for chiroptical barcoding.

  17. Study feature of variability extragalactic radio sources 3C 446 and BL Lac in the centimeter wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukharev, A.L.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of the analysis of long-term monitoring (over 40 years) changes in radio fluxes of the two extragalactic sources - 3C 446, and BL Lac. Observations at frequencies of 14.5, 8, 4.8 GHz were obtained in the Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO). With using Fourier filtering were selected 0- C (short-period), and the trend component of flux variations that were analyzed separately with using the wavelet-analysis method. Each of these components is associated with certain physical processes in the 'core-accretion disk-jet' system. Were constructed time-frequency wavelet-spectra showing the changes of the frequency composition of the investigated data over time. For the trend component values of the main periods of -4-9 years (3C 446) and -8 years (BL Lac), for 0- C component -0.8-3 years (3C 446) and -0.6-4 years (BL Lac) and they appear in the temporal and structural changes of the jet. On the basis of calculating the global wavelet-spectra in the frequency range identified main phases activity of radio sources. Obtained comparison between the dynamics of jets (Mojave VLBI images), and change the frequency spectral structure of the studied data. With bandpass wavelet filtering, flux components corresponding to the main periods in the spectra, were identified and also found the delay between the observation frequencies in spectral bands of these periods

  18. Low threshold lasing of bubble-containing glass microspheres by non-whispering gallery mode excitation over a wide wavelength range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Tsutaru, E-mail: kumagai.t.af@m.titech.ac.jp; Kishi, Tetsuo; Yano, Tetsuji [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2015-03-21

    Bubble-containing Nd{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glass microspheres were fabricated by localized laser heating technique to investigate their optical properties for use as microresonators. Fluorescence and excitation spectra measurements were performed by pumping with a tunable CW-Ti:Sapphire laser. The excitation spectra manifested several sharp peaks due to the conventional whispering gallery mode (WGM) when the pumping laser was irradiated to the edge part of the microsphere. However, when the excitation light was irradiated on the bubble position inside the microsphere, “non-WGM excitation” was induced, giving rise to numerous peaks at a broad wavelength range in the excitation spectra. Thus, efficient excitation was achieved over a wide wavelength range. Lasing threshold excited at the bubble position was much lower than that for the excitation at the edges of the microsphere. The lowest value of the laser threshold was 34 μW for a 4 μm sphere containing a 0.5 μm bubble. Efficiency of the excitation at the bubble position with broadband light was calculated to be 5 times higher than that for the edge of the microsphere. The bubble-containing microsphere enables efficient utilization of broadband light excitation from light-emitting diodes and solar light.

  19. Influence of polymer packaging films on hyperspectral imaging data in the visible-near-infrared (450-950 nm) wavelength range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, A A; O'Donnell, C P; Esquerre, C; Downey, G

    2010-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has recently emerged as a useful tool for quality analysis of consumer goods (e.g., food and pharmaceutical products). These products are typically packaged in polymeric film prior to distribution; however, HSI experiments are typically carried out on such samples ex-packaging (either prior to or after removal from packaging). This research examines the effects of polymer packaging films (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) on spectral and spatial features of HSI data in order to investigate the potential of HSI for quality evaluation of packaged goods. The effects of packaging film were studied for hyperspectral images of samples obtained in the visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR, i.e., 450-950 nm) wavelength range, which is relevant to many food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical products. The dominant influence of the films tested in this wavelength range could be attributed to light scattering. Relative position of the light source, film, and detector were shown to be highly influential on the scattering effects observed. Detection of features on samples imaged through film was shown to be possible after some data preprocessing. This suggests that quality analysis of products packaged in polymer film is feasible using HSI. These findings would be useful in the development of quality monitoring tools for consumer products post-packaging using HSI.

  20. Determination of the refractive index of insoluble organic extracts from atmospheric aerosol over the visible wavelength range using optical tweezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Shepherd

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Optical trapping combined with Mie spectroscopy is a new technique used to record the refractive index of insoluble organic material extracted from atmospheric aerosol samples over a wide wavelength range. The refractive index of the insoluble organic extracts was shown to follow a Cauchy equation between 460 and 700 nm for organic aerosol extracts collected from urban (London and remote (Antarctica locations. Cauchy coefficients for the remote sample were for the Austral summer and gave the Cauchy coefficients of A  =  1.467 and B  =  1000 nm2 with a real refractive index of 1.489 at a wavelength of 589 nm. Cauchy coefficients for the urban samples varied with season, with extracts collected during summer having Cauchy coefficients of A  =  1.465  ±  0.005 and B  =  4625  ±  1200 nm2 with a representative real refractive index of 1.478 at a wavelength of 589 nm, whilst samples extracted during autumn had larger Cauchy coefficients of A  =  1.505 and B  =  600 nm2 with a representative real refractive index of 1.522 at a wavelength of 589 nm. The refractive index of absorbing aerosol was also recorded. The absorption Ångström exponent was determined for woodsmoke and humic acid aerosol extract. Typical values of the Cauchy coefficient for the woodsmoke aerosol extract were A  =  1.541  ±  0.03 and B  =  14 800  ±  2900 nm2, resulting in a real refractive index of 1.584  ±  0.007 at a wavelength of 589 nm and an absorption Ångström exponent of 8.0. The measured values of refractive index compare well with previous monochromatic or very small wavelength range measurements of refractive index. In general, the real component of the refractive index increases from remote to urban to woodsmoke. A one-dimensional radiative-transfer calculation of the top-of-the-atmosphere albedo was applied to model an atmosphere

  1. Correlation between endogenous glutathione content and sensitivity of cultured human skin cells to radiation at defined wavelengths in the solar ultraviolet range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrrell, R.M.; Pidoux, M.

    1988-01-01

    Glutathione depletion of cultured human skin fibroblasts by treatment with buthionine-S.R.-sulfoximine (BSO) sensitises them to solar UV radiation. We now show that there is a close quantitative correlation between cellular glutathione content and sensitivity to radiation at 365 nm. A weaker correlation is observed when cells are depleted of glutathione using diethylmaleimide. Both fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes derived from the same foreskin biopsy are sensitised to radiation at 313 nm by glutathione depletion. At low to intermediate fluence levels, 10 mM cysteamine present during irradiation at 302 nm is able to almost completely reverse the sensitising effects of glutathione depletion suggesting that the endogenous thiol protects against radiation at this wavelength by a free radical scavenging mechanism. At 313 nm, the sensitisation is not reversed by cysteamine suggesting that glutathione plays a more specific role in protection against radiation at longer wavelengths. Xeroderma pigmentosum group A fibroblasts (excision deficient) are also sensitised to radiation at 313 and 365 nm by depletion of glutathione. The results provide further evidence that endogenous glutathione is involved in protecting human skin cells against a wide range of solar radiation damage. (author)

  2. X-ray spectrum emitted by a laser-produced cerium plasma in the 7.5 to 12 A wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doron, R.; Behar, E.; Fraenkel, M.; Mandelbaum, P.; Schwob, J.L.; Zigler, A.

    2001-01-01

    A highly stripped cerium (Z = 58) plasma is produced by irradiating a solid cerium target with an intense short laser pulse. The X-ray spectrum emitted from the plasma is recorded in the 7.5-12 A wavelength range using a flat RAP crystal spectrometer. Ab-initio calculations using the RELAC relativistic computer code, as well as isoelectronic trends deduced from previous works, together with spectra obtained under different laser beam focusing conditions, are all employed for the identification of the spectral lines and features emitted by various ions from Fe-like Ce 32+ to As-like Ce 25+ . The technique of comparing spectra obtained using different laser intensities is also employed to confirm or to resolve some ambiguous identifications of spectral features in the spectrum of a laser-produced lanthanum plasma studied in a previous work. (orig.)

  3. X-ray spectrum emitted by a laser-produced cerium plasma in the 7.5 to 12 A wavelength range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doron, R.; Behar, E.; Fraenkel, M.; Mandelbaum, P.; Schwob, J.L.; Zigler, A. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Multicharged Ion Spectra Data Center, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)

    2001-01-01

    A highly stripped cerium (Z = 58) plasma is produced by irradiating a solid cerium target with an intense short laser pulse. The X-ray spectrum emitted from the plasma is recorded in the 7.5-12 A wavelength range using a flat RAP crystal spectrometer. Ab-initio calculations using the RELAC relativistic computer code, as well as isoelectronic trends deduced from previous works, together with spectra obtained under different laser beam focusing conditions, are all employed for the identification of the spectral lines and features emitted by various ions from Fe-like Ce{sup 32+} to As-like Ce{sup 25+}. The technique of comparing spectra obtained using different laser intensities is also employed to confirm or to resolve some ambiguous identifications of spectral features in the spectrum of a laser-produced lanthanum plasma studied in a previous work. (orig.)

  4. Determination of Seed Soundness in Conifers Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa Using Narrow-Multiband Spectral Imaging in the Short-Wavelength Infrared Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Hara, Masashi; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yazaki, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Uemura, Akira; Utsugi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of planted forests of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) is the pressing importance to the forest administration in Japan. Low seed germination rate of these species, however, has hampered low-cost production of their seedlings for reforestation. The primary cause of the low germinability has been attributed to highly frequent formation of anatomically unsound seeds, which are indistinguishable from sound germinable seeds by visible observation and other common criteria such as size and weight. To establish a method for sound seed selection in these species, hyperspectral imaging technique was used to identify a wavelength range where reflectance spectra differ clearly between sound and unsound seeds. In sound seeds of both species, reflectance in a narrow waveband centered at 1,730 nm, corresponding to a lipid absorption band in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range, was greatly depressed relative to that in adjacent wavebands on either side. Such depression was absent or less prominent in unsound seeds. Based on these observations, a reflectance index SQI, abbreviated for seed quality index, was formulated using reflectance at three narrow SWIR wavebands so that it represents the extent of the depression. SQI calculated from seed area-averaged reflectance spectra and spatial distribution patterns of pixelwise SQI within each seed area were both proven as reliable criteria for sound seed selection. Enrichment of sound seeds was accompanied by an increase in germination rate of the seed lot. Thus, the methods described are readily applicable toward low-cost seedling production in combination with single seed sowing technology. PMID:26083366

  5. Flat ended steel wires, backscattering targets for calibrating over a large dynamic range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, Jaap; Graaff, Reindert

    2006-01-01

    A series of flat ended stainless steel wires was constructed and experimentally evaluated as point targets giving a calibrated backscattering over a large range (up to 72 dB) for ultrasound frequencies in the range 2 to 10 MHz. Over a range of 36 dB, theory was strictly followed (within 1 dB),

  6. Planation surfaces as a record of medium to large wavelength deformation: the example of the Lake Albert Rift (Uganda) on the East African Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan, Simon; François, Guillocheau; Cécile, Robin; Jean, Braun; Olivier, Dauteuil; Massimo, Dall'Asta

    2016-04-01

    African relief is characterized by planation surfaces, some of them of continental scale. These surfaces are slightly deformed according to different wavelengths (x10 km; x100 km, x1000 km) which record both mantle dynamics (very long wavelength, x 1000 km) and lithosphere deformation (long wavelength deformation, x 100 km). Different types of these planation surfaces are recognized: - Etchplains capped by iron-duricrust which correspond to erosional nearly flat weathered surfaces resulting from the growth of laterites under warm and humid conditions. - Pediments which define mechanical erosional surfaces with concave or rectilinear profiles delimited by upslope scarps connected upstream with the upper landforms. We here focused on the Lake Albert Rift at the northern termination of the western branch of the East African Rift System of which the two branches are surimposed on the East-African Dome. Different wavelengths of deformation were characterized based on the 3D mapping of stepped planation surfaces: (1) very long wavelength deformations resulting from the uplift of the East African Dome; (2) long wavelength deformations resulting from the opening of the eastern branch and (3) medium wavelength deformations represented by the uplift of rift shoulders like the Rwenzori Mountains. The paleo-landscape reconstruction of Uganda shows the existence of four generations of landforms dated according to their geometrical relationships with volcanic rocks. A four stepped evolution of the Ugandan landforms is proposed: • 70 - 22 Ma: generation of two weathered planation surfaces (etchplain Uw and Iw). The upper one (Uw) records a very humid period culminating at time of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (70-45 Ma). It corresponds to the African Surface. A first uplift of the East African Dome generates a second lower planation surface (Iw) connected to the Atlantic Ocean base level; • 17-2.7 Ma: planation of large pediplains connected to the local base level induced

  7. Quantum threshold reflection is not a consequence of a region of the long-range attractive potential with rapidly varying de Broglie wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jakob; Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artes, Salvador

    2018-04-01

    Quantum threshold reflection is a well-known quantum phenomenon which prescribes that at threshold, except for special circumstances, a quantum particle scattering from any potential, even if attractive at long range, will be reflected with unit probability. In the past, this property had been associated with the so-called badlands region of the potential, where the semiclassical description of the scattering fails due to a rapid spatial variation of the de Broglie wavelength. This badlands region occurs far from the strong interaction region of the potential and has therefore been used to "explain" the quantum reflection phenomenon. In this paper we show that the badlands region of the interaction potential is immaterial. The extremely long wavelength of the scattered particle at threshold is much longer than the spatial extension of the badlands region, which therefore does not affect the scattering. For this purpose, we review and generalize the proof for the existence of quantum threshold reflection to stress that it is only a consequence of continuity and boundary conditions. The nonlocal character of the scattering implies that the whole interaction potential is involved in the phenomenon. We then provide a detailed numerical study of the threshold scattering of a particle by a Morse potential and an Eckart potential, especially in the time domain. We compare exact quantum computations with incoherent results obtained from a classical Wigner approximation. This study shows that close to threshold the time-dependent amplitude of the scattered particle is negligible in the badlands region and is the same whether the potential has a reflecting wall as in the Morse potential or a steplike structure as in the Eckart smooth step potential. The mean flight time of the particle is not shortened due to a local reflection from the badlands region or due to the lower density of the wave function at short distances. This study should serve to definitely rule out the

  8. Spectral emissivities at wavelengths in the range 500--653 nm, enthalpies, and heat capacities of the liquid phases of cobalt, titanium, and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J.; Roesner-Kuhn, M.; Drewes, K.; Thiedemann, U.; Kuppermann, G.; Camin, B.; Blume, R.; Frohberg, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    A review is given of the literature data for spectral emissivities at wavelengths (λ) in the range 500--653 nm, the enthalpies, and heat capacities of the liquid phases of cobalt, titanium, and zirconium. Emissivity measurements were carried out by means of electromagnetic levitation at the solid-to-liquid transition with a partial-radiation pyrometer operating at λ = 547 and 650 nm. Considering the sensitivity of the optical properties to surface impurities, investigations on the surfaces of several titanium and zirconium samples by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were performed that confirmed a nitrogen- and oxygen-free process atmosphere during the measurements. Liquid phase normal emissivities obtained were var-epsilon n,547 = 0.365 and var-epsilon n,650 = 0.331 for cobalt, var-epsilon n,547 = 0.409 and var-epsilon n,650 = 0.393 for titanium, and var-epsilon n,547 = 0.365 and var-epsilon n,650 = 0.355 for zirconium. Enthalpy measurements on the liquid metals were carried out by means of levitation-drop calorimetry in the range 1591--2159 K for cobalt, 1847--2430 K for titanium, and 2025--2897 K for zirconium. The resulting heat capacities (values in J·mol -1 ·K -1 ) obtained were 42.78 for cobalt, 43.79 for titanium, and 39.81 for zirconium

  9. Multi-band emission in a wide wavelength range from tin oxide/Au nanocomposites grown on porous anodic alumina substrate (AAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norek, Małgorzata; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Ayala, Israel; Bombalska, Aneta; Budner, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) properties of tin oxide nanostructures are investigated. Three samples of different morphology, induced by deposition process and various geometrical features of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrate, are analyzed. X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals the presence of two forms of tin oxide on the surface of all studied samples: SnO and SnO 2 . The former form is typical for reduced surface with bridging oxygen atoms and every other row of in-plane oxygen atoms removed. The oxygen defects give rise to a strong emission in visible region. Two intense PL peaks are observed centered at about 540 (band I) and 620 (band II) nm. The origin of these bands was ascribed to the recombination of electrons from the conduction band (band I) and shallow traps levels (band II) to the surface oxygen vacancy levels. Upon deposition of Au nanoparticles on the top of tin oxide nanostructures the emission at 540 and 620 nm disappears and a new band (band III) occurs in the range >760 nm. The PL mechanism operating in the studied systems is discussed. The tin oxide/Au nanocomposites can be used as efficient multi-band light emitters in a wide (from visible to near infrared) wavelength range.

  10. Laboratory reflectometer for the investigation of optical elements in a wavelength range of 5-50 nm: description and testing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garakhin, S. A.; Zabrodin, I. G.; Zuev, S. E.; Kas'kov, I. A.; Lopatin, A. Ya.; Nechay, A. N.; Polkovnikov, V. N.; Salashchenko, N. N.; Tsybin, N. N.; Chkhalo, N. I.; Svechnikov, M. V.

    2017-05-01

    We describe a laboratory reflectometer developed at the IPM RAS for precision measurements of spectral and angular dependences of the reflection and transmission coefficients of optical elements in a wavelength range of 5-50 nm. The radiation is monochromatised using a high-resolution Czerny-Turner spectrometer with a plane diffraction grating and two spherical collimating mirrors. A toroidal mirror focuses the probe monochromatic beam on a sample. The X-ray source is a highly ionised plasma produced in the interaction of a high-power laser beam with a solid target at an intensity of 1011-1012 W cm-2. To stabilise the emission characteristics, the target executes translatory and rotary motions in such a way that every pulse irradiates a new spot. The short-focus lens is protected from contamination by erosion products with the use of a specially designed electromagnetic system. The samples under study are mounted on a goniometer is accommodated in a dedicated chamber, which provides five degrees of freedom for samples up to 500 mm in diameter and two degrees of freedom for a detector. The sample mass may range up to 10 kg. The X-ray radiation is recorded with a detector composed of a CsI photocathode and two microchannel plates. A similar detector monitors the probe beam intensity. The spectral reflectometer resolution is equal to 0.030 nm with the use of ruled gratings with a density of 900 lines mm-1 (spectral range: 5-20 nm) and to 0.067 nm for holographic gratings with a density of 400 lines mm-1 (spectral range: 10-50 nm). We analyse the contribution of higher diffraction orders to the probe signal intensity and the ways of taking it into account in the measurements. Examples are given which serve to illustrate the reflectometer application to the study of multilayer mirrors and filters.

  11. High-resolution VUV spectra of carbon, neon and argon in a wavelength range of 250 to 2300 A for plasma diagnostics observed with a 3 m normal incidence spectrometer in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katai, Ryuji; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsic impurities have been much reduced in toroidal fusion devices through the development of several wall-conditioning techniques as well as by the use of carbon materials in the first wall and divertor plates. Impurity elements useful for passive plasma spectroscopy have been then extremely limited. At present, only carbon is a subject for spectroscopic diagnostics in most discharges except for fuel atoms. The use of rare gas as a brighter light source is a method to overcome the present difficulty in passive spectroscopy. Recently, rare gases have also been used for edge cooling to reduce the divertor heat flux. Therefore, high-resolution spectra (Δλ - 0.2 A) from neon and argon in a 250 to 2300 A wavelength range have been measured using a 3 m normal incidence spectrometer in Large Helical Device (LHD) and the measured spectra were precisely analyzed. The VUV spectra of carbon, neon and argon are presented for spectroscopic use and their wavelengths are tabulated with their relative intensities. The spectral profiles of almost all the spectral lines measured here are formed by the Doppler broadening and self-absorption processes. The Doppler broadening of neon and argon spectra are plotted against the ionization energies and Doppler spectra from carbon lines are presented. The self-absorption spectra of the hydrogen Lyman-α line, which are found in the LHD high-density discharge, are also presented and the neutral density is analytically estimated. (author)

  12. Accessible light detection and ranging: estimating large tree density for habitat identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather A. Kramer; Brandon M. Collins; Claire V. Gallagher; John Keane; Scott L. Stephens; Maggi Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Large trees are important to a wide variety of wildlife, including many species of conservation concern, such as the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis). Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been successfully utilized to identify the density of large-diameter trees, either by segmenting the LiDAR point cloud into...

  13. Method to estimate the effective temperatures of late-type giants using line-depth ratios in the wavelength range 0.97-1.32 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Daisuke; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Fukue, Kei; Hamano, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yuji; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kondo, Sohei; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Yasui, Chikako

    2018-02-01

    The effective temperature, one of the most fundamental atmospheric parameters of a star, can be estimated using various methods; here, we focus on a method using line-depth ratios (LDRs). This method combines low- and high-excitation lines and makes use of relations between LDRs of these line pairs and the effective temperature. It has an advantage, for example, of being minimally affected by interstellar reddening, which changes stellar colours. We report 81 relations between LDRs and effective temperature established with high-resolution, λ/Δλ ∼ 28 000, spectra of nine G- to M-type giants in the Y and J bands. Our analysis gives the first comprehensive set of LDR relations for this wavelength range. The combination of all these relations can be used to determine the effective temperatures of stars that have 3700 < Teff < 5400 K and -0.5 < [Fe/H] < +0.3 dex, to a precision of ±10 K in the best cases.

  14. 3d-4p x-ray spectrum emitted by highly ionized uranium from a laser-produced plasma in the 3.8<λ<4.4-A wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, P.; Seely, J.F.; Kania, D.R.; Kauffman, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This work extends a previous analysis of the x-ray spectrum of a laser-produced uranium plasma [P. Mandelbaum et al., Phys. Rev. A 44, 5752 (1991)] to the longer-wavelength range (3.8 +65 ) through As-like (U +59 ) isoelectronic sequences are identified in the spectrum, in good agreement with the previous analysis of the spectrum emitted at shorter wavelengths

  15. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  16. New-generation large-area muon scintillation counters with wavelength shifter fiber readout for CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.; Budagov, Yu.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.

    2006-01-01

    New scintillation counters have been designed and constructed for upgrading of the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. A novel light collection technique using wavelength shifting fibers, together with a high-quality polystyrene-based scintillator UPS 923A, has resulted in compact counters with good and stable light collection efficiency over their lengths extending up to 320 cm. Design, construction and performance of counters are presented. Properties of the fibers and the scintillator, such as light output, light attenuation, decay time and long-term stability, are investigated. It is found that the polystyrene-based scintillator, unlike the polyvinyltoluene-based one, has better properties adequate for long-term experiments

  17. Large homogeneity ranges in the rare earth hydrides: a fiction to be revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conder, K.; Longmei Wang; Boroch, E.; Kaldis, E.

    1991-01-01

    A large composition range of the solid solutions LnH 2 -LnH 3 (Ln=La, Ce) has been assumed for a long time. The structure of these solutions was believed to be cubic Fm3m with H atoms occupying tetrahedral and octahedral interstitials. Using x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry we have shown the existence of a large number of phases in both systems at T x ) are presented

  18. Highly transparent conductive AZO/Zr50Cu50/AZO films in wide range of visible and near infrared wavelength grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyun Cheng

    Full Text Available Novel AZO/Zr50Cu50/AZO tri-layer transparent conductive films with excellent transmittance in both visible and near infrared region were successfully prepared by pulsed laser deposition on glass substrates. The electrical and optical properties were investigated at various Zr50Cu50 thicknesses. As the AZO thickness was fixed at 50 nm and Zr50Cu50 thickness was varied between 1 and 18 nm, it was found that AZO (50 nm/Zr50Cu50/AZO (50 nm tri-layer films exhibited good conductivity and high transmittance in both visible and near infrared wavelength. Additionally, both the electrical and optical properties of AZO (50 nm/Zr50Cu50 (2 nm/AZO (50 nm tri-layer films were found to be sensitive to the growth temperature. In this work, the lowest sheet resistance (43 Ω/□ and relatively high transmittance (∼80% in the range of 400–2000 nm were achieved while the growth temperature was 350 °C. Furthermore, the AZO (50 nm/Zr50Cu50 (2 nm/AZO (50 nm thin film deposited at 350 °C exhibits the highest figure of merit of 1.42 × 10−3 Ω−1, indicating that the multilayer is promising for coated glasses and thin film solar cells. Keywords: Transparent conductive oxide, AZO, Zr50Cu50, Electrical and optical properties, Visible and near infrared transmittance

  19. Cryo-optical testing of large aspheric reflectors operating in the sub mm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roose, S.; Houbrechts, Y.; Mazzoli, A.; Ninane, N.; Stockman, Y.; Daddato, R.; Kirschner, V.; Venacio, L.; de Chambure, D.

    2006-02-01

    The cryo-optical testing of the PLANCK primary reflector (elliptical off-axis CFRP reflector of 1550 mm x 1890 mm) is one of the major issue in the payload development program. It is requested to measure the changes of the Surface Figure Error (SFE) with respect to the best ellipsoid, between 293 K and 50 K, with a 1 μm RMS accuracy. To achieve this, Infra Red interferometry has been used and a dedicated thermo mechanical set-up has been constructed. This paper summarises the test activities, the test methods and results on the PLANCK Primary Reflector - Flight Model (PRFM) achieved in FOCAL 6.5 at Centre Spatial de Liege (CSL). Here, the Wave Front Error (WFE) will be considered, the SFE can be derived from the WFE measurement. After a brief introduction, the first part deals with the general test description. The thermo-elastic deformations will be addressed: the surface deformation in the medium frequency range (spatial wavelength down to 60 mm) and core-cell dimpling.

  20. Ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber amplifier with gain shaping for use at long wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.; Poli, Federica

    2012-01-01

    A large-mode-area Ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier with efficient suppression of amplified spontaneous emission is presented. The fiber cladding consists of a hexagonal lattice of air holes, where three rows are replaced with circular high-index inclusions. Seven missing air holes...

  1. Mechanical design, analysis and testing of a large-range compliant microgripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical design, analysis, fabrication, and testing procedures of a new large-range microgripper which is based on a flexible hinge structure. The uniqueness of the gripper is that the gripper arms not only provide large gripping range but also deliver approximately rectilinear movement as the displacement in nonworking direction is extremely small. The large gripping range is enabled by a mechanism design based on dual-stage flexure amplifier to magnify the stroke of piezoelectric actuator. The first-stage amplifier is a modified version of the Scott Russell (SR mechanism and the second-stage amplifier contains a parallel mechanism. The displacement amplification ratio of the modified SR mechanism in the gripper has been enlarged to 3.56 times of the conventional design. Analytical static models of the gripper mechanism are developed and validated through finite-element analysis (FEA simulation. Results show that the gripping range is over 720 µm with a resonant frequency of 70.7 Hz and negligible displacement in nonworking direction. The total amplification ratio of the input displacement is 16.13. Moreover, a prototype of the gripper is developed by using aluminium 7075 for experimental testing. Experimental results validate the analytical model and FEA simulation results. The proposed microgripper can be employed in various microassembly applications such as pick-and-place of optical fibre.

  2. Large area double p-i-n heterostructure for signal multiplexing and demultiplexing in the visible range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, M.; Louro, P.; Fernandes, M.; Vieira, M.A.; Fantoni, A.; Barata, M.

    2009-01-01

    Results on the use of a double a-SiC:H p-i-n heterostructure for signal multiplexing and demultiplexing applications in the visible range, are presented. Modulated monochromatic beams together (multiplexing mode), or a single polychromatic beam (demultiplexing mode) impinge in the device and are absorbed, accordingly to their wavelength, giving rise to a time and wavelength dependent electrical field modulation. Red, green and blue pulsed input channels are transmitted together, each one with a specific transmission rate. The combined optical signal is analyzed by reading out, under different applied voltages, the generated photocurrent. Results show that in the multiplexing mode the output signal is balanced by the wavelength and transmission rate of each input channel, keeping the memory of the incoming optical carriers. In the demultiplexing mode the photocurrent is controlled by the applied voltage allowing regaining the transmitted information. An electrical model gives insight into the device operation.

  3. Directed-Assembly of Block Copolymers for Large-Scale, Three-Dimensional, Optical Metamaterials at Visible Wavelengths. Final LDRD Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiszpanski, Anna M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-26

    Metamaterials are composites with patterned subwavelength features where the choice of materials and subwavelength structuring bestows upon the metamaterials unique optical properties not found in nature, thereby enabling optical applications previously considered impossible. However, because the structure of optical metamaterials must be subwavelength, metamaterials operating at visible wavelengths require features on the order of 100 nm or smaller, and such resolution typically requires top-down lithographic fabrication techniques that are not easily scaled to device-relevant areas that are square centimeters in size. In this project, we developed a new fabrication route using block copolymers to make over large device-relevant areas optical metamaterials that operate at visible wavelengths. Our structures are smaller in size (sub-100 nm) and cover a larger area (cm2) than what has been achieved with traditional nanofabrication routes. To guide our experimental efforts, we developed an algorithm to calculate the expected optical properties (specifically the index of refraction) of such metamaterials that predicts that we can achieve surprisingly large changes in optical properties with small changes in metamaterials’ structure. In the course of our work, we also found that the ordered metal nanowires meshes produced by our scalable fabrication route for making optical metamaterials may also possibly act as transparent electrodes, which are needed in electrical displays and solar cells. We explored the ordered metal nanowires meshes’ utility for this application and developed design guidelines to aide our experimental efforts.

  4. Nanoimprint-defined, large-area meta-surfaces for unidirectional optical transmission with superior extinction in the visible-to-infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuhan; Liu, He; Wang, Yifei; Li, Yuanrui; Song, Boxiang; Wang, Richard P; Povinelli, Michelle L; Wu, Wei

    2016-07-11

    Optical devices with asymmetric transmission have important applications in optical systems, but optical isolators with the modal asymmetry can only be built using magneto-optical or nonlinear materials, as dictated by the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. However, optical devices with the power asymmetry can be achieved by linear materials such as metals and dielectrics. In this paper, we report a large-area, nanoimprint-defined meta-surface (stacked subwavelength gratings) with high-contrast asymmetric transmittance in the visible-to-infrared wavelength range for TM-polarized light. The physical origin of asymmetric transmission through the meta-surface is studied by analyzing the scattering matrix.

  5. Polarization filtering in the visible wavelength range using surface plasmon resonance and a sunflower-type photonic quasi-crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bei; Wang, Anran; Liu, Exian; Tan, Wei; Xie, Jianlan; Ge, Rui; Liu, Jianjun

    2018-04-01

    A novel polarization filter based on a sunflower-type photonic quasi-crystal fiber (PQF) is proposed in this paper. We also discuss different methods to tune the filter wavelength. The proposed filter can efficiently produce polarized light with visible wavelengths by using the resonance between the second-order surface plasmon polariton mode and the core mode of the PQF. The filtered wavelength can be tuned between 0.55 µm and 0.68 µm by adjusting the thickness of the gold film. When the thickness of the gold film is 25.3 nm, the resonance loss in the y-polarized direction reaches 11707 dB m‑1 for a wavelength of 0.6326 µm, and the full width at half maximum is only 5 nm. Due to the flexible design and absence of both polarization coupling and polarization dispersion, this polarization filter can be used in devices that require narrow-band filtering.

  6. Similar range of motion and function after resurfacing large-head or standard total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Ovesen, Ole; Varmarken, Jens-Erik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Large-size hip articulations may improve range of motion (ROM) and function compared to a 28-mm THA, and the low risk of dislocation allows the patients more activity postoperatively. On the other hand, the greater extent of surgery for resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA......° (35), 232° (36), and 225° (30) respectively, but the differences were not statistically significant. The 3 groups were similar regarding Harris hip score, UCLA activity score, step rate, and sick leave. INTERPRETATION: Head size had no influence on range of motion. The lack of restriction allowed...... for large articulations did not improve the clinical and patient-perceived outcomes. The more extensive surgical procedure of RHA did not impair the rehabilitation. This project is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762....

  7. Transmitted wavefront testing with large dynamic range based on computer-aided deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daodang; Xu, Ping; Gong, Zhidong; Xie, Zhongmin; Liang, Rongguang; Xu, Xinke; Kong, Ming; Zhao, Jun

    2018-06-01

    The transmitted wavefront testing technique is demanded for the performance evaluation of transmission optics and transparent glass, in which the achievable dynamic range is a key issue. A computer-aided deflectometric testing method with fringe projection is proposed for the accurate testing of transmitted wavefronts with a large dynamic range. Ray tracing of the modeled testing system is carried out to achieve the virtual ‘null’ testing of transmitted wavefront aberrations. The ray aberration is obtained from the ray tracing result and measured slope, with which the test wavefront aberration can be reconstructed. To eliminate testing system modeling errors, a system geometry calibration based on computer-aided reverse optimization is applied to realize accurate testing. Both numerical simulation and experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the feasibility and high accuracy of the proposed testing method. The proposed testing method can achieve a large dynamic range compared with the interferometric method, providing a simple, low-cost and accurate way for the testing of transmitted wavefronts from various kinds of optics and a large amount of industrial transmission elements.

  8. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Vujosevic, S.I.; Navarro-Gonzales, R.; Albarran-Sanchez, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm -3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60 Co gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the γ-radiolysis, G(HCOO - ) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO - + HCO 3 - ↔ HCOO - +CO 3 - . The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO - + CO 3 - is particularly significant. (author)

  9. Boundary driven Kawasaki process with long-range interaction: dynamical large deviations and steady states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourragui, Mustapha; Orlandi, Enza

    2013-01-01

    A particle system with a single locally-conserved field (density) in a bounded interval with different densities maintained at the two endpoints of the interval is under study here. The particles interact in the bulk through a long-range potential parametrized by β⩾0 and evolve according to an exclusion rule. It is shown that the empirical particle density under the diffusive scaling solves a quasilinear integro-differential evolution equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The associated dynamical large deviation principle is proved. Furthermore, when β is small enough, it is also demonstrated that the empirical particle density obeys a law of large numbers with respect to the stationary measures (hydrostatic). The macroscopic particle density solves a non-local, stationary, transport equation. (paper)

  10. Miniature large range multi-axis force-torque sensor for biomechanical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookhuis, R A; Sanders, R G P; Ma, K; Lammerink, T S J; De Boer, M J; Krijnen, G J M; Wiegerink, R J

    2015-01-01

    A miniature force sensor for the measurement of forces and moments at a human fingertip is designed and realized. Thin silicon pillars inside the sensor provide in-plane guidance for shear force measurement and provide the spring constant in normal direction. A corrugated silicon ring around the force sensitive area provides the spring constant in shear direction and seals the interior of the sensor. To detect all load components, capacitive read-out is used. A novel electrode pattern results in a large shear force sensitivity. The fingertip force sensor has a wide force range of up to 60 N in normal direction, ± 30 N in shear direction and a torque range of ± 25 N mm. (paper)

  11. A compact, large-range interferometer for precision measurement and inertial sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S. J.; Collins, C. J.; Green, A. C.; Hoyland, D.; Speake, C. C.; Freise, A.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present a compact, fibre-coupled interferometer with high sensitivity and a large working range. We propose to use this interferometer as a readout mechanism for future inertial sensors, removing a major limiting noise source, and in precision positioning systems. The interferometer’s peak sensitivity is 2 × 10-{14} m \\sqrt{Hz-1} at 70 Hz and 7 × 10-{11} m \\sqrt{Hz-1} at 10 mHz. If deployed on a GS-13 geophone, the resulting inertial sensing output will be limited by the suspension thermal noise of the reference mass from 10 mHz to 2 Hz.

  12. A large dynamic range radiation-tolerant analog memory in a quarter- micron CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, G; Rivetti, A

    2001-01-01

    An analog memory prototype containing 8*128 cells has been designed in a commercial quarter-micron CMOS process. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of designing large dynamic range mixed-mode switched capacitor circuits for high-energy physics (HEP) applications in deep submicron CMOS technologies. Special layout techniques have been used to make the circuit radiation tolerant. The memory cells employ gate-oxide capacitors for storage, permitting a very high density. A voltage write-voltage read architecture has been chosen to minimize the sensitivity to absolute capacitor values. The measured input voltage range is 2.3 V (the power supply voltage V/sub DD/ is equal to 2.5 V), with a linearity of almost 8 bits over 2 V. The dynamic range is more than 11 bits. The pedestal variation is +or-0.5 mV peak-to-peak. The noise measured, which is dominated by the noise of the measurement setup, is around 0.8 mV rms. The characteristics of the memory have been measured before irradiation and after 1...

  13. A large dynamic range radiation tolerant analog memory in a quarter micron CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, G; Rivetti, A

    2000-01-01

    A 8*128 cell analog memory prototype has been designed in a commercial 0.25 jam CMOS process. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of designing large dynamic range mixed- mode switched capacitor circuits for High-Energy Physics (HEP) applications in deep submicron CMOS technologies. Special layout techniques have been used to make the circuit radiation tolerant left bracket 1 right bracket . The memory cells employ gate-oxide capacitors for storage, allowing for a very high density. A voltage write - voltage read architecture has been chosen to minimize the sensitivity to absolute capacitor values. The measured input voltage range is 2.3 V (V//D//D = 2.5 V), with a linearity of at least 7.5 bits over 2 V. The dynamic range is more than 11 bits. The pedestal variation is plus or minus 0.5 mV peak-to-peak. The noise measured, which is dominated by the noise of the measurement setup, is around 0.8 mV rms. The characteristics of the memory have been measured before irradiation and after lOMrd (...

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS ON THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD SEEN AT 20-600 μm WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakićević, Maša; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl; Roman-Duval, Julia; Seale, Jonathan; Bot, Caroline; Babler, Brian; Bolatto, Alberto; Engelbracht, Chad; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Filipović, Miroslav; Hony, Sacha; Okumura, K.; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Sauvage, Marc; Indebetouw, Remy; Patat, Ferdinando; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths; however, their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified blackbody to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7 −2.5 +7.5 M ☉ of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of 0.037 −0.025 +0.075 M ☉ yr –1 due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of 2 −1.3 +4.0 ×10 7 yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS ON THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD SEEN AT 20-600 μm WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakićević, Maša; Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl; Roman-Duval, Julia; Seale, Jonathan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 north Charter St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bolatto, Alberto [Laboratory of Millimeter Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 29742 (United States); Engelbracht, Chad; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Filipović, Miroslav [University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC, NSW 1797 (Australia); Hony, Sacha; Okumura, K.; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Sauvage, Marc [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Indebetouw, Remy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Patat, Ferdinando [European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Sonneborn, George, E-mail: m.lakicevic@keele.ac.uk [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2015-01-20

    We present the analysis of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and their influence on the environment at far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter wavelengths. We use new observations obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and archival data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, to make the first FIR atlas of these objects. The SNRs are not clearly discernible at FIR wavelengths; however, their influence becomes apparent in maps of dust mass and dust temperature, which we constructed by fitting a modified blackbody to the observed spectral energy distribution in each sightline. Most of the dust that is seen is pre-existing interstellar dust in which SNRs leave imprints. The temperature maps clearly reveal SNRs heating surrounding dust, while the mass maps indicate the removal of 3.7{sub −2.5}{sup +7.5} M {sub ☉} of dust per SNR. This agrees with the calculations by others that significant amounts of dust are sputtered by SNRs. Under the assumption that dust is sputtered and not merely pushed away, we estimate a dust destruction rate in the LMC of 0.037{sub −0.025}{sup +0.075} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} due to SNRs, yielding an average lifetime for interstellar dust of 2{sub −1.3}{sup +4.0}×10{sup 7} yr. We conclude that sputtering of dust by SNRs may be an important ingredient in models of galactic evolution, that supernovae may destroy more dust than they produce, and that they therefore may not be net producers of long lived dust in galaxies.

  16. An advanced method to assess the diet of free-ranging large carnivores based on scats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Wachter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The diet of free-ranging carnivores is an important part of their ecology. It is often determined from prey remains in scats. In many cases, scat analyses are the most efficient method but they require correction for potential biases. When the diet is expressed as proportions of consumed mass of each prey species, the consumed prey mass to excrete one scat needs to be determined and corrected for prey body mass because the proportion of digestible to indigestible matter increases with prey body mass. Prey body mass can be corrected for by conducting feeding experiments using prey of various body masses and fitting a regression between consumed prey mass to excrete one scat and prey body mass (correction factor 1. When the diet is expressed as proportions of consumed individuals of each prey species and includes prey animals not completely consumed, the actual mass of each prey consumed by the carnivore needs to be controlled for (correction factor 2. No previous study controlled for this second bias. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use an extended series of feeding experiments on a large carnivore, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, to establish both correction factors. In contrast to previous studies which fitted a linear regression for correction factor 1, we fitted a biologically more meaningful exponential regression model where the consumed prey mass to excrete one scat reaches an asymptote at large prey sizes. Using our protocol, we also derive correction factor 1 and 2 for other carnivore species and apply them to published studies. We show that the new method increases the number and proportion of consumed individuals in the diet for large prey animals compared to the conventional method. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results have important implications for the interpretation of scat-based studies in feeding ecology and the resolution of human-wildlife conflicts for the conservation of large carnivores.

  17. Quenched Large Deviations for Simple Random Walks on Percolation Clusters Including Long-Range Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Noam; Mukherjee, Chiranjib; Okamura, Kazuki

    2018-03-01

    We prove a quenched large deviation principle (LDP) for a simple random walk on a supercritical percolation cluster (SRWPC) on {Z^d} ({d ≥ 2}). The models under interest include classical Bernoulli bond and site percolation as well as models that exhibit long range correlations, like the random cluster model, the random interlacement and the vacant set of random interlacements (for {d ≥ 3}) and the level sets of the Gaussian free field ({d≥ 3}). Inspired by the methods developed by Kosygina et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 59:1489-1521, 2006) for proving quenched LDP for elliptic diffusions with a random drift, and by Yilmaz (Commun Pure Appl Math 62(8):1033-1075, 2009) and Rosenbluth (Quenched large deviations for multidimensional random walks in a random environment: a variational formula. Ph.D. thesis, NYU, arXiv:0804.1444v1) for similar results regarding elliptic random walks in random environment, we take the point of view of the moving particle and prove a large deviation principle for the quenched distribution of the pair empirical measures of the environment Markov chain in the non-elliptic case of SRWPC. Via a contraction principle, this reduces easily to a quenched LDP for the distribution of the mean velocity of the random walk and both rate functions admit explicit variational formulas. The main difficulty in our set up lies in the inherent non-ellipticity as well as the lack of translation-invariance stemming from conditioning on the fact that the origin belongs to the infinite cluster. We develop a unifying approach for proving quenched large deviations for SRWPC based on exploiting coercivity properties of the relative entropies in the context of convex variational analysis, combined with input from ergodic theory and invoking geometric properties of the supercritical percolation cluster.

  18. Disordered strictly jammed binary sphere packings attain an anomalously large range of densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Adam B.; Stillinger, Frank H.; Torquato, Salvatore

    2013-08-01

    Previous attempts to simulate disordered binary sphere packings have been limited in producing mechanically stable, isostatic packings across a broad spectrum of packing fractions. Here we report that disordered strictly jammed binary packings (packings that remain mechanically stable under general shear deformations and compressions) can be produced with an anomalously large range of average packing fractions 0.634≤ϕ≤0.829 for small to large sphere radius ratios α restricted to α≥0.100. Surprisingly, this range of average packing fractions is obtained for packings containing a subset of spheres (called the backbone) that are exactly strictly jammed, exactly isostatic, and also generated from random initial conditions. Additionally, the average packing fractions of these packings at certain α and small sphere relative number concentrations x approach those of the corresponding densest known ordered packings. These findings suggest for entropic reasons that these high-density disordered packings should be good glass formers and that they may be easy to prepare experimentally. We also identify an unusual feature of the packing fraction of jammed backbones (packings with rattlers excluded). The backbone packing fraction is about 0.624 over the majority of the α-x plane, even when large numbers of small spheres are present in the backbone. Over the (relatively small) area of the α-x plane where the backbone is not roughly constant, we find that backbone packing fractions range from about 0.606 to 0.829, with the volume of rattler spheres comprising between 1.6% and 26.9% of total sphere volume. To generate isostatic strictly jammed packings, we use an implementation of the Torquato-Jiao sequential linear programming algorithm [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.061302 82, 061302 (2010)], which is an efficient producer of inherent structures (mechanically stable configurations at the local maxima in the density landscape). The identification and

  19. Periodic long-range transport in a large volume dc glow discharge dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Edward Jr.; Amatucci, William E.; Compton, Christopher; Christy, Brian; Jackson, Jon David

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper, the authors reported on observations of a variety of particle transport phenomena observed in DUPLEX--the DUsty PLasma EXperiment at the Naval Research Laboratory [E. Thomas, Jr., W. E. Amatucci, C. Compton, and B. Christy, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3154 (2002)]. DUPLEX is a large, transparent polycarbonate cylinder that is 40 cm in radius and 80 cm in height. dc glow discharge argon plasmas are generated in DUPLEX. In this paper, the authors expand upon one particular feature of particle transport in DUPLEX, the long-range (i.e., greater than 15 cm), periodic (T∼2.5 min) transport of suspended alumina particles through the plasma. A detailed description of this particle motion through the plasma is presented. Finally, a qualitative model describing the phenomena that lead to this transport is also given

  20. InP-InxGa1-xAs core-multi-shell nanowire quantum wells with tunable emission in the 1.3-1.55 μm wavelength range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseka, H A; Ameruddin, A S; Caroff, P; Tedeschi, D; De Luca, M; Mura, F; Guo, Y; Lysevych, M; Wang, F; Tan, H H; Polimeni, A; Jagadish, C

    2017-09-21

    The usability and tunability of the essential InP-InGaAs material combination in nanowire-based quantum wells (QWs) are assessed. The wurtzite phase core-multi-shell InP-InGaAs-InP nanowire QWs are characterised using cross-section transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements. The InP-InGaAs direct interface is found to be sharp while the InGaAs-InP inverted interface is more diffused, in agreement with their planar counterpart. Bright emission is observed from the single nanowires containing the QWs at room temperature, with no emission from the InP core or outer barrier. The tunability of the QW emission wavelength in the 1.3-1.55 μm communication wavelength range is demonstrated by varying the QW thickness and in the 1.3 μm range by varying the composition. The experiments are supported by simulation of the emission wavelength of the wurtzite phase InP-InGaAs QWs in the thickness range considered. The radial heterostructure is further extended to design multiple QWs with bright emission, therefore establishing the capability of this material system for nanowire based optical devices for communication applications.

  1. A Doherty Power Amplifier with Large Back-Off Power Range Using Integrated Enhancing Reactance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Kong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A symmetric Doherty power amplifier (DPA based on integrated enhancing reactance (IER was proposed for large back-off applications. The IER was generated using the peaking amplifier with the help of a desired impedance transformation in the low-power region to enhance the back-off efficiency of the carrier amplifier. To convert the impedances properly, both in the low-power region and at saturation, a two-impedance matching method was employed to design the output matching networks. For verification, a symmetric DPA with large back-off power range over 2.2–2.5 GHz was designed and fabricated. Measurement results show that the designed DPA has the 9 dB back-off efficiency of higher than 45%, while the saturated output power is higher than 44 dBm over the whole operation bandwidth. When driven by a 20 MHz LTE signal, the DPA can achieve good average efficiency of around 50% with adjacent channel leakage ratio of about –50 dBc after linearization over the frequency band of interest. The linearity improvement of the DPA for multistandard wireless communication system was also verified with a dual-band modulated signal.

  2. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Draganic, I.G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Navarro-Gonzales, R.; Albarran-Sanchez, M.G.; Sehested, K.

    1986-12-01

    0 2 -free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm -3 ammonium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60 Co gammas (0.001-170 Mrd) or krd pulses of 10 MeV electrons. Formate, oxalate, formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer (M w 14000-16000 daltons) were found to be the main radiolytic products. A large initial yield of formate in the γ-radiolysis, G(HCOO - ) = 2.2, is due to the reaction CO 2 - + HCO 3 - ↔ HC00 - + CO 3 - . The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction CO 2 - + CO 3 - is particurlarly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained in the γ-radiolysis and by pulsed electron beam experiments gives k(CO 2 - + HCO 3 - ) = (2 ± 0.4)x10 3 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 , k(CO 2 - + CO 3 - ) = (5 ± 1)x10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 , k(NH 2 + = HCO 3 - ) 4 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 and k(NH 2 + CO 3 - ) = (1.5 ± 0.5)x10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . (author)

  3. Preamplifier development for high count-rate, large dynamic range readout of inorganic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshelashvili, Irakli; Erni, Werner; Steinacher, Michael; Krusche, Bernd; Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter are central component of many experiments in nuclear and particle physics. Modern ''trigger less'' detectors run with very high count-rates, require good time and energy resolution, and large dynamic range. In addition photosensors and preamplifiers must work in hostile environments (magnetic fields). Due to later constraints mainly Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD's), Vacuum Photo Triodes (VPT's), and Vacuum Photo Tetrodes (VPTT's) are used. A disadvantage is their low gain which together with other requirements is a challenge for the preamplifier design. Our group has developed special Low Noise / Low Power (LNP) preamplifier for this purpose. They will be used to equip PANDA EMC forward end-cap (dynamic range 15'000, rate 1MHz), where the PWO II crystals and preamplifier have to run in an environment cooled down to -25{sup o}C. Further application is the upgrade of the Crystal Barrel detector at the Bonn ELSA accelerator with APD readout for which special temperature comparison of the APD gain and good time resolution is necessary. Development and all test procedures after the mass production done by our group during past several years in Basel University will be reported.

