WorldWideScience

Sample records for large vss developed

  1. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  2. VSS Degradation Kinetics in High Temperature Aerobic Digestion and Microbial Community Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfen Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Piggery wastewater is a kind of high concentration organic wastewater with high concentration of pollutants, large amount of emissions, and serious environmental pollution and is difficult to deal with. Piggery wastewater was treated with autothermal hyperthermia aerobic digestion process (ATAD and its biodegradation kinetics was studied. The ATAD system was automatically heated up and the reaction temperature rose from ambient temperature of 20°C to a maximum temperature of 64°C. Based on Arrhenius formula, the empirical model is obtained through dimensional analysis. The removal of volatile suspended solids (VSS was correlated with the initial VSS concentration, water inlet temperature, aeration rate, and agitation rate in the model. In the empirical model, the apparent activation energy was 2.827 kJ·mol−1. The exponentials for the initial VSS concentration, aeration rate, and stirring rate were 1.0587, −0.0976, and −0.1618, respectively. The correlation coefficient of the exponential factor was 0.9971. The VSS removal efficiency predicted by the model was validated with an actual test, showing a maximum relative deviation of 8.82%. Sludge systems show a lower diversity of microbial populations and Bacillus occupies a very important position in the reactor. The data obtained will be useful for optimizing piggery wastewater treatment process. The new model provided good theoretical guidance with good practicality.

  3. RETRENCHMENT STRATEGY IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF VOLUNTARY SEPARATION SCHEME (VSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramayah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of business leadership in this millennium is to manage continued improvement in a competitive position. In order to stay competitive, companies are trying to become more "mean and lean". To achieve this, many major corporations have adopted the "downsizing and rightsizing" strategy. Voluntary Separation Scheme (VSS has been a global phenomenon since the 1980's and is common particularly in larger companies. In this study, the reaction to the VSS program involving the employees of a government agency embracing privatisation was studied, specifically the influence of the basic needs and referent power on the choice of acceptance and non-acceptance of VSS. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the success or failure of the VSS from the workers perspective in particular, whether their decision met their needs. The results showed that basic needs had an influence on the acceptance and the non-acceptance of VSS, namely health needs, security needs and self-esteem needs. All the referent powers (subjective norms had an influence, but surprisingly close friends had the strongest influence. Differences were also found between the expectations and the perception of the workers who accepted or rejected the VSS. From the workers' perspective, it appeared that the VSS carried out in this organization was not a success.

  4. Developing Large Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Loudon, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    How do you create a mission-critical site that provides exceptional performance while remaining flexible, adaptable, and reliable 24/7? Written by the manager of a UI group at Yahoo!, Developing Large Web Applications offers practical steps for building rock-solid applications that remain effective even as you add features, functions, and users. You'll learn how to develop large web applications with the extreme precision required for other types of software. Avoid common coding and maintenance headaches as small websites add more pages, more code, and more programmersGet comprehensive soluti

  5. UPAYA MENINGKATKAN PEROLEHAN KOSAKATA DALAM PEMAHAMAN MEMBACA BAHASA INGGRIS MENGGUNAKAN VSS PADA SISWA SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windarti Windarti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan perolehan kosakata dalam pemahaman membaca bahasa Inggris menggunakan Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS siswa kelas VII SMP Negeri 3 Kalasan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan yaitu penelitian tindakan kelas (PTK, yang terdiri dari dua siklus. Tiap siklus terdiri dari empat tahap, yaitu perencanaan, pelaksanaan, pengamatan, dan refleksi. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 32 siswa kelas VII B SMP Negeri 3 Kalasan tahun ajaran 2013/2014. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan yaitu observasi, tes, dan wawancara. Analisis data yang digunakan yaitu deskriptif kuantitatif dan deskriptif kualitatif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukan bahwa penerapan strategi VSS dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan perolehan kosakata dalam pemahaman membaca bahasa Inggris. Peningkatan hasil belajar siswa ditunjukkan dengan meningkatnya jumlah siswa yang lulus standar KKM pada siklus I dan II. Nilai rata-rata tes pada siklus I adalah 77,2. Nilai rata-rata tes pada siklus II adalah 82,4. Kesimpulan pada penelitian ini adalah bahwa penerapan strategi VSS dapat meningkatkan perolehan kosakata bahasa Inggris dalam pemahaman membaca siswa kelas VII SMP Negeri 3 Kalasan. Kata kunci: VSS, perolehan kosakata, pemahaman membaca bahasa Inggris. THE EFFORT TO IMPROVE VOCABULARY ACQUISITION IN ENGLISH READING COMPREHENSION USING VSS ON THE STUDENTS OF SMP Abstract This study aims to improve vocabulary acquisition in English reading comprehension using Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS on the seventh grade students of SMP Negeri 3 Kalasan. This was an action reserch study consisting of two cycles. Each cycle consisted of four steps, namely planning, implementation, observation, and reflection. The research subjects were 32 seventh grade students of SMP 3 Kalasan in the academic year of 2013/2014. The data were collected through observation, tests, and interviews and analyzed by means of quantitative and qualitative descriptive

  6. Linear VSS and Distributed Commitments Based on Secret Sharing and Pairwise Checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Serge; Maurer, Ueli M.

    2002-01-01

    . VSS and DC are main building blocks for unconditional secure multi-party computation protocols. This general approach covers all known linear VSS and DC schemes. The main theorem states that the security of a scheme is equivalent to a pure linear-algebra condition on the linear mappings (e.......g. described as matrices and vectors) describing the scheme. The security of all known schemes follows as corollaries whose proofs are pure linear-algebra arguments, in contrast to some hybrid arguments used in the literature. Our approach is demonstrated for the CDM DC scheme, which we generalize to be secure......We present a general treatment of all non-cryptographic (i.e., information-theoretically secure) linear veriable-secret-sharing (VSS) and distributed-commitment (DC) schemes, based on an underlying secret sharing scheme, pairwise checks between players, complaints, and accusations of the dealer...

  7. Linear VSS and Distributed Commitments Based on Secret Sharing and Pairwise Checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehr, Serge; Maurer, Ueli M.

    2002-01-01

    . VSS and DC are main building blocks for unconditional secure multi-party computation protocols. This general approach covers all known linear VSS and DC schemes. The main theorem states that the security of a scheme is equivalent to a pure linear-algebra condition on the linear mappings (e.......g. described as matrices and vectors) describing the scheme. The security of all known schemes follows as corollaries whose proofs are pure linear-algebra arguments, in contrast to some hybrid arguments used in the literature. Our approach is demonstrated for the CDM DC scheme, which we generalize to be secure...

  8. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R.L.; Fernandes, L.; Sun, X. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Substrate utilization and VSS relations in activated sludge processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, R L; Fernandes, L; Sun, X [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31

    A new empirical substrate removal model for activated sludge in continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was developed in this study. This model includes an exponential function of volatile suspended solids to express the active biomass which is actually involved in substrate utilization. Results indicate that the proposed exponential models predict more accurately effluent COD in CFSTR and SBR systems than the first or zero order models. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. Automatically assessing properties of dynamic cameras for camera selection and rapid deployment of video content analysis tasks in large-scale ad-hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; ter Haar, Frank B.; Burghouts, Gertjan J.

    2017-10-01

    Video analytics is essential for managing large quantities of raw data that are produced by video surveillance systems (VSS) for the prevention, repression and investigation of crime and terrorism. Analytics is highly sensitive to changes in the scene, and for changes in the optical chain so a VSS with analytics needs careful configuration and prompt maintenance to avoid false alarms. However, there is a trend from static VSS consisting of fixed CCTV cameras towards more dynamic VSS deployments over public/private multi-organization networks, consisting of a wider variety of visual sensors, including pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras, body-worn cameras and cameras on moving platforms. This trend will lead to more dynamic scenes and more frequent changes in the optical chain, creating structural problems for analytics. If these problems are not adequately addressed, analytics will not be able to continue to meet end users' developing needs. In this paper, we present a three-part solution for managing the performance of complex analytics deployments. The first part is a register containing meta data describing relevant properties of the optical chain, such as intrinsic and extrinsic calibration, and parameters of the scene such as lighting conditions or measures for scene complexity (e.g. number of people). A second part frequently assesses these parameters in the deployed VSS, stores changes in the register, and signals relevant changes in the setup to the VSS administrator. A third part uses the information in the register to dynamically configure analytics tasks based on VSS operator input. In order to support the feasibility of this solution, we give an overview of related state-of-the-art technologies for autocalibration (self-calibration), scene recognition and lighting estimation in relation to person detection. The presented solution allows for rapid and robust deployment of Video Content Analysis (VCA) tasks in large scale ad-hoc networks.

  11. Large shaft development test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, A.D.

    1984-03-01

    This test plan proposes the conduct of shaft liner tests as part of the large shaft development test proposed for the Hanford Site in support of the repository development program. The objectives of these tests are to develop techniques for measuring liner alignment (straightness), both construction assembly alignment and downhole cumulative alignment, and to assess the alignment information as a real time feedback to aid the installation procedure. The test plan is based upon installing a 16 foot ID shaft liner into a 20 foot diameter shaft to a depth of 1000 feet. This test plan is considered to be preliminary in that it was prepared as input for the decision to determine if development testing is required in this area. Should the decision be made to proceed with development testing, this test plan shall be updated and revised. 6 refs., 2 figs

  12. Large shaft development test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, A.D.

    1984-03-01

    This test plan proposes the conduct of a large shaft development test at the Hanford site in support of the repository development program. The purpose and objective of the test plan is to obtain the information necessary to establish feasibility and to predict the performance of the drilling system used to drill large diameter shafts. The test plan is based upon drilling a 20 ft diameter shaft to a depth of 1,000 feet. The test plan specifies series of tests to evaluate the performance of the downhole assembly, the performance of the rig, and the ability of the system to cope with geologic hazards. The quality of the hole produced will also be determined. This test plan is considered to be preliminary in that it was prepared as input for the decision to determine if development testing is required in this area. Should the decision be made to proceed with development testing, this test plan shall be updated and revised. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Improved Fractional Order VSS Inc-Cond MPPT Algorithm for Photovoltaic Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arulmurugan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a hot topic among the research community is the harnessing energy from the free sunlight which is abundant and pollution-free. The availability of cheap solar photovoltaic (PV modules has to harvest solar energy with better efficiency. The nature of solar modules is nonlinear and therefore the proper impedance matching is essential. The proper impedance matching ensures the extraction of the maximum power from solar PV module. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm is acting as a significant part in solar power generating system because it varies in the output power from a PV generating set for various climatic conditions. This paper suggested a new improved work for MPPT of PV energy system by using the optimized novel improved fractional order variable step size (FOVSS incremental conductance (Inc-Cond algorithm. The new proposed controller combines the merits of both improved fractional order (FO and variable step size (VSS Inc-Cond which is well suitable for design control and execution. The suggested controller results in attaining the desired transient reaction under changing operating points. MATLAB simulation effort shows MPPT controller and a DC to DC Luo converter feeding a battery load is achieved. The laboratory experimental results demonstrate that the new proposed MPPT controller in the photovoltaic generating system is valid.

  14. Large superconducting coil fabrication development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Allred, E.L.; Anderson, W.C.; Burn, P.B.; Deaderick, R.I.; Henderson, G.M.; Marguerat, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    Toroidal fields for some fusion devices will be produced by an array of large superconducting coils. Their size, space limitation, and field requirements dictate that they be high performance coils. Once installed, accessibility for maintenance and repairs is severely restricted; therefore, good reliability is an obvious necessity. Sufficient coil fabrication will be undertaken to develop and test methods that are reliable, fast, and economical. Industrial participation will be encouraged from the outset to insure smooth transition from development phases to production phases. Initially, practice equipment for three meter bore circular coils will be developed. Oval shape coil forms will be included in the practice facility later. Equipment that is more automated will be developed with the expectation of winding faster and obtaining good coil quality. Alternate types of coil construction, methods of winding and insulating, will be investigated. Handling and assembly problems will be studied. All technology developed must be feasible for scaling up when much larger coils are needed. Experimental power reactors may need coils having six meter or larger bores

  15. Why did humans develop a large brain?

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat Baron, Yves

    2012-01-01

    "Of all animals, man has the largest brain in proportion to his size"- Aristotle. Dr Yves Muscat Baron shares his theory on how humans evolved large brains. The theory outlines how gravity could have helped humans develop a large brain- the author has named the theory 'The Gravitational Vascular Theory'. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/why-did-humans-develop-a-large-brain/

  16. Comparison of vapor sampling system (VSS) and in situ vapor sampling (ISVS) methods on Tanks C-107, BY-108, and S-102. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-08-01

    This report discusses comparison tests for two methods of collecting vapor samples from the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank headspaces. The two sampling methods compared are the truck-mounted vapor sampling system (VSS) and the cart-mounted in-situ vapor sampling (ISVS). Three tanks were sampled by both the VSS and ISVS methods from the same access risers within the same 8-hour period. These tanks have diverse headspace compositions and they represent the highest known level of several key vapor analytes

  17. Configuration management in large scale infrastructure development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, T.P.J. van; Belt, H. van de; Los, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Large Scale Infrastructure (LSI) development projects such as the construction of roads, rail-ways and other civil engineering (water)works is tendered differently today than a decade ago. Traditional workflow requested quotes from construction companies for construction works where the works to be

  18. An improved AE detection method of rail defect based on multi-level ANC with VSS-LMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Cui, Yiming; Wang, Yan; Sun, Mingjian; Hu, Hengshan

    2018-01-01

    In order to ensure the safety and reliability of railway system, Acoustic Emission (AE) method is employed to investigate rail defect detection. However, little attention has been paid to the defect detection at high speed, especially for noise interference suppression. Based on AE technology, this paper presents an improved rail defect detection method by multi-level ANC with VSS-LMS. Multi-level noise cancellation based on SANC and ANC is utilized to eliminate complex noises at high speed, and tongue-shaped curve with index adjustment factor is proposed to enhance the performance of variable step-size algorithm. Defect signals and reference signals are acquired by the rail-wheel test rig. The features of noise signals and defect signals are analyzed for effective detection. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with the previous study, and different filter lengths are investigated to obtain a better noise suppression performance. Meanwhile, the detection ability of the proposed method is verified at the top speed of the test rig. The results clearly illustrate that the proposed method is effective in detecting rail defects at high speed, especially for noise interference suppression.

  19. Large sample NAA facility and methodology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, C.; Gugiu, D.; Barbos, D.; Datcu, A.; Aioanei, L.; Dobrea, D.; Taroiu, I. E.; Bucsa, A.; Ghinescu, A.

    2013-01-01

    A Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) facility has been developed at the TRIGA- Annular Core Pulsed Reactor (ACPR) operated by the Institute for Nuclear Research in Pitesti, Romania. The central irradiation cavity of the ACPR core can accommodate a large irradiation device. The ACPR neutron flux characteristics are well known and spectrum adjustment techniques have been successfully applied to enhance the thermal component of the neutron flux in the central irradiation cavity. An analysis methodology was developed by using the MCNP code in order to estimate counting efficiency and correction factors for the major perturbing phenomena. Test experiments, comparison with classical instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) methods and international inter-comparison exercise have been performed to validate the new methodology. (authors)

  20. Future development of large superconducting generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Mole, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    Large superconducting generators are being developed worldwide. The use of superconductors to reduce the electrical power dissipation in power equipment has been a technological possibility ever since the discovery of superconductivity, even though their use in power equipment remained an impractical dream for a long time. However, scientific and technological progress in superconductivity and cryogenics has brought this dream much closer to reality. Results obtained so far establish the technical feasibility of these machines. Analytical developments have been providing a sound basis for the design of superconducting machines and results of these design studies have shown improvements in power density of up to a factor of 10 higher than the power density for conventional machines. This paper describes the recently completed USA programs, the current foreign and USA programs, and then proposes a USA development program to maintain leadership in the field

  1. Large Instrument Development for Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. Richard; Warnick, Karl F.; Jeffs, Brian D.; Norrod, Roger D.; Lockman, Felix J.; Cordes, James M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2009-03-01

    This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and development of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong cost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science requirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal of shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be counterproductive. Instrument optimization is much more difficult with longer lists of requirements, and the development process is longer and less efficient. More complex instruments are necessarily further behind the technology state of the art because of longer development times. Including technology R&D in the construction phase of projects is a growing trend that leads to higher risks, cost overruns, schedule delays, and project de-scoping. There are no technology breakthroughs just over the horizon that will suddenly bring down the cost of collecting area. Advances come largely through careful attention to detail in the adoption of new technology provided by industry and the commercial market. Radio astronomy instrumentation has a very bright future, but a vigorous long-term R&D program not tied directly to specific projects needs to be restored, fostered, and preserved.

  2. Future development of large steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevance, A.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to forecast the future of the large steam turbines till 1985. Three parameters affect the development of large turbines: 1) unit output; and a 2000 to 2500MW output may be scheduled; 2) steam quality: and two steam qualities may be considered: medium pressure saturated or slightly overheated steam (light water, heavy water); light enthalpie drop, high pressure steam, high temperature; high enthalpic drop; and 3) the quality of cooling supply. The largest range to be considered might be: open system cooling for sea-sites; humid tower cooling and dry tower cooling. Bi-fluid cooling cycles should be also mentioned. From the study of these influencing factors, it appears that the constructor, for an output of about 2500MW should have at his disposal the followings: two construction technologies for inlet parts and for high and intermediate pressure parts corresponding to both steam qualities; exhaust sections suitable for the different qualities of cooling supply. The two construction technologies with the two steam qualities already exist and involve no major developments. But, the exhaust section sets the question of rotational speed [fr

  3. Indigenously developed large pumping speed cryoadsorption cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangradey, Ranjana; Mukherjee, Samiran Shanti; Agarwal, Jyoti

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous cryoadsorption cryopump with large pumping speeds for fusion reactor application has been developed at the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR). Towards its successful realization, technological bottlenecks were identified, studied and resolved. Hydroformed cryopanels were developed from concept leading to the design and product realization with successful technology transfer to the industry. This has led to the expertise for developing hydroformed panels for any desired shape, geometry and welding pattern. Activated sorbents were developed, characterized using an experimental set up which measures adsorption isotherms down to 4K for hydrogen and helium. Special techniques were evolved for coating sorbents on hydroformed cryopanels with suitable cryo-adhesives. Various arrangements of cryopanels at 4 K surrounded by 80 K shields and baffles (which are also hydroformed) were studied and optimized by transmission probability analysis using Monte Carlo techniques. CFD analysis was used to study the temperature distribution and flow analysis during the cryogen flow through the panels. Integration of the developed technologies to arrive at the final product was a challenging task and this was meticulously planned and executed. This resulted in a cryoadsorption cryopump offering pumping speeds as high as 50,000 to 70,000 1/s for helium and 1,50,000 1/s for hydrogen with a 3.2 m 2 of sorbent panel area. The first laboratory scale pump integrating the developed technologies was a Small Scale CryoPump (SSCP-01) with a pumping speed of 2,000 1/s for helium. Subsequently, Single Panel CryoPump (SPCP-01) with pumping speed 10,000 1/s for helium and a Multiple Panel CryoPump (MPCP-08) with a pumping speed of 70,000 1/s for helium and 1,50,000 1/s for hydrogen respectively were developed. This paper describes the efforts in realizing these products from laboratory to industrial scales. (author)

  4. Development of very large helicon plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Tanikawa, Takao

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a very large volume, high-density helicon plasma source, 75 cm in diameter and 486 cm in axial length; full width at half maximum of the plasma density is up to ∼42 cm with good plasma uniformity along the z axis. By the use of a spiral antenna located just outside the end of the vacuum chamber through a quartz-glass window, plasma can be initiated with a very low value of radio frequency (rf) power ( 12 cm -3 is successfully produced with less than several hundred Watt; achieving excellent discharge efficiency. It is possible to control the radial density profile in this device by changing the magnetic field configurations near the antenna and/or the antenna radiation-field patterns

  5. Automatically assessing properties of dynamic cameras for camera selection and rapid deployment of video-content-analysis tasks in large-scale ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander R.J.M. den; Bouma, H.; Rest, J.H.C. van; Hove, J.M. ten; Haar, F.B. ter; Burghouts, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Video analytics is essential for managing large quantities of raw data that are produced by video surveillance systems (VSS) for the prevention, repression and investigation of crime and terrorism. Analytics is highly sensitive to changes in the scene, and for changes in the optical chain so a VSS

  6. Large rotorcraft transmission technology development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Testing of a U.S. Army XCH-62 HLH aft rotor transmission under NASA Contract NAS 3-22143 was successfully completed. This test establishes the feasibility of large, high power rotorcraft transmissions as well as demonstrating the resolution of deficiencies identified during the HLH advanced technology programs and reported by USAAMRDLTR-77-38. Over 100 hours of testing was conducted. At the 100% design power rating of 10,620 horsepower, the power transferred through a single spiral bevel gear mesh is more than twice that of current helicopter bevel gearing. In the original design of these gears, industry-wide design methods were employed and failures were experienced which identified problem areas unique to gear size. To remedy this technology shortfall, a program was developed to predict gear stresses using finite element analysis for complete and accurate representation of the gear tooth and supporting structure. To validate the finite element methodology gear strain data from the existing U.S. Army HLH aft transmission was acquired, and existing data from smaller gears were made available.

  7. MANAGING LARGE CLASSES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWUEME

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH VOL 15, 2016: 31-39. COPYRIGHT© ... classes or overcrowded classrooms affect the quality of education delivered in the school system. ... central to their national development strategy.

  8. Large area electron beam diode development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helava, H.; Gilman, C.M.; Stringfield, R.M.; Young, T.

    1983-01-01

    A large area annular electron beam diode has been tested at Physics International Co. on the multi-terawatt PITHON generator. A twelve element post hole convolute converted the coaxial MITL into a triaxial arrangement of anode current return structures both inside and outside the cathode structure. The presence of both inner and outer current return paths provide magnetic pressure balance for the beam, as determined by diode current measurements. X-ray pinhole photographs indicated uniform emission with intensity maxima between the post positions. Current losses in the post hole region were negligible, as evidenced by the absence of damage to the aluminum hardware. Radial electron flow near the cathode ring however did damage the inner anode cylinder between the post positions. Cutting away these regions prevented further damage of the transmission lines

  9. Large wind turbine development in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zervos, A. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Attikis (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    During the last few years we have witnessed in Europe the development of a new generation of wind turbines ranging from 1000-1500 kW size. They are presently being tested and they are scheduled to reach the market in late 1996 early 1997. The European Commission has played a key role by funding the research leading to the development of these turbines. The most visible initiative at present is the WEGA program - the development, together with Europe`s leading wind industry players of a new generation of turbines in the MW range. By the year 1997 different European manufacturers will have introduced almost a dozen new MW machine types to the international market, half of them rated at 1.5 MW. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Development of theoretical methodology for large molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiora, G.M.; Christoffersen, R.E.; Yoffe, J.A.; Petke, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A major advantage of the use of floating spherical Gaussian or vitals (FSGO) is the extreme rapidity with which the necessary quantum mechanical integrals can be evaluated. This advantage has been exploited in several quantum mechanical procedures for molecular electronic structure calculations, as described below. Several other properties of these functions have also been exploited, and have led to the development of semiclassical point charge and harmonic oscillator models capable of describing first and second order electromagnetic properties and intermolecular forces with reasonable accuracy in all cases and with considerably better accuracy than much more elaborate theoretical procedures in some cases. These applications are also described below. The primary intent of the current paper is to present an overview of some of the uses of FSGOs in the study of molecular electronic structure and properties and to indicate possible directions for future applications. No attempt will be made to include all possible applications. Rather, those applications of interest to the authors have been stressed. Hopefully, this paper will further stimulate the development of additional uses of these remarkable functions

  11. Benefits of transactive memory systems in large-scale development

    OpenAIRE

    Aivars, Sablis

    2016-01-01

    Context. Large-scale software development projects are those consisting of a large number of teams, maybe even spread across multiple locations, and working on large and complex software tasks. That means that neither a team member individually nor an entire team holds all the knowledge about the software being developed and teams have to communicate and coordinate their knowledge. Therefore, teams and team members in large-scale software development projects must acquire and manage expertise...

  12. Quality assurance in a large research and development laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neill, F.H.

    1980-01-01

    Developing a quality assurance program for a large research and development laboratory provided a unique opportunity for innovative planning. The quality assurance program that emerged has been tailored to meet the requirements of several sponsoring organizations and contains the flexibility for experimental programs ranging from large engineering-scale development projects to bench-scale basic research programs

  13. Large Scale Survey Data in Career Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale survey datasets have been underutilized but offer numerous advantages for career development scholars, as they contain numerous career development constructs with large and diverse samples that are followed longitudinally. Constructs such as work salience, vocational expectations, educational expectations, work satisfaction, and…

  14. Methods for the development of large computer codes under LTSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicilian, J.M.

    1977-06-01

    TRAC is a large computer code being developed by Group Q-6 for the analysis of the transient thermal hydraulic behavior of light-water nuclear reactors. A system designed to assist the development of TRAC is described. The system consists of a central HYDRA dataset, R6LIB, containing files used in the development of TRAC, and a file maintenance program, HORSE, which facilitates the use of this dataset

  15. Development of high performance core for large fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kotaro; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Watari, Yoshio.

    1982-01-01

    Subsequently to the fast breeder prototype reactor ''Monju'', the construction of a demonstration reactor with 1000 MWe output is planned. This research aims at the establishment of the concept of a large core with excellent fuel breeding property and safety for a demonstration and commercial reactors. For the purpose, the optimum specification of fuel design as a large core was clarified, and the new construction of a core was examined, in which a disk-shaped blanket with thin peripheral edge is introduced at the center of a core. As the result, such prospect was obtained that the time for fuel doubling would be 1/2, and the energy generated in a core collapse accident would be about 1/5 as compared with a large core using the same fuel as ''Monju''. Generally, as a core is enlarged, the rate of breeding lowers. If a worst core collapse accident occurs, the scale of accident will be very large in the case of a ''Monju'' type large core. In an unhomogeneous core, an internal blanket is provided in the core for the purpose of improving the breeding property and safety. Hitachi Ltd. developed the concept of a large core unhomogeneous in axial direction and proposed it. The research on the fuel design for a large core, an unhomogeneous core and its core collapse accident is reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Human behaviour can trigger large carnivore attacks in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Delgado, María del Mar; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Fedriani, José María; Sahlén, Veronica; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-02-03

    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores.

  17. Trends in Large Proposal Development at Major Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulfinger, Lorraine M.; Dressler, Kevin A.; James, L. Eric; Page, Niki; Serrano, Eduardo; Vazquez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Research administrator interest in large research proposal development and submission support is high, arguably in response to the bleak funding landscape for research and federal agency trends toward making more frequent larger awards. In response, a team from Penn State University and Huron Consulting Group initiated a baseline study to…

  18. Development of cryogenic installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adamowski, M; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Montanari, D; Nessi, M; Norris, B

    2015-01-01

    A proposal for a very large liquid argon (68,000 kg) based neutrino detector is being studied. To validate the design principles and the detector technology, and to gain experience in the development of the cryostats and the cryogenic systems needed for such large experiments, several smaller scale installations will be developed and implemented, at Fermilab and CERN. The cryogenic systems for these installations will be developed, constructed, installed and commissioned by an international engineering team. These installations shall bring the required cooling power under specific conditions to the experiments for the initial cool-down and the long term operation, and shall also guarantee the correct distribution of the cooling power within the cryostats to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution within the cryostat itself. The cryogenic systems shall also include gaseous and liquid phase argon purification devices to be used to reach and maintain the very stringent purity requirements needed for these...

  19. Development of automated analytical systems for large throughput

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, P.C.; Hoffman, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The need to be able to handle a large throughput of samples for neutron activation analysis has led to the development of automated counting and sample handling systems. These are coupled with available computer-assisted INAA techniques to perform a wide range of analytical services on a commercial basis. A fully automated delayed neutron counting system and a computer controlled pneumatic transfer for INAA use are described, as is a multi-detector gamma-spectroscopy system. (author)

  20. Development of large area resistive electrodes for ATLAS NSW Micromegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Atsuhiko

    2018-02-01

    Micromegas with resistive anodes will be used for the NSW upgrades of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Resistive electrodes are used in MPGD devices to prevent sparks in high-rate operation. Large-area resistive electrodes for Micromegas have been developed using two different technologies: screen printing and carbon sputtering. The maximum resistive foil size is 45 × 220 cm with a printed pattern of 425-μm pitch strips. These technologies are also suitable for mass production. Prototypes of a production model series have been successfully produced. In this paper, we report the development, the production status, and the test results of resistive Micromegas.

  1. Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

    2012-07-01

    The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime , thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime.

  2. Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Sato, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate porosity are essential, together with the required heat treatment and machining technologies. To meet these needs, the double degassing method to reduce impurities, multi-pouring methods to cast the gigantic ingots, vacuum carbon deoxidization, the warm forging process and related technologies have been developed and further improved. Furthermore, melting facilities including vacuum induction melting and electro slag re-melting furnaces have been installed. By using these technologies and equipment, large forgings have been manufactured and shipped to customers. These technologies have also been applied to the manufacture of austenitic steel vessel components of the fast breeder reactors and components for fusion experiments.

  3. Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Sato, Ikuo

    2011-10-01

    The recent increase in the size of energy plants has been supported by the development of manufacturing technology for high purity large forgings for the key components of the plant. To assure the reliability and performance of the large forgings, refining technology to make high purity steels, casting technology for gigantic ingots, forging technology to homogenize the material and consolidate porosity are essential, together with the required heat treatment and machining technologies. To meet these needs, the double degassing method to reduce impurities, multi-pouring methods to cast the gigantic ingots, vacuum carbon deoxidization, the warm forging process and related technologies have been developed and further improved. Furthermore, melting facilities including vacuum induction melting and electro slag re-melting furnaces have been installed. By using these technologies and equipment, large forgings have been manufactured and shipped to customers. These technologies have also been applied to the manufacture of austenitic steel vessel components of the fast breeder reactors and components for fusion experiments.

  4. Large vestibular schwannomas and hydrocephalus: Lessons learnt from a single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following study is to analyze the outcome following surgery in 169 patients with large vestibular schwannoma (VS and to evaluate hydrocephalus as a prognostic factor in patients of the VSs. Subjects and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all cases of VSs admitted to our tertiary neurosurgical center from January 2005 to December 2010 was performed. Comparison of patients who underwent pre-operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF diversion and those who underwent primary surgery was carried out for post-operative complications and delayed hydrocephalus. Results: A total of 169 patients of VS were seen. The mean age at presentation was 39.03 years (12-72 years. The most common symptom was hearing loss seen in 161 (95.2% cases. Giant VS was seen in 130 (75.5% and hydrocephalus was present in 110 (63.9%. Pre-operative CSF diversion was done in 23 (13.1% patients; 8 (4.6% patients developed gradually symptomatic hydrocephalus following surgery and underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Total surgical excision was done in 92.9% patients and subtotal excision was done in 7% patients. Conclusions: Hydrocephalus occurs in longstanding untreated cases of VS. Hydrocephalus causes no statistically significant increase in post-operative complications like CSF leak and post-operative hematoma. Patients with hydrocephalus presenting with acute symptoms of raised intracranial pressure benefit from CSF diversion. In most patients, tumor resection will restore patency of the CSF pathway and CSF diversion can be avoided.

  5. Development of large size NC trepanning and horning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoshiei; Aono, Fumiaki; Siga, Toshihiko; Sudo, Eiichi; Takasa, Seiju; Fukuyama, Masaaki; Sibukawa, Koichi; Nakagawa, Hirokatu

    2010-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in world energy demand, construction of considerable number of nuclear and fossil power plant has been proceeded and is further planned. High generating capacity plant requires large forged components such as monoblock turbine rotor shafts and the dimensions of them tend to increase. Some of these components have center bore for material test, NDE and other use. In order to cope with the increase in production of these large forgings with center bores, a new trepanning machine, which exclusively bore a deep hole, was developed in JSW taking account of many accumulated experiences and know-how of experts. The machine is the world largest 400t trepanning and horning machine with numerical control and has many advantage in safety, the machining precision, machining efficiency, operability, labor-saving, and energy saving. Furthermore, transfer of the technical skill became easy through concentrated monitoring system based on numerically analysed experts' know-how. (author)

  6. Status of large scale wind turbine technology development abroad?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye LI; Lei DUAN

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the large scale (multi-megawatt) wind turbine development in China, the foreign e?orts and achievements in the area are reviewed and summarized. Not only the popular horizontal axis wind turbines on-land but also the o?shore wind turbines, vertical axis wind turbines, airborne wind turbines, and shroud wind turbines are discussed. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive comment and assessment about the basic work principle, economic aspects, and environmental impacts of turbines.

  7. Developing A Large-Scale, Collaborative, Productive Geoscience Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Egger, A. E.; Fox, S.; Ledley, T. S.; Macdonald, H.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, the geoscience education community has grown substantially and developed broad and deep capacity for collaboration and dissemination of ideas. While this community is best viewed as emergent from complex interactions among changing educational needs and opportunities, we highlight the role of several large projects in the development of a network within this community. In the 1990s, three NSF projects came together to build a robust web infrastructure to support the production and dissemination of on-line resources: On The Cutting Edge (OTCE), Earth Exploration Toolbook, and Starting Point: Teaching Introductory Geoscience. Along with the contemporaneous Digital Library for Earth System Education, these projects engaged geoscience educators nationwide in exploring professional development experiences that produced lasting on-line resources, collaborative authoring of resources, and models for web-based support for geoscience teaching. As a result, a culture developed in the 2000s in which geoscience educators anticipated that resources for geoscience teaching would be shared broadly and that collaborative authoring would be productive and engaging. By this time, a diverse set of examples demonstrated the power of the web infrastructure in supporting collaboration, dissemination and professional development . Building on this foundation, more recent work has expanded both the size of the network and the scope of its work. Many large research projects initiated collaborations to disseminate resources supporting educational use of their data. Research results from the rapidly expanding geoscience education research community were integrated into the Pedagogies in Action website and OTCE. Projects engaged faculty across the nation in large-scale data collection and educational research. The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network and OTCE engaged community members in reviewing the expanding body of on-line resources. Building Strong

  8. Development of large-scale functional brain networks in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Supekar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y. Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  9. Development of large-scale functional brain networks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Musen, Mark; Menon, Vinod

    2009-07-01

    The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y) and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y). Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  10. Environmental quality indexing of large industrial development alternatives using AHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solnes, Julius

    2003-01-01

    Two industrial development alternatives have been proposed for the East Coast of Iceland in order to strengthen its socio-economic basis. The favoured option is to build a large aluminium smelter, which requires massive hydropower development in the nearby highlands. Another viable option is the construction of a 6-million-ton oil refinery, following the planned exploitation of the Timan Pechora oil reserves in the Russian Arctic. A third 'fictitious' alternative could be general development of existing regional industry and new knowledge-based industries, development of ecotourism, establishment of national parks, accompanied by infrastructure improvement (roads, tunnels, communications, schools, etc.). The three alternatives will have different environmental consequences. The controversial hydropower plant for the smelter requires a large water reservoir as well as considerable land disturbance in this unique mountain territory, considered to be the largest uninhabited wilderness in Western Europe. The aluminium smelter and the oil refinery will give rise to substantial increase of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the country (about 20%). Then there is potential environmental risk associated with the refinery regarding oil spills at sea, which could have disastrous impact on the fisheries industry. However, the oil refinery does not require any hydropower development, which is a positive factor. Finally, the third alternative could be defined as a ''green'' solution whereby the detrimental environmental consequences of the two industrial solutions are mostly avoided. In order to compare the three alternatives in an orderly manner, the analytic hierarchy process methodology of Saaty was applied to calculate the environmental quality index of each alternative, which is defined as a weighted sum of selected environmental and socio-economic factors. These factors are evaluated on a comparison basis, applying the AHP methodology, and the weights in the quality

  11. Developing high coercivity in large diameter cobalt nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer, A. H.; Ramazani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Zavašnik, J.

    2016-11-01

    Regardless of the synthetic method, developing high magnetic coercivity in ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) with large diameters has been a challenge over the past two decades. Here, we report on the synthesis of highly coercive cobalt NW arrays with diameters of 65 and 80 nm, which are embedded in porous anodic alumina templates with high-aspect-ratio pores. Using a modified electrochemical deposition method enabled us to reach room temperature coercivity and remanent ratio up to 3000 Oe and 0.70, respectively, for highly crystalline as-synthesized hcp cobalt NW arrays with a length of 8 μm. The first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis showed the presence of both soft and hard magnetic phases along the length of the resulting NWs. To develop higher coercive fields, the length of the NWs was then gradually reduced in order from bottom to top, thereby reaching NW sections governed by the hard phase. Consequently, this resulted in record high coercivities of 4200 and 3850 Oe at NW diameters of 65 and 80 nm, respectively. In this case, the FORC diagrams confirmed a significant reduction in interactions between the magnetic phases of the remaining sections of NWs. At this stage, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and dark-field transmission electron microscopy analyses indicated the formation of highly crystalline bamboo-like sections along the [0 0 2] direction during a progressive pulse-controlled electrochemical growth of NW arrays under optimized parameters. Our results both provide new insights into the growth process, crystalline characteristics and magnetic phases along the length of large diameter NW arrays and, furthermore, develop the performance of pure 3d transition magnetic NWs.

  12. Detector development for the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00367854; Gößling, Claus

    To maximise the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider, it will be upgraded to the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider in 2024. New detector challenges arise from the higher instantaneous luminosity and the higher particle flux. The new ATLAS Inner Tracker will replace the current tracking detector to be able to cope with these challenges. Many pixel detector technologies exist for particle tracking, but their suitability for the ATLAS Inner Tracker needs to be studied. Active high-voltage CMOS sensors, which are produced in industrialised processes, offer a fast readout and radiation tolerance. In this thesis the HV2FEI4v2 sensor, which is capacitively coupled to the ATLAS Pixel FE-I4 readout chip, is characterised for the usage in the outer layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker. Key quantities of this prototype module are studied, such as the hit efficiency and the subpixel encoding. The early HV2FEI4v2 prototype shows promising results as a starting point for further module developments. Active CMO...

  13. Development of membrane cryostats for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, D; Gendotti, A; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Loew, T; Mladenov, D; Montanari, C; Murphy, S; Nessi, M; Norris, B; Noto, F; Rubbia, A; Sharma, R; Smargianaki, D; Stewart, J; Vignoli, C; Wilson, P; Wu, S

    2015-01-01

    A new collaboration is being formed to develop a multi-kiloton Long-Baseline neutrino experiment that will be located at the Surf Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. In the present design, the detector will be located inside cryostats filled with 68,400 ton of ultrapure liquid argon (less than 100 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). To qualify the membrane technology for future very large-scale and underground implementations, a strong prototyping effort is ongoing: several smaller detectors of growing size with associated cryostats and cryogenic systems will be designed and built at Fermilab and CERN. They will take physics data and test different detector elements, filtration systems, design options and installation procedures. In addition, a 35 ton prototype is already operational at Fermilab and will take data with single-phase detector in early 2016. After the prototyping phase, the multi-kton detector will be constructed. After commissioning, it will detect and study ne...

  14. Advanced Mirror Technology Development for Very Large Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. P.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology project to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. The developed mirror technology must enable missions capable of both general astrophysics & ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. Just as JWST’s architecture was driven by launch vehicle, a future UVOIR mission’s architectures (monolithic, segmented or interferometric) will depend on capacities of future launch vehicles (and budget). Since we cannot predict the future, we must prepare for all potential futures. Therefore, to provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We derived engineering specifications for potential future monolithic or segmented space telescopes based on science needs and implement constraints. And we are maturing six inter-linked critical technologies to enable potential future large aperture UVOIR space telescope: 1) Large-Aperture, Low Areal Density, High Stiffness Mirrors, 2) Support Systems, 3) Mid/High Spatial Frequency Figure Error, 4) Segment Edges, 5) Segment-to-Segment Gap Phasing, and 6) Integrated Model Validation Science Advisory Team and a Systems Engineering Team. We are maturing all six technologies simultaneously because all are required to make a primary mirror assembly (PMA); and, it is the PMA’s on-orbit performance which determines science return. PMA stiffness depends on substrate and support stiffness. Ability to cost-effectively eliminate mid/high spatial figure errors and polishing edges depends on substrate stiffness. On-orbit thermal and mechanical performance depends on substrate stiffness, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and thermal mass. And, segment-to-segment phasing depends on substrate & structure stiffness

  15. Status and Future Developments in Large Accelerator Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karen S. White

    2006-01-01

    Over the years, accelerator control systems have evolved from small hardwired systems to complex computer controlled systems with many types of graphical user interfaces and electronic data processing. Today's control systems often include multiple software layers, hundreds of distributed processors, and hundreds of thousands of lines of code. While it is clear that the next generation of accelerators will require much bigger control systems, they will also need better systems. Advances in technology will be needed to ensure the network bandwidth and CPU power can provide reasonable update rates and support the requisite timing systems. Beyond the scaling problem, next generation systems face additional challenges due to growing cyber security threats and the likelihood that some degree of remote development and operation will be required. With a large number of components, the need for high reliability increases and commercial solutions can play a key role towards this goal. Future control systems will operate more complex machines and need to present a well integrated, interoperable set of tools with a high degree of automation. Consistency of data presentation and exception handling will contribute to efficient operations. From the development perspective, engineers will need to provide integrated data management in the beginning of the project and build adaptive software components around a central data repository. This will make the system maintainable and ensure consistency throughout the inevitable changes during the machine lifetime. Additionally, such a large project will require professional project management and disciplined use of well-defined engineering processes. Distributed project teams will make the use of standards, formal requirements and design and configuration control vital. Success in building the control system of the future may hinge on how well we integrate commercial components and learn from best practices used in other industries

  16. Large animal models for vaccine development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, Volker; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, Francois; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Wilson, Don; Walker, Stewart; Wheler, Colette; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    The development of human vaccines continues to rely on the use of animals for research. Regulatory authorities require novel vaccine candidates to undergo preclinical assessment in animal models before being permitted to enter the clinical phase in human subjects. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in reducing and replacing the number of animals used for preclinical vaccine research through the use of bioinformatics and computational biology to design new vaccine candidates. However, the ultimate goal of a new vaccine is to instruct the immune system to elicit an effective immune response against the pathogen of interest, and no alternatives to live animal use currently exist for evaluation of this response. Studies identifying the mechanisms of immune protection; determining the optimal route and formulation of vaccines; establishing the duration and onset of immunity, as well as the safety and efficacy of new vaccines, must be performed in a living system. Importantly, no single animal model provides all the information required for advancing a new vaccine through the preclinical stage, and research over the last two decades has highlighted that large animals more accurately predict vaccine outcome in humans than do other models. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of large animal models for human vaccine development and demonstrate that much of the success in bringing a new vaccine to market depends on choosing the most appropriate animal model for preclinical testing. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Development of a large peptoid-DOTA combinatorial library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspal; Lopes, Daniel; Gomika Udugamasooriya, D

    2016-09-01

    Conventional one-bead one-compound (OBOC) library synthesis is typically used to identify molecules with therapeutic value. The design and synthesis of OBOC libraries that contain molecules with imaging or even potentially therapeutic and diagnostic capacities (e.g. theranostic agents) has been overlooked. The development of a therapeutically active molecule with a built-in imaging component for a certain target is a daunting task, and structure-based rational design might not be the best approach. We hypothesize to develop a combinatorial library with potentially therapeutic and imaging components fused together in each molecule. Such molecules in the library can be used to screen, identify, and validate as direct theranostic candidates against targets of interest. As the first step in achieving that aim, we developed an on-bead library of 153,600 Peptoid-DOTA compounds in which the peptoids are the target-recognizing and potentially therapeutic components and the DOTA is the imaging component. We attached the DOTA scaffold to TentaGel beads using one of the four arms of DOTA, and we built a diversified 6-mer peptoid library on the remaining three arms. We evaluated both the synthesis and the mass spectrometric sequencing capacities of the test compounds and of the final library. The compounds displayed unique ionization patterns including direct breakages of the DOTA scaffold into two units, allowing clear decoding of the sequences. Our approach provides a facile synthesis method for the complete on-bead development of large peptidomimetic-DOTA libraries for screening against biological targets for the identification of potential theranostic agents in the future. © 2016 The Authors. Biopolymers Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 673-684, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Biopolymers Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development of superconducting links for the Large Hadron Collider machine

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine, new superconducting lines are being developed for the feeding of the LHC magnets. The proposed electrical layout envisages the location of the power converters in surface buildings, and the transfer of the current from the surface to the LHC tunnel, where the magnets are located, via superconducting links containing tens of cables feeding different circuits and transferring altogether more than 150 kA. Depending on the location, the links will have a length ranging from 300 m to 500 m, and they will span a vertical distance of about 80 m. An overview of the R&D program that has been launched by CERN is presented, with special attention to the development of novel types of cables made from MgB 2 and high temperature superconductors (Bi-2223 and REBCO) and to the results of the tests performed on prototype links. Plans for future activities are presented, together with a timeline for potential future integration in the LHC machine.

  19. Development of superconducting links for the Large Hadron Collider machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarino, Amalia

    2014-04-01

    In the framework of the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine, new superconducting lines are being developed for the feeding of the LHC magnets. The proposed electrical layout envisages the location of the power converters in surface buildings, and the transfer of the current from the surface to the LHC tunnel, where the magnets are located, via superconducting links containing tens of cables feeding different circuits and transferring altogether more than 150 kA. Depending on the location, the links will have a length ranging from 300 m to 500 m, and they will span a vertical distance of about 80 m. An overview of the R&D program that has been launched by CERN is presented, with special attention to the development of novel types of cables made from MgB2 and high temperature superconductors (Bi-2223 and REBCO) and to the results of the tests performed on prototype links. Plans for future activities are presented, together with a timeline for potential future integration in the LHC machine.

  20. A Modular Approach To Developing A Large Deployable Reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, R.; Leidich, C.; Mascy, F.; Swenson, B.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is currently studying the feasibility of developing a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) astronomical facility to perform astrophysical studies of the infrared and submillimeter portion of the spectrum in the mid 1990's. The LDR concept was recommended by the Astronomy Survey Committee of the National Academy of Sciences as one of two space based projects to be started this decade. The current baseline calls for a 20 m (65.6 ft) aperture telescope diffraction limited at 30 μm and automatically deployed from a single Shuttle launch. The volume, performance, and single launch constraints place great demands on the technology and place LDR beyond the state-of-the-art in certain areas such as lightweight reflector segments. The advent of the Shuttle is opening up many new options and capabilities for producing large space systems. Until now, LDR has always been conceived as an integrated system, deployed autonomously in a single launch. This paper will look at a combination of automatic deployment and on-orbit assembly that may reduce the technological complexity and cost of the LDR system. Many technological tools are now in use or under study that will greatly enhance our capabilities to do assembly in space. Two Shuttle volume budget scenarios will be examined to assess the potential of these tools to reduce the LDR system complexity. Further study will be required to reach the full optimal combination of deployment and assembly, since in most cases the capabilities of these new tools have not been demonstrated. In order to take maximum advantage of these concepts, the design of LDR must be flexible and allow one subsystem to be modified without adversely affecting the entire system. One method of achieving this flexibility is to use a modular design approach in which the major subsystems are physically separated during launch and assembled on orbit. A modular design approach facilitates this flexibility but requires that the subsystems be interfaced in a simple

  1. Assessing large-scale wildlife responses to human infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Aurora; Jaeger, Jochen A G; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-26

    Habitat loss and deterioration represent the main threats to wildlife species, and are closely linked to the expansion of roads and human settlements. Unfortunately, large-scale effects of these structures remain generally overlooked. Here, we analyzed the European transportation infrastructure network and found that 50% of the continent is within 1.5 km of transportation infrastructure. We present a method for assessing the impacts from infrastructure on wildlife, based on functional response curves describing density reductions in birds and mammals (e.g., road-effect zones), and apply it to Spain as a case study. The imprint of infrastructure extends over most of the country (55.5% in the case of birds and 97.9% for mammals), with moderate declines predicted for birds (22.6% of individuals) and severe declines predicted for mammals (46.6%). Despite certain limitations, we suggest the approach proposed is widely applicable to the evaluation of effects of planned infrastructure developments under multiple scenarios, and propose an internationally coordinated strategy to update and improve it in the future.

  2. Low mass large aperture vacuum window development at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppel, C.

    1995-01-01

    Large aperture low mass vacuum windows are being developed for the HMS (High Momentum Spectrometer) and SOS (Short Orbit Spectrometer) spectrometers in Hall C at CEBAF. Because multiple scattering degrades the performance of a spectrometer it is important that the volume be evacuated and that the entrance and exit windows be as low mass as possible. The material used for such windows must be thin and light enough so as to have minimum effect of the beam, and at the same time, be thick and strong enough to operate reliably and safely. To achieve these goals, composite vacuum windows have been constructed of a thin sheet of Mylar with a reinforcing fabric. Reinforcing fabrics such as Kevlar and Spectra are available with tensile strengths significantly greater than that of Mylar. A thin layer of Myler remains necessary since the fabrics cannot achieve any sort of vacuum seal. The design, fabrication, testing, and operating experience with such composite windows for the Hall C spectrometers will be discussed

  3. Development of large components for the fusion reactor vacuum circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinic, D.; Lorrain, C.

    1986-06-01

    The Commission of the European Communities appointed in mid-1983 the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH to investigate whether large vacuum components for use in the fusion machine can be built. The following individual targets have been defined for studies under this project: - Elaboration of technical specifications for large components. - Investigation of the feasibility. - Specification of the tests required and planning of a testing facility. The plasma chamber pumping system is essentially concerned

  4. Managing large classes in developing countries | Asodike | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is in line with the global initiative for universal basic education coupled with the rapid population growth and awareness that a literate population is more productive than an illiterate one. Experience has shown that large classes or overcrowded classrooms affect the quality of education delivered in the school system.

  5. Large area, low cost solar cell development and production readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, D.

    1982-01-01

    A process sequence for a large area ( or = 25 sq. cm) silicon solar cell was investigated. Generic cell choice was guided by the expected electron fluence, by the packing factors of various cell envelope designs onto each panel to provide needed voltage as well as current, by the weight constraints on the system, and by the cost goals of the contract.

  6. Development of the monoblock rotor for large scale LP turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Satoshi; Kashiwahara, Katsuto

    1981-01-01

    One of the important points in large steam turbines is the long last stage blades. So far, rotor disks were shrink-fitted to a shaft, but recently, the operation of steam turbines requires frequent start and stop, and is subjected to frequent load variation. In order to improve the reliability of steam turbines drastically under such situation, the large rotors of one-body forging type have been demanded. Hitachi Ltd. Manufactured a large rotor of one-body forging type for trial, and in order to confirm its reliability, the rotation test simulating the temperature distribution in the operation of steam turbines was carried out. The large material must be thoroughly forged to the inner part, and the effect of heat treatment reaches to the whole body, thus the prescribed chemical composition and mechanical properties must be obtained. The material must be homogeneous and stable to the thermal effect in operation. The largest outside diameter of the rotor is about 2.5 m, the shaft length is 12 m, and the finished weight is 220 t. A 500 t ingot of Ni-Cr-Mo-V steel was used. As the results of various tests, it was confirmed that the material was clean and homogeneous, and had good mechanical properties. Also the material was sufficiently thermally stable in the heating deflection measurement. In the high speed rotation test at the actual temperature, the vibration of the rotor was very small, and the good result was obtained. (Kako, I.)

  7. Large-Signal Code TESLA: Current Status and Recent Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chernyavskiy, Igor A; Vlasov, Alexander N; Cooke, Simon J; Abe, David K; Levush, Baruch; Antonsen, Jr., Thomas M; Nguyen, Khanh T

    2008-01-01

    .... One such tool is the large-signal code TESLA, which was successfully applied for the modeling of single-beam and multiple-beam klystron devices at the Naval Research Laboratory and which is now used by number of U.S. companies...

  8. The waterfall model in large-scale development

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Kai; Wohlin, Claes; Baca, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Waterfall development is still a widely used way of working in software development companies. Many problems have been reported related to the model. Commonly accepted problems are for example to cope with change and that defects all too often are detected too late in the software development process. However, many of the problems mentioned in literature are based on beliefs and experiences, and not on empirical evidence. To address this research gap, we compare the problems in literature wit...

  9. Developing Musical Creativity through Improvisation in the Large Performance Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Improvisation is an ideal way to develop musical creativity in ensemble settings. This article describes two prominent theoretical frameworks related to improvisation. Next, based on research with developing and expert improvisers, it discusses how to sequence improvisatory activities so that students feel accomplished at every step. Finally, the…

  10. Progress of research and development of nuclear fusion and development of large nuclear fusion device technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the last several years, the results of tokamak experiments were conspicuous, and the progress of plasma confinement performance, transport mechanism, divertors and impurities, helium transport and exhaust, electric current drive, magnetic field ripple effect and high speed particle transport and DT experiment are reported. The other confinement methods than tokamak, the related theories and reactor technology are described. The conceptual design of ITER was carried out by the cooperation of Japan, USA, EC and the former USSR. The projects of developing nuclear fusion in various countries, the design and the required research and development of ITER, the reconstruction and the required research and development of JT-60, JET and TFTR, the design and the required research and development of large helical device, the state of research and development of laser nuclear fusion and inversion magnetic field pinch nuclear fusion, the activities and roles of industrial circles in large nuclear fusion device technology, and the long term perspective of the technical development of nuclear fusion are described. (K.I.)

  11. Development of Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    2013-01-01

    exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low...... of the spacecraft fire safety risk. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies who conduct research that is integrated into the overall experiment design. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted in an Orbital Sciences...

  12. Recent developments for the Large Binocular Telescope Guiding Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golota, T.; De La Peña, M. D.; Biddick, C.; Lesser, M.; Leibold, T.; Miller, D.; Meeks, R.; Hahn, T.; Storm, J.; Sargent, T.; Summers, D.; Hill, J.; Kraus, J.; Hooper, S.; Fisher, D.

    2014-07-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) has eight Acquisition, Guiding, and wavefront Sensing Units (AGw units). They provide guiding and wavefront sensing capability at eight different locations at both direct and bent Gregorian focal stations. Recent additions of focal stations for PEPSI and MODS instruments doubled the number of focal stations in use including respective motion, camera controller server computers, and software infrastructure communicating with Guiding Control Subsystem (GCS). This paper describes the improvements made to the LBT GCS and explains how these changes have led to better maintainability and contributed to increased reliability. This paper also discusses the current GCS status and reviews potential upgrades to further improve its performance.

  13. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  14. The Waterfall Model in Large-Scale Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kai; Wohlin, Claes; Baca, Dejan

    Waterfall development is still a widely used way of working in software development companies. Many problems have been reported related to the model. Commonly accepted problems are for example to cope with change and that defects all too often are detected too late in the software development process. However, many of the problems mentioned in literature are based on beliefs and experiences, and not on empirical evidence. To address this research gap, we compare the problems in literature with the results of a case study at Ericsson AB in Sweden, investigating issues in the waterfall model. The case study aims at validating or contradicting the beliefs of what the problems are in waterfall development through empirical research.

  15. Radon in large buildings: The development of a protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research has been devoted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others to develop radon sampling protocols for single family residences and schools. However, very little research has been performed on measuring radon in the work place. To evaluate possible sampling protocols, 833 buildings throughout the United States were selected for extensive radon testing. The buildings tested (warehouses, production plants and office buildings) were representative of commercial buildings across the country both in design, size and use. Based on the results, preliminary radon sampling protocols for the work place have been developed

  16. Development of large area, high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.W. [Yu Kong Taedok Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of the research is to develop the mass-production technologies of high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells in order to reduce the costs of solar cells and dissemination of solar cells. Amorphous silicon solar cell is the most promising option of thin film solar cells which are relatively easy to reduce the costs. The final goal of the research is to develop amorphous silicon solar cells having the efficiency of 10%, the ratio of light-induced degradation 15% in the area of 1200 cm{sup 2} and test the cells in the form of 2 Kw grid-connected photovoltaic system. (author) 35 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  17. Wellness programme and health policy development at a large faith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study's primary recommendations include: taking its employees' cultural and social norms into consideration; addressing issues related to capacity and ... list of recommendations for other resource-constrained NGOs that also wish to develop and implement wellness programmes and health policies in their workplace.

