WorldWideScience

Sample records for large volume outdoor

  1. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed

  2. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, C.; Boscardin, M.; Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Corti, D.; Galeazzi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm 3 , cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  3. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  4. Live from Your Neighborhood: A National Study of Outdoor Arts Festivals. Volume Two: Seven Case Studies. Research Report #51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This report complements a national survey of outdoor arts festivals (see "Live from Your Neighborhood: A National Study of Outdoor Arts Festivals, Volume One: Summary Report") by focusing on seven case study festivals: Houston International Festival; Piccolo Spoleto; Lowell Folk Festival; Santa Fe Indian Market; Chicago Jazz Festival;…

  5. An Aerial-Ground Robotic System for Navigation and Obstacle Mapping in Large Outdoor Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zapata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning require the use of known maps or previous information of the environment. This work presents a system composed by a terrestrial and an aerial robot that cooperate and share sensor information in order to address those requirements. The ground robot is able to navigate in an unknown large environment aided by visual feedback from a camera on board the aerial robot. At the same time, the obstacles are mapped in real-time by putting together the information from the camera and the positioning system of the ground robot. A set of experiments were carried out with the purpose of verifying the system applicability. The experiments were performed in a simulation environment and outdoor with a medium-sized ground robot and a mini quad-rotor. The proposed robotic system shows outstanding results in simultaneous navigation and mapping applications in large outdoor environments.

  6. Care of children at a large outdoor music festival in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Carl P

    2010-01-01

    Limited data exist on the standard of care provided for children at mass gatherings and special events (MGSE). Some studies provide valuable insight into the proportion of pediatric patients that can be expected at various types of MGSEs, but an accurate breakdown of the range of pediatric conditions treated at major events has yet to be produced. Such data are essential for the preparation of MGSEs so that the health and safety of children at such events can be adequately safeguarded. The aim of this study is to examine the care requirements for children at a large, outdoor music festival in the United Kingdom. A retrospective review of all patient report forms (PRFs) from a large, outdoor music festival held in Leeds (UK) in 2003. Data were extracted from the PRFs using a standardized proforma and analyzed using an Excel computer program. Pediatric cases contributed approximately 15% to the overall workload at the event. Children presented with a range of conditions that varied from those seen in the adult population. Children were more likely than adults to present for medical attention following crush injuries (OR = 2.536; 95% CI = 1.537-4.187); after a collapse/syncopal episode (OR = 2.687; 95% CI = 1.442-5.007); or complaining of nausea (OR = 3.484; 95% CI = 2.089-5.813). Alcohol/drugs were less likely to be involved in the precipitating cause for medical attention in children compared to adults (OR = 0.477; 95% CI = 0.250-0.912). No critical care incidents involving children were encountered during the event. Mass gatherings and special events in the UK, such as outdoor music festivals, can involve a large number of children who access medical care for a different range of conditions compared to adults. The care of children at large, outdoor music events should not be overlooked. Event planning in the UK should include measures to ensure that appropriately trained and equipped medical teams are used at music festivals to safeguard the welfare of children who

  7. Outdoor recreation activity trends by volume segments: U.S. and Northeast market analyses, 1982-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine volume segmentation within three selected outdoor recreational activities -- swimming, hunting and downhill skiing over an eight-year period, from 1982 through 1989 at the national level and within the Northeast Region of the U.S.; and to determine if trend patterns existed within any of these activities when the market size...

  8. Environmental determinants of outdoor play in children : A large-scale cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; Wendel-Vos, W.; van Oers, J.A.M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Outdoor play is a cheap and natural way for children to be physically active. Purpose: This study aims to identify physical as well as social correlates of outdoor play in the home and neighborhood environment among children of different age groups. Methods: Cross-sectional data were

  9. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-09-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's, arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th], Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α corrections to the Kähler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kähler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α corrections. The NS NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum.