  4. Macro-SICM: A Scanning Ion Conductance Microscope for Large-Range Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierbaum, Nicolas; Hack, Martin; Betz, Oliver; Schäffer, Tilman E

    2018-04-17

    The scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) is a versatile, high-resolution imaging technique that uses an electrolyte-filled nanopipet as a probe. Its noncontact imaging principle makes the SICM uniquely suited for the investigation of soft and delicate surface structures in a liquid environment. The SICM has found an ever-increasing number of applications in chemistry, physics, and biology. However, a drawback of conventional SICMs is their relatively small scan range (typically 100 μm × 100 μm in the lateral and 10 μm in the vertical direction). We have developed a Macro-SICM with an exceedingly large scan range of 25 mm × 25 mm in the lateral and 0.25 mm in the vertical direction. We demonstrate the high versatility of the Macro-SICM by imaging at different length scales: from centimeters (fingerprint, coin) to millimeters (bovine tongue tissue, insect wing) to micrometers (cellular extensions). We applied the Macro-SICM to the study of collective cell migration in epithelial wound healing.

  5. Porous silicon-VO{sub 2} based hybrids as possible optical temperature sensor: Wavelength-dependent optical switching from visible to near-infrared range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunez, E. E.; Salazar-Kuri, U.; Estevez, J. O.; Basurto, M. A.; Agarwal, V., E-mail: vagarwal@uaem.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, UAEM, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62209 (Mexico); Campos, J. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico); Jiménez Sandoval, S. [Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales, Centro de Investigación y estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Querétaro, Qro. 76001 (Mexico)

    2015-10-07

    Morphological properties of thermochromic VO{sub 2}—porous silicon based hybrids reveal the growth of well-crystalized nanometer-scale features of VO{sub 2} as compared with typical submicron granular structure obtained in thin films deposited on flat substrates. Structural characterization performed as a function of temperature via grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman demonstrate reversible semiconductor-metal transition of the hybrid, changing from a low-temperature monoclinic VO{sub 2}(M) to a high-temperature tetragonal rutile VO{sub 2}(R) crystalline structure, coupled with a decrease in phase transition temperature. Effective optical response studied in terms of red/blue shift of the reflectance spectra results in a wavelength-dependent optical switching with temperature. As compared to VO{sub 2} film over crystalline silicon substrate, the hybrid structure is found to demonstrate up to 3-fold increase in the change of reflectivity with temperature, an enlarged hysteresis loop and a wider operational window for its potential application as an optical temperature sensor. Such silicon based hybrids represent an exciting class of functional materials to display thermally triggered optical switching culminated by the characteristics of each of the constituent blocks as well as device compatibility with standard integrated circuit technology.

  6. High-resolution and large dynamic range nanomechanical mapping in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Ozgur; Erina, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    High spatial resolution imaging of material properties is an important task for the continued development of nanomaterials and studies of biological systems. Time-varying interaction forces between the vibrating tip and the sample in a tapping-mode atomic force microscope contain detailed information about the elastic, adhesive, and dissipative response of the sample. We report real-time measurement and analysis of the time-varying tip-sample interaction forces with recently introduced torsional harmonic cantilevers. With these measurements, high-resolution maps of elastic modulus, adhesion force, energy dissipation, and topography are generated simultaneously in a single scan. With peak tapping forces as low as 0.6 nN, we demonstrate measurements on blended polymers and self-assembled molecular architectures with feature sizes at 1, 10, and 500 nm. We also observed an elastic modulus measurement range of four orders of magnitude (1 MPa to 10 GPa) for a single cantilever under identical feedback conditions, which can be particularly useful for analyzing heterogeneous samples with largely different material components.

  7. Validation of SplitVectors Encoding for Quantitative Visualization of Large-Magnitude-Range Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henan Zhao; Bryant, Garnett W; Griffin, Wesley; Terrill, Judith E; Jian Chen

    2017-06-01

    We designed and evaluated SplitVectors, a new vector field display approach to help scientists perform new discrimination tasks on large-magnitude-range scientific data shown in three-dimensional (3D) visualization environments. SplitVectors uses scientific notation to display vector magnitude, thus improving legibility. We present an empirical study comparing the SplitVectors approach with three other approaches - direct linear representation, logarithmic, and text display commonly used in scientific visualizations. Twenty participants performed three domain analysis tasks: reading numerical values (a discrimination task), finding the ratio between values (a discrimination task), and finding the larger of two vectors (a pattern detection task). Participants used both mono and stereo conditions. Our results suggest the following: (1) SplitVectors improve accuracy by about 10 times compared to linear mapping and by four times to logarithmic in discrimination tasks; (2) SplitVectors have no significant differences from the textual display approach, but reduce cluttering in the scene; (3) SplitVectors and textual display are less sensitive to data scale than linear and logarithmic approaches; (4) using logarithmic can be problematic as participants' confidence was as high as directly reading from the textual display, but their accuracy was poor; and (5) Stereoscopy improved performance, especially in more challenging discrimination tasks.

  8. Large magnetoelectric coupling in magnetically short-range ordered Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyang; Kimura, Hideo; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Osada, Minoru; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Yan; Yu, Jianding; Matsumoto, Takao; Tohei, Tetsuya; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2014-06-11

    Multiferroic materials, which offer the possibility of manipulating the magnetic state by an electric field or vice versa, are of great current interest. However, single-phase materials with such cross-coupling properties at room temperature exist rarely in nature; new design of nano-engineered thin films with a strong magneto-electric coupling is a fundamental challenge. Here we demonstrate a robust room-temperature magneto-electric coupling in a bismuth-layer-structured ferroelectric Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ with high ferroelectric Curie temperature of ~1000 K. Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition are single-phase layered perovskit with nearly (00l)-orientation. Room-temperature multiferroic behavior is demonstrated by a large modulation in magneto-polarization and magneto-dielectric responses. Local structural characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy reveal the existence of Fe-rich nanodomains, which cause a short-range magnetic ordering at ~620 K. In Bi₅Ti₃FeO₁₅ with a stable ferroelectric order, the spin canting of magnetic-ion-based nanodomains via the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction might yield a robust magneto-electric coupling of ~400 mV/Oe·cm even at room temperature.

  9. Fast and accurate: high-speed metrological large-range AFM for surface and nanometrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Gaoliang; Koenders, Ludger; Fluegge, Jens; Hemmleb, Matthias

    2018-05-01

    Low measurement speed remains a major shortcoming of the scanning probe microscopic technique. It not only leads to a low measurement throughput, but a significant measurement drift over the long measurement time needed (up to hours or even days). To overcome this challenge, PTB, the national metrology institute of Germany, has developed a high-speed metrological large-range atomic force microscope (HS Met. LR-AFM) capable of measuring speeds up to 1 mm s‑1. This paper has introduced the design concept in detail. After modelling scanning probe microscopic measurements, our results suggest that the signal spectrum of the surface to be measured is the spatial spectrum of the surface scaled by the scanning speed. The higher the scanning speed , the broader the spectrum to be measured. To realise an accurate HS Met. LR-AFM, our solution is to combine different stages/sensors synchronously in measurements, which provide a much larger spectrum area for high-speed measurement capability. Two application examples have been demonstrated. The first is a new concept called reference areal surface metrology. Using the developed HS Met. LR-AFM, surfaces are measured accurately and traceably at a speed of 500 µm s‑1 and the results are applied as a reference 3D data map of the surfaces. By correlating the reference 3D data sets and 3D data sets of tools under calibration, which are measured at the same surface, it has the potential to comprehensively characterise the tools, for instance, the spectrum properties of the tools. The investigation results of two commercial confocal microscopes are demonstrated, indicating very promising results. The second example is the calibration of a kind of 3D nano standard, which has spatially distributed landmarks, i.e. special unique features defined by 3D-coordinates. Experimental investigations confirmed that the calibration accuracy is maintained at a measurement speed of 100 µm s‑1, which improves the calibration efficiency by a

  10. Substitution Structures of Large Molecules and Medium Range Correlations in Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Pate, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    A study of the minimally exciting topic of agreement between experimental and measured rotational constants of molecules was performed on a set of large molecules with 16-18 heavy atoms (carbon and oxygen). The molecules are: nootkatone (C_{15}H_{22}O), cedrol (C_{15}H_{26}O), ambroxide (C_{16}H_{28}O), sclareolide (C_{16}H_{22}O_{2}), and dihydroartemisinic acid (C_{15}H_{24}O_{2}). For this set of molecules we obtained 13C-subsitution structures for six molecules (this includes two conformers of nootkatone). A comparison of theoretical structures and experimental substitution structures was performed in the spirit of the recent work of Grimme and Steinmetz.[1] Our analysis focused the center-of-mass distance of the carbon atoms in the molecules. Four different computational methods were studied: standard DFT (B3LYP), dispersion corrected DFT (B3LYP-D3BJ), hybrid DFT with dispersion correction (B2PLYP-D3), and MP2. A significant difference in these theories is how they handle medium range correlation of electrons that produce dispersion forces. For larger molecules, these dispersion forces produce an overall contraction of the molecule around the center-of-mass. DFT poorly treats this effect and produces structures that are too expanded. MP2 calculations overestimate the correction and produce structures that are too compact. Both dispersion corrected DFT methods produce structures in excellent agreement with experiment. The analysis shows that the difference in computational methods can be described by a linear error in the center-of-mass distance. This makes it possible to correct poorer performing calculations with a single scale factor. We also reexamine the issue of the "Costain error" in substitution structures and show that it is significantly larger in these systems than in the smaller molecules used by Costain to establish the error limits. [1] Stefan Grimme and Marc Steinmetz, "Effects of London dispersion correction in density functional theory on

  11. Vertical profile of tropospheric ozone derived from synergetic retrieval using three different wavelength ranges, UV, IR, and microwave: sensitivity study for satellite observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro O.; Sato, Takao M.; Sagawa, Hideo; Noguchi, Katsuyuki; Saitoh, Naoko; Irie, Hitoshi; Kita, Kazuyuki; Mahani, Mona E.; Zettsu, Koji; Imasu, Ryoichi; Hayashida, Sachiko; Kasai, Yasuko

    2018-03-01

    We performed a feasibility study of constraining the vertical profile of the tropospheric ozone by using a synergetic retrieval method on multiple spectra, i.e., ultraviolet (UV), thermal infrared (TIR), and microwave (MW) ranges, measured from space. This work provides, for the first time, a quantitative evaluation of the retrieval sensitivity of the tropospheric ozone by adding the MW measurement to the UV and TIR measurements. Two observation points in East Asia (one in an urban area and one in an ocean area) and two observation times (one during summer and one during winter) were assumed. Geometry of line of sight was nadir down-looking for the UV and TIR measurements, and limb sounding for the MW measurement. The retrieval sensitivities of the ozone profiles in the upper troposphere (UT), middle troposphere (MT), and lowermost troposphere (LMT) were estimated using the degree of freedom for signal (DFS), the pressure of maximum sensitivity, reduction rate of error from the a priori error, and the averaging kernel matrix, derived based on the optimal estimation method. The measurement noise levels were assumed to be the same as those for currently available instruments. The weighting functions for the UV, TIR, and MW ranges were calculated using the SCIATRAN radiative transfer model, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM), and the Advanced Model for Atmospheric Terahertz Radiation Analysis and Simulation (AMATERASU), respectively. The DFS value was increased by approximately 96, 23, and 30 % by adding the MW measurements to the combination of UV and TIR measurements in the UT, MT, and LMT regions, respectively. The MW measurement increased the DFS value of the LMT ozone; nevertheless, the MW measurement alone has no sensitivity to the LMT ozone. The pressure of maximum sensitivity value for the LMT ozone was also increased by adding the MW measurement. These findings indicate that better information on LMT ozone can be obtained by adding constraints

  12. Vertical profile of tropospheric ozone derived from synergetic retrieval using three different wavelength ranges, UV, IR, and microwave: sensitivity study for satellite observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Sato

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed a feasibility study of constraining the vertical profile of the tropospheric ozone by using a synergetic retrieval method on multiple spectra, i.e., ultraviolet (UV, thermal infrared (TIR, and microwave (MW ranges, measured from space. This work provides, for the first time, a quantitative evaluation of the retrieval sensitivity of the tropospheric ozone by adding the MW measurement to the UV and TIR measurements. Two observation points in East Asia (one in an urban area and one in an ocean area and two observation times (one during summer and one during winter were assumed. Geometry of line of sight was nadir down-looking for the UV and TIR measurements, and limb sounding for the MW measurement. The retrieval sensitivities of the ozone profiles in the upper troposphere (UT, middle troposphere (MT, and lowermost troposphere (LMT were estimated using the degree of freedom for signal (DFS, the pressure of maximum sensitivity, reduction rate of error from the a priori error, and the averaging kernel matrix, derived based on the optimal estimation method. The measurement noise levels were assumed to be the same as those for currently available instruments. The weighting functions for the UV, TIR, and MW ranges were calculated using the SCIATRAN radiative transfer model, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM, and the Advanced Model for Atmospheric Terahertz Radiation Analysis and Simulation (AMATERASU, respectively. The DFS value was increased by approximately 96, 23, and 30 % by adding the MW measurements to the combination of UV and TIR measurements in the UT, MT, and LMT regions, respectively. The MW measurement increased the DFS value of the LMT ozone; nevertheless, the MW measurement alone has no sensitivity to the LMT ozone. The pressure of maximum sensitivity value for the LMT ozone was also increased by adding the MW measurement. These findings indicate that better information on LMT ozone can be obtained by adding

  13. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Z; Rizvi, A A; Riza, N A

    2001-12-10

    A wavelength-multiplexed optical scanning scheme is proposed for deflecting a free-space optical beam by selection of the wavelength of the light incident on a wavelength-dispersive optical element. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters, this scanner features microsecond domain scan setting speeds and large- diameter apertures of several centimeters or more for subdegree angular scans. Analysis performed indicates an optimum scan range for a given diffraction order and grating period. Limitations include beam-spreading effects based on the varying scanner aperture sizes and the instantaneous information bandwidth of the data-carrying laser beam.

  14. Opacity of iron, nickel, and copper plasmas in the x-ray wavelength range: Theoretical interpretation of 2p-3d absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenski, T.; Loisel, G.; Poirier, M.; Thais, F.; Arnault, P.; Caillaud, T.; Fariaut, J.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J.-C.; Porcherot, Q.; Reverdin, C.; Silvert, V.; Villette, B.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Foelsner, W.; Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with theoretical studies on the 2p-3d absorption in iron, nickel, and copper plasmas related to LULI2000 (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, 2000J facility) measurements in which target temperatures were of the order of 20 eV and plasma densities were in the range 0.004-0.01 g/cm 3 . The radiatively heated targets were close to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The structure of 2p-3d transitions has been studied with the help of the statistical superconfiguration opacity code sco and with the fine-structure atomic physics codes hullac and fac. A new mixed version of the sco code allowing one to treat part of the configurations by detailed calculation based on the Cowan's code rcg has been also used in these comparisons. Special attention was paid to comparisons between theory and experiment concerning the term features which cannot be reproduced by sco. The differences in the spin-orbit splitting and the statistical (thermal) broadening of the 2p-3d transitions have been investigated as a function of the atomic number Z. It appears that at the conditions of the experiment the role of the term and configuration broadening was different in the three analyzed elements, this broadening being sensitive to the atomic number. Some effects of the temperature gradients and possible non-LTE effects have been studied with the help of the radiative-collisional code scric. The sensitivity of the 2p-3d structures with respect to temperature and density in medium-Z plasmas may be helpful for diagnostics of LTE plasmas especially in future experiments on the Δn=0 absorption in medium-Z plasmas for astrophysical applications.

  15. Short Range Correlations in Nuclei at Large xbj through Inclusive Quasi-Elastic Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Zhihong [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The experiment, E08-014, in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab aims to study the short-range correlations (SRC) which are necessary to explain the nuclear strength absent in the mean field theory. The cross sections for 2H, 3He, 4He, 12C, 40Ca and 48Ca, were measured via inclusive quasi-elastic electron scattering from these nuclei in a Q2 range between 0.8 and 2.8 (GeV/c)2 for x>1. The cross section ratios of heavy nuclei to 2H were extracted to study two-nucleon SRC for 1

  16. Processing and Application of ICESat Large Footprint Full Waveform Laser Range Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duong, V.H.

    2010-01-01

    In the last two decades, laser scanning systems made the transition from scientific research to the commercial market. Laser scanning has a large variety of applications such as digital elevation models, forest inventory and man-made object reconstruction, and became the most required input data for

  17. Endozoochory by free-ranging, large herbivores : Ecological correlates and perspectives for restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, Albert; Vos, P; Verhagen, HMC; Bakker, JP

    2005-01-01

    Seed dispersal via ingestion and defecation by large herbivores provides a possible aid for ecological restoration of plant communities, by connecting source communities of target species with habitat restoration sites. It is also a possible threat due to invasion of weeds, grasses or exotic

  18. Climate change effects on historical range and variability of two large landscapes in western Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Russell A. Parsons; Kathy Gray

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying the historical range and variability of landscape composition and structure using simulation modeling is becoming an important means of assessing current landscape condition and prioritizing landscapes for ecosystem restoration. However, most simulated time series are generated using static climate conditions which fail to account for the predicted major...

  19. Six-axis force–torque sensor with a large range for biomechanical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >Brookhuis, R A; + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >Droogendijk, H; + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >De Boer, M J; + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >Sanders, R G P; + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >Lammerink, T S J; + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >Wiegerink, R J; + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands))" >Krijnen, G J M

    2014-01-01

    A silicon six-axis force–torque sensor is designed and realized to be used for measurement of the power transfer between the human body and the environment. Capacitive read-out is used to detect all axial force components and all torque components simultaneously. Small electrode gaps in combination with mechanical amplification by the sensor structure result in a high sensitivity. The miniature sensor has a wide force range of up to 50 N in normal direction, 10 N in shear direction and 25 N mm of maximum torque around each axis. (paper)

  20. High resolution axicon-based endoscopic FD OCT imaging with a large depth range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kye-Sung; Hurley, William; Deegan, John; Dean, Scott; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2010-02-01

    Endoscopic imaging in tubular structures, such as the tracheobronchial tree, could benefit from imaging optics with an extended depth of focus (DOF). This optics could accommodate for varying sizes of tubular structures across patients and along the tree within a single patient. In the paper, we demonstrate an extended DOF without sacrificing resolution showing rotational images in biological tubular samples with 2.5 μm axial resolution, 10 ìm lateral resolution, and > 4 mm depth range using a custom designed probe.

  1. Dissolved organic matter fluorescence at wavelength 275/342 nm as a key indicator for detection of point-source contamination in a large Chinese drinking water lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-02-01

    Surface drinking water sources have been threatened globally and there have been few attempts to detect point-source contamination in these waters using chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence. To determine the optimal wavelength derived from CDOM fluorescence as an indicator of point-source contamination in drinking waters, a combination of field campaigns in Lake Qiandao and a laboratory wastewater addition experiment was used. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified six components, including three humic-like, two tryptophan-like, and one tyrosine-like component. All metrics showed strong correlation with wastewater addition (r(2) > 0.90, p CDOM fluorescence at 275/342 nm was the most responsive wavelength to the point-source contamination in the lake. Our results suggest that pollutants in Lake Qiandao had the highest concentrations in the river mouths of upstream inflow tributaries and the single wavelength at 275/342 nm may be adapted for online or in situ fluorescence measurements as an early warning of contamination events. This study demonstrates the potential utility of CDOM fluorescence to monitor water quality in surface drinking water sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High Resolution and Large Dynamic Range Resonant Pressure Sensor Based on Q-Factor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Stell, Christopher B. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor); Vorperian, Vatche (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A pressure sensor has a high degree of accuracy over a wide range of pressures. Using a pressure sensor relying upon resonant oscillations to determine pressure, a driving circuit drives such a pressure sensor at resonance and tracks resonant frequency and amplitude shifts with changes in pressure. Pressure changes affect the Q-factor of the resonating portion of the pressure sensor. Such Q-factor changes are detected by the driving/sensing circuit which in turn tracks the changes in resonant frequency to maintain the pressure sensor at resonance. Changes in the Q-factor are reflected in changes of amplitude of the resonating pressure sensor. In response, upon sensing the changes in the amplitude, the driving circuit changes the force or strength of the electrostatic driving signal to maintain the resonator at constant amplitude. The amplitude of the driving signals become a direct measure of the changes in pressure as the operating characteristics of the resonator give rise to a linear response curve for the amplitude of the driving signal. Pressure change resolution is on the order of 10(exp -6) torr over a range spanning from 7,600 torr to 10(exp -6) torr. No temperature compensation for the pressure sensor of the present invention is foreseen. Power requirements for the pressure sensor are generally minimal due to the low-loss mechanical design of the resonating pressure sensor and the simple control electronics.

  3. Determination of boron over a large dynamic range by prompt-gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.K.; Landsberger, S.

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of the PGAA method for the determination of boron across a wide dynamic range of concentrations was performed for trace levels up to 5 wt.% boron. This range encompasses a transition from neutron transparency to significant self- shielding conditions. To account for self-shielding, several PGAA techniques were employed. First, a calibration curve was developed in which a set of boron standards was tested and the count rate to boron mass curve was determined. This set of boron measurements was compared with an internal standard self-shielding correction method and with a method for determining composition using PGAA peak ratios. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are analyzed. The boron concentrations of several laboratory-grade chemicals and standard reference materials were measured with each method and compared. The evaluation of the boron content of nanocrystalline transition metals prepared with a boron-containing reducing agent was also performed with each of the methods tested. Finally, the k 0 method was used for non-destructive measurement of boron in catalyst materials for the characterization of new non-platinum fuel cell catalysts.

  4. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  5. A terahertz EO detector with large dynamical range, high modulation depth and signal-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinjian; Cai, Yi; Zeng, Xuanke; Zheng, Shuiqin; Li, Jingzhen; Xu, Shixiang

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents a novel design for terahertz (THz) free-space time domain electro-optic (EO) detection where the static birefringent phases of the two balanced arms are set close to zero but opposite to each other. Our theoretical and numerical analyses show this design has much stronger ability to cancel the optical background noise than both THz ellipsometer and traditional crossed polarizer geometry (CPG). Its optical modulation depth is about twice as high as that of traditional CPG, but about ten times as high as that of THz ellipsometer. As for the dynamical range, our improved design is comparable to the THz ellipsometer but obviously larger than the traditional CPG. Some experiments for comparing our improved CPG with traditional CPG agree well with the corresponding theoretical predictions. Our experiments also show that the splitting ratio of the used non-polarization beam splitter is critical for the performance of our design.

  6. A large response range reflectometric urea biosensor made from silica-gel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Raj, A S Santhana; Ling, Tan Ling

    2014-07-22

    A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol-gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50-500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors.

  7. A Large Response Range Reflectometric Urea Biosensor Made from Silica-Gel Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa; Raj, A.S. Santhana; Ling, Tan Ling

    2014-01-01

    A new silica-gel nanospheres (SiO2NPs) composition was formulated, followed by biochemical surface functionalization to examine its potential in urea biosensor development. The SiO2NPs were basically synthesized based on sol–gel chemistry using a modified Stober method. The SiO2NPs surfaces were modified with amine (-NH2) functional groups for urease immobilization in the presence of glutaric acid (GA) cross-linker. The chromoionophore pH-sensitive dye ETH 5294 was physically adsorbed on the functionalized SiO2NPs as pH transducer. The immobilized urease determined urea concentration reflectometrically based on the colour change of the immobilized chromoionophore as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The pH changes on the biosensor due to the catalytic enzyme reaction of immobilized urease were found to correlate with the urea concentrations over a linear response range of 50–500 mM (R2 = 0.96) with a detection limit of 10 mM urea. The biosensor response time was 9 min with reproducibility of less than 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). This optical urea biosensor did not show interferences by Na+, K+, Mg2+ and NH4+ ions. The biosensor performance has been validated using urine samples in comparison with a non-enzymatic method based on the use of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (DMAB) reagent and demonstrated a good correlation between the two different methods (R2 = 0.996 and regression slope of 1.0307). The SiO2NPs-based reflectometric urea biosensor showed improved dynamic linear response range when compared to other nanoparticle-based optical urea biosensors. PMID:25054632

  8. Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Martinelli, Diego [Division of Metabolism, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Dionisi-Vici, Carlo [Division of Metabolism, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Nobili, Valerio [Gastroenterology and Liver Unit, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco [Dept. Pathology, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); Santorelli, Filippo Maria [UOC Neurogenetica e Malattie Neuromuscolari, Fondazione Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Bertini, Enrico [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases, ' Bambino Gesu' Children' s Hospital, Rome (Italy); and others

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

  9. Novel large-range mitochondrial DNA deletions and fatal multisystemic disorder with prominent hepatopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Marzia; Rizza, Teresa; Verrigni, Daniela; Martinelli, Diego; Tozzi, Giulia; Torraco, Alessandra; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Nobili, Valerio; Francalanci, Paola; Boldrini, Renata; Callea, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expanded array of mtDNA deletions. ► Pearson syndrome with prominent hepatopathy associated with single mtDNA deletions. ► Detection of deletions in fibroblasts and blood avoids muscle and liver biopsy. ► Look for mtDNA deletions before to study nuclear genes related to mtDNA depletion. -- Abstract: Hepatic involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies rarely manifests in adulthood, but is a common feature in children. Multiple OXPHOS enzyme defects in children with liver involvement are often associated with dramatically reduced amounts of mtDNA. We investigated two novel large scale deletions in two infants with a multisystem disorder and prominent hepatopathy. Amount of mtDNA deletions and protein content were measured in different post-mortem tissues. The highest levels of deleted mtDNA were in liver, kidney, pancreas of both patients. Moreover, mtDNA deletions were detected in cultured skin fibroblasts in both patients and in blood of one during life. Biochemical analysis showed impairment of mainly complex I enzyme activity. Patients manifesting multisystem disorders in childhood may harbour rare mtDNA deletions in multiple tissues. For these patients, less invasive blood specimens or cultured fibroblasts can be used for molecular diagnosis. Our data further expand the array of deletions in the mitochondrial genomes in association with liver failure. Thus analysis of mtDNA should be considered in the diagnosis of childhood-onset hepatopathies.

  10. Interference fringes in synchrotron section topography of implanted silicon with a very large ion range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Dluzewska, K.; Wierzchowski, W.; Graeff, W.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon crystals implanted with 9 MeV protons to the dose of 5x10 17 cm -2 were studied with X-ray topographic methods using both conventional and synchrotron radiation sources. After the implantation the crystals were thermally and electron annealed. The implantation produced large 600 μm thick shot-through layer while the total thickness of the samples was 1.6 mm. It was confirmed by means of double crystal topography that the whole crystal was elastically bent. The transmission section patterns revealed both parts of the implanted crystal separated by strong contrasts coming from the most damaged layer and distinct interference fringes which appeared on one side of the topograph only. The locations of the fringes changed when the beam entered the other side of the sample. The mechanism of fringe formation was studied with numerical integration of the Takagi-Taupin equations, especially studying the intensity distribution in the diffraction plane. The simulations reproduced the location of the fringes in different geometries and indicate that they can be caused both by variable crystal curvature and variable ion dose. (author)

  11. Prototype drift chamber for high energy heavy ions with a large dynamic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Bieser, F.; Crawford, H.; Lindstrom, P.; Baumgartner, M.; Greiner, D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have constructed and tested a small prototype drift chamber designed for high energy heavy ions. When a drift chamber is used as a tracking detector for heavy projectile fragments from high energy nucleus-nucleus reactions, the major problem comes from the many spurious hits due to delta-rays. Three methods have been developed to solve this problem. The first one is to use a constant fraction discriminator to pick up the timing signal from the core ionization under the large background of delta-rays. The second one is to use pulse height information from the drift chamber to find the cell hit by the heavy ion. The last one is the idea of distributed planes. Modular planes (12 in this case) are distributed 10 cm apart on a rigid base plate to provide accurate relative positioning of the wires. The performance of the prototype chamber has been measured as a function of the high voltage bias and of the charge of the heavy ion from protons up to uranium at around 1 GeV/nucleon

  12. Combinatorial Strategies for Synthesis and Characterization of Alloy Microstructures over Large Compositional Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanglin; Jensen, Katharine E; Liu, Yanhui; Liu, Jingbei; Gong, Pan; Scanley, B Ellen; Broadbridge, Christine C; Schroers, Jan

    2016-10-10

    The exploration of new alloys with desirable properties has been a long-standing challenge in materials science because of the complex relationship between composition and microstructure. In this Research Article, we demonstrate a combinatorial strategy for the exploration of composition dependence of microstructure. This strategy is comprised of alloy library synthesis followed by high-throughput microstructure characterization. As an example, we synthesized a ternary Au-Cu-Si composition library containing over 1000 individual alloys using combinatorial sputtering. We subsequently melted and resolidified the entire library at controlled cooling rates. We used scanning optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction mapping to explore trends in phase formation and microstructural length scale with composition across the library. The integration of combinatorial synthesis with parallelizable analysis methods provides a efficient method for examining vast compositional ranges. The availability of microstructures from this vast composition space not only facilitates design of new alloys by controlling effects of composition on phase selection, phase sequence, length scale, and overall morphology, but also will be instrumental in understanding the complex process of microstructure formation in alloys.

  13. Rapid determination of vertebral fat fraction over a large range of vertebral bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jarad; Nicholson, Geoffrey; Cowin, Gary; Ilente, Clare; Wong, Winnie; Kennedy, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral body fat fraction (FF) has been found to vary between lumbar vertebrae using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We aim to more quickly assess a larger number of adjacent vertebrae using a single T2-weighted iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) sequence. Five men had dual-energy X-ray absorptometry (DEXA) and 1.5-T MR scans performed. MRS was performed at L3, and a sagittal IDEAL sequence was also performed, resulting in separate fat-only and water-only readings from T10 to S2. For the IDEAL measurements, two independent observers followed a set reading protocol, with five observations each per vertebra. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed as deviations from the mean within and between observers, respectively. For FF measurements there was limited intra-observer variation, with observers being on average within 3.4% of the pooled mean value. Similarly, there was good interobserver agreement, with an average variation of 2.1%. All men showed a reduction in FF of 1.6–7% between L5 and S1. Otherwise, there was a trend of increasing FF moving inferiorly from T10 to S2. This averaged 2.7% per vertebra (range 1.1–3.8%) and may not have been dependent on MRS-measured FF at the L3 level. There was poor correlation between MRS-measured FF at L2–4 and bone mineral density measured using DEXA (R2=0.06). IDEAL measurements are generally reproducible between observers following a set protocol. There appears to be a gradient in FF moving from T10 to S2, with S1 showing a consistent decrease. This variation may better describe overall marrow function than a single-vertebra reading.

  14. Corals through the light : phylogenetics, functional diversity and adaptive strategies of coral-symbiont associations over a large depth range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues Frade, P.

    2009-01-01

    Light constitutes the main energy source in the coral reef ecosystem, with its intensity dramatically reduced with increasing depth over the reef slope. How do corals thrive across these acute light gradients that exist over large depth ranges? This and many more questions are addressed throughout

  15. Multi-actuation and PI control: A simple recipe for high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I., E-mail: isoltani@mit.edu; Youcef-Toumi, K.

    2014-11-15

    High speed atomic force microscopy enables observation of dynamic nano-scale processes. However, maintaining a minimal interaction force between the sample and the probe is challenging at high speed specially when using conventional piezo-tubes. While rigid AFM scanners are operational at high speeds with the drawback of reduced tracking range, multi-actuation schemes have shown potential for high-speed and large-range imaging. Here we present a method to seamlessly incorporate additional actuators into conventional AFMs. The equivalent behavior of the resulting multi-actuated setup resembles that of a single high-speed and large-range actuator with maximally flat frequency response. To achieve this, the dynamics of the individual actuators and their couplings are treated through a simple control scheme. Upon the implementation of the proposed technique, commonly used PI controllers are able to meet the requirements of high-speed imaging. This forms an ideal platform for retroactive enhancement of existing AFMs with minimal cost and without compromise on the tracking range. A conventional AFM with tube scanner is retroactively enhanced through the proposed method and shows an order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance while maintaining large range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on various types of samples imaged in contact and tapping modes, in air and in liquid. - Highlights: • We present a novel method to incorporate extra actuators into conventional AFMs. • A maximally flat frequency response is achieved for the out of plane piezo-motion. • Commonly used PI or PID control is enabled to handle high speed AFM imaging. • An order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance is obtained. • High speed imaging is achieved on a large range piezo-tube.

  16. Multi-actuation and PI control: A simple recipe for high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I.; Youcef-Toumi, K.

    2014-01-01

    High speed atomic force microscopy enables observation of dynamic nano-scale processes. However, maintaining a minimal interaction force between the sample and the probe is challenging at high speed specially when using conventional piezo-tubes. While rigid AFM scanners are operational at high speeds with the drawback of reduced tracking range, multi-actuation schemes have shown potential for high-speed and large-range imaging. Here we present a method to seamlessly incorporate additional actuators into conventional AFMs. The equivalent behavior of the resulting multi-actuated setup resembles that of a single high-speed and large-range actuator with maximally flat frequency response. To achieve this, the dynamics of the individual actuators and their couplings are treated through a simple control scheme. Upon the implementation of the proposed technique, commonly used PI controllers are able to meet the requirements of high-speed imaging. This forms an ideal platform for retroactive enhancement of existing AFMs with minimal cost and without compromise on the tracking range. A conventional AFM with tube scanner is retroactively enhanced through the proposed method and shows an order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance while maintaining large range. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on various types of samples imaged in contact and tapping modes, in air and in liquid. - Highlights: • We present a novel method to incorporate extra actuators into conventional AFMs. • A maximally flat frequency response is achieved for the out of plane piezo-motion. • Commonly used PI or PID control is enabled to handle high speed AFM imaging. • An order of magnitude improvement in closed loop bandwidth performance is obtained. • High speed imaging is achieved on a large range piezo-tube

  17. Design and control of multi-actuated atomic force microscope for large-range and high-speed imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani Bozchalooi, I.; Careaga Houck, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); AlGhamdi, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Dammam, Dammam (Saudi Arabia); Youcef-Toumi, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This paper presents the design and control of a high-speed and large-range atomic force microscopy (AFM). A multi-actuation scheme is proposed where several nano-positioners cooperate to achieve the range and speed requirements. A simple data-based control design methodology is presented to effectively operate the AFM scanner components. The proposed controllers compensate for the coupled dynamics and divide the positioning responsibilities between the scanner components. As a result, the multi-actuated scanner behavior is equivalent to that of a single X–Y–Z positioner with large range and high speed. The scanner of the designed AFM is composed of five nano-positioners, features 6 μm out-of-plane and 120 μm lateral ranges and is capable of high-speed operation. The presented AFM has a modular design with laser spot size of 3.5 μm suitable for small cantilever, an optical view of the sample and probe, a conveniently large waterproof sample stage and a 20 MHz data throughput for high resolution image acquisition at high imaging speeds. This AFM is used to visualize etching of calcite in a solution of sulfuric acid. Layer-by-layer dissolution and pit formation along the crystalline lines in a low pH environment is observed in real time. - Highlights: • High-speed AFM imaging is extended to large lateral and vertical scan ranges. • A general multi-actuation approach to atomic force microscopy is presented. • A high-speed AFM is designed and implemented based on the proposed method. • Multi-actuator control is designed auxiliary to a PID unit to maintain flexibility. • Influence of calcite crystal structure on dissolution is visualized in video form.

  18. Calibration of a large multi-element neutron counter in the energy range 85-430 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, J A; Esterling, R J; Garvey, J; Green, M G; Harnew, N; Jane, M R; Jobes, M; Mawson, J; McMahon, T; Robertson, A W; Thomas, D H

    1978-01-01

    Describes the calibration of a large 60 element neutron counter with a threshold of 2.7 MeV equivalent electron energy. The performance of the counter has been measured in the neutron kinetic energy range 8.5-430 MeV using a neutron beam at the CERN Synchrocyclotron. The results obtained for the efficiency as a function of energy are in reasonable agreement with a Monte Carlo calculation. (7 refs).

  19. Study of the strongly ionized medium in active galactic n ('Warm Absorber'): multi-wavelength modelling and plasma diagnostics in the X-ray spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porquet, Delphine

    1999-01-01

    The so-called 'Warm Absorber' medium is observed in the central region of Active Galactic Nuclei and particularly in Seyfert l galaxies. lt is mainly characterized by O(VII) and O(VIII) absorption edges detected in the soft X-rays. Its study (modelization and observation) is an important key tool to understand Active Galactic Nuclei. The work presented here consists in modelling the Warm Absorber, and in developing X-ray spectroscopy diagnostics to constrain the physical parameters of any hot medium such as the Warm Absorber. The physical parameters of the Warm Absorber (density, temperature, ionization processes..) are difficult to determine only on the basis of present X-ray data. In particular, the value of the density cannot be derived only from the modelling of the resonance lines and of the soft X-ray absorption edges since there are almost insensitive to the density in the range of values expected for the Warm Absorber. lt is why we have developed diagnostic methods based on a multi-wavelength approach. The modelling is made with two complementary computational codes: PEGAS, and IRIS which takes into account the most accurate atomic data. With these two codes, we have modelled several types of plasma ionisation processes (photoionized plasmas and/or collisional). Results for the Warm Absorber were compared to multi-wavelength observations (mainly the optical iron coronal lines [Fe X] 6375 Angstroms, [Fe XI] 7892 Angstroms, and [Fe XIV] 5303 Angstroms). The proposed method has allowed to show that the Warm Absorber could be responsible of the emission of these lines totally or partially. All models of the Warm Absorber producing coronal line equivalent widths larger than observed were ruled out. This strongly constrains the physical parameters of the Warm Absorber, and particularly its density (n H ≥10 10 cm -3 ). The new generation of X-ray satellites (Chandra/AXAF, XMM...) will produce spectra at high spectral resolution and high sensitivity

  20. Large-scale range collapse of Hawaiian forest birds under climate change and the need 21st century conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  1. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley S Clements

    Full Text Available Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point. When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah, 82±3% (leopard, 81±2% (lion, 97±2% (spotted hyaena and 96±2% (wild dog of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore

  2. An objective approach to determining the weight ranges of prey preferred by and accessible to the five large African carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Hayley S; Tambling, Craig J; Hayward, Matt W; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed "accessible prey". Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14-135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1-45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32-632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15-1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10-289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species.

  3. Mathematical Model and Calibration Experiment of a Large Measurement Range Flexible Joints 6-UPUR Six-Axis Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhi Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays improving the accuracy and enlarging the measuring range of six-axis force sensors for wider applications in aircraft landing, rocket thrust, and spacecraft docking testing experiments has become an urgent objective. However, it is still difficult to achieve high accuracy and large measuring range with traditional parallel six-axis force sensors due to the influence of the gap and friction of the joints. Therefore, to overcome the mentioned limitations, this paper proposed a 6-Universal-Prismatic-Universal-Revolute (UPUR joints parallel mechanism with flexible joints to develop a large measurement range six-axis force sensor. The structural characteristics of the sensor are analyzed in comparison with traditional parallel sensor based on the Stewart platform. The force transfer relation of the sensor is deduced, and the force Jacobian matrix is obtained using screw theory in two cases of the ideal state and the state of flexibility of each flexible joint is considered. The prototype and loading calibration system are designed and developed. The K value method and least squares method are used to process experimental data, and in errors of kind Ι and kind II linearity are obtained. The experimental results show that the calibration error of the K value method is more than 13.4%, and the calibration error of the least squares method is 2.67%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the sensor and the correctness of the theoretical analysis which are expected to be adopted in practical applications.

  4. Real-Time Adaptive Control of a Magnetic Levitation System with a Large Range of Load Disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizhou; Li, Xiaolong

    2018-05-11

    In an idle light-load or a full-load condition, the change of the load mass of a suspension system is very significant. If the control parameters of conventional control methods remain unchanged, the suspension performance of the control system deteriorates rapidly or even loses stability when the load mass changes in a large range. In this paper, a real-time adaptive control method for a magnetic levitation system with large range of mass changes is proposed. First, the suspension control system model of the maglev train is built up, and the stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed. Then, a fast inner current-loop is used to simplify the design of the suspension control system, and an adaptive control method is put forward to ensure that the system is still in a stable state when the load mass varies in a wide range. Simulations and experiments show that when the load mass of the maglev system varies greatly, the adaptive control method is effective to suspend the system stably with a given displacement.

  5. A wideband large dynamic range and high linearity RF front-end for U-band mobile DTV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rongjiang; Liu Shengyou; Guo Guiliang; Cheng Xu; Yan Yuepeng

    2013-01-01

    A wideband large dynamic range and high linearity U-band RF front-end for mobile DTV is introduced, and includes a noise-cancelling low-noise amplifier (LNA), an RF programmable gain amplifier (RFPGA) and a current communicating passive mixer. The noise/distortion cancelling structure and RC post-distortion compensation are employed to improve the linearity of the LNA. An RFPGA with five stages provides large dynamic range and fine gain resolution. A simple resistor voltage network in the passive mixer decreases the gate bias voltage of the mixing transistor, and optimum linearity and symmetrical mixing is obtained at the same time. The RF front-end is implemented in a 0.25 μm CMOS process. Tests show that it achieves an IIP3 (third-order intercept point) of −17 dBm, a conversion gain of 39 dB, and a noise figure of 5.8 dB. The RFPGA achieves a dynamic range of −36.2 to 23.5 dB with a resolution of 0.32 dB. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. Mathematical Model and Calibration Experiment of a Large Measurement Range Flexible Joints 6-UPUR Six-Axis Force Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanzhi; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhang, Dan; Shi, Zhongpan; Zhao, Tieshi

    2016-08-11

    Nowadays improving the accuracy and enlarging the measuring range of six-axis force sensors for wider applications in aircraft landing, rocket thrust, and spacecraft docking testing experiments has become an urgent objective. However, it is still difficult to achieve high accuracy and large measuring range with traditional parallel six-axis force sensors due to the influence of the gap and friction of the joints. Therefore, to overcome the mentioned limitations, this paper proposed a 6-Universal-Prismatic-Universal-Revolute (UPUR) joints parallel mechanism with flexible joints to develop a large measurement range six-axis force sensor. The structural characteristics of the sensor are analyzed in comparison with traditional parallel sensor based on the Stewart platform. The force transfer relation of the sensor is deduced, and the force Jacobian matrix is obtained using screw theory in two cases of the ideal state and the state of flexibility of each flexible joint is considered. The prototype and loading calibration system are designed and developed. The K value method and least squares method are used to process experimental data, and in errors of kind Ι and kind II linearity are obtained. The experimental results show that the calibration error of the K value method is more than 13.4%, and the calibration error of the least squares method is 2.67%. The experimental results prove the feasibility of the sensor and the correctness of the theoretical analysis which are expected to be adopted in practical applications.

  7. The effect of large decoherence on mixing time in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, S; Radgohar, R, E-mail: shsalimi@uok.ac.i, E-mail: r.radgohar@uok.ac.i [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Ave, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-01-28

    In this paper, we consider decoherence in continuous-time quantum walks on long-range interacting cycles (LRICs), which are the extensions of the cycle graphs. For this purpose, we use Gurvitz's model and assume that every node is monitored by the corresponding point-contact induced by the decoherence process. Then, we focus on large rates of decoherence and calculate the probability distribution analytically and obtain the lower and upper bounds of the mixing time. Our results prove that the mixing time is proportional to the rate of decoherence and the inverse of the square of the distance parameter (m). This shows that the mixing time decreases with increasing range of interaction. Also, what we obtain for m = 0 is in agreement with Fedichkin, Solenov and Tamon's results [48] for cycle, and we see that the mixing time of CTQWs on cycle improves with adding interacting edges.

  8. How do low dispersal species establish large range sizes? The case of the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Rannap, Riinu; Thomsen, Philip Francis

    2013-01-01

    important than species phylogeny or local spatial attributes. In this study we used the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus a philopatric species of conservation concern in Europe as a model to explain large range size and to support effective conservation measures for such species that also have limited...... systems and wetlands which used to be highly connected throughout the central plains of Europe. Our data suggest that a broad habitat niche can prevent landscape elements from becoming barriers for species like G. bilineatus. Therefore, we question the usefulness of site protection as conservation...... measures for G. bilineatus and similar philopatric species. Instead, conservation actions should be focused at the landscape level to ensure a long-term viability of such species across their range....

  9. Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmaier, M.; Ebert, J.; Pernice, W. H. P., E-mail: wolfram.pernice@kit.edu [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Meckbach, J. M.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M. [Institute of Micro- und Nanoelectronic Systems, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-03-03

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) has recently emerged as a promising material for integrated photonics due to a large bandgap and attractive optical properties. Exploiting the wideband transparency, we demonstrate waveguiding in AlN-on-Insulator circuits from near-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths using nanophotonic components with dimensions down to 40 nm. By measuring the propagation loss over a wide spectral range, we conclude that both scattering and absorption of AlN-intrinsic defects contribute to strong attenuation at short wavelengths, thus providing guidelines for future improvements in thin-film deposition and circuit fabrication.

  10. Use of a cocktail of spin traps for fingerprinting large range of free radicals in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Valérie; Charlier, Nicolas; Verrax, Julien; Buc-Calderon, Pedro; Levêque, Philippe; Gallez, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that the formation of radical species centered on various atoms is involved in the mechanism leading to the development of several diseases or to the appearance of deleterious effects of toxic molecules. The detection of free radical is possible using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the spin trapping technique. The classical EPR spin-trapping technique can be considered as a "hypothesis-driven" approach because it requires an a priori assumption regarding the nature of the free radical in order to select the most appropriate spin-trap. We here describe a "data-driven" approach using EPR and a cocktail of spin-traps. The rationale for using this cocktail was that it would cover a wide range of biologically relevant free radicals and have a large range of hydrophilicity and lipophilicity in order to trap free radicals produced in different cellular compartments. As a proof-of-concept, we validated the ability of the system to measure a large variety of free radicals (O-, N-, C-, or S- centered) in well characterized conditions, and we illustrated the ability of the technique to unambiguously detect free radical production in cells exposed to chemicals known to be radical-mediated toxic agents.

  11. Systemic design of synchronous traction drives for large speed-range electric vehicle; Conception systemique de chaines de traction synchrones pour vehicule electrique a large gamme de vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randi, S.A.

    2003-04-15

    The presented study deals with a systemic approach based design of permanent magnet brush-less actuators. The considered system is the electric vehicle motorized with this actuator on a large speed range. First, the review of vehicles architectures and general specifications put emphasis on the design problem complexity and the interest of a simultaneous design taking account of the whole traction chain driving cycle. Then the IPM plane and lumped parameter models are used to bring out the variables which characterizes the work beyond the base speed and the ability in flux weakening operation. The properties of machines with two rotor parts in such operation are studied. The new degrees of freedom available with these structures bring new solutions for drives with larger speed range. Then a model taking account each subsystem is presented and implemented in a global SABER simulator, involving sizing models of components. This tool enables to study the work of the traction chain over significant driving cycles and the performances evaluation. A last, this simulator is brought into work so as to perform a simultaneous design of the traction chain components as battery, inverter, machine, gear, thanks to an optimisation procedure based on genetic algorithm able to process continuous sizes variations and structure modifications, considering performance criteria on losses and cost. (author)

  12. Evidence for large compositional ranges in coeval melts erupted from Kīlauea's summit reservoir: Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, Rosalind T.; Clague, David A.; Mastin, Larry G.; Rose, Timothy R.; Carey, Rebecca; Cayol, Valérie; Poland, Michael P.; Weis, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Petrologic observations on Kīlauea's lavas include abundant microprobe analyses of glasses, which show the range of melts available in Kīlauea's summit reservoir over time. During the past two centuries, compositions of melts erupted within the caldera have been limited to MgO = 6.3–7.5 wt%. Extracaldera lavas of the 1959, 1971, and 1974 eruptions contain melts with up to 10.2, 8.9, and 9.2 wt% MgO, respectively, and the 1924 tephra contains juvenile Pele's tears with up to 9.1 wt% MgO. Melt compositions from explosive deposits at Kīlauea, including the Keanakāko‘i (A.D. 1500–1800), Kulanaokuaiki (A.D. 400–1000), and Pāhala (10–25 ka) tephra units, show large ranges of MgO contents. The range of melt MgO is 6.5–11.0 wt% for the Keanakāko‘i; the Kulanaokuaiki extends to 12.5% MgO and the Pāhala Ash includes rare shards with 13–14.5% MgO. The frequency distributions for MgO in the Keanakāko‘i and Kulanaokuaiki glasses are bimodal, suggesting preferential magma storage at two different depths. Kīlauea's summit reservoir contains melts ranging from 6.5 to at least 11.0 wt% MgO, and such melts were available for sampling near instantaneously and repeatedly over centuries. More magnesian melts are inferred to have risen directly from greater depth.