  18. Large Energy Development Projects: Lessons Learned from Space and Politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2005-01-01

    The challenge to global energy future lies in meeting the needs and aspirations of the ten to twelve billion earthlings that will be on this planet by 2050. At least an eight-fold increase in annual production will be required by the middle of this century. The energy sources that can be considered developed and 'in the box' for consideration as sources for major increases in supply over the next half century are fossil fuels, nuclear fission, and, to a lesser degree, various forms of direct and stored solar energy and conservation. None of these near-term sources of energy will provide an eight-fold or more increase in energy supply for various technical, environmental and political reasons.Only a few potential energy sources that fall 'out of the box' appear worthy of additional consideration as possible contributors to energy demand in 2050 and beyond. These particular candidates are deuterium-tritium fusion, space solar energy, and lunar helium-3 fusion. The primary advantage that lunar helium-3 fusion will have over other 'out of the box' energy sources in the pre-2050 timeframe is a clear path into the private capital markets. The development and demonstration of new energy sources will require several development paths, each of Apollo-like complexity and each with sub-paths of parallel development for critical functions and components

  19. Development of large bore superconducting magnet for wastewater treatment application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui Ming; Xu, Dong; Shen, Fuzhi; Zhang, Hengcheng; Li, Lafeng [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    Water issue, especially water pollution, is a serious issue of 21st century. Being an significant technique for securing water resources, superconducting magnetic separation wastewater system was indispensable. A large bore conduction-cooled magnet was custom-tailored for wastewater treatment. The superconducting magnet has been designed, fabricated and tested. The superconducting magnet was composed of NbTi solenoid coils with an effective horizontal warm bore of 400 mm and a maximum central field of 2.56T. The superconducting magnet system was cooled by a two-stage 1.5W 4K GM cryocooler. The NbTi solenoid coils were wound around an aluminum former that is thermally connected to the second stage cold head of the cryocooler through a conductive copper link. The temperature distribution along the conductive link was measured during the cool-down process as well as at steady state. The magnet was cooled down to 4.8K in approximately 65 hours. The test of the magnetic field and quench analysis has been performed to verify the safe operation for the magnet system. Experimental results show that the superconducting magnet reached the designed magnetic performance.

  20. Large area sheet task: Advanced dendritic web growth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Schruben, J.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of silicon dendritic web for photovoltaic applications was investigated. The application of a thermal model for calculating buckling stresses as a function of temperature profile in the web is discussed. Lid and shield concepts were evaluated to provide the data base for enhancing growth velocity. An experimental web growth machine which embodies in one unit the mechanical and electronic features developed in previous work was developed. In addition, evaluation of a melt level control system was begun, along with preliminary tests of an elongated crucible design. The economic analysis was also updated to incorporate some minor cost changes. The initial applications of the thermal model to a specific configuration gave results consistent with experimental observation in terms of the initiation of buckling vs. width for a given crystal thickness.

  1. Development of large scale internal reforming molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A.; Shinoki, T.; Matsumura, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Internal Reforming (IR) is a prominent scheme for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) power generating systems in order to get high efficiency i.e. 55-60% as based on the Higher Heating Value (HHV) and compact configuration. The Advanced Internal Reforming (AIR) technology has been developed based on two types of the IR-MCFC technology i.e. Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) and Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR).

  2. Development of large-scale thyristor dc circuit breaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, S.; Tanoue, Y.; Ikegame, H.; Matushita, T.; Sato, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A study for developing a thyristor dc circuit breaker that is applicable to the Tokamak device for engineering feasibility is presented. The design and test of a unit circuit breaker consisting of 4kV-3kA thyristors connected 2 in series and 12 in parallel are described. And based on the results a 50kV-24kA thyristor dc circuit breaker is conceptually designed

  3. Urbanization and economic development: a bias toward large cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, R L; Shatter, A M

    1996-01-01

    "We find that a nation's urban population percentage increases with GDP per capita; industrialization; export orientation; and possibly, foreign assistance. It decreases with the importance of agriculture. Industrialization and agricultural importance have the same implications for the concentration of urban population in cities with 100,000+ population as for the urban percentage. Greater export orientation reduces such concentration. Finally, GDP per capita, population, and export orientation reduce primacy. Political factors, such as whether a country's largest city is also its capital, affect primacy. Our results do not seem to imply that developing-country urbanization today differs fundamentally from urbanization in the past." excerpt

  4. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal models used for analyzing dendritic web growth and calculating the thermal stress were reexamined to establish the validity limits imposed by the assumptions of the models. Also, the effects of thermal conduction through the gas phase were evaluated and found to be small. New growth designs, both static and dynamic, were generated using the modeling results. Residual stress effects in dendritic web were examined. In the laboratory, new techniques for the control of temperature distributions in three dimensions were developed. A new maximum undeformed web width of 5.8 cm was achieved. A 58% increase in growth velocity of 150 micrometers thickness was achieved with dynamic hardware. The area throughput goals for transient growth of 30 and 35 sq cm/min were exceeded.

  5. Research on the Construction Management and Sustainable Development of Large-Scale Scientific Facilities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiquan, Xi; Lin, Cong; Xuehui, Jin

    2018-05-01

    As an important platform for scientific and technological development, large -scale scientific facilities are the cornerstone of technological innovation and a guarantee for economic and social development. Researching management of large-scale scientific facilities can play a key role in scientific research, sociology and key national strategy. This paper reviews the characteristics of large-scale scientific facilities, and summarizes development status of China's large-scale scientific facilities. At last, the construction, management, operation and evaluation of large-scale scientific facilities is analyzed from the perspective of sustainable development.

  6. Development of large insulator rings for the TOKAMAK Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.; Tobin, A.

    1977-01-01

    Research and development leading to the manufacture of large ceramic insulator rings for the TFTR (TOKAMAK Fusion Test Reactor). Material applictions, fabrication approach and testing activities are highlighted

  7. The development of asymmetric trust in cooperation between large firms and SMEs: Insights from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Peverelli, P.J.; Bossink, B.A.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes how asymmetric trust develops and changes in time in cooperative relationships between large enterprises and SMEs in China. A model is developed on the basis of in-depth case studies of cooperation between six SMEs and five large firms in China. The data sources reveal how

  8. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  9. Development of large diamond-tipped saws and their application to cutting large radioactive reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlings, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The object of this research was to develop a large circular saw, capable of cutting away, by remote control, the inner radio-activated layer of reinforced concrete biological shields or pre-stressed concrete pressure vessel of gas-cooled reactors. Initial investigations and enquiries put to the existing saw industry established although there were blades in use approaching the size and type required, the development of large machines was restricted to the fixed-bed type because there was little demand for deep sawing in the construction or demolition industry. Preliminary work was carried out in 1981 to demonstrate the largest available wall saw at that time which showed that by changing the blade three times, a kerf 810 mm deep could be achieved. From this demonstration, the design and development of a 'free frame saw' and construction of a 660 mm blade as well as a 2500 mm blade, were performed. Initially, the 660 mm blade was used to cut the concrete and reinforcement, followed by the 2500 mm blade to produce a 1 m kerf. Subsequent development and testing demonstrated that the 2500 mm blade could be controlled to ''plunge cut'', that is to cut straight down in the reinforced concrete to a depth of 1 m in 7 minutes and would then advance at 160 mm/min; this is a work rate of 10 m 2 /hr. The final demonstration was to mount the saw on an extendible boom and remove a 1 m 3 block of reinforced concrete from the vertical face of a test wall

  10. Testing, development and demonstration of large scale solar district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Perers, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    In 2013-2014 the project “Testing, development and demonstration of large scale solar district heating systems” was carried out within the Sino-Danish Renewable Energy Development Programme, the so called RED programme jointly developed by the Chinese and Danish governments. In the project Danish...... know how on solar heating plants and solar heating test technology have been transferred from Denmark to China, large solar heating systems have been promoted in China, test capabilities on solar collectors and large scale solar heating systems have been improved in China and Danish-Chinese cooperation...

  11. Development and performance of a calibration system for a large calorimeter array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenton, M.; Dawson, J.; Ditzler, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Experiment 609 at Fermilab is a study of the properties of high-p/sub t/ collisions using a large segmented hadron calorimeter. The calibration and monitoring of such a large calorimeter array is a difficult undertaking. This paper describes the systems developed by E609 for automatic monitoring of the phototube gains and performance of the associated electronics

  12. Development of large insulator rings for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.; Tobin, A.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses research and development leading to the manufacture of large ceramic insulator rings for the TFTR (TOKAMAK Fusion Test Reactor). Material applications, fabrication approach and testing activities are highlighted

  13. Manufacturing development of the Westinghouse Nb3Sn coil for the Large Coil Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.L.; Vota, T.L.; Singh, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Westinghouse Nb 3 Sn Magnet for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Large Coil Program (LCP) is currently well into the manufacturing phase. This paper identifies the manufacturing processes and development tasks for his unique, advanced coil

  14. Development of a New Delivery and Attachment System for Tagging Large Cetaceans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, James

    1997-01-01

    .... We developed a new method of delivering tags for placement on large whales. Sea lions were trained to carry a harness and attached camera system along with carrying a suction-cup tag in a mouth piece...

  15. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  16. Development of concept and neutronic calculation method for large LMFBR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakata, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Ikegami, T.; Sanda, T.; Kaneto, K.; Kawashima, M.; Kaise, Y.; Shirakawa, M.; Hibi, K.

    1991-01-01

    Presented in this paper is the state of the art of reactor physics R and Ds for the development of concept and neutronic calculation method for large Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) core. Physics characteristics of concepts for mixed oxide (MOX) fueled large FBR core were investigated by a series of benchmark critical experiments. Next, an adequacy and accuracy of the current neutronic calculation method was assessed by the experiments analyses, and then neutronic prediction accuracies by the method were evaluated for physics characteristics of the large core. Concerns on core development were discussed in terms of neutronics. (author)

  17. Pro website development and operations streamlining DevOps for large-scale websites

    CERN Document Server

    Sacks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Pro Website Development and Operations gives you the experience you need to create and operate a large-scale production website. Large-scale websites have their own unique set of problems regarding their design-problems that can get worse when agile methodologies are adopted for rapid results. Managing large-scale websites, deploying applications, and ensuring they are performing well often requires a full scale team involving the development and operations sides of the company-two departments that don't always see eye to eye. When departments struggle with each other, it adds unnecessary comp

  18. Development and evaluation of a virtual slaughterhouse simulator for training and educating veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguino, Alessandro; Seguino, Ferruccio; Eleuteri, Antonio; Rhind, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary surgeons working on farms and food-processing establishments play a fundamental role in safeguarding both public health and the welfare of animals under their care. An essential part of veterinary public health (VPH) undergraduate training in the UK involves students undertaking placements within abattoirs, a practice that remains vital to the educational experience of future veterinary professionals. However, several issues have adversely affected the ability of students to gain such extramural placements. For this reason, the Virtual Slaughterhouse Simulator (VSS) was developed to strengthen and enhance undergraduate VPH teaching at the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, enabling students to explore a realistic abattoir work environment with embedded educational activities. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the VSS as a teaching and learning tool for training and educating veterinary students. Ninety-eight final-year veterinary students engaged with the prototype VSS, followed by assessment of their knowledge and behavior when faced with a "real-life" abattoir situation. Further evaluation of their experiences with the VSS was carried out using questionnaires and focus groups. The results of this investigation show that there is the potential for the VSS to enhance the student learning experience in basic abattoir procedures. This innovative tool provides a visually based learning resource that can support traditional lectures and practical classes and can also be used to stimulate interactive problem-solving activities embedded in the relevant context.

  19. Development of large-capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P; Claudet, G

    1996-01-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, is working towards the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a high-energy, high-luminosity particle accelerator and collider [1] of 26.7 km circumference, due to start producing frontier physics, by bringing into collision intense proton and ion beams with centre-of-mass energies in the TeV-per-constituent range, at the beginning of the next century. The key technology for achieving this ambitious scientific goal at economically acceptable cost is the use of high-field superconducting magnets using Nb-Ti conductor operating in superfluid helium [2]. To maintain the some 25 km of bending and focusing magnets at their operating temperature of 1.9 K, the LHC cryogenic system will have to produce an unprecedented total refrigeration capacity of about 20 kW at 1.8 K, in eight cryogenic plants distributed around the machine circumference [3]. This has requested the undertaking of an industrial development programme, in the form of a collaboration betwe...

  20. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  1. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  2. The Role of the Process Organizational Structure in the Development of Intrapreneurship in Large Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delić Adisa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern companies’ business environments have become increasingly complex, dynamic, and uncertain as a consequence of globalization and the rapid development of information communications technology. Companies are urged to increase their flexibility in order to keep their competitiveness in the global market. The affirmation of intrapreneurship becomes one of the basic ways for achieving higher adaptability and competitiveness of large companies in the modern business environment. In this context, the choice of an organizational solution that improves the development of entrepreneurial orientation and increases employee entrepreneurship and innovativeness becomes an important task for large companies. Research studies and business practices have indicated that various types of modern organizational forms enable the development of intrapreneurship. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to identify dominant characteristics of organizational solutions and analyse their influence on the development of intrapreneurship in large companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH. The research results indicate that current organizational characteristics are not favourable for the development of intrapreneurship in large BiH companies and that improvement is necessary in order to create an enabling environment for intrapreneurship and innovativeness. Based on these findings, recommendations for appropriate organizational changes are presented that might result in a more intensive development of intrapreneurship in large BiH companies.

  3. Can Large Scale Land Acquisition for Agro-Development in Indonesia be Managed Sustainably?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obidzinski, K.; Takahashi, I.; Dermawan, A.; Komarudin, H.; Andrianto, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the impacts of large scale land acquisition for agro-development by analyzing the Merauke Integrated Food and Energy Estate (MIFEE) in Indonesia. It also examines the potential for MIFEE to meet sustainability requirements under RSPO, ISPO, and FSC. The plantation development

  4. Negotiating development narratives within large-scale oil palm projects on village lands in Sarawak, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Bruun, Thilde Bech; Egay, Kelvin

    2016-01-01

    the narratives that suggest that large-scale land development projects ‘bring development to the people’, utilising ‘idle lands’ and ‘creating employment’ to lift them out of poverty, we argue that political and economic processes related to cultivation of oil palm intersect with local community differences...

  5. The cognitive dynamics of computer science cost-effective large scale software development

    CERN Document Server

    De Gyurky, Szabolcs Michael; John Wiley & Sons

    2006-01-01

    This book has three major objectives: To propose an ontology for computer software; To provide a methodology for development of large software systems to cost and schedule that is based on the ontology; To offer an alternative vision regarding the development of truly autonomous systems.

  6. Development of superconducting poloidal field coils for medium and large size tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, H.-G.; Forster, S.; Hofmann, A.

    1983-01-01

    Large long pulse tokamak fusion experiments require the use of superconducting poloidal field (PF) coils. In the past not much attention has been paid to the development of such coils. Therefore a development programme has been initiated recently at KfK. In this report start with summarizing the relevant PF coil parameters of some medium and large size tokamaks presently under construction or design, respectively. The most important areas of research and development work are deduced from these parameters. Design considerations and first experimental results concerning low loss conductors, cooling concepts and structural components are given

  7. Development of distortion measurement system for large deployable antenna via photogrammetry in vacuum and cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengsong; Jiang, Shanping; Yang, Linhua; Zhang, Bolun

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the requirement of high precision thermal distortion measurement foraΦ4.2m deployable mesh antenna of satellite in vacuum and cryogenic environment, based on Digital Close-range Photogrammetry and Space Environment Test Technology of Spacecraft, a large scale antenna distortion measurement system under vacuum and cryogenic environment is developed in this paper. The antenna Distortion measurement system (ADMS) is the first domestic independently developed thermal distortion measurement system for large antenna, which has successfully solved non-contact high precision distortion measurement problem in large spacecraft structure under vacuum and cryogenic environment. The measurement accuracy of ADMS is better than 50 μm/5m, which has reached international advanced level. The experimental results show that the measurement system has great advantages in large structural measurement of spacecrafts, and also has broad application prospects in space or other related fields.

  8. Development of a large proton accelerator for innovative researches; development of high power RF source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. O.; Shin, H. M.; Chung, I. Y. [KAPRA, Seoul (Korea); Kim, D. I. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea); Noh, S. J. [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Ko, S. K. [Ulsan University, Ulsan (Korea); Lee, H. J. [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea); Choi, W. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    This study was performed with objective to design and develop the KOMAC proton accelerator RF system. For the development of the high power RF source for CCDTL(coupled cavity drift tube linac), the medium power RF system using the UHF klystron for broadcasting was integrated and with this RF system we obtained the basic design data, operation experience and code-validity test data. Based on the medium power RF system experimental data, the high power RF system for CCDTL was designed and its performed was analyzed. 16 refs., 64 figs., 27 tabs. (Author)

  9. REQUIREMENTS FOR SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE MODELS FOR LARGE-SCALE DEFENSE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan DEMIR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available TLarge-scale defense system projects are strategic for maintaining and increasing the national defense capability. Therefore, governments spend billions of dollars in the acquisition and development of large-scale defense systems. The scale of defense systems is always increasing and the costs to build them are skyrocketing. Today, defense systems are software intensive and they are either a system of systems or a part of it. Historically, the project performances observed in the development of these systems have been signifi cantly poor when compared to other types of projects. It is obvious that the currently used systems development life cycle models are insuffi cient to address today’s challenges of building these systems. Using a systems development life cycle model that is specifi cally designed for largescale defense system developments and is effective in dealing with today’s and near-future challenges will help to improve project performances. The fi rst step in the development a large-scale defense systems development life cycle model is the identifi cation of requirements for such a model. This paper contributes to the body of literature in the fi eld by providing a set of requirements for system development life cycle models for large-scale defense systems. Furthermore, a research agenda is proposed.

  10. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. M.; Reid, G.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives studied are the definition of the tested role of an early Space Station for the construction of large space structures. This is accomplished by defining the LSS technology development missions (TDMs) identified in phase 1. Design and operations trade studies are used to identify the best structural concepts and procedures for each TDMs. Details of the TDM designs are then developed along with their operational requirements. Space Station resources required for each mission, both human and physical, are identified. The costs and development schedules for the TDMs provide an indication of the programs needed to develop these missions.

  11. A Project Management Approach to Using Simulation for Cost Estimation on Large, Complex Software Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizell, Carolyn; Malone, Linda

    2007-01-01

    It is very difficult for project managers to develop accurate cost and schedule estimates for large, complex software development projects. None of the approaches or tools available today can estimate the true cost of software with any high degree of accuracy early in a project. This paper provides an approach that utilizes a software development process simulation model that considers and conveys the level of uncertainty that exists when developing an initial estimate. A NASA project will be analyzed using simulation and data from the Software Engineering Laboratory to show the benefits of such an approach.

  12. Assessment of small versus large hydro-power developments - a Norwegian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Harby, Atle

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The era of new, large hydro-power development projects seems to be over in Norway. Partly as a response to this, a large number of applications for the development of smallscale hydro power projects up to 10 MW overflow the Water Resources and Energy Directorate, resulting in an extensive development of small tributaries and water courses in Norway. This study has developed a framework for the assessment and comparison of several small versus many large hydro-power projects based on a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) approach, and further tested this approach on planned or developed projects in the Helgeland region, Norway. Multi-criteria analysis is a decision-support tool aimed at providing a systematic approach for the comparison of various alternatives with often non-commensurable and conflicting attributes. At the same time, the technique enables complex problems and various alternatives to be assessed in a transparent and simple way. The MCA-software was in our case equipped with 2 overall criteria (objectives) with a number of sub criteria; Production with sub-criteria like volume of energy production, installed effect, storage capacity and economical profit; Environmental impacts with sub-criteria like fishing interests, biodiversity, protection of unexploited nature The data used in the case study is based on the planned development of Vefsna (large project) with the energy/effect production estimated and the environmental impacts identified as part of the feasibility studies (the project never reached the authorities' licensing system with a formal EIA). The small-scale hydro-power projects used for comparison are based on realized projects in the Helgeland region and a number of proposed projects, up scaled to the size of the proposed Vefsna-development. The results from the study indicate that a large number of small-scale hydro-power projects need to be implemented in order to balance the volume of produced electricity/effect from one

  13. PLANNING QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCESSES IN A LARGE SCALE GEOGRAPHICALLY SPREAD HYBRID SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Святослав Аркадійович МУРАВЕЦЬКИЙ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There have been discussed key points of operational activates in a large scale geographically spread software development projects. A look taken at required QA processes structure in such project. There have been given up to date methods of integration quality assurance processes into software development processes. There have been reviewed existing groups of software development methodologies. Such as sequential, agile and based on RPINCE2. There have been given a condensed overview of quality assurance processes in each group. There have been given a review of common challenges that sequential and agile models are having in case of large geographically spread hybrid software development project. Recommendations were given in order to tackle those challenges.  The conclusions about the best methodology choice and appliance to the particular project have been made.

  14. Development of large scale wind energy conservation system. Development of large scale wind energy conversion system; Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no kaihatsu. Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for development of large scale wind energy conversion system. The study on technological development of key components evaluates performance of, and confirms reliability and applicability of, hydraulic systems centered by those equipped with variable pitch mechanisms and electrohydraulic servo valves that control them. The study on blade conducts fatigue and crack-propagation tests, which show that the blades developed have high strength. The study on speed-increasing gear conducts load tests, confirming the effects of reducing vibration and noise by modification of the gear teeth. The study on NACELLE cover conducts vibration tests to confirm its vibration characteristics, and analyzes three-dimensional vibration by the finite element method. Some components for a 500kW commercial wind mill are fabricated, including rotor heads, variable pitch mechanisms, speed-increasing gears, YAW systems, and hydraulic control systems. The others fabricated include a remote supervisory control system for maintenance, system to integrate the wind mill into a power system, and electrical control devices in which site conditions, such as atmospheric temperature and lightening, are taken into consideration.

  15. Development of A Hydraulic Drive for a novel Diesel-Hydraulic system for Large commercial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecki, J. S.; Conrad, Finn; Matheson, P.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and results of the research project Hybrid Diesel-Hydraulic System for Large commercial vehicles, e.g. urban freight delivery, buses or garbage trucks. The paper presents and discusses the research and development of the system, modelling approach and results from preliminary...... performance tests on a 10 ton vehicle....

  16. Development of large high current density superconducting solenoid magnets for use in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1977-05-01

    The development of a unique type of large superconducting solenoid magnet, characterized by very high current density windings and a two-phase helium tubular cooling system is described. The development of the magnet's conceptual design and the construction of two test solenoids are described. The successful test of the superconducting coil and its tubular cooling refrigeration system is presented. The safety, environmental and economic impacts of the test program on future developments in high energy physics are shown. Large solid angle particle detectors for colliding beam physics will analyze both charged and neutral particles. In many cases, these detectors will require neutral particles, such as gamma rays, to pass through the magnet coil with minimum interaction. The magnet coils must be as thin as possible. The use of superconducting windings allows one to minimize radiation thickness, while at the same time maximizing charged particle momentum resolution and saving substantial quantities of electrical energy. The results of the experimental measurements show that large high current density solenoid magnets can be made to operate at high stored energies. The superconducting magnet development described has a positive safety and environmental impact. The use of large high current density thin superconducting solenoids has been proposed in two high energy physics experiments to be conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and Cornell University as a result of the successful experiments described

  17. Development of a Methodology for Predicting Forest Area for Large-Area Resource Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Cooke

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southcm Research Station, appointed a remote-sensing team to develop an image-processing methodology for mapping forest lands over large geographic areds. The team has presented a repeatable methodology, which is based on regression modeling of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Landsat Thematic...

  18. Large Dam Development: From Trojan Horse to Pandora’s Box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlers, R.; Zwarteveen, M.; Bakker, K.; Flyvbjerg, B.

    This chapter argues that there are important distinctions between large dam development in the twentieth century and the twenty-first century by conceptually framing dams not as mere objects in space but also as agents in dynamic and contested spatial strategies. This is illustrated by two examples:

  19. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for large vestibular schwannomas greater than 3 cm in diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Tu, Hsien-Tang; Chuang, Chun-Yi; Chang, Cheng-Siu; Chou, Hsi-Hsien; Lee, Ming-Tsung; Huang, Chuan-Fu

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an important alternative management option for patients with small- and medium-sized vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Its use in the treatment of large tumors, however, is still being debated. The authors reviewed their recent experience to assess the potential role of SRS in larger-sized VSs. METHODS Between 2000 and 2014, 35 patients with large VSs, defined as having both a single dimension > 3 cm and a volume > 10 cm 3 , underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Nine patients (25.7%) had previously undergone resection. The median total volume covered in this group of patients was 14.8 cm 3 (range 10.3-24.5 cm 3 ). The median tumor margin dose was 11 Gy (range 10-12 Gy). RESULTS The median follow-up duration was 48 months (range 6-156 months). All 35 patients had regular MRI follow-up examinations. Twenty tumors (57.1%) had a volume reduction of greater than 50%, 5 (14.3%) had a volume reduction of 15%-50%, 5 (14.3%) were stable in size (volume change 3 cm and a volume > 10 cm 3 and tolerable mass effect can be managed satisfactorily with GKRS. Tumor volume ≥ 15 cm 3 is a significant factor predicting poor tumor control following GKRS.

  20. [Reflection on developing bio-energy industry of large oil company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiyang; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei; Liu, Shumin; Wang, Hui

    2013-03-01

    China's energy supply becomes more serious nowadays and the development of bio-energy becomes a major trend. Large oil companies have superb technology, rich experience and outstanding talent, as well as better sales channels for energy products, which can make full use of their own advantages to achieve the efficient complementary of exist energy and bio-energy. Therefore, large oil companies have the advantages of developing bio-energy. Bio-energy development in China is in the initial stage. There exist some problems such as available land, raw material supply, conversion technologies and policy guarantee, which restrict bio-energy from industrialized development. According to the above key issues, this article proposes suggestions and methods, such as planting energy plant in the marginal barren land to guarantee the supply of bio-energy raw materials, cultivation of professional personnel, building market for bio-energy counting on large oil companies' rich experience and market resources about oil industry, etc, aimed to speed up the industrialized process of bio-energy development in China.

  1. Establishing the pig as a large animal model for vaccine development against human cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Frøsig, Thomas Mørch; Welner, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has increased overall survival of metastatic cancer patients, and cancer antigens are promising vaccine targets. To fulfill the promise, appropriate tailoring of the vaccine formulations to mount in vivo cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses toward co-delivered cancer antigens is essential...... and the porcine immunome is closer related to the human counterpart, we here introduce pigs as a supplementary large animal model for human cancer vaccine development. IDO and RhoC, both important in human cancer development and progression, were used as vaccine targets and 12 pigs were immunized with overlapping......C-derived peptides across all groups with no adjuvant being superior. These findings support the further use of pigs as a large animal model for vaccine development against human cancer....

  2. Development of the simulation package 'ELSES' for extra-large-scale electronic structure calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, T; Fujiwara, T

    2009-01-01

    An early-stage version of the simulation package 'ELSES' (extra-large-scale electronic structure calculation) is developed for simulating the electronic structure and dynamics of large systems, particularly nanometer-scale and ten-nanometer-scale systems (see www.elses.jp). Input and output files are written in the extensible markup language (XML) style for general users. Related pre-/post-simulation tools are also available. A practical workflow and an example are described. A test calculation for the GaAs bulk system is shown, to demonstrate that the present code can handle systems with more than one atom species. Several future aspects are also discussed.

  3. Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert

    Development of polymers for large scale roll-to-roll processing of polymer solar cells Conjugated polymers potential to both absorb light and transport current as well as the perspective of low cost and large scale production has made these kinds of material attractive in solar cell research....... The research field of polymer solar cells (PSCs) is rapidly progressing along three lines: Improvement of efficiency and stability together with the introduction of large scale production methods. All three lines are explored in this work. The thesis describes low band gap polymers and why these are needed....... Polymer of this type display broader absorption resulting in better overlap with the solar spectrum and potentially higher current density. Synthesis, characterization and device performance of three series of polymers illustrating how the absorption spectrum of polymers can be manipulated synthetically...

  4. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Large Hospitals: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-LH) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-LH is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in large hospitals over levels achieved by following Standard 90.1-2004. The AEDG-LH was created for a 'standard' mid- to large-size hospital, typically at least 100,000 ft2, but the strategies apply to all sizes and classifications of new construction hospital buildings. Its primary focus is new construction, but recommendations may be applicable to facilities undergoing total renovation, and in part to many other hospital renovation, addition, remodeling, and modernization projects (including changes to one or more systems in existing buildings).

  5. Prospectus: towards the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewicki, J C; Chini, G P; Gibson, J F

    2017-03-13

    Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier-Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted.This article is part of the themed issue 'Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Prospectus: towards the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewicki, J. C.; Chini, G. P.; Gibson, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Recent and on-going advances in mathematical methods and analysis techniques, coupled with the experimental and computational capacity to capture detailed flow structure at increasingly large Reynolds numbers, afford an unprecedented opportunity to develop realistic models of high Reynolds number turbulent wall-flow dynamics. A distinctive attribute of this new generation of models is their grounding in the Navier–Stokes equations. By adhering to this challenging constraint, high-fidelity models ultimately can be developed that not only predict flow properties at high Reynolds numbers, but that possess a mathematical structure that faithfully captures the underlying flow physics. These first-principles models are needed, for example, to reliably manipulate flow behaviours at extreme Reynolds numbers. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A provides a selection of contributions from the community of researchers who are working towards the development of such models. Broadly speaking, the research topics represented herein report on dynamical structure, mechanisms and transport; scale interactions and self-similarity; model reductions that restrict nonlinear interactions; and modern asymptotic theories. In this prospectus, the challenges associated with modelling turbulent wall-flows at large Reynolds numbers are briefly outlined, and the connections between the contributing papers are highlighted. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Toward the development of high-fidelity models of wall turbulence at large Reynolds number’. PMID:28167585

  7. Development of corotational formulated FEM for application to 30m class large deployable reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Satoru; Fujiwara, Yuuichi; Tsujihata, Akio

    2010-01-01

    JAXA, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, is now developing a corotational formulated finite element analysis method and its software 'Origami/ETS' for the development of 30m class large deployable reflectors. For the reason that the deployable reflector is composed of beams, cables and mesh, this analysis method is generalized for finite elements with multiple nodes, which are commonly used in linear finite element analyses. The large displacement and rotation are taken into account by the corotational formulation. The tangent stiffness matrix for finite elements with multiple nodes is obtained as follows; the geometric stiffness matrix of two node elements is derived by taking variation of the element's corotational matrix from the virtual work of finite elements with large displacement; similarly the geometric stiffness matrix for three node elements is derived; as the extension of two and three node element theories, the geometric stiffness matrix for multiple node elements is derived; with the geometric stiffness matrix for multiple node elements, the tangent stiffness matrix is obtained. The analysis method is applied for the deployment analysis and static structural analysis of the 30m class large deployable reflector. In the deployment analysis, it is confirmed that this method stably analyzes the deployment motion from the deployment configuration to the stowed configuration of the reflector. In the static analysis, it is confirmed that the mesh structure is analyzed successfully. The 30m class large deployable reflector is now still being developed and is about to undergo several tests with its prototypes. This analysis method will be used in the tests and verifications of the reflector.

  8. Development of 1800 rpm, 43in. blade for large steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Michio; Yamazaki, Yoshiaki; Namura, Kiyoshi; Taki, Takamitsu; Ninomiya, Satoshi.

    1978-01-01

    In the turbines for nuclear power generation, the inlet conditions of steam is low pressure and low temperature as compared with the turbines for thermal power generation, therefore generally the required steam flow rate is much more. It is the main problem to cope with this steam of large flow rate effectively with long final stage blades and to make a turbine compact. This newly developed blade aims at the turbines from 1100 to 1300 MW class for nuclear power generation and those of 1000 MW class for thermal power generation, and it is the first low revolution, long blade in Japan used for large capacity machines of 60 Hz. Hereinafter, the outline of various examinations carried out at the time of the tests on this blade and the features of this blade are described. There is large margin in the exhaust area with this blade, therefore the turbines with large power output and good performance can be produced. The loss of exhaust energy at turbine exit can be reduced, and thermal efficiency can be raised. Large capacity machines from 1100 to 1300 MW class can be manufactured with six-flow exhaust, tandem compound turbines. In order to confirm the reliability, the vibration characteristics of the blade were investigated in the test of this time, and also the overspeed test and endurance test were carried out. (Kako, I.)

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SERVICES IN THE FIELD OF SOCIAL WORK WITH LARGE FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Ібрагім

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of social services in the field of social work with large families is analyzed and their basic functions are defined in the article. The necessity of implementation of the system of guaranteed social and educational support to families depending on the type of large families, which would be provided by governmental and nongovernmental organizations, including public organizations are considered and analyzed. The statistical data on the number and proportion of large families in Ukraine in general and namely in Kharkiv region are provided. The principle of subsidiarity, which is the basis of the full development of the state and is based on the redistribution of responsibility for the formation of family welfare from the state to the family, and receipt of primary social and pedagogical support of public organizations in case you are unable to solve certain problems is disclosed. The article also presents practical experience in providing social and educational support by public organization Association of large families “AMMA”” in Kharkiv.

  10. Assessment of the technology required to develop photovoltaic power system for large scale national energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical assessment of a program to develop photovoltaic power system technology for large-scale national energy applications was made by analyzing and judging the alternative candidate photovoltaic systems and development tasks. A program plan was constructed based on achieving the 10 year objective of a program to establish the practicability of large-scale terrestrial power installations using photovoltaic conversion arrays costing less than $0.50/peak W. Guidelines for the tasks of a 5 year program were derived from a set of 5 year objectives deduced from the 10 year objective. This report indicates the need for an early emphasis on the development of the single-crystal Si photovoltaic system for commercial utilization; a production goal of 5 x 10 to the 8th power peak W/year of $0.50 cells was projected for the year 1985. The developments of other photovoltaic conversion systems were assigned to longer range development roles. The status of the technology developments and the applicability of solar arrays in particular power installations, ranging from houses to central power plants, was scheduled to be verified in a series of demonstration projects. The budget recommended for the first 5 year phase of the program is $268.5M.

  11. Development of large area silicon semiconductor detectors for use in the current mode

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang Xia Opin; Li Zhen Fu; Zhang Guo Guang; Zhang Qi; Zhang Xia; Song Xian Cai; Jia Huan Yi; Lei Jian Hua; Sun Yuan Cheng

    2002-01-01

    Large area silicon semiconductor detectors for use in the current mode, with their dimensions of phi 40, phi 50 and phi 60 mm, their depletion thickness of 200-300 mu m, have been developed. Their performance measurements have been made, which indicate that the developed detectors can satisfactorily meet the needs in expectation. Compared with the detectors commercially available on the market, authors' large PIN detectors can serve both as reliable and efficient high-resolution devices for nuclear counting experiments, as well as monitors of high-intensity radiation fields in the current mode under a bias of 100-1000 V, while the detectors commercially available are only for the counting use

  12. Rules of song development and their use in vocal interactions by birds with large repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Hultsch, Henrike

    2004-06-01

    Songbirds are well known for settling their disputes by vocal signals, and their singing plays a dominant role. Most studies on this issue have concentrated on bird species that develop and use small vocal repertoires. In this article we will go farther and focus on examples of how species with large song repertoires make use of their vocal competence. In particular, we will outline the study of interaction rules which have been elucidated by examining time- and pattern-specific relationships between signals exchanged by territorial neighbors. First we present an inquiry into the rules of song learning and development. In birds with large song repertoires, the ontogeny of such rules proceeds along a number of trajectories which help in understanding the often remarkable accomplishments of adult birds. In both approaches, our model species will be the Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos that has been investigated intensively in the field and in the laboratory.

  13. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Loss of Large Area induced from extreme events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sok Chul; Park, Jong Seuk; Kim, Byung Soon; Jang, Dong Ju; Lee, Seung Woo

    2015-01-01

    USNRC announced several regulatory requirements and guidance documents regarding the event of loss of large area including 10CFR 50.54(hh), Regulatory Guide 1.214 and SRP 19.4. In Korea, consideration of loss of large area has been limitedly taken into account for newly constructing NPPs as voluntary based. In general, it is hardly possible to find available information on methodology and key assumptions for the assessment of LOLA due to 'need to know based approach'. Urgent needs exists for developing country specific regulatory requirements, guidance and evaluation methodology by themselves with the consideration of their own geographical and nuclear safety and security environments. Currently, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) has developed an Extended Damage Mitigation Guideline (EDMG) for APR1400 under contract with foreign consulting company. The submittal guidance NEI 06-12 related to B.5.b Phase 2 and 3 focused on unit-wise mitigation strategy instead of site level mitigation or response strategy. Phase 1 mitigating strategy and guideline for LOLA (Loss of Large Area) provides emphasis on site level arrangement including cooperative networking outside organizations and agile command and control system. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has carried out a pilot in-house research project to develop the methodology and guideline for evaluation of LOLA since 2014. This paper introduces the summary of major results and outcomes of the aforementioned research project. After Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident, the awareness on countering the event of loss of large area induced from extreme man-made hazards or extreme beyond design basis external event. Urgent need exists to develop regulatory guidance for coping with this undesirable situation, which has been out of consideration at existing nuclear safety regulatory framework due to the expectation of rare possibility of occurrence

  14. Rules of song development and their use in vocal interactions by birds with large repertoires

    OpenAIRE

    Geberzahn Nicole; Hultsch Henrike

    2004-01-01

    Songbirds are well known for settling their disputes by vocal signals, and their singing plays a dominant role. Most studies on this issue have concentrated on bird species that develop and use small vocal repertoires. In this article we will go farther and focus on examples of how species with large song repertoires make use of their vocal competence. In particular, we will outline the study of interaction rules which have been elucidated by examining time- and pattern-specific relationships...

  15. Development and application of automatic frequency and power control systems for large power units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.A. Bilenko; A.D. Melamed; E.E. Mikushevich; D.Y. Nikol' skii; R.L. Rogachev; N.A. Romanov [ZAO Interavtomatika (Interautomatika AG), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    We describe the results of work carried out at ZAO Interavtomatika on the development and putting into use of a system for automatically controlling the frequency and power output of large coal-fired power units involving the retrofitting of the turbine's hydraulic automatic control system. Certificates affirming conformity to the Standard of the System Operator Centralized Dispatching Administration (SO-CDA) have been received for eight power units as an outcome of these efforts.

  16. Development of large area resistive electrodes for ATLAS NSW MicroMEGAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ochi, Atsuhiko; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    MicroMegas with resistive anode will be used for the NSW upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The resistive electrode is one of key technology for MPGDs to prevent sparks. Large area resistive electrodes for the MM have been developed using two different technology; screen printing and carbon sputtering. Maximum size of each resistive foil is 45cm x 220cm with printed pattern of 425 micron pitch strips. Those technologies are also suitable to mass production. The prototypes of series production model have been produced successfully. We will report the development and production status and test results of the resistive MicroMegas.

  17. Integration in New Product Development: Case Study in a Large Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jugend

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Proficiency in management activities undertaken in product development processes is regarded as a key competitive advantage for companies, particularly for high-tech industrial firms, which benefit from the important competitiveness factor of launching products with a differentiated technological content. This paper’s objective was to identify, through case study, practices for integration between the roles of R & D with others involved in product development in a large Brazilian company of industrial automation. The results suggest some management practices to improve the integration in new products development, such as the use of employees from marketing with knowledge and experience previously gained from R & D activities and uses the heavyweight product manager to solve synchronization problems between product and technology development.

  18. Limits to the development of feed-forward structures in large recurrent neuronal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kunkel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP has traditionally been of great interest to theoreticians, as it seems to provide an answer to the question of how the brain can develop functional structure in response to repeated stimuli. However, despite this high level of interest, convincing demonstrations of this capacity in large, initially random networks have not been forthcoming. Such demonstrations as there are typically rely on constraining the problem artificially. Techniques include employing additional pruning mechanisms or STDP rules that enhance symmetry breaking, simulating networks with low connectivity that magnify competition between synapses, or combinations of the above. In this paper we first review modeling choices that carry particularly high risks of producing non-generalizable results in the context of STDP in recurrent networks. We then develop a theory for the development of feed-forward structure in random networks and conclude that an unstable fixed point in the dynamics prevents the stable propagation of structure in recurrent networks with weight-dependent STDP. We demonstrate that the key predictions of the theory hold in large-scale simulations. The theory provides insight into the reasons why such development does not take place in unconstrained systems and enables us to identify candidate biologically motivated adaptations to the balanced random network model that might enable it.

  19. Developing eThread Pipeline Using SAGA-Pilot Abstraction for Large-Scale Structural Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjani Ragothaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While most of computational annotation approaches are sequence-based, threading methods are becoming increasingly attractive because of predicted structural information that could uncover the underlying function. However, threading tools are generally compute-intensive and the number of protein sequences from even small genomes such as prokaryotes is large typically containing many thousands, prohibiting their application as a genome-wide structural systems biology tool. To leverage its utility, we have developed a pipeline for eThread—a meta-threading protein structure modeling tool, that can use computational resources efficiently and effectively. We employ a pilot-based approach that supports seamless data and task-level parallelism and manages large variation in workload and computational requirements. Our scalable pipeline is deployed on Amazon EC2 and can efficiently select resources based upon task requirements. We present runtime analysis to characterize computational complexity of eThread and EC2 infrastructure. Based on results, we suggest a pathway to an optimized solution with respect to metrics such as time-to-solution or cost-to-solution. Our eThread pipeline can scale to support a large number of sequences and is expected to be a viable solution for genome-scale structural bioinformatics and structure-based annotation, particularly, amenable for small genomes such as prokaryotes. The developed pipeline is easily extensible to other types of distributed cyberinfrastructure.

  20. Development of large-area high-temperature fixed-point blackbodies for photometry and radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlevnoy, Boris; Grigoryeva, Irina; Anhalt, Klaus; Waehmer, Martin; Ivashin, Evgeniy; Otryaskin, Denis; Solodilov, Maxim; Sapritsky, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Large-area high-temperature fixed-point (HTFP) blackbodies with working temperatures of approximately 2748 K and 3021 K, based on an Re-C eutectic and a WC-C peritectic respectively, have been developed and investigated. The blackbodies have an emissivity of 0.9997, show high-quality phase-transition plateaus and have high repeatability of the melting temperatures, but demonstrate temperature differences (from 0.2 K to 0.6 K) compared with small-cell blackbodies of the same HTFP. We associate these temperature differences with the temperature drop effect, which may differ from cell to cell. The large radiating cavity diameter of 14 mm allows developed HTFP blackbodies to be used for photometric and radiometric applications in irradiance mode with uncertainties as small as 0.12% (k  =  1) in the visible. A photometer and an irradiance-mode filter radiometer (visible range), previously calibrated at VNIIOFI, were used to measure illuminance and irradiance of the HTFP blackbodies equipped with a precise outer aperture. The values measured by the detectors agreed with those based on the blackbody calculation to within 0.2%. The large-area HTFP blackbodies will be used in a joint PTB-VNIIOFI experiment on measuring thermodynamic temperature.

  1. Coexistence and conflict: IWRM and large-scale water infrastructure development in Piura, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Mills-Novoa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emphasis of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM on 'soft' demand-side management, large-scale water infrastructure is increasingly being constructed in basins managed under an IWRM framework. While there has been substantial research on IWRM, few scholars have unpacked how IWRM and large-scale water infrastructure development coexist and conflict. Piura, Peru is an important site for understanding how IWRM and capital-intensive, concrete-heavy water infrastructure development articulate in practice. After 70 years of proposals and planning, the Regional Government of Piura began construction of the mega-irrigation project, Proyecto Especial de Irrigación e Hidroeléctrico del Alto Piura (PEIHAP in 2013. PEIHAP, which will irrigate an additional 19,000 hectares (ha, is being realised in the wake of major reforms in the ChiraPiura River Basin, a pilot basin for the IWRM-inspired 2009 Water Resources Law. We first map the historical trajectory of PEIHAP as it mirrors the shifting political priorities of the Peruvian state. We then draw on interviews with the newly formed River Basin Council, regional government, PEIHAP, and civil society actors to understand why and how these differing water management paradigms coexist. We find that while the 2009 Water Resources Law labels large-scale irrigation infrastructure as an 'exceptional measure', this development continues to eclipse IWRM provisions of the new law. This uneasy coexistence reflects the parallel desires of the state to imbue water policy reform with international credibility via IWRM while also furthering economic development goals via largescale water infrastructure. While the participatory mechanisms and expertise of IWRM-inspired river basin councils have not been brought to bear on the approval and construction of PEIHAP, these institutions will play a crucial role in managing the myriad resource and social conflicts that are likely to result.

  2. A Study on Developing and Refining a Large Citation Service System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Young Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, citation index information is used as an outcome scale of spreading technology and encouraging research. Article citation information is an important factor to determine the authority of the relevant author. Google Scholar uses the article citation information to organize academic article search results with a rank algorithm. For an accurate analysis of such important citation index information, large amounts of bibliographic data are required. Therefore, this study aims to build a fast and efficient system for large amounts of bibliographic data, and to design and develop a system for quickly analyzing cited information for that data. This study also aims to use and analyze citation data to be a basic element for providing various advanced services to the academic article search system.

  3. Large-scale computation in solid state physics - Recent developments and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVreese, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    During the past few years an increasing interest in large-scale computation is developing. Several initiatives were taken to evaluate and exploit the potential of ''supercomputers'' like the CRAY-1 (or XMP) or the CYBER-205. In the U.S.A., there first appeared the Lax report in 1982 and subsequently (1984) the National Science Foundation in the U.S.A. announced a program to promote large-scale computation at the universities. Also, in Europe several CRAY- and CYBER-205 systems have been installed. Although the presently available mainframes are the result of a continuous growth in speed and memory, they might have induced a discontinuous transition in the evolution of the scientific method; between theory and experiment a third methodology, ''computational science'', has become or is becoming operational

  4. Recent developments in large-scale ozone generation with dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose L.

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale ozone generation for industrial applications has been entirely based on the creation of microplasmas or microdischarges created using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors. Although versions of DBD generated ozone have been in continuous use for over a hundred years especially in water treatment, recent changes in environmental awareness and sustainability have lead to a surge of ozone generating facilities throughout the world. As a result of this enhanced global usage of this environmental cleaning application various new discoveries have emerged in the science and technology of ozone generation. This presentation will describe some of the most recent breakthrough developments in large-scale ozone generation while further addressing some of the current scientific and engineering challenges of this technology.

  5. Development of a large scale Chimera grid system for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Daniel G.; Stanley, Scott A.; Martin, Fred W., Jr.; Gomez, Ray J.; Le Beau, Gerald J.; Buning, Pieter G.; Chan, William M.; Chiu, Ing-Tsau; Wulf, Armin; Akdag, Vedat

    1993-01-01

    The application of CFD techniques to large problems has dictated the need for large team efforts. This paper offers an opportunity to examine the motivations, goals, needs, problems, as well as the methods, tools, and constraints that defined NASA's development of a 111 grid/16 million point grid system model for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle. The Chimera approach used for domain decomposition encouraged separation of the complex geometry into several major components each of which was modeled by an autonomous team. ICEM-CFD, a CAD based grid generation package, simplified the geometry and grid topology definition by provoding mature CAD tools and patch independent meshing. The resulting grid system has, on average, a four inch resolution along the surface.

  6. Development of Large-Format Lithium-Ion Cells with Silicon Anode and Low Flammable Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Hernandez-Lugo, D. M.; Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Miller, T. B.; Lvovich, V. F.; Lytle, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing safe, high energy and high capacity lithium-ion cell designs and batteries for future missions under NASAs Advanced Space Power System (ASPS) project. Advanced cell components, such as high specific capacity silicon anodes and low-flammable electrolytes have been developed for improving the cell specific energy and enhancing safety. To advance the technology readiness level, we have developed large-format flight-type hermetically sealed battery cells by incorporating high capacity silicon anodes, commercially available lithium nickel, cobalt, aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes, and low-flammable electrolytes. In this report, we will present the performance results of these various battery cells. In addition, we will also discuss the post-test cell analysis results as well.

  7. Development of a large aperture Nb3Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, Paolo; Bartlett, Scott E.; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Daniel R.; Gourlay, Steven A.; Hannaford, Charles R.; Hafalia, AurelioR.; Lietzke, Alan F.; Mattafirri, Sara; McInturff, Alfred D.; Nyman, Mark; Sabbi, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP), a collaboration between BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC, has among its major objectives the development of advanced magnet technology for an LHC luminosity upgrade. The LBNL Superconducting Magnet Group supports this program with a broad effort involving design studies, Nb 3 Sn conductor development, mechanical models, and basic prototypes. This paper describes the development of a large aperture Nb 3 Sn racetrack quadrupole magnet using four racetrack coils from the LBNL Subscale Magnet (SM) Program. The magnet provides a gradient of 95 T/m in a 110 mm bore, with a peak field in the conductor of 11.2 T. The coils are prestressed by a mechanical structure based on a pre-tensioned aluminum shell, and axially supported with aluminum rods. The mechanical behavior has been monitored with strain gauges and the magnetic field has been measured. Results of the test are reported and analyzed

  8. Development of large engineered cartilage constructs from a small population of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Jillian M; Kunz, Manuela; Tse, Man Yat; Winterborn, Andrew; Bardana, Davide D; Pang, Stephen C; Waldman, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Confronted with articular cartilage's limited capacity for self-repair, joint resurfacing techniques offer an attractive treatment for damaged or diseased tissue. Although tissue engineered cartilage constructs can be created, a substantial number of cells are required to generate sufficient quantities of tissue for the repair of large defects. As routine cell expansion methods tend to elicit negative effects on chondrocyte function, we have developed an approach to generate phenotypically stable, large-sized engineered constructs (≥3 cm(2) ) directly from a small amount of donor tissue or cells (as little as 20,000 cells to generate a 3 cm(2) tissue construct). Using rabbit donor tissue, the bioreactor-cultivated constructs were hyaline-like in appearance and possessed a biochemical composition similar to native articular cartilage. Longer bioreactor cultivation times resulted in increased matrix deposition and improved mechanical properties determined over a 4 week period. Additionally, as the anatomy of the joint will need to be taken in account to effectively resurface large affected areas, we have also explored the possibility of generating constructs matched to the shape and surface geometry of a defect site through the use of rapid-prototyped defect tissue culture molds. Similar hyaline-like tissue constructs were developed that also possessed a high degree of shape correlation to the original defect mold. Future studies will be aimed at determining the effectiveness of this approach to the repair of cartilage defects in an animal model and the creation of large-sized osteochondral constructs. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  9. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations: 1. Case study development and ensemble large-scale forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Toto, Tami; Endo, Satoshi; Lin, Wuyin; Wang, Jian; Feng, Sha; Zhang, Yunyan; Turner, David D.; Liu, Yangang; Li, Zhijin; Xie, Shaocheng; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Zhang, Minghua; Khairoutdinov, Marat

    2015-06-01

    Observation-based modeling case studies of continental boundary layer clouds have been developed to study cloudy boundary layers, aerosol influences upon them, and their representation in cloud- and global-scale models. Three 60 h case study periods span the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary layer cloud systems, representing mixed and transitional states rather than idealized or canonical cases. Based on in situ measurements from the Routine AAF (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility) CLOWD (Clouds with Low Optical Water Depth) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign and remote sensing observations, the cases are designed with a modular configuration to simplify use in large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. Aircraft measurements of aerosol number size distribution are fit to lognormal functions for concise representation in models. Values of the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, κ, are derived from observations to be 0.10, which are lower than the 0.3 typical over continents and suggestive of a large aerosol organic fraction. Ensemble large-scale forcing data sets are derived from the ARM variational analysis, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and a multiscale data assimilation system. The forcings are assessed through comparison of measured bulk atmospheric and cloud properties to those computed in "trial" large-eddy simulations, where more efficient run times are enabled through modest reductions in grid resolution and domain size compared to the full-sized LES grid. Simulations capture many of the general features observed, but the state-of-the-art forcings were limited at representing details of cloud onset, and tight gradients and high-resolution transients of importance. Methods for improving the initial conditions and forcings are discussed. The cases developed are available to the general modeling community for studying continental boundary clouds.

  10. RACORO Continental Boundary Layer Cloud Investigations: 1. Case Study Development and Ensemble Large-Scale Forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Fridlind, Ann M.; Toto, Tami; Endo, Satoshi; Lin, Wuyin; Wang, Jian; Feng, Sha; Zhang, Yunyan; Turner, David D.; Liu, Yangang; hide

    2015-01-01

    Observation-based modeling case studies of continental boundary layer clouds have been developed to study cloudy boundary layers, aerosol influences upon them, and their representation in cloud- and global-scale models. Three 60 h case study periods span the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary layer cloud systems, representing mixed and transitional states rather than idealized or canonical cases. Based on in situ measurements from the Routine AAF (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility) CLOWD (Clouds with Low Optical Water Depth) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign and remote sensing observations, the cases are designed with a modular configuration to simplify use in large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. Aircraft measurements of aerosol number size distribution are fit to lognormal functions for concise representation in models. Values of the aerosol hygroscopicity parameter, kappa, are derived from observations to be approximately 0.10, which are lower than the 0.3 typical over continents and suggestive of a large aerosol organic fraction. Ensemble large-scale forcing data sets are derived from the ARM variational analysis, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and a multiscale data assimilation system. The forcings are assessed through comparison of measured bulk atmospheric and cloud properties to those computed in "trial" large-eddy simulations, where more efficient run times are enabled through modest reductions in grid resolution and domain size compared to the full-sized LES grid. Simulations capture many of the general features observed, but the state-of-the-art forcings were limited at representing details of cloud onset, and tight gradients and high-resolution transients of importance. Methods for improving the initial conditions and forcings are discussed. The cases developed are available to the general modeling community for studying continental boundary

  11. Development of a transverse mixing model for large scale impulsion phenomenon in tight lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaojing; Ren, Shuo; Cheng, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiment data of Krauss is used to validate the feasibility of CFD simulation method. • CFD simulation is performed to simulate the large scale impulsion phenomenon for tight-lattice bundle. • A mixing model to simulate the large scale impulsion phenomenon is proposed based on CFD result fitting. • The new developed mixing model has been added in the subchannel code. - Abstract: Tight-lattice is widely adopted in the innovative reactor fuel bundles design since it can increase the conversion ratio and improve the heat transfer between fuel bundles and coolant. It has been noticed that a large scale impulsion of cross-velocity exists in the gap region, which plays an important role on the transverse mixing flow and heat transfer. Although many experiments and numerical simulation have been carried out to study the impulsion of velocity, a model to describe the wave length, amplitude and frequency of mixing coefficient is still missing. This research work takes advantage of the CFD method to simulate the experiment of Krauss and to compare experiment data and simulation result in order to demonstrate the feasibility of simulation method and turbulence model. Then, based on this verified method and model, several simulations are performed with different Reynolds number and different Pitch-to-Diameter ratio. By fitting the CFD results achieved, a mixing model to simulate the large scale impulsion phenomenon is proposed and adopted in the current subchannel code. The new mixing model is applied to some fuel assembly analysis by subchannel calculation, it can be noticed that the new developed mixing model can reduce the hot channel factor and contribute to a uniform distribution of outlet temperature.

  12. Development of digital gamma-activation autoradiography for analysis of samples of large area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolotov, V.P.; Grozdov, D.S.; Dogadkin, N.N.; Korobkov, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-activation autoradiography is a prospective method for screening detection of inclusions of precious metals in geochemical samples. Its characteristics allow analysis of thin sections of large size (tens of cm2), that favourably distinguishes it among the other methods for local analysis. At the same time, the activating field of the accelerator bremsstrahlung, displays a sharp intensity decrease relative to the distance along the axis. A method for activation dose ''equalization'' during irradiation of the large size thin sections has been developed. The method is based on the usage of a hardware-software system. This includes a device for moving the sample during the irradiation, a program for computer modelling of the acquired activating dose for the chosen kinematics of the sample movement and a program for pixel-by pixel correction of the autoradiographic images. For detection of inclusions of precious metals, a method for analysis of the acquired dose dynamics during sample decay has been developed. The method is based on the software processing pixel by pixel a time-series of coaxial autoradiographic images and generation of the secondary meta-images allowing interpretation regarding the presence of interesting inclusions based on half-lives. The method is tested for analysis of copper-nickel polymetallic ores. The developed solutions considerably expand the possible applications of digital gamma-activation autoradiography. (orig.)