  10. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, (arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th]), Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α ' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kaehler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α ' corrections. The NS-NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum

  11. Quantifying navigational information: The catchment volumes of panoramic snapshots in outdoor scenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Murray

    Full Text Available Panoramic views of natural environments provide visually navigating animals with two kinds of information: they define locations because image differences increase smoothly with distance from a reference location and they provide compass information, because image differences increase smoothly with rotation away from a reference orientation. The range over which a given reference image can provide navigational guidance (its 'catchment area' has to date been quantified from the perspective of walking animals by determining how image differences develop across the ground plane of natural habitats. However, to understand the information available to flying animals there is a need to characterize the 'catchment volumes' within which panoramic snapshots can provide navigational guidance. We used recently developed camera-based methods for constructing 3D models of natural environments and rendered panoramic views at defined locations within these models with the aim of mapping navigational information in three dimensions. We find that in relatively open woodland habitats, catchment volumes are surprisingly large extending for metres depending on the sensitivity of the viewer to image differences. The size and the shape of catchment volumes depend on the distance of visual features in the environment. Catchment volumes are smaller for reference images close to the ground and become larger for reference images at some distance from the ground and in more open environments. Interestingly, catchment volumes become smaller when only above horizon views are used and also when views include a 1 km distant panorama. We discuss the current limitations of mapping navigational information in natural environments and the relevance of our findings for our understanding of visual navigation in animals and autonomous robots.

  12. Quantifying navigational information: The catchment volumes of panoramic snapshots in outdoor scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Trevor; Zeil, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Panoramic views of natural environments provide visually navigating animals with two kinds of information: they define locations because image differences increase smoothly with distance from a reference location and they provide compass information, because image differences increase smoothly with rotation away from a reference orientation. The range over which a given reference image can provide navigational guidance (its 'catchment area') has to date been quantified from the perspective of walking animals by determining how image differences develop across the ground plane of natural habitats. However, to understand the information available to flying animals there is a need to characterize the 'catchment volumes' within which panoramic snapshots can provide navigational guidance. We used recently developed camera-based methods for constructing 3D models of natural environments and rendered panoramic views at defined locations within these models with the aim of mapping navigational information in three dimensions. We find that in relatively open woodland habitats, catchment volumes are surprisingly large extending for metres depending on the sensitivity of the viewer to image differences. The size and the shape of catchment volumes depend on the distance of visual features in the environment. Catchment volumes are smaller for reference images close to the ground and become larger for reference images at some distance from the ground and in more open environments. Interestingly, catchment volumes become smaller when only above horizon views are used and also when views include a 1 km distant panorama. We discuss the current limitations of mapping navigational information in natural environments and the relevance of our findings for our understanding of visual navigation in animals and autonomous robots.

  13. Multi-Sensing system for outdoor thermal monitoring: Application to large scale civil engineering components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Manceau, Jean-Luc; Perez, Laetitia; Bourquin, Frederic

    2014-05-01

    and a backup system. All the components of the system are connected to the IrLaW software through an IP network. The monitoring system is fully autonomous since August 2013 and provides data at 0. Hz sampling frequency. First results obtained by data post-processing is addressed. Finally, discussion on experimental feedback and main outcomes of several month of measurement in outdoor conditions will be presented. REFERENCES [1]Proto M. et al., , 2010. Transport infrastructure surveillance and monitoring by electromagnetic sensing: the ISTIMES project. Sensors, 10,10620-10639, doi: 10.3390/s101210620. [2]J. Dumoulin, R. Averty ".Development of an infrared system coupled with a weather station for real time atmospheric corrections using GPU computing: Application to bridge monitoring", in Proc of 11th International Conference on Quantitative InfraRed Thermography, Naples Italy, 2012. [3]J. Dumoulin, A. Crinière, R. Averty ," Detection and thermal characterization of the inner structure of the "Musmeci" bridge deck by infrared thermography monitoring ",Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, Volume 10, Number 2, November 2013, IOP Science, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/10/6/064003. [4]I. Catapano, R. Di Napoli, F. Soldovieri1, M. Bavusi, A. Loperte and J. Dumoulin, "Structural monitoring via microwave tomography-enhanced GPR: the Montagnole test site", Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, Volume 9, Number 4, August 2012, pp 100-107, IOP Science, doi:10.1088/1742-2132/9/4/S100.