  13. Large area quantitative X-ray mapping of (U,Pu)O2 nuclear fuel pellets using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremier, S.; Haas, D.; Somers, J.; Walker, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    The work presented is an example of how large area compositional mapping (≥1 mm 2 ) can be used to provide quantitative information on element distribution and specimen homogeneity. High-resolution was accomplished by producing a collage of X-ray maps acquired using classical conditions; magnification x400, spatial resolution 256x256 pixels. The individual images, each measuring roughly 250x250 μm, were converted to quantitative maps using the HIMAX reg software package and the XMAS reg matrix correction from SAMx. The quantitative gray-level large area X-ray picture was pieced together using the 'Multiple Image Alignment' function of the ANALYSIS reg image processing software. This software was also used to convert the gray-level pictures to false color images. The specimens investigated were transverse sections of MOX fuel pellets. Results are presented for the distribution of Pu by area fraction and cumulative area fraction, the size distribution of regions of high Pu concentration and average separation of these regions

  14. Wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavko, G.E.

    1974-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization was measured for twelve stars in three regions of the Milky Way. A 120A bandpass was used to measure the polarization at a maximum of sixteen wavelengths evenly spaced between 2.78μ -1 (3600A) and 1.28μ -1 (7800A). For such a wide wavelength range, the wavelength resolution is superior to that of any previously reported polarization measurements. The new scanning polarimeter built by W. A. Hiltner of the University of Michigan was used for the observations. Very broad structure was found in the wavelength dependence of the polarization. Extensive investigations were carried out to show that the structure was not caused by instrumental effects. The broad structure observed is shown to be in agreement with concurrent extinction measurements for the same stars. Also, the observed structure is of the type predicted when a homogeneous silicate grain model is fitted to the observed extinction. The results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the very broad band structure seen in the extinction is produced by the grains. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  15. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthew Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  16. Biaxial direct tensile tests in a large range of strain rates. Results on a ferritic nuclear steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Montagnani, M.; Pizzinato, E.V.; Solomos, G.; Viaccoz, B. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    2000-09-01

    Constitutive equations are usually calibrated only trough the experimental results obtained by means of unixial tests because of the lack of adequate biaxial experimental data especially at high strain rate conditions. These data are however important for the validation of analytical models and also for the predictions of mechanical behaviour of real structures subjected to multiaxial loading by numerical simulations. In this paper some developments are shown concerning biaxial cruciform specimens and different experimental machines allowing biaxial tests in a large range of strain rates. This experimental campaign has also allowed study of the influence of changing the strain paths. Diagrams of equivalent stress versus straining direction and also equivalent plastic fracture strain versus straining direction are shown. (orig.)

  17. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large "generalist" apex predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam E; Nifong, James C; Heithaus, Michael R; Mazzotti, Frank J; Cherkiss, Michael S; Jeffery, Brian M; Elsey, Ruth M; Decker, Rachel A; Silliman, Brian R; Guillette, Louis J; Lowers, Russell H; Larson, Justin C

    2015-05-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  18. Factors affecting individual foraging specialization and temporal diet stability across the range of a large “generalist” apex predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Nifong, James C.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Elsey, Ruth M.; Decker, Rachel A.; Silliman, Brian R.; Guillette, Louis J.; Lowers, Russell H.; Larson, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Individual niche specialization (INS) is increasingly recognized as an important component of ecological and evolutionary dynamics. However, most studies that have investigated INS have focused on the effects of niche width and inter- and intraspecific competition on INS in small-bodied species for short time periods, with less attention paid to INS in large-bodied reptilian predators and the effects of available prey types on INS. We investigated the prevalence, causes, and consequences of INS in foraging behaviors across different populations of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), the dominant aquatic apex predator across the southeast US, using stomach contents and stable isotopes. Gut contents revealed that, over the short term, although alligator populations occupied wide ranges of the INS spectrum, general patterns were apparent. Alligator populations inhabiting lakes exhibited lower INS than coastal populations, likely driven by variation in habitat type and available prey types. Stable isotopes revealed that over longer time spans alligators exhibited remarkably consistent use of variable mixtures of carbon pools (e.g., marine and freshwater food webs). We conclude that INS in large-bodied reptilian predator populations is likely affected by variation in available prey types and habitat heterogeneity, and that INS should be incorporated into management strategies to efficiently meet intended goals. Also, ecological models, which typically do not consider behavioral variability, should include INS to increase model realism and applicability.

  19. Higher order moments of the matter distribution in scale-free cosmological simulations with large dynamic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Melott, Adrian L.; Moscardini, Lauro

    1994-01-01

    We calculate reduced moments (xi bar)(sub q) of the matter density fluctuations, up to order q = 5, from counts in cells produced by particle-mesh numerical simulations with scale-free Gaussian initial conditions. We use power-law spectra P(k) proportional to k(exp n) with indices n = -3, -2, -1, 0, 1. Due to the supposed absence of characteristic times or scales in our models, all quantities are expected to depend on a single scaling variable. For each model, the moments at all times can be expressed in terms of the variance (xi bar)(sub 2), alone. We look for agreement with the hierarchical scaling ansatz, according to which ((xi bar)(sub q)) proportional to ((xi bar)(sub 2))(exp (q - 1)). For n less than or equal to -2 models, we find strong deviations from the hierarchy, which are mostly due to the presence of boundary problems in the simulations. A small, residual signal of deviation from the hierarchical scaling is however also found in n greater than or equal to -1 models. The wide range of spectra considered and the large dynamic range, with careful checks of scaling and shot-noise effects, allows us to reliably detect evolution away from the perturbation theory result.

  20. Dominant forest tree species are potentially vulnerable to climate change over large portions of their range even at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Périé

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Projecting suitable conditions for a species as a function of future climate provides a reasonable, although admittedly imperfect, spatially explicit estimate of species vulnerability associated with climate change. Projections emphasizing range shifts at continental scale, however, can mask contrasting patterns at local or regional scale where management and policy decisions are made. Moreover, models usually show potential for areas to become climatically unsuitable, remain suitable, or become suitable for a particular species with climate change, but each of these outcomes raises markedly different ecological and management issues. Managing forest decline at sites where climatic stress is projected to increase is likely to be the most immediate challenge resulting from climate change. Here we assess habitat suitability with climate change for five dominant tree species of eastern North American forests, focusing on areas of greatest vulnerability (loss of suitability in the baseline range in Quebec (Canada rather than opportunities (increase in suitability. Results show that these species are at risk of maladaptation over a remarkably large proportion of their baseline range. Depending on species, 5–21% of currently climatically suitable habitats are projected to be at risk of becoming unsuitable. This suggests that species that have traditionally defined whole regional vegetation assemblages could become less adapted to these regions, with significant impact on ecosystems and forest economy. In spite of their well-recognised limitations and the uncertainty that remains, regionally-explicit risk assessment approaches remain one of the best options to convey that message and the need for climate policies and forest management adaptation strategies.

  1. Dominant forest tree species are potentially vulnerable to climate change over large portions of their range even at high latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périé, Catherine; de Blois, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Projecting suitable conditions for a species as a function of future climate provides a reasonable, although admittedly imperfect, spatially explicit estimate of species vulnerability associated with climate change. Projections emphasizing range shifts at continental scale, however, can mask contrasting patterns at local or regional scale where management and policy decisions are made. Moreover, models usually show potential for areas to become climatically unsuitable, remain suitable, or become suitable for a particular species with climate change, but each of these outcomes raises markedly different ecological and management issues. Managing forest decline at sites where climatic stress is projected to increase is likely to be the most immediate challenge resulting from climate change. Here we assess habitat suitability with climate change for five dominant tree species of eastern North American forests, focusing on areas of greatest vulnerability (loss of suitability in the baseline range) in Quebec (Canada) rather than opportunities (increase in suitability). Results show that these species are at risk of maladaptation over a remarkably large proportion of their baseline range. Depending on species, 5-21% of currently climatically suitable habitats are projected to be at risk of becoming unsuitable. This suggests that species that have traditionally defined whole regional vegetation assemblages could become less adapted to these regions, with significant impact on ecosystems and forest economy. In spite of their well-recognised limitations and the uncertainty that remains, regionally-explicit risk assessment approaches remain one of the best options to convey that message and the need for climate policies and forest management adaptation strategies.

  2. Enabling Searches on Wavelengths in a Hyperspectral Indices Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñuela, F.; Cerra, D.; Müller, R.

    2017-10-01

    Spectral indices derived from hyperspectral reflectance measurements are powerful tools to estimate physical parameters in a non-destructive and precise way for several fields of applications, among others vegetation health analysis, coastal and deep water constituents, geology, and atmosphere composition. In the last years, several micro-hyperspectral sensors have appeared, with both full-frame and push-broom acquisition technologies, while in the near future several hyperspectral spaceborne missions are planned to be launched. This is fostering the use of hyperspectral data in basic and applied research causing a large number of spectral indices to be defined and used in various applications. Ad hoc search engines are therefore needed to retrieve the most appropriate indices for a given application. In traditional systems, query input parameters are limited to alphanumeric strings, while characteristics such as spectral range/ bandwidth are not used in any existing search engine. Such information would be relevant, as it enables an inverse type of search: given the spectral capabilities of a given sensor or a specific spectral band, find all indices which can be derived from it. This paper describes a tool which enables a search as described above, by using the central wavelength or spectral range used by a given index as a search parameter. This offers the ability to manage numeric wavelength ranges in order to select indices which work at best in a given set of wavelengths or wavelength ranges.

  3. Fine tuning the emission wavelengths of the 7-hydroxy-1-indanone based nano-structure dyes: Near-infrared (NIR) dual emission generation with large stokes shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohi, Hossein; Alizadeh, Parvaneh

    2018-05-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes have recently gained special attention due to their applications to use as molecular probes for imaging of biological targets and sensitive determination. In this study, photophysical properties of the 7-hydroxy-1-indanone based fluorophors A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and 3R-B2 (R = CF3, NH2, NO2 and OMe) in the gas and three solution phases were probed using TD-DFT method at PBE0/6-311++G(d,p) and M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory. In addition to structural and photophysical properties as well as ESIPT mechanism of all mentioned molecules, the FC and relaxed potential energy surfaces of B2 and 3R-B2 (R = CF3 and NH2) molecules were explored in gas phase and acetonitrile, cyclohexane and water solvents. It is predicted that the A1, A3 and 3R-B2 chromophores afford normal (615-670 nm) and NIR fluorescence emissions (770-940 nm; biological window) with the large Stokes shifts of >160 and >300 nm, respectively. A good aggrement was found between theoretical and experimental results. In sum, these new types of dyes may render the new approaches for the development of the most efficient NIR fluorescent probes for enhanced image contrast and optimal apparent brightness in biological applications.

  4. MULTI-WAVELENGTH AFTERGLOWS OF FAST RADIO BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Gao, He; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    The physical origin of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is unknown. Detecting electromagnetic counterparts to FRBs in other wavelengths is essential to measure their distances and to determine their physical origin. Assuming that at least some of them are of cosmological origin, we calculate their afterglow light curves in multiple wavelengths (X-rays, optical, and radio) by assuming a range of total kinetic energies and redshifts. We focus on forward shock emission, but also consider the possibility that some of the FRBs might have bright reverse shock emission. In general, FRB afterglows are too faint to be detected by current detectors. Only if an FRB has a very low radiative efficiency in radio (hence, a very large kinetic energy), and when it is close enough to observe can its afterglow be detected in the optical and radio bands. We discuss observational strategies for detecting these faint afterglows using future telescopes such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and Expanded Very Large Array

  5. Range of wavelengths possible to estimate phase velocities of surface waves in microtremors; Bido tansaho ni okeru suitei kanona bidochu no hyomenha iso sokudo no hacho han`i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K; Okada, H; Ling, S [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    To specify the maximum wavelength of the phase velocities that can be estimated by the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method or F-K method in microtremor exploration, investigations were conducted using numerical simulation. In view of feasibility, an equilateral triangle array was employed, the maximum radius of the array having 7 observation points being 0.10km. The dispersion curve of the Rayleigh wave basic mode was calculated from an underground structure model. White noise was used as the incident wave, and, in case the waves came in from multiple directions, a different phase spectrum was assigned to each direction. In searching for the maximum wave length of phase velocities that could be estimated, a limit was imposed upon estimation, and it was prescribed that the wavelength be the limit if the difference between the theoretical value and estimated phase velocity was 5% or higher. As the result, it was found that it is possible to estimate the phase velocity when the wavelength is up to approximately 10 times longer than the array maximum radius in the SPAC method, and up to approximately 5 times longer in case of the F-K method. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  7. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narama, Chiyuki; Daiyrov, Mirlan; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Tadono, Takeo; Sato, Hayato; Kääb, Andreas; Ukita, Jinro; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek

    2018-04-01

    Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006-2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000 m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary), and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth-drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i) a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex), (ii) a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii) no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2) in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s-1 at peak discharge.

  9. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narama

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006–2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000  m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary, and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth–drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex, (ii a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2 in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s−1 at peak discharge.

  10. Slags in a Large Variation Range of Oxygen Potential Based on the Ion and Molecule Coexistence Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Min; Li, Jin-Yan; Zhang, Meng; Chai, Guo-Min; Zhang, Jian

    2014-12-01

    A thermodynamic model for predicting sulfide capacity of CaO-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-P2O5 slags in a large variation range of oxygen potential corresponding to mass percentage of FetO from 1.88 to 55.50 pct, i.e., IMCT- model, has been developed by coupling with the deduced desulfurization mechanism of the slags based on the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT). The developed IMCT- model has been verified through comparing the determined sulfide capacity after Ban-ya et al.[20] with the calculated by the developed IMCT- model and the calculated by the reported sulfide capacity models such as the KTH model. Mass percentage of FetO as 6.75 pct corresponding to the mass action concentration of FetO as 0.0637 or oxygen partial as 2.27 × 10-6 Pa is the criterion for distinguishing reducing and oxidizing zones for the slags. Sulfide capacity of the slags in reducing zone is controlled by reaction ability of CaO regardless of slag oxidization ability. However, sulfide capacity of the slags in oxidizing zone shows an obvious increase tendency with the increasing of slag oxidization ability. Sulfide capacity of the slags in reducing zone keeps almost constant with variation of the simplified complex basicity (pct CaO)/((pct Al2O3) + (pct P2O5)), or optical basicity, or the mass action concentration ratios of N FeO/ N CaO, , , and . Sulfide capacity of the slags in oxidizing zone shows an obvious increase with the increasing of the simplified complex basicity (pct CaO)/((pct Al2O3) + (pct P2O5)) or optical basicity, or the aforementioned mass action concentration ratios. Thus, the aforementioned mass action concentration ratios and the corresponding mass percentage ratios of various iron oxides to basic oxide CaO are recommended to represent the comprehensive effect of various iron oxides and basic oxide CaO on sulfide capacity of the slags.

  11. Coherence techniques at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The renaissance of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) optics in recent years is mainly driven by the desire of printing and observing ever smaller features, as in lithography and microscopy. This attribute is complemented by the unique opportunity for element specific identification presented by the large number of atomic resonances, essentially for all materials in this range of photon energies. Together, these have driven the need for new short-wavelength radiation sources (e.g. third generation synchrotron radiation facilities), and novel optical components, that in turn permit new research in areas that have not yet been fully explored. This dissertation is directed towards advancing this new field by contributing to the characterization of spatial coherence properties of undulator radiation and, for the first time, introducing Fourier optical elements to this short-wavelength spectral region. The first experiment in this dissertation uses the Thompson-Wolf two-pinhole method to characterize the spatial coherence properties of the undulator radiation at Beamline 12 of the Advanced Light Source. High spatial coherence EUV radiation is demonstrated with appropriate spatial filtering. The effects of small vertical source size and beamline apertures are observed. The difference in the measured horizontal and vertical coherence profile evokes further theoretical studies on coherence propagation of an EUV undulator beamline. A numerical simulation based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle is performed.

  12. An Objective Approach to Determining the Weight Ranges of Prey Preferred by and Accessible to the Five Large African Carnivores

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Hayley S.; Tambling, Craig J.; Hayward, Matt W.; Kerley, Graham I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of kno...

  13. Spatio-temporal hotspots of satellite-tracked arctic foxes reveal a large detection range in a mammalian predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Sandra; Bêty, Joël; Berteaux, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The scale at which animals perceive their environment is a strong fitness determinant, yet few empirical estimates of animal detection ranges exist, especially in mammalian predators. Using daily Argos satellite tracking of 26 adult arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) during a single winter in the High Canadian Arctic, we investigated the detection range of arctic foxes by detecting hotspots of fox activity on the sea ice. While maintaining territories in the tundra, these solitary foragers occasionally used the sea ice where they sometimes formed spatio-temporal hotspots, likely scavenging on marine mammal carcasses. We detected 35 movements by 13 individuals forming five hotspots. Foxes often traveled more than 10 km, and up to 40 km, to reach hotspots, which lasted one-two weeks and could gather up to 12 individuals. The likelihood of a fox joining a hotspot was neither influenced by its distance from the hotspot nor by the distance of its home range to the coast. Observed traveling distances may indicate a high detection range in arctic foxes, and our results suggest their ability to detect food sources on the sea ice from their terrestrial home range. While revealing a wide knowledge gap regarding resource detection abilities in mammalian predators, our study provides estimates of detection range useful for interpreting and modeling animal movements. It also allows a better understanding of foraging behavior and navigation capacity in terrestrial predators.

  14. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  15. A tip / tilt mirror with large dynamic range for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnveld, N.; Henselmans, R.; Nijland, B.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    One of the critical elements in the Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the Optical Tube Assembly (OTA), consisting of a stable 20x laser beam expander and an active tip/tilt mirror, the Field Selector Mechanism (FSM). This paper describes the design and

  16. Photodissociation of van der Waals clusters of isoprene with oxygen, C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2}, in the wavelength range 213-277 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidma, Konstantin V.; Frederix, Pim W. J. M.; Parker, David H. [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Baklanov, Alexey V. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Institutskaja Street 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation) and Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova street 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-07

    The speed and angular distribution of O atoms arising from the photofragmentation of C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2}, the isoprene-oxygen van der Waals complex, in the wavelength region of 213-277 nm has been studied with the use of a two-color dissociation-probe method and the velocity map imaging technique. Dramatic enhancement in the O atoms photo-generation cross section in comparison with the photodissociation of individual O{sub 2} molecules has been observed. Velocity map images of these 'enhanced' O atoms consisted of five channels, different in their kinetic energy, angular distribution, and wavelength dependence. Three channels are deduced to be due to the one-quantum excitation of the C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2} complex into the perturbed Herzberg III state ({sup 3}{Delta}{sub u}) of O{sub 2}. This excitation results in the prompt dissociation of the complex giving rise to products C{sub 5}H{sub 8}+O+O when the energy of exciting quantum is higher than the complex photodissociation threshold, which is found to be 41740 {+-} 200 cm{sup -1} (239.6{+-}1.2 nm). This last threshold corresponds to the photodissociation giving rise to an unexcited isoprene molecule. The second channel, with threshold shifted to the blue by 1480 {+-} 280 cm{sup -1}, corresponds to dissociation with formation of rovibrationally excited isoprene. A third channel was observed at wavelengths up to 243 nm with excitation below the upper photodissociation threshold. This channel is attributed to dissociation with the formation of a bound O atom C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2}+hv{yields} C{sub 5}H{sub 8}-O{sub 2}({sup 3}{Delta}{sub u}) {yields} C{sub 5}H{sub 8}O + O and/or to dissociation of O{sub 2} with borrowing of the lacking energy from incompletely cooled complex internal degrees of freedom C{sub 5}H{sub 8}{sup *}-O{sub 2}+hv{yields} C{sub 5}H{sub 8}{sup *}-O{sub 2}({sup 3}{Delta}{sub u}) {yields} C{sub 5}H{sub 8}+ O + O. The kinetic energy of the O atoms arising in two other

  17. Development and operation of a high-throughput accurate-wavelength lens-based spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Ronald E., E-mail: rbell@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A high-throughput spectrometer for the 400–820 nm wavelength range has been developed for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy or general spectroscopy. A large 2160 mm{sup −1} grating is matched with fast f/1.8 200 mm lenses, which provide stigmatic imaging. A precision optical encoder measures the grating angle with an accuracy ≤0.075 arc sec. A high quantum efficiency low-etaloning CCD detector allows operation at longer wavelengths. A patch panel allows input fibers to interface with interchangeable fiber holders that attach to a kinematic mount at the entrance slit. Computer-controlled hardware allows automated control of wavelength, timing, f-number, automated data collection, and wavelength calibration.

  18. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops

  19. A New Analysis of the Spectra Obtained by the Venera Missions in the Venusian Atmosphere. I. The Analysis of the Data Received from the Venera-11 Probe at Altitudes Below 37 km in the 0.44 0.66 µm Wavelength Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorov, B. S.; Ignat'ev, N. I.; Moroz, V. I.; Zasova, L. V.; Moshkin, B. E.; Khatuntsev, I. V.; Ekonomov, A. P.

    2005-07-01

    The processes of the solar radiation extinction in deep layers of the Venus atmosphere in a wavelength range from 0.44 to 0.66 µm have been considered. The spectra of the solar radiation scattered in the atmosphere of Venus at various altitudes above the planetary surface measured by the Venera-11 entry probe in December 1978 are used as observational data. The problem of the data analysis is solved by selecting an atmospheric model; the discrete-ordinate method is applied in calculations. For the altitude interval from 2 10 km to 36 km, the altitude and spectral dependencies of the volume coefficient of true absorption have been obtained. At altitudes of 3 19 km, the spectral dependence is close to the wavelength dependence of the absorption cross section of S3 molecules, whence it follows that the mixing ratio of this sulfur allotrope increases with altitude from 0.03 to 0.1 ppbv.

  20. Wavelength converter placement for different RWA algorithms in wavelength-routed all-optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaowen; Li, Bo; Chlamtac, Imrich

    2002-07-01

    Sparse wavelength conversion and appropriate routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithms are the two key factors in improving the blocking performance in wavelength-routed all-optical networks. It has been shown that the optimal placement of a limited number of wavelength converters in an arbitrary mesh network is an NP complete problem. There have been various heuristic algorithms proposed in the literature, in which most of them assume that a static routing and random wavelength assignment RWA algorithm is employed. However, the existing work shows that fixed-alternate routing and dynamic routing RWA algorithms can achieve much better blocking performance. Our study in this paper further demonstrates that the wavelength converter placement and RWA algorithms are closely related in the sense that a well designed wavelength converter placement mechanism for a particular RWA algorithm might not work well with a different RWA algorithm. Therefore, the wavelength converter placement and the RWA have to be considered jointly. The objective of this paper is to investigate the wavelength converter placement problem under fixed-alternate routing algorithm and least-loaded routing algorithm. Under the fixed-alternate routing algorithm, we propose a heuristic algorithm called Minimum Blocking Probability First (MBPF) algorithm for wavelength converter placement. Under the least-loaded routing algorithm, we propose a heuristic converter placement algorithm called Weighted Maximum Segment Length (WMSL) algorithm. The objective of the converter placement algorithm is to minimize the overall blocking probability. Extensive simulation studies have been carried out over three typical mesh networks, including the 14-node NSFNET, 19-node EON and 38-node CTNET. We observe that the proposed algorithms not only outperform existing wavelength converter placement algorithms by a large margin, but they also can achieve almost the same performance comparing with full wavelength

  1. Improving the Accuracy of NMR Structures of Large Proteins Using Pseudocontact Shifts as Long-Range Restraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaponenko, Vadim [National Cancer Institute, Structural Biophysics Laboratory (United States); Sarma, Siddhartha P. [Indian Institute of Science, Molecular Biophysics Unit (India); Altieri, Amanda S. [National Cancer Institute, Structural Biophysics Laboratory (United States); Horita, David A. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Li, Jess; Byrd, R. Andrew [National Cancer Institute, Structural Biophysics Laboratory (United States)], E-mail: rabyrd@ncifcrf.gov

    2004-03-15

    We demonstrate improved accuracy in protein structure determination for large ({>=}30 kDa), deuterated proteins (e.g. STAT4{sub NT}) via the combination of pseudocontact shifts for amide and methyl protons with the available NOEs in methyl-protonated proteins. The improved accuracy is cross validated by Q-factors determined from residual dipolar couplings measured as a result of magnetic susceptibility alignment. The paramagnet is introduced via binding to thiol-reactive EDTA, and multiple sites can be serially engineered to obtain data from alternative orientations of the paramagnetic anisotropic susceptibility tensor. The technique is advantageous for systems where the target protein has strong interactions with known alignment media.

  2. A tip/tilt mirror with large dynamic range for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnveld, N.; Henselmans, R.; Nijland, B.

    2011-09-01

    One of the critical elements in the Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the Optical Tube Assembly (OTA), consisting of a stable 20x laser beam expander and an active tip/tilt mirror, the Field Selector Mechanism (FSM). This paper describes the design and performance testing of the FSM. The driving requirement for the FSM is its large stroke of +/-6.1 mrad, in combination with less than 1.5 μrad RMS absolute accuracy. The FSM design consists of a Zerodur mirror, bonded to a membrane spring and strut combination to allow only tip and tilt. Two spindle drives actuate the mirror, using a stiffness based transmission to increase resolution. Absolute accuracy is achieved with two differential inductive sensor pairs. A prototype of the FSM is realized to optimize the control configuration and measure its performance. Friction in the spindle drive is overcome by creating a local velocity control loop between the spindle drives and the shaft encoders. Accuracy is achieved by using a cascaded low bandwidth control loop with feedback from the inductive sensors. The pointing jitter and settling time of the FSM are measured with an autocollimator. The system performance meets the strict requirements, and is ready to be implemented in the first OTA.

  3. Wavelength sweepable laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength sweepable laser source is disclosed, wherein the laser source is a semiconductor laser source adapted for generating laser light at a lasing wavelength. The laser source comprises a substrate, a first reflector, and a second reflector. The first and second reflector together defines...... and having a rest position, the second reflector and suspension together defining a microelectromechanical MEMS oscillator. The MEMS oscillator has a resonance frequency and is adapted for oscillating the second reflector on either side of the rest position.; The laser source further comprises electrical...... connections adapted for applying an electric field to the MEMS oscillator. Furthermore, a laser source system and a method of use of the laser source are disclosed....

  4. An automatic high precision registration method between large area aerial images and aerial light detection and ranging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Q.; Xie, D.; Sun, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The integration of digital aerial photogrammetry and Light Detetion And Ranging (LiDAR) is an inevitable trend in Surveying and Mapping field. We calculate the external orientation elements of images which identical with LiDAR coordinate to realize automatic high precision registration between aerial images and LiDAR data. There are two ways to calculate orientation elements. One is single image spatial resection using image matching 3D points that registered to LiDAR. The other one is Position and Orientation System (POS) data supported aerotriangulation. The high precision registration points are selected as Ground Control Points (GCPs) instead of measuring GCPs manually during aerotriangulation. The registration experiments indicate that the method which registering aerial images and LiDAR points has a great advantage in higher automation and precision compare with manual registration.

  5. Real-Time and Meter-Scale Absolute Distance Measurement by Frequency-Comb-Referenced Multi-Wavelength Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guochao Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a frequency-comb-referenced absolute interferometer which instantly measures long distance by integrating multi-wavelength interferometry with direct synthetic wavelength interferometry. The reported interferometer utilizes four different wavelengths, simultaneously calibrated to the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser, to implement subwavelength distance measurement, while direct synthetic wavelength interferometry is elaborately introduced by launching a fifth wavelength to extend a non-ambiguous range for meter-scale measurement. A linearity test performed comparatively with a He–Ne laser interferometer shows a residual error of less than 70.8 nm in peak-to-valley over a 3 m distance, and a 10 h distance comparison is demonstrated to gain fractional deviations of ~3 × 10−8 versus 3 m distance. Test results reveal that the presented absolute interferometer enables precise, stable, and long-term distance measurements and facilitates absolute positioning applications such as large-scale manufacturing and space missions.

  6. Real-Time and Meter-Scale Absolute Distance Measurement by Frequency-Comb-Referenced Multi-Wavelength Interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guochao; Tan, Lilong; Yan, Shuhua

    2018-02-07

    We report on a frequency-comb-referenced absolute interferometer which instantly measures long distance by integrating multi-wavelength interferometry with direct synthetic wavelength interferometry. The reported interferometer utilizes four different wavelengths, simultaneously calibrated to the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser, to implement subwavelength distance measurement, while direct synthetic wavelength interferometry is elaborately introduced by launching a fifth wavelength to extend a non-ambiguous range for meter-scale measurement. A linearity test performed comparatively with a He-Ne laser interferometer shows a residual error of less than 70.8 nm in peak-to-valley over a 3 m distance, and a 10 h distance comparison is demonstrated to gain fractional deviations of ~3 × 10 -8 versus 3 m distance. Test results reveal that the presented absolute interferometer enables precise, stable, and long-term distance measurements and facilitates absolute positioning applications such as large-scale manufacturing and space missions.

  7. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.E.

    1977-10-01

    The use of modulation spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of solids has been very productive. The construction of a wide range Wavelength Modulation Spectrometer to study the optical properties of solids is described in detail. Extensions of the working range of the spectrometer into the vacuum ultraviolet are discussed. Measurements of the reflectivity and derivative reflectivity spectra of the lead chalcogenides, the chalcopyrite ZnGeP/sub 2/, the layer compounds GaSe and GaS and their alloys, the ferroelectric SbSI, layer compounds SnS/sub 2/ and SnSe/sub 2/, and HfS/sub 2/ were made. The results of these measurements are presented along with their interpretation in terms of band structure calculations.

  8. Population Structure and Dispersal Patterns within and between Atlantic and Mediterranean Populations of a Large-Range Pelagic Seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovart, Meritxell; Thibault, Jean-Claude; Igual, José Manuel; Bauzà-Ribot, Maria del Mar; Rabouam, Corinne; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal is critically linked to the demographic and evolutionary trajectories of populations, but in most seabird species it may be difficult to estimate. Using molecular tools, we explored population structure and the spatial dispersal pattern of a highly pelagic but philopatric seabird, the Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea. Microsatellite fragments were analysed from samples collected across almost the entire breeding range of the species. To help disentangle the taxonomic status of the two subspecies described, the Atlantic form C. d. borealis and the Mediterranean form C. d. diomedea, we analysed genetic divergence between subspecies and quantified both historical and recent migration rates between the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins. We also searched for evidence of isolation by distance (IBD) and addressed spatial patterns of gene flow. We found a low genetic structure in the Mediterranean basin. Conversely, strong genetic differentiation appeared in the Atlantic basin. Even if the species was mostly philopatric (97%), results suggest recent dispersal between basins, especially from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean (aprox. 10% of migrants/generation across the last two generations). Long-term gene flow analyses also suggested an historical exchange between basins (about 70 breeders/generation). Spatial analysis of genetic variation indicates that distance is not the main factor in shaping genetic structure in this species. Given our results we recommend gathering more data before concluded whether these taxa should be treated as two species or subspecies. PMID:23950986

  9. New insights into the evolution of Wolbachia infections in filarial nematodes inferred from a large range of screened species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ferri

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are intriguing symbiotic endobacteria with a peculiar host range that includes arthropods and a single nematode family, the Onchocercidae encompassing agents of filariases. This raises the question of the origin of infection in filariae. Wolbachia infect the female germline and the hypodermis. Some evidences lead to the theory that Wolbachia act as mutualist and coevolved with filariae from one infection event: their removal sterilizes female filariae; all the specimens of a positive species are infected; Wolbachia are vertically inherited; a few species lost the symbiont. However, most data on Wolbachia and filaria relationships derive from studies on few species of Onchocercinae and Dirofilariinae, from mammals.We investigated the Wolbachia distribution testing 35 filarial species, including 28 species and 7 genera and/or subgenera newly screened, using PCR, immunohistochemical staining, whole mount fluorescent analysis, and cocladogenesis analysis. (i Among the newly screened Onchocercinae from mammals eight species harbour Wolbachia but for some of them, bacteria are absent in the hypodermis, or in variable density. (ii Wolbachia are not detected in the pathological model Monanema martini and in 8, upon 9, species of Cercopithifilaria. (iii Supergroup F Wolbachia is identified in two newly screened Mansonella species and in Cercopithifilaria japonica. (iv Type F Wolbachia infect the intestinal cells and somatic female genital tract. (v Among Oswaldofilariinae, Waltonellinae and Splendidofilariinae, from saurian, anuran and bird respectively, Wolbachia are not detected.The absence of Wolbachia in 63% of onchocercids, notably in the ancestral Oswaldofilariinae estimated 140 mya old, the diverse tissues or specimens distribution, and a recent lateral transfer in supergroup F Wolbachia, modify the current view on the role and evolution of the endosymbiont and their hosts. Further genomic analyses on some of the newly sampled species

  10. Temperature Characteristics of Monolithically Integrated Wavelength-Selectable Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Liang-Shun; Zhu Hong-Liang; Zhang Can; Ma Li; Liang Song; Wang Wei

    2013-01-01

    The temperature characteristics of monolithically integrated wavelength-selectable light sources are experimentally investigated. The wavelength-selectable light sources consist of four distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, a multimode interferometer coupler, and a semiconductor optical amplifier. The oscillating wavelength of the DFB laser could be modulated by adjusting the device operating temperature. A wavelength range covering over 8.0nm is obtained with stable single-mode operation by selecting the appropriate laser and chip temperature. The thermal crosstalk caused by the lateral heat spreading between lasers operating simultaneously is evaluated by oscillating-wavelength shift. The thermal crosstalk approximately decreases exponentially as the increasing distance between lasers

  11. MIT wavelength tables. Volume 2. Wavelengths by element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, F.M. III.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is the first stage of a project to expand and update the MIT wavelength tables first compiled in the 1930's. For 109,325 atomic emission lines, arranged by element, it presents wavelength in air, wavelength in vacuum, wave number and intensity. All data are stored on computer-readable magnetic tape

  12. Long-wavelength photonic integrated circuits and avalanche photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Yi-Jen D.; Zaytsev, Sergey; Pauchard, Alexandre; Hummel, Steve; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2001-10-01

    Fast-growing internet traffic volume require high data communication bandwidth over longer distances. Access network bottlenecks put pressure on short-range (SR) telecommunication systems. To effectively address these datacom and telecom market needs, low-cost, high-speed laser modules at 1310 to 1550 nm wavelengths and avalanche photodetectors are required. The great success of GaAs 850nm VCSEls for Gb/s Ethernet has motivated efforts to extend VCSEL technology to longer wavelengths in the 1310 and 1550 nm regimes. However, the technological challenges associated with materials for long wavelength VCSELs are tremendous. Even with recent advances in this area, it is believed that significant additional development is necessary before long wavelength VCSELs that meet commercial specifications will be widely available. In addition, the more stringent OC192 and OC768 specifications for single-mode fiber (SMF) datacom may require more than just a long wavelength laser diode, VCSEL or not, to address numerous cost and performance issues. We believe that photonic integrated circuits (PICs), which compactly integrate surface-emitting lasers with additional active and passive optical components with extended functionality, will provide the best solutions to today's problems. Photonic integrated circuits have been investigated for more than a decade. However, they have produced limited commercial impact to date primarily because the highly complicated fabrication processes produce significant yield and device performance issues. In this presentation, we will discuss a new technology platform of InP-based PICs compatible with surface-emitting laser technology, as well as a high data rate externally modulated laser module. Avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are the key component in the receiver to achieve high data rate over long transmission distance because of their high sensitivity and large gain- bandwidth product. We have used wafer fusion technology to achieve In

  13. Local Analysis Approach for Short Wavelength Geopotential Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The value of global spherical harmonic analyses for determining 15 day to 30 day changes in the Earth's gravity field has been demonstrated extensively using data from the GRACE mission and previous missions. However, additional useful information appears to be obtainable from local analyses of the data. A number of such analyses have been carried out by various groups. In the energy approximation, the changes in the height of the satellite altitude geopotential can be determined from the post-fit changes in the satellite separation during individual one-revolution arcs of data from a GRACE-type pair of satellites in a given orbit. For a particular region, it is assumed that short wavelength spatial variations for the arcs crossing that region during a time T of interest would be used to determine corrections to the spherical harmonic results. The main issue in considering higher measurement accuracy in future missions is how much improvement in spatial resolution can be achieved. For this, the shortest wavelengths that can be determined are the most important. And, while the longer wavelength variations are affected by mass distribution changes over much of the globe, the shorter wavelength ones hopefully will be determined mainly by more local changes in the mass distribution. Future missions are expected to have much higher accuracy for measuring changes in the satellite separation than GRACE. However, how large an improvement in the derived results in hydrology will be achieved is still very much a matter of study, particularly because of the effects of uncertainty in the time variations in the atmospheric and oceanic mass distributions. To be specific, it will be assumed that improving the spatial resolution in continental regions away from the coastlines is the objective, and that the satellite altitude is in the range of roughly 290 to 360 km made possible for long missions by drag-free operation. The advantages of putting together the short wavelength

  14. Observation and analysis of X-ray spectra of highly-ionized atoms produced by laser irradiation in the wavelength range 0.60 nm to 0.95 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyart, J.-F.; Ecole Polytech., Palaiseau; Fajardo, M.; Missalla, T.; Gauthier, J.-C.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Klopfel, D.; Uschmann, I.; Foerster, E.

    1999-01-01

    The spectra of highly-charged ions produced by laser irradiation on flat targets at about 5 x 10 14 Wcm -2 are recorded in the range from 0.60 nm to 0.95 nm (6 A to 9.5 A) by means of two spectrographs (a flat ADP crystal and a Johann SiO 2 crystal spectrograph). The identification of the lines is supported by calculations of energies and transition probabilities in the relativistic parametric potential model. New identifications in several spectra of iron (Fe XXIII to Fe XXI), sodium-like strontium, Sr XXVIII, magnesium-like indium. In XXXVIII, and cobalt-like samarium, Sm XXXVI, are given. In the case of Fe XXIII, relativistic and non-relativistic (Cowan) ab initio calculations are compared. (orig.)

  15. Influence of vegetation physiognomy, elevation and fire frequency on medium and large mammals in two protected areas of the Espinhaço Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferreira de Pinho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to determine the richness of medium and large mammal species in two protected areas of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; and to investigate the factors affecting the occurrence of those species. To accomplish that we placed 49 camera traps activated by heat and motion at Rio Preto State Park (RPSP and 48 at Sempre Vivas National Park (SVNP. We also collected data on three environmental variables: vegetation physiognomy, elevation and wildfire frequency, to evaluate the influence of these factors on species richness and use intensity (inferred from camera trap detection rate by large mammals. We recorded 23 large mammal species in the two parks combined. The lowest species richness was found at the rupestrian habitat of RPSP, and in the open grasslands of SVNP. The forest and savannah physiognomies were used more intensively by large mammals. Species richness was higher and use was greater at lower elevations of RPSP. In SVNP, fire frequency did not affect species richness or use intensity. The savannah habitat had very similar richness compared to the forests of the two protected areas. The high species richness and use intensity observed in these forest habitats highlights the importance of riparian environments in the Cerrado biome. The highest species richness and use intensity observed at low elevation follows patterns found in the literature, probably due to variation in the vegetation, which results in greater resource availability. Although rupestrian habitats at high elevations of the Espinhaço Range are known to have a high degree of endemism for some taxa, large mammal richness and use were not high in this habitat. These results indicate that the protection of native vegetation at lower elevations is crucial for the long-term conservation of large mammals in the Espinhaço Range.

  16. The dynamics of interacting nonlinearities governing long wavelength driftwave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    Because of the ubiquitous nature of turbulence and the vast array of different systems which have turbulent solutions, the study of turbulence is an area of active research. Much present day understanding of turbulence is rooted in the well established properties of homogeneous Navier-Stokes turbulence, which, due to its relative simplicity, allows for approximate analytic solutions. This work examines a group of turbulent systems with marked differences from Navier-Stokes turbulence, and attempts to quantify some of their properties. This group of systems represents a variety of drift wave fluctuations believed to be of fundamental importance in laboratory fusion devices. From extensive simulation of simple local fluid models of long wavelength drift wave turbulence in tokamaks, a reasonably complete picture of the basic properties of spectral transfer and saturation has emerged. These studies indicate that many conventional notions concerning directions of cascades, locality and isotropy of transfer, frequencies of fluctuations, and stationarity of saturation are not valid for moderate to long wavelengths. In particular, spectral energy transfer at long wavelengths is dominated by the E x B nonlinearity, which carries energy to short scale in a manner that is highly nonlocal and anisotropic. In marked contrast to the canonical self-similar cascade dynamics of Kolmogorov, energy is efficiently passed between modes separated by the entire spectrum range in a correlation time. At short wavelengths, transfer is dominated by the polarization drift nonlinearity. While the standard dual cascade applies in this subrange, it is found that finite spectrum size can produce cascades that are reverse directed and are nonconservative in enstrophy and energy similarity ranges. In regions where both nonlinearities are important, cross-coupling between the nolinearities gives rise to large no frequency shifts as well as changes in the spectral dynamics

  17. Enhanced UV light detection using a p-terphenyl wavelength shifter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, S.; Kaczanowicz, E.; Ungaro, M.; Rehfuss, M.; Johnston, K.; Meziani, Z.-E.

    2017-10-01

    UV-glass photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have poor photon detection efficiency for wavelengths below 300 nm due to the opaqueness of the window material. Costly quartz PMTs could be used to enhance the efficiency below 300 nm. A less expensive solution that dramatically improves this efficiency is the application of a thin film of a p-terphenyl (PT) wavelength shifter on UV-glass PMTs. This improvement was quantified for Photonis XP4500B PMTs for wavelengths between 200 nm and 400 nm. The gain factor ranges up to 5 . 4 ± 0 . 5 at a wavelength of 215 nm, with a material load of 110 ± 10 μg /cm2 (894 nm). The wavelength shifter was found to be fully transparent for wavelengths greater than 300 nm. The resulting gain in detection efficiency, when used in a typical C̆erenkov counter, was estimated to be of the order of 40%. Consistent coating quality was assured by a rapid gain testing procedure using narrow-band UV LEDs. Based on these results, 200 Photonis XP4500B PMTs were treated with PT for the upgraded low-threshold C̆erenkov counter (LTCC) to be used in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer upgraded detector (CLAS12) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  18. Inferring wavelength dependence of AOD and Ångström exponent over a sub-tropical station in South Africa using AERONET data: Influence of meteorology, long-range transport and curvature effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Raghavendra, E-mail: kanike.kumar@gmail.com [Discipline of Physics, School of Chemistry and Physics, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Sivakumar, V. [Discipline of Physics, School of Chemistry and Physics, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Reddy, R.R.; Gopal, K. Rama [Department of Physics, Aerosol and Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Adesina, A. Joseph [Discipline of Physics, School of Chemistry and Physics, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2013-09-01

    aerosol properties that are derived from the ocean, desert, and anthropogenic activities that include biomass burning and industrial pollution. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in AOD, Ångström exponent, and columnar water vapor were studied. • Maximum (minimum) AOD was observed during the spring (autumn) season. • The impact of meteorology and signatures of long-range transport were determined. • We statistically evaluated the effect of meteorology and curvature on optical properties.

  19. Short wavelength sources and atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of ionizing radiation with atoms and ions is a key fundamental process. Experimental progress has depended in particular on the development of short wavelength light sources. Laser-plasma and synchrotron sources have been exploited for several decades and most recently the development of short wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) sources is revolutionizing the field. This paper introduces laser plasma and synchrotron sources through examples of their use in studies of the interaction of ionizing radiation with atoms and ions, ranging from few-electron atomic and ionic systems to the many-electron high atomic number actinides. The new FEL source (FLASH) at DESY is introduced. (author)

  20. Long wavelength irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    OpenAIRE

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D. T.; Fejer, Bela G.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the radar interferometer technique at Jicamarca to study in detail irregularities with wavelengths of a few kilometers generated in the unstable equatorial electrojet plasma during strong type 1 conditions. In-situ rocket observations of the same instability process are discussed in a companion paper. These large scale primary waves travel essentially horizontally and have large amplitudes. The vertical electron drift velocities driven by the horizontal wave electric fields reach...

  1. SPLASH-SXDF Multi-wavelength Photometric Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang; Scarlata, Claudia; Capak, Peter; Davidzon, Iary; Faisst, Andreas; Hsieh, Bau Ching; Ilbert, Olivier; Jarvis, Matt; Laigle, Clotilde; Phillips, John; Silverman, John; Strauss, Michael A.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Bowler, Rebecca; Coupon, Jean; Foucaud, Sébastien; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Masters, Daniel; McCracken, Henry Joy; Mobasher, Bahram; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2018-04-01

    We present a multi-wavelength catalog in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF) as part of the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH). We include the newly acquired optical data from the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program, accompanied by IRAC coverage from the SPLASH survey. All available optical and near-infrared data is homogenized and resampled on a common astrometric reference frame. Source detection is done using a multi-wavelength detection image including the u-band to recover the bluest objects. We measure multi-wavelength photometry and compute photometric redshifts as well as physical properties for ∼1.17 million objects over ∼4.2 deg2, with ∼800,000 objects in the 2.4 deg2 HSC-Ultra-Deep coverage. Using the available spectroscopic redshifts from various surveys over the range of 0 fraction of 3.2%. The SPLASH-SXDF catalog is a valuable, publicly available resource, perfectly suited for studying galaxies in the early universe and tracing their evolution through cosmic time.

  2. WE-G-204-02: Utility of a Channelized Hotelling Model Observer Over a Large Range of Angiographic Exposure Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, K; Favazza, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Mathematical model observers provide a figure of merit that simultaneously considers a test object and the contrast, noise, and spatial resolution properties of an imaging system. The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO) to assess system performance over a large range of angiographic exposure conditions. Methods: A 4 mm diameter disk shaped, iodine contrast test object was placed on a 20 cm thick Lucite phantom and 1204 image frames were acquired using fixed x-ray beam quality and for several detector target dose (DTD) values in the range 6 to 240 nGy. The CHO was implemented in the spatial domain utilizing 96 Gabor functions as channels. Detectability index (DI) estimates were calculated using the “resubstitution” and “holdout” methods to train the CHO. Also, DI values calculated using discrete subsets of the data were used to estimate a minimally biased DI as might be expected from an infinitely large dataset. The relationship between DI, independently measured CNR, and changes in results expected assuming a quantum limited detector were assessed over the DTD range. Results: CNR measurements demonstrated that the angiography system is not quantum limited due to relatively increasing contamination from electronic noise that reduces CNR for low DTD. Direct comparison of DI versus CNR indicates that the CHO relatively overestimates DI for low DTD and/or underestimates DI values for high DTD. The relative magnitude of the apparent bias error in the DI values was ∼20% over the 40x DTD range investigated. Conclusion: For the angiography system investigated, the CHO can provide a minimally biased figure of merit if implemented over a restricted exposure range. However, bias leads to overestimates of DI for low exposures. This work emphasizes the need to verify CHO model performance during real-world application

  3. WE-G-204-02: Utility of a Channelized Hotelling Model Observer Over a Large Range of Angiographic Exposure Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterly, K; Favazza, C [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Mathematical model observers provide a figure of merit that simultaneously considers a test object and the contrast, noise, and spatial resolution properties of an imaging system. The purpose of this work was to investigate the utility of a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO) to assess system performance over a large range of angiographic exposure conditions. Methods: A 4 mm diameter disk shaped, iodine contrast test object was placed on a 20 cm thick Lucite phantom and 1204 image frames were acquired using fixed x-ray beam quality and for several detector target dose (DTD) values in the range 6 to 240 nGy. The CHO was implemented in the spatial domain utilizing 96 Gabor functions as channels. Detectability index (DI) estimates were calculated using the “resubstitution” and “holdout” methods to train the CHO. Also, DI values calculated using discrete subsets of the data were used to estimate a minimally biased DI as might be expected from an infinitely large dataset. The relationship between DI, independently measured CNR, and changes in results expected assuming a quantum limited detector were assessed over the DTD range. Results: CNR measurements demonstrated that the angiography system is not quantum limited due to relatively increasing contamination from electronic noise that reduces CNR for low DTD. Direct comparison of DI versus CNR indicates that the CHO relatively overestimates DI for low DTD and/or underestimates DI values for high DTD. The relative magnitude of the apparent bias error in the DI values was ∼20% over the 40x DTD range investigated. Conclusion: For the angiography system investigated, the CHO can provide a minimally biased figure of merit if implemented over a restricted exposure range. However, bias leads to overestimates of DI for low exposures. This work emphasizes the need to verify CHO model performance during real-world application.