  13. Development of digital gamma-activation autoradiography for analysis of samples of large area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotov, V.P.; Grozdov, D.S.; Dogadkin, N.N.; Korobkov, V.I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    Gamma-activation autoradiography is a prospective method for screening detection of inclusions of precious metals in geochemical samples. Its characteristics allow analysis of thin sections of large size (tens of cm2), that favourably distinguishes it among the other methods for local analysis. At the same time, the activating field of the accelerator bremsstrahlung, displays a sharp intensity decrease relative to the distance along the axis. A method for activation dose ''equalization'' during irradiation of the large size thin sections has been developed. The method is based on the usage of a hardware-software system. This includes a device for moving the sample during the irradiation, a program for computer modelling of the acquired activating dose for the chosen kinematics of the sample movement and a program for pixel-by pixel correction of the autoradiographic images. For detection of inclusions of precious metals, a method for analysis of the acquired dose dynamics during sample decay has been developed. The method is based on the software processing pixel by pixel a time-series of coaxial autoradiographic images and generation of the secondary meta-images allowing interpretation regarding the presence of interesting inclusions based on half-lives. The method is tested for analysis of copper-nickel polymetallic ores. The developed solutions considerably expand the possible applications of digital gamma-activation autoradiography. (orig.)

  14. Status of the technology development of large scale HTS generators for wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T. D.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. J.; Boo, C. J.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Large wind turbine generators with high temperature superconductors (HTS) are in incessant development because of their advantages such as weight and volume reduction and the increased efficiency compared with conventional technologies. In addition, nowadays the wind turbine market is growing in a function of time, increasing the capacity and energy production of the wind farms installed and increasing the electrical power for the electrical generators installed. As a consequence, it is raising the wind power energy contribution for the global electricity demand. In this study, a forecast of wind energy development will be firstly emphasized, then it continue presenting a recent status of the technology development of large scale HTSG for wind power followed by an explanation of HTS wire trend, cryogenics cooling systems concept, HTS magnets field coil stability and other technological parts for optimization of HTS generator design-operating temperature, design topology, field coil shape and level cost of energy, as well. Finally, the most relevant projects and designs of HTS generators specifically for offshore wind power systems are also mentioned in this study.

  15. Status of the technology development of large scale HTS generators for wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T. D.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. J.; Boo, C. J.; Kim, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Large wind turbine generators with high temperature superconductors (HTS) are in incessant development because of their advantages such as weight and volume reduction and the increased efficiency compared with conventional technologies. In addition, nowadays the wind turbine market is growing in a function of time, increasing the capacity and energy production of the wind farms installed and increasing the electrical power for the electrical generators installed. As a consequence, it is raising the wind power energy contribution for the global electricity demand. In this study, a forecast of wind energy development will be firstly emphasized, then it continue presenting a recent status of the technology development of large scale HTSG for wind power followed by an explanation of HTS wire trend, cryogenics cooling systems concept, HTS magnets field coil stability and other technological parts for optimization of HTS generator design-operating temperature, design topology, field coil shape and level cost of energy, as well. Finally, the most relevant projects and designs of HTS generators specifically for offshore wind power systems are also mentioned in this study

  16. HSTDEK: Developing a methodology for construction of large-scale, multi-use knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael S.

    1987-01-01

    The primary research objectives of the Hubble Space Telescope Design/Engineering Knowledgebase (HSTDEK) are to develop a methodology for constructing and maintaining large scale knowledge bases which can be used to support multiple applications. To insure the validity of its results, this research is being persued in the context of a real world system, the Hubble Space Telescope. The HSTDEK objectives are described in detail. The history and motivation of the project are briefly described. The technical challenges faced by the project are outlined.

  17. Thermomechanical theory of materials undergoing large elastic and viscoplastic deformation (AWBA development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.E.; Newman, J.B.

    1980-11-01

    A thermomechanical theory of large deformation elastic-inelastic material behavior is developed which is based on a multiplicative decomposition of the strain. Very general assumptions are made for the elastic and inelastic constitutive relations and effects such as thermally-activated creep, fast-neutron-flux-induced creep and growth, annealing, and strain recovery are compatible with the theory. Reduced forms of the constitutive equations are derived by use of the second law of thermodynamics in the form of the Clausius-Duhem inequality. Observer invariant equations are derived by use of an invariance principle which is a generalization of the principle of material frame indifference

  18. Development of a large-scale general purpose two-phase flow analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaka, Haruo; Shimizu, Sensuke

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose three-dimensional two-phase flow analysis code has been developed for solving large-scale problems in industrial fields. The code uses a two-fluid model to describe the conservation equations for two-phase flow in order to be applicable to various phenomena. Complicated geometrical conditions are modeled by FAVOR method in structured grid systems, and the discretization equations are solved by a modified SIMPLEST scheme. To reduce computing time a matrix solver for the pressure correction equation is parallelized with OpenMP. Results of numerical examples show that the accurate solutions can be obtained efficiently and stably. (author)

  19. Development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romashko, N.I.; Moshnin, E.N.; Timokhin, V.S.; Bryukhanov, Yu.V.; Lebedev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP high-pressure pipelines are presented. The main experimental data characterizing technological possibilities of the process are given. The technological process and design of the stamp assure production of laterals from ovalized bars per one heating of the bar and per one running of the press cronnhead. Introduction of new technology decreased labour input of lateral production, reliability and serviceability of pipelines increased in this case. Introduction of this technology gives a considerable benefit

  20. Research and development of safeguards measures for the large scale reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Sato, Yuji; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Shoichiro; Kobayashi, Isao; Uchikoshi, Seiji; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro; Nidaira, Kazuo [Nuclear Material Control Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    The Government of Japan agreed on the safeguards concepts of commercial size reprocessing plant under the bilateral agreement for cooperation between the Japan and the United States. In addition, the LASCAR, that is the forum of large scale reprocessing plant safeguards, could obtain the fruitful results in the spring of 1992. The research and development of safeguards measures for the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant should be progressed with every regard to the concepts described in both documents. Basically, the material accountancy and monitoring system should be established, based on the NRTA and other measures in order to obtain the timeliness goal for plutonium, and the un-attended mode inspection approach based on the integrated containment/surveillance system coupled with radiation monitoring in order to reduce the inspection efforts. NMCC has been studying on the following measures for a large scale reprocessing plant safeguards (1) A radiation gate monitor and integrated surveillance system (2) A near real time Shipper and Receiver Difference monitoring (3) A near real time material accountancy system operated for the bulk handling area (4) A volume measurement technique in a large scale input accountancy vessel (5) An in-process inventory estimation technique applied to the process equipment such as the pulse column and evaporator (6) Solution transfer monitoring approach applied to buffer tanks in the chemical process (7) A timely analysis technique such as a hybrid K edge densitometer operated in the on-site laboratory (J.P.N.).

  1. Developments and validation of large eddy simulation of turbulent flows in an industrial code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, C.

    2000-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulation, where large scales of the flow are resolved and sub-grid scales are modelled, is well adapted to the study of turbulent flow, in which geometry and/or heat transfer effects lead to unsteady phenomena. To obtain an improved numerical tool, simulations of elementary test cases, Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence and Turbulent Plane Channel, were clone on both structured and unstructured grids, before moving to more complex geometries. This allowed the influence of the different physical and numerical parameters to be studied separately. On structured grids, the different properties of the numerical methods corresponding to our problem were identified, a new sub-grid model was elaborated and several laws of the wall tested: for this discretization, our numerical tool is yet validated. On unstructured grids, the construction of numerical methods with the same properties as on the structured grids is harder, especially for the convection scheme: several numerical schemes were tested, and sub-grid models and laws of the wall were adapted to unstructured grids. Simulations of the same elementary tests were clone: the results are relatively satisfactorily, even if they are not so good as the one obtained in structured grids, most probably because the numerical methods chosen cannot perfectly isolate the effects between the convection scheme, physical modelling and the mesh chosen. This work is the first stage towards the development of a practical Large Eddy Simulation tool for unstructured grid. (author) [fr

  2. Development of the Fragment Molecular Orbital Method for Calculating Nonlocal Excitations in Large Molecular Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takatoshi; Mochizuki, Yuji

    2018-04-19

    We developed the fragment-based method for calculating nonlocal excitations in large molecular systems. This method is based on the multilayer fragment molecular orbital method and the configuration interaction single (CIS) wave function using localized molecular orbitals. The excited-state wave function for the whole system is described as a superposition of configuration state functions (CSFs) for intrafragment excitations and for interfragment charge-transfer excitations. The formulation and calculations of singlet excited-state Hamiltonian matrix elements in the fragment CSFs are presented in detail. The efficient approximation schemes for calculating the matrix elements are also presented. The computational efficiency and the accuracy were evaluated using the molecular dimers and molecular aggregates. We confirmed that absolute errors of 50 meV (relative to the conventional calculations) are achievable for the molecular systems in their equilibrium geometries. The perturbative electron correlation correction to the CIS excitation energies is also demonstrated. The present theory can compute a large number of excited states in large molecular systems; in addition, it allows for the systematic derivation of a model exciton Hamiltonian. These features are useful for studying excited-state dynamics in condensed molecular systems based on the ab initio electronic structure theory.

  3. Development of estrogen receptor beta binding prediction model using large sets of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Selvaraj, Chandrabose; Gong, Ping; Zhang, Chaoyang; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2017-11-03

    We developed an ER β binding prediction model to facilitate identification of chemicals specifically bind ER β or ER α together with our previously developed ER α binding model. Decision Forest was used to train ER β binding prediction model based on a large set of compounds obtained from EADB. Model performance was estimated through 1000 iterations of 5-fold cross validations. Prediction confidence was analyzed using predictions from the cross validations. Informative chemical features for ER β binding were identified through analysis of the frequency data of chemical descriptors used in the models in the 5-fold cross validations. 1000 permutations were conducted to assess the chance correlation. The average accuracy of 5-fold cross validations was 93.14% with a standard deviation of 0.64%. Prediction confidence analysis indicated that the higher the prediction confidence the more accurate the predictions. Permutation testing results revealed that the prediction model is unlikely generated by chance. Eighteen informative descriptors were identified to be important to ER β binding prediction. Application of the prediction model to the data from ToxCast project yielded very high sensitivity of 90-92%. Our results demonstrated ER β binding of chemicals could be accurately predicted using the developed model. Coupling with our previously developed ER α prediction model, this model could be expected to facilitate drug development through identification of chemicals that specifically bind ER β or ER α .

  4. Model development to acceptability-assessment of large scale power plants for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    An approach to specific assessment of large power plants is presented. This approach is intended to provide the decision which kind of nuclear, fossil and renewable installation operation minimizes unacceptable consequences for the environment, economy, and society. The tool ACCEPPT, which is currently under development for this purpose, allows a comprehensible and quantitative assessment of the reasonableness of unintended side-effects of different power plant types. The flexible design of the tool elements frame conditions and system technology supports a dynamic acceptability assessment under consideration of the particular context and plant configuration. Thus, current conditions can be used for evaluation as well as development scenarios. Finally the comprehensible acceptability results are intended to contribute overcoming of acceptance problems in the society. (orig.)

  5. Development of a Sealing-Bolt for the safeguarding of large containers such as multielement bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agraives, B.C.; Toornvliet

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary study on the development of a ''Sealing-Bolt'' is currently being carried out at JRC-Ispra. It is required for the safeguarding of large containers. A ''Sealing-Bolt'' would replace one - or more - of the conventional bolts, normally used for tightening a container's cover. It could not be removed - or unscrewed - without the knowledge of Inspectors. Thus, it has to meet the requirements of an Underwater Verifiable Seal and of a Threaded Stud-Bolt. It is proposed to derive the sealing feature from the VAK III seal, a LWR Fuel Assembly Ultrasonic Seal which has been developed by JRC-Ispra and is field tested at the Kahl Reactor Facility (FRG) since October 1983, while under evaluation for use by IAEA. The mechanical part asks for a specific study of a reliable system able to evidence that the bolt has been unscrewed during an opening of the lid

  6. Developing a NASA strategy for the verification of large space telescope observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooke, Julie A.; Gunderson, Johanna A.; Hagopian, John G.; Levine, Marie

    2006-06-01

    In July 2005, the Office of Program Analysis and Evaluation (PA&E) at NASA Headquarters was directed to develop a strategy for verification of the performance of large space telescope observatories, which occurs predominantly in a thermal vacuum test facility. A mission model of the expected astronomical observatory missions over the next 20 years was identified along with performance, facility and resource requirements. Ground testing versus alternatives was analyzed to determine the pros, cons and break points in the verification process. Existing facilities and their capabilities were examined across NASA, industry and other government agencies as well as the future demand for these facilities across NASA's Mission Directorates. Options were developed to meet the full suite of mission verification requirements, and performance, cost, risk and other analyses were performed. Findings and recommendations from the study were presented to the NASA Administrator and the NASA Strategic Management Council (SMC) in February 2006. This paper details the analysis, results, and findings from this study.

  7. Should we build more large dams? The actual costs of hydropower megaproject development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Budzier, Alexander; Lunn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A brisk building boom of hydropower mega-dams is underway from China to Brazil. Whether benefits of new dams will outweigh costs remains unresolved despite contentious debates. We investigate this question with the “outside view” or “reference class forecasting” based on literature on decision-making under uncertainty in psychology. We find overwhelming evidence that budgets are systematically biased below actual costs of large hydropower dams—excluding inflation, substantial debt servicing, environmental, and social costs. Using the largest and most reliable reference data of its kind and multilevel statistical techniques applied to large dams for the first time, we were successful in fitting parsimonious models to predict cost and schedule overruns. The outside view suggests that in most countries large hydropower dams will be too costly in absolute terms and take too long to build to deliver a positive risk-adjusted return unless suitable risk management measures outlined in this paper can be affordably provided. Policymakers, particularly in developing countries, are advised to prefer agile energy alternatives that can be built over shorter time horizons to energy megaprojects. - Highlights: • We investigate ex post outcomes of schedule and cost estimates of hydropower dams. • We use the “outside view” based on Kahneman and Tversky's research in psychology. • Estimates are systematically and severely biased below actual values. • Projects that take longer have greater cost overruns; bigger projects take longer. • Uplift required to de-bias systematic cost underestimation for large dams is +99%

  8. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LARGE SIZE NON-TRACKING SOLAR COOKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. NAHAR

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A large size novel non-tracking solar cooker has been designed, developed and tested. The cooker has been designed in such a way that the width to length ratio for reflector and glass window is about 4 so that maximum radiation falls on the glass window. This has helped in eliminating azimuthal tracking that is required in simple hot box solar cooker towards the Sun every hour because the width to length ratio of reflector is 1. It has been found that stagnation temperatures were 118.5oC and 108oC in large size non-tracking solar cooker and hot box solar cooker respectively. It takes about 2 h for soft food and 3 h for hard food. The cooker is capable of cooking 4.0 kg of food at a time. The efficiency of the large size non-tracking solar cooker has been found to be 27.5%. The cooker saves 5175 MJ of energy per year. The cost of the cooker is Rs. 10000.00 (1.0 US$ = Rs. 50.50. The payback period has been calculated by considering 10% annual interest, 5% maintenance cost and 5% inflation in fuel prices and maintenance cost. The payback period is least, i.e. 1.58 yr., with respect to electricity and maximum, i.e. 4.89 yr., with respect to kerosene. The payback periods are in increasing order with respect to fuel: electricity, coal, firewood, liquid petroleum gas, and kerosene. The shorter payback periods suggests that the use of large size non-tracking solar cooker is economical.

  9. Development of a detachable high speed miniature scanning probe microscope for large area substrates inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghian, Hamed, E-mail: hamed.sadeghianmarnani@tno.nl, E-mail: h.sadeghianmarnani@tudelft.nl [Department of Optomechatronics, Netherlands Organization for Scientific Applied Research, TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands); Department of Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Herfst, Rodolf; Winters, Jasper; Crowcombe, Will; Kramer, Geerten; Dool, Teun van den; Es, Maarten H. van [Department of Optomechatronics, Netherlands Organization for Scientific Applied Research, TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    We have developed a high speed, miniature scanning probe microscope (MSPM) integrated with a Positioning Unit (PU) for accurately positioning the MSPM on a large substrate. This combination enables simultaneous, parallel operation of many units on a large sample for high throughput measurements. The size of the MSPM is 19 × 45 × 70 mm{sup 3}. It contains a one-dimensional flexure stage with counter-balanced actuation for vertical scanning with a bandwidth of 50 kHz and a z-travel range of more than 2 μm. This stage is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the MSPM by suspending it on specific dynamically determined points. The motion of the probe, which is mounted on top of the flexure stage is measured by a very compact optical beam deflection (OBD). Thermal noise spectrum measurements of short cantilevers show a bandwidth of 2 MHz and a noise of less than 15 fm/Hz{sup 1/2}. A fast approach and engagement of the probe to the substrate surface have been achieved by integrating a small stepper actuator and direct monitoring of the cantilever response to the approaching surface. The PU has the same width as the MSPM, 45 mm and can position the MSPM to a pre-chosen position within an area of 275×30 mm{sup 2} to within 100 nm accuracy within a few seconds. During scanning, the MSPM is detached from the PU which is essential to eliminate mechanical vibration and drift from the relatively low-resonance frequency and low-stiffness structure of the PU. Although the specific implementation of the MSPM we describe here has been developed as an atomic force microscope, the general architecture is applicable to any form of SPM. This high speed MSPM is now being used in a parallel SPM architecture for inspection and metrology of large samples such as semiconductor wafers and masks.

  10. The Large UV/Optical/Infrared Surveyor (LUVOIR): Decadal Mission concept technology development overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.

    2017-09-01

    The Large Ultraviolet / Optical / Infrared (LUVOIR) Surveyor is one of four large mission concept studies being developed by NASA for consideration in the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. LUVOIR will support a broad range of science objectives, including the direct imaging and spectral characterization of habitable exoplanets around sun-like stars, the study of galaxy formation and evolution, the epoch of reionization, star and planet formation, and the remote sensing of Solar System bodies. The LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) has tasked a Technology Working Group (TWG), with more than 60 members from NASA centers, academia, industry, and international partners, with identifying technologies that enable or enhance the LUVOIR science mission. The TWG has identified such technologies in the areas of Coronagraphy, Ultra-Stable Opto-mechanical Systems, Detectors, Coatings, Starshades, and Instrument Components, and has completed a detailed assessment of the state-of-the-art. We present here a summary of this technology assessment effort, as well as the current progress in defining a technology development plan to mature these technologies to the required technology readiness level (TRL).

  11. Economic and agricultural transformation through large-scale farming : impacts of large-scale farming on local economic development, household food security and the environment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined impacts of large-scale farming in Ethiopia on local economic development, household food security, incomes, employment, and the environment. The study adopted a mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative data were generated from secondary and primary

  12. Large-Scale Urban Decontamination; Developments, Historical Examples and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer

    2007-02-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actual events have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the real potential for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or “dirty bomb”) residues. In response the U. S. Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD contamination and novel decontamination methodologies. Interest in chemical and biological (CB) cleanup has also peaked with the threat of terrorist action like the anthrax attack at the Hart Senate Office Building and with catastrophic natural events such as Hurricane Katrina. The efficiency of cleanup response will be improved with these new developments and a better understanding of the “old reliable” methodologies. Perhaps the most interesting area of investigation for large area decontamination is that of the RDD. While primarily an economic and psychological weapon, the need to cleanup and return valuable or culturally significant resources to the public is nonetheless valid. Several private companies, universities and National Laboratories are currently developing novel RDD cleanup technologies. Because of its longstanding association with radioactive facilities, the U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories are at the forefront in developing and testing new RDD decontamination methods. However, such cleanup technologies are likely to be fairly task specific; while many different contamination mechanisms, substrate and environmental conditions will make actual application more complicated. Some major efforts have also been made to model potential contamination, to evaluate both old and new decontamination techniques and to assess their readiness for use. Non-radioactive, CB threats each have unique decontamination challenges and recent events have provided some examples. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as lead agency for these emergency

  13. Valuing trade-offs of river ecosystem services in large hydropower development in Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B.; Xu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower development can be considered as a kind of trade-offs of ecosystem services generated by human activity for their economic and energy demand, because it can increase some river ecosystem services but decrease others. In this context, an ecosystem service trade-off framework in hydropower development was proposed in this paper. It aims to identify the ecological cost of river ecosystem and serve for the ecological compensation during hydropower development, for the hydropower services cannot completely replace the regulating services of river ecosystem. The valuing trade-offs framework was integrated by the influenced ecosystem services identification and ecosystem services valuation, through ecological monitoring and ecological economic methods, respectively. With a case study of Pondo hydropower project in Tibet, China, the valuing trade-offs of river ecosystem services in large hydropower development was illustrated. The typical ecological factors including water, sediment and soil were analyzed in this study to identify the altered river ecosystem services by Pondo hydropower project. Through the field monitoring and valuation, the results showed that the Lhasa River ecosystem services value could be changed annually by Pondo hydropower project with the increment of 5.7E+8CNY, and decrement of 5.1E+7CNY. The ecological compensation for river ecosystem should be focus on water and soil conservation, reservoir dredging and tributaries habitat protection.

  14. Developing a GIS to facilitate data analysis for environmental restoration of a large waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzemos, S.; Evans, B.J.; White, M.E.

    1991-05-01

    The Hanford Site area located southeastern Washington State and is a US Department of Energy Superfund cleanup site. The site contains a complex mixture of chemical and radioactive pollutants, which makes environmental monitoring, analysis, and restoration a complicated task. The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) has been developed to manage the data generated from the characterization and environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) component of HEIS, known as HEISGIS, is being developed to help scientists spatially analyze the environmental data stored in the HEIS database and provide an integrated system for environmental restoration. HEISGIS is in its second stage of development. The first stage produced a working prototype. The second stage focuses on improvements in data accuracy, data standardization, analytical modeling capabilities, interfaces between the various software packages, and the graphical user interface. This paper describes the development of the HEISGIS and summarizes the considerations and difficulties encountered in the integration of the GIS with a large relational database. 1 ref., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Optimization of a large integrated area development of gas fields offshore Sarawak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inyang, S.E.; Tak, A.N.H.; Costello, G.

    1995-01-01

    Optimizations of field development plans are routine in the industry. The size, schedule and nature of the upstream gas supply project to the second Malaysia LNG (MLNG Dua) plant in Bintulu, Sarawak made the need for extensive optimizations critical to realizing a robust and cost effective development scheme, and makes the work of more general interest. The project comprises the upstream development of 11 offshore fields for gas supply to MLNG Dua plant at an initial plateau production of 7.8 million tons per year of LNG. The gas fields span a large geographical area in medium water depths (up to 440 ft), and contain gas reserves of a distinctly variable gas quality. This paper describes the project optimization efforts aimed to ensure an upstream gas supply system effectiveness of over 99% throughout the project life while maintaining high safety and environmental standards and also achieving an economic development in an era of low hydrocarbon prices. Fifty percent of the first of the three phases of this gas supply project has already been completed and the first gas from these fields is scheduled to be available by the end of 1995

  16. Development of Large Sample Neutron Activation Technique for New Applications in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoharojanaphand, S.; Tippayakul, C.; Wonglee, S.; Channuie, J.

    2018-01-01

    The development of the Large Sample Neutron Activation Analysis (LSNAA) in Thailand is presented in this paper. The technique had been firstly developed with rice sample as the test subject. The Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) was used as the neutron source. The first step was to select and characterize an appropriate irradiation facility for the research. An out-core irradiation facility (A4 position) was first attempted. The results performed with the A4 facility were then used as guides for the subsequent experiments with the thermal column facility. The characterization of the thermal column was performed with Cu-wire to determine spatial distribution without and with rice sample. The flux depression without rice sample was observed to be less than 30% while the flux depression with rice sample increased to within 60%. The flux monitors internal to the rice sample were used to determine average flux over the rice sample. The gamma selfshielding effect during gamma measurement was corrected using the Monte Carlo simulation. The ratio between the efficiencies of the volume source and the point source for each energy point was calculated by the MCNPX code. The research team adopted the k0-NAA methodology to calculate the element concentration in the research. The k0-NAA program which developed by IAEA was set up to simulate the conditions of the irradiation and measurement facilities used in this research. The element concentrations in the bulk rice sample were then calculated taking into account the flux depression and gamma efficiency corrections. At the moment, the results still show large discrepancies with the reference values. However, more research on the validation will be performed to identify sources of errors. Moreover, this LS-NAA technique was introduced for the activation analysis of the IAEA archaeological mock-up. The results are provided in this report. (author)

  17. Early development of Ensatina eschscholtzii: an amphibian with a large, yolky egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collazo Andres

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative analyses between amphibians, concentrating on the cellular mechanisms of morphogenesis, reveal a large variability in the early developmental processes that were thought to be conserved during evolution. Increased egg size is one factor that could have a strong effect on early developmental processes such as cleavage pattern and gastrulation. Salamanders of the family Plethodontidae are particularly appropriate for such comparative studies because the species have eggs of varying size, including very large yolky eggs. Results In this paper, we describe for the first time the early development (from fertilization through neurulation of the plethodontid salamander Ensatina eschscholtzii. This species has one of the largest eggs known for an amphibian, with a mean ± SD diameter of 6 ± 0.43 mm (range 5.3-6.9; n = 17 eggs. Cleavage is meroblastic until approximately the 16-cell stage (fourth or fifth cleavage. At the beginning of gastrulation, the blastocoel roof is one cell thick, and the dorsal lip of the blastopore forms below the equator of the embryo. The ventral lip of the blastopore forms closer to the vegetal pole, and relatively little involution occurs during gastrulation. Cell migration is visible through the transparent blastocoel roof of the gastrula. At the end of gastrulation, a small archenteron spreading dorsally from the blastopore represents the relatively small and superficial area of the egg where early embryonic axis formation occurs. The resulting pattern is similar to the embryonic disk described for one species of anuran. Conclusions Comparisons with the early development of other species of amphibians suggest that an evolutionary increase in egg size can result in predictable changes in the patterns and rate of early development, but mainly within an evolutionary lineage.

  18. The development in the in-situ decontamination technique for the large quantity of soils contaminated by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubaki, Junichiro

    2012-01-01

    The new filtration and condensation techniques that decontaminate effectively the large quantity of contaminated soils, was developed. The facility treating the soils of 5 tons per day is being developed. (M.H.)

  19. A probabilistic assessment of large scale wind power development for long-term energy resource planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Scott Warren

    A steady decline in the cost of wind turbines and increased experience in their successful operation have brought this technology to the forefront of viable alternatives for large-scale power generation. Methodologies for understanding the costs and benefits of large-scale wind power development, however, are currently limited. In this thesis, a new and widely applicable technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic modeling techniques to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. A method for including the spatial smoothing effect of geographically dispersed wind farms is also introduced. The model has been used to analyze potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on natural gas and coal prices is also discussed. In power systems with a high penetration of wind generated electricity, the intermittent availability of wind power may influence hourly spot prices. A price responsive electricity demand model is introduced that shows a small increase in wind power value when consumers react to hourly spot prices. The effectiveness of this mechanism depends heavily on estimates of the own- and cross-price elasticities of aggregate electricity demand. This work makes a valuable

  20. Development of solution monitoring software for enhanced safeguards at a large scale reprocessing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Handenhove, Carl; Breban, Domnica; Creusot, Christophe [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Dransart, Pascal; Dechamp, Luc [Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra, Varese, (Italy); Jarde, Eric [Euriware, Equeurdreville (France)

    2011-12-15

    The implementation of an effective and efficient IAEA safeguards approach at large scale reprocessing facilities with large throughput and continuous flow of nuclear material requires the introduction of enhanced safeguards measures to provide added assurance about the absence of diversion of nuclear material and confirmation that the facility is operated as declared. One of the enhanced safeguards measures, a Solution Monitoring and Measurement System (SMMS), comprising data collection instruments, data transmission equipment and an advanced Solution Monitoring Software (SMS), is being implemented at a large scale reprocessing plant in Japan. SMS is designed as a tool to enable automatic calculations of volumes, densities and flow-rates in selected process vessels, including most of the vessels of the main nuclear material stream. This software also includes automatic features to support the inspectorate in verifying inventories and inventory changes. The software also enables one to analyze the flows of nuclear material within the process and of specified 'cycles' of operation, and, in order to provide assurance that the facility is being operated as declared to compare these with those expected (reference signatures). The configuration and parameterization work (especially the analytical and comparative work) for the implementation and configuration of the SMS has been carried out jointly between the IAEA, Euriware-France (the software developer) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC)-Ispra. This paper describes the main features of the SMS, including the principles underlying the automatic analysis functionalities. It then focuses on the collaborative work performed by the JRC-Ispra, Euriware and the IAEA for the parameterization of the software (vessels and cycles of operation), including the current status and the future challenges.

  1. Development of Anti-Insect Microencapsulated Polypropylene Films Using a Large Scale Film Coating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ah Young; Choi, Ha Young; Lee, Eun Song; Han, Jaejoon; Min, Sea C

    2018-04-01

    Films containing microencapsulated cinnamon oil (CO) were developed using a large-scale production system to protect against the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). CO at concentrations of 0%, 0.8%, or 1.7% (w/w ink mixture) was microencapsulated with polyvinyl alcohol. The microencapsulated CO emulsion was mixed with ink (47% or 59%, w/w) and thinner (20% or 25%, w/w) and coated on polypropylene (PP) films. The PP film was then laminated with a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film on the coated side. The film with microencapsulated CO at 1.7% repelled P. interpunctella most effectively. Microencapsulation did not negatively affect insect repelling activity. The release rate of cinnamaldehyde, an active repellent, was lower when CO was microencapsulated than that in the absence of microencapsulation. Thermogravimetric analysis exhibited that microencapsulation prevented the volatilization of CO. The tensile strength, percentage elongation at break, elastic modulus, and water vapor permeability of the films indicated that microencapsulation did not affect the tensile and moisture barrier properties (P > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that effective films for the prevention of Indian meal moth invasion can be produced by the microencapsulation of CO using a large-scale film production system. Low-density polyethylene-laminated polypropylene films printed with ink incorporating microencapsulated cinnamon oil using a large-scale film production system effectively repelled Indian meal moth larvae. Without altering the tensile and moisture barrier properties of the film, microencapsulation resulted in the release of an active repellent for extended periods with a high thermal stability of cinnamon oil, enabling commercial film production at high temperatures. This anti-insect film system may have applications to other food-packaging films that use the same ink-printing platform. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Development and tests of large nuclear turbo-generator welded rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombie, H.; Thiery, M.; Rotzinger, R.; Pelissou, C.; Tabacco, C.; Fernagut, V.

    2015-01-01

    Turbo-generators require large forgings for the rotor and it is a worldwide practice to manufacture turbo-generator rotor bodies as single piece forgings. Rotors for nuclear applications (4-pole rotors design, 1500/1800 rpm) require forgings of up to 2.0 m diameter and ultra large ingots with weight more than 500 tons. Nowadays only few forge masters can deliver such forgings in the world. Based on the large welding experience Alstom has gained over decades on steam and gas turbines and Alstom's multi piece shrunk turbo-generator rotors, it was suggested to manufacture 4-pole turbo-generator rotors by welding the shaft from aligned cylindrical forgings. Compared to turbine welded rotors, the shaft of a turbo-generator rotor presents differences linked to dimensions/weight, weld depth and electrical application. The manufacture of a 2 disc model allowed to prove through electrical and mechanical analysis the reliability of the concept as well as the reliability of the manufacturing processes through material tests, micro sections, electrical component tests, weld geometry, welding processes (TIG,SAW,...), weld inspection (Ultrasonic testing, radiographic inspection,...) weld heat treatments and machining. Then a full rotor able to replace a single forging rotor was manufactured in order to validate and prove to potential customers the validity of the welded rotor technology. During the first order from EDF of a welded 900 MW spare rotor, the procedure for the Non Destructive Test on a slotted rotor was developed upon EDF request in order to compare future Non Destructive Testing with the finger print of the new rotor. This complete rotor was delivered to EDF in January 2013. This rotor is in operation in a nuclear unit since November 2013. (authors)

  3. An insider's perspective on entrepreneurial program development at a small and a large institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Michael S

    2013-09-01

    Entrepreneurship educators have an opportunity to learn from the entrepreneurship programs at both small colleges and large universities that have already sprouted up and experienced growth, challenges, failures, and ultimate successes. Programs that have contributed to the current entrepreneurship milieu can help leaders who are launching new programs or retooling existing ones, providing information to assist in defining their outcome objectives and refining their offerings. The development of new entrepreneurship programs, one at a private liberal arts institution and one at a large state-related research university, is evaluated. The common threads of "what worked" are identified, highlighting themes that other institutions of any size undertaking new initiatives can leverage. Themes discussed include the identification of institutional champions, communication with members of the "student supply chain," and offering both non-credit, experience-based opportunities and dynamic for-credit courses. In addition, implementing a strategy that includes faculty partnerships, designated advisory boards, and refined bootstrapping skills helps to ensure that robust human and capital resources are available for program delivery, growth, and sustainability.

  4. Developing natural convection in a fluid layer with localized heating and large viscosity variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickox, C.E.; Chu, Tze Yao.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments are used to elucidate aspects of transient natural convection in a magma chamber. The magma chamber is modeled as a horizontal fluid layer confined within an enclosure of square planform and heated from below by a strip heater centered on the lower boundary of the enclosure. The width of the strip heater and the depth of the fluid layer are one-fourth of the layer width. Corn syrup is used as the working fluid in order to approximate the large viscosity variation with temperature and the large Prandtl number typical of magma. The quiescent, uniform, fluid layer is subjected to instantaneous heating from the strip heater producing a transient flow which is dominated by two counter-rotating convective cells. Experimentally determined characteristics of the developing flow are compared with numerical simulations carried out with a finite element computer program. The results of numerical simulations are in essential agreement with experimental data. Differences between the numerical simulations and experimental measurements are conjectured to result from non-ideal effects present in the experiment which are difficult to represent accurately in a numerical simulation.

  5. Software development and maintenance: An approach for a large accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalegno, L.; Orsini, L.; Sicard, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    Maintenance costs presently form a large part of the total life-cycle cost of a software system. In case of large systems, while the costs of eliminating bugs, fixing analysis and design errors and introducing updates must be taken into account, the coherence of the system as a whole must be maintained while its parts are evolving independently. The need to devise and supply tools to aid programmers in housekeeping and updating has been strongly felt in the case of the LEP preinjector control system. A set of utilities has been implemented to create a safe interface between the programmers and the files containing the control software. Through this interface consistent naming schemes, common compiling and object-building procedures can be enforced, so that development and maintenance staff need not be concerned with the details of executable code generation. Procedures have been built to verify the consistency, generate maintenance diagnostics and automatically update object and executable files, taking into account multiple releases and versions. The tools and the techniques reported in this paper are of general use in the UNIX environment and have already been adopted for other projects. (orig.)

  6. Developing Routines in Large Inter-organisational Projects: A Case Study of an Infrastructure Megaproject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Eriksson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available General management research has increasingly recognised the significance of routines in organisational performance. Among organisational tasks, megaprojects depend more on routines selected and created within the project than standard, small-scale projects do, owing largely to their size, duration, and uniqueness. Within this context, the present paper investigates how project routines were established and developed during the early design phase of an inter-organisational megaproject. A case study of a large public infrastructure project was conducted, in which data were collected during observations, semi-structured interviews, and project document studies over the course of three years. Results of analysis revealed that the client exerted the greatest impact on choice of routines and that the temporary nature of tasks limited efforts to fine-tune routines. Changes in routines were primarily reactive to new knowledge concerning project needs. The findings suggest that meta-routines to consciously review routines should be used to a greater extent and designed to capture supplier experiences as well.

  7. Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambicorti, Lisa; D'Amato, Francesco; Vettore, Christian; Duò, Fabrizio; Guercia, Alessio; Patauner, Christian; Biasi, Roberto; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Gallieni, Daniele; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Pereira do Carmo, Joao

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the latest results of new technological concepts for Large Aperture Telescopes Technology (LATT) using thin deployable lightweight active mirrors. This technology is developed under the European Space Agency (ESA) Technology Research Program and can be exploited in all the applications based on the use of primary mirrors of space telescopes with large aperture, segmented lightweight telescopes with wide Field of View (FOV) and low f/#, and LIDAR telescopes. The reference mission application is a potential future ESA mission, related to a space borne DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) instrument operating around 935.5 nm with the goal to measure water vapor profiles in atmosphere. An Optical BreadBoard (OBB) for LATT has been designed for investigating and testing two critical aspects of the technology: 1) control accuracy in the mirror surface shaping. 2) mirror survivability to launch. The aim is to evaluate the effective performances of the long stroke smart-actuators used for the mirror control and to demonstrate the effectiveness and the reliability of the electrostatic locking (EL) system to restraint the thin shell on the mirror backup structure during launch. The paper presents a comprehensive vision of the breadboard focusing on how the requirements have driven the design of the whole system and of the various subsystems. The manufacturing process of the thin shell is also presented.

  8. Assessment of clean development mechanism potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in heavy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Krey, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses clean development mechanism (CDM) potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in selected heavy industries (iron and steel, cement, aluminium, pulp and paper, and ammonia) taking India and Brazil as examples of CDM project host countries. We have chosen two criteria for identification of the CDM potential of each energy efficiency measure: (i) emission reductions volume (in CO 2 e) that can be expected from the measure and (ii) likelihood of the measure passing the additionality test of the CDM Executive Board (EB) when submitted as a proposed CDM project activity. The paper shows that the CDM potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures strongly depends on the project-specific and country-specific context. In particular, technologies for the iron and steel industry (coke dry quenching (CDQ), top pressure recovery turbine (TRT), and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) gas recovery), the aluminium industry (point feeder prebake (PFPB) smelter), and the pulp and paper industry (continuous digester technology) offer promising CDM potential

  9. Developmental programming: the concept, large animal models, and the key role of uteroplacental vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L P; Borowicz, P P; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A; Luther, J S; Hammer, C J; Maddock Carlin, K R; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Redmer, D A

    2010-04-01

    Developmental programming refers to the programming of various bodily systems and processes by a stressor of the maternal system during pregnancy or during the neonatal period. Such stressors include nutritional stress, multiple pregnancy (i.e., increased numbers of fetuses in the gravid uterus), environmental stress (e.g., high environmental temperature, high altitude, prenatal steroid exposure), gynecological immaturity, and maternal or fetal genotype. Programming refers to impaired function of numerous bodily systems or processes, leading to poor growth, altered body composition, metabolic dysfunction, and poor productivity (e.g., poor growth, reproductive dysfunction) of the offspring throughout their lifespan and even across generations. A key component of developmental programming seems to be placental dysfunction, leading to altered fetal growth and development. We discuss various large animal models of developmental programming and how they have and will continue to contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying altered placental function and developmental programming, and, further, how large animal models also will be critical to the identification and application of therapeutic strategies that will alleviate the negative consequences of developmental programming to improve offspring performance in livestock production and human medicine.

  10. Earthquakes drive large-scale submarine canyon development and sediment supply to deep-ocean basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountjoy, Joshu J; Howarth, Jamie D; Orpin, Alan R; Barnes, Philip M; Bowden, David A; Rowden, Ashley A; Schimel, Alexandre C G; Holden, Caroline; Horgan, Huw J; Nodder, Scott D; Patton, Jason R; Lamarche, Geoffroy; Gerstenberger, Matthew; Micallef, Aaron; Pallentin, Arne; Kane, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Although the global flux of sediment and carbon from land to the coastal ocean is well known, the volume of material that reaches the deep ocean-the ultimate sink-and the mechanisms by which it is transferred are poorly documented. Using a globally unique data set of repeat seafloor measurements and samples, we show that the moment magnitude ( M w ) 7.8 November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake (New Zealand) triggered widespread landslides in a submarine canyon, causing a powerful "canyon flushing" event and turbidity current that traveled >680 km along one of the world's longest deep-sea channels. These observations provide the first quantification of seafloor landscape change and large-scale sediment transport associated with an earthquake-triggered full canyon flushing event. The calculated interevent time of ~140 years indicates a canyon incision rate of 40 mm year -1 , substantially higher than that of most terrestrial rivers, while synchronously transferring large volumes of sediment [850 metric megatons (Mt)] and organic carbon (7 Mt) to the deep ocean. These observations demonstrate that earthquake-triggered canyon flushing is a primary driver of submarine canyon development and material transfer from active continental margins to the deep ocean.

  11. Development of a PSA-based Loss of Large Area Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Mee Jeong; Jung, Woosik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myungsu [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power, Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a result of these initial post 9-11 assessments in 2002, the NRC issued an interim safeguards and security compensatory measures order. In 'Interim Compensatory Measures for High Threat Environment,'. Section B.5.b (not publically available) of this order, current NPP licensees had to adopt mitigation or restore reactor core cooling, containment, and spent fuel pool (SFP) cooling capabilities to cope with a LOLA due to large fires and explosions from any cause, including beyond-design basis threat(BDBT) aircraft impacts. In 2009, the NRC issued amendments to 10CFR Part 52, and Part 73 for power reactor security requirements for operating and new reactors. New U.S. licensed commercial nuclear power plant operators are required to provide a LOLA(Loss of Large Area) analysis as per the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, 10CFR50.54(hh)(2). Additionally 10CFR52.80(d) provides the required submittal information on how an applicant for a combined operating license(COL) for a nuclear power plant to meet these requirements. It is necessary to prepare our own guidance for a development of LOLA strategies. In this paper, we proposed a method to look for interesting combinations of rooms in certain targets getting through VAI model, and produced insights that could be used to influence LOLA strategies.

  12. Using model based systems engineering for the development of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope's operational plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvy, Brian M.; Claver, Charles; Willman, Beth; Petravick, Don; Johnson, Margaret; Reil, Kevin; Marshall, Stuart; Thomas, Sandrine; Lotz, Paul; Schumacher, German; Lim, Kian-Tat; Jenness, Tim; Jacoby, Suzanne; Emmons, Ben; Axelrod, Tim

    2016-08-01

    We† provide an overview of the Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) language, tool, and methodology being used in our development of the Operational Plan for Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) operations. LSST's Systems Engineering (SE) team is using a model-based approach to operational plan development to: 1) capture the topdown stakeholders' needs and functional allocations defining the scope, required tasks, and personnel needed for operations, and 2) capture the bottom-up operations and maintenance activities required to conduct the LSST survey across its distributed operations sites for the full ten year survey duration. To accomplish these complimentary goals and ensure that they result in self-consistent results, we have developed a holistic approach using the Sparx Enterprise Architect modeling tool and Systems Modeling Language (SysML). This approach utilizes SysML Use Cases, Actors, associated relationships, and Activity Diagrams to document and refine all of the major operations and maintenance activities that will be required to successfully operate the observatory and meet stakeholder expectations. We have developed several customized extensions of the SysML language including the creation of a custom stereotyped Use Case element with unique tagged values, as well as unique association connectors and Actor stereotypes. We demonstrate this customized MBSE methodology enables us to define: 1) the rolls each human Actor must take on to successfully carry out the activities associated with the Use Cases; 2) the skills each Actor must possess; 3) the functional allocation of all required stakeholder activities and Use Cases to organizational entities tasked with carrying them out; and 4) the organization structure required to successfully execute the operational survey. Our approach allows for continual refinement utilizing the systems engineering spiral method to expose finer levels of detail as necessary. For example, the bottom-up, Use Case

  13. Development of a large scale bipolar NiH2 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, E.; Perez, F.

    1983-01-01

    The bipolar battery concept, developed in cooperation with NASA, is described in the context of the advantages afforded by near-term IPV and CVP cell technology. The projected performance, development requirements, and a possible approach to bipolar battery design are outlined. Consideration is given to packaging electrodes within a common hydrophobic plastic frame, electrode technology that involves a photochemically etched 0.1 mm thick nickel substrate coated with a 10 mg/sq cm mixture of platinum powder and TFE30, and an electrode design that eliminates the screen and doubles the electrode thickness (from the currently used 0.8 mm) while retaining the active material loading of 1.6-1.8 gm/cu cm. Also covered are thermal management, and electrolyte and oxygen management. It is concluded that a high voltage, high capacity, bipolar NiH2 cell can be configured with proper development for use in large power systems, and that it can provide considerable weight savings.

  14. Conceptual design and development of a superconducting bus-line for the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, T.; Takahata, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamamoto, J.; Uede, T.; Ikeda, M.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bus-line is proposed and preliminarily tested as an electrical feeder between the superconducting coils of the Large Helical Device (LHD) and their electrical power supply. The bus-line consists of a superconductor and its cryogenic transfer-line. The superconductor is a specially developed aluminum stabilized NbTi wire, which is installed in the innermost channel of the transfer-line. The vacuum insulated transfer-line consists of four corrugated tubes assembled coaxially. Liquid helium flows through the innermost channel and shield gas flows through another annular channel in the line. We are completing the conceptual design of the bus-line and the installation plan for the LHD experimental hall and are carrying out development of wires, including an investigation of their mechanical properties and electrical insulation. This report describes the conceptual design of the superconducting bus-line for the LHD, and the results we obtained recently during the design and development of a full-scale demonstration facility. (orig.)

  15. Safe Patient Handling and Mobility: Development and Implementation of a Large-Scale Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Corinne; Knight, Suzanne W; Smith, Sharon L; Nagle, Dorothy J; DeVries, Lori

    This article addresses the development, implementation, and evaluation of an education program for safe patient handling and mobility at a large academic medical center. The ultimate goal of the program was to increase safety during patient mobility/transfer and reduce nursing staff injury from lifting/pulling. This comprehensive program was designed on the basis of the principles of prework, application, and support at the point of care. A combination of online learning, demonstration, skill evaluation, and coaching at the point of care was used to achieve the goal. Specific roles and responsibilities were developed to facilitate implementation. It took 17 master trainers, 88 certified trainers, 176 unit-based trainers, and 98 coaches to put 3706 nurses and nursing assistants through the program. Evaluations indicated both an increase in knowledge about safe patient handling and an increased ability to safely mobilize patients. The challenge now is sustainability of safe patient-handling practices and the growth and development of trainers and coaches.

  16. Socioeconomic impacts of large-scale developments: implications for high-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.; Hamm, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    High-level nuclear waste repositories will likely be located in sparsely settled rural areas in the US. These projects will significantly affect the economic, demographic, public service, fiscal, and social (the socioeconomic) dimensions of those rural areas. The impacts and means of mitigating them thus require careful analysis. This paper examines some of the potential socioeconomic impacts likely to occur in rural areas as a result of repository siting and development, and it describes some of the characteristics of mitigation programs that are likely to be necessary, if the impacts are to be addressed. Both (1) standard impacts, those resulting from the fact that, like many other large-scale developments, repositories will involve a substantial number of new workers and residents (relative to the size of existing communities), and (2) special impacts, those resulting from the fact that repositories store radioactive materials, are examined. The discussion indicates that economic, demographic, public service, fiscal, and social impacts (standard and special) of these repositories will be substantial and problematic in many cases. Unless the impacts are effectively addressed with carefully planned and well financed mitigation efforts that insure that high-quality planning information is provided to local residents, and that local residents are involved in impact planning and management throughout the siting and development process, repository siting is unlikely to be effectively and equitably achieved. 44 references

  17. A Large-Scale Design Integration Approach Developed in Conjunction with the Ares Launch Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, John W.; Shirley, Michael C.; Kinard, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for performing large-scale design integration, taking a classical 2D drawing envelope and interface approach and applying it to modern three dimensional computer aided design (3D CAD) systems. Today, the paradigm often used when performing design integration with 3D models involves a digital mockup of an overall vehicle, in the form of a massive, fully detailed, CAD assembly; therefore, adding unnecessary burden and overhead to design and product data management processes. While fully detailed data may yield a broad depth of design detail, pertinent integration features are often obscured under the excessive amounts of information, making them difficult to discern. In contrast, the envelope and interface method results in a reduction in both the amount and complexity of information necessary for design integration while yielding significant savings in time and effort when applied to today's complex design integration projects. This approach, combining classical and modern methods, proved advantageous during the complex design integration activities of the Ares I vehicle. Downstream processes, benefiting from this approach by reducing development and design cycle time, include: Creation of analysis models for the Aerodynamic discipline; Vehicle to ground interface development; Documentation development for the vehicle assembly.

  18. Design and development of the large helical device TV Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, I.; Narihara, K.; Funaba, H.; Hayashi, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a television (TV) Thomson scattering and installed it on the large helical device (LHD). The LHD TV Thomson scattering consists of a yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser, beam transport system, scattered light collection optics, spectrometer, intensified charge coupled device camera, and data acquisition system. The spatial and temporal resolutions are about 7 mm and a few seconds, respectively. The temporal resolution of the LHD TV Thomson scattering is not good, but will be enough for long-time, steady-state discharge experiments in LHD. In the initial experiments, we measured electron temperature profiles of LHD plasmas at five spatial points. It has been found that the electron temperatures measured by the LHD TV Thomson scattering reasonably agree with those obtained by the LHD YAG Thomson scattering. We will report the details of the LHD TV Thomson scattering system with some experimental data

  19. Development of Large Concrete Object Geometrical Model Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaczek-Peplinska Janina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents control periodic measurements of movements and survey of concrete dam on Dunajec River in Rożnów, Poland. Topographical survey was conducted using laser scanning technique. The goal of survey was data collection and creation of a geometrical model. Acquired cross- and horizontal sections were utilised to create a numerical model of object behaviour at various load depending of changing level of water in reservoir. Modelling was accomplished using finite elements technique. During the project an assessment was conducted to terrestrial laser scanning techniques for such type of research of large hydrotechnical objects such as gravitational water dams. Developed model can be used to define deformations and displacement prognosis.

  20. Development of a large-solid-angle and multi-device detection system for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, T.; Ishii, K.; Kamiya, T.; Sakai, T.; Oikawa, M.; Arakawa, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamazaki, H.

    2003-01-01

    A new detection apparatus for both low energy X-rays like 1 keV and back scattered protons of MeV energy was developed. The detection apparatus consists of a large-solid-angle multi-device Si detector and a data acquisition system. The detector has 45 detection devices which are arranged in the shape of a pentagonal pyramid and fully cover a sample. A micro-beam irradiates the sample through the center of the pentagonal pyramid and X-rays emitted from the sample are detected in a solid angle of about 1.0 sr. This novel detection setup has about five times higher sensitivity than a conventional micro-PIXE camera. In addition, not only X-rays but back scattered protons can be detected, since the counting rate of back scattered protons per detection device is small despite lack of a passive absorber

  1. Development of large-area silicon photomultiplier detectors for PET applications at FBK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorzi, Nicola, E-mail: zorzi@fbk.eu [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento Povo (Italy); Melchiorri, Mirko; Piazza, Alessandro; Piemonte, Claudio; Tarolli, Alessandro [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Trento Povo (Italy)

    2011-04-21

    This paper reports on the development of large-area silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors specifically designed for positron emission tomography (PET) instruments. The sensors under study are monolithic arrays of two different types: a 2x2 array of {approx}4x4 mm{sup 2} elements and an 8x8 array of 1.5x1.5 mm{sup 2} pixels. These devices are characterized at wafer level by means of an automatic test procedure, consisting of current-voltage curves in forward and reverse bias. The tests allowed selection of functioning devices and evaluation of the uniformity of basic parameters. Results of the electrical characterization are reported showing that acceptable values of yield together with rather uniform distribution of parameters have been obtained. Reliability of produced SiPMs has been proved by long-term accelerated stress tests.

  2. Development of large-area silicon photomultiplier detectors for PET applications at FBK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzi, Nicola; Melchiorri, Mirko; Piazza, Alessandro; Piemonte, Claudio; Tarolli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of large-area silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors specifically designed for positron emission tomography (PET) instruments. The sensors under study are monolithic arrays of two different types: a 2x2 array of ∼4x4 mm 2 elements and an 8x8 array of 1.5x1.5 mm 2 pixels. These devices are characterized at wafer level by means of an automatic test procedure, consisting of current-voltage curves in forward and reverse bias. The tests allowed selection of functioning devices and evaluation of the uniformity of basic parameters. Results of the electrical characterization are reported showing that acceptable values of yield together with rather uniform distribution of parameters have been obtained. Reliability of produced SiPMs has been proved by long-term accelerated stress tests.

  3. Workshop on technology development issues for the large deployable reflector (LDR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, K.

    1986-02-01

    The results of the 2nd Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Technology Review Workshop held at Asilomar, California, March 17 to 22, 1985, are summarized. The workshop was convened to update LDR Technology status and to revise as necessary the results for the first LDR Workshop held in June 1982. There were some 100 participants representing government agencies, industry, and universities. This Workshop's goal was to assess, identify, and set priorities for the LDR technology issues based on requirements identified in the first workshop. Four high-priority technology areas were identified: (1) mirror materials and construction; (2) sensing and controls; (3) system-simulation and modeling capability; and (4) submillimeter instruments. The results of the workshop were used to provide a list of technolgy issues for the development of a technology initiatives plan for the LDR by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology

  4. Workshop on Technology Development Issues for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Kenji (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The results of the 2nd Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Technology Review Workshop held at Asilomar, California, March 17 to 22, 1985, are summarized. The workshop was convened to update LDR Technology status and to revise as necessary the results for the first LDR Workshop held in June 1982. There were some 100 participants representing government agencies, industry, and universities. This Workshop's goal was to assess, identify, and set priorities for the LDR technology issues based on requirements identified in the first workshop. Four high-priority technology areas were identified: (1) mirror materials and construction; (2) sensing and controls; (3) system-simulation and modeling capability; and (4) submillimeter instruments. The results of the workshop were used to provide a list of technolgy issues for the development of a technology initiatives plan for the LDR by NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology.

  5. Large developing receptive fields using a distributed and locally reprogrammable address-event receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Simeon A; Murray, Alan F; Willshaw, David J

    2010-02-01

    A distributed and locally reprogrammable address-event receiver has been designed, in which incoming address-events are monitored simultaneously by all synapses, allowing for arbitrarily large axonal fan-out without reducing channel capacity. Synapses can change the address of their presynaptic neuron, allowing the distributed implementation of a biologically realistic learning rule, with both synapse formation and elimination (synaptic rewiring). Probabilistic synapse formation leads to topographic map development, made possible by a cross-chip current-mode calculation of Euclidean distance. As well as synaptic plasticity in rewiring, synapses change weights using a competitive Hebbian learning rule (spike-timing-dependent plasticity). The weight plasticity allows receptive fields to be modified based on spatio-temporal correlations in the inputs, and the rewiring plasticity allows these modifications to become embedded in the network topology.

  6. Development of a spatially uniform fast ionization wave in a large-volume discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, D.V.; Starikovskaya, S.M.; Starikovskii, A.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    A study is made of a high-voltage nanosecond breakdown in the form of a fast ionization wave produced in a large-volume (401) discharge chamber. The propagation speed of the wave front and the integral energy deposition in a plasma are measured for various regimes of the air discharge at pressures of 10 -2 -4 Torr. A high degree of both the spatial uniformity of the discharge and the reproducibility of the discharge parameters is obtained. The possibility of the development of a fast ionization wave in an electrodeless system is demonstrated. A transition of the breakdown occurring in the form of a fast ionization wave into the streamer breakdown is observed. It is shown that such discharges are promising for technological applications

  7. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  8. Technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; D'Amato, Francesco; Gallieni, Daniele; Biasi, Roberto; Molina, Marco; Duò, Fabrizio; Ruder, Nikolaus; Salinari, Piero; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Gambicorti, Lisa; Simonetti, Francesca; Pereira do Carmo, Joao Pedro N.

    2017-11-01

    The increasing interest on space telescopes for scientific applications leads to implement the manufacturing technology of the most critical element, i.e. the primary mirror: being more suitable a large aperture, it must be lightweight and deployable. The presented topic was originally addressed to a spaceborne DIAL (Differential Absorption LIDAR) mission operating at 935.5 nm for the measurement of water vapour profile in atmosphere, whose results were presented at ICSO 2006 and 2008. Aim of this paper is to present the latest developments on the main issues related to the fabrication of a breadboard, covering two project critical areas identified during the preliminary studies: the design and performances of the long-stroke actuators used to implement the mirror active control and the mirror survivability to launch via Electrostatic Locking (EL) between mirror and backplane. The described work is developed under the ESA/ESTEC contract No. 22321/09/NL/RA. The lightweight mirror is structured as a central sector surrounded by petals, all of them actively controlled to reach the specified shape after initial deployment and then maintained within specs for the entire mission duration. The presented study concerns: a) testing the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) backplane manufacturing and EL techniques, with production of suitable specimens; b) actuator design optimisation; c) design of the deployment mechanism including a high precision latch; d) the fabrication of thin mirrors mock-ups to validate the fabrication procedure for the large shells. The current activity aims to the construction of an optical breadboard capable of demonstrating the achievement of all these coupled critical aspects: optical quality of the thin shell mirror surface, actuators performances and back-plane - EL subsystem functionality.