  14. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to . This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  15. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to 0. This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  16. Large volumes and spectroscopy of walking theories

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, L; Patella, A; Pica, C; Rago, A

    2016-01-01

    A detailed investigation of finite size effects is performed for SU(2) gauge theory with two fermions in the adjoint representation, which previous lattice studies have shown to be inside the conformal window. The system is investigated with different spatial and temporal boundary conditions on lattices of various spatial and temporal extensions, for two values of the bare fermion mass representing a {\\em heavy} and {\\em light} fermion regime. Our study shows that the infinite volume limit of masses and decay constants in the mesonic sector is reached only when the mass of the pseudoscalar particle $M_\\mathrm{PS}$ and the spatial lattice size $L$ satisfy the relation $L M_\\mathrm{PS} \\ge 15$. This bound, which is at least a factor of three higher than what observed in QCD, is a likely consequence of the different spectral signatures of the two theories, with the scalar isosinglet ($0^{++}$ glueball) being the lightest particle in our model. In addition to stressing the importance of simulating large lattice s...

  17. Volume independence in large Nc QCD-like gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovtun, Pavel; Uensal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2007-01-01

    Volume independence in large N c gauge theories may be viewed as a generalized orbifold equivalence. The reduction to zero volume (or Eguchi-Kawai reduction) is a special case of this equivalence. So is temperature independence in confining phases. A natural generalization concerns volume independence in 'theory space' of quiver gauge theories. In pure Yang-Mills theory, the failure of volume independence for sufficiently small volumes (at weak coupling) due to spontaneous breaking of center symmetry, together with its validity above a critical size, nicely illustrate the symmetry realization conditions which are both necessary and sufficient for large N c orbifold equivalence. The existence of a minimal size below which volume independence fails also applies to Yang-Mills theory with antisymmetric representation fermions [QCD(AS)]. However, in Yang-Mills theory with adjoint representation fermions [QCD(Adj)], endowed with periodic boundary conditions, volume independence remains valid down to arbitrarily small size. In sufficiently large volumes, QCD(Adj) and QCD(AS) have a large N c ''orientifold'' equivalence, provided charge conjugation symmetry is unbroken in the latter theory. Therefore, via a combined orbifold-orientifold mapping, a well-defined large N c equivalence exists between QCD(AS) in large, or infinite, volume and QCD(Adj) in arbitrarily small volume. Since asymptotically free gauge theories, such as QCD(Adj), are much easier to study (analytically or numerically) in small volume, this equivalence should allow greater understanding of large N c QCD in infinite volume

  18. Outdoor Storage Characteristics of Single-Pass Large Square Corn Stover Bales in Iowa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Shah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Year-round operation of biorefineries can be possible only if the continuous flow of cellulosic biomass is guaranteed. If corn (Zea mays stover is the primary cellulosic biomass, it is essential to recognize that this feedstock has a short annual harvest window (≤1–2 months and therefore cost effective storage techniques that preserve feedstock quality must be identified. This study evaluated two outdoor and one indoor storage strategies for corn stover bales in Iowa. High- and low-moisture stover bales were prepared in the fall of 2009, and stored either outdoors with two different types of cover (tarp and breathable film or within a building for 3 or 9 months. Dry matter loss (DML, changes in moisture and biomass compositions (fiber and ultimate analyses were determined. DML for bales stored outdoor with tarp and breathable film covers were in the ranges of 5–11 and 14–17%, respectively. More than half of the total DML occurred early during the storage. There were measurable differences in carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, cellulose, hemi-cellulose and acid detergent lignin for the different storage treatments, but the changes were small and within a narrow range. For the bale storage treatments investigated, cellulose content increased by as much as 4%s from an initial level of ~41%, hemicellulose content changed by −2 to 1% from ~34%, and acid detergent lignin contents increased by as much as 3% from an initial value of ~5%. Tarp covered bales stored the best in this study, but other methods, such as tube-wrapping, and economics need further investigation.