  4. Large-Scale Range Collapse of Hawaiian Forest Birds under Climate Change and the Need for 21st Century Conservation Options [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas B Fortini

    Full Text Available Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows. Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  5. On the influence of crystal size and wavelength on native SAD phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Senda, Miki; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-06-01

    Native SAD is an emerging phasing technique that uses the anomalous signal of native heavy atoms to obtain crystallographic phases. The method does not require specific sample preparation to add anomalous scatterers, as the light atoms contained in the native sample are used as marker atoms. The most abundant anomalous scatterer used for native SAD, which is present in almost all proteins, is sulfur. However, the absorption edge of sulfur is at low energy (2.472 keV = 5.016 Å), which makes it challenging to carry out native SAD phasing experiments as most synchrotron beamlines are optimized for shorter wavelength ranges where the anomalous signal of sulfur is weak; for longer wavelengths, which produce larger anomalous differences, the absorption of X-rays by the sample, solvent, loop and surrounding medium (e.g. air) increases tremendously. Therefore, a compromise has to be found between measuring strong anomalous signal and minimizing absorption. It was thus hypothesized that shorter wavelengths should be used for large crystals and longer wavelengths for small crystals, but no thorough experimental analyses have been reported to date. To study the influence of crystal size and wavelength, native SAD experiments were carried out at different wavelengths (1.9 and 2.7 Å with a helium cone; 3.0 and 3.3 Å with a helium chamber) using lysozyme and ferredoxin reductase crystals of various sizes. For the tested crystals, the results suggest that larger sample sizes do not have a detrimental effect on native SAD data and that long wavelengths give a clear advantage with small samples compared with short wavelengths. The resolution dependency of substructure determination was analyzed and showed that high-symmetry crystals with small unit cells require higher resolution for the successful placement of heavy atoms.

  6. 80-nm-tunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating long-wavelength VCSEL: Proposal and numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper; Sirbu, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    A widely-tunable single-mode long wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structure employing a MEMStunable high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) is suggested and numerically investigated. A very large 80- nm linear tuning range was obtained as the HCG was actuated by -220 to ...

  7. Plasmonic Nanowires for Wide Wavelength Range Molecular Sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni; Das, Gobind; Giugni, Andrea; Allione, Marco; Torre, Bruno; Candeloro, Patrizio; Kosel, Jü rgen; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2018-01-01

    , tested with 633 and 830 nm laser lines, show a significant Raman enhancement factor, up to around 6 × 10⁴, with respect to the flat gold surface, used as a reference for the measurements of the investigated molecules.

  8. Modulating wavelength discrimination in goldfish with ethambutol and stimulus intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerdsma, T.; Kamermans, M.; Spekreijse, H.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelength discrimination in goldfish was measured behaviourally. Both acute application of ethambutol injected into the eye and chronic application by feeding the animals daily 25 mg ethambutol for 1 month had the same effect on wavelength discrimination in the range of 560-640 nm. This means that:

  9. Mono and multi-objective optimization techniques applied to a large range of industrial test cases using Metamodel assisted Evolutionary Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Lionel; Ducloux, Richard; Marie, Stéphane; Ejday, Mohsen; Monnereau, Dominique; Massé, Thomas; Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2010-06-01

    The use of material processing numerical simulation allows a strategy of trial and error to improve virtual processes without incurring material costs or interrupting production and therefore save a lot of money, but it requires user time to analyze the results, adjust the operating conditions and restart the simulation. Automatic optimization is the perfect complement to simulation. Evolutionary Algorithm coupled with metamodelling makes it possible to obtain industrially relevant results on a very large range of applications within a few tens of simulations and without any specific automatic optimization technique knowledge. Ten industrial partners have been selected to cover the different area of the mechanical forging industry and provide different examples of the forming simulation tools. It aims to demonstrate that it is possible to obtain industrially relevant results on a very large range of applications within a few tens of simulations and without any specific automatic optimization technique knowledge. The large computational time is handled by a metamodel approach. It allows interpolating the objective function on the entire parameter space by only knowing the exact function values at a reduced number of "master points". Two algorithms are used: an evolution strategy combined with a Kriging metamodel and a genetic algorithm combined with a Meshless Finite Difference Method. The later approach is extended to multi-objective optimization. The set of solutions, which corresponds to the best possible compromises between the different objectives, is then computed in the same way. The population based approach allows using the parallel capabilities of the utilized computer with a high efficiency. An optimization module, fully embedded within the Forge2009 IHM, makes possible to cover all the defined examples, and the use of new multi-core hardware to compute several simulations at the same time reduces the needed time dramatically. The presented examples

  10. Fault propagation folds induced by gravitational failure and slumping of the Central Costa Rica volcanic range: Implications for large terrestrial and Martian volcanic edifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgia, A.; Burr, J.; Montero, W.; Morales, L.D.; Alvarado, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    Long sublinear ridges and related scarps located at the base of large volcanic structures are frequently interpreted as normal faults associated with extensional regional stress. In contrast, the ridges bordering the Central Costa Rica volcanic range (CCRVR) are the topographic expression of hanging wall asymmetric angular anticlines overlying low-angle thrust faults at the base of the range. These faults formed by gravitational failure and slumping of the flanks of the range due to the weight of the volcanic edifices and were perhaps triggered by the intrusion of magma over the past 20,000 years. These anticlines are hypothesized to occur along the base of the volcano, where the thrust faults ramp up toward the sea bottom. Ridges and scarps between 2,000 and 5,000 m below sea level are interpreted as the topographic expression of these folds. The authors further suggest that the scarps of the CCRVR and valid scaled terrestrial analogs of the perimeter scarp of the Martian volcano Olympus Mons. They suggest that the crust below Olympus Mons has failed under the load of the volcano, triggering the radial slumping of the flanks of the volcano on basal thrusts. The thrusting would have, in turn, formed the anticlinal ridges and scarps that surround the edifice. The thrust faults may extend all the way to the base of the Martian crust (about 40 km), and they may have been active until almost the end of the volcanic activity. They suggest that gravitational failure and slumping of the flanks of volcanoes is a process common to most large volcanic edifices. In the CCRVR this slumping of the flanks is a slow intermittent process, but it could evolve to rapid massive avalanching leading to catastrophic eruptions. Thus monitoring of uplift and displacement of the folds related to the slump tectonics could become an additional effective method for mitigating volcanic hazards

  11. Long wavelength irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D.T.; Fejer, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the radar interferometer technique at Jicamarca to study in detail irregularities with wavelengths of a few kilometers generated in the unstable equatorial electrojet plasma during strong type 1 conditions. In-situ rocket observations of the same instability process are discussed in a companion paper. These large scale primary waves travel essentially horizontally and have large amplitudes. The vertical electron drift velocities driven by the horizontal wave electric fields reach or exceed the ion-acoustic velocity even though the horizontal phase velocity of the wave is considerably smaller. A straightforward extension to the long wavelength regime of the usual linear theory of the electrojet instability explains this and several other observed features of these dominant primary waves

  12. Solar Observations at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, P.

    We review earlier to recent observational evidences and theoretical motivations leading to a renewed interest to observe flares in the submillimeter (submm) - infrared (IR) range of wavelengths. We describe the new solar dedicated submillimeter wave telescope which began operations at El Leoncito in the Argentina Andes: the SST project. It consists of focal plane arrays of two 405 GHz and four 212 GHz radiometers placed in a 1.5-m radome-enclosed Cassegrain antenna, operating simultaneously with one millisecond time resolution. The first solar events analyzed exhibited the onset of rapid submm-wave spikes (100-300 ms), well associated to other flare manifestations, especially at X-rays. The spikes positions were found scattered over the flaring source by tens of arcseconds. For one event an excellent association was found between the gamma-ray emission time profile and the rate of occurrence of submm-wave rapid spikes. The preliminary results favour the idea that bulk burst emissions are a response to numerous fast energetic injections, discrete in time, produced at different spatial positions over the flaring region. Coronal mass ejections were associated to the events studied. Their trajectories extrapolated to the solar surface appear to correspond to the onset time of the submm-wave spikes, which might represent an early signature of the CME's initial acceleration process.

  13. Optical Detection in Ultrafast Short Wavelength Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K.; Hall, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to coherent detection of ionising radiation is briefly motivated and recounted. The approach involves optical scattering of coherent light fields by colour centres in transparent solids. It has significant potential for diffractive imaging applications that require high detection dynamic range from pulsed high brilliance short wavelength sources. It also motivates new incarnations of Bragg's X-ray microscope for pump-probe studies of ultrafast molecular structure-dynamics.

  14. Solar Prominence Modelling and Plasma Diagnostics at ALMA Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Andrew; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Our aim is to test potential solar prominence plasma diagnostics as obtained with the new solar capability of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We investigate the thermal and plasma diagnostic potential of ALMA for solar prominences through the computation of brightness temperatures at ALMA wavelengths. The brightness temperature, for a chosen line of sight, is calculated using the densities of electrons, hydrogen, and helium obtained from a radiative transfer code under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) conditions, as well as the input internal parameters of the prominence model in consideration. Two distinct sets of prominence models were used: isothermal-isobaric fine-structure threads, and large-scale structures with radially increasing temperature distributions representing the prominence-to-corona transition region. We compute brightness temperatures over the range of wavelengths in which ALMA is capable of observing (0.32 - 9.6 mm), however, we particularly focus on the bands available to solar observers in ALMA cycles 4 and 5, namely 2.6 - 3.6 mm (Band 3) and 1.1 - 1.4 mm (Band 6). We show how the computed brightness temperatures and optical thicknesses in our models vary with the plasma parameters (temperature and pressure) and the wavelength of observation. We then study how ALMA observables such as the ratio of brightness temperatures at two frequencies can be used to estimate the optical thickness and the emission measure for isothermal and non-isothermal prominences. From this study we conclude that for both sets of models, ALMA presents a strong thermal diagnostic capability, provided that the interpretation of observations is supported by the use of non-LTE simulation results.

  15. Eruption probabilities for the Lassen Volcanic Center and regional volcanism, northern California, and probabilities for large explosive eruptions in the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel; Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L.J. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Chronologies for eruptive activity of the Lassen Volcanic Center and for eruptions from the regional mafic vents in the surrounding area of the Lassen segment of the Cascade Range are here used to estimate probabilities of future eruptions. For the regional mafic volcanism, the ages of many vents are known only within broad ranges, and two models are developed that should bracket the actual eruptive ages. These chronologies are used with exponential, Weibull, and mixed-exponential probability distributions to match the data for time intervals between eruptions. For the Lassen Volcanic Center, the probability of an eruption in the next year is 1.4x10-4 for the exponential distribution and 2.3x10-4 for the mixed exponential distribution. For the regional mafic vents, the exponential distribution gives a probability of an eruption in the next year of 6.5x10-4, but the mixed exponential distribution indicates that the current probability, 12,000 years after the last event, could be significantly lower. For the exponential distribution, the highest probability is for an eruption from a regional mafic vent. Data on areas and volumes of lava flows and domes of the Lassen Volcanic Center and of eruptions from the regional mafic vents provide constraints on the probable sizes of future eruptions. Probabilities of lava-flow coverage are similar for the Lassen Volcanic Center and for regional mafic vents, whereas the probable eruptive volumes for the mafic vents are generally smaller. Data have been compiled for large explosive eruptions (>≈ 5 km3 in deposit volume) in the Cascade Range during the past 1.2 m.y. in order to estimate probabilities of eruption. For erupted volumes >≈5 km3, the rate of occurrence since 13.6 ka is much higher than for the entire period, and we use these data to calculate the annual probability of a large eruption at 4.6x10-4. For erupted volumes ≥10 km3, the rate of occurrence has been reasonably constant from 630 ka to the present, giving

  16. Flexible Polydimethylsiloxane Foams Decorated with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Enable Unprecedented Detection of Ultralow Strain and Pressure Coupled with a Large Working Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglio, Rossella; Mariani, Stefano; Robbiano, Valentina; Strambini, Lucanos; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2018-04-25

    Low-cost piezoresistive strain/pressure sensors with large working range, at the same time able to reliably detect ultralow strain (≤0.1%) and pressure (≤1 Pa), are one of the challenges that have still to be overcome for flexible piezoresistive materials toward personalized health-monitoring applications. In this work, we report on unprecedented, simultaneous detection of ultrasmall strain (0.1%, i.e., 10 μm displacement over 10 mm) and subtle pressure (20 Pa, i.e., a force of only 2 mN over an area of 1 cm 2 ) in compression mode, coupled with a large working range (i.e., up to 60% for strain-6 mm in displacement-and 50 kPa for pressure) using piezoresistive, flexible three-dimensional (3D) macroporous polydimethylsiloxane (pPDMS) foams decorated with pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). pPDMS/CNT foams with pore size up to 500 μm (i.e., twice the size of those of commonly used foams, at least) and porosity of 77%, decorated with a nanostructured surface network of CNTs at densities ranging from 7.5 to 37 mg/cm 3 are prepared using a low-cost and scalable process, through replica molding of sacrificial sugar templates and subsequent drop-casting of CNT ink. A thorough characterization shows that piezoresistive properties of the foams can be finely tuned by controlling the CNT density and reach an optimum at a CNT density of 25 mg/cm 3 , for which a maximum change of the material resistivity (e.g., ρ 0 /ρ 50 = 4 at 50% strain) is achieved under compression. Further static and dynamic characterization of the pPDMS/CNT foams with 25 mg/cm 3 of CNTs highlights that detection limits for strain and pressure are 0.03% (3 μm displacement over 10 mm) and 6 Pa (0.6 mN over an area of 1 cm 2 ), respectively; moreover, good stability and limited hysteresis are apparent by cycling the foams with 255 compression-release cycles over the strain range of 0-60%, at different strain rates up to 10 mm/min. Our results on piezoresistive, flexible pPDMS/CNT foams

  17. High power multiple wavelength diode laser stack for DPSSL application without temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dong; Yin, Xia; Wang, Jingwei; Chen, Shi; Zhan, Yun; Li, Xiaoning; Fan, Yingmin; Liu, Xingsheng

    2018-02-01

    High power diode laser stack is widely used in pumping solid-state laser for years. Normally an integrated temperature control module is required for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser, as the output power of the solid-state laser highly depends on the emission wavelength and the wavelength shift of diode lasers according to the temperature changes. However the temperature control module is inconvenient for this application, due to its large dimension, high electric power consumption and extra adding a complicated controlling system. Furthermore, it takes dozens of seconds to stabilize the output power when the laser system is turned on. In this work, a compact hard soldered high power conduction cooled diode laser stack with multiple wavelengths is developed for stabilizing the output power of solid-state laser in a certain temperature range. The stack consists of 5 laser bars with the pitch of 0.43mm. The peak output power of each bar in the diode laser stack reaches as much as 557W and the combined lasing wavelength spectrum profile spans 15nm. The solidstate laser, structured with multiple wavelength diode laser stacks, allows the ambient temperature change of 65°C without suddenly degrading the optical performance.

  18. Topology optimised wavelength dependent splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, K. K.; Burgos Leon, J.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    A photonic crystal wavelength dependent splitter has been constructed by utilising topology optimisation1. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1). The topology optimised wavelength dependent splitter demonstrates promising 3D FDTD simulation results....... This complex photonic crystal structure is very sensitive against small fabrication variations from the expected topology optimised design. A wavelength dependent splitter is an important basic building block for high-performance nanophotonic circuits. 1J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund, App. Phys. Lett. 84, 2022...

  19. AWG Filter for Wavelength Interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard J. (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Faridian, Fereydoun (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Sotoudeh, Vahid (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength interrogator is coupled to a circulator which couples optical energy from a broadband source to an optical fiber having a plurality of sensors, each sensor reflecting optical energy at a unique wavelength and directing the reflected optical energy to an AWG. The AWG has a detector coupled to each output, and the reflected optical energy from each grating is coupled to the skirt edge response of the AWG such that the adjacent channel responses form a complementary pair response. The complementary pair response is used to convert an AWG skirt response to a wavelength.

  20. Research on volume metrology method of large vertical energy storage tank based on internal electro-optical distance-ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huadong; Shi, Haolei; Yi, Pengju; Liu, Ying; Li, Cunjun; Li, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    A Volume Metrology method based on Internal Electro-optical Distance-ranging method is established for large vertical energy storage tank. After analyzing the vertical tank volume calculation mathematical model, the key processing algorithms, such as gross error elimination, filtering, streamline, and radius calculation are studied for the point cloud data. The corresponding volume values are automatically calculated in the different liquids by calculating the cross-sectional area along the horizontal direction and integrating from vertical direction. To design the comparison system, a vertical tank which the nominal capacity is 20,000 m3 is selected as the research object, and there are shown that the method has good repeatability and reproducibility. Through using the conventional capacity measurement method as reference, the relative deviation of calculated volume is less than 0.1%, meeting the measurement requirements. And the feasibility and effectiveness are demonstrated.

  1. Radiative flux calculations at UV and visible wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    A radiative transfer model to calculate the short wavelength fluxes at altitudes between 0 and 80 km has been developed at LLNL. The wavelength range extends from 175--735 nm. This spectral range covers the UV-B wavelength region, 250--350 nm, with sufficient resolution to allow comparison of UV-B measurements with theoretical predictions. Validation studies for the model have been made for both UV-B ground radiation calculations and tropospheric solar radiative forcing calculations for various ozone distributions. These studies indicate that the model produces results which agree well with respect to existing UV calculations from other published models

  2. Fully reconfigurable 2x2 optical cross-connect using tunable wavelength switching modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Zheng, Xueyan; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud

    2001-01-01

    A modular tunable wavelength switching module is proposed and used to construct 2x2 fully reconfigurable optical cross-connects. Large size optical switch is avoided in the OXC and it is easy to upgrade to more wavelength channels.......A modular tunable wavelength switching module is proposed and used to construct 2x2 fully reconfigurable optical cross-connects. Large size optical switch is avoided in the OXC and it is easy to upgrade to more wavelength channels....

  3. Sound propagation in water containing large tethered spherical encapsulated gas bubbles with resonance frequencies in the 50 Hz to 100 Hz range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin M; Hinojosa, Kevin T; Wochner, Mark S; Argo, Theodore F; Wilson, Preston S; Mercier, Richard S

    2011-11-01

    The efficacy of large tethered encapsulated gas bubbles for the mitigation of low frequency underwater noise was investigated with an acoustic resonator technique. Tethered latex balloons were used as the bubbles, which had radii of approximately 5 cm. Phase speeds were inferred from the resonances of a water and balloon-filled waveguide approximately 1.8 m in length. The Commander and Prosperetti effective-medium model [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 732-746 (1989)] quantitatively described the observed dispersion from well below to just below the individual bubble resonance frequency, and it qualitatively predicted the frequency range of high attenuation for void fractions between 2% and 5% for collections of stationary balloons within the waveguide. A finite-element model was used to investigate the sensitivity of the waveguide resonance frequencies, and hence the inferred phase speeds, to changes in individual bubble size and position. The results indicate that large tethered encapsulated bubbles could be used mitigate low frequency underwater noise and that the Commander and Prosperetti model would be useful in the design of such a system.

  4. Highly accurate Michelson type wavelength meter that uses a rubidium stabilized 1560 nm diode laser as a wavelength reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Shin; Kanoh, Eiji; Irisawa, Akiyoshi; Niki, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the accuracy limitation of a wavelength meter installed in a vacuum chamber to enable us to develop a highly accurate meter based on a Michelson interferometer in 1550 nm optical communication bands. We found that an error of parts per million order could not be avoided using famous wavelength compensation equations. Chromatic dispersion of the refractive index in air can almost be disregarded when a 1560 nm wavelength produced by a rubidium (Rb) stabilized distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser is used as a reference wavelength. We describe a novel dual-wavelength self-calibration scheme that maintains high accuracy of the wavelength meter. The method uses the fundamental and second-harmonic wavelengths of an Rb-stabilized DFB diode laser. Consequently, a highly accurate Michelson type wavelength meter with an absolute accuracy of 5x10 -8 (10 MHz, 0.08 pm) over a wide wavelength range including optical communication bands was achieved without the need for a vacuum chamber.

  5. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program

  6. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-11-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FEL's offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FEL's will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.

  7. Reduction of reabsorption effects in scintillators by employing solutes with large Stokes shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrah, L.A.; Renschler, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    A radiation or high energy particle responsive system is described useful as a scintillator, and comprising, a first component which interacts with the radiation or high energy particle to emit photons in a certain first wavelength range; and at least one additional solute component which absorbs the photons in the first wavelength range and thereupon emits photons in another wavelength range higher than the first range; the improvement wherein at least one of the components absorbs substantially no photons in the wavelength range in which it emits photons, due to large Stokes shift caused by an excited states intramolecular rearrangement, with the proviso that the component having a large Stokes shift is not methyl salicylate or salicyclic acid

  8. Optimal wavelength band clustering for multispectral iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yazhuo; Zhang, David; Shi, Pengfei; Yan, Jingqi

    2012-07-01

    This work explores the possibility of clustering spectral wavelengths based on the maximum dissimilarity of iris textures. The eventual goal is to determine how many bands of spectral wavelengths will be enough for iris multispectral fusion and to find these bands that will provide higher performance of iris multispectral recognition. A multispectral acquisition system was first designed for imaging the iris at narrow spectral bands in the range of 420 to 940 nm. Next, a set of 60 human iris images that correspond to the right and left eyes of 30 different subjects were acquired for an analysis. Finally, we determined that 3 clusters were enough to represent the 10 feature bands of spectral wavelengths using the agglomerative clustering based on two-dimensional principal component analysis. The experimental results suggest (1) the number, center, and composition of clusters of spectral wavelengths and (2) the higher performance of iris multispectral recognition based on a three wavelengths-bands fusion.

  9. Monte-Carlo simulation of a high-resolution inverse geometry spectrometer on the SNS. Long Wavelength Target Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordallo, H.N.; Herwig, K.W.

    2001-01-01

    Using the Monte-Carlo simulation program McStas, we present the design principles of the proposed high-resolution inverse geometry spectrometer on the SNS-Long Wavelength Target Station (LWTS). The LWTS will provide the high flux of long wavelength neutrons at the requisite pulse rate required by the spectrometer design. The resolution of this spectrometer lies between that routinely achieved by spin echo techniques and the design goal of the high power target station backscattering spectrometer. Covering this niche in energy resolution will allow systematic studies over the large dynamic range required by many disciplines, such as protein dynamics. (author)

  10. A measurement of the efficiency for the detection of neutrons in the momentum range 200 to 3200 MeV/c, in large volume liquid scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.; Clark, A.G.; Duke, P.J.

    1976-04-01

    A description is given of a system of 194 large volume liquid scintillation counters designed to detect neutrons in an experiment on the reaction π - p → π 0 n in the resonance region. The detection efficiency of the system has been determined, as a function of neutron momentum, in three separate measurements, covering the range 200 to 3200 MeV/c. Below 400 MeV/c the efficiency shows the expected momentum dependence near threshold, rising to a maximum of 50% near 300 MeV/c and then falling to 43% near 400 MeV/c. In the region 400 to 700 MeV/c the efficiency rises to 47% near 600 MeV/c and falls again to 43%, an effect not seen before; the efficiency was expected to be almost momentum independent in this region. Above the threshold for inelastic processes in nucleon-nucleon collision (approximately 800 MeV/c) the efficiency rises significantly reaching a maximum value of 65% above 1700 MeV/c. (author)

  11. All-optical 1st- and 2nd-order differential equation solvers with large tuning ranges using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaisheng; Hou, Jie; Huang, Zhuyang; Cao, Tong; Zhang, Jihua; Yu, Yuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-02-09

    We experimentally demonstrate an all-optical temporal computation scheme for solving 1st- and 2nd-order linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with tunable constant coefficients by using Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifiers (FP-SOAs). By changing the injection currents of FP-SOAs, the constant coefficients of the differential equations are practically tuned. A quite large constant coefficient tunable range from 0.0026/ps to 0.085/ps is achieved for the 1st-order differential equation. Moreover, the constant coefficient p of the 2nd-order ODE solver can be continuously tuned from 0.0216/ps to 0.158/ps, correspondingly with the constant coefficient q varying from 0.0000494/ps(2) to 0.006205/ps(2). Additionally, a theoretical model that combining the carrier density rate equation of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with the transfer function of the Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity is exploited to analyze the solving processes. For both 1st- and 2nd-order solvers, excellent agreements between the numerical simulations and the experimental results are obtained. The FP-SOAs based all-optical differential-equation solvers can be easily integrated with other optical components based on InP/InGaAsP materials, such as laser, modulator, photodetector and waveguide, which can motivate the realization of the complicated optical computing on a single integrated chip.

  12. Systematic wavelength selection for improved multivariate spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Edward V.; Robinson, Mark R.; Haaland, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for determining in a biological material one or more unknown values of at least one known characteristic (e.g. the concentration of an analyte such as glucose in blood or the concentration of one or more blood gas parameters) with a model based on a set of samples with known values of the known characteristics and a multivariate algorithm using several wavelength subsets. The method includes selecting multiple wavelength subsets, from the electromagnetic spectral region appropriate for determining the known characteristic, for use by an algorithm wherein the selection of wavelength subsets improves the model's fitness of the determination for the unknown values of the known characteristic. The selection process utilizes multivariate search methods that select both predictive and synergistic wavelengths within the range of wavelengths utilized. The fitness of the wavelength subsets is determined by the fitness function F=.function.(cost, performance). The method includes the steps of: (1) using one or more applications of a genetic algorithm to produce one or more count spectra, with multiple count spectra then combined to produce a combined count spectrum; (2) smoothing the count spectrum; (3) selecting a threshold count from a count spectrum to select these wavelength subsets which optimize the fitness function; and (4) eliminating a portion of the selected wavelength subsets. The determination of the unknown values can be made: (1) noninvasively and in vivo; (2) invasively and in vivo; or (3) in vitro.

  13. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    Taking into account the requirements to the converters e.g., bit rate transparency (at least up to 10 Gbit/s), polarisation independence, wavelength independence, moderate input power levels, high signal-to-noise ratio and high extinction ratio interferometric wavelength convertors are very...... interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  14. Sub-wavelength plasmon laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-04-19

    A plasmonic laser device has resonant nanocavities filled with a gain medium containing an organic dye. The resonant plasmon frequencies of the nanocavities are tuned to align with both the absorption and emission spectra of the dye. Variables in the system include the nature of the dye and the wavelength of its absorption and emission, the wavelength of the pumping radiation, and the resonance frequencies of the nanocavities. In addition the pumping frequency of the dye is selected to be close to the absorption maximum.

  15. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN

    2012-01-01

    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  16. Assessing the role of large wood entrained in the 2013 Colorado Front Range flood in ongoing channel response and reservoir management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Georgina; Rathburn, Sara; Ryan, Sandra; Wohl, Ellen; Blair, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Considerable quantities of large wood (LW) may be entrained during floods with long lasting impacts on channel morphology, sediment and LW export, and downstream reservoir management. Here we present an analysis of LW entrained by an extensive flood in Colorado, USA. Over a 5 day period commencing 9th September 2013, up to 450 mm of rain, or ~1000% of the monthly average, fell in catchments spanning a 100-km-wide swath of the Colorado Front Range resulting in major flooding. Catchment response was dramatic, with reports of 100s - 1000s of years of erosion, destruction of infrastructure and homes, and sediment and LW loading within reservoirs. One heavily impacted catchment is the North St Vrain, draining 250km2 of the South Platte drainage basin. In addition to widespread channel enlargement, remote imagery reveals hundreds of landslides that delivered sediment and LW to the channel and ultimately to Ralph Price Reservoir, which provides municipal water to Longmont. The City of Longmont facilitated the removal of ~1050 m3 of wood deposited at the reservoir inlet by the flood but the potential for continued movement of large wood in the catchment presents an on-going concern for reservoir management. In collaboration with the City of Longmont, our objectives are (1) to quantify the volume of wood entrained by the flood and still stored along the channel, (2) characterize the size and distribution of LW deposits and (3) determine their role in ongoing catchment flood response and recovery. We utilize freely available pre and post flood NAIP 4-band imagery to calculate a normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) difference map with which we calculate the area of vegetation entrained by the flood. We combine this with field assessments and a map of vegetation type automatically classified from optical satellite imagery to estimate the total flood-entrained volume of wood. Preliminary testing of 'stream selfies' - structure from motion imaging of LW deposits using

  17. Performance of PILATUS detector technology for long-wavelength macromolecular crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, J.; Wagner, A.

    2011-01-01

    The long-wavelength MX beamline I23 currently under design at Diamond Light Source will be optimized in the X-ray energy range between 3 and 5 keV. At the moment no commercial off-the-shelf detector with high quantum efficiency and dynamic range is available to cover the large area required for diffraction experiments in this energy range. The hybrid pixel detector technology used in PILATUS detectors could overcome these limitations as the modular design could allow a large coverage in reciprocal space and high detection efficiency. Experiments were carried out on the Microfocus Spectroscopy beamline I18 at Diamond Light Source to test the performance of a 100K PILATUS module in the low-energy range from 2.3 to 3.7 keV.

  18. Self-amplified spontaneous emission for short wavelength coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Xie, M.

    1992-09-01

    We review the recent progress in our understanding of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), emphasizing the application to short wavelength generation. Simple formulae are given for the start-up, exponential gain and the saturation of SASE. Accelerator technologies producing high brightness electron beams required for short wavelength SASE are discussed. An example utilizing electron beams from a photocathode-linac system to produce 4nm SASE in the multigigawatt range is presented

  19. Dynamic Sensor Interrogation Using Wavelength-Swept Laser with a Polygon-Scanner-Based Wavelength Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Seok; Ko, Myeong Ock; Jung, Mi Sun; Park, Ik Gon; Kim, Namje; Han, Sang-Pil; Ryu, Han-Cheol; Park, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2013-01-01

    We report a high-speed (∼2 kHz) dynamic multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation using a wavelength-swept laser (WSL) with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter. The scanning frequency of the WSL is 18 kHz, and the 10 dB scanning bandwidth is more than 90 nm around a center wavelength of 1,540 nm. The output from the WSL is coupled into the multiplexed FBG array, which consists of five FBGs. The reflected Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are 1,532.02 nm, 1,537.84 nm, 1,543.48 nm, 1,547.98 nm, and 1,553.06 nm, respectively. A dynamic periodic strain ranging from 500 Hz to 2 kHz is applied to one of the multiplexed FBGs, which is fixed on the stage of the piezoelectric transducer stack. Good dynamic performance of the FBGs and recording of their fast Fourier transform spectra have been successfully achieved with a measuring speed of 18 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio and the bandwidth over the whole frequency span are determined to be more than 30 dB and around 10 Hz, respectively. We successfully obtained a real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the periodic strain. The dynamic FBG sensor interrogation system can be read out with a WSL for high-speed and high-sensitivity real-time measurement. PMID:23899934

  20. Intracluster dust, circumstellar shells, and the wavelength dependence of polarization in orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breger, M.

    1977-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of polarization of 21 polarized stars near the Orion Nebula has been measured. Most stars fit the standard interstellar law. The wavelength of maximum linear polarization, lambda/sub max/, ranges from normal values to 0.71μm. The polarimetric, spectroscopic, and photometric data support a normal reddening law (Rapprox. =3) for most Orion stars, and present evidence for unusually large grain sizes in front of some Orion stars. For the stars BR 545 and BR 885 large values of lambda/sub max/ are associated with unusually large values of total to selective extinction.A division of the observed polarization into intracluster dust and circumstellar shell components shows that the presence of shells does not usually lead to linear polarization in the optical wavelength region. Also, no association of polarization with known light variability could be found. The nature of the intracluster dust clouds is discussed briefly.The results of searches for circular polarization as well as short-period variability are presented in two appendices

  1. Potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 by wildfowl: dispersal ranges and rates determined from large-scale satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Cappelle, Julien; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Mundkur, Taej; Newman, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    1. Migratory birds are major candidates for long-distance dispersal of zoonotic pathogens. In recent years, wildfowl have been suspected of contributing to the rapid geographic spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. Experimental infection studies reveal that some wild ducks, geese and swans shed this virus asymptomatically and hence have the potential to spread it as they move. 2. We evaluate the dispersive potential of HPAI H5N1 viruses by wildfowl through an analysis of the movement range and movement rate of birds monitored by satellite telemetry in relation to the apparent asymptomatic infection duration (AID) measured in experimental studies. We analysed the first large-scale data set of wildfowl movements, including 228 birds from 19 species monitored by satellite telemetry in 2006–2009, over HPAI H5N1 affected regions of Asia, Europe and Africa. 3. Our results indicate that individual migratory wildfowl have the potential to disperse HPAI H5N1 over extensive distances, being able to perform movements of up to 2900 km within timeframes compatible with the duration of asymptomatic infection. 4. However, the likelihood of such virus dispersal over long distances by individual wildfowl is low: we estimate that for an individual migratory bird there are, on average, only 5–15 days per year when infection could result in the dispersal of HPAI H5N1 virus over 500 km. 5. Staging at stopover sites during migration is typically longer than the period of infection and viral shedding, preventing birds from dispersing a virus over several consecutive but interrupted long-distance movements. Intercontinental virus dispersion would therefore probably require relay transmission between a series of successively infected migratory birds. 6. Synthesis and applications. Our results provide a detailed quantitative assessment of the dispersive potential of HPAI H5N1 virus by selected migratory birds. Such dispersive potential rests on the

  2. Long-Wavelength Phonon Scattering in Nonpolar Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawætz, Peter

    1969-01-01

    The long-wavelength acoustic- and optical-phonon scattering of carriers in nonpolar semiconductors is considered from a general point of view. The deformation-potential approximation is defined and it is shown that long-range electrostatic forces give a nontrivial correction to the scattering...... of the very-short-range nature of interactions in a covalent semiconductor....

  3. Middle infrared (wavelength range: 8 μm-14 μm) 2-dimensional spectroscopy (total weight with electrical controller: 1.7 kg, total cost: less than 10,000 USD) so-called hyperspectral camera for unmanned air vehicles like drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Saito, Tsubasa; Ogawa, Satoru; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We developed the palm size (optical unit: 73[mm]×102[mm]×66[mm]) and light weight (total weight with electrical controller: 1.7[kg]) middle infrared (wavelength range: 8[μm]-14[μm]) 2-dimensional spectroscopy for UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicle) like drone. And we successfully demonstrated the flights with the developed hyperspectral camera mounted on the multi-copter so-called drone in 15/Sep./2015 at Kagawa prefecture in Japan. We had proposed 2 dimensional imaging type Fourier spectroscopy that was the near-common path temporal phase-shift interferometer. We install the variable phase shifter onto optical Fourier transform plane of infinity corrected imaging optical systems. The variable phase shifter was configured with a movable mirror and a fixed mirror. The movable mirror was actuated by the impact drive piezo-electric device (stroke: 4.5[mm], resolution: 0.01[μm], maker: Technohands Co.,Ltd., type:XDT50-45, price: around 1,000USD). We realized the wavefront division type and near common path interferometry that has strong robustness against mechanical vibrations. Without anti-mechanical vibration systems, the palm-size Fourier spectroscopy was realized. And we were able to utilize the small and low-cost middle infrared camera that was the micro borometer array (un-cooled VOxMicroborometer, pixel array: 336×256, pixel pitch: 17[μm], frame rate 60[Hz], maker: FLIR, type: Quark 336, price: around 5,000USD). And this apparatus was able to be operated by single board computer (Raspberry Pi.). Thus, total cost was less than 10,000 USD. We joined with KAMOME-PJ (Kanagawa Advanced MOdule for Material Evaluation Project) with DRONE FACTORY Corp., KUUSATSU Corp., Fuji Imvac Inc. And we successfully obtained the middle infrared spectroscopic imaging with multi-copter drone.

  4. The "+" for CRIRES: enabling better science at infrared wavelength and high spectral resolution at the ESO VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Reinhold J.; Follert, Roman; Bristow, Paul; Cumani, Claudio; Eschbaumer, Siegfried; Grunhut, Jason; Haimerl, Andreas; Hatzes, Artie; Heiter, Ulrike; Hinterschuster, Renate; Ives, Derek J.; Jung, Yves; Kerber, Florian; Klein, Barbara; Lavaila, Alexis; Lizon, Jean Louis; Löwinger, Tom; Molina-Conde, Ignacio; Nicholson, Belinda; Marquart, Thomas; Oliva, Ernesto; Origlia, Livia; Pasquini, Luca; Paufique, Jérôme; Piskunov, Nikolai; Reiners, Ansgar; Seemann, Ulf; Stegmeier, Jörg; Stempels, Eric; Tordo, Sebastien

    2016-08-01

    The adaptive optics (AO) assisted CRIRES instrument is an IR (0.92 - 5.2 μm) high-resolution spectrograph was in operation from 2006 to 2014 at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) observatory. CRIRES was a unique instrument, accessing a parameter space (wavelength range and spectral resolution) up to now largely uncharted. It consisted of a single-order spectrograph providing long-slit (40 arcsecond) spectroscopy with a resolving power up to R=100 000. However the setup was limited to a narrow, single-shot, spectral range of about 1/70 of the central wavelength, resulting in low observing efficiency for many scientific programmes requiring a broad spectral coverage. The CRIRES upgrade project, CRIRES+, transforms this VLT instrument into a cross-dispersed spectrograph to increase the simultaneously covered wavelength range by a factor of ten. A new and larger detector focal plane array of three Hawaii 2RG detectors with 5.3 μm cut-off wavelength will replace the existing detectors. For advanced wavelength calibration, custom-made absorption gas cells and an etalon system will be added. A spectro-polarimetric unit will allow the recording of circular and linear polarized spectra. This upgrade will be supported by dedicated data reduction software allowing the community to take full advantage of the new capabilities offered by CRIRES+. CRIRES+ has now entered its assembly and integration phase and will return with all new capabilities by the beginning of 2018 to the Very Large Telescope in Chile. This article will provide the reader with an update of the current status of the instrument as well as the remaining steps until final installation at the Paranal Observatory.

  5. Wavelength tuning of porous silicon microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, J.; Reece, P.; Zheng, W.H.; Lerondel, G.; Sun, B.; Gal, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last decade much attention has been given to porous silicon (PS) for optoelectronic applications, which include efficient room temperature light emission as well as microcavity formation. Due to the large specific surface area, the use of porous silicon microcavities (PSMs) has been proposed for chemical sensing. Large wavelength shifts have indicated that the optical properties of PSMs are indeed strongly dependent on the environment. In this paper, we report the shifting of the resonance frequency of high quality PSMs, with the aim of tuning a future PS device to a certain required wavelength. The PSM samples were prepared by anodically etching p + -doped (5mΩcm) bulk silicon wafer in a solution (25%) of aqueous HF and ethanol. The device structure consisted of a PS layer sandwiched between 2 stacks of thin PS layers with alternating high and low effective refractive indices (RI), i.e. distributed Bragg mirrors (DBM). The layer thickness depends on the etch time while the porosity and hence refractive index is determined by the current density as the Si is etched. The position and the width of the stop-band can be fully controlled by the design of the DBMs, with the microcavity resonance mode sitting within the stop-band. We achieved tuning of the microcavity resonance by a number of methods, including temperature dependent tuning. The temperature induced wavelength shift was found to be of the order of 10 -15 nm. Computer modeling of these changes in the reflectivity spectra allowed us to quantify the changes of the effective refractive index and the respective layer thicknesses

  6. Review of short wavelength lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references

  7. Review of short wavelength lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-03-18

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

  8. Long-wavelength microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.W.; Rewoldt, G.

    1993-01-01

    Realistic kinetic toroidal eigenmode calculations have been carried out to support a proper assessment of the influence of long-wavelength microturbulence on transport in tokamak plasmas. In order to efficiently evaluate large-scale kinetic behavior extending over many rational surfaces, significant improvements have been made to a toroidal finite element code used to analyze the fully two-dimensional (r,θ) mode structures of trapped-ion and toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities. It is found that even at very long wavelengths, these eigenmodes exhibit a strong ballooning character with the associated radial structure relatively insensitive to ion Landau damping at the rational surfaces. In contrast to the long-accepted picture that the radial extent of trapped-ion instabilities is characterized by the ion-gyroradius-scale associated with strong localization between adjacent rational surfaces, present results demonstrate that under realistic conditions, the actual scale is governed by the large-scale variations in the equilibrium gradients. Applications to recent measurements of fluctuation properties in TFTR L-mode plasmas indicate that the theoretical trends appear consistent with spectral characteristics as well as rough heuristic estimates of the transport level. Benchmarking calculations in support of the development of a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic code indicate reasonable agreement with respect to both the properties of the eigenfunctions and the magnitude of the eigenvalues during the linear phase of the simulations of toroidal ITG instabilities

  9. Isoplanatic patch of the human eye for arbitrary wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guoqing; Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Wang, Yukun; Li, Dayu; Wang, Shaoxin; Xu, Zihao; Wu, Daosheng; Hu, Lifa; Xuan, Li

    2018-03-01

    The isoplanatic patch of the human eye is a key parameter for the adaptive optics system (AOS) designed for retinal imaging. The field of view (FOV) usually sets to the same size as the isoplanatic patch to obtain high resolution images. However, it has only been measured at a specific wavelength. Here we investigate the wavelength dependence of this important parameter. An optical setup is initially designed and established in a laboratory to measure the isoplanatic patch at various wavelengths (655 nm, 730 nm and 808 nm). We established the Navarro wide-angle eye model in Zemax software to further validate our results, which suggested high consistency between the two. The isoplanatic patch as a function of wavelength was obtained within the range of visible to near-infrared, which can be expressed as: θ=0.0028 λ - 0 . 74. This work is beneficial for the AOS design for retinal imaging.

  10. Monolithic photonic integration for visible and short near-infrared wavelengths: technologies and platforms for bio and life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Marco A. G.; Artundo, Iñigo; Domenech, J. David; Geuzebroek, Douwe; Sunarto, Rino; Hoofman, Romano

    2018-04-01

    This tutorial aims to provide a general overview on the state-of-the-art of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) in the visible and short near-infrared (NIR) wavelength ranges, mostly focusing in silicon nitride (SiN) substrates, and a guide to the necessary steps in the design toward the fabrication of such PICs. The focus is put on bio- and life sciences, given the adequacy and, thus, a large number of applications in this field.

  11. Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Mori, Ryota; Kikunaga, Shuhei; Arai, Yasuhiko; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-06-15

    Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography that selectively extracts wavelength information from five wavelength-multiplexed holograms is presented. Specific phase shifts for respective wavelengths are introduced to remove the crosstalk components and extract only the object wave at the desired wavelength from the holograms. Object waves in multiple wavelengths are selectively extracted by utilizing 2π ambiguity and the subtraction procedures based on phase-shifting interferometry. Numerical results show the validity of the proposed technique. The proposed technique is also experimentally demonstrated.

  12. Underdense radiation sources: Moving towards longer wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, C.A.; Kilkenny, J.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States); Seely, J.F.; Weaver, J.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., Ellicott City, MD (United States); Tommasini, R.; Glendinning, S.G.; Chung, H.K.; Rosen, M.; Lee, R.W.; Scott, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California (United States); Tillack, M. [U. C. San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Underdense radiation sources have been developed to provide efficient laboratory multi-keV radiation sources for radiography and radiation hardening studies. In these plasmas laser absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung leads to high x-ray conversion efficiency because of efficient ionization of the low density aerogel or gas targets. Now we performing experiments in the soft x-ray energy regime where the atomic physics models are much more complicated. In recent experiments at the NIKE laser, we have irradiated a Ti-doped SiO{sub 2} aerogel with up to 1650 J of 248 nm wavelength light. The absolute Ti L-shell emission in the 200-800 eV range is measured with a diagnostic that uses a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. We will give an overview of the temporally-resolved absolutely calibrated spectra obtained over a range of conditions. (authors)

  13. Underdense radiation sources: Moving towards longer wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Seely, J.F.; Weaver, J.L.; Feldman, U.; Tommasini, R.; Glendinning, S.G.; Chung, H.K.; Rosen, M.; Lee, R.W.; Scott, H.A.; Tillack, M.

    2006-01-01

    Underdense radiation sources have been developed to provide efficient laboratory multi-keV radiation sources for radiography and radiation hardening studies. In these plasmas laser absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung leads to high x-ray conversion efficiency because of efficient ionization of the low density aerogel or gas targets. Now we performing experiments in the soft x-ray energy regime where the atomic physics models are much more complicated. In recent experiments at the NIKE laser, we have irradiated a Ti-doped SiO 2 aerogel with up to 1650 J of 248 nm wavelength light. The absolute Ti L-shell emission in the 200-800 eV range is measured with a diagnostic that uses a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. We will give an overview of the temporally-resolved absolutely calibrated spectra obtained over a range of conditions. (authors)

  14. Wavelength stabilized multi-kW diode laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Bernd; Unger, Andreas; Kindervater, Tobias; Drovs, Simon; Wolf, Paul; Hubrich, Ralf; Beczkowiak, Anna; Auch, Stefan; Müntz, Holger; Biesenbach, Jens

    2015-03-01

    We report on wavelength stabilized high-power diode laser systems with enhanced spectral brightness by means of Volume Holographic Gratings. High-power diode laser modules typically have a relatively broad spectral width of about 3 to 6 nm. In addition the center wavelength shifts by changing the temperature and the driving current, which is obstructive for pumping applications with small absorption bandwidths. Wavelength stabilization of high-power diode laser systems is an important method to increase the efficiency of diode pumped solid-state lasers. It also enables power scaling by dense wavelength multiplexing. To ensure a wide locking range and efficient wavelength stabilization the parameters of the Volume Holographic Grating and the parameters of the diode laser bar have to be adapted carefully. Important parameters are the reflectivity of the Volume Holographic Grating, the reflectivity of the diode laser bar as well as its angular and spectral emission characteristics. In this paper we present detailed data on wavelength stabilized diode laser systems with and without fiber coupling in the spectral range from 634 nm up to 1533 nm. The maximum output power of 2.7 kW was measured for a fiber coupled system (1000 μm, NA 0.22), which was stabilized at a wavelength of 969 nm with a spectral width of only 0.6 nm (90% value). Another example is a narrow line-width diode laser stack, which was stabilized at a wavelength of 1533 nm with a spectral bandwidth below 1 nm and an output power of 835 W.

  15. In situ photobiology of corals over large depth ranges: A multivariate analysis on the roles of environment, host, and algal symbiont

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frade, P.R.; Bongaerts, P.; Winkelhagen, A.J.S.; Tonk, L.; Bak, R.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a multivariate analysis to investigate the roles of host and symbiont on the in situ physiological response of genus Madracis holobionts towards light. Across a large depth gradient (5-40 m) and for four Madracis species and three symbiont genotypes, we assessed several variables by

  16. Wavelength beam combining of a 980-nm tapered diode laser bar in an external cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    solution for preserving the beam quality of the bar in the range of that of a single emitter and at the same time, enabling the power scaling. We report spectral beam combining applied to a 12 emitter tapered laser bar at 980 nm. The external cavity has been designed for a wavelength separation of 4.0 nm......High power diode lasers are used in a large number of applications. A limiting factor for more widespread use of broad area lasers is the poor beam quality. Gain guided tapered diode lasers are ideal candidates for industrial applications that demands watt level output power with good beam quality...

  17. Dye mixtures for ultrafast wavelength shifters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Liu, L.; Palsule, C.; Borst, W.; Wigmans, R. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Barashkov, N. [Karpov Inst. of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Particle detectors based on scintillation processes have been used since the discovery of radium about 100 years ago. The fast signals that can be obtained with these detectors, although often considered a nice asset, were rarely essential for the success of experiments. However, the new generation of high energy particle accelerators require particle detectors with fast response time. The authors have produced fast wavelength shifters using mixtures of various Coumarin dyes with DCM in epoxy-polymers (DGEBA+HHPA) and measured the properties of these wavelength shifters. The particular mixtures were chosen because there is a substantial overlap between the emission spectrum of Coumarin and the absorption spectrum of DCM. The continuous wave and time-resolved fluorescence spectra have been studied as a function of component concentration to optimize the decay times, emission peaks and quantum yields. The mean decay times of these mixtures are in the range of 2.5--4.5 ns. The mean decay time increases with an increase in Coumarin concentration at a fixed DCM concentration or with a decrease in DCM concentration at a fixed Coumarin concentration. This indicates that the energy transfer is radiative at lower relative DCM concentrations and becomes non-radiative at higher DCM concentrations.