  9. Development of Spray on Bag for manufacturing of large composites parts: Diffusivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempah, Maxime Joseph

    Bagging materials are utilized in many composites manufacturing processes. The selection is mainly driven by cost, temperature requirements, chemical compatibility and tear properties of the bag. The air barrier properties of the bag are assumed to be adequate or in many cases are not considered at all. However, the gas barrier property of a bag is the most critical parameter, as it can negatively affect the quality of the final laminate. The barrier property is a function of the bag material, uniformity, thickness and temperature. Improved barrier properties are needed for large parts, high pressure consolidated components and structures where air stays entrapped on the part surface. The air resistance property of the film is defined as permeability and is investigated in this thesis. A model was developed to evaluate the gas transport through the film and an experimental cell was implemented to characterize various commercial films. Understanding and characterizing the transport phenomena through the film allows optimization of the bagging material for various manufacturing processes. Spray-on-Bag is a scalable alternative bagging method compared to standard films. The approach allows in-situ fabrication of the bag on large and complex geometry structures where optimization of the bag properties can be varied on a local level. An experimental setup was developed and implemented using a six axis robot and an automated spraying system. Experiments were performed on a flat surface and specimens were characterized and compared to conventional films. Air barrier properties were within range of standard film approaches showing the potential to fabricate net shape bagging structures in an automated process.

  10. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 levels and phosphorylation undergo large fluctuations in mouse brain during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurel, Eléonore; Mines, Marjelo A; Song, Ling; Jope, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Dysregulated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) may contribute to the pathophysiology of mood disorders and other diseases, and appears to be a target of certain therapeutic drugs. The growing recognition of heightened vulnerability during development to many psychiatric diseases, including mood disorders, led us to test if there are developmental changes in mouse brain GSK3 and its regulation by phosphorylation and by therapeutic drugs. Methods GSK3 levels and phosphorylation were measured at seven ages of development in mouse cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Results Two periods of rapid transitions in GSK3 levels were identified, a large rise between postnatal day 1 and two to three weeks of age, where GSK3 levels were as high as four-fold adult mouse brain levels, and a rapid decline between two to four and eight weeks of age, when adult levels were reached. Inhibitory serine-phosphorylation of GSK3, particularly GSK3β, was extremely high in one-day postnatal mouse brain, and rapidly declined thereafter. These developmental changes in GSK3 were equivalent in male and female cerebral cortex, and differed from other signaling kinases, including Akt, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 levels and phosphorylation. In contrast to adult mouse brain, where administration of lithium or fluoxetine rapidly and robustly increased serine-phosphorylation of GSK3, in young mice these responses were blunted or absent. Conclusions High brain levels of GSK3 and large fluctuations in its levels and phosphorylation in juvenile and adolescent mouse brain raise the possibility that they may contribute to destabilized mood regulation induced by environmental and genetic factors. PMID:23167932

  11. Design, development and integration of a large scale multiple source X-ray computed tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, Andrew A.; Liu, Tong; Ng, Ivan Kee Beng; Teng, Wei Yuen; Yap, Tsi Tung; Wan, Siew Ping; Kong, Chun Jeng

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) allows visualisation of the physical structures in the interior of an object without physically opening or cutting it. This technology supports a wide range of applications in the non-destructive testing, failure analysis or performance evaluation of industrial products and components. Of the numerous factors that influence the performance characteristics of an X-ray CT system the energy level in the X-ray spectrum to be used is one of the most significant. The ability of the X-ray beam to penetrate a given thickness of a specific material is directly related to the maximum available energy level in the beam. Higher energy levels allow penetration of thicker components made of more dense materials. In response to local industry demand and in support of on-going research activity in the area of 3D X-ray imaging for industrial inspection the Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech) engaged in the design, development and integration of large scale multiple source X-ray computed tomography system based on X-ray sources operating at higher energies than previously available in the Institute. The system consists of a large area direct digital X-ray detector (410 x 410 mm), a multiple-axis manipulator system, a 225 kV open tube microfocus X-ray source and a 450 kV closed tube millifocus X-ray source. The 225 kV X-ray source can be operated in either transmission or reflection mode. The body of the 6-axis manipulator system is fabricated from heavy-duty steel onto which high precision linear and rotary motors have been mounted in order to achieve high accuracy, stability and repeatability. A source-detector distance of up to 2.5 m can be achieved. The system is controlled by a proprietary X-ray CT operating system developed by SIMTech. The system currently can accommodate samples up to 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m in size with weight up to 50 kg. These specifications will be increased to 1.0 x 1.0 x 1.0 m and 100 kg in future

  12. Development and evaluation of fully automated demand response in large facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Shockman, Christine; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-03-30

    This report describes the results of a research project to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve electric grid reliability, manage electricity costs, and ensure that customers receive signals that encourage load reduction during times when the electric grid is near its capacity. The two main drivers for widespread demand responsiveness are the prevention of future electricity crises and the reduction of electricity prices. Additional goals for price responsiveness include equity through cost of service pricing, and customer control of electricity usage and bills. The technology developed and evaluated in this report could be used to support numerous forms of DR programs and tariffs. For the purpose of this report, we have defined three levels of Demand Response automation. Manual Demand Response involves manually turning off lights or equipment; this can be a labor-intensive approach. Semi-Automated Response involves the use of building energy management control systems for load shedding, where a preprogrammed load shedding strategy is initiated by facilities staff. Fully-Automated Demand Response is initiated at a building or facility through receipt of an external communications signal--facility staff set up a pre-programmed load shedding strategy which is automatically initiated by the system without the need for human intervention. We have defined this approach to be Auto-DR. An important concept in Auto-DR is that a facility manager is able to ''opt out'' or ''override'' an individual DR event if it occurs at a time when the reduction in end-use services is not desirable. This project sought to improve the feasibility and nature of Auto-DR strategies in large facilities. The research focused on technology development, testing

  13. Large-scale proteome comparative analysis of developing rhizomes of the ancient vascular plant Equisetum hyemale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Santana Balbuena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Equisetum hyemale is a widespread vascular plant species, whose reproduction is mainly dependent on the growth and development of the rhizomes. Due to its key evolutionary position, the identification of factors that could be involved in the existence of the rhizomatous trait may contribute to a better understanding of the role of this underground organ for the successful propagation of this and other plant species. In the present work, we characterized the proteome of E. hyemale rhizomes using a GeLC-MS spectral-counting proteomics strategy. A total of 1,911 and 1,860 non-redundant proteins were identified in the rhizomes apical tip and elongation zone, respectively. Rhizome- characteristic proteins were determined by comparisons of the developing rhizome tissues to developing roots. A total of 87 proteins were found to be up-regulated in both E. hyemale rhizome tissues in relation to developing roots. Hierarchical clustering indicated a vast dynamic range in the expression of the 87 characteristic proteins and revealed, based on the expression profile, the existence of 9 major protein groups. Gene ontology analyses suggested an over-representation of the terms involved in macromolecular and protein biosynthetic processes, gene expression and nucleotide and protein binding functions. Spatial differences analysis between the rhizome apical tip and the elongation zone revealed that only eight proteins were up-regulated in the apical tip including RNA-binding proteins and an acyl carrier protein, as well as a KH-domain protein and a T-complex subunit; while only seven proteins were up-regulated in the elongation zone including phosphomannomutase, galactomannan galactosyltransferase, endoglucanase 10 and 25 and mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase subunits alpha and beta. This is the first large scale characterization of the proteome of a plant rhizome. Implications of the findings were discussed in relation to other underground organs and related

  14. Design, development and characterization studies of a large aperture high power Nd : glass rod amplifier stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopi, N.; Bapna, R.C.; Murali, C.G.; Narayan, B.S.; Dhareshwar, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Laser-plasma interaction studies and experiments related to laser driven shocks as well as laser induced inertially confined thermonuclear fusion have resulted in an ever increasing demand for high brightness lasers capable of producing nanosecond pulse with energy of hundreds of kilo joules. High power Nd-glass laser chains with a master oscillator followed by a number of amplifier stages made up of rods, disks, slabs etc. are in operation in many leading laboratories in the world. This report describes the design, development and characterisation studies of a large aperture Nd:glass laser amplifier which is to be incorporated on line with the existing 40 J, 5 ns high power laser chain built for laser-plasma interaction and laser driven shock wave studies in the Laser and Plasma Technology Division. The development work described in this report discusses the design based on optimum material selection, optimisation of various sub components, ease of maintenance and smooth operation. The necessary operational electronics has also been described. The characterization studies mainly include measurement of spatial gain uniformity, thermally induced depolarization effects, and thermal relaxation studies. (author). 37 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Preamplifier development for high count-rate, large dynamic range readout of inorganic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshelashvili, Irakli; Erni, Werner; Steinacher, Michael; Krusche, Bernd; Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter are central component of many experiments in nuclear and particle physics. Modern ''trigger less'' detectors run with very high count-rates, require good time and energy resolution, and large dynamic range. In addition photosensors and preamplifiers must work in hostile environments (magnetic fields). Due to later constraints mainly Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD's), Vacuum Photo Triodes (VPT's), and Vacuum Photo Tetrodes (VPTT's) are used. A disadvantage is their low gain which together with other requirements is a challenge for the preamplifier design. Our group has developed special Low Noise / Low Power (LNP) preamplifier for this purpose. They will be used to equip PANDA EMC forward end-cap (dynamic range 15'000, rate 1MHz), where the PWO II crystals and preamplifier have to run in an environment cooled down to -25{sup o}C. Further application is the upgrade of the Crystal Barrel detector at the Bonn ELSA accelerator with APD readout for which special temperature comparison of the APD gain and good time resolution is necessary. Development and all test procedures after the mass production done by our group during past several years in Basel University will be reported.

  16. Development of a vacuum leak test method for large-scale superconducting magnet test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Katsumi; Hamada, Kazuya; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Kato, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed leak detection technology for liquid helium temperature experiments in large-scale superconducting magnet test facilities. In JAEA, a cryosorption pump that uses an absorbent cooled by liquid nitrogen with a conventional helium leak detector, is used to detect helium gas that is leaking from pressurized welded joints of pipes and valves in a vacuum chamber. The cryosorption pump plays the role of decreasing aerial components, such as water, nitrogen and oxygen, to increase the sensitivity of helium leak detection. The established detection sensitivity for helium leak testing is 10 -10 to 10 -9 Pam 3 /s. A total of 850 welded and mechanical joints inside the cryogenic test facility for the ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) experiments have been tested. In the test facility, 73 units of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) insulation break are used. The amount of helium permeation through the GFRP was recorded during helium leak testing. To distinguish helium leaks from insulation-break permeation, the helium permeation characteristic of the GFRP part was measured as a function of the time of helium charging. Helium permeation was absorbed at 6 h after helium charging, and the detected permeation is around 10 -7 Pam 3 /s. Using the helium leak test method developed, CSMC experiments have been successfully completed. (author)

  17. Economic and fiscal impacts of large-scale development projects: implications for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leistritz, F.L.; Murdock, S.H.; Texas A and M Univ., College Station)

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the local economic and fiscal implications of siting high-level nuclear waste repositories in rural areas. The economic and fiscal effects of repository development fall into two categories: (1) standard impacts similar to those that would be associated with developing any large-scale industrial facility in an isolated area; (2) special impacts that result from the hazardous nature of the nuclear materials stored and from federal ownership of the facility. Standard economic and fiscal impacts include employment effects (direct and secondary), local income changes, alterations in community price structures, effects on community services, and changes in revenues and costs for local jurisdictions. Special impacts include the possibility of diminished activity in other basic economic sectors, negative effects on the area's long-term growth prospects and a consequent dampening of investment in the local trade an service sectors, additional costs for local jurisdictions (e.g., for preparing evacuation plans), and limited local tax revenues resulting from the tax-exempt status of the facility. These special effects are difficult to quantify and require additional analysis. 47 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  18. Gas Electron Multipliers: Development of large area GEMs and spherical GEMs

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, Serge; Brock, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous radiation detectors have been a crucial part of high-energy physics instrumentation since the 1960s, when the first multiwire proportional counters were built. In the 1990s the first micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs) saw the light; with sub-millimeter feature sizes these novel detectors were faster and more accurate than their predecessors. The gas electron multiplier (GEM) is one of the most successful of these technologies. It is a charge multiplication structure made from a copper clad polymer foil, pierced with a regular and dense pattern of holes. I will describe the properties and the application of GEMs and GEM detectors, and the research and development I have done on this technology. Two of the main objectives were the development of large area GEMs (~m^2) for particle physics experiments and GEMs with a spherical shape for x-ray or neutron diffraction detectors. Both have been realized, and the new techniques involved are finding their way to applications in research and industry.

  19. Gas electron multipliers. Development of large area GEMS and spherical GEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Serge Duarte

    2011-08-15

    Gaseous radiation detectors have been a crucial part of high-energy physics instrumentation since the 1960s, when the first multiwire proportional counters were built. In the 1990s the first micropattern gas detectors (MPGDS) saw the light; with sub-millimeter feature sizes these novel detectors were faster and more accurate than their predecessors. The gas electron multiplier (GEM) is one of the most successful of these technologies. It is a charge multiplication structure made from a copper clad polymer foil, pierced with a regular and dense pattern of holes. I describe the properties and the application of GEMs and GEM. detectors, and the research and development I have done on this technology. Two of the main objectives were the development of large area GEMs ({proportional_to}m{sup 2}) for particle physics experiments and GEMs with a spherical shape for X-ray or neutron diffraction detectors. Both have been realized, and the new techniques involved are finding their way to applications in research and industry. (orig.)

  20. Development of large scale fusion plasma simulation and storage grid on JAERI Origin3800 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idomura, Yasuhiro; Wang, Xin

    2003-01-01

    Under the Numerical EXperiment of Tokamak (NEXT) research project, various fluid, particle, and hybrid codes have been developed. These codes require a computational environment which consists of high performance processors, high speed storage system, and high speed parallelized visualization system. In this paper, the performance of the JAERI Origin3800 system is examined from a point of view of these requests. In the performance tests, it is shown that the representative particle and fluid codes operate with 15 - 40% of processing efficiency up to 512 processors. A storage area network (SAN) provides high speed parallel data transfer. A parallel visualization system enables order to magnitude faster visualization of a large scale simulation data compared with the previous graphic workstations. Accordingly, an extremely advanced simulation environment is realized on the JAERI Origin3800 system. Recently, development of a storage grid is underway in order to improve a computational environment of remote users. The storage grid is constructed by a combination of SAN and a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). The preliminary tests show that compared with the existing data transfer methods, it enables dramatically high speed data transfer ∼100 Gbps over a wide area network. (author)

  1. Development and application of a computer model for large-scale flame acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, K.D.

    1987-07-01

    A new computational model for large-scale premixed flames is developed and applied to the simulation of flame acceleration experiments. The primary objective is to circumvent the necessity for resolving turbulent flame fronts; this is imperative because of the relatively coarse computational grids which must be used in engineering calculations. The essence of the model is to artificially thicken the flame by increasing the appropriate diffusivities and decreasing the combustion rate, but to do this in such a way that the burn velocity varies with pressure, temperature, and turbulence intensity according to prespecified phenomenological characteristics. The model is particularly aimed at implementation in computer codes which simulate compressible flows. To this end, it is applied to the two-dimensional simulation of hydrogen-air flame acceleration experiments in which the flame speeds and gas flow velocities attain or exceed the speed of sound in the gas. It is shown that many of the features of the flame trajectories and pressure histories in the experiments are simulated quite well by the model. Using the comparison of experimental and computational results as a guide, some insight is developed into the processes which occur in such experiments. 34 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs

  2. The role of large arthropods in the development of halomorphic soils in the south of Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordkovich, V. G.; Lyubechanskii, I. I.

    2017-06-01

    Soil sequences along catenas crossing the peripheral parts of shallow-water drying lakes in the south of Siberia have been studied. They include the sulfidic and typical playa (sor) solonchaks (Gleyic Solonchaks), playa solonchak over the buried solonetz (Gleyic Solonchak Thapto-Solonetz)), shallow solonetz-solonchak (Salic Solonetz), and solonetzic and solonchakous chernozemic-meadow soil (Luvic Gleyic Chernozem (Sodic, Salic)). This spatial sequence also represents a series of historical stages of the development of halomorphic soils: the amphibian, hydromorphic, semihydromorphic, and automorphic-paleohydromorphic stages. During all of them, the biogenic component plays a significant role in the matter budget of halomorphic soils. The diversity, number, and functional activity of large insects and spiders are particularly important. Their total abundance in the course of transformation of the halomorphic soils decreases from several thousand to about 100 specimens/(m2 day), whereas their species diversity increases from 17 to 45 species. Changes in the functional structure of the soil zoocenosis and its impact on the character and intensity of pedogenetic processes can be considered driving forces of the transformation of hydromorphic soils. This is ensured by the sequential alteration of the groups of invertebrates with different types of cenotic strategy and different mechanisms of adaptation to biotic and abiotic components of the soil in the course of the development of the soil zoocenosis.

  3. Gas electron multipliers: Development of large area GEMS and spherical GEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Serge Duarte

    2011-08-01

    Gaseous radiation detectors have been a crucial part of high-energy physics instrumentation since the 1960s, when the first multiwire proportional counters were built. In the 1990s the first micropattern gas detectors (MPGDS) saw the light; with sub-millimeter feature sizes these novel detectors were faster and more accurate than their predecessors. The gas electron multiplier (GEM) is one of the most successful of these technologies. It is a charge multiplication structure made from a copper clad polymer foil, pierced with a regular and dense pattern of holes. I describe the properties and the application of GEMs and GEM. detectors, and the research and development I have done on this technology. Two of the main objectives were the development of large area GEMs (∝m 2 ) for particle physics experiments and GEMs with a spherical shape for X-ray or neutron diffraction detectors. Both have been realized, and the new techniques involved are finding their way to applications in research and industry. (orig.)

  4. Analyses of Large Coal-Based SOFCs for High Power Stack Block Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recknagle, Kurtis P; Koeppel, Brian J

    2010-10-01

    This report summarizes the numerical modeling and analytical efforts for SOFC stack development performed for the coal-based SOFC program. The stack modeling activities began in 2004, but this report focuses on the most relevant results obtained since August 2008. This includes the latter half of Phase-I and all of Phase-II activities under technical guidance of VPS and FCE. The models developed to predict the thermal-flow-electrochemical behaviors and thermal-mechanical responses of generic planar stacks and towers are described. The effects of cell geometry, fuel gas composition, on-cell reforming, operating conditions, cell performance, seal leak, voltage degradation, boundary conditions, and stack height are studied. The modeling activities to evaluate and achieve technical targets for large stack blocks are described, and results from the latest thermal-fluid-electrochemical and structural models are summarized. Modeling results for stack modifications such as scale-up and component thickness reduction to realize cost reduction are presented. Supporting modeling activities in the areas of cell fabrication and loss of contact are also described.

  5. Development of Integrated Die Casting Process for Large Thin-Wall Magnesium Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Jon T. [General Motors LLC, Warren, MI (United States); Wang, Gerry [Meridian Lightweight Technologies, Plymouth MI (United States); Luo, Alan [General Motors LLC, Warren, MI (United States)

    2017-11-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop a process and product which would utilize magnesium die casting and result in energy savings when compared to the baseline steel product. The specific product chosen was a side door inner panel for a mid-size car. The scope of the project included: re-design of major structural parts of the door, design and build of the tooling required to make the parts, making of parts, assembly of doors, and testing (both physical and simulation) of doors. Additional work was done on alloy development, vacuum die casting, and overcasting, all in order to improve the performance of the doors and reduce cost. The project achieved the following objectives: 1. Demonstrated ability to design a large thin-wall magnesium die casting. 2. Demonstrated ability to manufacture a large thin-wall magnesium die casting in AM60 alloy. 3. Tested via simulations and/or physical tests the mechanical behavior and corrosion behavior of magnesium die castings and/or lightweight experimental automotive side doors which incorporate a large, thin-wall, powder coated, magnesium die casting. Under some load cases, the results revealed cracking of the casting, which can be addressed with re-design and better material models for CAE analysis. No corrosion of the magnesium panel was observed. 4. Using life cycle analysis models, compared the energy consumption and global warming potential of the lightweight door with those of a conventional steel door, both during manufacture and in service. Compared to a steel door, the lightweight door requires more energy to manufacture but less energy during operation (i.e., fuel consumption when driving vehicle). Similarly, compared to a steel door, the lightweight door has higher global warming potential (GWP) during manufacture, but lower GWP during operation. 5. Compared the conventional magnesium die casting process with the “super-vacuum” die casting process. Results achieved with cast tensile bars suggest some

  6. Effects of mud supply on large-scale estuary morphology and development over centuries to millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Braat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial river estuaries consist largely of sand but are typically flanked by mudflats and salt marshes. The analogy with meandering rivers that are kept narrower than braided rivers by cohesive floodplain formation raises the question of how large-scale estuarine morphology and the late Holocene development of estuaries are affected by cohesive sediment. In this study we combine sand and mud transport processes and study their interaction effects on morphologically modelled estuaries on centennial to millennial timescales. The numerical modelling package Delft3D was applied in 2-DH starting from an idealised convergent estuary. The mixed sediment was modelled with an active layer and storage module with fluxes predicted by the Partheniades–Krone relations for mud and Engelund–Hansen for sand. The model was subjected to a range of idealised boundary conditions of tidal range, river discharge, waves and mud input. The model results show that mud is predominantly stored in mudflats on the side of the estuary. Marine mud supply only influences the mouth of the estuary, whereas fluvial mud is distributed along the whole estuary. Coastal waves stir up mud and remove the tendency to form muddy coastlines and the formation of mudflats in the downstream part of the estuary. Widening continues in estuaries with only sand, while mud supply leads to a narrower constant width and reduced channel and bar dynamics. This self-confinement eventually leads to a dynamic equilibrium in which lateral channel migration and mudflat expansion are balanced on average. However, for higher mud concentrations, higher discharge and low tidal amplitude, the estuary narrows and fills to become a tidal delta.

  7. Development of high sensitivity and high speed large size blank inspection system LBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shinobu; Yoshida, Akinori; Hirai, Mitsuo; Kato, Takenori; Moriizumi, Koichi; Kusunose, Haruhiko

    2017-07-01

    The production of high-resolution flat panel displays (FPDs) for mobile phones today requires the use of high-quality large-size photomasks (LSPMs). Organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays use several transistors on each pixel for precise current control and, as such, the mask patterns for OLED displays are denser and finer than the patterns for the previous generation displays throughout the entire mask surface. It is therefore strongly demanded that mask patterns be produced with high fidelity and free of defect. To enable the production of a high quality LSPM in a short lead time, the manufacturers need a high-sensitivity high-speed mask blank inspection system that meets the requirement of advanced LSPMs. Lasertec has developed a large-size blank inspection system called LBIS, which achieves high sensitivity based on a laser-scattering technique. LBIS employs a high power laser as its inspection light source. LBIS's delivery optics, including a scanner and F-Theta scan lens, focus the light from the source linearly on the surface of the blank. Its specially-designed optics collect the light scattered by particles and defects generated during the manufacturing process, such as scratches, on the surface and guide it to photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) with high efficiency. Multiple PMTs are used on LBIS for the stable detection of scattered light, which may be distributed at various angles due to irregular shapes of defects. LBIS captures 0.3mμ PSL at a detection rate of over 99.5% with uniform sensitivity. Its inspection time is 20 minutes for a G8 blank and 35 minutes for G10. The differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope on the inspection head of LBIS captures high-contrast review images after inspection. The images are classified automatically.

  8. Development of Standardized Mobile Tracer Correlation Approach for Large Area Emission Measurements (DRAFT UNDER EPA REVIEW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-wittig, T. A.; Thoma, E.; Green, R.; Hater, G.; Swan, N.; Chanton, J.

    2013-12-01

    conditions). The trials tested a novel tracer gas (acetylene), chosen for its performance and cost characteristics. This presentation will summarize method development activities for the field test trials (107 test days, with repeat measurements at 14 separate landfill sites). In addition to a brief description of the measurement technology, the method performance will be described, and primary data quality indicators and use conditions will be explored. Because measurements were taken under daylight and a variety of atmospheric conditions, the range of distance and wind conditions allows us to make conclusions about the strengths and limitations of the method. This enables us to show when and where it is possible to make a quality measurement using this technique and therefore develop a standardized method for large area emission measurements. Green, R. et al (2010). 'Methane Emission Measured at Two California Landfills by OTM-10 and an Acetylene Tracer Method.' Global Waste Management Symposium. San Antonio, Texas. Scheutz, C. et al. (2011). 'Quantification of multiple methane emission sources at landfills using a double tracer technique." Waste Management 31(5): 1009-1017. Thoma, E., et al (2009). 'Development of EPA OTM 10 for landfill applications." Journal of Environmental Engineering 136(8): 769-776.

  9. Need for new effect based on large-scale development of renewable energy in Northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Grinden, Bjoern; Fuchs, Ida

    2007-02-01

    Changes in the effect balance in Northern Europe between 2005 and 2020 are evaluated. Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany and the Netherlands are the countries included in the analysis. Scenarios from studies conducted in the different countries have been used as starting points. Some scenarios give explicit figures for effect installations, but most only provide estimations on the energy balance. In these cased it has been necessary to estimate how much effect there is behind the energy figures. Utilization time analyses have been employed for this, primarily. Moreover, emphasis has been put on the modelling of wind power's effect contribution, and a method based on the reliability of the production system has been employed, giving an effect varying between 18 and 24 percent in the different scenarios. Also, the need for regulation reserves has been considered. Four scenarios have been outlined along the axes growth in consumption (high/low) and share of renewable energy (high/low). All scenarios show considerable reductions in the effect balance from 2005 to 2020, varying from about 15.000 MW to 22.000 MW. The largest reduction is in Germany, but Sweden too has large reductions in each of the scenarios. The most important underlying causes are the reduction or dismantling of nuclear power and the development of large amounts of wind power, and in Germany also the development of solar power. In Norway too, the effect balance is weakened with the existing scenarios. Here, wind power and small-scale hydroelectric power contribute with relatively much energy, but little effect. The biggest insecurity in the analysis is how much thermal capacity there will be in operation in 2020, especially in Germany. In a system with much wind power, the utilization time for some of the thermal production may be short, and it may be phased out if no support schemes for effect reserves are set up. Thermal capacity as short term backup for wind power will have to compete with

  10. Rules of song development and their use in vocal interactions by birds with large repertoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Geberzahn

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Songbirds are well known for settling their disputes by vocal signals, and their singing plays a dominant role. Most studies on this issue have concentrated on bird species that develop and use small vocal repertoires. In this article we will go farther and focus on examples of how species with large song repertoires make use of their vocal competence. In particular, we will outline the study of interaction rules which have been elucidated by examining time- and pattern-specific relationships between signals exchanged by territorial neighbors. First we present an inquiry into the rules of song learning and development. In birds with large song repertoires, the ontogeny of such rules proceeds along a number of trajectories which help in understanding the often remarkable accomplishments of adult birds. In both approaches, our model species will be the Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos that has been investigated intensively in the field and in the laboratory.Pássaros canoros são bem conhecidos por resolver suas brigas através de sinais vocais e seu canto tem um papel dominante. A maioria dos estudos sobre este assunto focalizou espécies de aves que desenvolvem e usam repertórios vocais pequenos. Neste artigo iremos mais longe, examinando como espécies com grandes repertórios fazem uso de suas capacidades. Descreveremos particularmente o estudo das regras de interação que foram desvendadas pelo exame das relações temporais e estruturais entre os sinais trocados por vizinhos. Inicialmente, investigamos as regras de aprendizagem e desenvolvimento do canto. Nas aves com grande repertório vocal, a ontogênese dessas regras segue certas trajetórias que ajudam a entender o desempenho dos adultos, geralmente notável. Em ambas abordagens, nossa espécie-modelo será o Rouxinol-comum Luscinia megarhynchos, que foi pesquisado intensamente no campo e no laboratório.

  11. Development of a large area thermal neutron detector based on a scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the development and construction of a detector prototype based on wavelength shifting fiber in combination with a scintillator has been investigated and optimized. This development aims at an alternative for large area neutron detectors based on "3He detectors, which was the main construction in the past. After the study of the components and assemblies, such as: the scintillator, the wavelength-shifting-fibers and available photomultiplier tubes, the construction of the first prototype module begun. The neutron converter was selected as a "6LiF/ZnS scintillator, which produces a big light yield per absorbed neutron. The prototype itself is square and has an edge length of 30 cm in combination with two orthogonal layers of crossed wavelength-shifting-fibers. The top fiber layer, which is closer to the "6LiF/ZnS top scintillator produces the x-coordinates and the lower layer produces the y-coordinates for each event. In the prototype, MSJ-fibers from the company Kuraray were used with 1 mm diameter and spacing in the top layer of 1.5 mm and 1 mm in the lower layer. Due to the orthogonal arrangement of the wires in the two layers, one may identify where the neutron was absorbed in the scintillator and produced the light yield. In order to reduce the light loss of the absorbed photons inside the fibers, a bending radius of greater than 20 mm was used and achieved by warming up the fibers to 80 C during the bending process. The increased temperature reduces the crack formation in the fibers which increases the light loss. At this time it is expected that a photomultiplier from Hamamatsu with 256 individual pixels for readout will be used. This H9500 flat panel photomultiplier has the advantage of readout of all fibers of the prototype in one photomultiplier housing. In combination with integrated readout electronics one can minimize the homogeneity/gain differences of the photocathode pixels, the different light loss in each fiber, and the gain

  12. Development of a large-screen high-definition laser video projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynick, Tony J.

    1991-08-01

    A prototype laser video projector which uses electronic, optical, and mechanical means to project a television picture is described. With the primary goal of commercial viability, the price/performance ratio of the chosen means is critical. The fundamental requirement has been to achieve high brightness, high definition images of at least movie-theater size, at a cost comparable with other existing large-screen video projection technologies, while having the opportunity of developing and exploiting the unique properties of the laser projected image, such as its infinite depth-of-field. Two argon lasers are used in combination with a dye laser to achieve a range of colors which, despite not being identical to those of a CRT, prove to be subjectively acceptable. Acousto-optic modulation in combination with a rotary polygon scanner, digital video line stores, novel specialized electro-optics, and a galvanometric frame scanner form the basis of the projection technique achieving a 30 MHz video bandwidth, high- definition scan rates (1125/60 and 1250/50), high contrast ratio, and good optical efficiency. Auditorium projection of HDTV pictures wider than 20 meters are possible. Applications including 360 degree(s) projection and 3-D video provide further scope for exploitation of the HD laser video projector.

  13. DIGITAL ARCHIVING OF PEOPLE FLOW BY RECYCLING LARGE-SCALE SOCIAL SURVEY DATA OF DEVELOPING CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sekimoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on people flow has become increasingly important in the field of business, including the areas of marketing and public services. Although mobile phones enable a person's position to be located to a certain degree, it is a challenge to acquire sufficient data from people with mobile phones. In order to grasp people flow in its entirety, it is important to establish a practical method of reconstructing people flow from various kinds of existing fragmentary spatio-temporal data such as social survey data. For example, despite typical Person Trip Survey Data collected by the public sector showing the fragmentary spatio-temporal positions accessed, the data are attractive given the sufficiently large sample size to estimate the entire flow of people. In this study, we apply our proposed basic method to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA PT data pertaining to developing cities around the world, and we propose some correction methods to resolve the difficulties in applying it to many cities and stably to infrastructure data.

  14. Developing and evaluating Quilts for the depiction of large layered graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Juhee; Watson, Ben

    2011-12-01

    Traditional layered graph depictions such as flow charts are in wide use. Yet as graphs grow more complex, these depictions can become difficult to understand. Quilts are matrix-based depictions for layered graphs designed to address this problem. In this research, we first improve Quilts by developing three design alternatives, and then compare the best of these alternatives to better-known node-link and matrix depictions. A primary weakness in Quilts is their depiction of skip links, links that do not simply connect to a succeeding layer. Therefore in our first study, we compare Quilts using color-only, text-only, and mixed (color and text) skip link depictions, finding that path finding with the color-only depiction is significantly slower and less accurate, and that in certain cases, the mixed depiction offers an advantage over the text-only depiction. In our second study, we compare Quilts using the mixed depiction to node-link diagrams and centered matrices. Overall results show that users can find paths through graphs significantly faster with Quilts (46.6 secs) than with node-link (58.3 secs) or matrix (71.2 secs) diagrams. This speed advantage is still greater in large graphs (e.g. in 200 node graphs, 55.4 secs vs. 71.1 secs for node-link and 84.2 secs for matrix depictions). © 2011 IEEE

  15. Development of N+ in P pixel sensors for a high-luminosity large hadron collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Shintaro; Yamamura, Kazuhisa; Unno, Yoshinobu; Ikegami, Yoichi

    2014-11-01

    Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. is developing an N+ in a p planar pixel sensor with high radiation tolerance for the high-luminosity large hadron collider (HL-LHC). The N+ in the p planar pixel sensor is a candidate for the HL-LHC and offers the advantages of high radiation tolerance at a reasonable price compared with the N+ in an n planar sensor, the three-dimensional sensor, and the diamond sensor. However, the N+ in the p planar pixel sensor still presents some problems that need to be solved, such as its slim edge and the danger of sparks between the sensor and readout integrated circuit. We are now attempting to solve these problems with wafer-level processes, which is important for mass production. To date, we have obtained a 250-μm edge with an applied bias voltage of 1000 V. To protect against high-voltage sparks from the edge, we suggest some possible designs for the N+ edge.

  16. Development of N+ in P pixel sensors for a high-luminosity large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Shintaro; Yamamura, Kazuhisa; Unno, Yoshinobu; Ikegami, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. is developing an N+ in a p planar pixel sensor with high radiation tolerance for the high-luminosity large hadron collider (HL-LHC). The N+ in the p planar pixel sensor is a candidate for the HL-LHC and offers the advantages of high radiation tolerance at a reasonable price compared with the N+ in an n planar sensor, the three-dimensional sensor, and the diamond sensor. However, the N+ in the p planar pixel sensor still presents some problems that need to be solved, such as its slim edge and the danger of sparks between the sensor and readout integrated circuit. We are now attempting to solve these problems with wafer-level processes, which is important for mass production. To date, we have obtained a 250-μm edge with an applied bias voltage of 1000 V. To protect against high-voltage sparks from the edge, we suggest some possible designs for the N+ edge. - Highlights: • We achieved a tolerance of 1000 V with a 250-μm edge by Al2O3 side wall passivation. • Above is a wafer process and suitable for mass production. • For edge-spark protection, we suggest N+ edge with an isolation

  17. The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Projects are not financially attractive without registration as CDMs. • WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance. • A sensitivity analysis reveal that revenue has more of an effect on the financial results. • Results indicate that an extensive database would reduce WM project risk and capital costs. • Disclosure standards would make information more comparable worldwide. - Abstract: This study illustrates the financial analyses for demonstration and assessment of additionality presented in the project design (PDD) and enclosed documents of the 431 large Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) classified as the ‘waste handling and disposal sector’ (13) over the past ten years (2004–2014). The expected certified emissions reductions (CER) of these projects total 63.54 million metric tons of CO 2 eq, where eight countries account for 311 projects and 43.36 million metric tons. All of the projects declare themselves ‘not financially attractive’ without CER with an estimated sum of negative results of approximately a half billion US$. The results indicate that WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance, and the sensitivity analysis reveals that revenues have a greater effect on the financial results. This work concludes that an extensive financial database with simple standards for disclosure would greatly diminish statement problems and make information more comparable, reducing the risk and capital costs of WM projects

  18. Development of a self-consistent lightning NOx simulation in large-scale 3-D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Wang, Yuhang; Koshak, William J.

    2017-03-01

    We seek to develop a self-consistent representation of lightning NOx (LNOx) simulation in a large-scale 3-D model. Lightning flash rates are parameterized functions of meteorological variables related to convection. We examine a suite of such variables and find that convective available potential energy and cloud top height give the best estimates compared to July 2010 observations from ground-based lightning observation networks. Previous models often use lightning NOx vertical profiles derived from cloud-resolving model simulations. An implicit assumption of such an approach is that the postconvection lightning NOx vertical distribution is the same for all deep convection, regardless of geographic location, time of year, or meteorological environment. Detailed observations of the lightning channel segment altitude distribution derived from the NASA Lightning Nitrogen Oxides Model can be used to obtain the LNOx emission profile. Coupling such a profile with model convective transport leads to a more self-consistent lightning distribution compared to using prescribed postconvection profiles. We find that convective redistribution appears to be a more important factor than preconvection LNOx profile selection, providing another reason for linking the strength of convective transport to LNOx distribution.

  19. Developing a pediatric palliative care service in a large urban hospital: challenges, lessons, and successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlynn, Emily S; Derrington, Sabrina; Morgan, Helene; Murray, Jennifer; Ornelas, Beatriz; Cucchiaro, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    We report the process of creating a new palliative care service at a large, urban children's hospital. Our aim was to provide a detailed guide to developing an inpatient consultation service, along with reporting on the challenges, lessons, and evaluation. We examined the hiring process of personnel and marketing strategies, a clinical database facilitated ongoing quality review and identified trends, and a survey project assessed provider satisfaction and how referring physicians used the palliative care service. The pilot phase of service delivery laid the groundwork for a more effective service by creating documentation templates and identifying relevant data to track growth and outcomes. It also allowed time to establish a clear delineation of team members and distinction of roles. The survey of referring physicians proved a useful evaluation starting point, but conclusions could not be generalized because of the low response rate. It may be necessary to reconsider the survey technique and to expand the sample to include patients and families. Future research is needed to measure the financial benefits of a well-staffed inpatient pediatric palliative care service.

  20. Digital Archiving of People Flow by Recycling Large-Scale Social Survey Data of Developing Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Y.; Watanabe, A.; Nakamura, T.; Horanont, T.

    2012-07-01

    Data on people flow has become increasingly important in the field of business, including the areas of marketing and public services. Although mobile phones enable a person's position to be located to a certain degree, it is a challenge to acquire sufficient data from people with mobile phones. In order to grasp people flow in its entirety, it is important to establish a practical method of reconstructing people flow from various kinds of existing fragmentary spatio-temporal data such as social survey data. For example, despite typical Person Trip Survey Data collected by the public sector showing the fragmentary spatio-temporal positions accessed, the data are attractive given the sufficiently large sample size to estimate the entire flow of people. In this study, we apply our proposed basic method to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) PT data pertaining to developing cities around the world, and we propose some correction methods to resolve the difficulties in applying it to many cities and stably to infrastructure data.

  1. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  2. The role of mitochondrial DNA large deletion for the development of presbycusis in Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shankai; Yu, Zhiping; Sockalingam, Ravi; Bance, Manohar; Sun, Genlou; Wang, Jian

    2007-09-01

    Age-related hearing loss, or presbycusis, has been associated with large-scale mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion in previous studies. However, the role of this mtDNA damage in presbycusis is still not clear because the deletion in inner ears has not been measured quantitatively and analyzed in parallel with the time course of presbycusis. In the present study, the deletion was quantified using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in male Fischer 344 rats of different ages. It was found that the deletion increased quickly during young adulthood and reached over 60% at 6 months of age. However, a significant hearing loss was not seen until after 12 months of age. The results suggest that the existence of the deletion per se does not necessarily imply cochlear damage, but rather a critical level of the accumulated deletion seems to precede the hearing loss. The long delay may indicate the involvement of mechanisms other than mtDNA deletion in the development of presbycusis.

  3. Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot; Churchfield, Matthew; Cheung, Lawrence; Kern, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.

  4. Development of a Wind Plant Large-Eddy Simulation with Measurement-Driven Atmospheric Inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot W.; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Cheung, Lawrence; Kern, Stefan

    2017-01-09

    This paper details the development of an aeroelastic wind plant model with large-eddy simulation (LES). The chosen LES solver is the Simulator for Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) based on the OpenFOAM framework, coupled to NREL's comprehensive aeroelastic analysis tool, FAST. An atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) precursor simulation was constructed based on assessments of meteorological tower, lidar, and radar data over a 3-hour window. This precursor was tuned to the specific atmospheric conditions that occurred both prior to and during the measurement campaign, enabling capture of a night-to-day transition in the turbulent ABL. In the absence of height-varying temperature measurements, spatially averaged radar data were sufficient to characterize the atmospheric stability of the wind plant in terms of the shear profile, and near-ground temperature sensors provided a reasonable estimate of the ground heating rate describing the morning transition. A full aeroelastic simulation was then performed for a subset of turbines within the wind plant, driven by the precursor. Analysis of two turbines within the array, one directly waked by the other, demonstrated good agreement with measured time-averaged loads.

  5. The financial attractiveness assessment of large waste management projects registered as clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufoni, André Luiz, E-mail: bufoni@facc.ufrj.br [Energy Planning Program, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro PPE/COPPE/UFRJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Luciano Basto [International Virtual Institute of Global Changes IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ (Brazil); Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Energy Planning Program, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro PPE/COPPE/UFRJ (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Projects are not financially attractive without registration as CDMs. • WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance. • A sensitivity analysis reveal that revenue has more of an effect on the financial results. • Results indicate that an extensive database would reduce WM project risk and capital costs. • Disclosure standards would make information more comparable worldwide. - Abstract: This study illustrates the financial analyses for demonstration and assessment of additionality presented in the project design (PDD) and enclosed documents of the 431 large Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) classified as the ‘waste handling and disposal sector’ (13) over the past ten years (2004–2014). The expected certified emissions reductions (CER) of these projects total 63.54 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}eq, where eight countries account for 311 projects and 43.36 million metric tons. All of the projects declare themselves ‘not financially attractive’ without CER with an estimated sum of negative results of approximately a half billion US$. The results indicate that WM benchmarks and indicators are converging and reducing in variance, and the sensitivity analysis reveals that revenues have a greater effect on the financial results. This work concludes that an extensive financial database with simple standards for disclosure would greatly diminish statement problems and make information more comparable, reducing the risk and capital costs of WM projects.

  6. Large scale fire experiments in the HDR containment as a basis for fire code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Dobbernack, R.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1991 7 different series of large scale fire experiments and related numerical and theoretical investigations have been performed in the containment of a high pressure reactor in Germany (known as HDR plant). The experimental part included: gas burner tests for checking the containment behaviour; naturally ventilated fires with wood cribs; naturally and forced ventilated oil pool fires; naturally and forced ventilated cable fires. Many results of the oil pool and cable fires can directly be applied to predict the impact of real fires at different locations in a containment on mechanical or structural components as well as on plant personnel. But the main advantage of the measurements and observations was to serve as a basis for fire code development and validation. Different types of fire codes have been used to predict in advance or evaluate afterwards the test results: zone models for single room and multiple room configurations; system codes for multiple room configurations; field models for complex single room configurations. Finally, there exist codes of varying degree of specialization which have proven their power and sufficient exactness to predict fire effects as a basis for optimum fire protection design. (author)

  7. Large-scale development of PIP and SSR markers and their complementary applied in Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Cao, H; Yang, L; Yu, Yu; Wang, Yu

    2013-08-01

    PIP (Potential Intron Polymorphism) and SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats) were used in many species, but large-scale development and combined use of these two markers have not been reported in tobacco. In this study, a total of 12,388 PIP and 76,848 SSR markers were designed and uploaded to a web-accessible database (http://yancao.sdau.edu.cn/tgb/). E-PCR analysis showed that PIP and SSR rarely overlapped and were strongly complementary in the tobacco genome. The density was 3.07 PIP and 1.72 SSR markers per 10 kb of the known sequences. A total of 153 and 166 alleles were detectedby 22 PIP and 22 SSR markers in 64 Nicotiana accessions. SSR produced higher PIC (polymorphism information content) values and identified more alleles than PIP, whereas PIP could identify larger numbers of rare alleles. Mantel testing demonstrated a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.949, P SSR. The UPGMA dendrogram created from the combined PIP and SSR markers was clearer and more reliable than the individual PIP or SSR dendrograms. It suggested that PIP and SSR can make up the deficiency of molecular markers not only in tobacco but other plant.

  8. Development of computational infrastructure to support hyper-resolution large-ensemble hydrology simulations from local-to-continental scales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of computational infrastructure to support hyper-resolution large-ensemble hydrology simulations from local-to-continental scales A move is currently...

  9. Effects of mud supply on large-scale estuary morphology and development over centuries to millennia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, L.; van Kessel, Thijs; Leuven, J.R.F.W.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Alluvial river estuaries consist largely of sand but are typically flanked by mudflats and salt marshes. The analogy with meandering rivers that are kept narrower than braided rivers by cohesive floodplain formation raises the question of how large-scale estuarine morphology and the late Holocene

  10. How to correct for long-term externalities of large-scale wind power development by a capacity mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in electricity markets in the presence of large-scale wind power development. The success of recent renewable promotion schemes adds a new dimension to ensuring long-term security of supply: it necessitates designing second-best policies to prevent large-scale wind power development from distorting long-run equilibrium prices and investments in conventional generation and in particular in peaking units. We rely upon a long-term simulation model which simulates electricity market players' investment decisions in a market regime and incorporates large-scale wind power development in the presence of either subsidized or market driven development scenarios. We test the use of capacity mechanisms to compensate for long-term effects of large-scale wind power development on prices and reliability of supply. The first finding is that capacity mechanisms can help to reduce the social cost of large scale wind power development in terms of decrease of loss of load probability. The second finding is that, in a market-based wind power deployment without subsidy, wind generators are penalised for insufficient contribution to the long term system's reliability. - Highlights: • We model power market players’ investment decisions incorporating wind power. • We examine two market designs: an energy-only market and a capacity mechanism. • We test two types of wind power development paths: subsidised and market-driven. • Capacity mechanisms compensate for the externalities of wind power developments

  11. Development and Execution of a Large-scale DDT Tube Test for IHE Material Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Gary Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Broilo, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez-Pulliam, Ian Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vaughan, Larry Dean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-24

    Insensitive High Explosive (IHE) Materials are defined in Chapter IX of the DOE Explosive Safety Standard (DOE-STD-1212-2012) as being materials that are massdetonable explosives that are so insensitive that the probability of accidental initiation or transition from burning to detonation is negligible1. There are currently a number of tests included in the standard that are required to qualify a material as IHE, however, none of the tests directly evaluate for the transition from burning to detonation (aka deflagration-to-detonation transition, DDT). Currently, there is a DOE complex-wide effort to revisit the IHE definition in DOE-STD-1212-2012 and change the qualification requirements. The proposal lays out a new approach, requiring fewer, but more appropriate tests, for IHE Material qualification. One of these new tests is the Deflagration-to-Detonation Test. According to the redefinition proposal, the purpose of the new deflagration-todetonation test is “to demonstrate that an IHE material will not undergo deflagration-to-detonation under stockpile relevant conditions of scale, confinement, and material condition. Inherent in this test design is the assumption that ignition does occur, with onset of deflagration. The test design will incorporate large margins and replicates to account for the stochastic nature of DDT events.” In short, the philosophy behind this approach is that if a material fails to undergo DDT in a significant over-test, then it is extremely unlikely to do so in realistic conditions. This effort will be valuable for the B61 LEP to satisfy their need qualify the new production lots of PBX 9502. The work described in this report is intended as a preliminary investigation to support the proposed design of an overly conservative, easily fielded DDT test for updated IHE Material Qualification standard. Specifically, we evaluated the aspects of confinement, geometry, material morphology and temperature. We also developed and tested a

  12. Commercial applications of large-scale Research and Development computer simulation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuok Mee Ling; Pascal Chen; Wen Ho Lee

    1998-01-01

    The potential commercial applications of two large-scale R and D computer simulation technologies are presented. One such technology is based on the numerical solution of the hydrodynamics equations, and is embodied in the two-dimensional Eulerian code EULE2D, which solves the hydrodynamic equations with various models for the equation of state (EOS), constitutive relations and fracture mechanics. EULE2D is an R and D code originally developed to design and analyze conventional munitions for anti-armor penetrations such as shaped charges, explosive formed projectiles, and kinetic energy rods. Simulated results agree very well with actual experiments. A commercial application presented here is the design and simulation of shaped charges for oil and gas well bore perforation. The other R and D simulation technology is based on the numerical solution of Maxwell's partial differential equations of electromagnetics in space and time, and is implemented in the three-dimensional code FDTD-SPICE, which solves Maxwell's equations in the time domain with finite-differences in the three spatial dimensions and calls SPICE for information when nonlinear active devices are involved. The FDTD method has been used in the radar cross-section modeling of military aircrafts and many other electromagnetic phenomena. The coupling of FDTD method with SPICE, a popular circuit and device simulation program, provides a powerful tool for the simulation and design of microwave and millimeter-wave circuits containing nonlinear active semiconductor devices. A commercial application of FDTD-SPICE presented here is the simulation of a two-element active antenna system. The simulation results and the experimental measurements are in excellent agreement. (Author)

  13. RELAP5/SCDAPSIM model development for AP1000 and verification for large break LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A.K. [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Program, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Allison, C. [Innovative Systems Software, Idaho Falls, ID 83406 (United States); Khanna, A., E-mail: akhanna@iitk.ac.in [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Program, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Munshi, P. [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Program, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • RELAP5/SCDAPSIM model of AP1000 has been developed. • Analysis involves a LBLOCA (double ended guillotine break) study in cold leg. • Results are compared with those of WCOBRA–TRAC and TRACE. • Concluded that PCT does not violate the safety criteria of 1477 K. - Abstract: The AP1000 is a Westinghouse 2-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with all emergency core cooling systems based on natural circulation. Its core design is very similar to a 3-loop PWR with 157 fuel assemblies. Westinghouse has reported their results of the safety analysis in its design control document (DCD) for a large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) using WCOBRA/TRAC and for a small break LOCA using NOTRUMP. The current study involves the development of a representative RELAP5/SCDASIM model for AP1000 based on publically available data and its verification for a double ended cold leg (DECL) break in one of the cold legs in the loop containing core makeup tanks (CMT). The calculated RELAP5/SCDAPSIM results have been compared to publically available WCOBRA–TRAC and TRACE results of DECL break in AP1000. The objective of this study is to benchmark thermal hydraulic model for later severe accident analyses using the 2D SCDAP fuel rod component in place of the RELAP5 heat structures which currently represent the fuel rods. Results from this comparison provides sufficient confidence in the model which will be used for further studies such as a station blackout. The primary circuit pumps, pressurizer and steam generators (including the necessary secondary side) are modeled using RELAP5 components following all the necessary recommendations for nodalization. The core has been divided into 6 radial rings and 10 axial nodes. For the RELAP5 thermal hydraulic calculation, the six groups of fuel assemblies have been modeled as pipe components with equivalent flow areas. The fuel including the gap and cladding is modeled as a 1d heat structure. The final input deck achieved

  14. Development of a Large Area Advanced Fast RICH Detector for Particle Identification at the Large Hadron Collider Operated with Heavy Ions

    CERN Multimedia

    Piuz, F; Braem, A; Van beelen, J B; Lion, G; Gandi, A

    2002-01-01

    %RD26 %title\\\\ \\\\During the past two years, RD26 groups have focused their activities on the production of CsI-RICH prototypes of large area, up to a square meter, to demonstrate their application in High Energy experiments. Many large CsI-photocathodes (up to 40) were produced following the processing techniques furthermore developped in the collaboration. Taking the Quantum Efficiency (QE) measured at 180 nm as a comparative figure of merit of a CsI-PC. Figure 1 shows the increase of the performance while improvements were successively implemented in the PC processing sequence. Most efficient were the use of substrates made of nickel, the heat treatment and handling of the PCs under inert gas. Actually, three large systems based on CsI-RICH have got approval in the following HEP experiments: HADES at GSI, COMPASS/NA58 at CERN and HMPID/ALICE at LHC implying up to 14 square metres of CsI-PC. In addition, several CsI-RICH detectors have been successfully operated in the Threshold Imaging Detector at NA44 and ...

  15. Workshop Report on Additive Manufacturing for Large-Scale Metal Components - Development and Deployment of Metal Big-Area-Additive-Manufacturing (Large-Scale Metals AM) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Dehoff, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility

    2016-05-01

    ) systems development, (iv) material feedstock, (v) process planning, (vi) residual stress & distortion, (vii) post-processing, (viii) qualification of parts, (ix) supply chain and (x) business case. Furthermore, an open innovation network methodology was proposed to accelerate the development and deployment of new large-scale metal additive manufacturing technology with the goal of creating a new generation of high deposition rate equipment, affordable feed stocks, and large metallic components to enhance America’s economic competitiveness.

  16. Technology development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a candidate large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley

    2015-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10-10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing and control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 μm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (~290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  17. Articulating the Role of the Development Specialist in Large Organisational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Dell

    1997-01-01

    Workplace educators play a more holistic role of development specialists who plan, implement, and manage human resource development. This role requires skills in communication, employee relations, program development, change agency, and budget management. (SK)

  18. Development of the mechanical engineering complex on the basis of the improvement of large and small businesses relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition, pace and character of the development of the mechanical engineering complex is in many aspects a crucial factor for the social and economic situation of any country. The development of market relations, changes of the conditions of doing business encourage the enterprises to search new managerial methods and to improve the interaction forms. In this respect the display of the peculiarities of the interaction of large machine engineering enterprises and small business in this sphere and also the assessment of the relationship of their development is an important and crucial issue under modern conditions. The most widely spread forms of the cooperation of large scale mechanical engineering enterprises and small businesses of the industry are: outsourcing, franchising, leasing, subcontracting, venture financing, creation of regional forms of the cooperation of large and small firms. However cooperation processes of large scale and small entrepreneurship in Russia are not properly developed. The authors determine the factors hindering the growth of the machine building industry, suggest the recommendations for the development of the large scale enterprises and small business in the industry, substantiate the role of the government in this process. Besides the mechanism of the state support of the development of small business is described.

  19. How to correct long-term system externality of large scale wind power development by a capacity mechanism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in electricity markets in the presence of large-scale wind power development. The success of renewable promotion schemes adds a new dimension to ensuring long-term security of supply. It necessitates designing second-best policies to prevent large-scale wind power development from distorting long-run equilibrium prices and investments in conventional generation and in particular in peaking units. We rely upon a long-term simulation model which simulates electricity market players' investment decisions in a market regime and incorporates large-scale wind power development either in the presence of either subsidised wind production or in market-driven development. We test the use of capacity mechanisms to compensate for the long-term effects of large-scale wind power development on the system reliability. The first finding is that capacity mechanisms can help to reduce the social cost of large scale wind power development in terms of decrease of loss of load probability. The second finding is that, in a market-based wind power deployment without subsidy, wind generators are penalized for insufficient contribution to the long term system's reliability. (authors)

  20. Recent development of the Multi-Grid detector for large area neutron scattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerard, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Most of the Neutron Scattering facilities are committed in a continuous program of modernization of their instruments, requiring large area and high performance thermal neutron detectors. Beside scintillators detectors, 3 He detectors, like linear PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) and MWPCs (Multi-Wires Proportional Chambers), are the most current techniques nowadays. Time Of Flight instruments are using 3 He PSDs mounted side by side to cover tens of m 2 . As a result of the so-called ' 3 He shortage crisis , the volume of 3He which is needed to build one of these instruments is not accessible anymore. The development of alternative techniques requiring no 3He, has been given high priority to secure the future of neutron scattering instrumentation. This is particularly important in the context where the future ESS (European Spallation Source) will start its operation in 2019-2020. Improved scintillators represent one of the alternative techniques. Another one is the Multi-Grid introduced at the ILL in 2009. A Multi-Grid detector is composed of several independent modules of typically 0.8 m x 3 m sensitive area, mounted side by side in air or in a vacuum TOF chamber. One module is composed of segmented boron-lined proportional counters mounted in a gas vessel; the counters, of square section, are assembled with Aluminium grids electrically insulated and stacked together. This design provides two advantages: First, magnetron sputtering techniques can be used to coat B 4 C films on planar substrates, and second, the neutron position along the anode wires can be measured by reading out individually the grid signals with fast shaping amplifiers followed by comparators. Unlike charge division localisation in linear PSDs, the individual readout of the grids allows operating the Multi-Grid at a low amplification gain, hence this detector is tolerant to mechanical defects and its production accessible to laboratories equipped with standard equipment. Prototypes of

  1. Recent development of the Multi-Grid detector for large area neutron scattering instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerard, Bruno [ILL-ESS-LiU collaboration, CRISP project, Institut Laue Langevin - ILL, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Neutron Scattering facilities are committed in a continuous program of modernization of their instruments, requiring large area and high performance thermal neutron detectors. Beside scintillators detectors, {sup 3}He detectors, like linear PSDs (Position Sensitive Detectors) and MWPCs (Multi-Wires Proportional Chambers), are the most current techniques nowadays. Time Of Flight instruments are using {sup 3}He PSDs mounted side by side to cover tens of m{sup 2}. As a result of the so-called '{sup 3}He shortage crisis{sup ,} the volume of 3He which is needed to build one of these instruments is not accessible anymore. The development of alternative techniques requiring no 3He, has been given high priority to secure the future of neutron scattering instrumentation. This is particularly important in the context where the future ESS (European Spallation Source) will start its operation in 2019-2020. Improved scintillators represent one of the alternative techniques. Another one is the Multi-Grid introduced at the ILL in 2009. A Multi-Grid detector is composed of several independent modules of typically 0.8 m x 3 m sensitive area, mounted side by side in air or in a vacuum TOF chamber. One module is composed of segmented boron-lined proportional counters mounted in a gas vessel; the counters, of square section, are assembled with Aluminium grids electrically insulated and stacked together. This design provides two advantages: First, magnetron sputtering techniques can be used to coat B{sub 4}C films on planar substrates, and second, the neutron position along the anode wires can be measured by reading out individually the grid signals with fast shaping amplifiers followed by comparators. Unlike charge division localisation in linear PSDs, the individual readout of the grids allows operating the Multi-Grid at a low amplification gain, hence this detector is tolerant to mechanical defects and its production accessible to laboratories equipped with standard

  2. Utilization of AHWR critical facility for research and development work on large sample NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Dasari, K.B.; Pujari, P.K.; Swain, K.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Verma, S.K.; De, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    The graphite reflector position of AHWR critical facility (CF) was utilized for analysis of large size (g-kg scale) samples using internal mono standard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA). The reactor position was characterized by cadmium ratio method using In monitor for total flux and sub cadmium to epithermal flux ratio (f). Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) work was carried out for samples of stainless steel, ancient and new clay potteries and dross. Large as well as non-standard geometry samples (1 g - 0.5 kg) were irradiated. Radioactive assay was carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. Concentration ratios obtained by IM-NAA were used for provenance study of 30 clay potteries, obtained from excavated Buddhist sites of AP, India. Concentrations of Au and Ag were determined in not so homogeneous three large size samples of dross. An X-Z rotary scanning unit has been installed for counting large and not so homogeneous samples. (author)

  3. The development of large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingwen; Geng, Anbing; Wang, Bo; Wang, Haitao; Wu, Yanying

    2015-10-01

    Infrared camera and CCD camera dual-band imaging system is used in many equipment and application widely. If it is tested using the traditional infrared camera test system and visible CCD test system, 2 times of installation and alignment are needed in the test procedure. The large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera uses the common large-aperture reflection collimator, target wheel, frame-grabber, computer which reduces the cost and the time of installation and alignment. Multiple-frame averaging algorithm is used to reduce the influence of random noise. Athermal optical design is adopted to reduce the change of focal length location change of collimator when the environmental temperature is changing, and the image quality of the collimator of large field of view and test accuracy are also improved. Its performance is the same as that of the exotic congener and is much cheaper. It will have a good market.