  19. Effects of uncertainty in model predictions of individual tree volume on large area volume estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; James A. Westfall

    2014-01-01

    Forest inventory estimates of tree volume for large areas are typically calculated by adding model predictions of volumes for individual trees. However, the uncertainty in the model predictions is generally ignored with the result that the precision of the large area volume estimates is overestimated. The primary study objective was to estimate the effects of model...

  20. Analysis of Direct Outdoor Air Cooling Efficency for Combined Variable Air Volume Air-conditioning System in Stores in Cold Climates of China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Zhiwen

    2006-01-01

    Direct outdoor air cooling contributes a lot not only to the improvement of the indoor air quality but also to the energy saving. Its full use will reduce the water chiller’s running time especially in some stores where cooling load keeps much higher and longer than that in other buildings. A novel air-conditioning system named Combined Variable Air Volume system (CVAV), combining a normal AHU with a separate outdoor air supply system, was proposed firstly by the authors. The most attractive ...

  1. Preface to the volume Large Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Abad, Jorge D.

    2018-02-01

    The study and knowledge of the geomorphology of large rivers increased significantly during the last years and the factors that triggered these advances are multiple. On one hand, modern technologies became more accessible and their disseminated usage allowed the collection of data from large rivers as never seen before. The generalized use of high tech data collection with geophysics equipment such as acoustic Doppler current profilers-ADCPs, multibeam echosounders, plus the availability of geospatial and computational tools for morphodynamics, hydrological and hydrosedimentological modeling, have accelerated the scientific production on the geomorphology of large rivers at a global scale. Despite the advances, there is yet a lot of work ahead. Good parts of the large rivers are in the tropics and many are still unexplored. The tropics also hold crucial fluvial basins that concentrate good part of the gross domestic product of large countries like the Parana River in Argentina and Brazil, the Ganges-Brahmaputra in India, the Indus River in Pakistan, and the Mekong River in several countries of South East Asia. The environmental importance of tropical rivers is also outstanding. They hold the highest biodiversity of fluvial fauna and alluvial vegetation and many of them, particularly those in Southeast Asia, are among the most hazardous systems for floods in the entire world. Tropical rivers draining mountain chains such as the Himalaya, the Andes and insular Southeast Asia are also among the most heavily sediment loaded rivers and play a key role in both the storage of sediment at continental scale and the transference of sediments from the continent to the Ocean at planetary scale (Andermann et al., 2012; Latrubesse and Restrepo, 2014; Milliman and Syvitski, 1992; Milliman and Farsnworth, 2011; Sinha and Friend, 1994).

  2. New large volume Calabi-Yau threefolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Ross; He, Yang-Hui; Jejjala, Vishnu; Nelson, Brent D.

    2018-02-01

    In previous work, we have commenced the task of unpacking the 473 800 776 reflexive polyhedra by Kreuzer and Skarke into a database of Calabi-Yau threefolds [R. Altman et al. J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2015) 158., 10.1007/JHEP02(2015)158] (see www.rossealtman.com). In this paper, following a pedagogical introduction, we present a new algorithm to isolate Swiss cheese solutions characterized by "holes," or small 4-cycles, descending from the toric divisors inherent to the original four dimensional reflexive polyhedra. Implementing these methods, we find 2268 explicit Swiss cheese manifolds, over half of which have h1 ,1=6 . Many of our solutions have multiple large cycles. Such Swiss cheese geometries facilitate moduli stabilization in string compactifications and provide flat directions for cosmological inflation.

  3. Large volumes and spectroscopy of walking theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Debbio, L.; Lucini, B.; Patella, A.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed investigation of finite-size effects is performed for SU(2) gauge theory with two fermions in the adjoint representation, which previous lattice studies have shown to be inside the conformal window. The system is investigated with different spatial and temporal boundary conditions...... and the spatial lattice size L satisfy the relation LMPS≥15. This bound, which is at least a factor of three higher than what is observed in QCD, is a likely consequence of the different spectral signatures of the two theories, with the scalar isosinglet (0++ glueball) being the lightest particle in our model....... In addition to stressing the importance of simulating large lattice sizes, our analysis emphasizes the need to understand quantitatively the full spectrum of the theory rather than just the spectrum in the mesonic isotriplet sector. While for the lightest fermion measuring masses from gluonic operators proves...