  18. Dye mixtures for ultrafast wavelength shifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, S.; Liu, L.; Palsule, C.; Borst, W.; Wigmans, R.

    1994-01-01

    Particle detectors based on scintillation processes have been used since the discovery of radium about 100 years ago. The fast signals that can be obtained with these detectors, although often considered a nice asset, were rarely essential for the success of experiments. However, the new generation of high energy particle accelerators require particle detectors with fast response time. The authors have produced fast wavelength shifters using mixtures of various Coumarin dyes with DCM in epoxy-polymers (DGEBA+HHPA) and measured the properties of these wavelength shifters. The particular mixtures were chosen because there is a substantial overlap between the emission spectrum of Coumarin and the absorption spectrum of DCM. The continuous wave and time-resolved fluorescence spectra have been studied as a function of component concentration to optimize the decay times, emission peaks and quantum yields. The mean decay times of these mixtures are in the range of 2.5--4.5 ns. The mean decay time increases with an increase in Coumarin concentration at a fixed DCM concentration or with a decrease in DCM concentration at a fixed Coumarin concentration. This indicates that the energy transfer is radiative at lower relative DCM concentrations and becomes non-radiative at higher DCM concentrations

  19. Large scale 20mm photography for range resources analysis in the Western United States. [Casa Grande, Arizona, Mercury, Nevada, and Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Large scale 70mm aerial photography is a valuable supplementary tool for rangeland studies. A wide assortment of applications were developed varying from vegetation mapping to assessing environmental impact on rangelands. Color and color infrared stereo pairs are useful for effectively sampling sites limited by ground accessibility. They allow an increased sample size at similar or lower cost than ground sampling techniques and provide a permanent record.

  20. High-pressure {sup 3}He-Xe gas scintillators for simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays over a large energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W., E-mail: tornow@tunl.duke.edu [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Esterline, J.H. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Leckey, C.A. [Department of Physics, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Weisel, G.J. [Department of Physics, Penn State Altoona, Altoona, PA 16601 (United States)

    2011-08-11

    We report on features of high-pressure {sup 3}He-Xe gas scintillators which have not been sufficiently addressed in the past. Such gas scintillators can be used not only for the efficient detection of low-energy neutrons but at the same time for the detection and identification of {gamma}-rays as well. Furthermore, {sup 3}He-Xe gas scintillators are also very convenient detectors for fast neutrons in the 1-10 MeV energy range and for high-energy {gamma}-rays in the 7-15 MeV energy range. Due to their linear pulse-height response and self calibration via the {sup 3}He(n,p){sup 3}H reaction, neutron and {gamma}-ray energies can easily be determined in this high-energy regime.

  1. High-pressure 3He-Xe gas scintillators for simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays over a large energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Esterline, J.H.; Leckey, C.A.; Weisel, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on features of high-pressure 3 He-Xe gas scintillators which have not been sufficiently addressed in the past. Such gas scintillators can be used not only for the efficient detection of low-energy neutrons but at the same time for the detection and identification of γ-rays as well. Furthermore, 3 He-Xe gas scintillators are also very convenient detectors for fast neutrons in the 1-10 MeV energy range and for high-energy γ-rays in the 7-15 MeV energy range. Due to their linear pulse-height response and self calibration via the 3 He(n,p) 3 H reaction, neutron and γ-ray energies can easily be determined in this high-energy regime.

  2. Making Displaced Holograms At Two Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, William K.; Ecker, Andreas

    1989-01-01

    Two-wavelength holographic system augmented with pair of prisms to introduce small separation between holograms formed simultaneously at two wavelengths on holographic plate. Principal use in study of flows. Gradients in index of refraction of fluid caused by variations in temperature, concentration, or both. Holography at one wavelength cannot be used to distinguish between two types of variations. Difference between spacings of fringes in photographs reconstructed from holograms taken simultaneously at two different wavelengths manipulated mathematically to determine type of variation.

  3. Small fishes crossed a large mountain range: Quaternary stream capture events and freshwater fishes on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daemin; Hirt, M Vincent; Won, Yong-Jin; Simons, Andrew M

    2017-07-01

    The Taebaek Mountains in Korea serve as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in 2 distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are 5 rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L. taczanowskii and I. koreensis) on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Osip River and its neighboring rivers also shared a rheophilic freshwater fish, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, with the Nakdong River on the western side of the mountain range. We assessed historical biogeographic hypotheses on the presence of these rheophilic fishes, utilizing DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of our divergence time estimation indicate that ichthyofaunal transfers into the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers in East Sea slope) have occurred from the Han (Yellow Sea slope) and Nakdong (Korea Strait slope) Rivers since the Late Pleistocene. The inferred divergence times for the ichthyofaunal transfer across the Taebaek Mountains were consistent with the timing of hypothesized multiple reactivations of the Osip River Fault (Late Pleistocene), suggesting that the Osip River Fault reactivations may have caused stream capture events, followed by ichthyofaunal transfer, not only between the Osip and Nakdong Rivers, but also between the Osip and Han Rivers. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Ratkiewicz

    Full Text Available Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF, which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway or high habitat fragmentation (BPF. The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and

  5. High Ductility and Toughness of a Micro-duplex Medium-Mn Steel in a Large Temperature Range from -196 °C to 200 °C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si-lian; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2015-01-01

    A medium-Mn steel (0.2C5Mn) was processed by intercritical annealing at different temperatures (625 degrees C and 650 degrees C). An ultrafine-grained micro-duplex structure consisting of alternating austenite and ferrite laths was developed by austenite reverse transformation (ART) during...... intercritical annealing after forging and hot rolling. Ultrahigh ductility with a total elongation higher than 30% was achieved in the temperature range from - 196 degrees C to 200 degrees C and high impact toughness no less than 200 J at - 40 degrees C was obtained. Based on the analysis of microstructure...

  6. A meta-analysis of echocardiographic measurements of the left heart for the development of normative reference ranges in a large international cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    , from multiple studies around the world. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Echocardiographic Normal Ranges Meta-Analysis of the Left heart (EchoNoRMAL) collaboration was established and population-based data sets of echocardiographic measurements combined to perform an individual person data meta-analysis. Data...... from 43 studies were received, representing 51 222 subjects, of which 22 404 adults aged 18-80 years were without clinical cardiovascular or renal disease, hypertension or diabetes. Quantile regression or an appropriate parametric regression method will be used to derive reference values at the 5th...

  7. Highly sensitive digital optical sensor with large measurement range based on the dual-microring resonator with waveguide-coupled feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xing-Ye; Wang Kui-Ru; Yuan Jin-Hui; Jin Bo-Yuan; Sang Xin-Zhu; Yu Chong-Xiu

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel high-performance digital optical sensor based on the Mach—Zehnder interferential effect and the dual-microring resonators with the waveguide-coupled feedback. The simulation results show that the sensitivity of the sensor can be orders of magnitude higher than that of a conventional sensor, and high quality factor is not critical in it. Moreover, by optimizing the length of the feedback waveguide to be equal to the perimeter of the ring, the measurement range of the proposed sensor is twice as much as that of the conventional sensor in the weak coupling case

  8. Energy Dependence of Elliptic Flow over a Large Pseudorapidity Range in Au+Au Collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2005-04-01

    This Letter describes the measurement of the energy dependence of elliptic flow for charged particles in Au+Au collisions using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Data taken at collision energies of √(sNN)=19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV are shown over a wide range in pseudorapidity. These results, when plotted as a function of η'=|η|-ybeam, scale with approximate linearity throughout η', implying no sharp changes in the dynamics of particle production as a function of pseudorapidity or increasing beam energy.

  9. Long-wavelength microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1993-01-01

    Realistic kinetic toroidal eigenmode calculations have been carried out to support a proper assessment of the influence of long-wavelength microturbulence on transport in tokamak plasmas. In order to efficiently evaluate large-scale kinetic behavior extending over many rational surfaces, significant improvements have been made to a toroidal finite element code used to analyze the fully two-dimensional (r,θ) mode structures of trapped-ion and toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities. It is found that even at very long wavelengths, these eigenmodes exhibit a strong ballooning character with the associated radial structure relatively insensitive to ion Landau damping at the rational surfaces. In contrast to the long-accepted picture that the radial extent of trapped-ion instabilities is characterized by the ion-gyroradius-scale associated with strong localization between adjacent rational surfaces, present results demonstrate that under realistic conditions, the actual scale is governed by the large-scale variations in the equilibrium gradients. Applications to recent measurements of fluctuation properties in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Nucl. Fusion Res. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), Vol. 1, p. 29] L-mode plasmas indicate that the theoretical trends appear consistent with spectral characteristics as well as rough heuristic estimates of the transport level. Benchmarking calculations in support of the development of a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic code indicate reasonable agreement with respect to both the properties of the eigenfunctions and the magnitude of the eigenvalues during the linear phase of the simulations of toroidal ITG instabilities

  10. Agility of Felix Regarding Wavelength and Micropulse Shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R. J.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Oepts, D.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Anderegg, V.; van Son, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    The user-facility FELIX employs two FELs together covering the spectral range from 6.5 to 110 mum. Adjustment of the undulator strength permits wavelength tuning over a factor of two within two minutes while continuously providing several kilowatts of output power. As FELIX combines short electron

  11. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N. J.

    2014-02-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate constants. Modeling and physiological parameter estimation can be made more robust by consistent and reproducible injections through automation. An injection system previously developed by us was limited in the injectable volume to between 0.6 and 2.4 ml and injection was delayed due to a required syringe filling step. An improved MR-compatible injector system has been developed that measures the pH of injected substrate, uses flow control to reduce dead volume within the injection cannula and can be operated over a larger volume range. The delay time to injection has been minimized by removing the syringe filling step by use of a peristaltic pump. For 100 μl to 10.000 ml, the volume range typically used for mice to rabbits, the average delivered volume was 97.8% of the demand volume. The standard deviation of delivered volumes was 7 μl for 100 μl and 20 μl for 10.000 ml demand volumes (mean S.D. was 9 ul in this range). In three repeat injections through a fixed 0.96 mm O.D. tube the coefficient of variation for the area under the curve was 2%. For in vivo injections of hyperpolarized pyruvate in tumor-bearing rats, signal was first detected in the input femoral vein cannula at 3-4 s post-injection trigger signal and at 9-12 s in tumor tissue. The pH of the injected pyruvate was 7.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± S.D., n = 10). For small injection volumes, e.g. less than 100 μl, the internal diameter of the tubing contained within the peristaltic pump could be reduced to improve accuracy. Larger injection volumes are limited only by the size of the receiving vessel connected to the pump.

  12. Characterisation of the high dynamic range Large Pixel Detector (LPD) and its use at X-ray free electron laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, M. C.; Adkin, P.; Booker, P.; Coughlan, J.; French, M. J.; Hart, M.; Nicholls, T.; Schneider, A.; Seller, P.; Pape, I.; Sawhney, K.; Carini, G. A.; Hart, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have delivered the Large Pixel Detector (LPD) for MHz frame rate imaging at the European XFEL. The detector system has an active area of 0.5 m × 0.5 m and consists of a million pixels on a 500 μm pitch. Sensors have been produced from 500 μm thick Hammamatsu silicon tiles that have been bump bonded to the readout ASIC using a silver epoxy and gold stud technique. Each pixel of the detector system is capable of measuring 105 12 keV photons per image readout at 4.5 MHz. In this paper results from the testing of these detectors at the Diamond Light Source and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are presented. The performance of the detector in terms of linearity, spatial uniformity and the performance of the different ASIC gain stages is characterised.

  13. Revealing the extra-high ductility and toughness of micro+duplex medium+Mn steel in a large temperature range from 200 ℃ to -196 ℃

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Wenquan; Hu, Jun; Dong, Han

    2014-01-01

    A medium-Mn steel (0.2C5Mn) was processed by intercritical annealing at different temperature (625℃ and 650℃) after forging and hot rolling. The microstructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and the mechanical properties were measured by tensile tests and impact tests...... at different temperatures. It was found that an ultrafine grained micro-duplex structure existed with austenite and ferrite laths formed by means of an austenite reverse transformation during intercritical annealing (shortly called ART-annealing). Ultrahigh ductility (total elongation larger than 30%) could...... be obtained in the temperature range from 200℃ to -196℃. And significantly delayed transition from ductile to brittle and no less than 200J impact toughness at -40℃ could be obtained in the ART-annealed medium-Mn steel. Based on the analysis of microstructure and mechanical properties, the enhanced ductility...

  14. Wavelength-encoded OCDMA system using opto-VLSI processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 2.5 Gbits/sper user wavelength-encoded optical code-division multiple-access encoder-decoder structure based on opto-VLSI processing. Each encoder and decoder is constructed using a single 1D opto-very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) processor in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array of different Bragg wavelengths. The FBG array spectrally and temporally slices the broadband input pulse into several components and the opto-VLSI processor generates codewords using digital phase holograms. System performance is measured in terms of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  15. Wavelength-encoded OCDMA system using opto-VLSI processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 2.5 Gbits/sper user wavelength-encoded optical code-division multiple-access encoder-decoder structure based on opto-VLSI processing. Each encoder and decoder is constructed using a single 1D opto-very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) processor in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array of different Bragg wavelengths. The FBG array spectrally and temporally slices the broadband input pulse into several components and the opto-VLSI processor generates codewords using digital phase holograms. System performance is measured in terms of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  16. Measurement and modeling of low-wavelength losses in silica fibers and their impact at communication Wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Using the cutback technique, the attenuation of four different silica step-index fibers is measured in the very wide wavelength range of 190-1700 nm. The measured spectra are deconvolved into components describing Rayleigh scattering, infrared losses, Urbach edge, anomalous loss, and different...

  17. No, there is no 150 ms lead of visual speech on auditory speech, but a range of audiovisual asynchronies varying from small audio lead to large audio lag.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Schwartz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of neuroscience papers capitalize on the assumption published in this journal that visual speech would be typically 150 ms ahead of auditory speech. It happens that the estimation of audiovisual asynchrony in the reference paper is valid only in very specific cases, for isolated consonant-vowel syllables or at the beginning of a speech utterance, in what we call "preparatory gestures". However, when syllables are chained in sequences, as they are typically in most parts of a natural speech utterance, asynchrony should be defined in a different way. This is what we call "comodulatory gestures" providing auditory and visual events more or less in synchrony. We provide audiovisual data on sequences of plosive-vowel syllables (pa, ta, ka, ba, da, ga, ma, na showing that audiovisual synchrony is actually rather precise, varying between 20 ms audio lead and 70 ms audio lag. We show how more complex speech material should result in a range typically varying between 40 ms audio lead and 200 ms audio lag, and we discuss how this natural coordination is reflected in the so-called temporal integration window for audiovisual speech perception. Finally we present a toy model of auditory and audiovisual predictive coding, showing that visual lead is actually not necessary for visual prediction.

  18. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Unz, Ronald J.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m3/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  19. Large-Scale Nanophotonic Solar Selective Absorbers for High-Efficiency Solar Thermal Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Liu, Baoan; Ni, Yizhou; Liew, Kaiyang Kevin; Sze, Jeff; Chen, Shuo; Shen, Sheng

    2015-08-19

    An omnidirectional nanophotonic solar selective absorber is fabricated on a large scale using a template-stripping method. The nanopyramid nickel structure achieves an average absorptance of 95% at a wavelength range below 1.3 μm and a low emittance less than 10% at wavelength >2.5 μm. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Functional genomic mRNA profiling of a large cancer data base demonstrates mesothelin overexpression in a broad range of tumor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Laetitia E; de Groot, Derk Jan A; Bense, Rico D; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Fehrmann, Rudolf S N

    2015-09-29

    The membrane bound glycoprotein mesothelin (MSLN) is a highly specific tumor marker, which is currently exploited as target for drugs. There are only limited data available on MSLN expression by human tumors. Therefore we determined overexpression of MSLN across different tumor types with Functional Genomic mRNA (FGM) profiling of a large cancer database. Results were compared with data in articles reporting immunohistochemical (IHC) MSLN tumor expression. FGM profiling is a technique that allows prediction of biologically relevant overexpression of proteins from a robust data set of mRNA microarrays. This technique was used in a database comprising 19,746 tumors to identify for 41 tumor types the percentage of samples with an overexpression of MSLN compared to a normal background. A literature search was performed to compare the FGM profiling data with studies reporting IHC MSLN tumor expression. FGM profiling showed MSLN overexpression in gastrointestinal (12-36%) and gynecological tumors (20-66%), non-small cell lung cancer (21%) and synovial sarcomas (30%). The overexpression found in thyroid cancers (5%) and renal cell cancers (10%) was not yet reported with IHC analyses. We observed that MSLN amplification rate within esophageal cancer depends on the histotype (31% for adenocarcinomas versus 3% for squamous-cell carcinomas). Subset analysis in breast cancer showed MSLN amplification rates of 28% in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and 33% in basal-like breast cancer. Further subtype analysis of TNBCs showed the highest amplification rate (42%) in the basal-like 1 subtype and the lowest amplification rate (9%) in the luminal androgen receptor subtype.

  1. Long-range correlations, geometrical structure, and transport properties of macromolecular solutions. The equivalence of configurational statistics and geometrodynamics of large molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzasalma, Stefano A

    2007-12-04

    A special theory of Brownian relativity was previously proposed to describe the universal picture arising in ideal polymer solutions. In brief, it redefines a Gaussian macromolecule in a 4-dimensional diffusive spacetime, establishing a (weak) Lorentz-Poincaré invariance between liquid and polymer Einstein's laws for Brownian movement. Here, aimed at inquiring into the effect of correlations, we deepen the extension of the special theory to a general formulation. The previous statistical equivalence, for dynamic trajectories of liquid molecules and static configurations of macromolecules, and rather obvious in uncorrelated systems, is enlarged by a more general principle of equivalence, for configurational statistics and geometrodynamics. Accordingly, the three geodesic motion, continuity, and field equations could be rewritten, and a number of scaling behaviors were recovered in a spacetime endowed with general static isotropic metric (i.e., for equilibrium polymer solutions). We also dealt with universality in the volume fraction and, unexpectedly, found that a hyperscaling relation of the form, (average size) x (diffusivity) x (viscosity)1/2 ~f(N0, phi0) is fulfilled in several regimes, both in the chain monomer number (N) and polymer volume fraction (phi). Entangled macromolecular dynamics was treated as a geodesic light deflection, entaglements acting in close analogy to the field generated by a spherically symmetric mass source, where length fluctuations of the chain primitive path behave as azimuth fluctuations of its shape. Finally, the general transformation rule for translational and diffusive frames gives a coordinate gauge invariance, suggesting a widened Lorentz-Poincaré symmetry for Brownian statistics. We expect this approach to find effective applications to solutions of arbitrarily large molecules displaying a variety of structures, where the effect of geometry is more explicit and significant in itself (e.g., surfactants, lipids, proteins).

  2. Experimental verification of a very low crosstalk wavelength router construction using arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Peucheret, Christophe

    1999-01-01

    A very low crosstalk N×N wavelength router construction based on 1×N AWG multi/demultiplexers has been proposed. The peak crosstalk level of -53 dB is measured in such an 8×8 wavelength router and the power penalty from the router is negligible. Rather large wavelength routing networks can be built...

  3. Modeling the characteristic of the optical wavelength discriminator with fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Aleksandra

    2017-08-01

    Using the transfer matrix method, the influence of fiber Bragg gratings' (FBG) characteristics on the optical wavelength discriminator characteristics was analyzed. The wavelength discriminator forms FBG and cooperates with the identical FBG sensor. The calculation was made for uniform and chirped FBGs. The comparison of the discriminators processing range measurement was analyzed. Presented results are crucial while choosing parameters of FBG used in constructing optical wavelength discriminators for strain and pressure sensor.

  4. Experimental demonstration of novel cascaded SFG+DFG wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses in LiNbO 3 waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang; Luo, Chuanhong

    2006-06-01

    A novel cascaded χ (2) wavelength conversion of picosecond pulses based on sum frequency generation and difference frequency generation (SFG+DFG) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in LiNbO 3 waveguides. The signal pulse with 40-GHz repetition rate and 1.57-ps pulse width is adopted. First of all, high conversion efficiency about -18.93dB can be achieved with low power level required for both two pump lights, which is greatly enhanced approximately 8dB compared with the conventional cascaded second-order nonlinear interactions (SHG+DFG) with a single and much higher power pump. Secondly, the wavelength of the converted idler wave can be tuned from 1527.4 to 1540.5nm when the signal wavelength is changed from 1561.9 to 1548.4nm, and about 13.1nm converted idler bandwidth is achieved with the conversion efficiency higher than -31dB. Thirdly, two pump wavelengths can be separated as large as 17.3nm. Meanwhile, when one pump wavelength is fixed at 1549.1nm, the other can be tuned within a wide wavelength range about 7.6nm with the conversion efficiency higher than -34dB, which is much larger than that in the SHG+DFG situation. Finally, the temporal waveform of the converted idler pulse is observed with rather clear appearance achieved, and no obvious changes of the pulse shape and width are found compared with its corresponding original injected signal, showing that our proposed scheme exhibits a very good conversion performance.

  5. Metasurface axicon lens design at visible wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyammahi, Saleimah; Zhan, Qiwen

    2017-08-01

    The emerging field of metasurfaces is promising to realize novel optical devices with miniaturized flat format and added functionalities. Metasurfaces have been demonstrated to exhibit full control of amplitude, phase and polarization of electromagnetic waves. Using the metasurface, the wavefront of light can be manipulated permitting new functionalities such as focusing and steering of the beams and imaging. One optical component which can be designed using metasurfaces is the axicon. Axicons are conical lenses used to convert Gaussian beams into nondiffraction Bessel beams. These unique devices are utilized in different applications ranging from optical trapping and manipulation, medical imaging, and surgery. In this work, we study axicon lens design comprising of planar metasurfaces which generate non-diffracting Bessel beams at visible wavelengths. Dielectric metasurfaces have been used to achieve high efficiency and low optical loss. We measured the spot size of the resulted beams at different planes to demonstrate the non-diffraction properties of the resulted beams. We also investigated how the spot size is influenced by the axicon aperture. Furthermore, we examined the achromatic properties of the designed axicon. Comparing with the conventional lens, the metasurface axicon lens design enables the creation of flat optical device with wide range of depth of focus along its optical axis.

  6. Effective wavelength calibration for moire fringe projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, Daryl; Davies, Angela; Farahi, Faramarz

    2006-01-01

    The fringe patterns seen when using moire instruments are similar to the patterns seen in traditional interferometry but differ in the spacing between consecutive fringes. In traditional interferometry, the spacing is constant and related to the wavelength of the source. In moire fringe projection, the spacing (the effective wavelength) may not be constant over the field of view and the spacing depends on the system geometry. In these cases, using a constant effective wavelength over the field of view causes inaccurate surface height measurements. We examine the calibration process of the moirefringe projection measurement, which takes this varying wavelength into account to produce a pixel-by-pixel wavelength map. The wavelength calibration procedure is to move the object in the out-of-plane direction a known distance until every pixel intensity value goes through at least one cycle. A sinusoidal function is then fit to the data to extract the effective wavelength pixel by pixel, yielding an effective wavelength map. A calibrated step height was used to validate the effective wavelength map with results within 1% of the nominal value of the step height. The error sources that contributed to the uncertainty in determining the height of the artifact are also investigated

  7. Enhanced UV light detection using wavelength-shifting properties of Silicon nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, S.; Xie, J.; Nayfeh, M.; Fizari, M.; Malloy, J.; Maximenko, Y.; Yu, H.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of UV photons is becoming increasingly necessary with the use of noble gases and liquids in elementary particle experiments. Cerenkov light in crystals and glasses, scintillation light in neutrino, dark matter, and rare decay experiments all require sensitivity to UV photons. New sensor materials are needed that can directly detect UV photons and/or absorb UV photons and re-emit light in the visible range measurable by existing photosensors. It has been shown that silicon nanoparticles are sensitive to UV light in a wavelength range around ∼ 200 nm. UV light is absorbed and re-emitted at wavelengths in the visible range depending on the size of the nanoparticles. Initial tests of the wavelength-shifting properties of silicon nanoparticles are presented here that indicate by placing a film of nanoparticles in front of a standard visible-wavelength detecting photosensor, the response of the sensor is significantly enhanced at wavelengths < 320 nm

  8. Polarization measurement by use of discrete space-variant sub wavelength dielectric gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biener, G.; Niv, A.; Gorodetski, Yu.; Kleiner, V.; Hasman, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Polarization measurement has been widely used for a large range of applications such as ellipsometry bio-imaging, imaging polarimetry and optical communications. A commonly used method is measuring of the time-dependent signal once the beam is transmitted through a photoelastic modulator or a rotating quarter-wave plate followed by an analyzer. The polarization state of the beam can be derived by Fourier analysis of the detected signal. This method, however, requires a sequence of consecutive measurements, thus making it impractical for real-time polarization measurement in an application such as adaptive polarization-mode dispersion compensation in optical communications. Recently, we developed a novel method for real-time polarization measurement by use of a discrete space-variant sub wavelength dielectric grating (DSG). The formation of the grating is done by discrete orientation of the local sub wavelength grooves. The complete polarization analysis of the incident beam is determined by spatial Fourier transform of the near-field intensity distribution transmitted through the DSG followed by a sub wavelength metal polarizer. We realized the gratings for CO 2 laser radiation at a wavelength of 10.6 micron on GaAs substrate utilizing advanced photo lithographic and etching techniques. We experimentally demonstrated the ability of our method to measure the polarization state for fully and partially polarized light. Unlike other methods based on Fourier analysis, no active elements are required. It is possible to integrate our polarimeter on a two-dimensional detector array for lab-on chip applications to achieve a high-throughput and low-cost commercial polarimeter for bio sensing. Currently we are investigating the possibility of using far-field measurement of the beam emerging from a DSG for polarization measurement

  9. THE EFFICIENCY AND WAVELENGTH DEPENDENCE OF NEAR-INFRARED INTERSTELLAR POLARIZATION TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Hirofumi; Kurita, Mikio; Kanai, Saori; Sato, Shuji [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nishiyama, Shogo; Nakajima, Yasushi; Tamura, Motohide; Kandori, Ryo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8858 (Japan); Nagata, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kato, Daisuke [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sato, Yaeko; Suenaga, Takuya, E-mail: hattan@z.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: shogo.nishiyama@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astronomical Sciences, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8858 (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    Near-infrared polarimetric imaging observations toward the Galactic center (GC) have been carried out to examine the efficiency and wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization. A total area of about 5.7 deg{sup 2} is covered in the J, H, and K{sub S} bands. We examined the polarization efficiency, defined as the ratio of the degree of polarization to color excess. The interstellar medium between the GC and us shows a polarization efficiency lower than that in the Galactic disk by a factor of three. Moreover we investigated the spatial variation of the polarization efficiency by comparing it with that of the color excess, degree of polarization, and position angle. The spatial variations of color excess and degree of polarization depend on the Galactic latitude, while the polarization efficiency varies independently of the Galactic structure. Position angles are nearly parallel to the Galactic plane, indicating a longitudinal magnetic field configuration between the GC and us. The polarization efficiency anticorrelates with dispersions of position angles. The low polarization efficiency and its spatial variation can be explained by the differences in the magnetic field directions along the line of sight. From the lower polarization efficiency, we suggest a higher strength of a random component relative to a uniform component of the magnetic field between the GC and us. We also derived the ratios of degree of polarization p{sub H} /p{sub J} = 0.581 {+-} 0.004 and p{sub K{sub S}}/p{sub H} = 0.620 {+-} 0.002. The power-law indices of the wavelength dependence of polarization are {beta}{sub JH} = 2.08 {+-} 0.02 and {beta}{sub HK{sub S}} = 1.76 {+-} 0.01. Therefore, the wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization exhibits flattening toward longer wavelengths in the range of 1.25-2.14 {mu}m. The flattening would be caused by aligned large-size dust grains.

  10. Galaxy modelling. II. Multi-wavelength faint counts from a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, J. E. G.; Guiderdoni, B.

    2000-11-01

    This paper predicts self-consistent faint galaxy counts from the UV to the submm wavelength range. The stardust spectral energy distributions described in Devriendt et al. \\citeparyear{DGS99} (Paper I) are embedded within the explicit cosmological framework of a simple semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution. We begin with a description of the non-dissipative and dissipative collapses of primordial perturbations, and plug in standard recipes for star formation, stellar evolution and feedback. We also model the absorption of starlight by dust and its re-processing in the IR and submm. We then build a class of models which capture the luminosity budget of the universe through faint galaxy counts and redshift distributions in the whole wavelength range spanned by our spectra. In contrast with a rather stable behaviour in the optical and even in the far-IR, the submm counts are dramatically sensitive to variations in the cosmological parameters and changes in the star formation history. Faint submm counts are more easily accommodated within an open universe with a low value of Omega_0 , or a flat universe with a non-zero cosmological constant. We confirm the suggestion of Guiderdoni et al. \\citeparyear{GHBM98} that matching the current multi-wavelength data requires a population of heavily-extinguished, massive galaxies with large star formation rates ( ~ 500 M_sun yr-1) at intermediate and high redshift (z >= 1.5). Such a population of objects probably is the consequence of an increase of interaction and merging activity at high redshift, but a realistic quantitative description can only be obtained through more detailed modelling of such processes. This study illustrates the implementation of multi-wavelength spectra into a semi-analytic model. In spite of its simplicity, it already provides fair fits of the current data of faint counts, and a physically motivated way of interpolating and extrapolating these data to other wavelengths and fainter flux

  11. Multiplexing 32,000 spectra onto 8 detectors: the HARMONI field splitting, image slicing, and wavelength selecting optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Clarke, Fraser; Freeman, David; Kosmalski, Johan

    2012-09-01

    HARMONI, the High Angular Resolution Monolithic Optical & Near-infrared Integral field spectrograph is one of two first-light instruments for the European Extremely Large Telescope. Over a 256x128 pixel field-of-view HARMONI will simultaneously measure approximately 32,000 spectra. Each spectrum is about 4000 spectral pixels long, and covers a selectable part of the 0.47-2.45 μm wavelength range at resolving powers of either R≍4000, 10000, or 20000. All 32,000 spectra are imaged onto eight HAWAII4RG detectors using a multiplexing scheme that divides the input field into four sub-fields, each imaged onto one image slicer that in turn re-arranges a single sub-field into two long exit slits feeding one spectrograph each. In total we require eight spectrographs, each with one HAWAII4RG detector. A system of articulated and exchangeable fold-mirrors and VPH gratings allows one to select different spectral resolving powers and wavelength ranges of interest while keeping a fixed geometry between the spectrograph collimator and camera avoiding the need for an articulated grating and camera. In this paper we describe both the field splitting and image slicing optics as well as the optics that will be used to select both spectral resolving power and wavelength range.

  12. 100G shortwave wavelength division multiplexing solutions for multimode fiber data links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Bruno; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Guillermo Arturo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate an alternative 100G solution for optical short-range data center links. The presented solution adopts wavelength division multiplexing technology to transmit four channels of 25G over a multimode fiber. A comparative performance analysis of the wavelength-grid selection for the wav...

  13. Sexual dimorphism of short-wavelength photoreceptors in the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikawa, K; Wakakuwa, M; Qiu, XD; Kurasawa, M; Stavenga, DG; Qiu, Xudong

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of the female small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, are furnished with three classes of short-wavelength photoreceptors, with sensitivity peaks in the ultraviolet (UV) (lambda(max) = 360 nm), violet (V) (lambda max = 425 nm), and blue (B) (lambda(max) = 453 nm) wavelength range.

  14. Reflective variable optical attenuators and fibre ring lasers for wavelength-division multiplexing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He Liang

    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical fibre system is an important enabling technology to fulfill the demands for bandwidth in the modern information age. The main objective of this project is to study novel devices with the potential to enhance the performance of WDM systems. In particular, a novel reflective variable optical attenuator (RVOA) used for dynamic gain equalization (DGE) and fibre lasers based on an entirely new type of erbium-doped fibres with ultrawide tuning range were investigated theoretically and experimentally. We proposed a new type of RVOA device which could be potentially integrated with arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) to reduce the cost of DGE substantially. Initially, fibre-based RVOAs, fabricated with optical fibre components such as fibre coupler and Faraday rotator mirror, were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Larger attenuation range up to 22 dB was realized for fibre coupler-based ROVA with a Faraday rotator mirror and its polarization-dependent loss is about 0.5 dB. Then polymeric waveguide-based RVOAs were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Using an epoxy Novolak resin as core material and an UV-cured resin (Norland's NOA61) as cladding material, a polymeric waveguide RVOA was successfully fabricated. The dynamic 15 dB attenuation range was achieved and the PDL was less than 0.2 dB. The measured insertion loss of the polymeric waveguide RVOA was too large (about 18 dB) and was mainly induced by coupling loss, material loss and poor alignment. In the second part of the study, fibre ring lasers with continuous wavelength tuning over wide wavelength range and fibre ring lasers with discrete wavelength tuning were investigated. Tunable lasers are important devices in WDM systems because they could be employed as reserved sources and therefore avoiding the need to stock large inventory of lasers to cover the ITU-wavelength grid. In this project, erbium ions doped bismuth oxide glass fibres instead of

  15. Wavelength-Dependent Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy: Selectively Imaging Nanoparticle Probes in Live Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning; and Yeung, Edward S.

    2009-11-15

    Gold and silver nanoparticles display extraordinarily large apparent refractive indices near their plasmon resonance (PR) wavelengths. These nanoparticles show good contrast in a narrow spectral band but are poorly resolved at other wavelengths in differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The wavelength dependence of DIC contrast of gold/silver nanoparticles is interpreted in terms of Mie's theory and DIC working principles. We further exploit this wavelength dependence by modifying a DIC microscope to enable simultaneous imaging at two wavelengths. We demonstrate that gold/silver nanoparticles immobilized on the same glass slides through hybridization can be differentiated and imaged separately. High-contrast, video-rate images of living cells can be recorded both with and without illuminating the gold nanoparticle probes, providing definitive probe identification. Dual-wavelength DIC microscopy thus presents a new approach to the simultaneous detection of multiple probes of interest for high-speed live-cell imaging.

  16. Synchronous optical packet switch architecture with tunable single and multi-channels wavelength converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Haitham S.; Adel, Reham

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a bufferless synchronous optical packet switch (OPS) architecture named the Limited-range wavelength conversion with Dynamic Pump-wavelength Selection (LDPS) architecture. LDPS is equipped with a dedicated limited-range wavelength converters (LRWCs, and a shared pool of parametric wavelength converters (PWCs) with dynamic pump-wavelength selection (DPS). The adoption of hybrid conversion types in the proposed architecture aims at improving the packet loss rate (PLR) compared to conventional architecture with single conversion types, while reducing (or at least maintaining) the conversion distance (d) of used wavelength converters. Packet contention in the proposed architecture is resolved using the first available algorithm (FAA) and the dynamic pump-wavelength selection algorithm (DPSA). The performance of the proposed architecture is compared to two well-known conventional architectures; namely, the LRWC architecture that uses dedicated LRWCS for each input wavelength, and the DPS architecture that uses a shared pool of dynamic pump-wavelength converters (PWCs). Simulation results show that, for the same value of d, the new architecture reduces the PLR compared to the LRWC architecture by up to 40 % and 99.7 % for traffic loads, 0.5 and 1; respectively. In addition, for d = 1 , the new architecture reduces the PLR compared to the DPS architecture by up to 10 % and 99.3 % for traffic loads, 0.5 and 1; respectively.

  17. Wavelength scaling of laser plasma coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of shorter wavelength laser light both enhances collisional absorption and reduces deleterious collective plasma effects. Coupling processes which can be important in reactor-size targets are briefly reviewed. Simple estimates are presented for the intensity-wavelength regime in which collisional absorption is high and collective effects are minimized

  18. Underwater Ranging

    OpenAIRE

    S. P. Gaba

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with underwater laser ranging system, its principle of operation and maximum depth capability. The sources of external noise and methods to improve signal-to-noise ratio are also discussed.

  19. Wavelength-independent all-fiber mode converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K; Leon-Saval, S G; Witkowska, A; Wadsworth, W J; Birks, T A

    2007-02-15

    We have used two different photonic crystal fiber (PCF) techniques to make all-fiber mode converters. An LP(01) to LP(11) mode converter was made by the ferrule technique on a drawing tower, and an LP(01) to LP(02) mode converter was made by controlled hole inflation of an existing PCF on a tapering rig. Both devices rely on adiabatic propagation rather than resonant coupling; so high extinction was achieved across a wide wavelength range.

  20. CO ICE PHOTODESORPTION: A WAVELENGTH-DEPENDENT STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle, Edith C.; Linnartz, Harold; Bertin, Mathieu; Romanzin, Claire; Michaut, Xavier; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Oeberg, Karin I.

    2011-01-01

    UV-induced photodesorption of ice is a non-thermal evaporation process that can explain the presence of cold molecular gas in a range of interstellar regions. Information on the average UV photodesorption yield of astrophysically important ices exists for broadband UV lamp experiments. UV fields around low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, around shocks and in many other astrophysical environments are however often dominated by discrete atomic and molecular emission lines. It is therefore crucial to consider the wavelength dependence of photodesorption yields and mechanisms. In this work, for the first time, the wavelength-dependent photodesorption of pure CO ice is explored between 90 and 170 nm. The experiments are performed under ultra high vacuum conditions using tunable synchrotron radiation. Ice photodesorption is simultaneously probed by infrared absorption spectroscopy in reflection mode of the ice and by quadrupole mass spectrometry of the gas phase. The experimental results for CO reveal a strong wavelength dependence directly linked to the vibronic transition strengths of CO ice, implying that photodesorption is induced by electronic transition (DIET). The observed dependence on the ice absorption spectra implies relatively low photodesorption yields at 121.6 nm (Lyα), where CO barely absorbs, compared to the high yields found at wavelengths coinciding with transitions into the first electronic state of CO (A 1 Π at 150 nm); the CO photodesorption rates depend strongly on the UV profiles encountered in different star formation environments.

  1. Measurement of long-range multiparticle azimuthal correlations with the subevent cumulant method in p p and p +Pb collisions with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Abidi, S. H.; Abouzeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adachi, S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adelman, J.; Adersberger, M.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Afik, Y.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agheorghiesei, C.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akatsuka, S.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akilli, E.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albicocco, P.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Alderweireldt, S. C.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alshehri, A. A.; Alstaty, M. I.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Angerami, A.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antel, C.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antrim, D. J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Araujo Ferraz, V.; Arce, A. T. H.; Ardell, R. E.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahmani, M.; Bahrasemani, H.; Baines, J. T.; Bajic, M.; Baker, O. K.; Bakker, P. J.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M.-S.; Barkeloo, J. T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beck, H. C.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beermann, T. A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernardi, G.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Bethani, A.; Bethke, S.; Betti, A.; Bevan, A. J.; Beyer, J.; Bianchi, R. M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Billoud, T. R. V.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bisanz, T.; Bittrich, C.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blue, A.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bolz, A. E.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozson, A. J.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Braren, F.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Briglin, D. L.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, L. S.; Bruno, S.; Brunt, B. H.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burch, T. J.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burger, A. M.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cai, H.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carlson, B. T.; Carminati, L.; Carney, R. M. D.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrá, S.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castelijn, R.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Celebi, E.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, W. S.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, J.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, K.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chiu, Y. H.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, Y. S.; Christodoulou, V.; Chu, M. C.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, F.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Creager, R. A.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cueto, A.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cukierman, A. R.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Czekierda, S.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Amen, G.; D'Auria, S.; D'Eramo, L.; D'Onofrio, M.; da Cunha Sargedas de Sousa, M. J.; da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Daneri, M. F.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Daubney, T.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davis, D. R.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; de, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Benedetti, A.; de Castro, S.; de Cecco, S.; de Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; de la Torre, H.; de Lorenzi, F.; de Maria, A.; de Pedis, D.; de Salvo, A.; de Sanctis, U.; de Santo, A.; de Vasconcelos Corga, K.; de Vivie de Regie, J. B.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; Della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delporte, C.; Delsart, P. A.; Demarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Devesa, M. R.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; di Bello, F. A.; di Ciaccio, A.; di Ciaccio, L.; di Clemente, W. K.; di Donato, C.; di Girolamo, A.; di Girolamo, B.; di Micco, B.; di Nardo, R.; di Petrillo, K. F.; di Simone, A.; di Sipio, R.; di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Díez Cornell, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; Do Vale, M. A. 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T.; Mengarelli, A.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Merlassino, C.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Messina, A.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, J.-P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, H.; Miano, F.; Middleton, R. P.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuž, M.; Milesi, M.; Milic, A.; Millar, D. A.; Miller, D. W.; Mills, C.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Minaenko, A. A.; Minami, Y.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Minegishi, Y.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mirto, A.; Mistry, K. P.; Mitani, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Miucci, A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mizukami, A.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mlynarikova, M.; Moa, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Mogg, P.; Mohapatra, S.; Molander, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Mondragon, M. C.; Mönig, K.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montalbano, A.; Montejo Berlingen, J.; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R. 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S.; Neumann, M.; Newman, P. R.; Ng, T. Y.; Nguyen Manh, T.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforou, N.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, J. K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nishu, N.; Nisius, R.; Nitsche, I.; Nitta, T.; Nobe, T.; Noguchi, Y.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nomura, M. A.; Nooney, T.; Nordberg, M.; Norjoharuddeen, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O'Connor, K.; O'Neil, D. C.; O'Rourke, A. A.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Obermann, T.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Ochoa, I.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohman, H.; Oide, H.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Oleiro Seabra, L. F.; Olivares Pino, S. A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onogi, K.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oppen, H.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero Y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Pacheco Rodriguez, L.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganini, M.; Paige, F.; Palacino, G.; Palazzo, S.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Panagiotopoulou, E. St.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, A. J.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pascuzzi, V. R.; Pasner, J. M.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, Fr.; Pataraia, S.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearson, B.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penwell, J.; Peralva, B. S.; Perego, M. M.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Peri, F.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrov, M.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Peyaud, A.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, F. H.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Pluth, D.; Podberezko, P.; Poettgen, R.; Poggi, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pogrebnyak, I.; Pohl, D.; Pokharel, I.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Ponomarenko, D.; Pontecorvo, L.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Portillo Quintero, D. M.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potti, H.; Poulsen, T.; Poveda, J.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. 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F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Salek, D.; Sales de Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sampsonidou, D.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sanchez Pineda, A.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, C. O.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sano, Y.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sato, K.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Savic, N.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schachtner, B. M.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, L.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schier, S.; Schildgen, L. K.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K. R.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schott, M.; Schouwenberg, J. F. P.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schuh, N.; Schulte, A.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Sciandra, A.; Sciolla, G.; Scornajenghi, M.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Senkin, S.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Shen, Y.; Sherafati, N.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Shirabe, S.; Shiyakova, M.; Shlomi, J.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shope, D. R.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sickles, A. M.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sideras Haddad, E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, L.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Siral, I.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Skinner, M. B.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smiesko, J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, J. W.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snyder, I. M.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Søgaard, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans Sanchez, C. A.; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Sopczak, A.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Sottocornola, S.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spieker, T. M.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapf, B. S.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Stark, S. H.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stärz, S.; Staszewski, R.; Stegler, M.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, T. J.; Stewart, G. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultan, D. M. S.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Suruliz, K.; Suster, C. J. E.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Swift, S. P.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Tahirovic, E.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takasugi, E. H.; Takeda, K.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanioka, R.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, A. J.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thais, S. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thiele, F.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Tian, Y.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Todt, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Tornambe, P.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Treado, C. J.; Trefzger, T.; Tresoldi, F.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsang, K. W.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tu, Y.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tulbure, T. T.; Tuna, A. N.; Turchikhin, S.; Turgeman, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Uno, K.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usui, J.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vadla, K. O. H.; Vaidya, A.; Valderanis, C.; Valdes Santurio, E.; Valente, M.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valéry, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallier, A.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van den Wollenberg, W.; van der Graaf, H.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varni, C.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vasquez, G. A.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Furelos, D.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viaux Maira, N.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vishwakarma, A.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, Q.; Wang, R.-J.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, W.; Wang, Z.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, A. F.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. M.; Weber, S. W.; Weber, S. A.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weirich, M.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Weston, T. D.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A. S.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Whitmore, B. W.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkels, E.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wobisch, M.; Wolf, A.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolff, R.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, V. W. S.; Woods, N. L.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xi, Z.; Xia, L.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Xu, T.; Xu, W.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamane, F.; Yamatani, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yigitbasi, E.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zacharis, G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zemaityte, G.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zou, R.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    A detailed study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations is presented using p p data at √{s }=5.02 and 13 TeV, and p +Pb data at √{sNN}=5.02 TeV, recorded with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The azimuthal correlations are probed using four-particle cumulants cn{4 } and flow coefficients vn{4 } =(-cn{4 } ) 1 /4 for n =2 and 3, with the goal of extracting long-range multiparticle azimuthal correlation signals and suppressing the short-range correlations. The values of cn{4 } are obtained as a function of the average number of charged particles per event, Nch>">Nch, using the recently proposed two-subevent and three-subevent cumulant methods, and compared with results obtained with the standard cumulant method. The standard method is found to be strongly biased by short-range correlations, which originate mostly from jets with a positive contribution to cn{4 } . The three-subevent method, on the other hand, is found to be least sensitive to short-range correlations. The three-subevent method gives a negative c2{4 } , and therefore a well-defined v2{4 } , nearly independent of range multiparticle azimuthal correlations persist to events with low multiplicity. Furthermore, v2{4 } is found to be smaller than the v2{2 } measured using the two-particle correlation method, as expected for long-range collective behavior. Finally, the measured values of v2{4 } and v2{2 } are used to estimate the number of sources relevant for the initial eccentricity in the collision geometry. The results based on the subevent cumulant technique provide direct evidence, in small collision systems, for a long-range collectivity involving many particles distributed across a broad rapidity interval.

  2. Influence of laser wavelength on the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement of thin CuIn1−xGaxSe2 solar cell films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kyu; In, Jung Hwan; Lee, Seok Hee; Jeong, Sungho

    2013-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurement of thin CuIn x Ga 1−x Se 2 (CIGS) films (1.2–1.9 μm) with varying Ga to In ratios was carried out using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelength Nd:YAG lasers (τ = 5 ns, spot diameter = 150 μm, top-hat profile) in air. The concentration ratios of Ga to In, x Ga ≡ Ga/(Ga + In), of the CIGS samples ranged from 0.027 to 0.74 for which the band gap varied nearly proportionally to x Ga from 0.96 to 1.42. It was found that the LIBS signal of 1064 nm (1.17 eV) wavelength laser was significantly influenced by x Ga , whereas that of the 532 nm (2.34 eV) laser was consistent for all values of x Ga . The observed dependency of the LIBS signal intensity on the laser wavelength was attributed to the large difference of photon energy of the two wavelengths that changed the absorption of incident laser energy by the film. The 532 nm wavelength was found to be advantageous for multi-shot analysis that enabled depth profile analysis of the thin CIGS films and for improving measurement precision by averaging the multi-shot LIBS spectra. - Highlights: • The ablation characteristics of CIGS solar cell films change drastically with laser wavelength. • The LIBS signal intensity of 1064 nm wavelength laser depends strongly on Ga concentration. • Multi-shot LIBS analysis using a 532 nm laser is more advantageous for accuracy and consistency

  3. On the potential of long wavelength imaging radars for mapping vegetation types and woody biomass in tropical rain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Zimmermann, Reiner; Oren, Ram

    1995-01-01

    In the tropical rain forests of Manu, in Peru, where forest biomass ranges from 4 kg/sq m in young forest succession up to 100 kg/sq m in old, undisturbed floodplain stands, the P-band polarimetric radar data gathered in June of 1993 by the AIRSAR (Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar) instrument separate most major vegetation formations and also perform better than expected in estimating woody biomass. The worldwide need for large scale, updated biomass estimates, achieved with a uniformly applied method, as well as reliable maps of land cover, justifies a more in-depth exploration of long wavelength imaging radar applications for tropical forests inventories.

  4. Multi-wavelength lasers using AWGs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Multiwavelength lasers using AWGs can be used as digitally tunable lasers with simple channel selection, and for generating multiple wavelengths simultanously. In this paper a number of different configurations is reviewed.