  4. Development of large-volume rhyolitic ignibrites (LRI'S): The Chalupas Caldera, an example from Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammersley, L.; DePaolo, D.J; Beate, B

    2001-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the generation of large volumes of silicic magma and the eruption of large-volume rhyolitic ignimbrites (LRI's) remain poorly understood. Of particular interest are the relative roles of crustal assimilation, fractional crystallization and magma supply and the processes by which large volumes of magma accumulate in crustal chambers rather than erupt in smaller batches. Isotope geochemistry, combined with study of major and trace element variations of lavas, can be used to infer the relative contribution of crustal material and continued magmatic supply. Timescales for the accumulation of magma can be estimated using detailed geochronology. Magma supply rates can be estimated from eruption rates of nearby volcanoes. In this study we investigate the evolution of the Chalupas LRI, a caldera system in the Ecuadorian Andes where LRI's are rare in comparison to the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) of South America (au)

  5. Development of technology for the large-scale preparation of 60Co polymer film source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udhayakumar, J.; Pardeshi, G.S.; Gandhi, Shymala S.; Chakravarty, Rubel; Kumar, Manoj; Dash, Ashutosh; Venkatesh, Meera

    2008-01-01

    60 Co sources (∼37 kBq) in the form of a thin film are widely used in position identification of perforation in offshore oil-well explorations. This paper describes the large-scale preparation of such sources using a radioactive polymer containing 60 Co. 60 Co was extracted into chloroform containing 8-hydroxyquinoline. The chloroform layer was mixed with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer. A large film was prepared using the polymer solution containing the complex. The polymer film was then cut into circular sources, mounted on a source holder and supplied to various users

  6. Advanced UVOIR Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Very Large Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Smith, W. Scott; Mosier, Gary; Abplanalp, Laura; Arnold, William

    2014-01-01

    ASTRO2010 Decadal stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. AMTD builds on the state of art (SOA) defined by over 30 years of monolithic & segmented ground & space-telescope mirror technology to mature six key technologies. AMTD is deliberately pursuing multiple design paths to provide the science community with op-tions to enable either large aperture monolithic or segmented mirrors with clear engineering metrics traceable to science requirements.

  7. Large acceptance spectrometers for invariant mass spectroscopy of exotic nuclei and future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Large acceptance spectrometers at in-flight RI separators have played significant roles in investigating the structure of exotic nuclei. Such spectrometers are in particular useful for probing unbound states of exotic nuclei, using invariant mass spectroscopy with reactions at intermediate and high energies. We discuss here the key characteristic features of such spectrometers, by introducing the recently commissioned SAMURAI facility at the RIBF, RIKEN. We also investigate the issue of cross talk in the detection of multiple neutrons, which has become crucial for exploring further unbound states and nuclei beyond the neutron drip line. Finally we discuss future perspectives for large acceptance spectrometers at the new-generation RI-beam facilities.

  8. Development of Best Practices for Large-scale Data Management Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stadtmüller; H.F. Mühleisen (Hannes); C. Bizer; M.L. Kersten (Martin); J.A. de Rijke (Arjen); F.E. Groffen (Fabian); Y. Zhang (Ying); G. Ladwig; A. Harth; M Trampus

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractThe amount of available data for processing is constantly increasing and becomes more diverse. We collect our experiences on deploying large-scale data management tools on local-area clusters or cloud infrastructures and provide guidance to use these computing and storage

  9. Using Market Segmentation to Develop a Large Section, Web-Enhanced Survey Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jason; Robertson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Increasing enrollment and decreasing budgets have caused many public universities, such as San Fransisco State University (SFU), to offer mega-sections of courses to hundreds of students. Yet the needs of many students are at odds with the large enrollments, inflexible times, and inconvenient locations of these classes. Jason Cole and Bruce…

  10. Development and application of a massively parallel KKR Green function method for large scale systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiess, Alexander R.

    2011-12-19

    In this thesis we present the development of the self-consistent, full-potential Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green function method KKRnano for calculating the electronic properties, magnetic interactions, and total energy including all electrons on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT) on high-end massively parallelized high-performance computers for supercells containing thousands of atoms without sacrifice of accuracy. KKRnano was used for the following two applications. The first application is centered in the field of dilute magnetic semiconductors. In this field a new promising material combination was identified: gadolinium doped gallium nitride which shows ferromagnetic ordering of colossal magnetic moments above room temperature. It quickly turned out that additional extrinsic defects are inducing the striking properties. However, the question which kind of extrinsic defects are present in experimental samples is still unresolved. In order to shed light on this open question, we perform extensive studies of the most promising candidates: interstitial nitrogen and oxygen, as well as gallium vacancies. By analyzing the pairwise magnetic coupling among defects it is shown that nitrogen and oxygen interstitials cannot support thermally stable ferromagnetic order. Gallium vacancies, on the other hand, facilitate an important coupling mechanism. The vacancies are found to induce large magnetic moments on all surrounding nitrogen sites, which then couple ferromagnetically both among themselves and with the gadolinium dopants. Based on a statistical evaluation it can be concluded that already small concentrations of gallium vacancies can lead to a distinct long-range ferromagnetic ordering. Beyond this important finding we present further indications, from which we infer that gallium vacancies likely cause the striking ferromagnetic coupling of colossal magnetic moments in GaN:Gd. The second application deals with the phase-change material germanium

  11. Development and application of a massively parallel KKR Green function method for large scale systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiess, Alexander R.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we present the development of the self-consistent, full-potential Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green function method KKRnano for calculating the electronic properties, magnetic interactions, and total energy including all electrons on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT) on high-end massively parallelized high-performance computers for supercells containing thousands of atoms without sacrifice of accuracy. KKRnano was used for the following two applications. The first application is centered in the field of dilute magnetic semiconductors. In this field a new promising material combination was identified: gadolinium doped gallium nitride which shows ferromagnetic ordering of colossal magnetic moments above room temperature. It quickly turned out that additional extrinsic defects are inducing the striking properties. However, the question which kind of extrinsic defects are present in experimental samples is still unresolved. In order to shed light on this open question, we perform extensive studies of the most promising candidates: interstitial nitrogen and oxygen, as well as gallium vacancies. By analyzing the pairwise magnetic coupling among defects it is shown that nitrogen and oxygen interstitials cannot support thermally stable ferromagnetic order. Gallium vacancies, on the other hand, facilitate an important coupling mechanism. The vacancies are found to induce large magnetic moments on all surrounding nitrogen sites, which then couple ferromagnetically both among themselves and with the gadolinium dopants. Based on a statistical evaluation it can be concluded that already small concentrations of gallium vacancies can lead to a distinct long-range ferromagnetic ordering. Beyond this important finding we present further indications, from which we infer that gallium vacancies likely cause the striking ferromagnetic coupling of colossal magnetic moments in GaN:Gd. The second application deals with the phase-change material germanium

  12. Organizational and technological genesis as a tool for strategic planning of large-scale real estate development projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusakova Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual planning and implementation of large-scale real estate development projects is one of the most difficult tasks in the organization of construction. In the Russian practice, a large experience of development, complex reorganization and redevelopment of large development areas is accumulated. The methodological basis for solving similar problems is the organizational and technological genesis, which considers the development of the project during the full life cycle. An analysis of this experience allows us to talk about the formation of new and effective approaches and methods within the organizational and technological genesis. Among them, the most significant and universal approaches should be highlighted: The concept of real estate development, which explains the reasons and objective needs for project transformations during its life cycle, as well as to increase the adaptive capabilities of design decisions and the project's suitability for the most likely future changes; Development project of joint action, which is based on the balance of interests of project participants; Master planning of the life cycle stages of the project and subprojects, based on the rethinking of the theory and methods of the construction organization, and allowing rationally localized construction sites and related subprojects, while retaining the remaining development and development area beyond of the negative effect of construction for comfortable living and work.

  13. Position Paper on Jatropha curcas. State of the Art Small and Large Scale Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daey Ouwens, K.; Franken, Y.J.; Rijssenbeek, W. [Fuels from Agriculture in Communal Technology FACT, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Francis, G. [University of Hohenheim, Hohenheim (Germany); Riedacker, A. [French National Institute for Agricultural Research INRA, Paris (France); Foidl, N.; Jongschaap, R.; Bindraban, P. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2007-06-15

    Much information has been collected during the Seminar on Jatropha held in Wageningen, Netherlands, March 2007, summarized in this paper. Much research is still necessary to improve yield, to allow use of biological products such as oil cake as animal fodder, etc. Good documented yield data are still scarce. Cooperation with research institutions is therefore recommended. At this stage it is still particularly important to distinguish between reality, promises and dangerous extrapolations. To avoid, spectacular and regretful failures and waste of money for investors as well as great disappointments of local populations, promoters of large scale plantation are invited to adopt stepwise approaches: large scale plantations should only be considered after some 4 to 5 years obtaining experimental data (annual seed yield and oil yield, economical viability etc.) from a sufficient number of small scale experimental plots (about 1 ha) corresponding to the whole range of soil and climatic conditions of such projects.

  14. Development of large size Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN f oresees a luminosity increase by a factor 3 compared to the LHC luminosity design value. To c ope with the corresponding rate increase, the Muon System of the ATLAS experiment at CER N needs to be upgraded. In the first station of the high rapidity region, micromegas det ectors have been chosen as the main tracking chambers but will, at the same time, also contribut e to the trigger. We describe the R&D; efforts that led to the construction of the first (1 × 2.4 m 2 ) large micromegas detectors at CERN and outline the next steps towards the construction of the 12 00 m 2 of micromegas detectors for the ATLAS upgrade. The technical solutions, adopted in the c onstruction of the chamber as well as results on the detector performance with cosmic rays are s hown.

  15. The development of a prototype facility for a large diameter vertical axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    A proposal is made in this document for the design, construction, assembly and test of a demonstration wind turbine generator system. The specific objective of the program will be to demonstrate that the proposed system satisfies the need for cheap power generation at those remote meteorological stations which currently rely exclusively on fossil fuel that must be transported to the site at great cost. It intends to demonstrate that a large vertical axis wind turbine system is within the current state-of-art, is practical and is economically attractive. The program will include a conceptual design phase, a detail design phase, a construction and assembly phase at a selected site and a demonstration phase during which data will be gathered on operation at this large scale. A theory of operation of the proposed design is included. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Large-scale methanol plants. [Based on Japanese-developed process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tado, Y

    1978-02-01

    A study was made on how to produce methanol economically which is expected as a growth item for use as a material for pollution-free energy or for chemical use, centering on the following subjects: (1) Improvement of thermal economy, (2) Improvement of process, and (3) Problems of hardware attending the expansion of scale. The results of this study were already adopted in actual plants, obtaining good results, and large-scale methanol plants are going to be realized.

  17. Biofuel Development and Large-Scale Land Deals in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgia Giovannetti; Elisa Ticci

    2013-01-01

    Africa's biofuel potential over the last ten years has increasingly attracted foreign investors’ attention. We estimate the determinants of foreign investors land demand for biofuel production in SSA, using Poisson specifications of the gravity model. Our estimates suggest that land availability, abundance of water resources and weak land governance are significant determinants of large-scale land acquisitions for biofuel production. This in turn suggests that this type of investment is mainl...

  18. Development of a large-area Multigap RPC with adequate spatial resolution for muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Zeng, M.; Xie, B.; Han, D.; Lyu, P.; Wang, F.; Li, Y.

    2016-11-01

    We study the performance of a large-area 2-D Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) designed for muon tomography with high spatial resolution. An efficiency up to 98% and a spatial resolution of around 270 μ m are obtained in cosmic ray and X-ray tests. The performance of the MRPC is also investigated for two working gases: standard gas and pure Freon. The result shows that the MRPC working in pure Freon can provide higher efficiency and better spatial resolution.

  19. The Large Marine Ecosystem Approach for 21st Century Ocean Health and International Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, K. T.

    2014-12-01

    The global coastal ocean and watersheds are divided into 66 Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), which encompass regions from river basins, estuaries, and coasts to the seaward boundaries of continental shelves and margins of major currents. Approximately 80% of global fisheries catch comes from LME waters. Ecosystem goods and services from LMEs contribute an estimated US 18-25 trillion dollars annually to the global economy in market and non-market value. The critical importance of these large-scale systems, however, is threatened by human populations and pressures, including climate change. Fortunately, there is pragmatic reason for optimism. Interdisciplinary frameworks exist, such as the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) approach for adaptive management that can integrate both nature-centric and human-centric views into ecosystem monitoring, assessment, and adaptive management practices for long-term sustainability. Originally proposed almost 30 years ago, the LME approach rests on five modules are: (i) productivity, (ii) fish and fisheries, (iii) pollution and ecosystem health, (iv) socioeconomics, and (v) governance for iterative adaptive management at a large, international scale of 200,000 km2 or greater. The Global Environment Facility (GEF), World Bank, and United Nations agencies recognize and support the LME approach—as evidenced by over 3.15 billion in financial assistance to date for LME projects. This year of 2014 is an exciting milestone in LME history, after 20 years of the United Nations and GEF organizations adopting LMEs as a unit for ecosystem-based approaches to management. The LME approach, however, is not perfect. Nor is it immutable. Similar to the adaptive management framework it propones, the LME approach itself must adapt to new and emerging 21st Century technologies, science, and realities. The LME approach must further consider socioeconomics and governance. Within the socioeconomics module alone, several trillion-dollar opportunities exist

  20. Towards development of nanofibrous large strain flexible strain sensors with programmable shape memory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, N.; Asif, H.; Naguib, H. E.

    2018-05-01

    Electrospun polymeric fibers can be used as strain sensors due to their large surface to weight/volume ratio, high porosity and pore interconnectivity. Large strain flexible strain sensors are used in numerous applications including rehabilitation, health monitoring, and sports performance monitoring where large strain detection should be accommodated by the sensor. This has boosted the demand for a stretchable, flexible and highly sensitive sensor able to detect a wide range of mechanically induced deformations. Herein, a physically cross-linked polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) blend is made into nanofiber networks via electrospinning. The PLA/TPU weight ratio is optimized to obtain a maximum attainable strain of 100% while maintaining its mechanical integrity. The TPU/PLA fibers also allowed for their thermally activated recovery due to shape memory properties of the substrate. This novel feature enhances the sensor’s performance as it is no longer limited by its plastic deformation. Using spray coating method, a homogeneous layer of single-walled carbon nanotube is deposited onto the as-spun fiber mat to induce electrical conductivity to the surface of the fibers. It is shown that stretching and bending the sensor result in a highly sensitive and linear response with a maximum gauge factor of 33.

  1. Development of three-dimensional phasic-velocity distribution measurement in a large-diameter pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Taizo; Furuya, Masahiro; Arai, Takahiro; Shirakawa, Kenetsu

    2011-01-01

    A wire-mesh sensor (WMS) can acquire a void fraction distribution at a high temporal and spatial resolution and also estimate the velocity of a vertical rising flow by investigating the signal time-delay of the upstream WMS relative to downstream. Previously, one-dimensional velocity was estimated by using the same point of each WMS at a temporal resolution of 1.0 - 5.0 s. The authors propose to extend this time series analysis to estimate the multi-dimensional velocity profile via cross-correlation analysis between a point of upstream WMS and multiple points downstream. Bubbles behave in various ways according to size, which is used to classify them into certain groups via wavelet analysis before cross-correlation analysis. This method was verified by air-water straight and swirl flows within a large-diameter vertical pipe. The results revealed that for the rising straight and swirl flows, large scale bubbles tend to move to the center, while the small bubble is pushed to the outside or sucked into the space where the large bubbles existed. Moreover, it is found that this method can estimate the rotational component of velocity of the swirl flow as well as measuring the multi-dimensional velocity vector at high temporal resolutions of 0.2s. (author)

  2. Lessons learned: Infrastructure development and financial management for large, publicly funded, international trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Gregg S; Carey, Cate; Grarup, Jesper; Hudson, Fleur; Sachi, Karen; Vjecha, Michael J; Gordin, Fred

    2016-04-01

    Randomized clinical trials are widely recognized as essential to address worldwide clinical and public health research questions. However, their size and duration can overwhelm available public and private resources. To remain competitive in international research settings, advocates and practitioners of clinical trials must implement practices that reduce their cost. We identify approaches and practices for large, publicly funded, international trials that reduce cost without compromising data integrity and recommend an approach to cost reporting that permits comparison of clinical trials. We describe the organizational and financial characteristics of The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials, an infectious disease research network that conducts multiple, large, long-term, international trials, and examine challenges associated with simple and streamlined governance and an infrastructure and financial management model that is based on performance, transparency, and accountability. It is possible to reduce costs of participants' follow-up and not compromise clinical trial quality or integrity. The International Network for Strategic Initiatives in Global HIV Trials network has successfully completed three large HIV trials using cost-efficient practices that have not adversely affected investigator enthusiasm, accrual rates, loss-to-follow-up, adherence to the protocol, and completion of data collection. This experience is relevant to the conduct of large, publicly funded trials in other disease areas, particularly trials dependent on international collaborations. New approaches, or creative adaption of traditional clinical trial infrastructure and financial management tools, can render large, international clinical trials more cost-efficient by emphasizing structural simplicity, minimal up-front costs, payments for performance, and uniform algorithms and fees-for-service, irrespective of location. However, challenges remain. They

  3. COSIGN – developing an optical software controlled data plane for future large-scale datacenter networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Kamchevska, Valerija; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2015-01-01

    This talk will present the work of the EU project COSIGN targeting the development of optical data plane solutions for future high-capacity datacenter networks (DCNs). Optical data planes with high capacity and high flexibility through software control are developed in order to enable a coherent...

  4. Results of research and development in large-scale research centers as an innovation source for firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theenhaus, R.

    1978-01-01

    The twelve large-scale research centres of the Federal Republic of Germany with their 16,000 employees represent a considerable scientific and technical potential. Cooperation with industry with regard to large-scale projects has already become very close and the know-how flow as well as the contributions to innovation connected therewith are largely established. The first successful steps to utilizing the results of basic research, of spin off and those within the frame of research and development as well as the fulfilling of services are encouraging. However, there is a number of detail problems which can only be solved between all parties concerned, in particular between industry and all large-scale research centres. (orig./RW) [de

  5. Megastudies, crowdsourcing, and large datasets in psycholinguistics: An overview of recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuleers, Emmanuel; Balota, David A

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces and summarizes the special issue on megastudies, crowdsourcing, and large datasets in psycholinguistics. We provide a brief historical overview and show how the papers in this issue have extended the field by compiling new databases and making important theoretical contributions. In addition, we discuss several studies that use text corpora to build distributional semantic models to tackle various interesting problems in psycholinguistics. Finally, as is the case across the papers, we highlight some methodological issues that are brought forth via the analyses of such datasets.

  6. Development of large area si detectors based on planar technology for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanchang; Sun Liang; Huang Xiaojian; Liu Yang; Chen Guozhu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the processing method of large area Si detectors fabricated by planar technology for charged particles. In order to decrease the detectors leakage current, the surface passivation technique was used. The paper gives the measurement results of the leakage current of 300μm thick, 20mm diameter detectors and 500μm thick, 40mm diameter detectors respectively. The spectra of the detectors for 241 Am 5.486MeV α particles are also provided at room temperature. (authors)

  7. Behavioral responses of birds of prey to large scale energy development in southcentral Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.

    1985-02-01

    The types of raptorial and semi-raptorial birds that use the Hanford environs are discussed along with the impacts of past operations and the recent WPPSS project on their populations. These findings add to our understanding of the population dynamics of the birds of prey community at the Hanford Site and the expected impacts of the WPPSS energy facilities. The results may have implications toward other large scale energy facilities, and may aid us in management of bird of prey communities throughout the grasslands of the western United States. 110 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Trends in the development of large area photon detectors for Cherenkov light imaging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nappi, E

    2003-01-01

    Since the successful operations of hi-tech devices at OMEGA, DELPHI and SLD, the technique of Cherenkov light imaging has gone through an impressive and fruitful evolution driven by the conception of novel large area photon detectors. The well-assessed potentialities of thin CsI films, employed as reflective photoconverters in gas counters operated at atmospheric pressure, will be compared with the promising features of hybrid and multianode vacuum photomultipliers. Recently proposed single-photon gaseous detectors based on GEMs will also be reviewed.

  9. Designing and developing portable large-scale JavaScript web applications within the Experiment Dashboard framework

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in web browser performance and web standards compliance, as well as the availability of comprehensive JavaScript libraries, provides an opportunity to develop functionally rich yet intuitive web applications that allow users to access, render and analyse data in novel ways. However, the development of such large-scale JavaScript web applications presents new challenges, in particular with regard to code sustainability and team-based work. We present an approach that meets the challenges of large-scale JavaScript web application design and development, including client-side model-view-controller architecture, design patterns, and JavaScript libraries. Furthermore, we show how the approach leads naturally to the encapsulation of the data source as a web API, allowing applications to be easily ported to new data sources. The Experiment Dashboard framework is used for the development of applications for monitoring the distributed computing activities of virtual organisations on the Worldwide LHC Co...

  10. Designing and developing portable large-scale JavaScript web applications within the Experiment Dashboard framework

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; Karavakis, E; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Nowotka, M; Saiz, P; Tuckett, D

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in web browser performance and web standards compliance, as well as the availability of comprehensive JavaScript libraries, provides an opportunity to develop functionally rich yet intuitive web applications that allow users to access, render and analyse data in novel ways. However, the development of such large-scale JavaScript web applications presents new challenges, in particular with regard to code sustainability and team-based work. We present an approach that meets the challenges of large-scale JavaScript web application design and development, including client-side model-view-controller architecture, design patterns, and JavaScript libraries. Furthermore, we show how the approach leads naturally to the encapsulation of the data source as a web API, allowing applications to be easily ported to new data sources. The Experiment Dashboard framework is used for the development of applications for monitoring the distributed computing activities of virtual organisations on the Worldwide LHC Comp...

  11. Experiences with Text Mining Large Collections of Unstructured Systems Development Artifacts at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Dan; Nikora, Allen; Hihn, Jairus; Huang, LiGuo

    2011-01-01

    Often repositories of systems engineering artifacts at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are so large and poorly structured that they have outgrown our capability to effectively manually process their contents to extract useful information. Sophisticated text mining methods and tools seem a quick, low-effort approach to automating our limited manual efforts. Our experiences of exploring such methods mainly in three areas including historical risk analysis, defect identification based on requirements analysis, and over-time analysis of system anomalies at JPL, have shown that obtaining useful results requires substantial unanticipated efforts - from preprocessing the data to transforming the output for practical applications. We have not observed any quick 'wins' or realized benefit from short-term effort avoidance through automation in this area. Surprisingly we have realized a number of unexpected long-term benefits from the process of applying text mining to our repositories. This paper elaborates some of these benefits and our important lessons learned from the process of preparing and applying text mining to large unstructured system artifacts at JPL aiming to benefit future TM applications in similar problem domains and also in hope for being extended to broader areas of applications.

  12. Between Innovation and Governance: The Case of Research-based Software Development in a Large Petroleum Company

    OpenAIRE

    Seifvand, Atiyeh

    2012-01-01

    Software innovations can offer organizations with competitive advantages. Research and development entities within the petroleum industry therefore seek to utilize IT capabilities to produce innovative software. Many factors may influence the success or failure of developing and implementing research-based software innovations in organizations. Of these issues the relation between software innovation and IT governance remains largely unexplored in the research literature.This study explores t...

  13. Physical oceanography - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  14. Atlantis model outputs - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  15. Segmenting healthcare terminology users: a strategic approach to large scale evolutionary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C; Briggs, K; Brown, P J

    1999-01-01

    Healthcare terminologies have become larger and more complex, aiming to support a diverse range of functions across the whole spectrum of healthcare activity. Prioritization of development, implementation and evaluation can be achieved by regarding the "terminology" as an integrated system of content-based and functional components. Matching these components to target segments within the healthcare community, supports a strategic approach to evolutionary development and provides essential product differentiation to enable terminology providers and systems suppliers to focus on end-user requirements.

  16. Experience in the development and mastering of large distillation desalting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernozubov, V.B.; Tokmantsev, N.K.; Putilin, Ju.V.

    1997-01-01

    At present there are more than 30 desalination plants, including the first nuclear desalination plant in Aktau, developed by SverdNIIchimmash are in operation. This report gives a short description of the experience in the investigation, development and mastering of the Russian water distillation technique and the future investigations. Based on the past 40 years experience and scientific investigations, the multistage distillation desalting plants with horizontal tube film evaporators is recommended for the floating nuclear desalination complexes. (author)

  17. Implementing Large-Scale Instructional Technology in Kenya: Changing Instructional Practice and Developing Accountability in a National Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Benjamin; Oyanga, Arbogast; Mejia, Jessica; Pouezevara, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Previous large-scale education technology interventions have shown only modest impacts on student achievement. Building on results from an earlier randomized controlled trial of three different applications of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on primary education in Kenya, the Tusome Early Grade Reading Activity developed the…

  18. Examining the Role of Professional Development in a Large School District's iPad Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Ko, Yujung; Willmann, Amanda; Fickert, Cynda

    2018-01-01

    This study examined 342 teachers' views of professional development (PD) provided by a large school district to support its iPad initiative. We were interested in investigating teachers' perceptions of this district-provided PD, any change in teachers' views, and how they used iPads in their instruction while/after receiving PD. The findings,…

  19. Recent Developments in Language Assessment and the Case of Four Large-Scale Tests of ESOL Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoynoff, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This review article surveys recent developments and validation activities related to four large-scale tests of L2 English ability: the iBT TOEFL, the IELTS, the FCE, and the TOEIC. In addition to describing recent changes to these tests, the paper reports on validation activities that were conducted on the measures. The results of this research…

  20. Development of lichen response indexes using a regional gradient modeling approach for large-scale monitoring of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Peter Neitlich

    2010-01-01

    Development of a regional lichen gradient model from community data is a powerful tool to derive lichen indexes of response to environmental factors for large-scale and long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service includes lichens in its national inventory of forests of...

  1. Large-Scale Participation: A Case Study of a Participatory Approach to Developing a New Public Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case study of a participatory project that focuses on interaction in large-scale design, namely, the development of the new Urban Mediaspace Aarhus. This project, which has been under way for ten years, embodies a series of issues that arise when participatory design...

  2. Development of fusion fuel cycles: Large deviations from US defense program systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, James Edward, E-mail: james.klein@srnl.doe.gov; Poore, Anita Sue; Babineau, David W.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • All tritium fuel cycles start with a “Tritium Process.” All have similar tritium processing steps. • Fusion tritium fuel cycles minimize process tritium inventories for various reasons. • US defense program facility designs did not minimize in-process inventories. • Reduced inventory tritium facilities will lower public risk. - Abstract: Fusion energy research is dominated by plasma physics and materials technology development needs with smaller levels of effort and funding dedicated to tritium fuel cycle development. The fuel cycle is necessary to supply and recycle tritium at the required throughput rate; additionally, tritium confinement throughout the facility is needed to meet regulatory and environmental release limits. Small fuel cycle development efforts are sometimes rationalized by stating that tritium processing technology has already been developed by nuclear weapons programs and these existing processes only need rescaling or engineering design to meet the needs of fusion fuel cycles. This paper compares and contrasts features of tritium fusion fuel cycles to United States Cold War era defense program tritium systems. It is concluded that further tritium fuel cycle development activities are needed to provide technology development beneficial to both fusion and defense programs tritium systems.

  3. Relating large-scale subsidence to convection development in Arctic mixed-phase marine stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gillian; Connolly, Paul J.; Dearden, Christopher; Choularton, Thomas W.

    2018-02-01

    Large-scale subsidence, associated with high-pressure systems, is often imposed in large-eddy simulation (LES) models to maintain the height of boundary layer (BL) clouds. Previous studies have considered the influence of subsidence on warm liquid clouds in subtropical regions; however, the relationship between subsidence and mixed-phase cloud microphysics has not specifically been studied. For the first time, we investigate how widespread subsidence associated with synoptic-scale meteorological features can affect the microphysics of Arctic mixed-phase marine stratocumulus (Sc) clouds. Modelled with LES, four idealised scenarios - a stable Sc, varied droplet (Ndrop) or ice (Nice) number concentrations, and a warming surface (representing motion southwards) - were subjected to different levels of subsidence to investigate the cloud microphysical response. We find strong sensitivities to large-scale subsidence, indicating that high-pressure systems in the ocean-exposed Arctic regions have the potential to generate turbulence and changes in cloud microphysics in any resident BL mixed-phase clouds.Increased cloud convection is modelled with increased subsidence, driven by longwave radiative cooling at cloud top and rain evaporative cooling and latent heating from snow growth below cloud. Subsidence strengthens the BL temperature inversion, thus reducing entrainment and allowing the liquid- and ice-water paths (LWPs, IWPs) to increase. Through increased cloud-top radiative cooling and subsequent convective overturning, precipitation production is enhanced: rain particle number concentrations (Nrain), in-cloud rain mass production rates, and below-cloud evaporation rates increase with increased subsidence.Ice number concentrations (Nice) play an important role, as greater concentrations suppress the liquid phase; therefore, Nice acts to mediate the strength of turbulent overturning promoted by increased subsidence. With a warming surface, a lack of - or low - subsidence

  4. Development and Manufacturing Technology of Prototype Monoblock Low Pressure Rotor Shaft by 650ton Large Ingot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Duk-Yong; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jungyeup; Lee, Jongwook; Ko, Seokhee [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to establish the manufacturing technology for monoblock LP rotor shaft, DHI has produced the prototype monoblock LP rotor shaft with a maximum diameter of φ 2,800 mm using 650 ton ingot and investigated the mechanical properties and the internal quality of the ingot. As a result, the quality and mechanical properties required the large rotor shaft for nuclear power plant met a target. These results indicate that DHI can be contributed to increasing demands with high efficiency and capacity at the nuclear power plant. Additionally, some tests such as high cycle fatigue (HCF), low cycle fatigue (LCF), fracture toughness (K1C/J1C) and dynamic crack propagation velocity (da/dN) are in progress.

  5. Development of Large Scale Bed Forms in the Sea –2DH Numerical Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margalit, Jonatan; Fuhrman, David R.

    Large repetitive patterns on the sea bed are commonly observed in sandy areas. The formation of the bed forms have been studied extensively in literature using linear stability analyses, commonly conducted analytically and with simplifications in the governing equations. This work presents...... a shallow water equation model that is used to numerically simulate the morphodynamics of the water-bed system. The model includes separate formulations for bed load and suspended load, featuring bed load correction due to a sloping bed and modelled helical flow effects. Horizontal gradients are computed...... with spectral accuracy, which proves highly efficient for the analysis. Numerical linear stability analysis is used to identify the likely emergence of dominant finite sized bed forms, as a function of governing parameters. These are then used for interpretation of the results of a long time morphological...

  6. Development of metallic molds for the large volume plastic scintillator fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Vieira, Jose M.; Rela, Paulo R.; Bruzinga, Wilson A.; Araujo, Eduardo P.; Costa Junior, Nelson P.; Hamada, Margarida M.

    1997-01-01

    The plastic scintillators are radiation detectors made of organic fluorescent compounds dissolved in a solidified polymer matrix. The manufacturing process of large volume detectors (55 liters) at low cost, by polymerization of the styrene monomer plus PPO and POPOP scintillators, was studied in this paper. Metallic molds of ASTM 1200 aluminum and AISI 304 stainless steel were produced by TIG welding process since the polymerization reaction is very exothermic. The measurements of transmittance, luminescence, X-ray fluorescence and light output were carried out in the plastic scintillators made using different metallic molds. The characterization results of the detectors produced in an open system using ASTM 1200 aluminum mold show that there is not quality change in the scintillator, even with aluminum being considered as unstable for styrene monomer. Therefore, the ASTM 1200 aluminum was found to be the best alternative to produce the detector by an open system polymerization. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  7. Development of a Large, Low-Cost, Instant 3D Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Straub

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional scanning serves a large variety of uses. It can be utilized to generate objects for, after possible modification, 3D printing. It can facilitate reverse engineering, replication of artifacts to allow interaction without risking cultural heirlooms and the creation of replacement bespoke parts. The technology can also be used to capture imagery for creating holograms, it can support applications requiring human body imaging (e.g., medical, sports performance, garment creation, security and it can be used to import real-world objects into computer games and other simulations. This paper presents the design of a 3D scanner that was designed and constructed at the University of North Dakota to create 3D models for printing and numerous other uses. It discusses multiple prospective uses for the unit and technology. It also provides an overview of future directions of the project, such as 3D video capture.

  8. Open-loop groundwater heat pumps development for large buildings. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Civita, Massimo Vincenzo [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Ingegneria del Territorio, dell' Ambiente e delle Geotecnologie (DITAG), Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 - 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    A study of the feasibility of providing the heating and cooling needs of the new, large commercial building near Turin, Italy, by means of an open-loop indirect groundwater heat pump (GWHP) system is described. A finite element subsurface flow and transport simulator (FEFLOW) was used to investigate possible configurations of extraction and injection wells for five different scenarios. Modelling results confirmed the hydrogeological capacity of the site to provide the necessary amount of groundwater and associated energy with limited environmental impact. Injection of warmer (or cooler) water in the aquifer creates a thermal plume whose dimensions and geometry depend on the properties of the subsurface formations, particularly their thermal dispersivity values. The study suggests that there are several possible well configurations that could support the GWHP system without adversely affecting the aquifer. (author)

  9. Development and Validation of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Reduction Scheme for Large-Scale Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2014-01-01

    This work is an extension to a previously reported work on chemical kinetic mechanism reduction scheme for large-scale mechanisms. Here, Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) was added as a criterion of data source for mechanism reduction instead of using only auto-ignition condition. As a result......) simulations were performed to study the spray combustion phenomena within a constant volume bomb. Both non-reacting and reacting conditions were applied in this study. Liquid and vapor penetration lengths were replicated for non-reacting diesel spray. For reacting diesel spray, both ignition delay and lift......-off length were simulated. The simulation results were then compared to the experimental data of Sandia National Laboratories and No. 2 Diesel Fuel (D2) was designated as the reference fuel. Both liquid and vapor penetrations for non-reacting condition were well-matched, while ignition delay was advanced...

  10. Innovation-driven efficient development of the Longwangmiao Fm large-scale sulfur gas reservoir in Moxi block, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Cambrian Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi block of the Anyue Gas field, Sichuan Basin, is the largest single-sandbody integrated carbonate gas reservoir proved so far in China. Notwithstanding this reservoir's advantages like large-scale reserves and high single-well productivity, there are multiple complicated factors restricting its efficient development, such as a median content of hydrogen sulfide, low porosity and strong heterogeneity of fracture–cave formation, various modes of gas–water occurrences, and close relation between overpressure and stress sensitivity. Up till now, since only a few Cambrian large-scale carbonate gas reservoirs have ever been developed in the world, there still exists some blind spots especially about its exploration and production rules. Besides, as for large-scale sulfur gas reservoirs, the exploration and construction is costly, and production test in the early evaluation stage is severely limited, all of which will bring about great challenges in productivity construction and high potential risks. In this regard, combining with Chinese strategic demand of strengthening clean energy supply security, the PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gas Field Company has carried out researches and field tests for the purpose of providing high-production wells, optimizing development design, rapidly constructing high-quality productivity and upgrading HSE security in the Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoir in Moxi block. Through the innovations of technology and management mode within 3 years, this gas reservoir has been built into a modern large-scale gas field with high quality, high efficiency and high benefit, and its annual capacity is now up to over 100 × 108 m3, with a desirable production capacity and development indexes gained as originally anticipated. It has become a new model of large-scale gas reservoirs with efficient development, providing a reference for other types of gas reservoirs in China.

  11. Developing Data Systems To Support the Analysis and Development of Large-Scale, On-Line Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chong Ho

    Today many data warehousing systems are data rich, but information poor. Extracting useful information from an ocean of data to support administrative, policy, and instructional decisions becomes a major challenge to both database designers and measurement specialists. This paper focuses on the development of a data processing system that…

  12. Development of large scale industrial complex and its pollution. Case study of Kashima area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, S

    1975-01-01

    The development of Kashima industrial complex which embraces three townships started in 1960 to promote both agricultural and industrial developments using the most advanced techniques available for environmental pollution control. The chronological development progress is described with reference to the capital investment, gross product, employment and labor supply, population, status of the use of agricultural land, annual revenue and expenditure of three townships, and township tax. The environmental pollution control policies and measures taken since 1964 are reviewed. The emphasis was placed on preliminary investigations by various means and emission standards were applied. However, many incidences of pollution damage occurred due to operational errors and accidental causes. The emission quantity of sulfur dioxide is to be reduced from 8212 N cu m/h in 1973 to 4625 N cu m/h in 1976.

  13. Map it @ WSU: Development of a Library Mapping System for Large Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gallagher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Wayne State Library System launched its library mapping application in February 2010, designed to help locate materials in the five WSU libraries. The system works within the catalog to show the location of materials, as well as provides a web form for use at the reference desk. Developed using PHP and MySQL, it requires only minimal effort to update using a unique call number overlay mechanism. In addition to mapping shelved materials, the system provides information for any of the over three hundred collections held by the WSU Libraries. Patrons can do more than just locate a book on a shelf: they can learn where to locate reserve items, how to access closed collections, or get driving maps to extension center libraries. The article includes a discussion of the technology reviewed and chosen during development, an overview of the system architecture, and lessons learned during development.

  14. Low cost silicon solar array project large area silicon sheet task: Silicon web process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Blais, P. D.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Growth configurations were developed which produced crystals having low residual stress levels. The properties of a 106 mm diameter round crucible were evaluated and it was found that this design had greatly enhanced temperature fluctuations arising from convection in the melt. Thermal modeling efforts were directed to developing finite element models of the 106 mm round crucible and an elongated susceptor/crucible configuration. Also, the thermal model for the heat loss modes from the dendritic web was examined for guidance in reducing the thermal stress in the web. An economic analysis was prepared to evaluate the silicon web process in relation to price goals.

  15. How large a training set is needed to develop a classifier for microarray data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Kevin K; Zhao, Yingdong; Simon, Richard M

    2008-01-01

    A common goal of gene expression microarray studies is the development of a classifier that can be used to divide patients into groups with different prognoses, or with different expected responses to a therapy. These types of classifiers are developed on a training set, which is the set of samples used to train a classifier. The question of how many samples are needed in the training set to produce a good classifier from high-dimensional microarray data is challenging. We present a model-based approach to determining the sample size required to adequately train a classifier. It is shown that sample size can be determined from three quantities: standardized fold change, class prevalence, and number of genes or features on the arrays. Numerous examples and important experimental design issues are discussed. The method is adapted to address ex post facto determination of whether the size of a training set used to develop a classifier was adequate. An interactive web site for performing the sample size calculations is provided. We showed that sample size calculations for classifier development from high-dimensional microarray data are feasible, discussed numerous important considerations, and presented examples.

  16. Development work on superconducting coils for a Large Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, D.N.; Deis, D.W.; Harvey, A.R.; Hirzel, D.G.; Johnston, J.E.; Leber, R.L.; Nelson, R.L.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    This article has summarized development work directed toward obtaining the data required to design and build the superconducting coils for MFTF. The methods for fabricating the conductor and joining lengths of the conductor are almost finalized, and the building of the test coil and associated equipment is now well under way

  17. Developing Server-Side Infrastructure for Large-Scale E-Learning of Web Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The growth of E-business has made experience in server-side technology an increasingly important area for educators. Server-side skills are in increasing demand and recognised to be of relatively greater value than comparable client-side aspects (Ehie, 2002). In response to this, many educational organisations have developed E-business courses,…

  18. Large-Scale Economic Change and Youth Development: The Case of Urban China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Way, Niobe; Chen, Xinyin

    2012-01-01

    Social ecological and dynamic systems theories propose that human development is shaped by the cumulative impact of social interactions in proximal and distal settings, which are themselves influenced by social and economic forces. The understanding of the links between microsystem-level factors (such as parenting styles and parent-child…

  19. Managing the development of plant subsystems for a large international project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurd, D.

    2012-01-01

    ITER is an international collaborative project under development by nations representing over one half of the world's population. Major components will be supplied by 'Domestic Agencies' representing the various participating countries. While the supervisory control system, known as CODAC, will be developed 'in fund' by the International Organization at the project site in the south of France, the EPICS and PLC-based plant control subsystems are to be developed and tested locally, where the subsystems themselves are being built. This is similar to the model used for the development of the Spallation Neutron Source, which was a US national collaboration. However the much more complex constraints of an international collaboration preclude the use of many specifics of the SNS collaboration approach. Moreover, procedures for final system integration and commissioning at ITER are not yet well defined. This paper will outline the particular issues either inherent in an international collaboration or specific to ITER, and will suggest approaches to mitigate those problems with the goal of assuring a successful and timely integration and commissioning phase. (author)

  20. The impact of continuous integration on other software development practices: a large-scale empirical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Serebrenik, A.; Zhou, Y.; Filkov, V.; Vasilescu, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    Continuous Integration (CI) has become a disruptive innovation in software development: with proper tool support and adoption, positive effects have been demonstrated for pull request throughput and scaling up of project sizes. As any other innovation, adopting CI implies adapting existing practices

  1. Elements of the LaTeX system for the development of large publications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    This document presents gives a quick overview over the LATEX system from the viewpoint of the production of books and complex papers. Thereby it provides the starting point for the author's selection of a set of LATEX packages and the development of related commands....

  2. Development of a multi-grid FDTD code for three-dimensional simulation of large microwave sintering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M.J.; Iskander, M.F. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Kimrey, H.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) code available at the University of Utah has been used to simulate sintering of ceramics in single and multimode cavities, and many useful results have been reported in literature. More detailed and accurate results, specifically around and including the ceramic sample, are often desired to help evaluate the adequacy of the heating procedure. In electrically large multimode cavities, however, computer memory requirements limit the number of the mathematical cells, and the desired resolution is impractical to achieve due to limited computer resources. Therefore, an FDTD algorithm which incorporates multiple-grid regions with variable-grid sizes is required to adequately perform the desired simulations. In this paper the authors describe the development of a three-dimensional multi-grid FDTD code to help focus a large number of cells around the desired region. Test geometries were solved using a uniform-grid and the developed multi-grid code to help validate the results from the developed code. Results from these comparisons, as well as the results of comparisons between the developed FDTD code and other available variable-grid codes are presented. In addition, results from the simulation of realistic microwave sintering experiments showed improved resolution in critical sites inside the three-dimensional sintering cavity. With the validation of the FDTD code, simulations were performed for electrically large, multimode, microwave sintering cavities to fully demonstrate the advantages of the developed multi-grid FDTD code.

  3. An improved VSS NLMS algorithm for active noise cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunzhuo; Wang, Mingjiang; Han, Yufei; Zhang, Congyan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, an improved variable step size NLMS algorithm is proposed. NLMS has fast convergence rate and low steady state error compared to other traditional adaptive filtering algorithm. But there is a contradiction between the convergence speed and steady state error that affect the performance of the NLMS algorithm. Now, we propose a new variable step size NLMS algorithm. It dynamically changes the step size according to current error and iteration times. The proposed algorithm has simple formulation and easily setting parameters, and effectively solves the contradiction in NLMS. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has a good tracking ability, fast convergence rate and low steady state error simultaneously.

  4. Development of the simulation package 'ELSES' for extra-large-scale electronic structure calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, T [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8550 (Japan); Fujiwara, T [Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency (CREST-JST) (Japan)

    2009-02-11

    An early-stage version of the simulation package 'ELSES' (extra-large-scale electronic structure calculation) is developed for simulating the electronic structure and dynamics of large systems, particularly nanometer-scale and ten-nanometer-scale systems (see www.elses.jp). Input and output files are written in the extensible markup language (XML) style for general users. Related pre-/post-simulation tools are also available. A practical workflow and an example are described. A test calculation for the GaAs bulk system is shown, to demonstrate that the present code can handle systems with more than one atom species. Several future aspects are also discussed.

  5. A method for developing a large-scale sediment yield index for European river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmas, Magalie; Cerdan, Olivier; Garcin, Manuel [BRGM ARN/ESL, Orleans (France); Mouchel, Jean-Marie [UMR Sisyphe, Univ. P and M Curie, Paris (France)

    2009-12-15

    Background, aim, and scope: Sediment fluxes within continental areas play a major role in biogeochemical cycles and are often the cause of soil surface degradation as well as water and ecosystem pollution. In a situation where a high proportion of the land surface is experiencing significant global land use and climate changes, it appears important to establish sediment budgets considering the major processes forcing sediment redistribution within drainage areas. In this context, the aim of this study is to test a methodology to estimate a sediment yield index at a large spatial resolution for European river basins. Data and methods: Four indicators representing processes respectively considered as sources (mass movement and hillslope erosion), sinks (deposits), and transfers of sediments (drainage density) are defined using distributed data. Using these indicators we propose a basic conceptual approach to test the possibility of explaining sediment yield observed at the outlet of 29 selected European river basins. We propose an index which adds the two sources and transfers, and subsequently subtracts the sink term. This index is then compared to observed sediment yield data. Results: With this approach, variability between river basins is observed and the evolution of each indicator analyzed. A linear regression shows a correlation coefficient of 0.83 linking observed specific sediment yield (SSY) with the SSY index. Discussion: To improve this approach at this large river basin scale, basin classification is further refined using the relation between the observed SSY and the index obtained from the four indicators. It allows a refinement of the results. Conclusions: This study presents a conceptual approach offering the advantages of using spatially distributed data combined with major sediment redistribution processes to estimate the sediment yield observed at the outlet of river basins. Recommendations and perspectives: Inclusion of better information on

  6. Large-scale double-patterning compliant layouts for DP engine and design rule development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Christopher; Lucas, Kevin; Hapli, John; Raffard, Herve; Barnes, Levi

    2009-03-01

    Double Patterning is seen as the prime technology to keep Moore's law on path while EUV technology is still maturing into production worthiness. As previously seen for alternating-Phase Shift Mask technology[1], layout compliance of double patterning is not trivial [2,3] and blind shrinks of anything but the most simplistic existing layouts, will not be directly suitable for double patterning. Evaluating a production worthy double patterning engine with highly non-compliant layouts would put unrealistic expectations on that engine and provide metrics with poor applicability for eventual large designs. The true production use-case would be for designs that have at least some significant double patterning compliance already enforced at the design stage. With this in mind a set of ASIC design blocks of different sizes and complexities were created that were double patterning compliant. To achieve this, a set of standard cells were generated, which individually and in isolation were double patterning compliant, for multiple layers simultaneously. This was done using the automated Standard Cell creation tool CadabraTM [4]. To create a full ASIC, however, additional constraints were added to make sure compliance would not be broken across the boundaries between standard cells when placed next to each other [5]. These standard cells were then used to create a variety of double patterning compliant ASICs using iCCompilerTM to place the cells correctly. Now with a compliant layout, checks were made to see if the constraints made at the micro level really do ensure a fully compliant layout on the whole chip and if the coloring engine could cope with such large datasets. A production worthy double patterning engine is ideally distributable over multiple processors [6,7] so that fast turn-around time can be achievable on even the largest designs. We demonstrate the degree of linearity of scaling achievable with our double patterning engine. These results can be understood

  7. Large-scale water projects in the developing world: Revisiting the past and looking to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Bellie; Chen, Ji

    2014-05-01

    During the past half a century or so, the developing world has been witnessing a significant increase in freshwater demands due to a combination of factors, including population growth, increased food demand, improved living standards, and water quality degradation. Since there exists significant variability in rainfall and river flow in both space and time, large-scale storage and distribution of water has become a key means to meet these increasing demands. In this regard, large dams and water transfer schemes (including river-linking schemes and virtual water trades) have been playing a key role. While the benefits of such large-scale projects in supplying water for domestic, irrigation, industrial, hydropower, recreational, and other uses both in the countries of their development and in other countries are undeniable, concerns on their negative impacts, such as high initial costs and damages to our ecosystems (e.g. river environment and species) and socio-economic fabric (e.g. relocation and socio-economic changes of affected people) have also been increasing in recent years. These have led to serious debates on the role of large-scale water projects in the developing world and on their future, but the often one-sided nature of such debates have inevitably failed to yield fruitful outcomes thus far. The present study aims to offer a far more balanced perspective on this issue. First, it recognizes and emphasizes the need for still additional large-scale water structures in the developing world in the future, due to the continuing increase in water demands, inefficiency in water use (especially in the agricultural sector), and absence of equivalent and reliable alternatives. Next, it reviews a few important success and failure stories of large-scale water projects in the developing world (and in the developed world), in an effort to arrive at a balanced view on the future role of such projects. Then, it discusses some major challenges in future water planning

  8. Large scale and low latency analysis facilities for the CMS experiment: development and operational aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Riahi, Hassen

    2010-01-01

    While a majority of CMS data analysis activities rely on the distributed computing infrastructure on the WLCG Grid, dedicated local computing facilities have been deployed to address particular requirements in terms of latency and scale. The CMS CERN Analysis Facility (CAF) was primarily designed to host a large variety of latency-critical workfows. These break down into alignment and calibration, detector commissioning and diagnosis, and high-interest physics analysis requiring fast turnaround. In order to reach the goal for fast turnaround tasks, the Workload Management group has designed a CRABServer based system to fit with two main needs: to provide a simple, familiar interface to the user (as used in the CRAB Analysis Tool[7]) and to allow an easy transition to the Tier-0 system. While the CRABServer component had been initially designed for Grid analysis by CMS end-users, with a few modifications it turned out to be also a very powerful service to manage and monitor local submissions on the CAF. Tran...

  9. Development of net-current free heliotron plasmas in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, A.; Yamada, H.; Kaneko, O.; Kawahata, K.; Mutoh, T.; Ohyabu, N.; Imagawa, S.; Ida, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Shimozuma, T.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Mito, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Sakamoto, R.; Ohdachi, S.; Sakakibara, S.; Ashikawa, N.; Igami, H.; Kasahara, H.; Kubo, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Nishiura, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Toi, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Narushima, Y.; Tamura, N.; Saito, K.; Seki, T.; Sudo, S.; Tanaka, H.; Tokuzawa, T.; Yanagi, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Akiyama, T.; Chikaraishi, H.; Emoto, M.; Funaba, H.; Goncharov, P.; Goto, M.; Ichiguchi, K.; Ido, T.; Ikeda, K.; Yoshida, N.; Inagaki, S.; Idei, H.; Feng, Y.; Weller, A.; Fukuda, T.; Mitarai, O.; Murakami, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Hino, T.; Ohno, N.; Okamura, T.; Iio, S.; Chowdhuri, M.; Ezumi, N.; Garcia, L.; Ichimura, M.; Irie, M.; Isayama, Akihiko; Iwamae, Atsushi; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Urano, Hajime

    2008-10-01

    Remarkable progress in the physical parameters of net-current free plasmas has been made in the Large Helical Device (LHD) since the last Fusion Energy Conference in Chengdu, 2006 (O. Motojima et al., Nucl. Fusion 47 (2007) S668). The beta value reached 5 % and a high beta state beyond 4.5% from the diamagnetic measurement has been maintained for longer than 100 times the energy confinement time. The density and temperature regimes also have been extended. The central density has exceeded 1.0x10 21 m -3 due to the formation of an Internal Diffusion Barrier (IDB). The ion temperature has reached 6.8 keV at the density of 2x10 19 m -3 , which is associated with the suppression of ion heat conduction loss. Although these parameters have been obtained in separated discharges, each fusion-reactor relevant parameter has elucidated the potential of net-current free heliotron plasmas. Diversified studies in recent LHD experiments are reviewed in this paper. (author)

  10. Development of Large Area CsI Photocathodes for the ALICE/HMPID RICH Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hoedlmoser, H; Schyns, E

    2005-01-01

    The work carried out within the framework of this PhD deals with the measurement of the photoelectric properties of large area thin film Cesium Iodide (CsI) photocathodes (PCs) which are to be used as a photon converter in a proximity focusing RICH detector for High Momentum Particle Identification (HMPID) in the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The objective was to commission a VUV-scanner setup for in-situ measurements of the photoelectric response of the CsI PCs immediately after the thin film coating process and the use of this system to investigate the properties of these photon detectors. Prior to this work and prior to the finalization of the ALICE/HMPID detector design, R&D work investigating the properties of CsI PCs had been performed at CERN and at other laboratories in order to determine possible substrates and optimized thin film coating procedures. These R&D studies were usually carried out with small samples on different substrates and with various procedures with sometimes ambiguous result...

  11. Role of the large coil program in the development of superconducting magnets for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubenreich, P.N.; Luton, J.N.; Thompson, P.B.

    1978-01-01

    Three U.S. industrial teams are designing and will build one coil each to a common set of specifications. Coil specifications and test conditions were chosen to insure maximum relevance to fusion program needs. Each test coil will have a 2.5 x 3.5 m D-shape bore, will contain about 7 MA-turns, and must operate at a peak field of 8 T while subjected to pulsed fields up to 0.14 T in a test stand that can accommodate up to 6 coils in a compact toroidal array. Coils by General Dynamics/Convair and General Electric will use different NbTi conductors cooled by pool-boiling helium. The Westinghouse coil will use Nb 3 Sn cooled by a forced flow of supercritical helium. These coils will be delivered in 1980 and 1981 for testing in the Large Coil Test Facility at Oak Ridge in a compact toroidal array with three coils from outside the U.S. These will be produced by EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland for testing under an International Energy Agency agreement

  12. New Developments in NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-Data Stewardship System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Morris, J. S.; Carter, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS) is part of the NOAA strategic goal of Climate Adaptation and Mitigation that gives focus to the building and sustaining of key observational assets and data archives critical to maintaining the global climate record. Since 2002, CLASS has been NOAA's enterprise solution for ingesting, storing and providing access to a host of near real-time remote sensing streams such as the Polar and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (POES and GOES) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Since October, 2011 CLASS has also been the dedicated Archive Data Segment (ADS) of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). As the ADS, CLASS receives raw and processed S-NPP records for archival and distribution to the broad user community. Moving beyond just remote sensing and model data, NOAA has endorsed a plan to migrate all archive holdings from NOAA's National Data Centers into CLASS while retiring various disparate legacy data storage systems residing at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). In parallel to this data migration, CLASS is evolving to a service-oriented architecture utilizing cloud technologies for dissemination in addition to clearly defined interfaces that allow better collaboration with partners. This evolution will require implementation of standard access protocols and metadata which will lead to cost effective data and information preservation.