  4. Volume measurement study for large scale input accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikoshi, Seiji; Watanabe, Yuichi; Tsujino, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    Large Scale Tank Calibration (LASTAC) facility, including an experimental tank which has the same volume and structure as the input accountancy tank of Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was constructed in Nuclear Material Control Center of Japan. Demonstration experiments have been carried out to evaluate a precision of solution volume measurement and to establish the procedure of highly accurate pressure measurement for a large scale tank with dip-tube bubbler probe system to be applied to the input accountancy tank of RRP. Solution volume in a tank is determined from substitution the solution level for the calibration function obtained in advance, which express a relation between the solution level and its volume in the tank. Therefore, precise solution volume measurement needs a precise calibration function that is determined carefully. The LASTAC calibration experiments using pure water showed good result in reproducibility. (J.P.N.)

  5. Higgs, moduli problem, baryogenesis and large volume compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2012-07-01

    We consider the cosmological moduli problem in the context of high-scale supersymmetry breaking suggested by the recent discovery of the standard-model like Higgs boson. In order to solve the notorious moduli-induced gravitino problem, we focus on the LARGE volume scenario, in which the modulus decay into gravitinos can be kinematically forbidden. We then consider the Affleck-Dine mechanism with or without an enhanced coupling with the inflaton, taking account of possible Q-ball formation. We show that the baryon asymmetry of the present Universe can be generated by the Affleck-Dine mechanism in LARGE volume scenario, solving the moduli and gravitino problems.

  6. Higgs, moduli problem, baryogenesis and large volume compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-15

    We consider the cosmological moduli problem in the context of high-scale supersymmetry breaking suggested by the recent discovery of the standard-model like Higgs boson. In order to solve the notorious moduli-induced gravitino problem, we focus on the LARGE volume scenario, in which the modulus decay into gravitinos can be kinematically forbidden. We then consider the Affleck-Dine mechanism with or without an enhanced coupling with the inflaton, taking account of possible Q-ball formation. We show that the baryon asymmetry of the present Universe can be generated by the Affleck-Dine mechanism in LARGE volume scenario, solving the moduli and gravitino problems.

  7. Outdoor Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Valynda

    2010-01-01

    An outdoor classroom is the ideal vehicle for community involvement: Parents, native plant societies, 4-H, garden clubs, and master naturalists are all resources waiting to be tapped, as are local businesses offering support. If you enlist your community in the development and maintenance of your outdoor classroom, the entire community will…

  8. Nitrification in moving bed and fixed bed biofilters treating effluent water from a large commercial outdoor rainbow trout RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2010-01-01

    The nitrification performance of two fixed bed (FB) biofilters and two moving bed (MB) biofilters was evaluated. They received the same cold (8 degrees C) influent water from a commercial outdoor RAS facility producing rainbow trout (average density 32 kg m(-3)). The filters were constructed as f...

  9. Growth, carcass and meat quality of Casertana, Italian Large White and Duroc x (Landrace x Italian Large White pigs reared outdoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maiorano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To compare growth, skeletal development, carcass traits and meat quality of different genotypes, 10 Casertana (CT, 10 Italian Large White (LW and 10 Duroc x (Landrace x Italian Large White (DU crosses, barrows of 90-day-old, were allotted to the same outdoor rearing and feeding conditions. Live weight was recorded and average daily gain (ADG was calculated. At slaughter (330-day-old dressing and lean percentages were determined; backfat thickness and loin eye depth were measured. Carcasses were dissected into commercial cuts. Water holding capacity, pH and colour (45 min and 24 h post-mortem were measured. Longissimus lumborum muscle samples were collected for cholesterol, α-tochopherol and intramuscular collagen (IMC analyses. CT compared to DU and LW had the lowest growth rate and skeletal development. CT showed higher backfat thickness, lower lean cut/fatty cut ratio and less lean meat (P<0.05. Loin eye depth differed among genotypes with LW > DU > CT (P<0.05. CT showed higher red colour of the meat than DU and LW (P<0.05. CT compared to LW had the highest hydroxylysylpiridinoline (HLP crosslink concentration and HLP/IMC ratio, and a lower IMC amount (P<0.05. CT pigs produced meat that could be tougher than that from the improved breed, but more acceptable from the technological point of view. At eleven months of age bone weight, length and diameter were clearly genetic type-related; differently, the bone maturity was similar among the genotypes studied.