  5. Accelerator physics and radiometric properties of superconducting wavelength shifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is the operation of wave-length shifters at electron storage rings and their use in radiometry. The basic aspects of the radiometry, the technical requirements, the influence of wave-length shifters on the storage ring, and results of first measurements are presented for a device installed at BESSY. Most of the calculations are carried out by the program WAVE, which has been developed within this thesis. WAVE allows to calculate the synchrotron radiation spectra of wavelength shifters within an relative uncertainty of 1/100000. The properties of wave-length shifters in terms of accelerator physics as well as a generating function for symplectic tracking calculations can also be calculated by WAVE. The later was implemented in the tracking code BETA to investigate the influence of insertion devices on the dynamic aperture and emittance of the storage ring. These studies led to the concept of alternating low- and high-beta-sections at BESSY-II, which allow to operate superconducting insertion devices without a significant distortion of the magnetic optics. To investigate the experimental aspects of the radiometry at wave-length shifters, a program based on the Monte-Carlo-code GEANT4 has been developed. It allows to simulate the radiometrical measurements and the absorption properties of detectors. With the developed codes first radiometrical measurements by the PTB have been analysed. A comparison of measurements and calculations show a reasonable agreement with deviations of about five percent in the spectral range of 40-60 keV behind a 1-mm-Cu filter. A better agreement was found between 20 keV and 80 keV without Cu filter. In this case the measured data agreed within a systematic uncertainty of two percent with the results of the calculations. (orig.)

  6. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharti, Vineet [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Wasan, Ajay [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Natarajan, Vasant [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-07-15

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch—near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers. - Highlights: • Wavelength mismatch effect is investigated in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). • An experimental realization of 4-level vee + ladder system using energy levels of rubidium atom is presented. • EIA resonances are studied under different conditions of wavelength mismatch. • Possibility of observation of EIA using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  7. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Vineet; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch—near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers. - Highlights: • Wavelength mismatch effect is investigated in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). • An experimental realization of 4-level vee + ladder system using energy levels of rubidium atom is presented. • EIA resonances are studied under different conditions of wavelength mismatch. • Possibility of observation of EIA using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  8. Swift Multi-wavelength Observing Campaigns: Strategies and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, Hans A.

    2007-01-01

    The Swift gamma-ray burst explorer has been operating since December 2004 as both a gamma-ray burst (GRB) monitor and telescope and a multi-wavelength observatory, covering the energy range from V band and near UV to hard X rays above 150 keV. It is designed to rapidly repoint to observe newly discovered GRBs, and this maneuverability, combined with an easily changed observing program, allows Swift to also be an effective multiwavelength observatory for non-GRB targets, both as targets of opportunity and pre-planned multi-wavelength observing campaigns. Blazars are particularly attractive targets for coordinated campaigns with TeV experiments since many blazars are bright in both the hard X-ray and TeV energy ranges. Successful coordinated campaigns have included observations of 3C454.3 during its 2005 outburst. The latest Swift funding cycles allow for non- GRB related observations to be proposed. The Burst Alert Telescope on Swift also serves as a hard X-ray monitor with a public web page that includes light curves for over 400 X-ray sources and is used to alert the astronomical community about increased activity from both known and newly discovered sources. This presentation mill include Swift capabilities, strategies and policies for coordinated multi-wavelength observations as well as discussion of the potential outcomes of such campaigns.

  9. Wavelength and ambient luminance dependence of laser eye dazzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Craig A; McLin, Leon N; Rickman, J Michael; Manka, Michael A; Garcia, Paul V; Kinerk, Wesley T; Smith, Peter A

    2017-10-10

    A series of experiments has been conducted to quantify the effects of laser wavelength and ambient luminance on the severity of laser eye dazzle experienced by human subjects. Eight laser wavelengths in the visible spectrum were used (458-647 nm) across a wide range of ambient luminance conditions (0.1-10,000  cd·m -2 ). Subjects were exposed to laser irradiance levels up to 600  μW·cm -2 and were asked to recognize the orientation of optotypes at varying eccentricities up to 31.6 deg of visual angle from the laser axis. More than 40,000 data points were collected from 14 subjects (ages 23-64), and these were consolidated into a series of obscuration angles for comparison to a theoretical model of laser eye dazzle. Scaling functions were derived to allow the model to predict the effects of laser dazzle on vision more accurately by including the effects of ambient luminance and laser wavelength. The updated model provides an improved match to observed laser eye dazzle effects across the full range of conditions assessed. The resulting model will find use in a variety of laser safety applications, including the estimation of maximum dazzle exposure and nominal ocular dazzle distance values.

  10. Single Mode Fiber Optic Transceiver Using Short Wavelength Active Devices In Long Wavelength Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Frederick J.; Campbell, Daniel R.; Corke, Michael; Stowe, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Presently, single mode optical fiber technology is being utilized in systems to supply telephone service to the subscriber. However, in an attempt to be competitive with copper based systems, there are many development programs underway to determine the most cost effective solution while still providing a service that will either satisfy or be upgradeable to satisfy the demands of the consumer for the next 10 to 20 years. One such approach is to combine low cost laser transmitters and silicon receivers, which have been developed for the "compact disc" industry, with fiber that operates in the single mode regime at 1300 nm. In this paper, an optical transceiver will be presented, consisting of a compact disc laser, a silicon detector and a single mode coupler at 1300 nm. A possible system layout is presented which operates at 780 nm bi-directionally for POTS and upgradeable to 1300 nm for video services. There are several important design criteria that have to be considered in the development of such a system which will be addressed. These include: 1. Optimization of coupled power from laser to fiber while maintaining stable launched conditions over a wide range of environmental conditions. 2. Consideration of the multimode operation of the 1300 nm single mode fiber while operating in the 780 nm wavelength region. 3. Development of a low cost pseudo-wavelength division multiplexer for 1300 nm single mode/780 nm multimode operation and a low cost dual mode 50/50, 780 nm splitter using 1300 nm fiber. Details will be given of the design criteria and solution in terms of optimized design. Results of the performance of several prototype devices will be given with indications of the merits of this approach and where further development effort should be applied.

  11. Critical de Broglie wavelength in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talantsev, E. F.

    2018-03-01

    There are growing numbers of experimental evidences that the self-field critical currents, Jc(sf,T), are a new instructive tool to investigate fundamental properties of superconductors ranging from atomically thin films [M. Liao et al., Nat. Phys. 6 (2018), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41567-017-0031-6; E. F. Talantsev et al., 2D Mater. 4 (2017) 025072; A. Fete et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 109 (2016) 192601] to millimeter-scale samples [E. F. Talantsev et al., Sci. Rep. 7 (2017) 10010]. The basic empirical equation which quantitatively accurately described experimental Jc(sf,T) was proposed by Talantsev and Tallon [Nat. Commun. 6 (2015) 7820] and it was the relevant critical field (i.e. thermodynamic field, Bc, for type-I and lower critical field, Bc1, for type-II superconductors) divided by the London penetration depth, λL. In this paper, we report new findings relating to this empirical equation. It is that the critical wavelength of the de Broglie wave, λdB,c, of the superconducting charge carrier which within a numerical pre-factor is equal to the largest of two characteristic lengths of Ginzburg-Landau theory, i.e. the coherence length, ξ, for type-I superconductors or the London penetration depth, λL, for type-II superconductors. We also formulate a microscopic criterion for the onset of dissipative transport current flow: ps ṡ 2ṡλL ln(1+2ṡ(λL ξ )) ≥ 1 2 ṡ ( h 2π), where ps is the charge carrier momentum, h is Planck’s constant and the inequality sign “ <” is reserved for the dissipation-free flow.

  12. A 12 GHz wavelength spacing multi-wavelength laser source for wireless communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P. C.; Shiu, R. K.; Bitew, M. A.; Chang, T. L.; Lai, C. H.; Junior, J. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a multi-wavelength laser source with 12 GHz wavelength spacing based on a single distributed feedback laser. A light wave generated from the distributed feedback laser is fed into a frequency shifter loop consisting of 50:50 coupler, dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator, optical amplifier, optical filter, and polarization controller. The frequency of the input wavelength is shifted and then re-injected into the frequency shifter loop. By re-injecting the shifted wavelengths multiple times, we have generated 84 optical carriers with 12 GHz wavelength spacing and stable output power. For each channel, two wavelengths are modulated by a wireless data using the phase modulator and transmitted through a 25 km single mode fiber. In contrast to previously developed schemes, the proposed laser source does not incur DC bias drift problem. Moreover, it is a good candidate for radio-over-fiber systems to support multiple users using a single distributed feedback laser.

  13. Multi-Wavelength Polarimetry of Isolated Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto P. Mignani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Isolated neutron stars are known to be endowed with extreme magnetic fields, whose maximum intensity ranges from 10 12 – 10 15 G, which permeates their magnetospheres. Their surrounding environment is also strongly magnetized, especially in the compact nebulae powered by the relativistic wind from young neutron stars. The radiation from isolated neutron stars and their surrounding nebulae is, thus, supposed to bring a strong polarization signature. Measuring the neutron star polarization brings important information about the properties of their magnetosphere and of their highly magnetized environment. Being the most numerous class of isolated neutron stars, polarization measurements have been traditionally carried out for radio pulsars, hence in the radio band. In this review, I summarize multi-wavelength linear polarization measurements obtained at wavelengths other than radio both for pulsars and other types of isolated neutron stars and outline future perspectives with the upcoming observing facilities.

  14. System and Method for Multi-Wavelength Optical Signal Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Thomas D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The system and method for multi-wavelength optical signal detection enables the detection of optical signal levels significantly below those processed at the discrete circuit level by the use of mixed-signal processing methods implemented with integrated circuit technologies. The present invention is configured to detect and process small signals, which enables the reduction of the optical power required to stimulate detection networks, and lowers the required laser power to make specific measurements. The present invention provides an adaptation of active pixel networks combined with mixed-signal processing methods to provide an integer representation of the received signal as an output. The present invention also provides multi-wavelength laser detection circuits for use in various systems, such as a differential absorption light detection and ranging system.

  15. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nause, Ariel; Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham

    2014-01-01

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect

  16. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nause, Ariel, E-mail: arielnau@post.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Exact Sciences, Department of Physics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physical Electronics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect.

  17. Mechanism of wavelength conversion in polystyrene doped with benzoxanthene: emergence of a complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Hisashi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Shinji, Osamu; Saito, Katashi; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent guest molecules doped in polymers have been used to convert ultraviolet light into visible light for applications ranging from optical fibres to filters for the cultivation of plants. The wavelength conversion process involves the absorption of light at short wavelengths followed by fluorescence emission at a longer wavelength. However, a precise understanding of the light conversion remains unclear. Here we show light responses for a purified polystyrene base substrates doped with fluorescent benzoxanthene in concentrations varied over four orders of magnitude. The shape of the excitation spectrum for fluorescence emission changes significantly with the concentration of the benzoxanthene, indicating formation of a base substrate/fluorescent molecule complex. Furthermore, the wavelength conversion light yield increases in three stages depending on the nature of the complex. These findings identify a mechanism that will have many applications in wavelength conversion materials.

  18. Multiple wavelength spectral system simulating background light noise environment in satellite laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Sun, Jianfeng; Hou, Peipei; Xu, Qian; Xi, Yueli; Zhou, Yu; Zhu, Funan; Liu, Liren

    2017-08-01

    Performance of satellite laser communications between GEO and LEO satellites can be influenced by background light noise appeared in the field of view due to sunlight or planets and some comets. Such influences should be studied on the ground testing platform before the space application. In this paper, we introduce a simulator that can simulate the real case of background light noise in space environment during the data talking via laser beam between two lonely satellites. This simulator can not only simulate the effect of multi-wavelength spectrum, but also the effects of adjustable angles of field-of-view, large range of adjustable optical power and adjustable deflection speeds of light noise in space environment. We integrate these functions into a device with small and compact size for easily mobile use. Software control function is also achieved via personal computer to adjust these functions arbitrarily. Keywords:

  19. Colloidal PbS nanocrystals integrated to Si-based photonics for applications at telecom wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, M.; Guider, R.; Jantsch, W.; Fromherz, T.

    2013-05-01

    In the last decade, Si based photonics has made major advances in terms of design, fabrication, and device implementation. But due to Silicon's indirect bandgap, it still remains a challenge to create efficient Si-based light emitting devices. In order to overcome this problem, an approach is to develop hybrid systems integrating light-emitting materials into Si. A promising class of materials for this purpose is the class of semiconducting nanocrystal quantum dots (NCs) that are synthesized by colloidal chemistry. As their absorption and emission wavelength depends on the dot size, which can easily be controlled during synthesis, they are extremely attractive as building blocks for nanophotonic applications. For applications in telecom wavelength, Lead chalcogenide colloidal NCs are optimum materials due to their unique optical, electronic and nonlinear properties. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate the integration of PbS nanocrystals into Si-based photonic structures like slot waveguides and ring resonators as optically pumped emitters for room temperature applications. In order to create such hybrid structures, the NCs were dissolved into polymer resists and drop cast on top of the device. Upon optical pumping, intense photoluminescence emission from the resonating modes is recorded at the output of the waveguide with transmission quality factors up to 14000. The polymer host material was investigated with respect to its ability to stabilize the NC's photoluminescence emission against degradation under ambient conditions. The waveguide-ring coupling efficiency was also investigated as function of the NCs concentrations blended into the polymer matrix. The integration of colloidal quantum dots into Silicon photonic structures as demonstrated in this work is a very versatile technique and thus opens a large range of applications utilizing the linear and nonlinear optical properties of PbS NCs at telecom wavelengths.

  20. Improvement of optical damage in specialty fiber at 266 nm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobisch, T.; Ohlmeyer, H.; Zimmermann, H.; Prein, S.; Kirchhof, J.; Unger, S.; Belz, M.; Klein, K.-F.

    2014-02-01

    Improved multimode UV-fibers with core diameters ranging from 70 to 600 μm diameter have been manufactured based on novel preform modifications and fiber processing techniques. Only E'-centers at 214 nm and NBOHC at 260 nm are generated in these fibers. A new generation of inexpensive laser-systems have entered the market and generated a multitude of new and attractive applications in the bio-life science, chemical and material processing field. However, for example pulsed 355 nm Nd:YAG lasers generate significant UV-damages in commercially available fibers. For lower wavelengths, no results on suitable multi-mode or low-mode fibers with high UV resistance at 266 nm wavelength (pulsed 4th harmonic Nd:YAG laser) have been published. In this report, double-clad fibers with 70 μm or 100 μm core diameter and a large claddingto- core ratio will be recommended. Laser-induced UV-damages will be compared between these new fiber type and traditional UV fibers with similar core sizes. Finally, experimental results will be cross compared against broadband cw deuterium lamp damage standards.

  1. Efficient color-tunable multiexcitonic dual wavelength emission from Type II semiconductor tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Ya; Li, Mingjie; Lian, Jie; Wu, Xiangyang; Yeow, Edwin K L; Jhon, Mark H; Chan, Yinthai

    2014-09-23

    We synthesized colloidal InP/ZnS seeded CdS tetrapods by harnessing the structural stability of the InP/ZnS seed nanocrystals at the high reaction temperatures needed to grow the CdS arms. Because of an unexpected Type II band alignment at the interface of the InP/ZnS core and CdS arms that enhanced the occurrence of radiative excitonic recombination in CdS, these tetrapods were found to be capable of exhibiting highly efficient multiexcitonic dual wavelength emission of equal intensity at spectrally distinct wavelengths of ∼485 and ∼675 nm. Additionally, the Type II InP/ZnS seeded CdS tetrapods displayed a wider range of pump-dependent emission color-tunability (from red to white to blue) within the context of a CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram and possessed higher photostability due to suppressed multiexcitonic Auger recombination when compared to conventional Type I CdSe seeded CdS tetrapods. By employing time-resolved spectroscopy measurements, we were able to attribute the wide emission color-tunability to the large valence band offset between InP and CdS. This work highlights the importance of band alignment in the synthetic design of semiconductor nanoheterostructures, which can exhibit color-tunable multiwavelength emission with high efficiency and photostability.

  2. Athermal and wavelength-trimmable photonic filters based on TiO₂-cladded amorphous-SOI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Timo; Moldenhauer, Lennart; Müller, Jörg; Trieu, Hoc Khiem

    2015-07-27

    Large-scale integrated silicon photonic circuits suffer from two inevitable issues that boost the overall power consumption. First, fabrication imperfections even on sub-nm scale result in spectral device non-uniformity that require fine-tuning during device operation. Second, the photonic devices need to be actively corrected to compensate thermal drifts. As a result significant amount of power is wasted if no athermal and wavelength-trimmable solutions are utilized. Consequently, in order to minimize the total power requirement of photonic circuits in a passive way, trimming methods are required to correct the device inhomogeneities from manufacturing and athermal solutions are essential to oppose temperature fluctuations of the passive/active components during run-time. We present an approach to fabricate CMOS backend-compatible and athermal passive photonic filters that can be corrected for fabrication inhomogeneities by UV-trimming based on low-loss amorphous-SOI waveguides with TiO2 cladding. The trimming of highly confined 10 μm ring resonators is proven over a free spectral range retaining athermal operation. The athermal functionality of 2nd-order 5 μm add/drop microrings is demonstrated over 40°C covering a broad wavelength interval of 60 nm.

  3. Precision Determination of Atmospheric Extinction at Optical and Near IR Wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Blondin, Stephane; /European Southern Observ. /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2011-08-24

    The science goals for future ground-based all-sky surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, PanSTARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, require calibration of broadband photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the sky to precisions of a per cent or better, and absolute calibration of color measurements that are similarly accurate. This performance will need to be achieved with measurements made from multiple images taken over the course of many years, and these surveys will observe in less than ideal conditions. This paper describes a technique to implement a new strategy to directly measure variations of atmospheric transmittance at optical wavelengths and application of these measurements to calibration of ground-based observations. This strategy makes use of measurements of the spectra of a small catalog of bright 'probe' stars as they progress across the sky and back-light the atmosphere. The signatures of optical absorption by different atmospheric constituents are recognized in these spectra by their characteristic dependences on wavelength and airmass. State-of-the-art models of atmospheric radiation transport and modern codes are used to accurately compute atmospheric extinction over a wide range of observing conditions. We present results of an observing campaign that demonstrate that correction for extinction due to molecular constituents and aerosols can be done with precisions of a few millimagnitudes with this technique.

  4. Multi-resonance peaks fiber Bragg gratings based on largely-chirped structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xuan-Yu; Wei, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yong-Yi; Qin, Li; Ning, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Yong-Sen

    2018-04-01

    A composite fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with multi-resonance peaks (MRPs) has been realized by using femtosecond (fs) laser point-by-point inscription in single-mode fiber. This device contains a segment of largely-chirped gratings with the ultrahigh chirp coefficients and a segment of uniform high-order gratings. The observed MRPs are distributed in an ultra-broadband wavelength range from 1200 nm to 1700 nm in the form of quasi-period or multi-peak-group. For the 8th-order MRPs-FBG, we studied the axial strain and high-temperature sensing characteristics of different resonance peaks experimentally. Moreover, we have demonstrated a multi-wavelength fiber lasers with three-wavelength stable output by using a 9th-order MRPs-FBG as the wavelength selector. This work is significant for the fabrication and functionalization of FBGs with complicated spectra characteristics.

  5. Bleaching of the thermoluminescence of feldspars by selected wavelengths present in sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, G.B.; Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    Feldspars occur in many sediments, and dating them by thermoluminescence (TL) requires a knowledge of how efficiently sunlight bleaches these minerals. The relative bleaching efficiencies of various wavelengths have been investigated for four alkali feldspars and an oligoclase, using the natural TL of the samples and the artificial TL induced by laboratory irradiation, bleached by wavelengths in the range 322-550 nm. Ultraviolet wavelengths are more efficient than the longer wavelengths at bleaching all the glow-curve peaks and are responsible for most of the phototransfer from high-temperature peaks to low-temperature peaks. Some feldspars show an initial increase in TL intensity with bleaching. Two sanidines of similar bulk composition but different TL glow curves show different dependences on bleaching wavelength. In a sodic sanidine with a dominant 240 o C peak the energy required to bleach to 50% was a thousand times greater at 550 nm than at 322 nm. In contrast, another sanidine with a complex glow curve between 150 and 450 o C showed a much slower change in the 330 o C peak with wavelength - a factor of 10 between 322 and 550 nm - with a region between 400 and 500 nm which was almost independent of wavelength. This behaviour is explained by competing mechanisms of phototransfer and bleaching which depend on wavelength in different ways. (author)

  6. Optimization of dual-wavelength intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaques using Monte Carlo optical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nicholas; Sowers, Timothy; Karpiouk, Andrei; Vanderlaan, Donald; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2017-10-01

    Coronary heart disease (the presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques) is a significant health problem in the industrialized world. A clinical method to accurately visualize and characterize atherosclerotic plaques is needed. Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is being developed to fill this role, but questions remain regarding optimal imaging wavelengths. We utilized a Monte Carlo optical model to simulate IVPA excitation in coronary tissues, identifying optimal wavelengths for plaque characterization. Near-infrared wavelengths (≤1800 nm) were simulated, and single- and dual-wavelength data were analyzed for accuracy of plaque characterization. Results indicate light penetration is best in the range of 1050 to 1370 nm, where 5% residual fluence can be achieved at clinically relevant depths of ≥2 mm in arteries. Across the arterial wall, fluence may vary by over 10-fold, confounding plaque characterization. For single-wavelength results, plaque segmentation accuracy peaked at 1210 and 1720 nm, though correlation was poor (blood, a primary and secondary wavelength near 1210 and 1350 nm, respectively, may offer the best implementation of dual-wavelength IVPA imaging. These findings could guide the development of a cost-effective clinical system by highlighting optimal wavelengths and improving plaque characterization.

  7. Dual-wavelength high-power diode laser system based on an external-cavity tapered amplifier with tunable frequency difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2012-01-01

    knowledge, this is the broadest tuning range of the frequency difference from a dual-wavelength diode laser system. The spectrum, output power, and beam quality of the diode laser system are characterized. The power stability of each wavelength is measured, and the power fluctuations of the two wavelengths......A dual-wavelength high-power semiconductor laser system based on a tapered amplifier with double-Littrow external cavity is demonstrated around 800 nm. The two wavelengths can be tuned individually, and the frequency difference of the two wavelengths is tunable from 0.5 to 10.0 THz. To our...

  8. Wavelength division multiplexing a practical engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Grobe, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In this book, Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is approached from a strictly practical and application-oriented point of view. Based on the characteristics and constraints of modern fiber-optic components, transport systems and fibers, the text provides relevant rules of thumb and practical hints for technology selection, WDM system and link dimensioning, and also for network-related aspects such as wavelength assignment and resilience mechanisms. Actual 10/40 Gb/s WDM systems are considered, and a preview of the upcoming 100 Gb/s systems and technologies for even higher bit rate

  9. Wavelength dependence of superhumps in VW Hyi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerongen, S. van; Bovenschen, H.; Paradijs, J. van

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented of five-colour photometric observations of the SU UMa system VW Hyi, made on six nights during the November 1984 superoutburst. The light curve is dominated by superhump variations, whose amplitude in all passbands decreases with time (in the V-band from 0.16 mag about 4.5 day after the superoutburst reached maximum brightness, to 0.10 mag about 5 day later). The superhump light curve depends strongly on wavelength. In particular it appears that the light curves in different passbands are mutually shifted: the larger the wavelength, the more the light curve is delayed. (author)

  10. High precision wavelength measurements of X-ray lines emitted from TS-Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platz, P. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Cornille, M.; Dubau, J. [Observatoire de Paris, 92 - Meudon (France)

    1996-01-01

    X-ray line spectra from highly charged impurity ions have been taken with a high-resolution Bragg-crystal spectrometer on the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak. By cross-checking the wavelengths of reference lines from the heliumlike ions Ti20 + (2.6 Angstroms) and Ar16 + (3.95 Angstroms) we first demonstrate that it is possible to measure wavelengths with a precision, {lambda}/{delta}{lambda}, of better than 50000. We than determine the wavelengths of n=3 to n=2 transitions of neonlike Ag37+ in the 4 Angstroms spectral range. (authors). 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Continuously tunable sub-half-wavelength localization via coherent control of spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei; Tan Xin-Yu; Gong Cheng; Shi Wen-Xing

    2012-01-01

    We propose a continuously tunable method of sub-half-wavelength localization via the coherent control of the spontaneous emission of a four-level Y-type atomic system, which is coupled to three strong coupling fields including a standing-wave field together with a weak probe field. It is shown that the sub-half-wavelength atomic localization is realized for both resonance and off-resonance cases. Furthermore, by varying the probe detuning in succession, the positions of the two localization peaks are tuned continuously within a wide range of probe field frequencies, which provides convenience for the realization of sub-half-wavelength atomic localization experimentally

  12. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A

    2002-09-10

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.

  13. Research with high-power short-wavelength lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Campbell, E.M.; Lindl, J.D.; Storm, E.

    1985-01-01

    Three important high-temperature, high-density experiments were conducted recently using the 10-TW, short-wavelength Novette laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These experiments demonstrated successful solutions to problems that arose during previous experiments with long wavelength lasers (lambda greater than or equal to 1μm) in which inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray laser, and other high-temperature physics concepts were being tested. The demonstrations were: (1) large-scale plasmas (typical dimensions of up to 1000 laser wavelengths) were produced in which potentially deleterious laser-plasma instabilities were collisionally damped. (2) Deuterium-tritium fuel was imploded to a density of 20 g/cm 3 and a pressure of 10 10 atm. (3) A 700-fold amplification of soft x rays by stimulated emission at 206 and 209 A (62 eV) from Se +24 ions was observed in a laser-generated plasma. Isoelectronic scaling to 155 A (87 eV) in Y +29 was also demonstrated

  14. Photoacoustic imaging at 1064nm wavelength with exogenous contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Jiang, Yuyan; Pu, Kanyi; Pramanik, Manojit

    2018-02-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a promising imaging modality for both preclinical research and clinical practices. Laser wavelengths in the first near infrared window (NIR-I, 650-950 nm) have been widely used for photoacoustic imaging. As compared with NIR-I window, scattering of photons by biological tissues is largely reduced in the second NIR (NIR-II) window, leading to enhanced imaging fidelity. However, the lack of biocompatible NIR-II absorbing exogenous agents prevented the use of this window for in vivo imaging. In recent years, few studies have been reported on photoacoustic imaging in NIR-II window using exogenous contrast agents. In this work, we discuss the recent work on PA imaging using 1064 nm wavelength, the fundamental of Nd:YAG laser, as an excitation wavelength. The PA imaging at 1064 nm is advantageous because of the low and homogeneous signal from tissue background, enabling high contrast in PA imaging when NIR-II absorbing contrast agents are employed.

  15. Fabrication of sub-wavelength photonic structures by nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontio, J.

    2013-11-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a novel but already a mature lithography technique. In this thesis it is applied to the fabrication of nanophotonic devices using its main advantage: the fast production of sub-micron features in high volume in a cost-effective way. In this thesis, fabrication methods for conical metal structures for plasmonic applications and sub-wavelength grating based broad-band mirrors are presented. Conical metal structures, nanocones, with plasmonic properties are interesting because they enable concentrating the energy of light in very tight spots resulting in very high local intensities of electromagnetic energy. The nanocone formation process is studied with several metals. Enhanced second harmonic generation using gold nanocones is presented. Bridged-nanocones are used to enhance Raman scattering from a dye solution. The sub-wavelength grating mirror is an interesting structure for photonics because it is very simple to fabricate and its reflectivity can be extended to the far infrared wavelength range. It also has polarization dependent properties which are used in this thesis to stabilize the output beam of infrared semiconductor disk laser. NIL is shown to be useful a technique in the fabrication of nanophotonic devices in the novel and rapidly growing field of plasmonics and also in more traditional, but still developing, semiconductor laser applications (orig.)

  16. EV range sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostafew, C. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation included a sensitivity analysis of electric vehicle components on overall efficiency. The presentation provided an overview of drive cycles and discussed the major contributors to range in terms of rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; motor efficiency; and vehicle mass. Drive cycles that were presented included: New York City Cycle (NYCC); urban dynamometer drive cycle; and US06. A summary of the findings were presented for each of the major contributors. Rolling resistance was found to have a balanced effect on each drive cycle and proportional to range. In terms of aerodynamic drive, there was a large effect on US06 range. A large effect was also found on NYCC range in terms of motor efficiency and vehicle mass. figs.

  17. Topology Optimization of Sub-Wavelength Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We propose a topology optimization strategy for the systematic design of a three-dimensional (3D), conductor-based sub-wavelength antenna. The post-processed finite-element (FE) models of the optimized structure are shown to be self-resonant, efficient and exhibit distorted omnidirectional...

  18. Characterization of ethanol concentrations at ultraviolet wavelength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the measurement of optical absorption spectrum for different concentrations of ethanol at ultraviolet wavelength. Ethanol absorption spectrum was measured using portable spectroscopy setup from Avantes. It consists of Balanced Deuterium Halogen light source and spectrometer. The light source can ...

  19. Smart wavelength meter for integrated photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benelajla, Meryem; Taballione, Caterina; Boller, Klaus J.

    2017-01-01

    Thermally tunable SiN waveguide microring resonators in connection with neural network readout algorithms appear promising for use as integrated optical wavelength meters. So far, we have observed long-term reliability and a temperature immunity of the readout across several degrees of ambient

  20. An automated wavelength selection for flame spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurteau, M.; Mislan, J.P.; Ashley, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electro-mechanical programming system is described for use with a flame spectrophotometer. Its application for automated sequential multi-element analysis is illustrated. Reproducibility of wavelength settings are within +-0.5 A. Precision and sensitivities are at least as good as those obtained for single element determinations. (author)

  1. Alien wavelength modeling tool and field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, N.; Sgambelluri, A.; Secondini, M.

    2015-01-01

    A modeling tool is presented for pre-FEC BER estimation of PM-QPSK alien wavelength signals. A field trial is demonstrated and used as validation of the tool's correctness. A very close correspondence between the performance of the field trial and the one predicted by the modeling tool has been...

  2. Two-wavelength spatial-heterodyne holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.; Simpson, John T.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Voelkl, Edgar

    2007-12-25

    Systems and methods are described for obtaining two-wavelength differential-phase holograms. A method includes determining a difference between a filtered analyzed recorded first spatially heterodyne hologram phase and a filtered analyzed recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram phase.

  3. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

    1993-05-18

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  4. Characteristics of Smith-Purcell radiation in millimeter wavelength region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumenko, G A; Potylitsyn, A P; Sukhikh, L G; Shevelev, M V; Popov, Yu; Karataev, P; Bleko, V

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of the Smith-Purcell radiation (SPR) were began with non-relativistic electron beams with some unexpected experimental results. Further the experimental investigations were performed with relativistic electron beams for application to beam diagnostics. Large discrepancy between different theoretical models significantly increases the role of experimental studies of this phenomenon. In this report we present some problems and features of experimental investigations of SPR in millimeter wavelength region. The problems of prewave zone and coherent effects are considered. The shadowing effect, focusing of radiation using a parabolic SPR target and effect of inclination of target strips were investigated with moderately relativistic electron beam. (paper)

  5. Short-wavelength magnetic recording new methods and analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Ruigrok, JJM

    2013-01-01

    Short-wavelength magnetic recording presents a series of practical solutions to a wide range of problems in the field of magnetic recording. It features many new and original results, all derived from fundamental principles as a result of up-to-date research.A special section is devoted to the playback process, including the calculations of head efficiency and head impedance, derived from new theorems.Features include:A simple and fast method for measuring efficiency; a simple method for the accurate separation of the read and write behaviour of magnetic heads; a new concept - the bandpass hea

  6. Tunable Optical Tweezers for Wavelength-dependent Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    have been studied in an optical levitation scheme over short laser wavelength ranges20 and for dye-loaded di- electric particles.21 In the first case...M. Block, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1066 (1996). 7K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A...Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1646 (2007). 8K. Dholakia, M. P. MacDonald, P. Zemanek, and T

  7. Tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode at CO2 wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Bowdle, David A.; Menzies, Robert T.; Post, Madison J.; Vaughan, J. Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made between three climatologies of backscatter measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere at CO2 wavelengths. These were obtained from several locations using ground-based and airborne lidar systems. All three measurement sets show similar features, specifically, a high frequency of occurrence of low backscatter over a limited range of values in the middle and upper atmosphere (the 'background mode'). This background mode is important for the design and performance simulation of the prospective satellite sensors that rely on atmospheric aerosols as scattering targets.

  8. Latest developments on fibered MOPA in mJ range with hollow-core fiber beam delivery and fiber beam shaping used as seeder for large scale laser facilities (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyze, Jean-François; Scol, Florent; Perrin, Arnaud; Gouriou, Pierre; Valentin, Constance; Bouwmans, Géraud; Hugonnot, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is a French large scale laser facility dedicated to inertial fusion and plasma physics research. LMJ front-ends are based on fiber laser technology at nanojoule range [1]. Scaling the energy of those fiber seeders to the millijoule range is a way to upgrade LMJ's front ends architecture and could also be used as seeder for lasers for ELI project for example. However, required performances are so restrictive (optical-signal-to-noise ratio higher than 50 dB, temporally-shaped nanosecond pulses and spatial single-mode top-hat beam output) that such fiber systems are very tricky to build. High-energy fiber amplifiers In 2015, we have demonstrated, an all-fiber MOPA prototype able to produce a millijoule seeder, but unfortunately not 100% conform for all LMJ's performances. A major difficulty was to manage the frequency modulation used to avoid stimulated Brillouin scattering, to amplitude modulation (FM-AM) conversion, this limits the energy at 170µJ. For upgrading the energy to the millijoule range, it's necessary to use an amplifier with a larger core fiber. However, this fiber must still be flexible; polarization maintaining and exhibit a strictly single-mode behaviour. We are thus developing a new amplifier architecture based on an Yb-doped tapered fiber: its core diameter is from a narrow input to a wide output (MFD 8 to 26 µm). A S² measurement on a 2,5m long tapered fiber rolled-up on 22 cm diameter confirmed that this original geometry allows obtaining strictly single-mode behaviour. In a 1 kHz repetition rate regime, we already obtain 750 µJ pulses, and we are on the way to mJ, respecting LMJ performances. Beam delivery In LMJ architecture the distance between the nanojoule fiber seeder and the amplifier stages is about 16 m. Beam delivery is achieved with a standard PM fiber, such a solution is no longer achievable with hundreds of kilowatt peak powers. An efficient way to minimize nonlinear effects is to use hollow-core (HC

  9. Eye safe laser range finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snir, M.; Margaliot, M.; Amitzi, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1970's, Ruby (Q switched) laser based range finders with a wavelength of 694nm were first used. These lasers operated in a pulse mode within the visible light range and produced a risk for the eye retina. The laser beam striking the macula could damage the eye and might cause blindness. Over the years, Nd:YAG (Q switched) lasers were developed (operating at 1064nm) for range finding and designation uses. The wavelength of these lasers, operating in the near Infra-Red range (invisible), is also focused tightly on the retina. The human eye does not respond to the invisible light so there is no natural protection (eye blink reflex) as in the visible light. The operation of these lasers worldwide, especially when the laser beam is exposed, causes occasional eye accidents. Another risk is stemming from the use of observation systems with a high optical gain, in the laser operation areas, which enlarge the range of risk quite significantly. Therefore, research and development efforts were invested in order to introduce eye safe lasers. One of the solutions for this problem is presented in following document

  10. Prediction ranges. Annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Tharp, W.H.; Spiro, P.S.; Keng, K.; Angastiniotis, M.; Hachey, L.T.

    1988-01-01

    Prediction ranges equip the planner with one more tool for improved assessment of the outcome of a course of action. One of their major uses is in financial evaluations, where corporate policy requires the performance of uncertainty analysis for large projects. This report gives an overview of the uses of prediction ranges, with examples; and risks and uncertainties in growth, inflation, and interest and exchange rates. Prediction ranges and standard deviations of 80% and 50% probability are given for various economic indicators in Ontario, Canada, and the USA, as well as for foreign exchange rates and Ontario Hydro interest rates. An explanatory note on probability is also included. 23 tabs.

  11. The Effects of Slippage and Diffraction in Long-Wavelength Operation of a Free-Electron Laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhulin, V. I.; Haselhoff, E. H.; van Amersfoort, P. W.

    1995-01-01

    The Free-Electron Laser user facility FELIX produces picosecond optical pulses in the wavelength range of 5-110 mu m. The proposed installation of a new undulator with a larger magnetic period would allow extension towards considerably longer wavelengths. This would result in the production of

  12. PWV, Temperature and Wind Statistics at Sites Suitable For mm and Sub-mm Wavelengths Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otarola, Angel; Travouillon, Tony; De Breuck, Carlos; Radford, Simon; Matsushita, Satoki; Pérez-Beaupuits, Juan P.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is the main limiting factor of atmospheric transparency in the mm and sub-mm wavelength spectral windows. Thus, dry sites are needed for the installation and successful operation of radio astronomy observatories exploiting those spectral windows. Other parameters that play an important role in the mechanical response of radio telescopes exposed to the environmental conditions are: temperature, and in particular temperature gradients that induce thermal deformation of mechanical structures, as well as wind magnitude that induce pointing jitter affecting this way the required accuracy in the ability to point to a cosmic source during the observations. Temperature and wind are variables of special consideration when planning the installation and operations of large aperture radio telescopes. This work summarizes the statistics of precipitable water vapor (PWV), temperature and wind monitored at sites by the costal mountain range, as well as on t he west slope of the Andes mountain range in the region of Antofagasta, Chile. This information could prove useful for the planning of the Atacama Large-Aperture Submm/mm Telescope (AtLast).

  13. Improvement of a triple-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using a Fabry–Perot laser diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, P C; Hu, H L; Wang, J B

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a simple construct of a tunable triple-wavelength fiber ring laser using a Fabry–Perot laser diode (FP-LD) and an optical tunable bandpass filter. An optical tunable bandpass filter is used within the cavity of an erbium-doped fiber laser to select the lasing wavelength. Because the Fabry–Perot laser diode is in combination with the tunable bandpass filter, the erbium-doped fiber laser can stably lase three wavelengths simultaneously. Moreover, this laser is easily tuned dynamically. This triple-wavelength output performs satisfactorily, with its optical side-mode-suppression-ratio (SMSR) exceeding 40 dB. Furthermore, the wavelength tuning range of this triple-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser is greater than 27 nm. (paper)

  14. On the phenomenon of large photoluminescence red shift in GaN nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Slimane, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    We report on the observation of broad photoluminescence wavelength tunability from n-type gallium nitride nanoparticles (GaN NPs) fabricated using the ultraviolet metal-assisted electroless etching method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements performed on the nanoparticles revealed large size dispersion ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Nanoparticles with broad tunable emission wavelength from 362 to 440 nm have been achieved by exciting the samples using the excitation power-dependent method. We attribute this large wavelength tunability to the localized potential fluctuations present within the GaN matrix and to vacancy-related surface states. Our results show that GaN NPs fabricated using this technique are promising for tunable-color-temperature white light-emitting diode applications. © 2013 Slimane et al.; licensee Springer.

  15. On the phenomenon of large photoluminescence red shift in GaN nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Slimane, Ahmed; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Elafandy, Rami T.; Najar, Adel; Ng, Tien Khee; San Roman Alerigi, Damian; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the observation of broad photoluminescence wavelength tunability from n-type gallium nitride nanoparticles (GaN NPs) fabricated using the ultraviolet metal-assisted electroless etching method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements performed on the nanoparticles revealed large size dispersion ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Nanoparticles with broad tunable emission wavelength from 362 to 440 nm have been achieved by exciting the samples using the excitation power-dependent method. We attribute this large wavelength tunability to the localized potential fluctuations present within the GaN matrix and to vacancy-related surface states. Our results show that GaN NPs fabricated using this technique are promising for tunable-color-temperature white light-emitting diode applications. © 2013 Slimane et al.; licensee Springer.

  16. Near UV-visible line emission from tungsten highly-charged ions in Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, D.; Sakaue, H.A.; Murakami, I.; Goto, M.; Oishi, T.; Morita, S.; Fujii, K.; Nakamura, N.; Koike, F.; Sasaki, Akira; Ding, X.-B.; Dong, C.-Z.

    2015-01-01

    Wavelengths of emission lines from tungsten highly-charged ions have been precisely measured in near UV-visible range (320 - 356 nm and 382 - 402 nm) at Large Helical Device (LHD) by tungsten pellet injection. The tungsten emission lines were assigned based on its line-integrated intensity profiles on a poloidal cross section. The ground-term magnetic-dipole (M1) lines of W 26+,27+ and an M1 line of a metastable excited state of W 28+ , whose wavelengths have been determined by measurements using electron-beam-ion-traps (EBITs), are identified in the LHD spectra. The present results partially compliment wavelength data of tungsten highly-charged ions in the near UV-visible range. (author)

  17. Design alternatives for wavelength routing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliotis, K.; Papadimitriou, G. I.; Pomportsis, A. S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper attempts to provide a high level overview of many of the technologies employed in optical networks with a focus on wavelength-routing networks. Optical networks involve a number of technologies from the physics of light through protocols and networks architectures. In fact there is so much technology and know-how that most people involved with optical networks only have a full understanding of the narrow area they deal with. We start first examining the principles that govern light and its use as a wave guide, and then turn our focus to the various components that constitute an optical network and conclude with the description of all optical networks and wavelength-routed networks in greater detail.

  18. Short wavelength striations on expanding plasma clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Gary, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The growth and evolution of short wavelength (< ion gyroradius) flute modes on a plasma expanding across an ambient magnetic field have been actively studied in recent years, both by means of experiments in the laboratory as well as in space and through numerical simulations. We review the relevant observations and simulations results, discuss the instability mechanism and related linear theory, and describe recent work to bring experiments and theory into better agreement. 30 refs., 6 figs

  19. External-cavity high-power dual-wavelength tapered amplifier with tunable THz frequency difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2012-01-01

    A tunable 800 nm high-power dual-wavelength diode laser system with double-Littrow external-cavity feedback is demonstrated. The two wavelengths can be tuned individually, and the frequency difference of the two wavelengths is tunable from 0.5 to 5.0 THz. A maximum output power of 1.54 W is achie......A tunable 800 nm high-power dual-wavelength diode laser system with double-Littrow external-cavity feedback is demonstrated. The two wavelengths can be tuned individually, and the frequency difference of the two wavelengths is tunable from 0.5 to 5.0 THz. A maximum output power of 1.54 W...... is achieved with a frequency difference of 0.86 THz, the output power is higher than 1.3 W in the 5.0 THz range of frequency difference, and the amplified spontaneous emission intensity is more than 20 dB suppressed in the range of frequency difference. The beam quality factor M2 is 1.22±0.15 at an output...

  20. Mitigating of modal instabilities in linearly-polarized fiber amplifiers by shifting pump wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Rumao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of pump wavelength on the modal instabilities (MI) in high-power linearly polarized Yb-doped fiber amplifiers. We built a novel semi-analytical model to determine the frequency coupling characteristics and power threshold of MI, which indicates promising MI suppression through pumping at an appropriate wavelength. By pumping at 915 nm, the threshold can be enhanced by a factor of 2.1 as compared to that pumped at 976 nm. Based on a high-power linearly polarized fiber amplifier platform, we studied the influence of pump wavelength experimentally. A maximal enhancement factor of 1.9 has been achieved when pumped at 915 nm, which agrees with the theoretical calculation and verified our theoretical model. Furthermore, we show that MI suppression by detuning the pump wavelength is weakened for fiber with a large core-to-cladding ratio. (paper)

  1. Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using multiple wavelength-swept elements of a DFB laser array

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLazaro, Tom; Nehmetallah, Georges

    2017-02-01

    Coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry (C-OFDR) is a distance measurement technique with significant sensitivity and detector bandwidth advantages over normal time-of-flight methods. Although several swept-wavelength laser sources exist, many exhibit short coherence lengths, or require precision mechanical tuning components. Semiconductor distributed feedback lasers (DFBs) are advantageous as a mid-to-long range OFDR source because they exhibit a narrow linewidth and can be rapidly tuned simply via injection current. However, the sweep range of an individual DFB is thermally limited. Here, we present a novel high-resolution OFDR system that uses a compact, monolithic 12-element DFB array to create a continuous, gap-free sweep over a wide wavelength range. Wavelength registration is provided by the incorporation of a HCN gas cell and reference interferometer. The wavelength-swept spectra of the 12 DFBs are combined in post-processing to achieve a continuous total wavelength sweep of more than 40 nm (5.4 THz) in the telecommunications C-Band range.

  2. Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foucher, C.; Guilhabert, B.; Laurand, N.; Dawson, M. D. [Institute of Photonics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-07

    A mechanically flexible and wavelength-tunable laser with an ultra-thin glass membrane as substrate is demonstrated. The optically pumped hybrid device has a distributed feedback cavity that combines a colloidal quantum dot gain film with a grating-patterned polymeric underlayer, all on a 30-μm thick glass sheet. The total thickness of the structure is only 75 μm. The hybrid laser has an average threshold fluence of 450 ± 80 μJ/cm{sup 2} (for 5-ns excitation pulses) at an emitting wavelength of 607 nm. Mechanically bending the thin-glass substrate enables continuous tuning of the laser emission wavelength over an 18-nm range, from 600 nm to 618 nm. The correlation between the wavelength tunability and the mechanical properties of the thin laser structure is verified theoretically and experimentally.

  3. Wavelength-tunable prism-coupled external cavity passively mode-locked quantum-dot laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yan-Hua; Jian Wu; Jin Peng; Wang Fei-Fei; Hu Fa-Jie; Wei Heng; Wang Zhan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable mode-locked quantum dot laser using an InAs/GaAs quantum-dot gain medium and a discrete semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is demonstrated. A dispersion prism, which has lower optical loss and less spectral narrowing than a blazed grating, is used for wavelength selection and tuning. A wavelength tuning range of 45.5 nm (from 1137.3 nm to 1182.8 nm) under 140-mA injection current in the passive mode-locked regime is achieved. The maximum average power of 19 mW is obtained at the 1170.3-nm wavelength, corresponding to the single pulse energy of 36.5 pJ. (paper)

  4. Characterization of FBG sensor interrogation based on a FDML wavelength swept laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Moon Ki; Jeon, Min Yong; Jung, Woonggyu; Chen, Zhongping

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we develop an ultra-fast fiber Bragg grating sensor system that is based on the Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) swept laser. A FDML wavelength swept laser has many advantages compared to the conventional wavelength swept laser source, such as high-speed interrogation, narrow spectral sensitivity, and high phase stability. The newly developed FDML wavelength swept laser shows a superior performance of a high scan rate of 31.3 kHz and a broad scan range of over 70 nm simultaneously. The performance of the grating sensor interrogating system using a FDML wavelength swept laser is characterized in both static and dynamic strain responses. PMID:18852764

  5. Wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors using tapered hollow Bragg waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, C; Allen, T W; Azar, A; Melnyk, A; Dennison, C R; DeCorby, R G

    2014-10-15

    We describe an integrated system for wavelength interrogation, which uses tapered hollow Bragg waveguides coupled to an image sensor. Spectral shifts are extracted from the wavelength dependence of the light radiated at mode cutoff. Wavelength shifts as small as ~10  pm were resolved by employing a simple peak detection algorithm. Si/SiO₂-based cladding mirrors enable a potential operational range of several hundred nanometers in the 1550 nm wavelength region for a taper length of ~1  mm. Interrogation of a strain-tuned grating was accomplished using a broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source, and potential for single-chip interrogation of multiplexed sensor arrays is demonstrated.

  6. Effects of morphology and wavelength on the measurement accuracy of soot volume fraction by laser extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-fei; Huang, Qun-xing; Wang, Fei; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2018-01-01

    A novel method to evaluate the quantitative effects of soot morphology and incident wavelength on the measurement accuracy of soot volume fraction, by the laser extinction (LE) technique is proposed in this paper. The results indicate that the traditional LE technique would overestimate soot volume fraction if the effects of morphology and wavelength are not considered. Before the agglomeration of isolated soot primary particles, the overestimation of the LE technique is in the range of 2-20%, and rises with increasing primary particle diameter and with decreasing incident wavelength. When isolated primary particles are agglomerated into fractal soot aggregates, the overestimation would exceed 30%, and rise with increasing primary particle number per soot aggregate, fractal dimension and fractal prefactor and with decreasing incident wavelength to a maximum value of 55%. Finally, based on these results above, the existing formula of the LE technique gets modified, and the modification factor is 0.65-0.77.

  7. Narrow band wavelength selective filter using grating assisted single ring resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhathan, P., E-mail: PPrabhathan@ntu.edu.sg; Murukeshan, V. M. [Centre for Optical and Laser Engineering (COLE), School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-09-15

    This paper illustrates a filter configuration which uses a single ring resonator of larger radius connected to a grating resonator at its drop port to achieve single wavelength selectivity and switching property with spectral features suitable for on-chip wavelength selection applications. The proposed configuration is expected to find applications in silicon photonics devices such as, on-chip external cavity lasers and multi analytic label-free biosensors. The grating resonator has been designed for a high Q-factor, high transmittivity, and minimum loss so that the wavelength selectivity of the device is improved. The proof-of-concept device has been demonstrated on a Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) platform through electron beam lithography and Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) process. The transmission spectrum shows narrow band single wavelength selection and switching property with a high Free Spectral Range (FSR) ∼60 nm and side band rejection ratio >15 dB.