  13. Development of a 3D Stream Network and Topography for Improved Large-Scale Hydraulic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksena, S.; Dey, S.; Merwade, V.

    2016-12-01

    Most digital elevation models (DEMs) used for hydraulic modeling do not include channel bed elevations. As a result, the DEMs are complimented with additional bathymetric data for accurate hydraulic simulations. Existing methods to acquire bathymetric information through field surveys or through conceptual models are limited to reach-scale applications. With an increasing focus on large scale hydraulic modeling of rivers, a framework to estimate and incorporate bathymetry for an entire stream network is needed. This study proposes an interpolation-based algorithm to estimate bathymetry for a stream network by modifying the reach-based empirical River Channel Morphology Model (RCMM). The effect of a 3D stream network that includes river bathymetry is then investigated by creating a 1D hydraulic model (HEC-RAS) and 2D hydrodynamic model (Integrated Channel and Pond Routing) for the Upper Wabash River Basin in Indiana, USA. Results show improved simulation of flood depths and storage in the floodplain. Similarly, the impact of river bathymetry incorporation is more significant in the 2D model as compared to the 1D model.

  14. Development of an abort gap monitor for the large hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, requires monitoring the parasitic charge in the 3.3ms long gap in the machine fill structure. This gap, referred to as the abort gap, corresponds to the raise time of the abort kickers magnets. Any circulating particle present in the abort gap at the time of the kickers firing is lost inside the ring, rather than in the beam dump, and can potentially damage a number of the LHC components. CERN specifications indicate a linear density of 6 x 106 protons over a 100 ns interval as the maximum charge safely allowed to accumulate in the abort gap at 7 TeV. We present a study of an abort gap monitor, based on a photomultiplier tube with a gated microchannel plate, which would allow for detecting such low charge densities by monitoring the synchrotron radiation emitted in the dedicated diagnostics port. We show results of beam test experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) using a Hamamatsu 5961U MCP-PMT, which indicate that such an instrument has the required sensitivity to meet LHC specifications

  15. Development and verification test on remote plasma cutting of large metallic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Tamotsu; Yamada, Kunitaka; Abe, Tadashi

    1979-01-01

    Plasma cutting is the cutting method to melt and scatter cut objects by generating arc between an electrode in a nozzle and the cut objects and making working gas fed to surround it into high temperature, high speed plasma jet. In case of remote plasma cutting, a torch for the plasma cutting is operated remotely with a manipulator from the outside of a cell. At the time of planning the method of breaking up solid wastes, the type of cutting machines and the method of remote operation of the cutting machines and cut objects were examined. It was decided to adopt plasma cutting machines, because their cutting capability such as materials, thickness and cutting speed is excellent, and the construction and handling are simple. The form of the solid wastes to be cut is not uniform, accordingly the method of manipulator operation was adopted to respond to various forms flexibly. Cut objects are placed on a turntable to change the position successively. In case of remote plasma cutting, the controls of torch speed and gap must be made with a manipulator. The use of light-shielding glasses reduces largely the watchability of cut objects and becomes hindrance in the operation. As for the safety aspect, the suitable gas for cutting, which does not contain hydrogen, must be selected. The tests carried out for two years since November, 1977, are reported in this paper, and most of the problems have been solved. (Kako, I.)

  16. Development of three-dimensional nuclear design program for large fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kohtaro

    1987-01-01

    The report describes a calculation program for core design, called HICOM, and its calculation accuracy. HICOM is designed for three-dimensional neutron diffusion calculation and combustion calculation for large fast breeder reactors to be conducted according to a control rod plan and fuel replacement plan. The improved coarse mesh technique is applied to neutron diffusion calculation. It is demostrated that HICOM permits rapid and accurate operation. For the evaluation of the applicability of HICOM, three-dimensional six-group neutron diffusion calculation is conducted for a 1,000 MWe axial heterogeneous FBR core. Results demonstrate that the program can perform numerical calculation in a time period shorter than 1-40 that for calculation by CITATION (triangle mesh method). This is achieved by using the improved coarse mesh method and carrying out the operation by a vectorial procedure. For the evaluation of the nuclear calculation accuracy of HICOM, analysis is made of reactivity, output distribution and B 4 C control rod worth emasured in an FCA criticality experiment carried out by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Calculations are found to agree with measurements within a permissible error. The same level of calculation accuracy is obtained for homogneous core, axial heterogeneous core and cores with internal blankets with different forms. (Nogami, K.)

  17. Development and testing of an innovative short-term large wind ramp forecasting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, J.W. [AWS Truepower LLC, Troy, NY (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed a ramp forecasting tool designed for use in a region of Texas with a high wind-generating capacity. Large system-wide ramps frequently occur in the region, and curtailments are common due to transmission constraints. The average hourly load of the power system is 32,101 MW. Wind power capacity in the region is 9382 MW. However, actual production rarely exceeds 6500 MW due to the curtailments. The short-term ramp forecasting tool was designed to aid in grid management decisions for the 0-6 hour ahead period as well as to address issues related to wind farm time series data and the lack of situational awareness information. The tool provided rapid updates for grid point wind analysis with feature detection and tracking algorithms and a rapid update cycle model. The tool also featured a suite of web-based applications that included deterministic ramp even forecasts, power production time series forecasts, and situational awareness products that are updated every 15 minutes. A performance evaluation study of the tool was provided. tabs., figs.

  18. Developement of a large proton accelerator for innovative researches; development of low energy high current beam transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, In Soo; Namkung, Won; Cho, M. H.; Kim, K. N.; Kim, J. H.; Bae, Y. S.; Kim, Y.; Kim, K. H.; Shim, K. Y. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    We have designed the beam transport system to connect the ion source and the RFQ. In this design, we have finalized the positions of solenoids and various beam diagnostic device. We have finalize the physical and mechanical designs of solenoids, and these designs are already adopted to produce the actual solenoids. We have also studied about EPICS, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System, to control a stepper motor as a tuner of the RFQ designed for KOMACEPICS is a real time control system for a large scale system such as accelerators and tokamaks. The purpose of this thesis is to establish a test system based on the EPICS. A Sun UtraSPARC 5 workstation is used as the Operator Interface(OPI) console, and a VME chassis contained a Motorola MVME162 single board computer is used as the Input/Output Controller(IOC). A stepper motor controller is connected to the IOC via an RS-232C as a field bus. The EPICS base, extensions, and the real time OS vxWorks are installed on the workstation. The real time OS image can be downloaded to the IOC via the FTP when the test station is started. We have installed an IOC application as a device and driver support layer for the serial communication with an RS-232C on the workstation. We have designed the IOC database configuration files and a graphic user interface style OPI panel which was programmed by the MEDM. With this OPI, we can control the stepper motor using EPICS. 17 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  19. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging

  20. Developing silicon strip detectors with a large-scale commercial foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    König, A., E-mail: axel.koenig@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Hacker, J. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Treberspurg, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-07-11

    Since 2009 the Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna is developing a production process for planar silicon strip sensors on 6-in. wafers together with the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies. Four runs with several batches of wafers, each comprising six different sensors, were manufactured and characterized. A brief summary of the recently completed 6-in. campaign is given. Milestones in sensor development as well as techniques to improve the sensor quality are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on a failure causing areas of defective strips which accompanied the whole campaign. Beam tests at different irradiation facilities were conducted to validate the key capability of particle detection. Another major aspect is to prove the radiation hardness of sensors produced by Infineon. Therefore, neutron irradiation studies were performed.

  1. Note: Design and development of wireless controlled aerosol sampling network for large scale aerosol dispersion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Subramanian, V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B. [Radiation Impact Assessment Section, Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Wireless based custom built aerosol sampling network is designed, developed, and implemented for environmental aerosol sampling. These aerosol sampling systems are used in field measurement campaign, in which sodium aerosol dispersion experiments have been conducted as a part of environmental impact studies related to sodium cooled fast reactor. The sampling network contains 40 aerosol sampling units and each contains custom built sampling head and the wireless control networking designed with Programmable System on Chip (PSoC™) and Xbee Pro RF modules. The base station control is designed using graphical programming language LabView. The sampling network is programmed to operate in a preset time and the running status of the samplers in the network is visualized from the base station. The system is developed in such a way that it can be used for any other environment sampling system deployed in wide area and uneven terrain where manual operation is difficult due to the requirement of simultaneous operation and status logging.

  2. Development of a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with a large visual field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.; Ikeda, N.; Kato, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have developed an advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez (AKB) microscope to diagnose a laser-produced-plasma. The AKB microscope optics are two pairs of hyperbolical and elliptical cylindrical-mirrors to avoid a spherical aberration and field obliquity. Ray trace calculation was applied to optimize the characterization. The microscope has attained a spatial resolution of less than 3 mm at 2.5-keV x-ray in the field of 800 mm from experiments

  3. Development of software to improve AC power quality on large spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, L. Alan

    1991-01-01

    To insure the reliability of a 20 kHz, alternating current (AC) power system on spacecraft, it is essential to analyze its behavior under many adverse operating conditions. Some of these conditions include overloads, short circuits, switching surges, and harmonic distortions. Harmonic distortions can become a serious problem. It can cause malfunctions in equipment that the power system is supplying, and, during distortions such as voltage resonance, it can cause equipment and insulation failures due to the extreme peak voltages. To address the harmonic distortion issue, work was begun under the 1990 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. Software, originally developed by EPRI, called HARMFLO, a power flow program capable of analyzing harmonic conditions on three phase, balanced, 60 Hz AC power systems, was modified to analyze single phase, 20 kHz, AC power systems. Since almost all of the equipment used on spacecraft power systems is electrically different from equipment used on terrestrial power systems, it was also necessary to develop mathematical models for the equipment to be used on the spacecraft. The modelling was also started under the same fellowship work period. Details of the modifications and models completed during the 1990 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program can be found in a project report. As a continuation of the work to develop a complete package necessary for the full analysis of spacecraft AC power system behavior, deployment work has continued through NASA Grant NAG3-1254. This report details the work covered by the above mentioned grant.

  4. Cryogenic scanning laser microscopy. Investigation of large BSCCO mesas and development of a polarizing microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenon, Stefan Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts. Concerning the first part: Motivated by the discovery of coherent Terahertz emission from large sized Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8 stacks of intrinsic Josephson Junctions by Ozyuzer et al., low-temperature laser scanning microscopy (LTSLM) was used to investigate similar samples. In LTSLM a focused laser beam at position (x,y) is heating the sample in its vicinity. Simultaneously the electrical resistance of the sample is monitored by 4- or 2-wire sensing. By blanking the laser beam and using lock-in technique the response, i.e., the beam induced voltage change ΔV(x,y) to the heat distribution at the location (x,y) can be detected. Scanning the laser beam and mapping the response ΔV(x,y) leads to the so-called voltage image of the sample. Depending on the sample under investigation this voltage image is a map of all kinds of physical properties. This experimental technique was used with two objectives. First, the plasma wave causing the THz emission should be imaged, and second, the phenomenon of self-heating, which is considerable for large mesas, should be investigated. Indeed, it was possible to map a standing wave pattern at bias points with low currents, where Ozyuzer et al. have detected THz radiation. At high currents, where the back bending in the current-voltage relation indicates strong self heating, a feature appears in the LTSLM voltage images, which was clearly identified as an electro-thermal domain (hot spot) created by the temperature dependence of the c-axis resistivity in the Bi_2Sr_2CaCu_2O_8-mesa. In this bias interval a standing wave pattern appears beside this feature at certain bias points. In order to investigate whether this standing wave pattern is associated with THz emission, a simple interferometer with a bolometer as detector was realized. With the help of this set-up it was possible to detect THz radiation from mesas at high bias currents (hot spot bias regime) and to determine its frequency. It could be

  5. Sodium-immersed self-cooled electromagnetic pump design and development of a large-scale coil for high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oto, Akihiro; Naohara, Nobuyuki; Ishida, Masayoshi; Katsuki, Kenji; Kumazawa, Ryouji

    1995-01-01

    A sodium-immersed, self-cooled electromagnetic (EM) pump was recently studied as a prospective innovative technology to simplify a fast breeder reactor plant system. The EM pump for a primary pump, a pump type, was designed, and the structural concept and the system performance were clarified. For the flow control method, a constant voltage/frequency method was preferable from the point of view of pump performance and efficiency. The insulation life was tested on a large-scale coil at high temperature as part of the development of a large-capacity EM pump. Mechanical and electrical damage were not observed, and the insulation performance was quite good. The insulation system could also be applied to large-scale coils

  6. Designing and developing portable large-scale JavaScript web applications within the Experiment Dashboard framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Dzhunov, I; Karavakis, E; Kokoszkiewicz, L; Nowotka, M; Saiz, P; Tuckett, D

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in web browser performance and web standards compliance, as well as the availability of comprehensive JavaScript libraries, provides an opportunity to develop functionally rich yet intuitive web applications that allow users to access, render and analyse data in novel ways. However, the development of such large-scale JavaScript web applications presents new challenges, in particular with regard to code sustainability and team-based work. We present an approach that meets the challenges of large-scale JavaScript web application design and development, including client-side model-view-controller architecture, design patterns, and JavaScript libraries. Furthermore, we show how the approach leads naturally to the encapsulation of the data source as a web API, allowing applications to be easily ported to new data sources. The Experiment Dashboard framework is used for the development of applications for monitoring the distributed computing activities of virtual organisations on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. We demonstrate the benefits of the approach for large-scale JavaScript web applications in this context by examining the design of several Experiment Dashboard applications for data processing, data transfer and site status monitoring, and by showing how they have been ported for different virtual organisations and technologies.

  7. Designing and developing portable large-scale JavaScript web applications within the Experiment Dashboard framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, J.; Dzhunov, I.; Karavakis, E.; Kokoszkiewicz, L.; Nowotka, M.; Saiz, P.; Tuckett, D.

    2012-12-01

    Improvements in web browser performance and web standards compliance, as well as the availability of comprehensive JavaScript libraries, provides an opportunity to develop functionally rich yet intuitive web applications that allow users to access, render and analyse data in novel ways. However, the development of such large-scale JavaScript web applications presents new challenges, in particular with regard to code sustainability and team-based work. We present an approach that meets the challenges of large-scale JavaScript web application design and development, including client-side model-view-controller architecture, design patterns, and JavaScript libraries. Furthermore, we show how the approach leads naturally to the encapsulation of the data source as a web API, allowing applications to be easily ported to new data sources. The Experiment Dashboard framework is used for the development of applications for monitoring the distributed computing activities of virtual organisations on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. We demonstrate the benefits of the approach for large-scale JavaScript web applications in this context by examining the design of several Experiment Dashboard applications for data processing, data transfer and site status monitoring, and by showing how they have been ported for different virtual organisations and technologies.

  8. Toward the Development and Deployment of Large-Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Conversion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Zhihong; Eden, Mario R.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    In light of the depletion of fossil fuels and the increased daily requirements for liquid fuels and chemicals, CO2 should indeed be regarded as a valuable C-1. additional feedstock for sustainable manufacturing of liquid fuels and chemicals. Development and deployment of CO2 capture and chemical...... are three keys factors. The CO2 capture technologies from stationary sources and ambient air based on solvents, solid sorbents, and membranes are discussed first. Transforming CO2 to liquid fuels and chemicals, which are presently produced from petroleum, through thermochemical, electrochemical...

  9. Selected Ethical Issues in Artificial Intelligence, Autonomous System Development and Large Data Set Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zgrzebnicki Paweł

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to information technology development and its industrial adaptation, the dilemmas so far specific to philosophical speculations and science-fiction literature and films have become the real problems of the contemporary world. On one hand, these issues are related to an unprecedented scale on which computational algorithms are currently used as well as a level of complexity of mutual connections; on the other hand, these are linked to their autonomous behavior. States, industry, and users themselves demand formulation of understandable ethical categories and determination of transparency standards and legal norms for these algorithms’ functioning in the near future.

  10. Large area sheet task. Advanced dendritic web growth development. [silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Frantti, E.; Schruben, J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a silicon dendritic web growth machine is discussed. Several refinements to the sensing and control equipment for melt replenishment during web growth are described and several areas for cost reduction in the components of the prototype automated web growth furnace are identified. A circuit designed to eliminate the sensitivity of the detector signal to the intensity of the reflected laser beam used to measure melt level is also described. A variable speed motor for the silicon feeder is discussed which allows pellet feeding to be accomplished at a rate programmed to match exactly the silicon removed by web growth.

  11. Developing a Massively Parallel Forward Projection Radiography Model for Large-Scale Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauerle, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This project utilizes Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) to compute radiograph simulations for arbitrary objects. The generation of radiographs, also known as the forward projection imaging model, is computationally intensive and not widely utilized. The goal of this research is to develop a massively parallel algorithm that can compute forward projections for objects with a trillion voxels (3D pixels). To achieve this end, the data are divided into blocks that can each t into GPU memory. The forward projected image is also divided into segments to allow for future parallelization and to avoid needless computations.

  12. Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design, an effective modern software development method for development of computing systems for a large physics detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.; Carey, T.A.; Maguire, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    After evaluation of several modern object-oriented methods for development of the computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC, we selected the Shlaer-Mellor Object-Oriented Analysis and Recursive Design method as the most appropriate for the needs and development environment of a large nuclear or high energy physics detector. This paper discusses our specific needs and environment, our method selection criteria, and major features and components of the Shlaer-Mellor method

  13. Survey and research for the enhancement of large-scale technology development 1. Japan's large-scale technology development and the effects; Ogata gijutsu kaihatsu suishin no tame no chosa kenkyu. 1. Nippon no daikibo gijutsu kaihatsu to sono koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    A survey is conducted into the effects of projects implemented under the large-scale industrial technology research and development system. In the development of 'ultraperformance computers,' each of the technologies is being widely utilized, and the data service system of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation and the large computer (HITAC8800) owe much for their success to the fruits of the development endeavor. In the development of the 'desulfurization technology,' the fruits are in use by Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., and Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., incorporated into their desulfurization systems. Although there is no practical plant based on the 'great-depth remotely controlled submarine oil drilling rig,' yet oceanic technologies and control methods are being utilized in various fields. The 'seawater desalination and by-product utilization' technologies have enabled the establishment of technologies of the top level in the world thanks to the resultant manufacture of concrete evaporator and related technologies. Eleven plants have been completed utilizing the fruits of the development. In the field of 'electric vehicle,' there is no commercialization in progress due to problems in cost effectiveness though remarkable improvement has been achieved in terms of performance. Technologies about weight reduction, semiconductor devices, battery parts and components, etc., are being utilized in many fields. (NEDO)

  14. Expecting a boomtown? Exploring potential housing – related impacts of large scale resource developments in Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Ennis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Darwin is a city in the Northern Territory of Australia expecting a ‘boomtown’ scenario due to significant natural resource developments in the Greater Darwin area. The experience of ‘booming’ has a range of impacts upon communities. Housing is a key area of impact, particularly for the most vulnerable members of a population, who may not reap the benefits of the ‘boom’. In Darwin, new resource developments will begin in the context of record high house prices, high rents and high homelessness rates. This literature review explores what is known about the housing-related impacts of boomtowns and considers the likely housing-related impacts of a boomtown scenario in Darwin. While the city’s diverse economy and population size may provide some insulation from severe boomtown impacts, housing availability and affordability is likely to be negatively impacted. The implications of this for the most vulnerable members of the greater Darwin population require careful consideration.

  15. Large-area sheet task: Advanced dendritic-web-growth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Schruben, J.

    1983-01-01

    Thermally generated stresses in the growing web crystal were reduced. These stresses, which if too high cause the ribbon to degenerate, were reduced by a factor of three, resulting in the demonstrated growth of high-quality web crystals to widths of 5.4 cm. This progress was brought about chiefly by the application of thermal models to the development of low-stress growth configurations. A new temperature model was developed which can analyze the thermal effects of much more complex lid and top shield configurations than was possible with the old lumped shield model. Growth experiments which supplied input data such as actual shield temperature and melt levels were used to verify the modeling results. Desirable modifications in the melt level-sensing circuitry were made in the new experimental web growth furnace, and this furnace has been used to carry out growth experiments under steady-state conditions. New growth configurations were tested in long growth runs at Westinghouse AESD which produced wider, lower stress and higher quality web crystals than designs previously used.

  16. Development of two-phase flow along a large vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Lucas; Prasser, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: To qualify CFD codes for two-phase flow simulations, closure laws describing the interaction between the phases are needed. Vertical pipe flow is a suitable object for studying the corresponding phenomena in case of dispersed bubbly flow. Here, the bubbles move under clear boundary conditions, resulting in a shear field of nearly constant structure where the bubbles rise for a comparatively long time. This allows to study the lateral motion of the bubbles in a shear flow as well as bubble coalescence and break-up by comparing gas volume fraction distributions and bubble size distributions at different heights. Very detailed data were obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf using an advanced wire-mesh sensor. This sensor measures the instantaneous conductivity distribution over the pipe cross section. The high frequency of the measurement (2500 frames/s) allows the detection of single bubbles by a special evaluation procedure. Bubble size distributions, gas volume fraction distributions and also gas fraction distributions decomposed according to the bubble size are delivered as result of the evaluation procedure. The use of two sensors allows to measure the profile of the gas velocity. In previous works similar data for pipe of 51.2 mm inner diameter were used for the validation of non-drag bubble forces [1] and the evaluation of the influence of radial profiles on the development of the flow pattern [2]. First investigations on scaling effects were done using data obtained at a pipe with an inner diameter of 194 mm [3]. A constant distance between gas injection and measuring plane of L/D ∼ 40 was used. From a new test series now measurements are available for varying distances between the injection device and the wire-mesh sensor. This allows the evaluation of the development of the flow along the pipe. The data are used for the development and validation of mesoscale models for the forces acting on

  17. Development of large area CsI photocathodes for the Alice/Humped Rich detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.

    2005-03-01

    The work carried out within the framework of this PhD deals with the measurement of the photoelectric properties of large area thin film cesium iodide photocathodes (PCs) which are to be used as a photon converter in a proximity focusing RICH detector for High Momentum Particle Identification (HMPID) in the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The objective was to commission a VUV-scanner setup for in-situ measurements of the photoelectric response of the CsI PCs and the use of this system to investigate the properties of these photon detectors. Among the investigated phenomena the most important ones were: - Post deposition treatment: from R and D studies it was known, that the PC response can be increased by heating the PC after the coating process. Within this thesis it was shown that the enhancement effect is mandatory to achieve the photon conversion efficiency required by the detector design and that any difference in PC quality is due to differences in this enhancement effect. - Ageing effects: CsI PCs age under exposure to humidity due to the hygroscopicity of CsI and under high photon flux and ion bombardment inside the Multi Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) of the detector. All three effects have been investigated with the VUV scanner. The first effect requires a careful treatment of the CsI PCs to avoid exposure to humid air. Furthermore this effect was found to be reversible if the PC is heated. High photon fluxes are irrelevant in a Cherenkov detector dealing with single photons, however, the problem needed to be investigated to verify that the measurement process itself does not damage the PCs. The third mechanism is very important as it occurs during normal detector operation and depends only on the radiation environment of the experiment. For a dose corresponding to 20 years of operation inside ALICE an accelerated test showed a clear degradation of up to 40 % of the PC response. With the results of these studies the first 17 PCs (of 42) for the detector

  18. The Development and Microstructure Analysis of High Strength Steel Plate NVE36 for Large Heat Input Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhang; Liangfa, Xie; Ming, Wei; Jianli, Li

    In the shipbuilding industry, the welding efficiency of the ship plate not only has a great effect on the construction cost of the ship, but also affects the construction speed and determines the delivery cycle. The steel plate used for large heat input welding was developed sufficiently. In this paper, the composition of the steel with a small amount of Nb, Ti and large amount of Mn had been designed in micro-alloyed route. The content of C and the carbon equivalent were also designed to a low level. The technology of oxide metallurgy was used during the smelting process of the steel. The rolling technology of TMCP was controlled at a low rolling temperature and ultra-fast cooling technology was used, for the purpose of controlling the transformation of the microstructure. The microstructure of the steel plate was controlled to be the mixed microstructure of low carbon bainite and ferrite. Large amount of oxide particles dispersed in the microstructure of steel, which had a positive effects on the mechanical property and welding performance of the steel. The mechanical property of the steel plate was excellent and the value of longitudinal Akv at -60 °C is more than 200 J. The toughness of WM and HAZ were excellent after the steel plate was welded with a large heat input of 100-250 kJ/cm. The steel plate processed by mentioned above can meet the requirement of large heat input welding.

  19. Large-scale production of diesel-like biofuels - process design as an inherent part of microorganism development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Maria C; Heijnen, Joseph J; van der Wielen, Luuk A M

    2013-06-01

    Industrial biotechnology is playing an important role in the transition to a bio-based economy. Currently, however, industrial implementation is still modest, despite the advances made in microorganism development. Given that the fuels and commodity chemicals sectors are characterized by tight economic margins, we propose to address overall process design and efficiency at the start of bioprocess development. While current microorganism development is targeted at product formation and product yield, addressing process design at the start of bioprocess development means that microorganism selection can also be extended to other critical targets for process technology and process scale implementation, such as enhancing cell separation or increasing cell robustness at operating conditions that favor the overall process. In this paper we follow this approach for the microbial production of diesel-like biofuels. We review current microbial routes with both oleaginous and engineered microorganisms. For the routes leading to extracellular production, we identify the process conditions for large scale operation. The process conditions identified are finally translated to microorganism development targets. We show that microorganism development should be directed at anaerobic production, increasing robustness at extreme process conditions and tailoring cell surface properties. All the same time, novel process configurations integrating fermentation and product recovery, cell reuse and low-cost technologies for product separation are mandatory. This review provides a state-of-the-art summary of the latest challenges in large-scale production of diesel-like biofuels. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Development of durable and efficient electrodes for large-scale alkaline water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjartansdóttir, Cecilia Kristin; Nielsen, Lars Pleth; Møller, Per

    2013-01-01

    A new type of electrodes for alkaline water electrolysis is produced by physical vapour depositing (PVD) of aluminium onto a nickel substrate. The PVD Al/Ni is heat-treated to facilitate alloy formation followed by a selective aluminium alkaline leaching. The obtained porous Ni surface is uniform...... and characterized by a unique interlayer adhesion, which is critical for industrial application. IR-compensated polarisation curves prepared in a half-cell setup with 1 M KOH electrolyte at room temperature reveals that at least 400 mV less potential is needed to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen...... produced bipolar electrolyser stack. The developed electrodes showed stable behaviour under intermittent operation for over 9000 h indicating no serious deactivation in the density of active sites....

  1. Development Concept of the Dubrovnik Passenger Port for Accommodation of Large Cruise Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Perko

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The technical, traffic and economic parameters of the p011of Dubrovnik, specialized in goods traffic, allow for its reorganizationand conversion into a multi-purpose terminal able toaccommodate cruise ships. The following is required for its successfulconversion: development strategy analysis, financial ratioanalysis and conversion effect analysis. The paper providesthe definition and analysis of the components affecting theidentification of the port of Dubrovnik space requirements withthe aim of defining possible indicators of the port future dimensionswith respect to both, its sea and land area. The pwpose ofthis study is to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of theport of Dubrovnik as a passenger port with respect to both thenational liners and international cn1isers. The questions relatedto finding the optimal solutions for the port facilities and servicescan only be resolved by perceiving all the factors impactingthe traffic in the port, no matter whether marine or overlandconnecting the port with the highway and the airport.

  2. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  3. Development of a photogrammetry technique for large-area deformation monitoring in coal mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redweik, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The investigations of ground movements in coal mining areas during the past 10 years have been performed by methods of aerial photogrammetry. The ground points used for the determination of the movement in urban areas are manhole covers. The measurements must be repeated every three or four years. These facts have motivated the development of a new automatic method for measuring photo coordinates. This method is implemented on the Rollei RS1 (Reseau-Scanner Monocomparator. The approximate photo coordinates that are needed for this instrument can be computed from the old ground coordinates of each point. The manhole cover will be first recognised with a sort of template matching. Its central point will then be computed by using an ellipse operator. (orig.) [de

  4. Lifespan Development of the Human Brain Revealed by Large-Scale Network Eigen-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying functional connectivity patterns of the developing and aging brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution through infancy, childhood, and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Normal aging is related to some resting state brain networks disruption, which are associated with certain cognitive decline. It is a big challenge to design an integral metric to track connectome evolution patterns across the lifespan, which is to understand the principles of network organization in the human brain. In this study, we first defined a brain network eigen-entropy (NEE based on the energy probability (EP of each brain node. Next, we used the NEE to characterize the lifespan orderness trajectory of the whole-brain functional connectivity of 173 healthy individuals ranging in age from 7 to 85 years. The results revealed that during the lifespan, the whole-brain NEE exhibited a significant non-linear decrease and that the EP distribution shifted from concentration to wide dispersion, implying orderness enhancement of functional connectome over age. Furthermore, brain regions with significant EP changes from the flourishing (7–20 years to the youth period (23–38 years were mainly located in the right prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, and were involved in emotion regulation and executive function in coordination with the action of the sensory system, implying that self-awareness and voluntary control performance significantly changed during neurodevelopment. However, the changes from the youth period to middle age (40–59 years were located in the mesial temporal lobe and caudate, which are associated with long-term memory, implying that the memory of the human brain begins to decline with age during this period. Overall, the findings suggested that the human connectome

  5. Development activities on NIR large format MCT detectors for astrophysics and space science at CEA and SOFRADIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulade, Olivier; Moreau, Vincent; Mulet, Patrick; Gravrand, Olivier; Cervera, Cyril; Zanatta, Jean-Paul; Castelein, Pierre; Guellec, Fabrice; Fièque, Bruno; Chorier, Philippe; Roumegoux, Julien

    2016-07-01

    CEA and SOFRADIR have been manufacturing and characterizing near infrared detectors in the frame of ESA's near infrared large format sensor array roadmap to develop a 2Kx2K large format low flux low noise device for space applications such as astrophysics. These detectors use HgCdTe as the absorbing material and p/n diode technology. The technological developments (photovoltaic technology, readout circuit, ...) are shared between CEA/LETI and SOFRADIR, both in Grenoble, while most of the performances are evaluated at CEA/IRFU in Saclay where a dedicated test facility has been developed, in particular to measure very low dark currents. The paper will present the current status of these developments at the end of ESA's NIRLFSA phase 2. The performances of the latest batch of devices meet or are very close to all the requirements (quantum efficiency, dark current, cross talk, readout noise, ...) even though a glow induced by the ROIC prevents the accurate measurement of the dark current. The current devices are fairly small, 640x512 15μm pixels, and the next phase of activity will target the development of a full size 2Kx2K detector. From the design and development, to the manufacturing and finally the testing, that type of detector requests a high level of mastering. An appropriate manufacturing and process chain compatible with such a size is needed at industrial level and results obtained with CEA technology coupled with Sofradir industrial experience and work on large dimension detector allow French actors to be confident to address this type of future missions.

  6. Development of innovative technological base for large-scale nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Dedul, A.V.; Orlov, V.V.; Rachkov, V.I.; Slesarev, I.S.

    2017-01-01

    The problems of the Nuclear Power (NP) further development as well as the ways of their resolution on the basis of innovative fast reactor concepts and the Closed Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (CEFC) are analyzed. The new paradigm of NP and the corresponding NP super task are declared. The corresponding super task could be considered a transition to the vital risk free nuclear power through the guaranteed elimination/suppression of all their vital risks and threats (or their transformation to the category of some ordinary risks and threats) on the base of ''natural safety principle''. The project of Rosatom State Corporation (named ''PRORYV'') is launched within the Federal Target Program ''Nuclear power technologies of new generation for 2010 to 2015 and in perspective till 2020''. It has been planned just for these goals achievement. Super-task solution is quite ''on teeth'' to PRORYV project which is initially focused on the ''natural safety'' realization. This project is aimed, in particular, at construction of the demonstration lead cooled reactor BREST-300-OD and the enterprise for equilibrium fuel cycle closing.

  7. Selection of Treatment for Large Non-Traumatic Subdural Hematoma Developed during Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Hee Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A 49-year-old man with end-stage renal disease was admitted to the hospital with a severe headache and vomiting. On neurological examination the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score was 15 and his brain CT showed acute subdural hematoma over the right cerebral convexity with approximately 11-mm thickness and 9-mm midline shift. We chose a conservative treatment of scheduled neurological examination, anticonvulsant medication, serial brain CT scanning, and scheduled hemodialysis (three times per week without using heparin. Ten days after admission, he complained of severe headache and a brain CT showed an increased amount of hemorrhage and midline shift. Emergency burr hole trephination and removal of the hematoma were performed, after which symptoms improved. However, nine days after the operation a sudden onset of general tonic-clonic seizure developed and a brain CT demonstrated an increased amount of subdural hematoma. Under the impression of persistent increased intracranial pressure, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU in order to control intracranial pressure. Management at the ICU consisted of regular intravenous mannitol infusion assisted with continuous renal replacement therapy. He stayed in the ICU for four days. Twenty days after the operation he was discharged without specific neurological deficits.

  8. Development of a Lunar Scintillometer as part of the national large optical telescope site survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Avinash; Parihar, Padmakar S.; Banyal, Ravinder K.; Kalyaan, Anusha

    2018-03-01

    Ground layer turbulence is a very important site characterization parameter used to assess the quality of an astronomical site. The Lunar Scintillometer is a simple and effective site-testing device for measuring the ground layer turbulence. It consists of a linear array of photodiodes which are sensitive to the slight variations in the moon's brightness due to scintillation by the lower layers of the Earth's atmosphere. The covariance of intensity values between the non-redundant photodiode baselines can be used to measure the turbulence profile from the ground up to a height determined by the furthest pair of detectors. The six channel lunar scintillometer that has been developed at the Indian Institute of Astrophysics is based closely on an instrument built by the team led by Andrei Tokovinin of Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), Chile (Tokovinin et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404(3), 1186-1196 2010). We have fabricated the instrument based on the existing electronic design, and have worked on the noise analysis, an EMI (Electromagnetic Induction) resistant PCB design and the software pipeline for analyzing the data from the same. The results from the instrument's multi-year campaign at Mount Saraswati, Hanle is also presented.

  9. Development of a Gamma Spectrometer using a Large NaI Scintillator and SiPMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chankyu; Yoo, Hyunjun; Kim, Yewon and others

    2014-01-01

    A typical scintillation gamma spectrometer is composed of a NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal and a PM tube. From last years, a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) is being developed and expanding its application area as a substitute of PM tube due to its advantages like low operating voltage, small volume, and cheap production cost, MR compatibility. This approach could make gamma spectrometer smaller, cheaper, easier to use, and these advantage are quite suitable to original purpose of scintillation gamma spectrometer. Gamma spectrometry and gamma spectrometer is used to analyze gamma source in nuclear science, geochemistry, and astrophysics. In this research, gamma spectrometer which uses SiPMs instead of PM tube is proposed. The proposed gamma spectrometer has advantages of low cost, small volume, low operation voltage; but it has disadvantages of performances. To reduce this loss in performances, a light guide of effective structure is required. (Material, reflection type, tapering angle) For design of the light guide, DETECT simulation was performed. And through DETECT simulation, the characteristics of light guide could be prospected. Actual light guide was manufactured on the basis of this simulation result. Using the light guide, gamma spectrometer system was composed and tested. In the test result, gamma spectrometer using SiPM shows degraded energy resolution. The reason of this degradation is being analyzed and the test system is under modification

  10. Development of innovative technological base for large-scale nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamov, E.O.; Dedul, A.V.; Orlov, V.V.; Rachkov, V.I.; Slesarev, I.S. [ITC ' ' PRORYV' ' Project, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The problems of the Nuclear Power (NP) further development as well as the ways of their resolution on the basis of innovative fast reactor concepts and the Closed Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (CEFC) are analyzed. The new paradigm of NP and the corresponding NP super task are declared. The corresponding super task could be considered a transition to the vital risk free nuclear power through the guaranteed elimination/suppression of all their vital risks and threats (or their transformation to the category of some ordinary risks and threats) on the base of ''natural safety principle''. The project of Rosatom State Corporation (named ''PRORYV'') is launched within the Federal Target Program ''Nuclear power technologies of new generation for 2010 to 2015 and in perspective till 2020''. It has been planned just for these goals achievement. Super-task solution is quite ''on teeth'' to PRORYV project which is initially focused on the ''natural safety'' realization. This project is aimed, in particular, at construction of the demonstration lead cooled reactor BREST-300-OD and the enterprise for equilibrium fuel cycle closing.

  11. Development and Application of ANN Model for Worker Assignment into Virtual Cells of Large Sized Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, R. V.; Fathi, Khalid; Puri, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an extended version of study already undertaken on development of an artificial neural networks (ANNs) model for assigning workforce into virtual cells under virtual cellular manufacturing systems (VCMS) environments. Previously, the same authors have introduced this concept and applied it to virtual cells of two-cell configuration and the results demonstrated that ANNs could be a worth applying tool for carrying out workforce assignments. In this attempt, three-cell configurations problems are considered for worker assignment task. Virtual cells are formed under dual resource constraint (DRC) context in which the number of available workers is less than the total number of machines available. Since worker assignment tasks are quite non-linear and highly dynamic in nature under varying inputs and conditions and, in parallel, ANNs have the ability to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs and find similar patterns effectively, an attempt was earlier made to employ ANNs into the above task. In this paper, the multilayered perceptron with feed forward (MLP-FF) neural network model has been reused for worker assignment tasks of three-cell configurations under DRC context and its performance at different time periods has been analyzed. The previously proposed worker assignment model has been reconfigured and cell formation solutions available for three-cell configuration in the literature are used in combination to generate datasets for training ANNs framework. Finally, results of the study have been presented and discussed.

  12. Research and development of the JAERI large tokamak (JT-60), (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Ohta, Mitsuru; Minaguchi, Tadayoshi; Maeda, Hideto.

    1978-01-01

    A pair of fast-acting movable rail limiters are to be installed in the vacuum chamber of JT-60 to suppress skin current in the plasma column. They should travel across the vacuum chamber over a stroke of about 1 m in 0.1 sec in the build-up phase of the plasma current. Each movable limiter system consists of a drive mechanism, a vacuum seal, a bearing usable at high temperatures in a vacuum, a molybdenum rail limiter head and its auxiliary members. Various engineering problems are involved in constructing such a system because the design specifications outlined above exceed the present technology. A full-scale movable limiter, therefore, was designed, constructed and then put to mechanical, electrical and vacuum-technological tests. The model features a hydraulic drive mechanism with servovalves to control the oil flow. A special vacuum seal allowing a movement at high speeds was developed. It consists of welded bellows jointed together and connected to a pantograph at the joints. It allows uniform expansion of each bellows at high speeds. Molybdenum disulphide with 20% Ta is chosen as the most suitable bearing material after conducting tests on various bearing materials. The overall test of the model showed that its specifications were met with satisfactory reliability and reproducibility. Furthermore, the endurance test demonstrated that it functioned reliably over 50,000 times of operation. (author)

  13. Large Scale Leach Test Facility: Development of equipment and methods, and comparison to MCC-1 leach tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellarin, D.J.; Bickford, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the test equipment and methods, and documents the results of the first large-scale MCC-1 experiments in the Large Scale Leach Test Facility (LSLTF). Two experiments were performed using 1-ft-long samples sectioned from the middle of canister MS-11. The leachant used in the experiments was ultrapure deionized water - an aggressive and well characterized leachant providing high sensitivity for liquid sample analyses. All the original test plan objectives have been successfully met. Equipment and procedures have been developed for large-sample-size leach testing. The statistical reliability of the method has been determined, and ''bench mark'' data developed to relate small scale leach testing to full size waste forms. The facility is unique, and provides sampling reliability and flexibility not possible in smaller laboratory scale tests. Future use of this facility should simplify and accelerate the development of leaching models and repository specific data. The factor of less than 3 for leachability, corresponding to a 200,000/1 increase in sample volume, enhances the credibility of small scale test data which precedes this work, and supports the ability of the DWPF waste form to meet repository criteria

  14. Developing the Physics Basis of Fast Ignition Experiments at Future Large Fusion-class lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A J; Key, M H; Hatchett, S; MacPhee, A G; Foord, M; Tabak, M; Town, R J; Patel, P K

    2008-01-01

    The Fast Ignition (FI) concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactors. FI differs from conventional 'central hot spot' (CHS) target ignition by using one driver (laser, heavy ion beam or Z-pinch) to create a dense fuel and a separate ultra-short, ultra-intense laser beam to ignite the dense core. FI targets can burn with ∼ 3X lower density fuel than CHS targets, resulting in (all other things being equal) lower required compression energy, relaxed drive symmetry, relaxed target smoothness tolerances, and, importantly, higher gain. The short, intense ignition pulse that drives this process interacts with extremely high energy density plasmas; the physics that controls this interaction is only now becoming accessible in the lab, and is still not well understood. The attraction of obtaining higher gains in smaller facilities has led to a worldwide explosion of effort in the studies of FI. In particular, two new US facilities to be completed in 2009/2010, OMEGA/OMEGA EP and NIF-ARC (as well as others overseas) will include FI investigations as part of their program. These new facilities will be able to approach FI conditions much more closely than heretofore using direct drive (dd) for OMEGA/OMEGA EP and indirect drive (id) for NIF-ARC. This LDRD has provided the physics basis for the development of the detailed design for integrated Fast ignition experiments on these facilities on the 2010/2011 timescale. A strategic initiative LDRD has now been formed to carry out integrated experiments using NIF ARC beams to heat a full scale FI assembled core by the end of 2010

  15. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulence Modification and Particle Dispersion in a Fully-Developed Pipe Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Sarma; Pratap Vanka, Surya

    1999-11-01

    A LES study of the modification of turbulence in a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow by dispersed heavy particles at Re_τ = 360 is presented. A 64 (radial) x 64 (azimuthal) x 128 (axial) grid has been used. An Eulerian-Lagrangian approach has been used for treating the continuous and the dispersed phases respectively. The particle equation of motion included only the drag force. Three different LES models are used in the continuous fluid simulation: (i) A “No-Model” LES (coarse-grid DNS) (ii) Smagorinsky’s model and (iii) Schumann’s model . The motivation behind employing the Schumann’s model is to study the impact of sub-grid-scale fluctuations on the particle motion and their (SGS fluctuations) modulation, in turn, by the particles. The effect of particles on fluid turbulence is investigated by tracking 100000 particles of different diameters. Our studies confirm the preferential concentration of particles in the near wall region. It is observed that the inclusion of two-way coupling reduces the preferential concentration of particles. In addition, it was found that two-way coupling attenuates the fluid turbulence. However, we expect the above trends to differ depending upon the particle diameter, volumetric and mass fractions. The effect of SGS fluctuations on the particle dispersion and turbulence modulation is also being investigated. Other relevant statistics for the continuous and the dispersed phases are collected for the cases of one-way and two-way coupling. These statistics are compared to study the modulation of turbulence by the particles.

  16. Development and application of a large scale river system model for National Water Accounting in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dushmanta; Vaze, Jai; Kim, Shaun; Hughes, Justin; Yang, Ang; Teng, Jin; Lerat, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Existing global and continental scale river models, mainly designed for integrating with global climate models, are of very coarse spatial resolutions and lack many important hydrological processes, such as overbank flow, irrigation diversion, groundwater seepage/recharge, which operate at a much finer resolution. Thus, these models are not suitable for producing water accounts, which have become increasingly important for water resources planning and management at regional and national scales. A continental scale river system model called Australian Water Resource Assessment River System model (AWRA-R) has been developed and implemented for national water accounting in Australia using a node-link architecture. The model includes major hydrological processes, anthropogenic water utilisation and storage routing that influence the streamflow in both regulated and unregulated river systems. Two key components of the model are an irrigation model to compute water diversion for irrigation use and associated fluxes and stores and a storage-based floodplain inundation model to compute overbank flow from river to floodplain and associated floodplain fluxes and stores. The results in the Murray-Darling Basin shows highly satisfactory performance of the model with median daily Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.64 and median annual bias of less than 1% for the period of calibration (1970-1991) and median daily NSE of 0.69 and median annual bias of 12% for validation period (1992-2014). The results have demonstrated that the performance of the model is less satisfactory when the key processes such as overbank flow, groundwater seepage and irrigation diversion are switched off. The AWRA-R model, which has been operationalised by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for continental scale water accounting, has contributed to improvements in the national water account by substantially reducing accounted different volume (gain/loss).

  17. Development of a pharmacy student research program at a large academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Milena M; Skoglund, Erik; Bergman, Scott; Scheetz, Marc H

    2015-11-01

    A program to promote research by pharmacy students created through the collaboration of an academic medical center and a college of pharmacy is described. In 2009, Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy and Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) expanded their existing partnership by establishing a program to increase opportunities for pharmacy students to conduct clinical-translational research. All professional year 1, 2, or 3 students at the college, as well as professional year 4 students on rotation at NMH, can participate in the program. Central to the program's infrastructure is the mentorship of student leads by faculty- and hospital-based pharmacists. The mentors oversee the student research projects and guide development of poster presentations; student leads mentor junior students and assist with orientation and training activities. Publication of research findings in the peer-reviewed literature is a key program goal. In the first four years after program implementation, participation in a summer research program grew nearly 10-fold (mainly among incoming professional year 2 or 3 students, and student poster presentations at national pharmacy meetings increased nearly 20-fold; the number of published research articles involving student authors increased from zero in 2009 to three in 2012 and two in 2013. A collaborative program between an academic medical center and a college of pharmacy has enabled pharmacy students to conduct research at the medical center and has been associated with increases in the numbers of poster presentations and publications involving students. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of superconducting sextupole and decapole spool corrector magnets at CAT for the main dipole of Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntambekar, A.M.; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting (Sc)-corrector magnets are one of the important Indian contributions to LHC under construction at Geneva, Switzerland. Under DAE-CERN collaboration we embarked on the development of these magnets at CAT. This involved making prototype to validate basic design, then incorporate engineering design features and develop all tooling, machines to suit large production lot. We started the work in close collaboration with LHC/ICP, CERN and developed necessary tooling and fixtures, machining methods for intricate shape coil supports, Sc coil winding machines, test-equipment for warm and cold testing etc and made several prototypes. These prototypes were tested at CAT and CERN at warm and at 4.2 and 1.8K for acceptance. This paper describes salient features of prototype development at CAT. (author)

  19. Development of a generic seed crystal for the fabrication of large grain (RE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Y; Babu, N Hari; Cardwell, D A

    2005-01-01

    The critical current density, J c , irreversibility field, B irr , and magnetic field trapping ability of (LRE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors, where LRE is a light rare earth element such as Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd, are generally superior to those of the more common melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO). The lack of availability of a suitable seed crystal to grow large, single grain (LRE)-Ba-Cu-O superconductors with controlled orientation, however, has hindered severely the development of these materials for engineering applications over the past ten years. In this communication we report for the first time the development of a generic seed crystal that can be used to fabricate any rare earth (RE) based (RE)-Ba-Cu-O ((RE)BCO) superconductor in the form of a large single grain with controlled orientation. The new seed crystal will potentially enable large grain (LRE)-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors to be fabricated routinely, as is the case for YBCO. This will enable the field trapping and current-carrying characteristics of these materials to be explored in more detail than has been possible to date. (rapid communication)

  20. Towards Development of Clustering Applications for Large-Scale Comparative Genotyping and Kinship Analysis Using Y-Short Tandem Repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seman, Ali; Sapawi, Azizian Mohd; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2015-06-01

    Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are genetic markers with practical applications in human identification. However, where mass identification is required (e.g., in the aftermath of disasters with significant fatalities), the efficiency of the process could be improved with new statistical approaches. Clustering applications are relatively new tools for large-scale comparative genotyping, and the k-Approximate Modal Haplotype (k-AMH), an efficient algorithm for clustering large-scale Y-STR data, represents a promising method for developing these tools. In this study we improved the k-AMH and produced three new algorithms: the Nk-AMH I (including a new initial cluster center selection), the Nk-AMH II (including a new dominant weighting value), and the Nk-AMH III (combining I and II). The Nk-AMH III was the superior algorithm, with mean clustering accuracy that increased in four out of six datasets and remained at 100% in the other two. Additionally, the Nk-AMH III achieved a 2% higher overall mean clustering accuracy score than the k-AMH, as well as optimal accuracy for all datasets (0.84-1.00). With inclusion of the two new methods, the Nk-AMH III produced an optimal solution for clustering Y-STR data; thus, the algorithm has potential for further development towards fully automatic clustering of any large-scale genotypic data.

  1. Hydropower, social priorities and the rural–urban development divide: The case of large dams in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, Giuseppina; Urban, Frauke; Kim, Sour; Dara Lonn, Pich

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower investment is a priority in many developing countries, as a means to increase electrification rates and promote national development. However, neglect of dam-affected people's needs, can make them vulnerable to the multifaceted impacts of such projects. Using the case of Cambodia's first large dam, the Kamchay dam, this paper reveals social priorities of affected communities and institutional actors linked to environmental and social implications of large hydropower projects using a preference ranking method. Qualitative research revealed concerns among dam-affected communities which included energy access, livelihood changes, environmental impacts, access to natural resources and compensation. Results also reveal divergence between national and local priorities, which in turn brings about an unequal distribution of costs and benefits of the Kamchay Dam between urban and rural areas. The paper provides recommendations to policy-makers, NGOs and international organizations regarding governance issues, consultation processes and mitigation measures. - Highlights: • We assess social priorities linked to the impacts of a large dam in Cambodia. • We examine differences between local actors in the prioritization of the impacts. • Findings show divergences between national and local priorities of dam construction. • Distribution of cost and benefit is spatially unequal between rural and urban areas.

  2. Development of large scale production of Nd-doped phosphate glasses for megajoule-scale laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficini, G.; Campbell, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Nd-doped phosphate glasses are the preferred gain medium for high-peak-power lasers used for Inertial Confinement Fusion research because they have excellent energy storage and extraction characteristics. In addition, these glasses can be manufactured defect-free in large sizes and at relatively low cost. To meet the requirements of the future mega-joule size lasers, advanced laser glass manufacturing methods are being developed that would enable laser glass to be continuously produced at the rate of several thousand large (790 x 440 x 44 mm 3 ) plates of glass per year. This represents more than a 10 to 100-fold improvement in the scale of the present manufacturing technology

  3. Myeloid leukemias and virally induced lymphomas in miniature inbred swine; development of a large animal tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAIMON eDURAN-STRUUCK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a large animal transplantable tumor model has limited the study of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of liquid cancers. Swine as a species provide a natural option based on their similarities with humans and their already extensive use in biomedical research. Specifically, the MGH miniature swine herd retains unique genetic characteristics that facilitate the study of hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation. Spontaneously arising liquid cancers in these swine, specifically myeloid leukemias and B cell lymphomas, closely resemble human malignancies. The ability to establish aggressive tumor cell lines in vitro from these naturally occurring malignancies makes a transplantable tumor model a close reality. Here, we discuss our experience with myeloid and lymphoid tumors in MHC characterized miniature swine and future approaches regarding the development of a large animal transplantable tumor model.

  4. Development of guidance on applications of regulatory requirements for regulating large, contaminated equipment and large decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Easton, E.P.; Cook, J.R.; Boyle, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued revised regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Significant were major changes to requirements for Low Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCOs). As these requirements were adopted into regulations in the United States, it was recognised that guidance on how to apply these requirements to large, contaminated/activated pieces of equipment and decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) objects would be needed both by the regulators and those regulated to clarify technical uncertainties and ensure implementation. Thus, the US Department of Transportation and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with assistance of staff from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are preparing regulatory guidance which will present examples of acceptable methods for demonstrating compliance with the revised rules for large items. Concepts being investigated for inclusion in the pending guidance are discussed in this paper. Under current plans, the guidance will be issued for public comment before final issuance in 1997. (Author)

  5. Development of guidance on applications of regulatory requirements for regulating large, contaminated equipment and large decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Easton, E.P.; Cook, J.R.; Boyle, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency issued revised regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Significant were major changes to requirements for Low Specific Activity material and Surface Contaminated Objects. As these requirements were adopted into regulations in the US, it was recognized that guidance on how to apply these requirements to large, contaminated/activated pieces of equipment and decommissioning and decontamination objects would be needed both by the regulators and those regulated to clarify technical uncertainties and ensure implementation. Thus, the US Department of Transportation and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with assistance of staff from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are preparing regulatory guidance which will present examples of acceptable methods for demonstrating compliance with the revised rules for large items. Concepts being investigated for inclusion in the pending guidance are discussed in this paper. Under current plans, the guidance will be issued for public comment before final issuance in 1997

  6. Super-large optical gyroscopes for applications in geodesy and seismology: state-of-the-art and development prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikoseltsev, A A; Luk'yanov, D P; Vinogradov, V I; Shreiber, K U

    2014-01-01

    A brief survey of the history of the invention and development of super-large laser gyroscopes (SLLGs) is presented. The basic results achieved using SLLGs in geodesy, seismology, fundamental physics and other fields are summarised. The concept of SLLG design, specific features of construction and implementation are considered, as well as the prospects of applying the present-day optical technologies to laser gyroscope engineering. The possibilities of using fibre-optical gyroscopes in seismologic studies are analysed and the results of preliminary experimental studies are presented. (laser gyroscopes)

  7. Super-large optical gyroscopes for applications in geodesy and seismology: state-of-the-art and development prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikoseltsev, A A; Luk' yanov, D P [St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University ' ' LETI' ' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Vinogradov, V I [OJSC Tambov factory Elektropribor (Russian Federation); Shreiber, K U [Forschungseinrichtung Satellitengeodaesie, Technosche Universitaet Muenchen, Geodaetisches Observatorium Wettzell, Sackenrieder str. 25, 93444 Bad Koetzting (Germany)

    2014-12-31

    A brief survey of the history of the invention and development of super-large laser gyroscopes (SLLGs) is presented. The basic results achieved using SLLGs in geodesy, seismology, fundamental physics and other fields are summarised. The concept of SLLG design, specific features of construction and implementation are considered, as well as the prospects of applying the present-day optical technologies to laser gyroscope engineering. The possibilities of using fibre-optical gyroscopes in seismologic studies are analysed and the results of preliminary experimental studies are presented. (laser gyroscopes)

  8. The development of a capability for aerodynamic testing of large-scale wing sections in a simulated natural rain environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, Gaudy M.; Cambell, Bryan A.; Melson, W. Edward

    1989-01-01

    A research technique to obtain large-scale aerodynamic data in a simulated natural rain environment has been developed. A 10-ft chord NACA 64-210 wing section wing section equipped with leading-edge and trailing-edge high-lift devices was tested as part of a program to determine the effect of highly-concentrated, short-duration rainfall on airplane performance. Preliminary dry aerodynamic data are presented for the high-lift configuration at a velocity of 100 knots and an angle of attack of 18 deg. Also, data are presented on rainfield uniformity and rainfall concentration intensity levels obtained during the calibration of the rain simulation system.

  9. Development of electric road vehicles in France. Political measures, large-scale tests, and strategy of PSA Peugeot Citroen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beau, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    France offers particularly favourable conditions for the further development and the market introduction of electric vehicles: On account of the electricity production with almost no exhaust emission and due to the concentrated population structure stemming from the historical background in densely populated historical towns up to the innovational, electrochemical and electrotechnical industries and last but not least the automotive industry itself. The article is structured as follows: A) Political measures, large scale experiments in France; B) Strategy of PSA Peugeot Citroen; C) Activities by Peugeot in Germany. (orig.) [de

  10. Latest developments on the highly granular Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter technological prototype for the International Large Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Irles, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    High precision physics at future colliders requires unprecedented highly granular calorimeters for the application of the Particle Flow (PF) algorithm. The physical proof of concept was given in the previous campaign of beam tests of physic prototypes within the CALICE collaboration. We present here the latest beam and laboratory test results and R&D developments for the Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter technological prototype with fully embedded very front-end (VFE) electronics for the International Large Detector at the International Linear Collider project.