  8. Multi-metal, Multi-wavelength Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection of Neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Amber S; Sharma, Bhavya

    2018-04-05

    The development of a sensor for the rapid and sensitive detection of neurotransmitters could provide a pathway for the diagnosis of neurological diseases, leading to the discovery of more effective treatment methods. We investigate the use of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based sensors for the rapid detection of melatonin, serotonin, glutamate, dopamine, GABA, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Previous studies have demonstrated SERS detection of neurotransmitters; however, there has been no comprehensive study on the effect of the metal used as the SERS substrate or the excitation wavelength used for detection. Here, we present the detection of 7 neurotransmitters using both silver and gold nanoparticles at excitation wavelengths of 532, 633, and 785 nm. Over the range of wavelengths investigated, the SERS enhancement on the silver and gold nanoparticles varies, with an average enhancement factor of 10 5 -10 6 . The maximum SERS enhancement occurs at an excitation wavelength of 785 nm for the gold nanoparticles and at 633 nm for the silver nanoparticles.

  9. Optically coupled cavities for wavelength switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad, E-mail: pcostanzo@ing.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: granieri@rose-hulman.edu, E-mail: siahmako@rose-hulman.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    An optical bistable device which presents hysteresis behavior is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The system finds applications in wavelength switching, pulse reshaping and optical bistability. It is based on two optically coupled cavities named master and slave. Each cavity includes a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), acting as the gain medium of the laser, and two pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) which define the lasing wavelength (being different in each cavity). Finally, a variable optical coupler (VOC) is employed to couple both cavities. Experimental characterization of the system performance is made analyzing the effects of the coupling coefficient between the two cavities and the driving current in each SOA. The properties of the hysteretic bistable curve and switching can be controlled by adjusting these parameters and the loss in the cavities. By selecting the output wavelength ({lambda}{sub 1} or {lambda}{sub 2}) with an external filter it is possible to choose either the invert or non-invert switched signal. Experiments were developed employing both optical discrete components and a photonic integrated circuit. They show that for 8 m-long cavities the maximum switching frequency is about 500 KHz, and for 4 m-long cavities a minimum rise-time about 21 ns was measured. The switching time can be reduced by shortening the cavity lengths and using photonic integrated circuits.

  10. Wavelength switching in an optical klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Smith, T.I.

    1995-01-01

    A symmetric optical klystron consists of two identical undulator sections separated a dispersive section. For a device of a given length, an optical klystron is capable of producing much more bunching, and therefore more gain, than a traditional undulator. Another consequence of introducing dispersion between two undulator sections is that the overall spontaneous radiation pattern results from the interference between the two undulator sections, and as such resembles a standard undulator radiation pattern modulated by a sinusoidal interference term. The presence of several wavelength peaks in the spontaneous lineshape implies an equal number of peaks in the gain spectrum. If the strength of the dispersion section is adjusted to provide nearly equal gain on the two largest of these peaks, then they will compete, and the FEL may switch wavelengths based on noise, cavity length, or other perturbations. We provide the first observations of this behavior, using the FIREFLY system at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center. In FIREFLY, relative wavelength switching by more than 3%--more than twice the laser linewidth-has been observed by varying dispersion section strength, while at intermediate points stable switching has also been observed as a function of cavity length

  11. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs

  12. The At-Wavelength Metrology Facility at BESSY-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Schäfers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The At-Wavelength Metrology Facility at BESSY-II is dedicated to short-term characterization of novel UV, EUV and XUV optical elements, such as diffraction gratings, mirrors, multilayers and nano-optical devices like reflection zone plates. It consists of an Optics Beamline PM-1 and a Reflectometer in a clean-room hutch as a fixed end station. The bending magnet Beamline is a Plane Grating Monochromator beamline (c-PGM equipped with an SX700 monochromator. The beamline is specially tailored for efficient high-order suppression and stray light reduction. The versatile 11-axes UHV-Reflectometer can house life-sized optical elements, which are fully adjustable and of which the reflection properties can be measured in the full incidence angular range as well as in the full azimuthal angular range to determine polarization properties.

  13. Controlling material birefringence in sapphire via self-assembled, sub-wavelength defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Astha; Sharma, Geeta; Ranjan, Neeraj; Mittholiya, Kshitij; Bhatnagar, Anuj; Singh, B. P.; Mathur, Deepak; Vasa, Parinda

    2018-02-01

    Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light. Generally, this is an intrinsic optical property of a material and cannot be altered. Here, we report a novel technique—direct laser writing—that enables us to control the natural, material birefringence of sapphire over a broad range of wavelengths. The broadband form birefringence originating from self-assembled, periodic array of sub-wavelength (˜ 50-200 nm) defects created by laser writing, can enhance, suppress or maintain the material birefringence of sapphire without affecting its transparency range in visible or its surface quality.

  14. Objective identification of informative wavelength regions in galaxy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Ching-Wa; Szalay, Alexander S.; Budavári, Tamás; Wyse, Rosemary F. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3701 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mahoney, Michael W. [Department of Mathematics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Csabai, István; Dobos, Laszlo, E-mail: cwyip@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: szalay@jhu.edu, E-mail: mmahoney@cs.stanford.edu [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the diversity in spectra is the key to determining the physical parameters of galaxies. The optical spectra of galaxies are highly convoluted with continuum and lines that are potentially sensitive to different physical parameters. Defining the wavelength regions of interest is therefore an important question. In this work, we identify informative wavelength regions in a single-burst stellar population model using the CUR Matrix Decomposition. Simulating the Lick/IDS spectrograph configuration, we recover the widely used D {sub n}(4000), Hβ, and Hδ {sub A} to be most informative. Simulating the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrograph configuration with a wavelength range 3450-8350 Å and a model-limited spectral resolution of 3 Å, the most informative regions are: first region—the 4000 Å break and the Hδ line; second region—the Fe-like indices; third region—the Hβ line; and fourth region—the G band and the Hγ line. A principal component analysis on the first region shows that the first eigenspectrum tells primarily the stellar age, the second eigenspectrum is related to the age-metallicity degeneracy, and the third eigenspectrum shows an anti-correlation between the strengths of the Balmer and the Ca K and H absorptions. The regions can be used to determine the stellar age and metallicity in early-type galaxies that have solar abundance ratios, no dust, and a single-burst star formation history. The region identification method can be applied to any set of spectra of the user's interest, so that we eliminate the need for a common, fixed-resolution index system. We discuss future directions in extending the current analysis to late-type galaxies. ASCII formatted tables of the regional eigenspectra are available.

  15. Anomalous behavior in temporal evolution of ripple wavelength under medium energy Ar{sup +}-ion bombardment on Si: A case of initial wavelength selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Sandeep Kumar [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Cuerno, Rodolfo [Departamento de Matematicas and Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Kanjilal, Dinakar [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Som, Tapobrata, E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)

    2016-06-14

    We have studied the early stage dynamics of ripple patterns on Si surfaces, in the fluence range of 1–3 × 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup −2}, as induced by medium energy Ar{sup +}-ion irradiation at room temperature. Under our experimental conditions, the ripple evolution is found to be in the linear regime, while a clear decreasing trend in the ripple wavelength is observed up to a certain time (fluence). Numerical simulations of a continuum model of ion-sputtered surfaces suggest that this anomalous behavior is due to the relaxation of the surface features of the experimental pristine surface during the initial stage of pattern formation. The observation of this hitherto unobserved behavior of the ripple wavelength seems to have been enabled by the use of medium energy ions, where the ripple wavelengths are found to be order(s) of magnitude larger than those at lower ion energies.

  16. Absorption spectroscopy of complex rare earth ion doped hybrid materials over a broad wavelength range

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, R.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Stouwdam, J.W.; van Veggel, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the present work we applied a measurement setup to determine several relevant properties of rare-earth doped nanoparticles dispersed in polymer slab waveguides in a single absorption measurement: background absorption of the polymer host material, water absorption, polymer composition (overtones), rare earth concentration, and ligand contribution (increase of exponential loss trend in the UV). Furthermore, nanoparticle size and concentration in case of a refractive index mismatch (1//spl l...

  17. 2-µm wavelength-range low-loss inhibited-coupling hollow-core PCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, M.; Chafer, M.; Delahaye, F.; Amrani, F.; Debord, B.; Gerome, F.; Benabid, F.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the design and fabrication of inhibited-coupling guiding hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a transmission band optimized for low loss guidance around 2 μm. Two fibers design based on a Kagome-lattice cladding have been studied to demonstrate a minimum loss figure of 25 dB/km at 2 μm associated to an ultra-broad transmission band spanning from the visible to our detection limit of 3.4 μm. Such fibers could be an excellent tool to deliver and compress ultra-short pulse laser systems, especially for the emerging 2-3 μm spectral region.

  18. Study on Dihydrated Praseodymium Acetylacetonate by Photoacoustic Spectra with Broad Wavelength Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于锡娟; 伍荣护; 宋慧宇; 苏庆德

    2003-01-01

    The UV-Vis, NIR and MIR photoacoustic spectra of Pr(aa)3*2H2O were measured and most f-f transition peaks of Pr3+ are detected. The peak split and peak shift are studied also. The covalency parameter is calculated and it turns out that the covalent bonds between Pr(Ⅲ) ions and ligands exist. The results conclude that photoacoustic spectroscopy offers a unique and complementary method in analysis of solid rare earth complexes. Compared with conventional FT-IR transmission and absorption approaches, PAS has the advantages of fast, nondestructive analysis and high resolution.

  19. ECR [electron cyclotron resonance] discharges maintained by radiation in the millimeter wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, Yu.V.; Golubev, S.V.; Eremeev, A.G.; Zorin, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that plasmas formed by microwave breakdown of gases under electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) conditions can serve as an efficient source for ion beams. The major disadvantage of this type of source is relatively low ion beam currents which generally do not exceed 1 A (for an electron density of ∼10 12 cm -3 in the discharge). Raising the current density in the ion beams requires a higher plasma density, which can be obtained by using higher frequencies. Thus, a study has recently been made of the parameters of the plasma formed by ECR breakdown in a linear confinement system employing pulsed radiation at a frequency of 60 GHz. The maximum electron densities obtained in the experiment were 2·10 13 cm -3 at a gas pressure of 3·10 -4 torr. In this paper the authors describe some experiments on the creation of plasmas by means of quasi-cw electromagnetic radiation at a frequency of 100 GHz under electron cyclotron resonance conditions

  20. Absorption spectroscopy of complex rare earth ion doped hybrid materials over a broad wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Stouwdam, J.W.; van Veggel, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the present work we applied a measurement setup to determine several relevant properties of rare-earth doped nanoparticles dispersed in polymer slab waveguides in a single absorption measurement: background absorption of the polymer host material, water absorption, polymer composition

  1. Absorption spectroscopy of complex rare earth ion doped hybrid materials over a broad wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, R.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Stouwdam, J.W.; van Veggel, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, A.

    In the present work we applied a measurement setup to determine several relevant properties of rare-earth doped nanoparticles dispersed in polymer slab waveguides in a single absorption measurement: background absorption of the polymer host material, water absorption, polymer composition

  2. Biophysical mechanisms of modification of skin optical properties in the UV wavelength range with nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A. P.; Priezzhev, A. V.; Lademann, J.; Myllylä, R.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, by means of the Mie theory and Monte Carlo simulations we investigate modification of optical properties of the superficial layer of human skin (stratum corneum) for 310- and 400-nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation by embedding of 35-200-nm-sized particles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silicon (Si). Problem of skin protection against UV light is of major importance due to increased frequency of skin cancer provoked by excessive doses of accepted UV radiation. For 310-nm light, the optimal sizes of the TiO2 and Si particles are found to be 62 and 55 nm, respectively, and for 400-nm radiation, 122 and 70 nm, respectively.

  3. Biophysical mechanisms of modification of skin optical properties in the UV wavelength range with nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A. P.; Priezzhev, A. V.; Lademann, J.; Myllylae, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, by means of the Mie theory and Monte Carlo simulations we investigate modification of optical properties of the superficial layer of human skin (stratum corneum) for 310- and 400-nm ultraviolet (UV) radiation by embedding of 35-200-nm-sized particles of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and silicon (Si). Problem of skin protection against UV light is of major importance due to increased frequency of skin cancer provoked by excessive doses of accepted UV radiation. For 310-nm light, the optimal sizes of the TiO 2 and Si particles are found to be 62 and 55 nm, respectively, and for 400-nm radiation, 122 and 70 nm, respectively.

  4. A radiation research apparatus sensitive to wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The apparatus described is equipped with a radiation source with a tuning device for the generation of X radiation of at least two different wavelength spectra. The detector with ionisation chamber is able to discriminate between these spectra. This is done with the aid of an auxillary electrode between the entrance window and a high voltage electrode. With a lower source of voltage this electrode has a potential equal to the high voltage electrode potential and with a higher voltage source it has a potential equal to the signal electrode potential. (Th.P.)

  5. Wavelength-agnostic WDM-PON System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Zou, S.

    2016-01-01

    on the standardization status of this lowcost system in the new ITU-T G.metro draft recommendation, in the context of autonomous tuning. We also discuss some low-effort implementations of the pilot-tone labels and investigate the impact of these labels on the transmission channels.......Next-generation WDM-PON solutions for metro and access systems will take advantage of remotely controlled wavelength-tunable ONUs to keep system costs as low as possible. For such a purpose, each ONU signal can be labeled by a pilot tone modulated onto the optical data stream. We report...

  6. Sub-wavelength imaging at radio frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, M C K; Pendry, J B; Hajnal, J V

    2006-01-01

    A slab of material with a negative permeability can act as a super-lens for magnetic fields and generate images with a sub-wavelength resolution. We have constructed an effective medium using a metamaterial with negative permeability in the region of 24 MHz, and used this to form images in free space of radio frequency magnetic sources. Measurements of these images show that a resolution of approximately λ/64 has been achieved, consistent with both analytical and numerical predictions. (letter to the editor)

  7. Gold Photoluminescence: Wavelength and Polarization Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian Kim Hjælm; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes...... and dimensions of gold nanoparticles influences the GSPR wavelength and polarization characteristics, thereby allowing us to enhance and spectrally mold the plasmon-assisted PL while simultaneously controlling its polarization. In order to understand the underlying physics behind the plasmon-enhanced PL, we...

  8. Multi-client quantum key distribution using wavelength division multiplexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grice, Warren P.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Earl, Dennis Duncan; Evans, Philip G.; Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.; Schaake, Jason; Williams, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) exploits the rules of quantum mechanics to generate and securely distribute a random sequence of bits to two spatially separated clients. Typically a QKD system can support only a single pair of clients at a time, and so a separate quantum link is required for every pair of users. We overcome this limitation with the design and characterization of a multi-client entangled-photon QKD system with the capacity for up to 100 clients simultaneously. The time-bin entangled QKD system includes a broadband down-conversion source with two unique features that enable the multi-user capability. First, the photons are emitted across a very large portion of the telecom spectrum. Second, and more importantly, the photons are strongly correlated in their energy degree of freedom. Using standard wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) hardware, the photons can be routed to different parties on a quantum communication network, while the strong spectral correlations ensure that each client is linked only to the client receiving the conjugate wavelength. In this way, a single down-conversion source can support dozens of channels simultaneously--and to the extent that the WDM hardware can send different spectral channels to different clients, the system can support multiple client pairings. We will describe the design and characterization of the down-conversion source, as well as the client stations, which must be tunable across the emission spectrum.

  9. Remote sub-wavelength focusing of ultrasonically activated Lorentz current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhi, Angad S.; Arbabian, Amin

    2017-04-01

    We propose the use of a combination of ultrasonic and magnetic fields in conductive media for the creation of RF electrical current via the Lorentz force, in order to achieve current generation with extreme sub-wavelength resolution at large depth. We demonstrate the modeling, generation, and measurement of Lorentz current in a conductive solution and show that this current can be localized at a distance of 13 cm from the ultrasonic source to a region about three orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding wavelength of electromagnetic waves at the same operation frequency. Our results exhibit greater depth, tighter localization, and closer agreement with prediction than previous work on the measurement of Lorentz current in a solution of homogeneous conductivity. The proposed method of RF current excitation overcomes the trade-off between focusing and propagation that is fundamental in the use of RF electromagnetic excitation alone and has the potential to improve localization and depth of operation for RF current-based biomedical applications.

  10. Energy Levels, wavelengths and hyperfine structure measurements of Sc II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hala, Fnu; Nave, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    Lines of singly ionized Scandium (Sc II) along with other Iron group elements have been observed [1] in the region surrounding the massive star Eta Carinae [2,3] called the strontium filament (SrF). The last extensive analysis of Sc II was the four-decade old work of Johansson & Litzen [4], using low-resolution grating spectroscopy. To update and extend the Sc II spectra, we have made observation of Sc/Ar, Sc/Ne and Sc/Ge/Ar hollow cathode emission spectrum on the NIST high resolution FT700 UV/Vis and 2 m UV/Vis/IR Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS). More than 850 Sc II lines have been measured in the wavelength range of 187 nm to 3.2 μm. connecting a total of 152 energy levels. The present work also focuses to resolve hyperfine structure (HFS) in Sc II lines. We aim to obtain accurate transition wavelengths, improved energy levels and HFS constants of Sc II. The latest results from work in progress will be presented.Reference[1] Hartman H, Gull T, Johansson S and Smith N 2004 Astron. Astrophys. 419 215[2] Smith N, Morse J A and Gull T R 2004 Astrophys. J. 605 405[3] Davidson K and Humphreys R M 1997 Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 35[4] Johansson S and Litzén U 1980 Phys. Scr. 22 49

  11. CBET Experiments with Wavelength Shifting at the Nike Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, James; McKenty, P.; Bates, J.; Myatt, J.; Shaw, J.; Obenschain, K.; Oh, J.; Kehne, D.; Obenschain, S.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Tsung, F.; Schmitt, A. J.; Serlin, V.

    2016-10-01

    Studies conducted at NRL during 2015 searched for cross-beam energy transport (CBET) in small-scale plastic targets with strong gradients in planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. The targets were irradiated by two widely separated beam arrays in a geometry similar to polar direct drive. Data from these shots will be presented that show a lack of a clear CBET signature even with wavelength shifting of one set of beams. This poster will discuss the next campaign being planned, in part, with modelling codes developed at LLE. The next experiments will use a target configuration optimized to create stronger SBS growth. The primary path under consideration is to increase scale lengths 5-10x over the previous study by using exploding foils or low density foams. In addition to simulations, the presentation will also discuss improvements to the diagnostic suite and laser operations; for example, a new set of etalons will be available for the next campaign that should double the range of wavelength shifting between the two beam arrays. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  12. Wavelength converter placement in optical networks with dynamic traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jakob Due; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate the connection provisioning performance of GMPLS-controlled wavelength routed networks under dynamic traffic load and using three different wavelength converter placement heuristics. Results show that a simple uniform placement heuristic matches the performance of complex heuristics...

  13. Improvement in QEPAS system utilizing a second harmonic based wavelength calibration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinduan; Chang, Jun; Wang, Fupeng; Wang, Zongliang; Xie, Yulei; Gong, Weihua

    2018-05-01

    A simple laser wavelength calibration technique, based on second harmonic signal, is demonstrated in this paper to improve the performance of quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) gas sensing system, e.g. improving the signal to noise ratio (SNR), detection limit and long-term stability. Constant current, corresponding to the gas absorption line, combining f/2 frequency sinusoidal signal are used to drive the laser (constant driving mode), a software based real-time wavelength calibration technique is developed to eliminate the wavelength drift due to ambient fluctuations. Compared to conventional wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS), this method allows lower filtering bandwidth and averaging algorithm applied to QEPAS system, improving SNR and detection limit. In addition, the real-time wavelength calibration technique guarantees the laser output is modulated steadily at gas absorption line. Water vapor is chosen as an objective gas to evaluate its performance compared to constant driving mode and conventional WMS system. The water vapor sensor was designed insensitive to the incoherent external acoustic noise by the numerical averaging technique. As a result, the SNR increases 12.87 times in wavelength calibration technique based system compared to conventional WMS system. The new system achieved a better linear response (R2 = 0 . 9995) in concentration range from 300 to 2000 ppmv, and achieved a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 630 ppbv.

  14. Mr-Moose: An advanced SED-fitting tool for heterogeneous multi-wavelength datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouart, G.; Falkendal, T.

    2018-04-01

    We present the public release of Mr-Moose, a fitting procedure that is able to perform multi-wavelength and multi-object spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting in a Bayesian framework. This procedure is able to handle a large variety of cases, from an isolated source to blended multi-component sources from an heterogeneous dataset (i.e. a range of observation sensitivities and spectral/spatial resolutions). Furthermore, Mr-Moose handles upper-limits during the fitting process in a continuous way allowing models to be gradually less probable as upper limits are approached. The aim is to propose a simple-to-use, yet highly-versatile fitting tool fro handling increasing source complexity when combining multi-wavelength datasets with fully customisable filter/model databases. The complete control of the user is one advantage, which avoids the traditional problems related to the "black box" effect, where parameter or model tunings are impossible and can lead to overfitting and/or over-interpretation of the results. Also, while a basic knowledge of Python and statistics is required, the code aims to be sufficiently user-friendly for non-experts. We demonstrate the procedure on three cases: two artificially-generated datasets and a previous result from the literature. In particular, the most complex case (inspired by a real source, combining Herschel, ALMA and VLA data) in the context of extragalactic SED fitting, makes Mr-Moose a particularly-attractive SED fitting tool when dealing with partially blended sources, without the need for data deconvolution.

  15. Broadband interference lithography at extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarad, Nassir; Fan, Daniel; Gobrecht, Jens; Ekinci, Yasin

    2014-04-15

    Manufacturing efficient and broadband optics is of high technological importance for various applications in all wavelength regimes. Particularly in the extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectra, this becomes challenging due to the involved atomic absorption edges that rapidly change the optical constants in these ranges. Here we demonstrate a new interference lithography grating mask that can be used for nanopatterning in this spectral range. We demonstrate photolithography with cutting-edge resolution at 6.5 and 13.5 nm wavelengths, relevant to the semiconductor industry, as well as using 2.5 and 4.5 nm wavelength for patterning thick photoresists and fabricating high-aspect-ratio metal nanostructures for plasmonics and sensing applications.

  16. Cubic Gallium Nitride on Micropatterned Si (001) for Longer Wavelength LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durniak, Mark T. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Chaudhuri, Anabil [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Smith, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Material Sciences; Allerman, Andrew A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Material Sciences; Lee, S. C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Brueck, S. R. J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Wetzel, Christian [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2016-03-01

    GaInN/GaN heterostructures of cubic phase have the potential to overcome the limitations of wurtzite structures commonly used for light emitting and laser diodes. Wurtzite GaInN suffers from large internal polarization fields, which force design compromises ( 0001 ) towards ultra-narrow quantum wells and reduce recombination volume and efficiency. Cubic GaInN microstripes grown at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on micropatterned Si , with {111} v-grooves oriented along Si ( 001 ) , offer a system free of internal polarization fields, wider quantum wells, and smaller <00$\\bar1$> bandgap energy. We prepared 6 and 9 nm Ga x In 1-x N/GaN single quantum well structures with peak wavelength ranges from 520 to 570 nm with photons predominately polarized perpendicular to the grooves. We estimate a cubic InN composition range of 0 < x < 0.5 and an upper limit of the internal quantum efficiency of 50%. Stripe geometry and polarization may be suitable for mode confinement and reduced threshold stimulated emission.

  17. Passively synchronized dual-wavelength Q-switched lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp

    We present a simple and efficient way of generating synchronized Q-switched pulses at wavelengths hundreds of nanometers apart. This principle can result in new pulsed all-solid-state light sources at new wavelengths based on SFG.......We present a simple and efficient way of generating synchronized Q-switched pulses at wavelengths hundreds of nanometers apart. This principle can result in new pulsed all-solid-state light sources at new wavelengths based on SFG....

  18. Meter-wavelength VLBI. III. Pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, N.R.; Clark, T.A.; Clark, W.C.; Erickson, W.C.; Resch, G.M.; Broderick, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The results and analysis of observations of pulsars, especially the Crab Nebula pulsar, taken during a series of meter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiments are discussed. Based on a crude 144 MHz visibility curve which is consistent with a Gaussian brightness distribution, the measured visibilities at 196, 111, and 74 MHz were interpreted to yield apparent angular diameters (at half-power) of 0 .03 +- 0 .01, 0 .07 +- 0 .01, and 0 .18 +- 0 .01, respectively. These sizes scale approximately as wavelength-squared, and the 74 MHz size agrees with recent observations using interplanetary scintillation techniques.The VLBI-measured total flux densities lie on the extrapolation from higher frequencies of the pulsing flux densities. Variations in the total flux density up to 25 percent were observed. A lack of fine structure other than the pulsar in the nebula is indicated by our simple visibility curves. The pulse shapes observed with the interferometer are similar to single-dish measurements at 196 MHz but reveal a steady, nonpulsing component at 111 MHz. The ratio of pulsing to total power was approximately equal to one-half but varied with time. No pulsing power was detected at 74 MHz. It was found that four strong, low-dispersion pulsars were only slightly resolved

  19. WDM cross-connect cascade based on all-optical wavelength converters for routing and wavelength slot interchanging using a reduced number of internal wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Mikkelsen, Benny; Jørgensen, Bo Foged

    1998-01-01

    interchanging can be used to create a robust and nonblocking OXC. However, for an OXC with n fiber inlets each carrying m wavelengths the OXC requires n×m internal wavelengths, which constrains the size of the cross-connect. In this paper we therefore propose and demonstrate an architecture that uses a reduced......Optical transport layers need rearrangeable wavelength-division multiplexing optical cross-connects (OXCs) to increase the capacity and flexibility of the network. It has previously been shown that a cross-connect based on all-optical wavelength converters for routing as well as wavelength slot...... set of internal wavelengths without sacrificing cross-connecting capabilities. By inserting a partly equipped OXC with the new architecture in a 10-Gbit/s re-circulating loop setup we demonstrate the possibility of cascading up to ten OXCs. Furthermore, we investigate the regenerating effect...

  20. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Xiao-Di [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Qian, Zhengmin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Vaughn, Michael G. [School of Social Work, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Trevathan, Edwin [Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Emo, Brett [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Paul, Gunther [Facuty of Health, School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059 (Australia); Ren, Wan-Hui [Department of Ambient Air Pollution Monitor, Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center, Shenyang 110004 (China); Hao, Yuan-Tao [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Dong, Guang-Hui, E-mail: donggh5@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Background: Little information exists regarding the interaction effects of obesity with long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke in areas of high pollution. The aim of the present study is to examine whether obesity modifies CVD-related associations among people living in an industrial province of northeast China. Methods: We studied 24,845 Chinese adults, aged 18 to 74 years old, from three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009 utilizing a cross-sectional study design. Body weight and height were measured by trained observers. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25–29.9 and ≥ 30 kg/m{sup 2}, respectively. Prevalence rate and related risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated by a questionnaire. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxides (NO{sub 2}), and ozone (O{sub 3}) were measured by fixed monitoring stations. All the participants lived within 1 km of air monitoring sites. Two-level logistic regression (personal level and district-specific pollutant level) was used to examine these effects, controlling for covariates. Results: We observed significant interactions between exposure and obesity on CVDs and stroke. The associations between annual pollutant concentrations and CVDs and stroke were strongest in obese subjects (OR 1.15–1.47 for stroke, 1.33–1.59 for CVDs), less strong in overweight subjects (OR 1.22–1.35 for stroke, 1.07–1.13 for CVDs), and weakest in normal weight subjects (OR ranged from 0.98–1.01 for stroke, 0.93–1.15 for CVDs). When stratified by gender, these interactions were significant only in women. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that being overweight and obese may enhance the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of CVDs and stroke in Northeastern metropolitan China. Further studies will be needed to investigate the temporality

  1. Gender-specific differences of interaction between obesity and air pollution on stroke and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: A large population based cross sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Xiao-Di; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael G.; Trevathan, Edwin; Emo, Brett; Paul, Gunther; Ren, Wan-Hui; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little information exists regarding the interaction effects of obesity with long-term air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and stroke in areas of high pollution. The aim of the present study is to examine whether obesity modifies CVD-related associations among people living in an industrial province of northeast China. Methods: We studied 24,845 Chinese adults, aged 18 to 74 years old, from three Northeastern Chinese cities in 2009 utilizing a cross-sectional study design. Body weight and height were measured by trained observers. Overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) between 25–29.9 and ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , respectively. Prevalence rate and related risk factors of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were investigated by a questionnaire. Three-year (2006–2008) average concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 ) were measured by fixed monitoring stations. All the participants lived within 1 km of air monitoring sites. Two-level logistic regression (personal level and district-specific pollutant level) was used to examine these effects, controlling for covariates. Results: We observed significant interactions between exposure and obesity on CVDs and stroke. The associations between annual pollutant concentrations and CVDs and stroke were strongest in obese subjects (OR 1.15–1.47 for stroke, 1.33–1.59 for CVDs), less strong in overweight subjects (OR 1.22–1.35 for stroke, 1.07–1.13 for CVDs), and weakest in normal weight subjects (OR ranged from 0.98–1.01 for stroke, 0.93–1.15 for CVDs). When stratified by gender, these interactions were significant only in women. Conclusions: Study findings indicate that being overweight and obese may enhance the effects of air pollution on the prevalence of CVDs and stroke in Northeastern metropolitan China. Further studies will be needed to investigate the temporality of BMI relative to

  2. Long-range spin deformations around quasiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, M.; Gunn, M.

    1989-01-01

    The quasi-particle formed by a hole in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet has an associated long-range spin distortion whose amplitude increases with the velocity of the hole. The authors show that the existence and properties of this distortion follow from simple classical arguments based on the long-wavelength equations of motion for the spin system. A similar long-range distortion is found in the quantum-mechanical problem of an electron exchange coupled to a Heisenberg antiferromagnet

  3. Extending 3D near-cloud corrections from shorter to longer wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Várnai, Tamás; Wen, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model [18]. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov [9] proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths. - Highlights:

  4. Highly coherent red-shifted dispersive wave generation around 1.3 μm for efficient wavelength conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xia; Bi, Wanjun [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Wei; Xue, Tianfeng; Hu, Lili; Liao, Meisong, E-mail: liaomeisong@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Gao, Weiqing [School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-03-14

    This research investigates the mechanism of the optical dispersive wave (DW) and proposes a scheme that can realize an efficient wavelength conversion. In an elaborately designed photonic crystal fiber, a readily available ytterbium laser operating at ∼1 μm can be transferred to the valuable 1.3 μm wavelength range. A low-order soliton is produced to concentrate the energy of the DW into the target wavelength range and improve the degree of coherence. The input chirp is demonstrated to be a factor that enhances the wavelength conversion efficiency. With a positive initial chirp, 76.6% of the pump energy in the fiber can be transferred into a spectral range between 1.24 and 1.4 μm. With the use of a grating compressor, it is possible to compress the generated coherent DW of several picoseconds into less than 90 fs.

  5. High-Sensitivity AGN Polarimetry at Sub-Millimeter Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Martí-Vidal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The innermost regions of radio loud Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN jets are heavily affected by synchrotron self-absorption, due to the strong magnetic fields and high particle densities in these extreme zones. The only way to overcome this absorption is to observe at sub-millimeter wavelengths, although polarimetric observations at such frequencies have so far been limited by sensitivity and calibration accuracy. However, new generation instruments such as the Atacama Large mm/sub-mm Array (ALMA overcome these limitations and are starting to deliver revolutionary results in the observational studies of AGN polarimetry. Here we present an overview of our state-of-the-art interferometric mm/sub-mm polarization observations of AGN jets with ALMA (in particular, the gravitationally-lensed sources PKS 1830−211 and B0218+359, which allow us to probe the magneto-ionic conditions at the regions closest to the central black holes.

  6. Estimation of Snow Parameters from Dual-Wavelength Airborne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liang; Meneghini, Robert; Iguchi, Toshio; Detwiler, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Estimation of snow characteristics from airborne radar measurements would complement In-situ measurements. While In-situ data provide more detailed information than radar, they are limited in their space-time sampling. In the absence of significant cloud water contents, dual-wavelength radar data can be used to estimate 2 parameters of a drop size distribution if the snow density is assumed. To estimate, rather than assume, a snow density is difficult, however, and represents a major limitation in the radar retrieval. There are a number of ways that this problem can be investigated: direct comparisons with in-situ measurements, examination of the large scale characteristics of the retrievals and their comparison to cloud model outputs, use of LDR measurements, and comparisons to the theoretical results of Passarelli(1978) and others. In this paper we address the first approach and, in part, the second.

  7. Phase and fringe order determination in wavelength scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetti, Giuseppe; Forbes, Alistair; Leach, Richard K; Jiang, Xiang; O'Connor, Daniel

    2016-04-18

    A method to obtain unambiguous surface height measurements using wavelength scanning interferometry with an improved repeatability, comparable to that obtainable using phase shifting interferometry, is reported. Rather than determining the conventional fringe frequency-derived z height directly, the method uses the frequency to resolve the fringe order ambiguity, and combine this information with the more accurate and repeatable fringe phase derived z height. A theoretical model to evaluate the method's performance in the presence of additive noise is derived and shown to be in good agreement with experiments. The measurement repeatability is improved by a factor of ten over that achieved when using frequency information alone, reaching the sub-nanometre range. Moreover, the z-axis non-linearity (bleed-through or ripple error) is reduced by a factor of ten. These order of magnitude improvements in measurement performance are demonstrated through a number of practical measurement examples.

  8. Laser frequency stabilization using a commercial wavelength meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Luc; Nosske, Ingo; Hu, Fachao; Tan, Canzhu; Qiao, Chang; Jiang, Y. H.; Chen, Peng; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2018-04-01

    We present the characterization of a laser frequency stabilization scheme using a state-of-the-art wavelength meter based on solid Fizeau interferometers. For a frequency-doubled Ti-sapphire laser operated at 461 nm, an absolute Allan deviation below 10-9 with a standard deviation of 1 MHz over 10 h is achieved. Using this laser for cooling and trapping of strontium atoms, the wavemeter scheme provides excellent stability in single-channel operation. Multi-channel operation with a multimode fiber switch results in fluctuations of the atomic fluorescence correlated to residual frequency excursions of the laser. The wavemeter-based frequency stabilization scheme can be applied to a wide range of atoms and molecules for laser spectroscopy, cooling, and trapping.

  9. Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M.; Scheffel, J.

    1987-12-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m ≥ 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for P > P and large β

  10. Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.; Schefffel, J.

    1987-01-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m ≥ 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for Psub(perpendicular) > Psub(parallel) and large βsub(perpendicular). (author)

  11. Stability of small axial wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.; Scheffel, J.

    1987-03-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m>=1)modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also constant current density equilibria can be stabilized for P per >P par and large β per . (authors)

  12. Triangular metal wedges for subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding at telecom wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Volkov, V.S.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard

    2008-01-01

    We report on subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding by triangular metal wedges at telecom wavelengths. A high-quality fabrication procedure for making gold wedge waveguides, which is also mass- production compatible offering large-scale parallel fabrication of plasmonic components, is developed...

  13. Analysis of subsystems in wavelength-division-multiplexing networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai

    2001-01-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology together with optical amplification has created a new era for optical communication. Transmission capacity is greatly increased by adding more and more wavelength channels into a single fiber, as well as by increasing the line rate of each channel...... in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), and dispersion managed fiber sections. New subsystems are also proposed in the thesis: a modular 2×2 multiwavelength cross-connect using wavelength switching blocks, a wavelength converter based on cross phase modulation in a semiconductor modulator, a wavelength...

  14. On-chip microparticle detection and sizing using a dual-wavelength waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward H.; van der Werf, Kees O; Hollink, Anton J F; Worhoff, Kerstin; De Ridder, Rene M.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Pollnau, Markus

    2013-01-01

    An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-phase-shift, dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in Al2O3:Yb3+ is presented. Real-time detection and accurate size measurement of single microparticles with diameters ranging between 1 μm and 20 μm are

  15. Up to 20 Gbit/s bit-rate transparent integrated interferometric wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1996-01-01

    We present a compact and optimised multiquantum-well based, integrated all-active Michelson interferometer for 26 Gbit/s optical wavelength conversion. Bit-rate transparent operation is demonstrated with a conversion penalty well below 0.5 dB at bit-rates ranging from 622 Mbit/s to 20 Gbit/s....

  16. On-chip microparticle detection and sizing using a dual-wavelength waveguide laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernhardi, Edward; van der Werf, Kees; Hollink, Anton; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Pollnau, Markus

    An integrated intra-laser-cavity microparticle sensor based on a dual-phase-shift, dual-wavelength distributed-feedback channel waveguide laser in ytterbium-doped aluminium oxide is presented. Single micro-particles with diameters ranging between 1 μm and 20 μm are detected.

  17. Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Zeuner, Franziska; Li, Xin; Reineke, Bernhard; He, Shan; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian; Zhang, Shuang; Zentgraf, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Metasurfaces, as the ultrathin version of metamaterials, have caught growing attention due to their superior capability in controlling the phase, amplitude and polarization states of light. Among various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurface that encodes a geometric or Pancharatnam-Berry phase into the orientation angle of the constituent meta-atoms has shown great potential in controlling light in both linear and nonlinear optical regimes. The robust and dispersionless nature of the geometric phase simplifies the wave manipulation tremendously. Benefitting from the continuous phase control, metasurface holography has exhibited advantages over conventional depth controlled holography with discretized phase levels. Here we report on spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography, which allows construction of multiple target holographic images carried independently by the fundamental and harmonic generation waves of different spins. The nonlinear holograms provide independent, nondispersive and crosstalk-free post-selective channels for holographic multiplexing and multidimensional optical data storages, anti-counterfeiting, and optical encryption.

  18. Aligning of single and multiple wavelength chromatographic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels-Peter Vest; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    1998-01-01

    optimised warping (COW) using two input parameters which can be estimated from the observed peak width. COW is demonstrated on constructed single trace chromatograms and on single and multiple wavelength chromatograms obtained from HPLC diode detection analyses of fungal extractsA copy of the C program......The use of chemometric data processing is becoming an important part of modern chromatography. Most chemometric analyses are performed on reduced data sets using areas of selected peaks detected in the chromatograms, which means a loss of data and introduces the problem of extracting peak data from...... to utilise the entire data matrix or rely on peak detection, thus having the same limitations as the commonly used chemometric procedures. The method presented uses the entire chromatographic data matrices and does not require any preprocessing e.g., peak detection. It relies on piecewise linear correlation...

  19. Single wavelength standard wiggler for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunk, W.; Fischer, G.; Spencer, J.

    1979-03-01

    A 1lambda planar wiggler has been designed that will be used for the initial operation of the 4 to 18 GeV storage ring PEP. Three of these wigglers will be installed symmetrically around the ring at 120 0 intervals in three of six available 5 m straight sections with the purpose of providing: (1) beam size control to obtain better luminosities below 15 GeV, and (2) decreased damping times to obtain better injection rates at lower energies. Design goals are discussed and a description of the final system including cost estimates is given. Expected results and usage in PEP are discussed. Some possibilities for production of synchrotron radiation and beam monitoring with shorter wavelength, multiple-period wigglers at PEP energies are also discussed. Comparison to a wiggler now operating in SPEAR is given

  20. Multi-wavelength study of infrared galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcillac, Delphine

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with a panchromatic study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) detected at 15 microns by ISOCAM (camera aboard ISO) and at 24 microns by MIPS (camera aboard the recently launched Spitzer satellite). These galaxies are today considered to be the Rosetta Stone of galaxy evolution since they are found to be far more numerous at high redshift and it is thought that a large part of stars seen in the local universe are born in such phases. The first part of this thesis presents a new study dedicated to dust emission of distant LIRGs in the mid-infrared range. Their dust emission has been compared to those of a local sample of LIRGs in addition to the prediction of several spectral energy distributions (SEDs) built on data available in the local universe. It has been shown that distant and local LIRGs present similar mid infrared spectral energy distribution: similar PAH bumps are detected in both local and distant LIRGs, however distant LIRGs show evidence of a stronger silicate absorption at 10 microns associated silicate grains. It also shows that distant LIRG mid infrared emission can be used together with local SEDs in order to estimate the total infrared luminosity. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to the burst of star formation and to the recent star formation history of these galaxies, which is responsible for the dust emission. This study was done thanks to a combination of high resolution spectra (R=2000 in the rest frame) obtained at VLT/FORS2 and the stellar population synthesis models called GALAXEV (Bruzual and Charlot, 2003). It has been shown that the burst of star formation has a duration of about 0.1 Gyear. About 10 % of the stellar content is formed during this burst of star formation. (author) [fr

  1. Sub-wavelength imaging and field mapping via electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in Rydberg atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Christopher L., E-mail: holloway@boulder.nist.gov; Gordon, Joshua A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Electromagnetics Division, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    We present a technique for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric field strengths with sub-wavelength resolution. We use Rydberg states of rubidium atoms to probe the RF field. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect, and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use this technique to measure the electric field distribution inside a glass cylinder with applied RF fields at 17.04 GHz and 104.77 GHz. We achieve a spatial resolution of ≈100 μm, limited by the widths of the laser beams utilized for the EIT spectroscopy. We numerically simulate the fields in the glass cylinder and find good agreement with the measured fields. Our results suggest that this technique could be applied to image fields on a small spatial scale over a large range of frequencies, up into the sub-terahertz regime.

  2. Absolute distance measurement with extension of nonambiguity range using the frequency comb of a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yoon-Soo; Lee, Keunwoo; Han, Seongheum; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2014-12-01

    We revisit the method of synthetic wavelength interferometry (SWI) for absolute measurement of long distances using the radio-frequency harmonics of the pulse repetition rate of a mode-locked femtosecond laser. Our intention here is to extend the nonambiguity range (NAR) of the SWI method using a coarse virtual wavelength synthesized by shifting the pulse repetition rate. The proposed concept of NAR extension is experimentally verified by measuring a ˜13-m distance with repeatability of 9.5 μm (root-mean-square). The measurement precision is estimated to be 31.2 μm in comparison with an incremental He-Ne laser interferometer. This extended SWI method is found to be well suited for long-distance measurements demanded in the fields of large-scale precision engineering, geodetic survey, and future space missions.

  3. Geologic history of Siletzia, a large igneous province in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range: correlation to the geomagnetic polarity time scale and implications for a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ray; Bukry, David; Friedman, Richard; Pyle, Douglas; Duncan, Robert; Haeussler, Peter J.; Wooden, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Siletzia is a basaltic Paleocene and Eocene large igneous province in coastal Oregon, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island that was accreted to North America in the early Eocene. New U-Pb magmatic, detrital zircon, and 40Ar/39Ar ages constrained by detailed field mapping, global nannoplankton zones, and magnetic polarities allow correlation of the volcanics with the 2012 geologic time scale. The data show that Siletzia was rapidly erupted 56–49 Ma, during the Chron 25–22 plate reorganization in the northeast Pacific basin. Accretion was completed between 51 and 49 Ma in Oregon, based on CP11 (CP—Coccolith Paleogene zone) coccoliths in strata overlying onlapping continental sediments. Magmatism continued in the northern Oregon Coast Range until ca. 46 Ma with the emplacement of a regional sill complex during or shortly after accretion. Isotopic signatures similar to early Columbia River basalts, the great crustal thickness of Siletzia in Oregon, rapid eruption, and timing of accretion are consistent with offshore formation as an oceanic plateau. Approximately 8 m.y. after accretion, margin parallel extension of the forearc, emplacement of regional dike swarms, and renewed magmatism of the Tillamook episode peaked at 41.6 Ma (CP zone 14a; Chron 19r). We examine the origin of Siletzia and consider the possible role of a long-lived Yellowstone hotspot using the reconstruction in GPlates, an open source plate model. In most hotspot reference frames, the Yellowstone hotspot (YHS) is on or near an inferred northeast-striking Kula-Farallon and/or Resurrection-Farallon ridge between 60 and 50 Ma. In this configuration, the YHS could have provided a 56–49 Ma source on the Farallon plate for Siletzia, which accreted to North America by 50 Ma. A sister plateau, the Eocene basalt basement of the Yakutat terrane, now in Alaska, formed contemporaneously on the adjacent Kula (or Resurrection) plate and accreted to coastal British Columbia at about the same time

  4. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailler, R., E-mail: romain.mailler@siaap.fr [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Gasperi, J., E-mail: gasperi@u-pec.fr [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Coquet, Y. [SAUR, Direction de la Recherche et du Développement, 1 rue Antoine Lavoisier, 78064 Guyancourt (France); Buleté, A.; Vulliet, E. [Université de Lyon, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, UMR5280 CNRS, Université Lyon 1, ENS-Lyon, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Deshayes, S. [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); LCPP (Laboratoire Central de la Préfecture de Police), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); Zedek, S. [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); and others

    2016-01-15

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m{sup 3}/d — Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n = 11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n = 62) and other emerging pollutants (n = 57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90–100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38–45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21–48%), DOC (13–44%) and UV-254 (22–48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO{sub 2}{sup −}. For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (> 60%) or very high (> 80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n = 22

  5. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailler, R.; Gasperi, J.; Coquet, Y.; Buleté, A.; Vulliet, E.; Deshayes, S.; Zedek, S.

    2016-01-01

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m"3/d — Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n = 11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n = 62) and other emerging pollutants (n = 57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90–100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38–45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21–48%), DOC (13–44%) and UV-254 (22–48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO_2"−. For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (> 60%) or very high (> 80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n = 22/32), i

  6. Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morichetti, Francesco; Canciamilla, Antonio; Ferrari, Carlo; Samarelli, Antonio; Sorel, Marc; Melloni, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Wave mixing inside optical resonators, while experiencing a large enhancement of the nonlinear interaction efficiency, suffers from strong bandwidth constraints, preventing its practical exploitation for processing broad-band signals. Here we show that such limits are overcome by the new concept of travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing (FWM). This approach combines the efficiency enhancement provided by resonant propagation with a wide-band conversion process. Compared with conventional FWM in bare waveguides, it exhibits higher robustness against chromatic dispersion and propagation loss, while preserving transparency to modulation formats. Travelling-wave resonant FWM has been demonstrated in silicon-coupled ring resonators and was exploited to realize a 630-μm-long wavelength converter operating over a wavelength range wider than 60 nm and with 28-dB gain with respect to a bare waveguide of the same physical length. Full compatibility of the travelling-wave resonant FWM with optical signal processing applications has been demonstrated through signal retiming and reshaping at 10 Gb s(-1).

  7. Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion in a dispersion-engineered silicon waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate polarization-insensitive all optical wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s DPSK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide with an angled-pump scheme. Dispersion engineering is applied to the silicon waveguide to obtain similar four-wave mixing convers...... conversion performances for both the TE and TM modes. Bit-error rate measurements are performed and error-free operation is achieved. We also demonstrate polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion with a large separation between the idler and signal using a dual-pump configuration....

  8. Widely tunable wavelength conversion with extinction ratio enhancement using PCF-based NOLM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, C.H.; Lee, S.H.; Chow, K.K.

    2005-01-01

    A widely tunable wavelength conversion scheme has been demonstrated using a 64-m-long dispersion-flattened high-nonlinearity photonic crystal fiber in a nonlinear optical loop mirror. Wavelength conversion range of over 60 nm with a 10-Gb/s return-to-zero signal was obtained with the output...... extinction ratio (ER) maintained above 13 dB. The proposed scheme can also improve the output ER and remove the bit-error-rate floor if a degraded signal is used....

  9. Interference with a quantum dot single-photon source and a laser at telecom wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felle, M. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Huwer, J., E-mail: jan.huwer@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Stevenson, R. M.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Ward, M. B.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Penty, R. V. [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-28

    The interference of photons emitted by dissimilar sources is an essential requirement for a wide range of photonic quantum information applications. Many of these applications are in quantum communications and need to operate at standard telecommunication wavelengths to minimize the impact of photon losses and be compatible with existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the quantum interference of telecom-wavelength photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-photon source and a laser; an important step towards such applications. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model, indicating a high degree of indistinguishability for the interfering photons.

  10. Effect of wavelength, epidermal thickness and skin type on the required dose for photodynamic therapy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Karsten, AE

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Wavelength, Epidermal Thickness and Skin Type on the Required Dose for Photodynamic Therapy A.E. Karsten1,2 1CSIR National Laser Centre, Biophotonics Group, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 2Physics Department, Faculty of Natural... a certain depth in the skin. For most laser treatments and diagnostics apllications, wavelengths ranging between 600 and 1 000 nm are used. 1.1 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) In South Africa, as in many other countries, cancer is a major health...

  11. Enhanced photoluminescence from ring resonators in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Ryan J; Wood, Michael G; Reano, Ronald M

    2017-11-01

    We report enhanced photoluminescence in the telecommunications wavelength range in ring resonators patterned in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films deposited via low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The thin films exhibit broadband photoluminescence that is enhanced by up to 5 dB by the resonant modes of the ring resonators due to the Purcell effect. Ellipsometry measurements of the thin films show a refractive index comparable to crystalline silicon and an extinction coefficient on the order of 0.001 from 1300 nm to 1600 nm wavelengths. The results are promising for chip-scale integrated optical light sources.

  12. Interference with a quantum dot single-photon source and a laser at telecom wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felle, M.; Huwer, J.; Stevenson, R. M.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Ward, M. B.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Penty, R. V.

    2015-01-01

    The interference of photons emitted by dissimilar sources is an essential requirement for a wide range of photonic quantum information applications. Many of these applications are in quantum communications and need to operate at standard telecommunication wavelengths to minimize the impact of photon losses and be compatible with existing infrastructure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the quantum interference of telecom-wavelength photons from an InAs/GaAs quantum dot single-photon source and a laser; an important step towards such applications. The results are in good agreement with a theoretical model, indicating a high degree of indistinguishability for the interfering photons

  13. Extreme-ultraviolet wavelength and lifetime measurements in highly ionized krypton

    CERN Document Server

    Kukla, K W; Vogt, C M V; Berry, H G; Dunford, R W; Curtis, L J; Cheng, S

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the spectrum of highly ionized krypton in the extreme-ultraviolet wavelength region (50-300 Aa), using beam-foil excitation of fast krypton ions at the Argonne ATLAS accelerator facility. We report measurements of transition wavelengths and excited-state lifetimes for n=2 states in the lithiumlike, berylliumlike, and boronlike ions, Kr/sup 31+,32+,33+/. Excited state lifetimes ranging from 10 ps to 3 ns were measured by acquiring time- of-flight-delayed spectra with a position-sensitive multichannel detector.

  14. Short-wavelength electrostatic waves in the earth's magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Recent observations with the ISEE 1 spacecraft have found electric field emissions in the dayside magnetosheath whose frequency spectrum is modulated at twice the spacecraft spin period. The upper frequency cutoff in the frequency-time spectrum of the emission has a characteristic parabola shape or ''festoon'' shape. The low-frequency cutoff ranges from 100 to 400 Hz, while the high-frequency limit ranges from about 1 to 4 kHz. The bandwidth is found to minimize for antenna orientations parallel to the wave vectors. The wave vector does not appear to be related to the local magnetic field, the plasma flow velocity, or the spacecraft-sun directions. The spacecraft observed frequency spectrum results from the spacecraft antenna response to the Doppler-shifted wave vector spectrum which exists in the plasma. Imposed constraints on the plasma rest frame wave vectors and frequencies indicate that emissions occur within the frequency range from about 150 Hz to 1 kHz, with wavelengths between about 40 and 600 m. These constraints strongly suggest that the festoon-shaped emissions are ion-acoustic waves. The small group velocity and k direction of the ion-acoustic mode are consistent with wave generation upstream at the bow shock and convection downstream to locations within the outer dayside magnetosheath

  15. Short wavelength electrostatic waves in the earth's magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent observations with the ISEE-1 spacecraft have found electric field emissions in the dayside magnetosheath whose frequency spectrum is modulated at twice the spacecraft spin period. The upper frequency cutoff in the frequency-time spectrum of the emissions has a characteristic parabola shape or ''festoon'' shape. The low frequency cutoff ranges from 100 Hz to 400 Hz, while the high frequency limit ranges from about 1kHz to 4kHz. The bandwidth is found to minimize for antenna orientations parallel to these wave number vectors, requiring the confinement of those vectors to a plane which contains the geocentric solar eclilptic coordinate z-axis. The spacecraft observed frequency spectrum results from the spacecraft antenna response to the Doppler shifted wave vector spectrum which exists in the plasma. Imposed constraints on the plasma rest-frame wave vectors and frequencies indicate that the emissions occur within the frequency range from about 150 Hz to 1 kHz, with wavelengths between about 30 meters and 600 meters. These constraints strongly suggest that the festoon-shaped emissions are ion-acoustic waves. The small group velocity and k vector direction of the ion-acoustic mode are consistent with wave generation upstream at the bow shock and convection downstream to locations within the outer dayside magnetosheath

  16. Wavelength-stepped, actively mode-locked fiber laser based on wavelength-division-multiplexed optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjoo; Kim, Byoung Yoon

    2017-12-01

    We propose a new scheme for an actively mode-locked wavelength-swept fiber laser that produces a train of discretely wavelength-stepped pulses from a short fiber cavity. Pulses with different wavelengths are split and combined by standard wavelength division multiplexers with fiber delay lines. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate a laser using an erbium doped fiber amplifier and commercially available wavelength-division multiplexers with wavelength spacing of 0.8 nm. The results show simultaneous mode-locking at three different wavelengths. Laser output parameters in time domain, optical and radio frequency spectral domain, and the noise characteristics are presented. Suggestions for the improved design are discussed.

  17. Parallel implementation of the PHOENIX generalized stellar atmosphere program. II. Wavelength parallelization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, E.; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    1998-01-01

    We describe an important addition to the parallel implementation of our generalized nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) stellar atmosphere and radiative transfer computer program PHOENIX. In a previous paper in this series we described data and task parallel algorithms we have developed for radiative transfer, spectral line opacity, and NLTE opacity and rate calculations. These algorithms divided the work spatially or by spectral lines, that is, distributing the radial zones, individual spectral lines, or characteristic rays among different processors and employ, in addition, task parallelism for logically independent functions (such as atomic and molecular line opacities). For finite, monotonic velocity fields, the radiative transfer equation is an initial value problem in wavelength, and hence each wavelength point depends upon the previous one. However, for sophisticated NLTE models of both static and moving atmospheres needed to accurately describe, e.g., novae and supernovae, the number of wavelength points is very large (200,000 - 300,000) and hence parallelization over wavelength can lead both to considerable speedup in calculation time and the ability to make use of the aggregate memory available on massively parallel supercomputers. Here, we describe an implementation of a pipelined design for the wavelength parallelization of PHOENIX, where the necessary data from the processor working on a previous wavelength point is sent to the processor working on the succeeding wavelength point as soon as it is known. Our implementation uses a MIMD design based on a relatively small number of standard message passing interface (MPI) library calls and is fully portable between serial and parallel computers. copyright 1998 The American Astronomical Society

  18. Feasibility Study of Multi-Wavelength Differential Absorption LIDAR for CO2 Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengzhi Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a better understanding of carbon cycle and accurate climate prediction models, highly accurate and temporal resolution observation of atmospheric CO2 is necessary. Differential absorption LIDAR (DIAL remote sensing is a promising technology to detect atmospheric CO2. However, the traditional DIAL system is the dual-wavelength DIAL (DW-DIAL, which has strict requirements for wavelength accuracy and stability. Moreover, for on-line and off-line wavelengths, the system’s optical efficiency and the change of atmospheric parameters are assumed to be the same in the DW-DIAL system. This assumption inevitably produces measurement errors, especially under rapid aerosol changes. In this study, a multi-wavelength DIAL (MW-DIAL is proposed to map atmospheric CO2 concentration. The MW-DIAL conducts inversion with one on-line and multiple off-line wavelengths. Multiple concentrations of CO2 are then obtained through difference processing between the single on-line and each of the off-line wavelengths. In addition, the least square method is adopted to optimize inversion results. Consequently, the inversion concentration of CO2 in the MW-DIAL system is found to be the weighted average of the multiple concentrations. Simulation analysis and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the inversion precision of MW-DIAL. For comparison, traditional DW-DIAL simulations were also conducted. Simulation analysis demonstrated that, given the drifting wavelengths of the laser, the detection accuracy of CO2 when using MW-DIAL is higher than that when using DW-DIAL, especially when the drift is large. A laboratory experiment was also performed to verify the simulation analysis.

  19. A Short-Range Distance Sensor with Exceptional Linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Steven; Youngquist, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A sensor has been demonstrated that can measure distance over a total range of about 300 microns to an accuracy of about 0.1 nm (resolution of about 0.01 nm). This represents an exceptionally large dynamic range of operation - over 1,000,000. The sensor is optical in nature, and requires the attachment of a mirror to the object whose distance is being measured. This work resulted from actively developing a white light interferometric system to be used to measure the depths of defects in the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows. The concept was then applied to measuring distance. The concept later expanded to include spectrometer calibration. In summary, broadband (i.e., white) light is launched into a Michelson interferometer, one mirror of which is fixed and one of which is attached to the object whose distance is to be measured. The light emerging from the interferometer has traveled one of two distances: either the distance to the fixed mirror and back, or the distance to the moving mirror and back. These two light beams mix and produce an interference pattern where some wavelengths interfere constructively and some destructively. Sending this light into a spectrometer allows this interference pattern to be analyzed, yielding the net distance difference between the two paths. The unique feature of this distance sensor is its ability to measure accurately distance over a dynamic range of more than one million, the ratio of its range (about 300 microns) to its accuracy (about 0.1 nanometer). Such a large linear operating range is rare and arises here because both amplitude and phase-matching algorithms contribute to the performance. The sensor is limited by the need to attach a mirror of some kind to the object being tracked, and by the fairly small total range, but the exceptional dynamic range should make it of interest.

  20. Studies on omnidirectional enhancement of giga-hertz radiation by sub-wavelength plasma modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanrong, KONG; Qiuyue, NIE; Shu, LIN; Zhibin, WANG; Bowen, LI; Shulei, ZHENG; Binhao, JIANG

    2018-01-01

    The technology of radio frequency (RF) radiation intensification for radio compact antennas based on modulation and enhancement effects of sub-wavelength plasma structures represents an innovative developing strategy. It exhibits important scientific significance and promising potential of broad applications in various areas of national strategic demands, such as electrical information network and microwave communication, detection and control technology. In this paper, laboratory experiments and corresponding analyses have been carried out to investigate the modulation and enhancement technology of sub-wavelength plasma structure on the RF electromagnetic radiation. An application focused sub-wavelength plasma-added intensification up to ∼7 dB higher than the free-space radiation is observed experimentally in giga-hertz (GHz) RF band. The effective radiation enhancement bandwidth covers from 0.85 to 1.17 GHz, while the enhanced electromagnetic signals transmitted by sub-wavelength plasma structures maintain good communication quality. Particularly, differing from the traditional RF electromagnetic radiation enhancement method characterized by focusing the radiation field of antenna in a specific direction, the sub-wavelength plasma-added intensification of the antenna radiation presents an omnidirectional enhancement, which is reported experimentally for the first time. Corresponding performance characteristics and enhancement mechanism analyses are also conducted in this paper. The results have demonstrated the feasibility and promising potential of sub-wavelength plasma modulation in application focused RF communication, and provided the scientific basis for further research and development of sub-wavelength plasma enhanced compact antennas with wide-range requests and good quality for communication.

  1. Multi-wavelength mid-IR light source for gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Alajoki, Teemu; Cherchi, Matteo; Ollila, Jyrki; Harjanne, Mikko; Heinilehto, Noora; Suomalainen, Soile; Viheriälä, Jukka; Zia, Nouman; Guina, Mircea; Buczyński, Ryszard; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Kujawa, Ireneusz; Salo, Tomi; Virtanen, Sami; Kluczyński, Paweł; Sagberg, Hâkon; Ratajczyk, Marcin; Kalinowski, Przemyslaw

    2017-02-01

    Cost effective multi-wavelength light sources are key enablers for wide-scale penetration of gas sensors at Mid-IR wavelength range. Utilizing novel Mid-IR Si-based photonic integrated circuits (PICs) filter and wide-band Mid-IR Super Luminescent Light Emitting Diodes (SLEDs), we show the concept of a light source that covers 2.5…3.5 μm wavelength range with a resolution of price can be lowered in high volumes by utilizing tailored molded IR lens technology and automated packaging and assembling technologies. The status of the development of the key components of the light source are reported. The PIC is based on the use of micron-scale SOI technology, SLED is based on AlGaInAsSb materials and the lenses are tailored heavy metal oxide glasses fabricated by the use of hot-embossing. The packaging concept utilizing automated assembly tools is depicted. In safety and security applications, the Mid-IR wavelength range covered by the novel light source allows for detecting several harmful gas components with a single sensor. At the moment, affordable sources are not available. The market impact is expected to be disruptive, since the devices currently in the market are either complicated, expensive and heavy instruments, or the applied measurement principles are inadequate in terms of stability and selectivity.

  2. Wavelength Dependence of Solar Flare Irradiation and its Influence on the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanshi; Richmond, Arthur D.; Deng, Yue; Qian, L.; Solomon, S.; Chamberlin, P.

    2012-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of solar flare enhancement is one of the important factors determining how the Thermosphere-Ionosphere (T-I) system response to flares. To investigate the wavelength dependence of solar flare, the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) has been run for 34 X-class flares. The results show that the percentage increases of solar irradiance at flare peak comparing to pre-flare condition have a clear wavelength dependence. In the wavelength range between 0 - 195 nm, it can vary from 1% to 10000%. The solar irradiance enhancement is largest ( 1000%) in the XUV range (0 - 25 nm), and is about 100% in EUV range (25 - 120 nm). The influence of different wavebands on the T-I system during the October 28th, 2003 flare (X17.2-class) has also been examined using the latest version of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere- Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM). While the globally integrated solar energy deposition is largest in the 0 - 14 nm waveband, the impact of solar irradiance enhancement on the thermosphere at 400 km is largest for 25 - 105 nm waveband. The effect of 122 - 195 nm is small in magnitude, but it decays slowly.

  3. Wavelength detection in FBG sensor networks using least squares support vector regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Tundong; Fu, Xiaoli

    2014-04-01

    A wavelength detection method for a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network is proposed based on least squares support vector regression (LS-SVR). As a kind of promising machine learning technique, LS-SVR is employed to approximate the inverse function of the reflection spectrum. The LS-SVR detection model is established from the training samples, and then the Bragg wavelength of each FBG can be directly identified by inputting the measured spectrum into the well-trained model. We also discuss the impact of the sample size and the preprocess of the input spectrum on the performance of the training effectiveness. The results demonstrate that our approach is effective in improving the accuracy for sensor networks with a large number of FBGs.

  4. High-resolution magnetic-domain imaging by Fourier transform holography at 21 nm wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffert, Stefan; Pfau, Bastian; Günther, Christian M; Schneider, Michael; Korff Schmising, Clemens von; Eisebitt, Stefan; Geilhufe, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the L-edges of 3d transition metals, Fourier transform holography has become a standard technique to investigate magnetic samples with sub-100 nm spatial resolution. Here, magnetic imaging in the 21 nm wavelength regime using M-edge circular dichroism is demonstrated. Ultrafast pulses in this wavelength regime are increasingly available from both laser- and accelerator-driven soft x-ray sources. We explain the adaptations concerning sample preparation and data evaluation compared to conventional holography in the 1 nm wavelength range. We find the correction of the Fourier transform hologram to in-plane Fourier components to be critical for high-quality reconstruction and demonstrate 70 nm spatial resolution in magnetization imaging with this approach. (paper)

  5. Double wavelength differential absorption as a technique for early diagnosis of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liger, Vladimir V.; Zybin, Alexander V.; Niemax, Kay; Kuritsyn, Yuri A.; Bolshov, Mikhail A.

    2005-08-01

    The double-wavelength differential molecular absorption technique with diode lasers is proposed for sensitive detection of functional status of breast tissues. The method is based on the measurement of the transmitted intensity differences of the two beams of diode lasers tuned to selected wavelengths within a broad absorption band of a human breast tissue within 700 - 800 nm spectral range. The strategy for the optimum selection of the diode laser wavelengths and initial adjustment of the detection scheme is developed. The method is demonstrated by the detection of the relative concentrations of two dyes, the optical properties of which are similar to those of a mixture of oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin. The results of the first clinical tests of the proposed technique are briefly described.

  6. Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d to 4p X-ray laser lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Takayuki; Sasaki, Akira

    2000-01-01

    The wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d to 4p X-ray laser lines for elements ranging from Pd(Z=46) to U(Z=92) calculated using the relativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Fock code, i.e. grasp92, are presented. These optimal level calculations agree well with measurements and previous calculations. To obtain accurate lasing wavelengths is important to grasp the energy level structure of the complicated Ni-like ions, and especially for the development of collisionally pumped X-ray lasers. The lasing wavelengths are also essential to identify the lines and when the X-ray laser is utilized for imaging and interferometry. (author)

  7. The Optimal Wavelengths for Light Absorption Spectroscopy Measurements Based on Genetic Algorithm-Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ge; Wei, Biao; Wu, Decao; Feng, Peng; Liu, Juan; Tang, Yuan; Xiong, Shuangfei; Zhang, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    To select the optimal wavelengths in the light extinction spectroscopy measurement, genetic algorithm-particle swarm optimization (GAPSO) based on genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adopted. The change of the optimal wavelength positions in different feature size parameters and distribution parameters is evaluated. Moreover, the Monte Carlo method based on random probability is used to identify the number of optimal wavelengths, and good inversion effects of the particle size distribution are obtained. The method proved to have the advantage of resisting noise. In order to verify the feasibility of the algorithm, spectra with bands ranging from 200 to 1000 nm are computed. Based on this, the measured data of standard particles are used to verify the algorithm.

  8. Multiple scattering wavelength dependent backscattering of kaolin dust in the IR: Measurements and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Avishai

    1992-01-01

    Knowing the optical properties of aerosol dust is important for designing electro-optical systems and for modeling the effect on propagation of light in the atmosphere. As CO2 lidar technology becomes more advanced and is used for multiwavelength measurements, information on the wavelength dependent backscattering of aerosol dust particles is required. The volume backscattering coefficient of aerosols in the IR is relatively small. Thus, only a few field measurements of backscattering, usually at only a few wavelengths, are reported in the literature. We present spectral field measurements of backscattering of kaolin dust in the 9-11 micron wavelength range. As the quantity of dust increases, multiple scattering contributes more to the measured backscattered signal. The measurements show the effect of the dust quantity of the spectral backscatter measurements. A simple analytical two stream radiative transfer model is applied to confirm the measurements and to give insight to the multiple scattering spectra of backscattering.

  9. Capacity of Wavelength and Time Division Multiplexing for Quasi-Distributed Measurement Using Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Fajkus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis of the use of wavelength and time division multiplexing techniques for quasi-distributed measurement in uniform fiber Bragg gratings is presented. To date, publications have concentrated on the determination of the maximum number of fiber Bragg gratings on one optical fiber using wavelength and time division multiplexing. In this paper, these techniques will be extended to determine the spectral width of wavelength division multiplexing in terms of the spectral width of the light emitting diode, the spectral width of the Bragg gratings, the measurement ranges of the individual sensors, and the guard band between two adjacent Bragg gratings. For time division multiplexing, a description of the time and power conditions are given. In particular the reflected power, first order crosstalk and chromatic dispersion have been considered. Finally, these relationships were applied to verify a design in a simulation using OptiSystem software.

  10. Wavelength-modulated spectroscopy of the sub-bandgap response of solar cell devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandanirina, N.H., E-mail: s213514095@nmmu.ac.za; Botha, J.R.; Wagener, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    A wavelength-modulation setup for measuring the differential photo-response of a GaSb/GaAs quantum ring solar cell structure is reported. The pseudo-monochromatic wavelength is modulated at the output of a conventional monochromator by means of a vibrating slit mechanism. The vibrating slit was able to modulate the excitation wavelength up to 33 nm. The intensity of the light beam was kept constant through a unique flux correction module, designed and built in-house. The setup enabled measurements in the near-infrared range (from 1000 to 1300 nm), which is specifically used to probe the sub-band gap differential photo-response of GaAs solar cells.

  11. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas at Submillimeter Wavelengths for Terahertz Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Skalare, Anders; Lee, Choonsup; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Most optical systems require antennas with directive patterns. This means that the physical area of the antenna will be large in terms of the wavelength. When non-cooled systems are used, the losses of microstrip or coplanar waveguide lines impede the use of standard patch or slot antennas for a large number of elements in a phased array format. Traditionally, this problem has been solved by using silicon lenses. However, if an array of such highly directive antennas is to be used for imaging applications, the fabrication of many closely spaced lenses becomes a problem. Moreover, planar antennas are usually fed by microstrip or coplanar waveguides while the mixer or the detector elements (usually Schottky diodes) are coupled in a waveguide environment. The coupling between the antenna and the detector/ mixer can be a fabrication challenge in an imaging array at submillimeter wavelengths. Antennas excited by a waveguide (TE10) mode makes use of dielectric superlayers to increase the directivity. These antennas create a kind of Fabry- Perot cavity between the ground plane and the first layer of dielectric. In reality, the antenna operates as a leaky wave mode where a leaky wave pole propagates along the cavity while it radiates. Thanks to this pole, the directivity of a small antenna is considerably enhanced. The antenna consists of a waveguide feed, which can be coupled to a mixer or detector such as a Schottky diode via a standard probe design. The waveguide is loaded with a double-slot iris to perform an impedance match and to suppress undesired modes that can propagate on the cavity. On top of the slot there is an air cavity and on top, a small portion of a hemispherical lens. The fractional bandwidth of such antennas is around 10 percent, which is good enough for heterodyne imaging applications.The new geometry makes use of a silicon lens instead of dielectric quarter wavelength substrates. This design presents several advantages when used in the submillimeter

  12. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Jupp, David L B; Strahler, Alan H; Schaaf, Crystal B; Howe, Glenn; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A; Paynter, Ian; Saenz, Edward J; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-03-02

    Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna(®) Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρ(app)), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρ(app) are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρ(app) error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρ(app) from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars.

  13. Characterizing CDOM Spectral Variability Across Diverse Regions and Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Brice K.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has focused on CDOM absorption (aCDOM) at a reference wavelength, as its magnitude provides insight into the underwater light field and large-scale biogeochemical processes. CDOM spectral slope, SCDOM, has been treated as a constant or semiconstant parameter in satellite retrievals of aCDOM despite significant regional and temporal variabilities. SCDOM and other optical metrics provide insights into CDOM composition, processing, food web dynamics, and carbon cycling. To date, much of this work relies on fluorescence techniques or aCDOM in spectral ranges unavailable to current and planned satellite sensors (e.g., global variability in SCDOM and fit deviations in the aCDOM spectra using the recently proposed Gaussian decomposition method. From this, we investigate if global variability in retrieved SCDOM and Gaussian components is significant and regionally distinct. We iteratively decreased the spectral range considered and analyzed the number, location, and magnitude of fitted Gaussian components to understand if a reduced spectral range impacts information obtained within a common spectral window. We compared the fitted slope from the Gaussian decomposition method to absorption-based indices that indicate CDOM composition to determine the ability of satellite-derived slope to inform the analysis and modeling of large-scale biogeochemical processes. Finally, we present implications of the observed variability for remote sensing of CDOM characteristics via SCDOM.

  14. Determination of the wavelength dependence of the differential pathlength factor from near-infrared pulse signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Matthias; Nolte, Christian; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Horst, Susanne; Scholz, Udo; Obrig, Hellmuth; Villringer, Arno

    1998-06-01

    For the calculation of changes in oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin and the redox state of cytochrome-c-oxidase from attenuation data via a modified Beer-Lambert equation the wavelength dependence of the differential pathlength factor (DPF) has to be taken into account. The DPF, i.e. the ratio of the mean optical pathlength and the physical light source-detector separation at each wavelength, determines the crosstalk between the different concentrations and is therefore essential for a sensitive detection of chromophore changes. Here a simple method is suggested to estimate the wavelength dependence of the DPF from pulse-induced attenuation changes measured on the head of adult humans. The essence is that the DPF is the ratio of the attenuation changes over absorption coefficient changes, and that the spectral form of the pulse correlated absorption coefficient change can be assumed to be proportional to the extinction coefficient of blood. Indicators for the validity of the DPF derived for wavelengths between 700 and 970 nm are the stability of the calculated haemoglobin and cytochrome signals with variations of the wavelength range included for their calculation and its overall agreement with the data available from the literature.

  15. Degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers, in which photonic bandgap guidance and index guidance is combined. Calculations show the parametric gain is maximum on the edge of a photonic bandgap, for a large range of pump...... wavelengths. The FWM products are observed on the edges of a transmission band experimentally, in good agreement with the numerical results. Thereby the bandedges can be used to control the spectral positions of FWM products through a proper fiber design. The parametric gain control combined with a large mode...... area fiber design potentially allows for power scaling of light at wavelengths not easily accessible with e.g. rare earth ions....

  16. A Raman spectroscopic study of organic matter in interplanetary dust particles and meteorites using multiple wavelength laser excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Starkey, N. A.; Franchi, I. A.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate insoluble organic matter (IOM) from a range of chondritic meteorites, and a suite of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Three monochromatic excitation wavelengths (473 nm, 514 nm, 632 nm) were applied sequentially to assess variations in meteorite and IDP Raman peak parameters (carbon D and G bands) as a function of excitation wavelength (i.e., dispersion). Greatest dispersion occurs in CVs > OCs > CMs > CRs with type 3 chondrites compared at diff...

  17. Multi-wavelength study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Blustin, A J; Behar, E; Kaastra, J S; Kahn, S M; Page, M J; Sako, M; Steenbrugge, K C

    2002-01-01

    We present the analysis of multi-wavelength XMM-Newton data from the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783, including UV imaging, X-ray and UV lightcurves, the 0.2-10 keV X-ray continuum, the iron K-alpha emission line, and high-resolution spectroscopy and modelling of the soft X-ray warm absorber. The 0.2-10 keV spectral continuum can be well reproduced by a power-law at higher energies; we detect a prominent Fe K-alpha emission line, with both broad and narrow components, and a weaker emission line at 6.9 keV which is probably a combination of Fe K-beta and Fe XXVI. We interpret the significant deficit of counts in the soft X-ray region as being due to absorption by ionised gas in the line of sight. This is demonstrated by the large number of narrow absorption lines in the RGS spectrum from iron, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, neon, argon, magnesium, silicon and sulphur. The wide range of iron states present in the spectrum enables us to deduce the ionisation structure of the absorbing medium. We find that our spectrum contai...

  18. Wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.; Chao, X.; Sur, R.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    A general model for 1 f-normalized wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy with nf detection (i.e., WMS- nf) is presented that considers the performance of injection-current-tuned diode lasers and the reflective interference produced by other optical components on the line-of-sight (LOS) transmission intensity. This model explores the optimization of sensitive detection of optical absorption by species with structured spectra at elevated pressures. Predictions have been validated by comparison with measurements of the 1 f-normalized WMS- nf (for n = 2-6) lineshape of the R(11) transition in the 1st overtone band of CO near 2.3 μm at four different pressures ranging from 5 to 20 atm, all at room temperature. The CO mole fractions measured by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f, 3 f, and 4 f techniques agree with calibrated mixtures within 2.0 %. At conditions where absorption features are significantly broadened and large modulation depths are required, uncertainties in the WMS background signals due to reflective interference in the optical path can produce significant error in gas mole fraction measurements by 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f. However, such potential errors can be greatly reduced by using the higher harmonics, i.e., 1 f-normalized WMS- nf with n > 2. In addition, less interference from pressure-broadened neighboring transitions has been observed for WMS with higher harmonics than for WMS-2 f.

  19. Fluorescence Imaging In Vivo at Wavelengths beyond 1500 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Shuo; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Hong, Guosong; Antaris, Alexander L; Chang, Junlei; Wu, Justin Z; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Kai; Kuo, Calvin J; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-12-01

    Compared to imaging in the visible and near-infrared regions below 900 nm, imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) is a promising method for deep-tissue high-resolution optical imaging in vivo mainly owing to the reduced scattering of photons traversing through biological tissues. Herein, semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes with large diameters were used for in vivo fluorescence imaging in the long-wavelength NIR region (1500-1700 nm, NIR-IIb). With this imaging agent, 3-4 μm wide capillary blood vessels at a depth of about 3 mm could be resolved. Meanwhile, the blood-flow speeds in multiple individual vessels could be mapped simultaneously. Furthermore, NIR-IIb tumor imaging of a live mouse was explored. NIR-IIb imaging can be generalized to a wide range of fluorophores emitting at up to 1700 nm for high-performance in vivo optical imaging. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Søndergaard, Thomas; Nikolajsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    We study the interaction of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs), excited at telecommunication wavelengths, with photonic crystals (PCs) formed by periodic arrays of gold bumps that are arranged in a triangular lattice and placed symmetrically on both sides of a thin gold film embedded...... structures, is rather weak, so that the photonic bandgap effect might be expected to take place only for some particular propagation directions. Preliminary experiments on LR-SPP bending and splitting at large angles are reported, and further research directions are discussed....

  1. Phase retrieval from the phase-shift moiré fringe patterns in simultaneous dual-wavelength interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jinlong; Gao, Zhishan; Bie, Shuyou; Dou, Yimeng; Ni, Ruihu; Yuan, Qun

    2018-02-01

    Simultaneous dual-wavelength interferometry (SDWI) could extend the measured range of each single-wavelength interferometry. The moiré fringe generated in SDWI indirectly represents the information of the measured long synthetic-wavelength ({λ }{{S}}) phase, thus the phase demodulation is rather arduous. To address this issue, we present a method to convert the moiré fringe pattern into a synthetic-wavelength interferogram (moiré to synthetic-wavelength, MTS). After the square of the moiré fringe pattern in the MTS method, the additive moiré pattern is turned into a multiplicative one. And the synthetic-wavelength interferogram could be obtained by a low-pass filtering in spectrum of the multiplicative moiré fringe pattern. Therefore, when the dual-wavelength interferometer is implemented with the π/2 phase shift at {λ }{{S}}, a sequence of synthetic-wavelength phase-shift interferograms with π/2 phase shift could be obtained after the MTS method processing on the captured moiré fringe patterns. And then the synthetic-wavelength phase could be retrieved by the conventional phase-shift algorithm. Compared with other methods in SDWI, the proposed MTS approach could reduce the restriction of the phase shift and frame numbers for the adoption of the conventional phase-shift algorithm. Following, numerical simulations are executed to evaluate the performance of the MTS method in processing time, frames of interferograms and the phase shift error compensation. And the necessary linear carrier for MTS method is less than 0.11 times of the traditional dual-wavelength spatial-domain Fourier transform method. Finally, the deviations for MTS method in experiment are 0.97% for a step with the height of 7.8 μm and 1.11% for a Fresnel lens with the step height of 6.2328 μm.

  2. High-accuracy alignment based on atmospherical dispersion - technological approaches and solutions for the dual-wavelength transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, Boeckem

    1999-01-01

    In the course of the progressive developments of sophisticated geodetic systems utilizing electromagnetic waves in the visible or near IR-range a more detailed knowledge of the propagation medium and coevally solutions of atmospherically induced limitations will become important. An alignment system based on atmospherical dispersion, called a dispersometer, is a metrological solution to the atmospherically induced limitations, in optical alignment and direction observations of high accuracy. In the dispersometer we are using the dual-wavelength method for dispersive air to obtain refraction compensated angle measurements, the detrimental impact of atmospheric turbulence notwithstanding. The principle of the dual-wavelength method utilizes atmospherical dispersion, i.e. the wavelength dependence of the refractive index. The difference angle between two light beams of different wavelengths, which is called the dispersion angle Δβ, is to first approximation proportional to the refraction angle: β IR ν(β blue - β IR ) = ν Δβ, this equation implies that the dispersion angle has to be measured at least 42 times more accurate than the desired accuracy of the refraction angle for the wavelengths used in the present dispersometer. This required accuracy constitutes one major difficulty for the instrumental performance in applying the dispersion effect. However, the dual-wavelength method can only be successfully used in an optimized transmitter-receiver combination. Beyond the above mentioned resolution requirement for the detector, major difficulties in instrumental realization arise in the availability of a suitable dual-wavelength laser light source, laser light modulation with a very high extinction ratio and coaxial emittance of mono-mode radiation at both wavelengths. Therefore, this paper focuses on the solutions of the dual-wavelength transmitter introducing a new hardware approach and a complete re-design of the in [1] proposed conception of the dual-wavelength

  3. Wavelength encoding technique for particle analyses in hematology analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongeat, Nelly; Brunel, Patrick; Gineys, Jean-Philippe; Cremien, Didier; Couderc, Vincent; Nérin, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to combine multiple excitation wavelengths in order to improve accuracy of fluorescence characterization of labeled cells. The experimental demonstration is realized with a hematology analyzer based on flow cytometry and a CW laser source emitting two visible wavelengths. A given optical encoding associated to each wavelength allows fluorescence identification coming from specific fluorochromes and avoiding the use of noisy compensation method.

  4. Time-of-flight range imaging for underwater applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Hannes; Catregn, Gion-Pol; Leutenegger, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    Precise and low-cost range imaging in underwater settings with object distances on the meter level is demonstrated. This is addressed through silicon-based time-of-flight (TOF) cameras operated with light emitting diodes (LEDs) at visible, rather than near-IR wavelengths. We find that the attainable performance depends on a variety of parameters, such as the wavelength dependent absorption of water, the emitted optical power and response times of the LEDs, or the spectral sensitivity of the TOF chip. An in-depth analysis of the interplay between the different parameters is given and the performance of underwater TOF imaging using different visible illumination wavelengths is analyzed.

  5. Influence of opalescence and fluorescence properties on the light transmittance of resin composite as a function of wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Powers, John M

    2006-10-01

    To determine the influence of opalescence and fluorescence properties on the light transmittance of resin composites as a function of wavelength (410-750 nm). Spectral distribution of seven resin composites of A2 shade was measured according to the CIELAB color scale relative to the standard illuminant D65 in the reflectance and transmittance modes. Opalescence spectrum (OPS) was calculated as the subtraction spectrum (i.e., the spectrum measured in the transmittance mode subtracted at each wavelength from the spectrum measured in the reflectance mode). UV component of the illuminant was included and excluded to calculate the fluorescence spectrum (FLR and FLT in the reflectance and transmittance mode, respectively). Contrast ratio (CR) was calculated as the ratio of reflectance over a black background and over a white background. The total transmittance spectral distribution (TSD) value was used as the parameter to indicate masking ability of the resin composites over background color. Multiple regression analyses were performed among TSD and other optical parameters at the significance level of 0.05. In all the resin composites and wavelength range, correlation between CR and TSD was very high (r = -0.99). Correlations between each parameters varied by the wavelength range of fluorescence (410-500 nm) and no-fluorescence (510-750 nm). Correlation between OPS and TSD varied by the wavelength range (r = -0.86 to -0.94, Popalescence and fluorescence of resin composite varied by the wavelength.

  6. Josephson frequency meter for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anischenko, S.E.; Larkin, S.Y.; Chaikovsky, V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Frequency measurements of electromagnetic oscillations of millimeter and submillimeter wavebands with frequency growth due to a number of reasons become more and more difficult. First, these frequencies are considered to be cutoff for semiconductor converting devices and one has to use optical measurement methods instead of traditional ones with frequency transfer. Second, resonance measurement methods are characterized by using relatively narrow bands and optical ones are limited in frequency and time resolution due to the limited range and velocity of movement of their mechanical elements as well as the efficiency of these optical techniques decreases with the increase of wavelength due to diffraction losses. That requires the apriori information on the radiation frequency band of the source involved. Method of measuring frequency of harmonic microwave signals in millimeter and submillimeter wavebands based on the ac Josephson effect in superconducting contacts is devoid of all the above drawbacks. This approach offers a number of major advantages over the more traditional measurement methods, that is the one based on frequency conversion, resonance and interferrometric techniques. It can be characterized by high potential accuracy, wide range of frequencies measured, prompt measurement and the opportunity to obtain panoramic display of the results as well as full automation of the measuring process

  7. Josephson frequency meter for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anischenko, S.E.; Larkin, S.Y.; Chaikovsky, V.I. [State Research Center, Kiev (Ukraine)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Frequency measurements of electromagnetic oscillations of millimeter and submillimeter wavebands with frequency growth due to a number of reasons become more and more difficult. First, these frequencies are considered to be cutoff for semiconductor converting devices and one has to use optical measurement methods instead of traditional ones with frequency transfer. Second, resonance measurement methods are characterized by using relatively narrow bands and optical ones are limited in frequency and time resolution due to the limited range and velocity of movement of their mechanical elements as well as the efficiency of these optical techniques decreases with the increase of wavelength due to diffraction losses. That requires the apriori information on the radiation frequency band of the source involved. Method of measuring frequency of harmonic microwave signals in millimeter and submillimeter wavebands based on the ac Josephson effect in superconducting contacts is devoid of all the above drawbacks. This approach offers a number of major advantages over the more traditional measurement methods, that is the one based on frequency conversion, resonance and interferrometric techniques. It can be characterized by high potential accuracy, wide range of frequencies measured, prompt measurement and the opportunity to obtain panoramic display of the results as well as full automation of the measuring process.

  8. Optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy for spatially, temperature, and wavelength dependent refractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Joel D.

    to characterize the temperature dependent refractive index relationship, n(T), for phosphate buffered saline. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is a water-based solution used with our biological cells because it maintains an ion concentration similar to that found in body fluids. The n(T) characterization was performed using a custom-built isothermal apparatus in which the temperature could be controlled. To check for the accuracy of the PBS refractive index measurements, water was also measured and compared with known values in the literature. The literature source of choice has affiliations to NIST and a formulation of refractive index involving temperature and wavelength dependence, two parameters which are necessary for our specialized infrared wavelength range. From the NIST formula, linear approximations were found to be dn/dT = -1.4x10-4 RIU °C-1 and dn/dlambda = -1.5x10-5 RIU nm-1 for water. A comparison with the formulated refractive indices of water indicated the measured values were off. This was attributed to the fact that light penetration into the HfO2/SiO2 dielectric mirrors had not been considered. Once accounted for, the refractive indices of water were consistent with the literature, and the values for PBS are believed to be accurate. A further discovery was the refractive index values at the discrete resonant wavelengths were monotonically decreasing, such that the dn/dlambda slope for water was considerably close to the NIST formula. Thus, n(T,lambda) was characterized for both water and PBS. A refractive index relationship for PBS with spatial, temperature, and wavelength dependence is particularly useful for non-uniform temperature distributions caused by DEP electrodes. First, a maximum temperature can be inferred, which is the desired measurement for cell viability concerns. In addition, a lateral refractive index distribution can be measured to help quantify the gradient index lenses that are formed by the energized electrodes. The non

  9. Performance evaluation of distributed wavelength assignment in WDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Tomohiro; Wang, Xi; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Aoyama, Tomonori

    2004-04-01

    In WDM wavelength routed networks, prior to a data transfer, a call setup procedure is required to reserve a wavelength path between the source-destination node pairs. A distributed approach to a connection setup can achieve a very high speed, while improving the reliability and reducing the implementation cost of the networks. However, along with many advantages, several major challenges have been posed by the distributed scheme in how the management and allocation of wavelength could be efficiently carried out. In this thesis, we apply a distributed wavelength assignment algorithm named priority based wavelength assignment (PWA) that was originally proposed for the use in burst switched optical networks to the problem of reserving wavelengths of path reservation protocols in the distributed control optical networks. Instead of assigning wavelengths randomly, this approach lets each node select the "safest" wavelengths based on the information of wavelength utilization history, thus unnecessary future contention is prevented. The simulation results presented in this paper show that the proposed protocol can enhance the performance of the system without introducing any apparent drawbacks.

  10. Absolute analytical prediction of photonic crystal guided mode resonance wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon; Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    numerically with methods such as rigorous coupled wave analysis. Here it is demonstrated how the absolute resonance wavelengths of such structures can be predicted by analytically modeling them as slab waveguides in which the propagation constant is determined by a phase matching condition. The model...... is experimentally verified to be capable of predicting the absolute resonance wavelengths to an accuracy of within 0.75 nm, as well as resonance wavelength shifts due to changes in cladding index within an accuracy of 0.45 nm across the visible wavelength regime in the case where material dispersion is taken...

  11. Span Restoration in Optical Networks with Limited Wavelength Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Buron, Jakob Due; Andriolli, N

    2007-01-01

    Next generation optical networks provide functionalities to dynamically provision and recover connections, while emerging technologies allow for the conversion between wavelengths. These devices are however expensive and hence it is likely that only few are deployed throughout the network...... converter-saving wavelength assignment in GMPLS networks. The converter saving property of the Suggested Vector is particularly desirable in span restoration, where the pre-failure path stubs have to be merged to the restoration path at the failure-adjacent nodes. In order to avoid wavelength conversion....... Furthermore, we describe different scenarios to extend the suggested vector wavelength assignment scheme to multi-domain networks with focus on span restoration....

  12. Photon antibunching in single-walled carbon nanotubes at telecommunication wavelengths and room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Takumi, E-mail: endou@az.appi.keio.ac.jp; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Maki, Hideyuki, E-mail: maki@appi.keio.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2015-03-16

    We investigated the photoluminescence of individual air-suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from 6 to 300 K. Time-resolved and antibunching measurements over the telecommunication wavelength range were performed using a superconducting single-photon detector. We detected moderate temperature independent antibunching behavior over the whole temperature range studied. To investigate the exciton dynamics, which is responsible for the antibunching behavior, we measured excitation-power and temperature dependence of the photoluminescence spectra and lifetime decay curves. These measurements suggested an exciton confinement effect that is likely caused by high-dielectric amorphous carbon surrounding the SWNTs. These results indicate that SWNTs are good candidates for light sources in quantum communication technologies operating in the telecommunication wavelength range and at room temperature.

  13. Wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors based on crossed optical Gaussian filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Xia, Li; Zhou, Jiaao; Liu, Deming

    2015-04-15

    Conventional intensity-modulated measurements require to be operated in linear range of filter or interferometric response to ensure a linear detection. Here, we present a wavelength interrogation system for fiber Bragg grating sensors where the linear transition is achieved with crossed Gaussian transmissions. This unique filtering characteristic makes the responses of the two branch detections follow Gaussian functions with the same parameters except for a delay. The substraction of these two delayed Gaussian responses (in dB) ultimately leads to a linear behavior, which is exploited for the sensor wavelength determination. Beside its flexibility and inherently power insensitivity, the proposal also shows a potential of a much wider operational range. Interrogation of a strain-tuned grating was accomplished, with a wide sensitivity tuning range from 2.56 to 8.7 dB/nm achieved.

  14. MULTI-LAYER MIRROR FOR RADIATION IN THE XUV WAVELENGHT RANGE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURE THEREOF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Frederik; Louis, Eric; Kessels, M.J.H.; Verhoeven, Jan; Den Hartog, Harmen Markus Johannes

    2002-01-01

    Multi-layer mirror for radiation with a wavelength in the wavelength range between 0.1 nm and 30 nm (the so-called XUV range), comprising a stack of thin films substantially comprising scattering particles which scatter the radiation, which thin films are separated by separating layers with a

  15. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoibheann Gaughran

    Full Text Available We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22% regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB. Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  16. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Moellenberg, R.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Todor, S.; Winter, J. [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lachenmaier, T.; Traunsteiner, C. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Undagoitia, T. Marrodan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurstr. 189, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

  17. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Göger-Neff, M; Hofmann, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lewke, T; Marrodán Undagoitia, T; Meindl, Q; Möllenberg, R; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Tippmann, M; Todor, S; Traunsteiner, C; Winter, J

    2010-05-01

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

  18. MULTI-WAVELENGTH RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION STUDIES OF DUST-FREE RED GIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gorman, Eamon; Harper, Graham M. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Brown, Alexander [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Drake, Stephen [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Richards, Anita M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Multi-wavelength centimeter continuum observations of non-dusty, non-pulsating K spectral-type red giants directly sample their chromospheres and wind acceleration zones. Such stars are feeble emitters at these wavelengths, however, and previous observations have provided only a small number of modest signal-to-noise measurements slowly accumulated over three decades. We present multi-wavelength Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array thermal continuum observations of the wind acceleration zones of two dust-free red giants, Arcturus (α Boo: K2 III) and Aldebaran (α Tau: K5 III). Importantly, most of our observations of each star were carried out over just a few days, so that we obtained a snapshot of the different stellar atmospheric layers sampled at different wavelengths, independent of any long-term variability. We report the first detections at several wavelengths for each star including a detection at 10 cm (3.0 GHz: S band) for both stars and a 20 cm (1.5 GHz: L band) detection for α Boo. This is the first time single (non-binary) luminosity class III red giants have been detected at these continuum wavelengths. Our long-wavelength data sample the outer layers of α Boo's atmosphere where its wind velocity is approaching (or possibly has reached) its terminal value and the ionization balance is becoming frozen-in. For α Tau, however, our long-wavelength data are still sampling its inner atmosphere, where the wind is still accelerating probably due to its lower mass-loss rate. We compare our data with published semi-empirical models based on ultraviolet data, and the marked deviations highlight the need for new atmospheric models to be developed. Spectral indices are used to discuss the possible properties of the stellar atmospheres, and we find evidence for a rapidly cooling wind in the case of α Boo. Finally, we develop a simple analytical wind model for α Boo based on our new long-wavelength flux measurements.

  19. MULTI-WAVELENGTH RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION STUDIES OF DUST-FREE RED GIANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Gorman, Eamon; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Drake, Stephen; Richards, Anita M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-wavelength centimeter continuum observations of non-dusty, non-pulsating K spectral-type red giants directly sample their chromospheres and wind acceleration zones. Such stars are feeble emitters at these wavelengths, however, and previous observations have provided only a small number of modest signal-to-noise measurements slowly accumulated over three decades. We present multi-wavelength Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array thermal continuum observations of the wind acceleration zones of two dust-free red giants, Arcturus (α Boo: K2 III) and Aldebaran (α Tau: K5 III). Importantly, most of our observations of each star were carried out over just a few days, so that we obtained a snapshot of the different stellar atmospheric layers sampled at different wavelengths, independent of any long-term variability. We report the first detections at several wavelengths for each star including a detection at 10 cm (3.0 GHz: S band) for both stars and a 20 cm (1.5 GHz: L band) detection for α Boo. This is the first time single (non-binary) luminosity class III red giants have been detected at these continuum wavelengths. Our long-wavelength data sample the outer layers of α Boo's atmosphere where its wind velocity is approaching (or possibly has reached) its terminal value and the ionization balance is becoming frozen-in. For α Tau, however, our long-wavelength data are still sampling its inner atmosphere, where the wind is still accelerating probably due to its lower mass-loss rate. We compare our data with published semi-empirical models based on ultraviolet data, and the marked deviations highlight the need for new atmospheric models to be developed. Spectral indices are used to discuss the possible properties of the stellar atmospheres, and we find evidence for a rapidly cooling wind in the case of α Boo. Finally, we develop a simple analytical wind model for α Boo based on our new long-wavelength flux measurements

  20. Multi-wavelength Radio Continuum Emission Studies of Dust-free Red Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Eamon; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Dranke, Stephen; Richards, Anita M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-wavelength centimeter continuum observations of non-dusty, non-pulsating K spectral-type red giants directly sample their chromospheres and wind acceleration zones. Such stars are feeble emitters at these wavelengths, however, and previous observations have provided only a small number of modest signal-to-noise measurements slowly accumulated over three decades. We present multi-wavelength Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array thermal continuum observations of the wind acceleration zones of two dust-free red giants, Arcturus (alpha Boo: K2 III) and Aldebaran (alpha Tau: K5 III). Importantly, most of our observations of each star were carried out over just a few days, so that we obtained a snapshot of the different stellar atmospheric layers sampled at different wavelengths, independent of any long-term variability. We report the first detections at several wavelengths for each star including a detection at 10 cm (3.0 GHz: S band) for both stars and a 20 cm (1.5 GHz: L band) detection for alpha Boo. This is the first time single (non-binary) luminosity class III red giants have been detected at these continuum wavelengths. Our long-wavelength data sample the outer layers of alpha Boo's atmosphere where its wind velocity is approaching (or possibly has reached) its terminal value and the ionization balance is becoming frozen-in. For alpha Tau, however, our long-wavelength data are still sampling its inner atmosphere, where the wind is still accelerating probably due to its lower mass-loss rate. We compare our data with published semi-empirical models based on ultraviolet data, and the marked deviations highlight the need for new atmospheric models to be developed. Spectral indices are used to discuss the possible properties of the stellar atmospheres, and we find evidence for a rapidly cooling wind in the case of alpha Boo. Finally, we develop a simple analytical wind model for alpha Boo based on our new long-wavelength flux measurements.