  11. Investigation and development of the suppression methods of the {sup 42}K background in LArGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubashevskiy, Alexey [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    GERDA is an ultra-low background experiment aimed for the neutrinoless double beta decay search. The search is performed using HPGe detectors operated in liquid argon (LAr). One of the most dangerous backgrounds in GERDA is the background from {sup 42}K which is a daughter isotope of cosmogenically produced {sup 42}Ar. {sup 42}K ions are collected towards to the detector by the electric field of the detector. Estimation of the background contribution and development of the suppression methods were performed in the low background test facility LArGe. For this purpose encapsulated HPGe and bare BEGe detectors were operated in 1m{sup 3} of LAr in the LArGe setup. It is equipped with scintillation veto, so particles which deposit part of their energy in LAr can be detected by 9 PMTs. In order to better understand background and to increase statistics the LAr of LArGe was spiked with specially produced {sup 42}Ar. All these investigations allowed us to estimate background contribution from {sup 42}K and demonstrate the possibility to suppress it in future measurements in GERDA Phase II.

  12. Reflections on the political economy of large-scale technology using the example of German fast-breeder development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from Anglo-Saxon opinions which, from a liberal point of view, criticize the German practice of research policy - state centres of large-scale research and state subventions for research and development in industry - to be inefficient, the author empirically verified these statements taking the German fast breeder project as an example. If the case of the German fast breeder can be generalized, this had consequences for the research political practice and for other technologies. Supporters as well as opponents of large-scale technology today proceed from the assumption that almost every technology can be made commercially viable when using sufficient amounts of money and persons. This is a migth which owes its existence to the technical success of great projects in non-commercial fields. The German fast breeder project confirms the opinion that the recipes for success of these non-commercial projects cannot be applied to the field of commercial technology. The results of this study suggest that practice and theory of technology policy can be misdirected if they are uncritically oriented according to the form of state intervention so far used in large-scale technology. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Ecological thresholds in the savanna landscape: developing a protocol for monitoring the change in composition and utilisation of large trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave J Druce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquiring greater understanding of the factors causing changes in vegetation structure -- particularly with the potential to cause regime shifts -- is important in adaptively managed conservation areas. Large trees (> or =5 m in height play an important ecosystem function, and are associated with a stable ecological state in the African savanna. There is concern that large tree densities are declining in a number of protected areas, including the Kruger National Park, South Africa. In this paper the results of a field study designed to monitor change in a savanna system are presented and discussed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Developing the first phase of a monitoring protocol to measure the change in tree species composition, density and size distribution, whilst also identifying factors driving change. A central issue is the discrete spatial distribution of large trees in the landscape, making point sampling approaches relatively ineffective. Accordingly, fourteen 10 m wide transects were aligned perpendicular to large rivers (3.0-6.6 km in length and eight transects were located at fixed-point photographic locations (1.0-1.6 km in length. Using accumulation curves, we established that the majority of tree species were sampled within 3 km. Furthermore, the key ecological drivers (e.g. fire, herbivory, drought and disease which influence large tree use and impact were also recorded within 3 km. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The technique presented provides an effective method for monitoring changes in large tree abundance, size distribution and use by the main ecological drivers across the savanna landscape. However, the monitoring of rare tree species would require individual marking approaches due to their low densities and specific habitat requirements. Repeat sampling intervals would vary depending on the factor of concern and proposed management mitigation. Once a monitoring protocol has been identified and evaluated, the next

  14. Exploring Transition of Large Technological Systems through Relational Data - A Study of The Danish Smart Grid Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    in the transformation process. While they can contribute with resources, capabilities, and their connections to the development of the new grid infrastructure, they may also impede innovation given their ownership of and assumed interest in the established system. These insights should be considered in policy...... transformation of the energy grid infrastructure. The focus is set on how the interplay between established and new technologies and actors determines the direction and outcomes of innovation in large technological systems (such as the Danish smart grid). Results of several chapters indicate that in the Danish......Combining elements form the Science, Technology and Society (STS) tradition with the Technological Innovation System (TIS) framework and utilising unstructured and relational data as well as novel analysis tools, this thesis explores the development of the Danish smart grid and the associated...

  15. Development and experimental test of support vector machines virtual screening method for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bucong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Src plays various roles in tumour progression, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and survival. It is one of the multiple targets of multi-target kinase inhibitors in clinical uses and trials for the treatment of leukemia and other cancers. These successes and appearances of drug resistance in some patients have raised significant interest and efforts in discovering new Src inhibitors. Various in-silico methods have been used in some of these efforts. It is desirable to explore additional in-silico methods, particularly those capable of searching large compound libraries at high yields and reduced false-hit rates. Results We evaluated support vector machines (SVM as virtual screening tools for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries. SVM trained and tested by 1,703 inhibitors and 63,318 putative non-inhibitors correctly identified 93.53%~ 95.01% inhibitors and 99.81%~ 99.90% non-inhibitors in 5-fold cross validation studies. SVM trained by 1,703 inhibitors reported before 2011 and 63,318 putative non-inhibitors correctly identified 70.45% of the 44 inhibitors reported since 2011, and predicted as inhibitors 44,843 (0.33% of 13.56M PubChem, 1,496 (0.89% of 168 K MDDR, and 719 (7.73% of 9,305 MDDR compounds similar to the known inhibitors. Conclusions SVM showed comparable yield and reduced false hit rates in searching large compound libraries compared to the similarity-based and other machine-learning VS methods developed from the same set of training compounds and molecular descriptors. We tested three virtual hits of the same novel scaffold from in-house chemical libraries not reported as Src inhibitor, one of which showed moderate activity. SVM may be potentially explored for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries at low false-hit rates.

  16. Development and experimental test of support vector machines virtual screening method for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bucong; Ma, Xiaohua; Zhao, Ruiying; Zhang, Jingxian; Wei, Xiaona; Liu, Xianghui; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Cunlong; Tan, Chunyan; Jiang, Yuyang; Chen, Yuzong

    2012-11-23

    Src plays various roles in tumour progression, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and survival. It is one of the multiple targets of multi-target kinase inhibitors in clinical uses and trials for the treatment of leukemia and other cancers. These successes and appearances of drug resistance in some patients have raised significant interest and efforts in discovering new Src inhibitors. Various in-silico methods have been used in some of these efforts. It is desirable to explore additional in-silico methods, particularly those capable of searching large compound libraries at high yields and reduced false-hit rates. We evaluated support vector machines (SVM) as virtual screening tools for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries. SVM trained and tested by 1,703 inhibitors and 63,318 putative non-inhibitors correctly identified 93.53%~ 95.01% inhibitors and 99.81%~ 99.90% non-inhibitors in 5-fold cross validation studies. SVM trained by 1,703 inhibitors reported before 2011 and 63,318 putative non-inhibitors correctly identified 70.45% of the 44 inhibitors reported since 2011, and predicted as inhibitors 44,843 (0.33%) of 13.56M PubChem, 1,496 (0.89%) of 168 K MDDR, and 719 (7.73%) of 9,305 MDDR compounds similar to the known inhibitors. SVM showed comparable yield and reduced false hit rates in searching large compound libraries compared to the similarity-based and other machine-learning VS methods developed from the same set of training compounds and molecular descriptors. We tested three virtual hits of the same novel scaffold from in-house chemical libraries not reported as Src inhibitor, one of which showed moderate activity. SVM may be potentially explored for searching Src inhibitors from large compound libraries at low false-hit rates.

  17. Development of radiation-tolerant components for the quench detection system at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterling, Oliver

    2017-04-03

    This works describes the results of a three year project to improve the radiation tolerance of the Quench Protection System of the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Radiation-induced premature beam aborts have been a limiting factor for accelerator availability in the recent years. Furthermore, the future upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider to its High Luminosity phase will further increase the radiation load and has higher requirements for the overall machine availability. Therefore equipment groups like the Quench protection groups have used the last years to redesign many of their systems to fulfill those requirements. In support of the development of radiation-tolerant systems, several proton beam irradiation campaigns were conducted to determine the inherent radiation tolerance of a selection of varied electronic components. Using components from this selection a new Quench Protection System for the 600 A corrector magnets was developed. The radiation tolerance of this system was further improved by developing a filter and error correction system for all discovered failure modes. Furthermore, compliance of the new system with the specification was shown by simulating the behavior of the system using data taken from the irradiation campaigns. The resulting system is operational since the beginning of 2016 and has in the first 9 months of operation not shown a single radiation-induced failure. Using results from simulations and irradiation campaigns the predicted failure cross section for the full new 600 A Quench Protection System is 4.358±0.564.10{sup -10} cm{sup 2} which is one order of magnitude lower than the target set during the development of this system.

  18. Development of radiation-tolerant components for the quench detection system at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitterling, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    This works describes the results of a three year project to improve the radiation tolerance of the Quench Protection System of the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Radiation-induced premature beam aborts have been a limiting factor for accelerator availability in the recent years. Furthermore, the future upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider to its High Luminosity phase will further increase the radiation load and has higher requirements for the overall machine availability. Therefore equipment groups like the Quench protection groups have used the last years to redesign many of their systems to fulfill those requirements. In support of the development of radiation-tolerant systems, several proton beam irradiation campaigns were conducted to determine the inherent radiation tolerance of a selection of varied electronic components. Using components from this selection a new Quench Protection System for the 600 A corrector magnets was developed. The radiation tolerance of this system was further improved by developing a filter and error correction system for all discovered failure modes. Furthermore, compliance of the new system with the specification was shown by simulating the behavior of the system using data taken from the irradiation campaigns. The resulting system is operational since the beginning of 2016 and has in the first 9 months of operation not shown a single radiation-induced failure. Using results from simulations and irradiation campaigns the predicted failure cross section for the full new 600 A Quench Protection System is 4.358±0.564.10 -10 cm 2 which is one order of magnitude lower than the target set during the development of this system.

  19. Developing Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) Technology for the Manufacture of Large-Aperture Optics in Megajoule Class Laser Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menapace, J A

    2010-10-27

    Over the last eight years we have been developing advanced MRF tools and techniques to manufacture meter-scale optics for use in Megajoule class laser systems. These systems call for optics having unique characteristics that can complicate their fabrication using conventional polishing methods. First, exposure to the high-power nanosecond and sub-nanosecond pulsed laser environment in the infrared (>27 J/cm{sup 2} at 1053 nm), visible (>18 J/cm{sup 2} at 527 nm), and ultraviolet (>10 J/cm{sup 2} at 351 nm) demands ultra-precise control of optical figure and finish to avoid intensity modulation and scatter that can result in damage to the optics chain or system hardware. Second, the optics must be super-polished and virtually free of surface and subsurface flaws that can limit optic lifetime through laser-induced damage initiation and growth at the flaw sites, particularly at 351 nm. Lastly, ultra-precise optics for beam conditioning are required to control laser beam quality. These optics contain customized surface topographical structures that cannot be made using traditional fabrication processes. In this review, we will present the development and implementation of large-aperture MRF tools and techniques specifically designed to meet the demanding optical performance challenges required in large-aperture high-power laser systems. In particular, we will discuss the advances made by using MRF technology to expose and remove surface and subsurface flaws in optics during final polishing to yield optics with improve laser damage resistance, the novel application of MRF deterministic polishing to imprint complex topographical information and wavefront correction patterns onto optical surfaces, and our efforts to advance the technology to manufacture large-aperture damage resistant optics.

  20. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems. In particular, we consider the development of large-scale Bayesian networks by composition. This compositional approach reflects how (often redundant) subsystems are architected to form systems such as electrical power systems. We develop high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems. The largest among these 24 Bayesian networks contains over 1,000 random variables. Another BN represents the real-world electrical power system ADAPT, which is representative of electrical power systems deployed in aerospace vehicles. In addition to demonstrating the scalability of the compositional approach, we briefly report on experimental results from the diagnostic competition DXC, where the ProADAPT team, using techniques discussed here, obtained the highest scores in both Tier 1 (among 9 international competitors) and Tier 2 (among 6 international competitors) of the industrial track. While we consider diagnosis of power systems specifically, we believe this work is relevant to other system health management problems, in particular in dependable systems such as aircraft and spacecraft. (See CASI ID 20100021910 for supplemental data disk.)

  1. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  2. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, A., E-mail: ahahn@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Mazin, D., E-mail: mazin@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277–8582 (Japan); Bangale, P., E-mail: priya@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Dettlaff, A., E-mail: todettl@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Fink, D., E-mail: fink@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Grundner, F., E-mail: grundner@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Haberer, W., E-mail: haberer@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Maier, R., E-mail: rma@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); and others

    2017-02-11

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges. - Highlights: • The design of the first SiPM large-size IACT pixel is described. • The simulation of the light concentrators is presented. • The temperature stability of the detector module is demonstrated. • The calibration procedure of SiPM device in the field is described.

  3. Maize global transcriptomics reveals pervasive leaf diurnal rhythms but rhythms in developing ears are largely limited to the core oscillator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant diurnal rhythms are vital environmental adaptations to coordinate internal physiological responses to alternating day-night cycles. A comprehensive view of diurnal biology has been lacking for maize (Zea mays, a major world crop. METHODOLOGY: A photosynthetic tissue, the leaf, and a non-photosynthetic tissue, the developing ear, were sampled under natural field conditions. Genome-wide transcript profiling was conducted on a high-density 105 K Agilent microarray to investigate diurnal rhythms. CONCLUSIONS: In both leaves and ears, the core oscillators were intact and diurnally cycling. Maize core oscillator genes are found to be largely conserved with their Arabidopsis counterparts. Diurnal gene regulation occurs in leaves, with some 23% of expressed transcripts exhibiting a diurnal cycling pattern. These transcripts can be assigned to over 1700 gene ontology functional terms, underscoring the pervasive impact of diurnal rhythms on plant biology. Considering the peak expression time for each diurnally regulated gene, and its corresponding functional assignment, most gene functions display temporal enrichment in the day, often with distinct patterns, such as dawn or midday preferred, indicating that there is a staged procession of biological events undulating with the diurnal cycle. Notably, many gene functions display a bimodal enrichment flanking the midday photosynthetic maximum, with an initial peak in mid-morning followed by another peak during the afternoon/evening. In contrast to leaves, in developing ears as few as 47 gene transcripts are diurnally regulated, and this set of transcripts includes primarily the core oscillators. In developing ears, which are largely shielded from light, the core oscillator therefore is intact with little outward effect on transcription.

  4. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  5. Development of low cost systems for co-utilisation of biomass in large power plant. Mid term review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2003-07-01

    Interest in the cofiring of biomass materials with coal in large coal-fired power stations in the UK has increased significantly in recent years in response to the potential additional income from Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs). It is anticipated that most coal-fired power stations in the UK will have the capability to cofire biomass materials by the end of 2003. This mid-term review report examines the various stages in the route to fully commercial operation of biomass cofiring at coal-fired power stations, the availability of suitable biomass materials in the UK and the technical options for cofiring. The factors affecting the economics of biomass cofiring in large coal-fired boilers are discussed including the delivered price of biofuels, the future value of ROCs, the development costs of cofiring projects, the 25% ceiling on cofiring imposed by the Renewables Obligation Order 2002 and the use of preblending. An overview of the current status of cofiring in the UK is presented, which includes a summary of the results of trials already carried out by operators of coal-fired power stations and a discussion of the future prospects for biomass cofiring in the UK.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL OF GALACTIC INTERSTELLAR EMISSION FOR STANDARD POINT-SOURCE ANALYSIS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J.; Buson, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Bruel, P., E-mail: isabelle.grenier@cea.fr, E-mail: casandjian@cea.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); and others

    2016-04-01

    Most of the celestial γ rays detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope originate from the interstellar medium when energetic cosmic rays interact with interstellar nucleons and photons. Conventional point-source and extended-source studies rely on the modeling of this diffuse emission for accurate characterization. Here, we describe the development of the Galactic Interstellar Emission Model (GIEM), which is the standard adopted by the LAT Collaboration and is publicly available. This model is based on a linear combination of maps for interstellar gas column density in Galactocentric annuli and for the inverse-Compton emission produced in the Galaxy. In the GIEM, we also include large-scale structures like Loop I and the Fermi bubbles. The measured gas emissivity spectra confirm that the cosmic-ray proton density decreases with Galactocentric distance beyond 5 kpc from the Galactic Center. The measurements also suggest a softening of the proton spectrum with Galactocentric distance. We observe that the Fermi bubbles have boundaries with a shape similar to a catenary at latitudes below 20° and we observe an enhanced emission toward their base extending in the north and south Galactic directions and located within ∼4° of the Galactic Center.

  7. Development of sub-nanosecond, high gain structures for time-of-flight ring imaging in large area detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetstein, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes (MCPs) are compact, imaging detectors, capable of micron-level spatial imaging and timing measurements with resolutions below 10 ps. Conventional fabrication methods are too expensive for making MCPs in the quantities and sizes necessary for typical HEP applications, such as time-of-flight ring-imaging Cherenkov detectors (TOF-RICH) or water Cherenkov-based neutrino experiments. The Large Area Picosecond Photodetector Collaboration (LAPPD) is developing new, commercializable methods to fabricate 20 cm 2 thin planar MCPs at costs comparable to those of traditional photo-multiplier tubes. Transmission-line readout with waveform sampling on both ends of each line allows the efficient coverage of large areas while maintaining excellent time and space resolution. Rather than fabricating channel plates from active, high secondary electron emission materials, we produce plates from passive substrates, and coat them using atomic layer deposition (ALD), a well established industrial batch process. In addition to possible reductions in cost and conditioning time, this allows greater control to optimize the composition of active materials for performance. We present details of the MCP fabrication method, preliminary results from testing and characterization facilities, and possible HEP applications.

  8. Rapid EHR development and implementation using web and cloud-based architecture in a large home health and hospice organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charlotte A; Teenier, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Health care organizations have long been limited to a small number of major vendors in their selection of an electronic health record (EHR) system in the national and international marketplace. These major EHR vendors have in common base systems that are decades old, are built in antiquated programming languages, use outdated server architecture, and are based on inflexible data models [1,2]. The option to upgrade their technology to keep pace with the power of new web-based architecture, programming tools and cloud servers is not easily undertaken due to large client bases, development costs and risk [3]. This paper presents the decade-long efforts of a large national provider of home health and hospice care to select an EHR product, failing that to build their own and failing that initiative to go back into the market in 2012. The decade time delay had allowed new technologies and more nimble vendors to enter the market. Partnering with a new start-up company doing web and cloud based architecture for the home health and hospice market, made it possible to build, test and implement an operational and point of care system in 264 home health locations across 40 states and three time zones in the United States. This option of "starting over" with the new web and cloud technologies may be posing a next generation of new EHR vendors that retells the Blackberry replacement by iPhone story in healthcare.

  9. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A.; Mazin, D.; Bangale, P.; Dettlaff, A.; Fink, D.; Grundner, F.; Haberer, W.; Maier, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Podkladkin, S.; Teshima, M.; Wetteskind, H.

    2017-02-01

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges.

  10. Booster: Development of a Toolbox for Triage of a Large Group of Individuals Exposed to Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoepff, V.; Carrel, F.; Gmar, M.; Lemaire, H.; Carvajal, F.; Perez-Llopis, I.; Gaboriau, D.-C.; Morrison, C.-G.; Almasi, I.; Szabo, S.; Kovacs, A; Szeles, E.; Amgarou, K.; Menaa, N.; Morat, L.; Testard, I.; Ugolin, N.; Viau, M.; Becker, F.; Raskob, W.; Trybushnyi, D.; Vincze, A.

    2013-06-01

    The effective management of an event involving the exposure of a large number of people to radioactive material requires a mechanism for fast triage of exposed people. BOOSTER is a project founded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme, addressing this requirement. It is a capability project designed to provide an integrated system which could easily be deployed and used. For this purpose, the BOOSTER consortium, relying on the expertise of seven members, researches and develops new approaches to allow an effective and fast management of most kind of nuclear threats. BOOSTER System was designed to help first responders mitigating the crisis by providing the necessary information to quickly assess the radiological situation, to support triage staff in performing an efficient and fast categorization of the potentially affected victims, and to give medical staff crucial information for further treatment at medium or long term post-accident. (authors)

  11. Development of the plasma operational regime in the large helical device by the various wall conditioning methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, K.; Ashikawa, N.; Masuzaki, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Sagara, A.; Goto, M.; Peterson, B.J.; Komori, A.; Noda, N.; Ida, K.; Kaneko, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kobuchi, T.; Kubo, S.; Morita, S.; Osakabe, M.; Sakakibara, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Sato, K.; Shimozuma, T.; Takeiri, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Motojima, O.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments in the large helical device have been developing since the first discharge in 1998. Baking at 95 deg C, electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning, glow discharge cleaning, titanium gettering and boronization were attempted for wall conditioning. Using these conditioning techniques, the partial pressures of the oxidized gases, such as H 2 O, CO and CO 2 , were reduced gradually and the plasma operational regime enlarged. The glow discharge cleaning with the various working gases, such as hydrogen, helium, neon and argon, was effective in increasing the plasma purity. By this method, we obtained a central ion temperature of 10 keV. Boronization, which was started from FY2001, was also effective in reducing the radiation losses from impurities and in enlarging the density operational regime. We obtained a plasma stored energy of 1.31 MJ and an electron density of 2.4 x 10 20 m -3

  12. Development and validation of a detailed TRNSYS-Matlab model for large solar collector fields for district heating applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the development of a detailed TRNSYS-Matlab model to simulate the behavior of a large solar collector field for district heating application. The model includes and investigates aspects which are not always considered by simpler models, such as flow distribution...... programming and computing time. Thermal capacity was worth being considered only for the bulkier components, such as the longer distribution and transmission pipes. The actual control strategy, which regulates the flow rates in the solar heating plant, was accurately reproduced in the model, as proved...... in the different rows, effect of the flow regime on the collector efficiency, thermal capacity of the components and effect of shadows from row to row. The model was compared with measurements from a solar collector field and the impact of each aspect was evaluated. A good agreement between model and measurements...

  13. Development of an industrialized space-frame system for the support of medium to large solar collector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-11-01

    A low-cost industrialized space-frame system suitable for the economical support of medium to large solar collector arrays was designed following a study of building types, collector interface conditions, structural design requirements, and market and procurement factors. The system consists of a series of welded truss modular sections which may be bolted together in the field to create a support structure with a span capability up to 25 m, thus minimizing expensive structural beams and roof penetrations. Collectors can be readily attached to top and bottom channels. The system meets all current government specifications for collector support. A full-size prototype was built to prove the concept and identify any fabrication and on-site assembly problems. Collectors were attached to test collector interface conditions, and a manufacturing strategy developed. 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Development and application of an optogenetic platform for controlling and imaging a large number of individual neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    The understanding and treatment of brain disorders as well as the development of intelligent machines is hampered by the lack of knowledge of how the brain fundamentally functions. Over the past century, we have learned much about how individual neurons and neural networks behave, however new tools are critically needed to interrogate how neural networks give rise to complex brain processes and disease conditions. Recent innovations in molecular techniques, such as optogenetics, have enabled neuroscientists unprecedented precision to excite, inhibit and record defined neurons. The impressive sensitivity of currently available optogenetic sensors and actuators has now enabled the possibility of analyzing a large number of individual neurons in the brains of behaving animals. To promote the use of these optogenetic tools, this thesis integrates cutting edge optogenetic molecular sensors which is ultrasensitive for imaging neuronal activity with custom wide field optical microscope to analyze a large number of individual neurons in living brains. Wide-field microscopy provides a large field of view and better spatial resolution approaching the Abbe diffraction limit of fluorescent microscope. To demonstrate the advantages of this optical platform, we imaged a deep brain structure, the Hippocampus, and tracked hundreds of neurons over time while mouse was performing a memory task to investigate how those individual neurons related to behavior. In addition, we tested our optical platform in investigating transient neural network changes upon mechanical perturbation related to blast injuries. In this experiment, all blasted mice show a consistent change in neural network. A small portion of neurons showed a sustained calcium increase for an extended period of time, whereas the majority lost their activities. Finally, using optogenetic silencer to control selective motor cortex neurons, we examined their contributions to the network pathology of basal ganglia related to

  15. New Theoretical Developments in Exploring Electronically Excited States: Including Localized Configuration Interaction Singles and Application to Large Helium Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closser, Kristina Danielle

    This thesis presents new developments in excited state electronic structure theory. Contrasted with the ground state, the electronically excited states of atoms and molecules often are unstable and have short lifetimes, exhibit a greater diversity of character and are generally less well understood. The very unusual excited states of helium clusters motivated much of this work. These clusters consist of large numbers of atoms (experimentally 103--109 atoms) and bands of nearly degenerate excited states. For an isolated atom the lowest energy excitation energies are from 1s → 2s and 1s → 2 p transitions, and in clusters describing the lowest energy band minimally requires four states per atom. In the ground state the clusters are weakly bound by van der Waals interactions, however in the excited state they can form well-defined covalent bonds. The computational cost of quantum chemical calculations rapidly becomes prohibitive as the size of the systems increase. Standard excited-state methods such as configuration interaction singles (CIS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) can be used with ≈100 atoms, and are optimized to treat only a few states. Thus, one of our primary aims is to develop a method which can treat these large systems with large numbers of nearly degenerate excited states. Additionally, excited states are generally formed far from their equilibrium structures. Vertical excitations from the ground state induce dynamics in the excited states. Thus, another focus of this work is to explore the results of these forces and the fate of the excited states. Very little was known about helium cluster excited states when this work began, thus we first investigated the excitations in small helium clusters consisting of 7 or 25 atoms using CIS. The character of these excited states was determined using attachment/detachment density analysis and we found that in the n = 2 manifold the excitations could generally be interpreted as

  16. TSO Study Project on Development of a Common Safety Approach in the EU for Large Evolutionary Pressurised Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    In pursuance of the objectives of the Council Resolutions of 1975 and 1992 on the technological issues of nuclear safety, the European Commission (EC) is seeking to promote a sustained joint in-depth study on possible significant future nuclear power reactor safety cases. To that end the EC decided to support financially a study by the grouping of the European Union Technical Safety Organisations (TSOG). The general objective of the study programme was to promote, through a collaboration of European Union Technical Safety Organisations (TSOs), common views on technical safety issues related to large evolutionary PWRs in Europe, which could be ready for operation during the next decade. AVN (Belgium) (Technical project leader), AEA Technology (United Kingdom), ANPA (Italy) CIEMAT (Spain), GRS (Germany), IPSN (France), were the TSOs participating in the study which was co-ordinated by RISKAUDIT. The study focused notably on the EPR project initiated by the French and German utilities and vendors. It also considered relevant projects, even of plants of different size, developed outside the European Union in order to provide elements important for the safety characterisation and which could contribute to the credibility and confidence of EPR. It is expected that this study will constitute a significant step towards the development of a common safety approach in EU countries. The study constitutes an important step forward in the development of a common approach of the TSOs to the safety of advanced evolutionary pressurised water reactors. This goal was mainly achieved by an in-depth analysis of the key safety issues, taking into account new developments in the national technical safety objectives and in the EPR design. For this reason the Commission has decided to publish at least the present summary report containing the main outcomes of the TSO study. Confidentiality considerations unfortunately prevent the open publication of the full series of reports. (author)

  17. Development and Large-Scale Validation of an Instrument to Assess Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes Toward Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Summers, Ryan; Said, Ziad; Wang, Shuai; Culbertson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    This study is part of a large-scale project focused on 'Qatari students' Interest in, and Attitudes toward, Science' (QIAS). QIAS aimed to gauge Qatari student attitudes toward science in grades 3-12, examine factors that impact these attitudes, and assess the relationship between student attitudes and prevailing modes of science teaching in Qatari schools. This report details the development and validation of the 'Arabic-Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science Survey' (ASSASS), which was specifically developed for the purposes of the QIAS project. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRAPB) [Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2005). The influence of attitudes on behavior. In D. Albarracín, B. T. Johnson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), The handbook of attitudes (pp. 173-221). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum] guided the instrument development. Development and validation of the ASSASS proceeded in 3 phases. First, a 10-member expert panel examined an initial pool of 74 items, which were revised and consolidated into a 60-item version of the instrument. This version was piloted with 369 Qatari students from the target schools and grade levels. Analyses of pilot data resulted in a refined version of the ASSASS, which was administered to a national probability sample of 3027 participants representing all students enrolled in grades 3-12 in the various types of schools in Qatar. Of the latter, 1978 students completed the Arabic version of the instrument. Analyses supported a robust, 5-factor model for the instrument, which is consistent with the TRAPB framework. The factors were: Attitudes toward science and school science, unfavorable outlook on science, control beliefs about ability in science, behavioral beliefs about the consequences of engaging with science, and intentions to pursue science.

  18. Whose waters? Large-scale agricultural development and water grabbing in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia van Eeden

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania like in other parts of the global South, in the name of 'development' and 'poverty eradication' vast tracts of land have been earmarked by the government to be developed by investors for different commercial agricultural projects, giving rise to the contested land grab phenomenon. In parallel, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM has been promoted in the country and globally as the governance framework that seeks to manage water resources in an efficient, equitable and sustainable manner. This article asks how IWRM manages the competing interests as well as the diverse priorities of both large and small water users in the midst of foreign direct investment. By focusing on two commercial sugar companies operating in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin in Tanzania and their impacts on the water and land rights of the surrounding villages, the article asks whether institutional and capacity weaknesses around IWRM implementation can be exploited by powerful actors that seek to meet their own interests, thus allowing water grabbing to take place. The paper thus highlights the power, interests and alliances of the various actors involved in the governance of water resources. By drawing on recent conceptual insights from the water grabbing literature, the empirical findings suggest that the IWRM framework indirectly and directly facilitates the phenomenon of water grabbing to take place in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin in Tanzania.

  19. Development of outcome measures for large-vessel vasculitis for use in clinical trials: opportunities, challenges, and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direskeneli, Haner; Aydin, Sibel Z; Kermani, Tanaz A; Matteson, Eric L; Boers, Maarten; Herlyn, Karen; Luqmani, Raashid A; Neogi, Tuhina; Seo, Philip; Suppiah, Ravi; Tomasson, Gunnar; Merkel, Peter A

    2011-07-01

    Giant cell (GCA) and Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) are 2 forms of large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) that involve the aorta and its major branches. GCA has a predilection for the cranial branches, while TAK tends to affect the extracranial branches. Both disorders may also cause nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Although some clinical features are more common in one or the other disorder and the ages of initial presentation differ substantially, there is enough clinical and histopathologic overlap between these disorders that some investigators suggest GCA and TAK may be 2 processes within the spectrum of a single disease. There have been few randomized therapeutic trials completed in GCA, and none in TAK. The lack of therapeutic trials in LVV is only partially explained by the rarity of these diseases. It is likely that the lack of well validated outcome measures for LVV and uncertainties regarding trial design contribute to the paucity of trials for these diseases. An initiative to develop a core set of outcome measures for use in clinical trials of LVV was launched by the international OMERACT Vasculitis Working Group in 2009 and subsequently endorsed by the OMERACT community at the OMERACT 10 meeting. Aims of this initiative include: (1) to review the literature and existing data related to outcome assessments in LVV; (2) to obtain the opinion of experts and patients on disease content; and (3) to formulate a research agenda to facilitate a more data-based approach to outcomes development.

  20. Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rubio-Codina

    Full Text Available In low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs, measuring early childhood development (ECD with standard tests in large scale surveys and evaluations of interventions is difficult and expensive. Multi-dimensional screeners and single-domain tests ('short tests' are frequently used as alternatives. However, their validity in these circumstances is unknown. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and concurrent validity of three multi-dimensional screeners (Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3, Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver-II, Battelle Developmental Inventory screener (BDI-2 and two single-domain tests (MacArthur-Bates Short-Forms (SFI and SFII, WHO Motor Milestones (WHO-Motor in 1,311 children 6-42 months in Bogota, Colombia. The scores were compared with those on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III, taken as the 'gold standard'. The Bayley-III was given at a center by psychologists; whereas the short tests were administered in the home by interviewers, as in a survey setting. Findings indicated good internal validity of all short tests except the ASQ-3. The BDI-2 took long to administer and was expensive, while the single-domain tests were quickest and cheapest and the Denver-II and ASQ-3 were intermediate. Concurrent validity of the multi-dimensional tests' cognitive, language, and fine motor scales with the corresponding Bayley-III scale was low below 19 months. However, it increased with age, becoming moderate-to-high over 30 months. In contrast, gross motor scales' concurrence was high under 19 months and then decreased. Of the single-domain tests, the WHO-Motor had high validity with gross motor under 16 months, and the SFI and SFII expressive scales showed moderate correlations with language under 30 months. Overall, the Denver-II was the most feasible and valid multi-dimensional test and the ASQ-3 performed poorly under 31 months. By domain, gross motor development had the highest concurrence

  1. The use of large databases to inform the development of an intestinal scoring system for the poultry industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasab-Bachi, H; Arruda, A G; Roberts, T E; Wilson, J B

    2017-10-01

    There is increasing interest among the poultry industry to develop a comprehensive index that can be used to evaluate overall intestinal health and impact on production performance. The Intestinal Integrity (I 2 ) index is a quantitative measurement tool used to assess the intestinal health of flocks that use the Health Tracking System (HTSi), a global surveillance system developed by Elanco Animal Health that captures flock-level information on health and performance. To generate an I 2 index score for a flock, the presence of 23 intestinal health conditions is assessed and recorded, then entered into a mathematical equation. The objective of this study was to use data from the HTSi dataset to investigate the association between health conditions contained within the I 2 index and five performance outcomes: average daily gain (ADG), mortality during the first week, feed conversion ratio (FCR), European Production Efficiency Factor (EPEF), and percent livability. At the time of analysis, the HTSi dataset contained information from the years 2006-2015 on 921,646 individual bird necropsy records from over 153,576 flocks at 1,570 broiler production flows across 53 countries. Flock-level production data used for this study were available for a subset of this population, 33,212 total flocks representing 6 US and 4 UK production flows. A separate multivariable linear or logistic regression model, with farm as a random effect, was built for each of the five outcomes mentioned above. All models controlled for clustering of flocks within production flows. Significant associations were found between key performance indicators and ten intestinal conditions (gross E. acervulina, gross E. maxima, microscopic E. maxima, gizzard erosions, roundworms, excessive intestinal fluid, thin intestines, excessive intestinal mucus, feed passage, and necrotic enteritis) and two management parameters (production flow and down time). Results from this study demonstrate that large databases

  2. Isogeometric variational multiscale large-eddy simulation of fully-developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Kyungsik

    2012-09-01

    We report on the isogeometric residual-based variational multiscale (VMS) large eddy simulation of a fully developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall. To assess the predictive capability of the VMS modeling framework, we compare its predictions against the results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) and, when available, against experimental measurements. We use C 1 quadratic B-spline basis functions to represent the smooth geometry of the sinusoidal lower wall and the solution variables. The Reynolds numbers of the flows considered are 6760 and 30,000 based on the bulk velocity and average channel height. The ratio of amplitude to wavelength (α/λ) of the sinusoidal wavy surface is set to 0.05. The computational domain is 2λ×1.05λ×λ in the streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively. For the Re=6760 case, mean averaged quantities, including velocity and pressure profiles, and the separation/reattachment points in the recirculation region, are compared with DNS and experimental data. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress are in good agreement with benchmark data. Coherent structures over the wavy wall are observed in isosurfaces of the Q-criterion and show similar features to those previously reported in the literature. Comparable accuracy to DNS solutions is obtained with at least one order of magnitude fewer degrees of freedom. For the Re=30,000 case, good agreement was obtained for mean wall shear stress and velocity profiles compared with available LES results reported in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Isogeometric variational multiscale large-eddy simulation of fully-developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Kyungsik; Hughes, Thomas Jr R; Calo, Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the isogeometric residual-based variational multiscale (VMS) large eddy simulation of a fully developed turbulent flow over a wavy wall. To assess the predictive capability of the VMS modeling framework, we compare its predictions against the results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) and, when available, against experimental measurements. We use C 1 quadratic B-spline basis functions to represent the smooth geometry of the sinusoidal lower wall and the solution variables. The Reynolds numbers of the flows considered are 6760 and 30,000 based on the bulk velocity and average channel height. The ratio of amplitude to wavelength (α/λ) of the sinusoidal wavy surface is set to 0.05. The computational domain is 2λ×1.05λ×λ in the streamwise, wall-normal and spanwise directions, respectively. For the Re=6760 case, mean averaged quantities, including velocity and pressure profiles, and the separation/reattachment points in the recirculation region, are compared with DNS and experimental data. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress are in good agreement with benchmark data. Coherent structures over the wavy wall are observed in isosurfaces of the Q-criterion and show similar features to those previously reported in the literature. Comparable accuracy to DNS solutions is obtained with at least one order of magnitude fewer degrees of freedom. For the Re=30,000 case, good agreement was obtained for mean wall shear stress and velocity profiles compared with available LES results reported in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A large-scale mass casualty simulation to develop the non-technical skills medical students require for collaborative teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Christine; Roberts, Chris; Lim, Renee; Roper, Josephine; Skinner, Clare; Robertson, Jeremy; Gentilcore, Stacey; Osomanski, Adam

    2016-03-08

    There is little research on large-scale complex health care simulations designed to facilitate student learning of non-technical skills in a team-working environment. We evaluated the acceptability and effectiveness of a novel natural disaster simulation that enabled medical students to demonstrate their achievement of the non-technical skills of collaboration, negotiation and communication. In a mixed methods approach, survey data were available from 117 students and a thematic analysis undertaken of both student qualitative comments and tutor observer participation data. Ninety three per cent of students found the activity engaging for their learning. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data: the impact of fidelity on student learning, reflexivity on the importance of non-technical skills in clinical care, and opportunities for collaborative teamwork. Physical fidelity was sufficient for good levels of student engagement, as was sociological fidelity. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the simulation in allowing students to reflect upon and evidence their acquisition of skills in collaboration, negotiation and communication, as well as situational awareness and attending to their emotions. Students readily identified emerging learning opportunities though critical reflection. The scenarios challenged students to work together collaboratively to solve clinical problems, using a range of resources including interacting with clinical experts. A large class teaching activity, framed as a simulation of a natural disaster is an acceptable and effective activity for medical students to develop the non-technical skills of collaboration, negotiation and communication, which are essential to team working. The design could be of value in medical schools in disaster prone areas, including within low resource countries, and as a feasible intervention for learning the non-technical skills that are needed for patient safety.

  5. Extreme weather events in southern Germany - Climatological risk and development of a large-scale identification procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, A.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Rohlfing, G.; Ulbrich, U.

    2009-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as thunderstorms, hail and heavy rain or snowfall can pose a threat to human life and to considerable tangible assets. Yet there is a lack of knowledge about present day climatological risk and its economic effects, and its changes due to rising greenhouse gas concentrations. Therefore, parts of economy particularly sensitve to extreme weather events such as insurance companies and airports require regional risk-analyses, early warning and prediction systems to cope with such events. Such an attempt is made for southern Germany, in close cooperation with stakeholders. Comparing ERA40 and station data with impact records of Munich Re and Munich Airport, the 90th percentile was found to be a suitable threshold for extreme impact relevant precipitation events. Different methods for the classification of causing synoptic situations have been tested on ERA40 reanalyses. An objective scheme for the classification of Lamb's circulation weather types (CWT's) has proved to be most suitable for correct classification of the large-scale flow conditions. Certain CWT's have been turned out to be prone to heavy precipitation or on the other side to have a very low risk of such events. Other large-scale parameters are tested in connection with CWT's to find out a combination that has the highest skill to identify extreme precipitation events in climate model data (ECHAM5 and CLM). For example vorticity advection in 700 hPa shows good results, but assumes knowledge of regional orographic particularities. Therefore ongoing work is focused on additional testing of parameters that indicate deviations of a basic state of the atmosphere like the Eady Growth Rate or the newly developed Dynamic State Index. Evaluation results will be used to estimate the skill of the regional climate model CLM concerning the simulation of frequency and intensity of the extreme weather events. Data of the A1B scenario (2000-2050) will be examined for a possible climate change

  6. Development of electrical-erosion instrument for direct write micro-patterning on large area conductive thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez, Ángel Luis; Coya, Carmen; García-Vélez, Miguel [Departamento Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones, Sistemas Telemáticos y Computación, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería de Telecomunicación, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Fuenlabrada, Madrid 28943 (Spain)

    2015-08-15

    We have developed a complete instrument to perform direct, dry, and cost-effective lithography on conductive materials, based on localized electrical discharges, which avoids using masks or chemicals typical of conventional photolithography. The technique is considered fully compatible with substrate transport based systems, like roll-to-roll technology. The prototype is based on two piezo nano-steppers coupled to three linear micro-stages to cover a large scale operation from micrometers to centimeters. The operation mode consists of a spring probe biased at low DC voltage with respect to a grounded conductive layer. The tip slides on the target layer keeping contact with the material in room conditions, allowing continuous electric monitoring of the process, and also real-time tilt correction via software. The sliding tip leaves an insulating path (limited by the tip diameter) along the material, enabling to draw electrically insulated tracks and pads. The physical principle of operation is based in the natural self-limitation of the discharge due to material removal or insulation. The so produced electrical discharges are very fast, in the range of μs, so features may be performed at speeds of few cm/s, enabling scalability to large areas. The instrument has been tested on different conducting materials as gold, indium tin oxide, and aluminum, allowing the fabrication of alphanumeric displays based on passive matrix of organic light emitting diodes without the use of masks or photoresists. We have verified that the highest potential is achieved on graphene, where no waste material is detected, producing excellent well defined edges. This allows manufacturing graphene micro-ribbons with a high aspect ratio up to 1200:1.

  7. USING THE BUSINESS ENGINEERING APPROACH IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS FOR A LARGE CORPORATION: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Moll

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most South African organisations were historically part of a closed competitive system with little global competition and a relatively stable economy (Manning: 18, Sunter: 32. Since the political transformation, the globalisation of the world economy, the decline of world economic fundamentals and specific challenges in the South African scenario such as GEAR and employment equity, the whole playingfield has changed. With these changes, new challenges ', appear. A significant challenge for organisations within this scenario is to think, plan and manage strategically. In order to do so, the organisation must understand its relationship with its environment and establish innovative new strategies to manipulate; interact with; and ultimately survive in the environment. The legacy of the past has, in many organisations, implanted an operational short-term focus because the planning horizon was stable. It was sufficient to construct annual plans rather than strategies. These plans were typically internally focused rather than driven by the external environment. Strategic planning in this environment tended to be a form of team building through which the various members of the organisation 's management team discussed and documented the problems of the day. A case study is presented of the development of a strategic management process for a large South African Mining company. The authors believe that the approach is a new and different way of addressing a problem that exists in many organisations - the establishment of a process of strategic thinking, whilst at the same time ensuring that a formal process of strategic planning is followed in order to prompt the management of the organisation for strategic action. The lessons that were drawn from this process are applicable to a larger audience due to the homogenous nature of the management style of a large number of South African organisations.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTATION OF VORTEX REALIZABLE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR BENCHMARK TEST WITH LARGE SCALE MODEL OF NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dmitriev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decades development of applied calculation methods of nuclear reactor thermal and hydraulic processes are marked by the rapid growth of the High Performance Computing (HPC, which contribute to the active introduction of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The use of such programs to justify technical and economic parameters and especially the safety of nuclear reactors requires comprehensive verification of mathematical models and CFD programs. The aim of the work was the development and adaptation of a measuring system having the characteristics necessary for its application in the verification test (experimental facility. It’s main objective is to study the processes of coolant flow mixing with different physical properties (for example, the concentration of dissolved impurities inside a large-scale reactor model. The basic method used for registration of the spatial concentration field in the mixing area is the method of spatial conductometry. In the course of the work, a measurement complex, including spatial conductometric sensors, a system of secondary converters and software, was created. Methods of calibration and normalization of measurement results are developed. Averaged concentration fields, nonstationary realizations of the measured local conductivity were obtained during the first experimental series, spectral and statistical analysis of the realizations were carried out.The acquired data are compared with pretest CFD-calculations performed in the ANSYS CFX program. A joint analysis of the obtained results made it possible to identify the main regularities of the process under study, and to demonstrate the capabilities of the designed measuring system to receive the experimental data of the «CFD-quality» required for verification.The carried out adaptation of spatial sensors allows to conduct a more extensive program of experimental tests, on the basis of which a databank and necessary generalizations will be created

  9. Barriers to renewable energy development: A case study of large-scale wind energy in Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Garrett; Noble, Bram; Belcher, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy is receiving increased attention as a viable alternative to non-renewable electrical generation, however, meeting global energy demands will require a more ambitious renewable energy program than is currently the case. There have been several reviews of potential technological, economic, social, or public barriers and solutions to renewable energy investment. Although important, there is also need for multi-dimensional analyses of these barriers and identification of the most significant underlying barriers if viable solutions are to be developed. In this paper we apply a theoretical framework to examine stakeholder's perceptions and understanding of the barriers to wind energy development in Saskatchewan, Canada. We identify and examine the most significant underlying barriers to investment in renewable energy and the interactions between those barriers. Results show a number of perceived barriers to wind energy investment, however, these barriers can be explained in large part by knowledge barriers, if not disagreement over whether the current level of investment in wind energy is sufficient. We show that barriers to renewable energy cannot be explained solely by technological, social, political, or economic factors in isolation, and that a multi-dimensional approach, identifying and explaining the underlying sources of these barriers, is necessary to develop viable solutions. - Highlights: ► Meeting future wind energy objectives requires an ambitious investment program. ► A framework is applied to identify and explain perceived barriers to wind energy. ► Stakeholders perceived technological and political barriers as the most significant. ► These could be explained by knowledge barriers and complacency with the status quo. ► Even with additional investment these underlying barriers will constrain progress.

  10. Developing technology for large-scale production of forest chips. Wood Energy Technology Programme 1999-2003. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2003-01-01

    Finland is enhancing its use of renewable sources in energy production. From the 1995 level, the use of renewable energy is to be increased by 50 % by 2010, and 100 % by 2025. Wood-based fuels will play a leading role in this development. The main source of wood-based fuels is processing residues from the forest industries. However, as all processing residues are already in use, an increase is possible only as far as the capacity and wood consumption of the forest industries grow. Energy policy affects the production and availability of processing residues only indirectly. Another large source of wood-based energy is forest fuels, consisting of traditional firewood and chips comminuted from low-quality biomass. It is estimated that the reserve of technically harvest-able forest biomass is 10-16 Mm' annually, when no specific cost limit is applied. This corresponds to 2-3 Mtoe or 6-9 % of the present consumption of primary energy in Finland. How much of this re-serve it will actually be possible to harvest and utilize depends on the cost competitiveness of forest chips against alternative sources of energy. A goal of Finnish energy and climate strategies is to use 5 Mm' forest chips annually by 2010. The use of wood fuels is being promoted by means of taxation, investment aid and support for chip production from young forests. Furthermore, research and development is being supported in order to create techno-economic conditions for the competitive production of forest chips. In 1999, the National Technology Agency Tekes established the five-year Wood Energy Technology Programme to stimulate the development of efficient systems for the large-scale production of forest chips. Key tar-gets are competitive costs, reliable supply and good quality chips. The two guiding principles of the programme are: (1) close cooperation between researchers and practitioners and (2) to apply research and development to the practical applications and commercialization. As of November

  11. Frontoparietal Structural Connectivity in Childhood Predicts Development of Functional Connectivity and Reasoning Ability: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Ghetti, Simona; Bailey, Stephen K; Cutting, Laurie; Bunge, Silvia A

    2017-08-30

    (functional connectivity, FC), and reasoning ability in a large longitudinal sample of subjects 6-22 years of age. We found that greater frontoparietal SC in childhood predicts future increases in both FC and reasoning ability, demonstrating the importance of white matter development during childhood for subsequent brain and cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378549-10$15.00/0.

  12. Development of Quality Assessment Techniques for Large Eddy Simulation of Propulsion and Power Systems in Complex Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacaze, Guilhem [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oefelein, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Large-eddy-simulation (LES) is quickly becoming a method of choice for studying complex thermo-physics in a wide range of propulsion and power systems. It provides a means to study coupled turbulent combustion and flow processes in parameter spaces that are unattainable using direct-numerical-simulation (DNS), with a degree of fidelity that can be far more accurate than conventional engineering methods such as the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approx- imation. However, development of predictive LES is complicated by the complex interdependence of different type of errors coming from numerical methods, algorithms, models and boundary con- ditions. On the other hand, control of accuracy has become a critical aspect in the development of predictive LES for design. The objective of this project is to create a framework of metrics aimed at quantifying the quality and accuracy of state-of-the-art LES in a manner that addresses the myriad of competing interdependencies. In a typical simulation cycle, only 20% of the computational time is actually usable. The rest is spent in case preparation, assessment, and validation, because of the lack of guidelines. This work increases confidence in the accuracy of a given solution while min- imizing the time obtaining the solution. The approach facilitates control of the tradeoffs between cost, accuracy, and uncertainties as a function of fidelity and methods employed. The analysis is coupled with advanced Uncertainty Quantification techniques employed to estimate confidence in model predictions and calibrate model's parameters. This work has provided positive conse- quences on the accuracy of the results delivered by LES and will soon have a broad impact on research supported both by the DOE and elsewhere.

  13. Development and tests of an anode readout TPC with high track separability for large solid angle relativistic ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Foley, K.J.; Eiseman, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed, constructed and tested an anode readout TPC with high track separability which is suitable for large solid angle relativistic ion experiments. The readout via rows of short anode wires parallel to the beam has been found in tests to allow two-track separability of ∼2-3 mm. The efficiency of track reconstruction for events from a target, detected inside the MPS 5 KG magnet, is estimated to be >90% for events made by incident protons and pions. 15 GeV/c x A Si ion beams at a rate of ∼25 K per AGS pulse were permitted to course through the chamber and did not lead to any problems. When the gain was reduced to simulate the total output of a minimum ionizing particle, many Si ion tracks were also detected simultaneously with high efficiency. The resolution along the drift direction (parallel to the MPS magnetic field and perpendicular to the beam direction) was <1 mm and the resolution along the other direction /perpendicular/ to the beam direction was <1 mm also. 3 refs., 5 figs

  14. Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, John D. C.; Broseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

    2010-05-01

    The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development through the period 1996-2008, as management has become significantly more sophisticated and better informed by the increased availability of scientific data. During this period the population has been through a period of high quotas and population decline caused by fragmented management authority and overoptimistic estimates of lynx reproduction, followed by a period of recovery due to quota reductions. The modern management regime is placed in the context of shifting policy during the last 160 years, during which management goals have moved from extermination stimulated by bounties, through a short phase of protection, and now to quota-regulated harvest. Much management authority has also been delegated from central to local levels. We conclude that adaptive management has the potential to keep the population within some bounded limits, although there will inevitably be fluctuation.

  15. Large diameter femoral heads impose significant alterations on the strains developed on femoral component and bone: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, E G; Provatidis, C G; Babis, G C; Georgiou, C S; Megas, P D

    2011-01-01

    Total Hip Arthroplasty aims at fully recreating a functional hip joint. Over the past years modular implant systems have become common practice and are widely used, due to the surgical options they provide. In addition Big Femoral Heads have also been implemented in the process, providing more flexibility for the surgeon. The current study aims at investigating the effects that femoral heads of bigger diameter may impose on the mechanical behavior of the bone-implant assembly. Using data acquired by Computed Tomographies and a Coordinate Measurement Machine, a cadaveric femur and a Profemur-E modular stem were fully digitized, leading to a three dimensional finite element model in ANSYS Workbench. Strains and stresses were then calculated, focusing on areas of clinical interest, based on Gruen zones: the calcar and the corresponding below the greater trochanter area in the proximal femur, the stem tip region and a profile line along linea aspera. The performed finite elements analysis revealed that the use of large diameter heads produces significant changes in strain development within the bone volume, especially in the lateral side. The application of Frost's law in bone remodeling, validated the hypothesis that for all diameters normal bone growth occurs. However, in the calcar area lower strain values were recorded, when comparing with the reference model featuring a 28mm femoral head. Along line aspera and for the stem tip area, higher values were recorded. Finally, stresses calculated on the modular neck revealed increased values, but without reaching the yield strength of the titanium alloy used.

  16. Development of a novel fingerprint for chemical reactions and its application to large-scale reaction classification and similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nadine; Lowe, Daniel M; Sayle, Roger A; Landrum, Gregory A

    2015-01-26

    Fingerprint methods applied to molecules have proven to be useful for similarity determination and as inputs to machine-learning models. Here, we present the development of a new fingerprint for chemical reactions and validate its usefulness in building machine-learning models and in similarity assessment. Our final fingerprint is constructed as the difference of the atom-pair fingerprints of products and reactants and includes agents via calculated physicochemical properties. We validated the fingerprints on a large data set of reactions text-mined from granted United States patents from the last 40 years that have been classified using a substructure-based expert system. We applied machine learning to build a 50-class predictive model for reaction-type classification that correctly predicts 97% of the reactions in an external test set. Impressive accuracies were also observed when applying the classifier to reactions from an in-house electronic laboratory notebook. The performance of the novel fingerprint for assessing reaction similarity was evaluated by a cluster analysis that recovered 48 out of 50 of the reaction classes with a median F-score of 0.63 for the clusters. The data sets used for training and primary validation as well as all python scripts required to reproduce the analysis are provided in the Supporting Information.

  17. Large-scale hydrological simulations using the soil water assessment tool, protocol development, and application in the danube basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliero, Liliana; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Willems, Patrick; Diels, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive of the European Union requires member states to achieve good ecological status of all water bodies. A harmonized pan-European assessment of water resources availability and quality, as affected by various management options, is necessary for a successful implementation of European environmental legislation. In this context, we developed a methodology to predict surface water flow at the pan-European scale using available datasets. Among the hydrological models available, the Soil Water Assessment Tool was selected because its characteristics make it suitable for large-scale applications with limited data requirements. This paper presents the results for the Danube pilot basin. The Danube Basin is one of the largest European watersheds, covering approximately 803,000 km and portions of 14 countries. The modeling data used included land use and management information, a detailed soil parameters map, and high-resolution climate data. The Danube Basin was divided into 4663 subwatersheds of an average size of 179 km. A modeling protocol is proposed to cope with the problems of hydrological regionalization from gauged to ungauged watersheds and overparameterization and identifiability, which are usually present during calibration. The protocol involves a cluster analysis for the determination of hydrological regions and multiobjective calibration using a combination of manual and automated calibration. The proposed protocol was successfully implemented, with the modeled discharges capturing well the overall hydrological behavior of the basin. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Development of 3D Visualization Technology for Medium-and Large-sized Radioactive Metal Wastes from Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Gyongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The most important point of decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants is to spend less money and do this process safely. In order to perform a better decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants, a data base of radioactive waste from decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities should be constructed. This data base is described herein, from the radioactive nuclide to the shape of component of nuclear facilities, and representative results of the status and analysis are presented. With the increase in number of nuclear facilities at the end of their useful life, the demand of decommissioning technologies will continue to grow for years to come. This analysis of medium-and large-sized radioactive metal wastes and 3D visualization technology of the radioactive metal wastes using the 3D-SCAN are planned to be used for constructing data bases. The data bases are expected to be used on development of the basic technologies for decommissioning nuclear facilities 4 session.

  19. Development of large-volume, high-resolution tracking detectors based on capillaries filled with liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buontempo, S.; Fabre, J.P.; Frenkel, A.; Gregoire, G.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Kushnirenko, A.; Martellotti, G.; Michel, L.; Mondardini, M.R.; Penso, G.; Siegmund, W.P.; Strack, R.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.; Zymin, K.

    1995-01-01

    Searches for the decay of short-lived particles require real time, high-resolution tracking in active targets, which in the case of neutrino physics should be of large volume. The possibility of achieving this by using glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator is being investigated in the framework of the CHORUS experiment at CERN. In this paper, after outlining the application foreseen, advances in the tracking technique are discussed and results from tests are reported. An active target of dimensions 180x2x2 cm 3 has been assembled from capillaries with 20 μm diameter pores. The readout scheme currently in operation allows the reading of similar 5x10 5 channels using a single chain of image intensifiers having a resolution of σ similar 20 μm. Following the development of new liquid scintillators and purification methods an attenuation length of similar 3 m has been obtained. This translates into a hit density of 3.5 per mm for a minimum-ionizing particle that crosses the active target at a distance of 1 m from the readout end. (orig.)

  20. Development of inspection data collection and evaluation system for large scale MOX fuel fabrication plant safeguards (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Shinichi; Masuda, Shoichiro; Iso, Shoko; Hisamatsu, Yoshinori; Kurobe, Hiroko; Nakajima, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Inspection Data Collection and Evaluation System is the system to store inspection data and operator declaration data collected from various measurement equipment, which is installed in fuel fabrication processes of the large-scale MOX fuel fabrication plant, and to make safeguards evaluation based on Near Real Time Accountancy (NRTA) using these data. Nuclear Material Control Center developed the simulator to simulate fuel fabrication process, in-process material inventory/flow data and the measurement data and the adequacy/impact to the uncertainty of the material balance using the simulation results, such as the facility operation and the operational status, has been reviewed. Following the 34th INMM Japan chapter presentation, the model similar to the real nuclear material accountancy during the fuel fabrication process was simulated and the nuclear material accountancy and its uncertainty (Sigma MUF) have been reviewed. Some findings have been obtained, such as regarding evaluation related indicators for verification under a more realistic accountancy which could be applied by operator. (author)

  1. Methods for assessing the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale resource developments: implications for nuclear repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1983-03-01

    An overview of the major methods presently available for assessing the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale resource developments and includes discussion of the implications and applications of such methods for nuclear-waste-repository siting are provided. The report: (1) summarizes conceptual approaches underlying, and methodological alternatives for, the conduct of impact assessments in each substantive area, and then enumerates advantages and disadvantages of each alternative; (2) describes factors related to the impact-assessment process, impact events, and the characteristics of rural areas that affect the magnitude and distribution of impacts and the assessment of impacts in each area; (3) provides a detailed review of those methodologies actually used in impact assessment for each area, describes advantages and problems encountered in the use of each method, and identifies the frequency of use and the general level of acceptance of each technique; and (4) summarizes the implications of each area of projection for the repository-siting process, the applicability of the methods for each area to the special and standard features of repositories, and makes general recommendations concerning specific methods and procedures that should be incorporated in assessments for siting areas

  2. Development of a Large-Format Science-Grade CMOS Active Pixel Sensor, for Extreme Ultra Violet Spectroscopy and Imaging in Space Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltham, N. R; Prydderch, M; Mapson-Menard, H; Morrissey, Q; Turchetta, R; Pool, P; Harris, A

    2005-01-01

    We describe our programme to develop a large-format science-grade CMOS active pixel sensor for future space science missions, and in particular an extreme ultra-violet spectrograph for solar physics...

  3. PARK2, a Large Common Fragile Site Gene, is Part of a Stress Response Network in Normal Cells That is Disrupted During the Development of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, David I; Zhu, Yu

    2007-01-01

    .... The central two questions that we want to address with this work are what role does inactivation of Parkin and other large CFS genes play in the development of ovarian cancer and whether these genes...

  4. Development of the Large-Scale Statistical Analysis System of Satellites Observations Data with Grid Datafarm Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Murata, K.; Kimura, E.; Honda, R.

    2006-12-01

    number of files and the elapsed time, parallel and distributed processing shorten the elapsed time to 1/5 than sequential processing. On the other hand, sequential processing times were shortened in another experiment, whose file size is smaller than 100KB. In this case, the elapsed time to scan one file is within one second. It implies that disk swap took place in case of parallel processing by each node. We note that the operation became unstable when the number of the files exceeded 1000. To overcome the problem (iii), we developed an original data class. This class supports our reading of data files with various data formats since it converts them into an original data format since it defines schemata for every type of data and encapsulates the structure of data files. In addition, since this class provides a function of time re-sampling, users can easily convert multiple data (array) with different time resolution into the same time resolution array. Finally, using the Gfarm, we achieved a high performance environment for large-scale statistical data analyses. It should be noted that the present method is effective only when one data file size is large enough. At present, we are restructuring the new Gfarm environment with 8 nodes: CPU is Athlon 64 x2 Dual Core 2GHz, 2GB memory and 1.2TB disk (using RAID0) for each node. Our original class is to be implemented on the new Gfarm environment. In the present talk, we show the latest results with applying the present system for data analyses with huge number of satellite observation data files.

  5. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  6. Development of the control assembly pattern and dynamic analysis of the Generation IV large gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardin, G.

    2009-07-15

    -PROTEUS reference lattice generally yields good agreement with experimental values and with the Monte Carlo simulations. In the second phase of the research, the CA pattern was developed for the GFR. For the thermal-hydraulics analysis, the CEA code COPERNIC was used. Detailed neutronic studies revealed large CA interaction effects, leading to an amplification/reduction of the CA worth. The interactions were investigated in detail. The proposed CA pattern consists of 54 absorber pins placed in a triangular lattice. Each absorber pin is a stainless-steel tube filled with highly enriched “1”0B boron carbide pellets. The absorber pin diameter could be chosen such as to minimize the pin-to-pin influence within the assembly. A central part of the CA was designed without any absorber pins allowing reducing the heterogeneity effect to 13%. The neutronic investigations performed for the reference GFR core have directly contributed to a new core design, with the height-to-diameter ratio having been increased to 0.6, compared to 0.3 for the reference core. During the third phase, detailed coupled, 3D neutron-kinetics and 1D thermal-hydraulics models were developed. Each individual fuel sub-assembly and CA were represented in order to allow the analysis of local deformations of the 3D distributions of power and safety related parameters, such as the coolant, cladding and fuel temperatures. CA driven transients were simulated for two constant speeds: (1) an operational speed of 2 mm/s and (2) an ejection speed of ∼20 cm/s. The withdrawal at operational speed of a single CA does not significantly impact the core safety in terms of the temperature limits. The new core design presents better safety features, compared to the reference core, with lower predicted values for coolant, cladding and fuel temperatures. Special care was taken to assess the sensitivity of the 3D core behaviour to parameters such as the CA implementation scheme, the CA withdrawal speed, the number of CAs being

  7. Development of the control assembly pattern and dynamic analysis of the Generation IV large gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, G.

    2009-07-01

    -PROTEUS reference lattice generally yields good agreement with experimental values and with the Monte Carlo simulations. In the second phase of the research, the CA pattern was developed for the GFR. For the thermal-hydraulics analysis, the CEA code COPERNIC was used. Detailed neutronic studies revealed large CA interaction effects, leading to an amplification/reduction of the CA worth. The interactions were investigated in detail. The proposed CA pattern consists of 54 absorber pins placed in a triangular lattice. Each absorber pin is a stainless-steel tube filled with highly enriched “1”0B boron carbide pellets. The absorber pin diameter could be chosen such as to minimize the pin-to-pin influence within the assembly. A central part of the CA was designed without any absorber pins allowing reducing the heterogeneity effect to 13%. The neutronic investigations performed for the reference GFR core have directly contributed to a new core design, with the height-to-diameter ratio having been increased to 0.6, compared to 0.3 for the reference core. During the third phase, detailed coupled, 3D neutron-kinetics and 1D thermal-hydraulics models were developed. Each individual fuel sub-assembly and CA were represented in order to allow the analysis of local deformations of the 3D distributions of power and safety related parameters, such as the coolant, cladding and fuel temperatures. CA driven transients were simulated for two constant speeds: (1) an operational speed of 2 mm/s and (2) an ejection speed of ∼20 cm/s. The withdrawal at operational speed of a single CA does not significantly impact the core safety in terms of the temperature limits. The new core design presents better safety features, compared to the reference core, with lower predicted values for coolant, cladding and fuel temperatures. Special care was taken to assess the sensitivity of the 3D core behaviour to parameters such as the CA implementation scheme, the CA withdrawal speed, the number of CAs being

  8. Development of the control assembly pattern and dynamic analysis of the generation IV large gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, G.

    2009-01-01

    Among the systems selected by the GIF, the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is a highly innovative system with advanced fuel geometry and materials. It is in the context of the large, 2400 MWth reference GFR design that the present doctoral research has been conducted, the principal aim having been to develop and qualify the control assembly (CA) pattern and corresponding CA implementation scheme for this system. The work has been carried out in three successive and complementary phases: (1) validation of the neutronics tools, (2) the CA pattern development and related static analysis, and (3) dynamic core behavior studies for hypothetical CA driven transients. During the first phase of the thesis, the reference PROTEUS test lattice from these experiments has been analyzed with ERANOS-2.0 and its associated, adjusted nuclear data library ERALIB1. Additionally, benchmark calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, allowing one to both check the deterministic results and to analyze the sensitivity to different modern data libraries. It has been found that, for the main reaction rate ratios, the new analysis of the GCFR-PROTEUS reference lattice generally yields good agreement - within 1σ measurement uncertainty - with experimental values and with the Monte Carlo simulations. As shown by the analysis, the predictions were in somewhat better agreement in the case of the adjusted ERALIB1 library. The applicability of ERANOS-2.0/ERALIB1 as the reference neutronics tool for the GFR analysis could thus be demonstrated. Furthermore, neutronics aspects related to the novel features of the GFR, for which new experimental investigations are needed, were highlighted. In the second phase of the research, the CA pattern was developed for the GFR, based on iterative neutronics and thermal-hydraulics calculations, 2D and 3D neutronics models for the reactor core having first been set up using the reference ERANOS-2.0/ERALIB1 computational scheme. For the thermal

  9. Development and Technology of Large Thickness TMCP Steel Plate with 390MPA Grade Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Peng

    Recently, with the rapid upgrading of the equipment in the steel Corp, the rolling technology of TMCP has been rapidly developed and widely applied. A large amount of steel plate has been produced by using the TMCP technology. The TMCP processes have been used more and more widely and replaced the heat treatment technology of normalizing, quenching and tempering heat process. In this paper, low financial input is considered in steel plate production and the composition of the steel has been designed with low C component, a limited alloy element of the Nb, and certain amounts of Mn element. During the continuous casting process, the size of the continuous casting slab section is 300 mm × 2400 mm. The rolling technology of TMCP is controlled at a lower rolling and red temperature to control the transformation of the microstructure. Four different rolling treatments are chosen to test its effects on the 390MPa grade low carbon steel of bainitic microstructure and properties. This test manages to produce a proper steel plate fulfilling the standard mechanical properties. Specifically, low carbon bainite is observed in the microstructure of the steel plate and the maximum thickness of steel plate under this TMCP technology is up to 80mm. The mechanical property of the steel plate is excellent and the KV2 at -40 °C performs more than 200 J. Moreover, the production costs are greatly reduced when the steel plate is produced by this TMCP technology when replacing the current production process of quenching and tempering. The low cost steel plate could well meet the requirements of producing engineering machinery in the steel market.

  10. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO 2 -neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream

  11. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R. [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO{sub 2}-neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream.

  12. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R. [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO{sub 2}-neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream.

  13. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Loss of Large Area Induced from Extreme Events with Malicious Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.C.; Park, J.S.; Chang, D.J.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, S.W.; Lee, Y.J.; Kim, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    Event of loss of large area (LOLA) induced from extreme external event at multi-units nuclear installation has been emerged a new challenges in the realm of nuclear safety and regulation after Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident. The relevant information and experience on evaluation methodology and regulatory requirements are rarely available and negative to share due to the security sensitivity. Most of countries has been prepared their own regulatory requirements and methodologies to evaluate impact of LOLA at nuclear power plant. In Korea, newly amended the Nuclear Safety Acts requires to assess LOLA in terms of EDMG (Extended Damage Mitigation Guideline). Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) has performed a pilot research project to develop the methodology and regulatory review guidance on LOLA at multi-units nuclear power plant since 2014. Through this research, we proposed a methodology to identify the strategies for preventive and mitigation of the consequences of LOLA utilizing PSA techniques or its results. The proposed methodology is comprised of 8 steps including policy consideration, threat evaluation, identification of damage path sets, SSCs capacity evaluation and identification of mitigation measures and strategies. The consequence of LOLA due to malevolent aircraft crash may significantly susceptible with analysis assumptions including type of aircraft, amount of residual fuel, and hittable angle and so on, which cannot be shared overtly. This paper introduces a evaluation methodology for LOLA using PSA technique and its results. Also we provide a case study to evaluate hittable access angle using flight simulator for two types of air crafts and to identify potential path sets leading to core damage by affected SSCs within damaged area.(author).

  14. Novel Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detector Developments for Future Large Area and High Resolution X-ray Astronomy Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Abe

    In the coming years, X-ray astronomy will require new soft X-ray detectors that can be read very quickly with low noise and can achieve small pixel sizes over a moderately large focal plane area. These requirements will be present for a variety of X-ray missions that will attempt to address science that was highly ranked by the 2010 Decadal Survey, including missions with science that overlaps with that of IXO and Athena, as well as other missions addressing science topics beyond those of IXO and Athena. An X-ray Surveyor mission was recently chosen by NASA for study by a Science & Technology Definition Team (STDT) so it can be considered as an option for an upcom-ing flagship mission. A mission such as this was endorsed by the NASA long term planning document entitled "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions," and a detailed description of one possible reali-zation of such a mission has been referred to as SMART-X, which was described in a recent NASA RFI response. This provides an example of a future mission concept with these requirements since it has high X-ray throughput and excellent spatial resolution. We propose to continue to modify current active pixel sensor designs, in particular the hybrid CMOS detectors that we have been working with for several years, and implement new in-pixel technologies that will allow us to achieve these ambitious and realistic requirements on a timeline that will make them available to upcoming X-ray missions. This proposal is a continuation of our program that has been work-ing on these developments for the past several years. The first 3 years of the program led to the development of a new circuit design for each pixel, which has now been shown to be suitable for a larger detector array. The proposed activity for the next four years will be to incorporate this pixel design into a new design of a full detector array (2k×2k pixels with digital output) and to fabricate this full-sized device so it can be thoroughly tested and

  15. Blood flow and coherent vortices in the normal and aneurysmatic aortas: a fluid dynamical approach to intra-luminal thrombus formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Hussain, Fazle; Gasser, T Christian

    2011-10-07

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are frequently characterized by the development of an intra-luminal thrombus (ILT), which is known to have multiple biochemical and biomechanical implications. Development of the ILT is not well understood, and shear-stress-triggered activation of platelets could be the first step in its evolution. Vortical structures (VSs) in the flow affect platelet dynamics, which motivated the present study of a possible correlation between VS and ILT formation in AAAs. VSs educed by the λ(2)-method using computational fluid dynamics simulations of the backward-facing step problem, normal aorta, fusiform AAA and saccular AAA were investigated. Patient-specific luminal geometries were reconstructed from computed tomography scans, and Newtonian and Carreau-Yasuda models were used to capture salient rheological features of blood flow. Particularly in complex flow domains, results depended on the constitutive model. VSs developed all along the normal aorta, showing that a clear correlation between VSs and high wall shear stress (WSS) existed, and that VSs started to break up during late systole. In contrast, in the fusiform AAA, large VSs developed at sites of tortuous geometry and high WSS, occupying the entire lumen, and lasting over the entire cardiac cycle. Downward motion of VSs in the AAA was in the range of a few centimetres per cardiac cycle, and with a VS burst at that location, the release (from VSs) of shear-stress-activated platelets and their deposition to the wall was within the lower part of the diseased artery, i.e. where the thickest ILT layer is typically observed. In the saccular AAA, only one VS was found near the healthy portion of the aorta, while in the aneurysmatic bulge, no VSs occurred. We present a fluid-dynamics-motivated mechanism for platelet activation, convection and deposition in AAAs that has the potential of improving our current understanding of the pathophysiology of fluid-driven ILT growth.

  16. ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS DISTRIBUTION OF US EASTERN HARDWOOD FORESTS AND THE USE OF LARGE TREES AS AN INDICATOR OF FOREST DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past clearing and harvesting of the deciduous hardwood forests of eastern USA released large amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, but through recovery and regrowth these forests are now accumulating atmospheric carbon (C). This study examined quantities and distribution ...

  17. Development of nonlinear empirical models to forecast daily PM2.5 and ozone levels in three large Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Baolei; Cobourn, W. Geoffrey; Bai, Yuqi

    2016-12-01

    Empirical regression models for next-day forecasting of PM2.5 and O3 air pollution concentrations have been developed and evaluated for three large Chinese cities, Beijing, Nanjing and Guangzhou. The forecast models are empirical nonlinear regression models designed for use in an automated data retrieval and forecasting platform. The PM2.5 model includes an upwind air quality variable, PM24, to account for regional transport of PM2.5, and a persistence variable (previous day PM2.5 concentration). The models were evaluated in the hindcast mode with a two-year air quality and meteorological data set using a leave-one-month-out cross validation method, and in the forecast mode with a one-year air quality and forecasted weather dataset that included forecasted air trajectories. The PM2.5 models performed well in the hindcast mode, with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.54, 0.65 and 0.64, and normalized mean error (NME) values of 0.40, 0.26 and 0.23 respectively, for the three cities. The O3 models also performed well in the hindcast mode, with R2 values of 0.75, 0.55 and 0.73, and NME values of 0.29, 0.26 and 0.24 in the three cities. The O3 models performed better in summertime than in winter in Beijing and Guangzhou, and captured the O3 variations well all the year round in Nanjing. The overall forecast performance of the PM2.5 and O3 models during the test year varied from fair to good, depending on location. The forecasts were somewhat degraded compared with hindcasts from the same year, depending on the accuracy of the forecasted meteorological input data. For the O3 models, the model forecast accuracy was strongly dependent on the maximum temperature forecasts. For the critical forecasts, involving air quality standard exceedences, the PM2.5 model forecasts were fair to good, and the O3 model forecasts were poor to fair.

  18. Development of design technology on thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundle. 4. Large paralleled simulation by the advanced two-fluid model code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Takeharu; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR) has been developed. For thermal design of FLWR, it is necessary to develop analytical method to predict boiling transition of FLWR. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been developing three-dimensional two-fluid model analysis code ACE-3D, which adopts boundary fitted coordinate system to simulate complex shape channel flow. In this paper, as a part of development of ACE-3D to apply to rod bundle analysis, introduction of parallelization to ACE-3D and assessments of ACE-3D are shown. In analysis of large-scale domain such as a rod bundle, even two-fluid model requires large number of computational cost, which exceeds upper limit of memory amount of 1 CPU. Therefore, parallelization was introduced to ACE-3D to divide data amount for analysis of large-scale domain among large number of CPUs, and it is confirmed that analysis of large-scale domain such as a rod bundle can be performed by parallel computation with keeping parallel computation performance even using large number of CPUs. ACE-3D adopts two-phase flow models, some of which are dependent upon channel geometry. Therefore, analyses in the domains, which simulate individual subchannel and 37 rod bundle, are performed, and compared with experiments. It is confirmed that the results obtained by both analyses using ACE-3D show agreement with past experimental result qualitatively. (author)

  19. Large Eddy Simulation of Spatially Developing Turbulent Reacting Shear Layers with the One-Dimensional Turbulence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffie, Andreas Frank

    Large eddy simulation (LES) combined with the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to simulate spatially developing turbulent reacting shear layers with high heat release and high Reynolds numbers. The LES-ODT results are compared to results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), for model development and validation purposes. The LES-ODT approach is based on LES solutions for momentum and pressure on a coarse grid and solutions for momentum and reactive scalars on a fine, one-dimensional, but three-dimensionally coupled ODT subgrid, which is embedded into the LES computational domain. Although one-dimensional, all three velocity components are transported along the ODT domain. The low-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution of the subgrid scales describe a new modeling paradigm, referred to as autonomous microstructure evolution (AME) models, which resolve the multiscale nature of turbulence down to the Kolmogorv scales. While this new concept aims to mimic the turbulent cascade and to reduce the number of input parameters, AME enables also regime-independent combustion modeling, capable to simulate multiphysics problems simultaneously. The LES as well as the one-dimensional transport equations are solved using an incompressible, low Mach number approximation, however the effects of heat release are accounted for through variable density computed by the ideal gas equation of state, based on temperature variations. The computations are carried out on a three-dimensional structured mesh, which is stretched in the transverse direction. While the LES momentum equation is integrated with a third-order Runge-Kutta time-integration, the time integration at the ODT level is accomplished with an explicit Forward-Euler method. Spatial finite-difference schemes of third (LES) and first (ODT) order are utilized and a fully consistent fractional-step method at the LES level is used. Turbulence closure at the LES level is achieved by utilizing the Smagorinsky

  20. Examination of Sex Differences in a Large Sample of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Vanessa P.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite consistent and substantive research documenting a large male to female ratio in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), only a modest body of research exists examining sex differences in characteristics. This study examined sex differences in developmental functioning and early social communication in children with ASD as compared to children with…

  1. Development of accident event trees and evaluation of safety system failure modes for the nuclear ultra large crude carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewe, C.K.; Coffey, R.S.; Goodwin, E.F.; Maltese, J.G.; Pyatt, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    A method of applying the probabilistic accident event tree methodology to safety assessments of a nuclear powered Ultra Large Crude Carrier is presented. Also presented are the procedures by which an external accident initiating event, such as a ship collision, may be correlated with the probabilities of damage to the ship's safety systems and to their ultimate availabilities to perform required safety functions

  2. Recent Developments in β-Cell Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced by Small and Large Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suresh Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs, hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β-cells. Small and large molecules play important roles in each stage of β-cell differentiation from both hESCs and hiPSCs. The small and large molecules that are described in this review have significantly advanced efforts to cure diabetic disease. Lately, effective protocols have been implemented to induce hESCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs to differentiate into functional β-cells. Several small molecules, proteins, and growth factors promote pancreatic differentiation from hESCs and hMSCs. These small molecules (e.g., cyclopamine, wortmannin, retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate and large molecules (e.g. activin A, betacellulin, bone morphogentic protein (BMP4, epidermal growth factor (EGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, noggin, transforming growth factor (TGF-α, and WNT3A are thought to contribute from the initial stages of definitive endoderm formation to the final stages of maturation of functional endocrine cells. We discuss the importance of such small and large molecules in uniquely optimized protocols of β-cell differentiation from stem cells. A global understanding of various small and large molecules and their functions will help to establish an efficient protocol for β-cell differentiation.

  3. Recent Developments in β-Cell Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced by Small and Large Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Suresh; Alarfaj, Abdullah A.; Munusamy, Murugan A.; Singh, A. J. A. Ranjith; Peng, I-Chia; Priya, Sivan Padma; Hamat, Rukman Awang; Higuchi, Akon

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β)-cells. Small and large molecules play important roles in each stage of β-cell differentiation from both hESCs and hiPSCs. The small and large molecules that are described in this review have significantly advanced efforts to cure diabetic disease. Lately, effective protocols have been implemented to induce hESCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into functional β-cells. Several small molecules, proteins, and growth factors promote pancreatic differentiation from hESCs and hMSCs. These small molecules (e.g., cyclopamine, wortmannin, retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate) and large molecules (e.g. activin A, betacellulin, bone morphogentic protein (BMP4), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), noggin, transforming growth factor (TGF-α), and WNT3A) are thought to contribute from the initial stages of definitive endoderm formation to the final stages of maturation of functional endocrine cells. We discuss the importance of such small and large molecules in uniquely optimized protocols of β-cell differentiation from stem cells. A global understanding of various small and large molecules and their functions will help to establish an efficient protocol for β-cell differentiation. PMID:25526563

  4. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    This CD contains files that support the talk (see CASI ID 20100021404). There are 24 models that relate to the ADAPT system and 1 Excel worksheet. In the paper an investigation into the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems is described. The high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems are described in the talk. The data in the CD are the models of the 24 different power systems.

  5. Study of Large-Scale Wave Structure and Development of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles Using the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    scientific journals. The papers are listed below in chronological order. Kelley, M.C., F.S. Rodrigues, J.J. Makela, R. Tsunoda, P.A. Roddy, D.E. Hunton...source region be located on the dip equator. To illustrate, Figure 6 presents a sequence of satellite OLR maps, which were taken over Peru on 19-20...to large-scale wave structure and equatorial spread F, presented at the International Symposium for Equatorial Aeronomy, Paracas, Peru , March 2012

  6. Spatial optimization of operationally relevant large fire confine and point protection strategies: Model development and test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Wei; Matthew P. Thompson; Jessica R. Haas; Gregory K. Dillon; Christopher D. O’Connor

    2018-01-01

    This study introduces a large fire containment strategy that builds upon recent advances in spatial fire planning, notably the concept of potential wildland fire operation delineations (PODs). Multiple PODs can be clustered together to form a “box” that is referred as the “response POD” (or rPOD). Fire lines would be built along the boundary of an rPOD to contain a...

  7. A framework for developing safe and effective large-fire response in a new fire management paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Dunn; Matthew P. Thompson; David E. Calkin

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of wildfires have increased in recent decades because of historical forest and fire management, a rapidly changing climate, and an increasingly populated wildland urban interface. This increasingly complex fire environment highlights the importance of developing robust tools to support risk-informed decision making. While tools have been developed to aid...

  8. Assessment of farmer knowledge of large ruminant health and production in developing village-level biosecurity in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, S; Rast, L; Khounsy, S; Windsor, P A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine baseline knowledge and identify knowledge gaps of farmers on biosecurity, risk of transmission of transboundary diseases and large ruminant health and production in three provinces of northern Laos, Hua Phan (HP), Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK). The survey was conducted in six villages that are project sites for an Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) project, with two villages located in each of the three provinces. A census survey was conducted by interview with all 238 farmers participating in the ACIAR project, using a structured questionnaire. The interviews were conducted in Lao language and took 1-2 h per farmer. The answers were recorded in Lao and the survey data were translated into English and transcribed into Microsoft Excel, and a linear mixed model in the Genstat statistical analysis package was used to compare quantitative traits between the target provinces. The results showed that the prediction mean of farmer knowledge scores on parasitic disorders, infectious disease, reproduction and nutrition management were significantly different between the target provinces. The prediction mean of farmer knowledge scores on infectious disease questions ranged between 5.11 in HP to 8.54 in XK of 24 marks (P < 0.001). The prediction mean of total knowledge scores was 13.48 in LPB and 19.29 in XK of 42 marks (P < 0.001). The results indicate both the need for and scope required to attain improvements in farmer knowledge of large ruminant health and production. It was concluded that a participatory research and extension programme to address village-level biosecurity and reduce disease risks, plus enhance large ruminant production capabilities of smallholder producers, is a valid and potentially important strategy to address transboundary disease risk and rural poverty in northern Laos. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Survey on the technological development issues for large-scale methanol engine power generation plant; Ogata methanol engine hatsuden plant ni kansuru gijutsu kaihatsu kadai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Based on the result of `Survey on the feasibility of large-scale methanol engine power generation plant` in fiscal 1992, concrete technological development issues were studied for its practical use, and the technological R & D scheme was prepared for large-scale methanol engine power plant featured by low NOx and high efficiency. Technological development issues of this plant were as follows: improvement of thermal efficiency, reduction of NOx emission, improvement of the reliability and durability of ignition and fuel injection systems, and reduction of vibration. As the economical effect of the technological development, the profitability of NOx control measures was compared between this methanol engine and conventional heavy oil diesel engines or gas engines. As a result, this engine was more economical than conventional engines. It was suggested that development of the equipment will be completed in nearly 4 years through every component study, single-cylinder model experiment and real engine test. 21 refs., 43 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Development of special machines for production of large number of superconducting coils for the spool correctors for the main dipole of LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puntambekar, A.M.; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Superconducting (Sc) spool correctors of different types namely Sextupole, (MCS) Decapole (MCD) and Octupole (MCO) are incorporated in each of the main dipole of Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In all 2464 MCS and 1232 MCDO magnets are required to equip all 1232 Dipoles of LHC. The coils wound from thin rectangular section Sc wires are the heart of magnet assembly and its performance for the field quality and cold quench training largely depends on the precise and robust construction of these coils. Under DAE-CERN collaboration CAT was entrusted with the responsibility of making these magnets for LHC. Starting with development of manual fixtures and prototyping using soldering, a more advances special Automatic Coils Winding and Ultrasonic Welding (USW) system for production of large no. of coils and magnets were built at CAT. The paper briefly describes the various developments in this area. (author)

  11. U-PHOS Project: Development of a Large Diameter Pulsating Heat Pipe Experiment on board REXUS 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannipieri, P; Anichini, M; Barsocchi, L; Becatti, G; Buoni, L; Celi, F; Catarsi, A; Di Giorgio, P; Fattibene, P; Ferrato, E; Guardati, P; Mancini, E; Meoni, G; Nesti, F; Piacquadio, S; Pratelli, E; Quadrelli, L; Viglione, A S; Zanaboni, F; Mameli, M

    2017-01-01

    U-PHOS Project aims at analysing and characterising the behaviour of a large diameter Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) on board REXUS 22 sounding rocket. A PHP is a passive thermal control device where the heat is efficiently transported by means of the self-sustained oscillatory fluid motion driven by the phase change phenomena. Since, in milli-gravity conditions, buoyancy forces become less intense, the PHP diameter may be increased still maintaining the slug/plug typical flow pattern. Consequently, the PHP heat power capability may be increased too. U-PHOS aims at proving that a large diameter PHP effectively works in milli-g conditions by characterizing its thermal response during a sounding rocket flight. The actual PHP tube is made of aluminum (3 mm inner diameter, filled with FC-72), heated at the evaporator by a compact electrical resistance, cooled at the condenser by a Phase Change Material (PCM) embedded in a metallic foam. The tube wall temperatures are recorded by means of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors; the local fluid pressure is acquired by means of a pressure transducer. The present work intends to report the actual status of the project, focusing in particular on the experiment improvements with respect to the previous campaign. (paper)

  12. The role of negotiated developer obligations in financing large public infrastructure after the economic crisis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, Demetrio Munoz; Lenferink, Sander

    2018-01-01

    The economic crisis that started in 2009 has negatively impacted in the Netherlands the available financial resources for urban development. Dutch municipalities struggle since then with falling local financial sources, especially since active public land policy, traditionally an important

  13. Development of local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation. Part 3: turbulent flow and plume dispersion in building arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakayama, H.; Jurčáková, Klára; Nagai, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2013), s. 503-519 ISSN 0022-3131 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : local-scale high-resolution dispersion model * nuclear emergency response system * large-eddy simulation * spatially developing turbulent boundary layer flow Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.452, year: 2013

  14. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, G.J.J.; Liu, Zhen; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Yan, K.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of

  15. Development and characterization of the control assembly system for the large 2400 MWth Generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardin, G.; Rimpault, G.; Morin, F.; Bosq, J.C.; Coddington, P.; Mikityuk, K.; Chawla, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is related to the design and neutronic characterization of the principal control assembly system for the reference large (2400 MWth) Generation IV gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), which makes use of ceramic-ceramic (CERCER) plate-type fuel-elements with (U-Pu) carbide fuel contained within a SiC inert matrix. For the neutronic calculations, the deterministic code system ERANOS-2.0 has been used, in association with a full core model including a European fast reactor (EFR)-type pattern for the control assemblies as a starting point. More specifically, the core contains a total of 33 control (control system device: CSD) and safety (diverse safety device: DSD) assemblies implemented in three banks. In the design of the new control assembly system, particular attention was given to the heat generation within the assemblies, so that both neutronic and thermal-hydraulic constraints could be appropriately accounted for. The thermal-hydraulic calculations have been performed with the code COPERNIC, significant coolant mass flow rates being found necessary to maintain acceptable cladding temperatures of the absorber pins. Complementary to the design study, neutronic investigations have been performed to assess the impact of the control assemblies in the GFR core in greater detail (rod interactions, shift of the flux, peaking factors, etc.). Thus, considerable shadowing effects have been observed between the first bank and the safety bank, as also between individual assemblies within the first bank. Large anti-shadowing effects also occur, the most prominent being that between the two CSD banks, where the total assembly worth is almost doubled in comparison to the sum of the individual values. Additional investigations have been performed and, in this context, it has been found that computation of the first-order eigenvalue and the eigenvalue separation is a robust tool to anticipate control assembly interactions in a large fast-spectrum core. One interesting

  16. Development of a Novel Large Animal Model to Evaluate Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Articular Cartilage Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Shimomura, Kazunori; Asperti, Andre; Pinheiro, Carla Cristina Gomes; Caetano, Heloísa Vasconcellos Amaral; Oliveira, Claudia Regina G C M; Nakamura, Norimasa; Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Bueno, Daniela Franco

    2018-05-04

    Chondral lesion is a pathology with high prevalence, reaching as much as 63% of general population and 36% among athletes. The ability of human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) to differentiate into chondroblasts in vitro suggests that this stem cell type may be useful for tissue bioengineering. However, we have yet to identify a study of large animal models in which DPSCs were used to repair articular cartilage. Therefore, this study aimed to describe a novel treatment for cartilage lesion with DPSCs on a large animal model. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were obtained from deciduous teeth and characterized by flow cytometry. DPSCs were cultured and added to a collagen type I/III biomaterial composite scaffold. Brazilian miniature pig (BR-1) was used. A 6-mm diameter, full-thickness chondral defect was created in each posterior medial condyle. The defects were covered with scaffold alone or scaffold + DPSCs on the contralateral side. Animals were euthanized 6 weeks post-surgery. Cartilage defects were analyzed macroscopically and histology according to modified O'Driscoll scoring system. Flow cytometry confirmed characterization of DPSCs as MSCs. Macroscopic and histological findings suggested that this time period was reasonable for evaluating cartilage repair. To our knowledge, this study provides the first description of an animal model using DPSCs to study the differentiation of hyaline articular cartilage in vivo. The animals tolerated the procedure well and did not show clinical or histological rejection of the DPSCs, reinforcing the feasibility of this descriptive miniature pig model for pre-clinical studies.

  17. Development and characterisation of a front-end ASIC for macro array of photo-detectors of large dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conforti Di Lorenzo, S.

    2010-10-01

    The coverage of large areas of photo-detection is a crucial element of experiments studying high energy atmospheric cosmic showers and neutrinos from different sources. The objective of this project is to realize big detectors using thousands of photomultipliers (PMT). The project proposes to segment the large surface of photo-detection into macro pixels consisting of an array of 16 PMT of 12 inches (2*2 m 2 ), connected to an autonomous front-end electronics which works in without-trigger data acquisition mode placed near the array. This is possible thanks to the microelectronics progress that allows to integrate the readout and the signal processing, of all the multipliers, in the same circuit (ASIC) named PARISROC (Photomultiplier Array Integrated ins SiGe Read Out Chip). The ASIC must only send out the digital data by network to the surface central data storage. The PARISROC chip made in AM's Silicon Germanium (SiGe) 0.35 μm technology, integrates 16 independent channels for each PMT of the array, providing charge and time measurements. The first prototype of PARISROC chip has a total surface of 19 mm 2 . The ASIC measurements have led to the realization of a second prototype. Important measurements were performed in terms of noise, dynamic range, readout frequency (from 10 MHz to 40 MHz), time measurements (TDC improvements) and charge measurements (Slow shaper improvements). This new prototype of PARISROC-2 has been tested and the characterisation has shown a good overall behavior and the verification of the improvements. (author)

  18. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 2: Technology assessment and technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative LDR system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume presents thirteen technology assessments and technology development plans, as well as an overview and summary of the LDR concepts. Twenty-two proposed augmentation projects are described (selected from more than 30 candidates). The five LDR technology areas most in need of supplementary support are: cryogenic cooling; astronaut assembly of the optically precise LDR in space; active segmented primary mirror; dynamic structural control; and primary mirror contamination control. Three broad, time-phased, five-year programs were synthesized from the 22 projects, scheduled, and funding requirements estimated.

  19. A NeISS collaboration to develop and use e-infrastructure for large-scale social simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Thomas; Skipsey, Samuel; Turner, Andy; Watt, John

    2011-01-01

    The National e-Infrastructure for Social Simulation (NeISS) project is focused on\\ud developing e-Infrastructure to support social simulation research. Part of NeISS aims to\\ud provide an interface for running contemporary dynamic demographic social simulation\\ud models as developed in the GENESIS project. These GENESIS models operate at the\\ud individual person level and are stochastic. This paper focuses on support for a simplistic\\ud demographic change model that has a daily time steps, an...

  20. Development and analysis of prognostic equations for mesoscale kinetic energy and mesoscale (subgrid scale) fluxes for large-scale atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avissar, Roni; Chen, Fei

    1993-01-01

    Generated by landscape discontinuities (e.g., sea breezes) mesoscale circulation processes are not represented in large-scale atmospheric models (e.g., general circulation models), which have an inappropiate grid-scale resolution. With the assumption that atmospheric variables can be separated into large scale, mesoscale, and turbulent scale, a set of prognostic equations applicable in large-scale atmospheric models for momentum, temperature, moisture, and any other gaseous or aerosol material, which includes both mesoscale and turbulent fluxes is developed. Prognostic equations are also developed for these mesoscale fluxes, which indicate a closure problem and, therefore, require a parameterization. For this purpose, the mean mesoscale kinetic energy (MKE) per unit of mass is used, defined as E-tilde = 0.5 (the mean value of u'(sub i exp 2), where u'(sub i) represents the three Cartesian components of a mesoscale circulation (the angle bracket symbol is the grid-scale, horizontal averaging operator in the large-scale model, and a tilde indicates a corresponding large-scale mean value). A prognostic equation is developed for E-tilde, and an analysis of the different terms of this equation indicates that the mesoscale vertical heat flux, the mesoscale pressure correlation, and the interaction between turbulence and mesoscale perturbations are the major terms that affect the time tendency of E-tilde. A-state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric model is used to investigate the relationship between MKE, landscape discontinuities (as characterized by the spatial distribution of heat fluxes at the earth's surface), and mesoscale sensible and latent heat fluxes in the atmosphere. MKE is compared with turbulence kinetic energy to illustrate the importance of mesoscale processes as compared to turbulent processes. This analysis emphasizes the potential use of MKE to bridge between landscape discontinuities and mesoscale fluxes and, therefore, to parameterize mesoscale fluxes

  1. Self-Esteem Development across the Life Span: A Longitudinal Study with a Large Sample from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated…

  2. Improving Flood Risk Management for California's Central Valley: How the State Developed a Toolbox for Large, System-wide Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingel, N.; Liang, Y.; Bindra, A.

    2016-12-01

    More than 1 million Californians live and work in the floodplains of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Valley where flood risks are among the highest in the nation. In response to this threat to people, property and the environment, the Department of Water Resources (DWR) has been called to action to improve flood risk management. This has transpired through significant advances in development of flood information and tools, analysis, and planning. Senate Bill 5 directed DWR to prepare the Central Valley Flood Protection Plan (CVFPP) and update it every 5 years. A key component of this aggressive planning approach is answering the question: What is the current flood risk, and how would proposed improvements change flood risk throughout the system? Answering this question is a substantial challenge due to the size and complexity of the watershed and flood control system. The watershed is roughly 42,000 sq mi, and flows are controlled by numerous reservoirs, bypasses, and levees. To overcome this challenge, the State invested in development of a comprehensive analysis "tool box" through various DWR programs. Development of the tool box included: collection of hydro-meteorological, topographic, geotechnical, and economic data; development of rainfall-runoff, reservoir operation, hydraulic routing, and flood risk analysis models; and development of specialized applications and computing schemes to accelerate the analysis. With this toolbox, DWR is analyzing flood hazard, flood control system performance, exposure and vulnerability of people and property to flooding, consequence of flooding for specific events, and finally flood risk for a range of CVFPP alternatives. Based on the results, DWR will put forward a State Recommended Plan in the 2017 CVFPP. Further, the value of the analysis tool box extends beyond the CVFPP. It will serve as a foundation for other flood studies for years to come and has already been successfully applied for inundation mapping to support emergency

  3. HOW THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE DEVELOPED A NEW WASTE PACKAGE USING A POLYUREA COATING THAT IS SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY ELIMINATING SIZE REDUCTION OF LARGE ITEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Hogue, Richard S.; Kimokeo, Margaret K.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges involved in closing the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is the disposal of extremely large pieces of contaminated production equipment and building debris. Past practice has been to size reduce the equipment into pieces small enough to fit into approved, standard waste containers. Size reducing this equipment is extremely expensive, and exposes workers to high-risk tasks, including significant industrial, chemical, and radiological hazards. RFETS has developed a waste package using a Polyurea coating for shipping large contaminated objects. The cost and schedule savings have been significant

  4. Impact of a novel training experience on the development of a customer service culture in a large hospital trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales-Reynolds, Lesley-Jane; Clarke, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed with the intention of exploring the effectiveness of a novel approach to training health services workers to meet the aims of raising awareness of their customer care framework and encouraging a culture of customer service throughout their organisation. The impact of the educational intervention was examined using a mixed methods approach involving pre- and post-workshop questionnaires and one-to-one, semi-structured interviews. The paper finds that the approach adopted was effective in raising awareness of the customer care framework and in enhancing participant's self-efficacy in relation to the principles of customer care. Transference to the workplace was dependent on personality and departments having sufficient numbers of staff participating. Time and resources for the project limited the follow-up interviews designed to explore if, and to what extent, the learning had had a lasting impact on participants and if it had enabled transference to the workplace. In addition, complications in releasing people from work in order to take part meant that a number of volunteers had to withdraw. This limits the range of data obtained. This paper describes a novel research-informed approach to training, involving participants in high fidelity, error-based simulations and in a research process which facilitated their repeated reflection on the learning. As a result the paper demonstrates large-scale training of customer care can effectively impact on practice.

  5. Large Eddy Simulation study of the development of finite-channel lock-release currents at high Grashof numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Seng-Keat

    2005-11-01

    Lock-exchange gravity current flows produced by the instantaneous release of a heavy fluid are investigated using 3-D well resolved Large Eddy Simulation simulations at Grashof numbers up to 8*10^9. It is found the 3-D simulations correctly predict a constant front velocity over the initial slumping phase and a front speed decrease proportional to t-1/3 (the time t is measured from the release) over the inviscid phase, in agreement with theory. The evolution of the current in the simulations is found to be similar to that observed experimentally by Hacker et al. (1996). The effect of the dynamic LES model on the solutions is discussed. The energy budget of the current is discussed and the contribution of the turbulent dissipation to the total dissipation is analyzed. The limitations of less expensive 2D simulations are discussed; in particular their failure to correctly predict the spatio-temporal distributions of the bed shear stresses which is important in determining the amount of sediment the gravity current can entrain in the case in advances of a loose bed.

  6. Development of Muon Drift-Tube Detectors for High-Luminosity Upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bittner, B; Kortner, O.; Kroha, H.; Legger, F.; Richter, R.; Biebel, O.; Engl, A.; Hertenberger, R.; Rauscher, F.

    2016-01-01

    The muon detectors of the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have to cope with unprecedentedly high neutron and gamma ray background rates. In the forward regions of the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector, for instance, counting rates of 1.7 kHz/square cm are reached at the LHC design luminosity. For high-luminosity upgrades of the LHC, up to 10 times higher background rates are expected which require replacement of the muon chambers in the critical detector regions. Tests at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility showed that drift-tube detectors with 15 mm diameter aluminum tubes operated with Ar:CO2 (93:7) gas at 3 bar and a maximum drift time of about 200 ns provide e?cient and high-resolution muon tracking up to the highest expected rates. For 15 mm tube diameter, space charge e?ects deteriorating the spatial resolution at high rates are strongly suppressed. The sense wires have to be positioned in the chamber with an accuracy of better than 50 ?micons in order to achieve the desired spatial...

  7. Developing the learning physical science curriculum: Adapting a small enrollment, laboratory and discussion based physical science course for large enrollments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael

    2012-06-01

    We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.

  8. Developing the learning physical science curriculum: Adapting a small enrollment, laboratory and discussion based physical science course for large enrollments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Goldberg1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET, for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.

  9. Large-eddy simulation of stable atmospheric boundary layers to develop better turbulence closures for climate and weather models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Zeid, Elie; Huang, Jing; Golaz, Jean-Christophe

    2011-11-01

    A disconnect remains between our improved physical understanding of boundary layers stabilized by buoyancy and how we parameterize them in coarse atmospheric models. Most operational climate models require excessive turbulence mixing in such conditions to prevent decoupling of the atmospheric component from the land component, but the performance of such a model is unlikely to be satisfactory under weakly and moderately stable conditions. Using Large-eddy simulation, we revisit some of the basic challenges in parameterizing stable atmospheric boundary layers: eddy-viscosity closure is found to be more reliable due to an improved alignment of vertical Reynolds stresses and mean strains under stable conditions, but the dependence of the magnitude of the eddy viscosity on stability is not well represented by several models tested here. Thus, we propose a new closure that reproduces the different stability regimes better. Subsequently, tests of this model in the GFDL's single-column model (SCM) are found to yield good agreement with LES results in idealized steady-stability cases, as well as in cases with gradual and sharp changes of stability with time.

  10. Development of large high-voltage pressure insulators for the Princeton TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] flexible transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, D.T.; Fong, E.; Haughian, J.; Prechter, R.

    1986-10-01

    Specially formulated insulator materials with improved strength and high-voltage properties were developed and used for critical components of the flexible transmission lines to the TFTR neutral beam ion sources. These critical components are plates which support central conductors as they exit the high-voltage power supply and enter the ion source enclosure. Each plate acts both as a high-voltage insulator and as a pressure barrier to the SF 6 insulating gas. The original plate was made of commercial glass-epoxy laminate which limited the plate voltage capacity. The newly developed insulator is made of specially-formulated cycloalphatic Di-epoxide whose isotropic properties exhibit increased arc resistance. It is cast in one piece with skirts which greatly increase the breakdown voltage. This paper discusses the design, fabrication and testing of the new insulator

  11. Development of support system for large-scale underground structures using WEB 3D technology and RDBMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhaofeng; Itakura, Ken-ichi; Yamachi, Hiroshi; Sato, Toshinori; Matsui, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    In the process of underground space development, enormous information is collected in each developing stage, such as investigation, plan, design and construction. It is important to properly feed back these information to design and construction in order to realize rational design and construction of an underground space. And more, these information also become basic data in a plane of structure management. However, it is almost impossible that it is controlled in the individual ability, since collected information quantity is too enormous. For the purpose of intuitively controlling and processing these enormous information, we devised the system for the data management by freely moving in virtual reality space. In this paper, the basic structure of the system constructed by adopting WEB 3D and RDBMS, is described, and the practicability is verified. (author)

  12. Development of an Advanced Two-Dimensional Thermal Model for Large size Lithium-ion Pouch Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samba, Ahmadou; Omar, Noshin; Gualous, Hamid; Firouz, Youssef; Van den Bossche, Peter; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Boubekeur, Tala Ighil

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a LiFePO4/graphite lithium-ion pouch cell with a rated capacity of 45Ah has been used and a two dimensional thermal model is developed to predict the cell temperature distribution over the surface of the battery, this model requires less input parameters and still has high accuracy. The used input parameters are the heat generation and thermal properties. The ANSYS FLUENT software has been used to solve the models. In addition, a new estimation tool has been developed for estimation of the thermal model parameters. Furthermore, the thermal behavior of the proposed battery has been investigated at different environmental conditions as well as during the abuse conditions. Thermal runaway is investigated in depth by the model

  13. Development and field tests of a damping controller to mitigate electromechanical oscillations on large diesel generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Fabricio G.; Barreiros, Jose A.L.; Barra, Walter Jr.; Costa, Carlos T. Jr. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Instituto de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica, Campus Universitario do Guama, CEP: 66075-900, Belem (Brazil); Ferreira, Andre M.D. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Campus Belem, Departamento de Controle e Processos Industriais, Av. Almirante Barroso, 1155 (Marco), CEP: 66093-020, Belem (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the development and field tests of a digital damping controller designed to mitigate intra-plant electromechanical oscillations via the speed governor system of fast acting units. The controller performance is assessed on an 18-MVA diesel generating unit, at Santana Power Plant (Amapa State, Amazon Region at Northern Brazil). In order to design the damping control law, a set of parametric ARX models representing the plant dynamics at several load conditions, are previously identified from data collected on field tests. The damping controller gains are calculated by using the identified ARX models parameters as inputs to a discrete-time pole-placement design method (pole-shifting) and then embedded on a DSP based microcontroller digital system, for field tests assessment. The digital damping controller modulates the diesel engine inlet valve position according to the observed oscillation on the measured electric power, using a PWM device, which is specially developed to this application. The experimental results shown the good performance of the developed controller on damping efficiently the electromechanical oscillations observed between generating units at Santana Power Plant. (author)

  14. [Early diffuse hypertrophic osteitis recurrence. Unexpected and consternating development after a large évidement cavity. Apropos of 15 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, P; Basset, J M; Candau, P; Bré, M; Despreaux, G; Fabre, A; Saliba, N

    1985-01-01

    The authors report 15 cases collected over a period of 13 years (1972 - 1984) of a particularly serious eventuality affecting certain evacuation cavities: Early recurrence of diffuse hypertrophic osteitis (E.R.D.H.O.). This is a rare complication, occurring in 1.5% of cases of chronic otitis. However, the fact of having operated upon 7 cases in 1984 alone, whilst during the previous 12 years, only 8 had been seen, raised the alarm. The classical pattern of this complication occurs in 3 stages, each involving surgical operation: at the outset, chronic otitis with cholesteatoma or osteitis, most often mixed, for which an "inadequate" surgical procedure is performed. then, after a variable period which may exceed 10 years, a very large evacuation cavity was created by the authors. finally, 3rd and final stage: within 6 months, this cavity filled progressively and, at operation, the authors discovered a cavity virtually completely filled with a "fantastic" "moist sugar" osteitis, requiring a new evacuation cavity, even larger than that created before. In all cases, a successful result was obtained within a varying period, sometimes accompanied by spectacular improvement in general condition. The most plausible etiopathogenic hypothesis advanced to attempt to explain this phenomenon is that of secondary infection by a varied microbial flora, including, on the one hand, aerobic organisms usually discovered in such cases (pseudomonas pyocyaneus, proteus mirabilis) and, secondly, this being of essential importance, "anaerobic" bacteria, the bacteriological diagnosis of which requires application of a strict protocol. The authors have taken three decisions following their bibliographic investigations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Development of Diagnostics for Large-Scale Experiments with Dense Magnetized Plasmas - MJ Plasma-focus diagnostics systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, M.; Karpinski, L.; Paduch, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Zielinska, E.; Chodukowski, T. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)] [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swiert (Poland); Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Malinowski, K. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swiert (Poland); Krauz, S. [RNC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mitrovanov, K. [FGUP GNC RF Triniti, Troick (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    This document presents the diagnostics arrangements and interesting results of research on fusion pulsed plasma, which was generated within the large PF-1000 facility operated in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (Warsaw, Poland). Experimental studies were carried out with the following diagnostic techniques: 1) Rogovski coil for current measurements; 2) Four dI/dt probes in different places around the collector of PF-1000; 3) Voltage divider; 4) Mach-Zender interferometer (16 frames); 5) Fast scintillation probes for X-ray and neutron detection; 6) Silver activation counters; 7) Specially prepared current probes; 8) Thomson spectrometer for mass- and energy-analysis of deuterium beams; 9) Ion-pinhole cameras equipped with nuclear-track detectors, etc. The studies have been carried out with the pure deuterium filling, and particular attention was paid to correlations between the fast-neutron emission and an evolution of plasma parameters. The total fusion-neutron yield, as measured with four silver-activation counters, was found to be up to 7*10{sup 11} per shot, depending on the experimental conditions. Correlations of the neutron pulses with interferometric frame-pictures of the PF pinch column were studied. From time-of-flight (ToF) measurements of the fusion neutrons it was possible to estimate a CM velocity of deuterons involved in the D-D reactions. The fast fusion-produced protons have also been recorded and analyzed by means pinhole cameras and shielded track detectors. The document is composed of an abstract followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  16. Development of Multi-Physics Dynamics Models for High-Frequency Large-Amplitude Structural Response Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkevorkian, Armen; Peterson, Lee; Kolaini, Ali R.; Hendricks, Terry J.; Nesmith, Bill J.

    2016-01-01

    An analytic approach is demonstrated to reveal potential pyroshock -driven dynamic effects causing power losses in the Thermo -Electric (TE) module bars of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Multi -Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). This study utilizes high- fidelity finite element analysis with SIERRA/PRESTO codes to estimate wave propagation effects due to large -amplitude suddenly -applied pyro shock loads in the MMRTG. A high fidelity model of the TE module bar was created with approximately 30 million degrees -of-freedom (DOF). First, a quasi -static preload was applied on top of the TE module bar, then transient tri- axial acceleration inputs were simultaneously applied on the preloaded module. The applied input acceleration signals were measured during MMRTG shock qualification tests performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. An explicit finite element solver in the SIERRA/PRESTO computational environment, along with a 3000 processor parallel super -computing framework at NASA -AMES, was used for the simulation. The simulation results were investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively. The predicted shock wave propagation results provide detailed structural responses throughout the TE module bar, and key insights into the dynamic response (i.e., loads, displacements, accelerations) of critical internal spring/piston compression systems, TE materials, and internal component interfaces in the MMRTG TE module bar. They also provide confidence on the viability of this high -fidelity modeling scheme to accurately predict shock wave propagation patterns within complex structures. This analytic approach is envisioned for modeling shock sensitive hardware susceptible to intense shock environments positioned near shock separation devices in modern space vehicles and systems.

  17. Continuous Czochralski growth: Silicon sheet growth development of the large area sheet task of the low cost silicon solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. M.

    1980-12-01

    The growth of 100 kg of silicon single crystal material, ten cm in diameter or greater, and 150 kg of silicon single crystal material 15 cm or greater utilizing one common silicon container material (one crucible) is investigated. A crystal grower that is recharged with a new supply of polysilicon material while still under vacuum and at temperatures above the melting point of silicon is developed. It accepts large polysilicon charges up to 30 kg, grows large crystal ingots (to 15 cm diameter and 25 kg in weight), and holds polysilicon material for recharging (rod or lump) while, at the same time, growing crystal ingots. Special equipment is designed to recharge polysilicon rods, recharge polysilicon lumps, and handle and store large, hot silicon crystal ingots. Many continuous crystal growth runs were performed lasting as long as 109 hours and producing as many as ten crystal ingots, 15 cm with weights progressing to 27 kg.

  18. Determining the directions of increasing the innovative potential of the region by developing innovative technologies and competences when preparing and implementing large investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Kramin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the directions of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects in the Republic of Tatarstan. Methods methodology of project management institutional approach. Results it is proved that the main largescale directions of innovative potential development in the Republic of Tatarstan as a result of preparation and implementing of Universiade 2013 in Kazan are knowledge management information technologies risk management. It is shown that in the framework of the considered innovative areas a complete system was formed of competences of employees and managers in the fields of education trade hospitality and service. Scientific novelty the key directions were defined of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects by the example of the World Summer Student Games in Kazan in 2013. Practical significance on the basis of specific examples the authors illustrate the practiceoriented mechanism of innovative potential development of a region as a result of implementation of large investment projects. nbsp

  19. Development of the adjusted nuclear cross-section library based on JENDL-3.2 for large FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Ishikawa, Makoto; Numata, Kazuyuki

    1999-04-01

    JNC (and PNC) had developed the adjusted nuclear cross-section library in which the results of the JUPITER experiments were reflected. Using this adjusted library, the distinct improvement of the accuracy in nuclear design of FBR cores had been achieved. As a recent research, JNC develops a database of other integral data in addition to the JUPITER experiments, aiming at further improvement for accuracy and reliability. In 1991, the adjusted library based on JENDL-2, JFS-3-J2 (ADJ91R), was developed, and it has been used on the design research for FBR. As an evaluated nuclear library, however, JENDL-3.2 is recently used. Therefore, the authors developed an adjusted library based on JENDL-3.2 which is called JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98). It is known that the adjusted library based on JENDL-2 overestimated the sodium void reactivity worth by 10-20%. It is expected that the adjusted library based on JENDL-3.2 solve the problem. The adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98) was produced with the same method as the adjusted library JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R) and used more integral parameters of JUPITER experiments than the adjusted library JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R). This report also describes the design accuracy estimation on a 600 MWe class FBR with the adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98). Its main nuclear design parameters (multiplication factor, burn-up reactivity loss, breeding ratio, etc.) except the sodium void reactivity worth which are calculated with the adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98) are almost the same as those predicted with JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R). As for the sodium void reactivity, the adjusted library JFS-3-J3.2(ADJ98) estimates about 4% smaller than the JFS-3-J2(ADJ91R) because of the change of the basic nuclear library from JENDL-2 to JENDL-3.2. (author)

  20. Development of system for product tracking and data acquisition of data irradiation process in large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Jose Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The sterilization of medical care products using ionizing radiation is a consolidated technique. In Brazil there are in operation gamma irradiators with capacity between 0.37 PBq (10kCi) 185 PBq (5 MCi) using radioisotopes 60 Co as radiation source. The developed work provides an accurate control and a data acquisition for the application of Good Manufacturing Practices during all phases of an irradiation process, required by the standards of ANVISA, ISO and IAEA technical recommendations for the treatment of foods and medical products. All the steps involved in the irradiation treatment are mapped into process flow (work flow), where each agent (participant) has its systematized tasks. The data acquisition process, monitoring and control, are based on a set of tools (free software licenses) integrated by a network of efficient communication, including the use of Web resources. Using the Gamma Irradiator Multipurpose IPEN/CNEN/USP all the development was performed to be applied in irradiators facilities operating in industrial scale. The system enables a complete traceability of the process, in real time, for any participant and also the storage of the corresponding records to be audited. (author)