  10. Coupling of RF antennas to large volume helicon plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Large volume helicon plasma sources are of particular interest for large scale semiconductor processing, high power plasma propulsion and recently plasma-material interaction under fusion conditions. This work is devoted to studying the coupling of four typical RF antennas to helicon plasma with infinite length and diameter of 0.5 m, and exploring its frequency dependence in the range of 13.56-70 MHz for coupling optimization. It is found that loop antenna is more efficient than half helix, Boswell and Nagoya III antennas for power absorption; radially parabolic density profile overwhelms Gaussian density profile in terms of antenna coupling for low-density plasma, but the superiority reverses for high-density plasma. Increasing the driving frequency results in power absorption more near plasma edge, but the overall power absorption increases with frequency. Perpendicular stream plots of wave magnetic field, wave electric field and perturbed current are also presented. This work can serve as an important reference for the experimental design of large volume helicon plasma source with high RF power.

  11. A digital gain stabilizer for large volume organic scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunsfurth, J.; Geske, K.

    1976-01-01

    A digital gain stabilizer is described, optimized for use with photomultipliers mounted on large volume organic scintillators, or other radiation detectors, which exhibit no prominent peaks in their amplitude spectra. As applications of this kind usually involve many phototubes or detectors, circuit simplicity, production reproduceability, and the possibility of computer controlled operation were major design criteria. Two versions were built, the first one using standard TTL-SSI and MSI circuitry, the second one - to reduce power requirements - using a mixture of TTL- and CMOS-LSI circuits. (Auth.)

  12. Removal of rare gases from large volume airstreams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, P.K.; Leong, K.H.; Stukel, J.J.; Lewis, C.; Jebackumar, R.; Illinois Univ., Urbana; Illinois Univ., Urbana

    1986-01-01

    The cost-effective removal of low levels of rare gases and particularly radon from large volume air flows is a difficult problem. The use of various scrubbing systems using non-conventional fluids has been studied. The parameters for both a packed tower absorber and a gas scrubber have been calculated for a system using perfluorobenzene as the fluid. Based on these parameters, a packed bed tower of conventional proportions is feasible for the removal of >95% of 37 Bq/m 3 of radon from a flow of 4.7 m 3 /second. (author)

  13. Naturally light hidden photons in LARGE volume string compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodsell, M.; Jaeckel, J.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.

    2009-09-01

    Extra ''hidden'' U(1) gauge factors are a generic feature of string theory that is of particular phenomenological interest. They can kinetically mix with the Standard Model photon and are thereby accessible to a wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations and laboratory experiments. In this paper we investigate the masses and the kinetic mixing of hidden U(1)s in LARGE volume compactifications of string theory. We find that in these scenarios the hidden photons can be naturally light and that their kinetic mixing with the ordinary electromagnetic photon can be of a size interesting for near future experiments and observations. (orig.)

  14. Large volume syringe pump extruder for desktop 3D printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Pusch

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Syringe pump extruders are required for a wide range of 3D printing applications, including bioprinting, embedded printing, and food printing. However, the mass of the syringe becomes a major challenge for most printing platforms, requiring compromises in speed, resolution and/or volume. To address these issues, we have designed a syringe pump large volume extruder (LVE that is compatible with low-cost, open source 3D printers, and herein demonstrate its performance on a PrintrBot Simple Metal. Key aspects of the LVE include: (1 it is open source and compatible with open source hardware and software, making it inexpensive and widely accessible to the 3D printing community, (2 it utilizes a standard 60 mL syringe as its ink reservoir, effectively increasing print volume of the average bioprinter, (3 it is capable of retraction and high speed movements, and (4 it can print fluids using nozzle diameters as small as 100 μm, enabling the printing of complex shapes/objects when used in conjunction with the freeform reversible embedding of suspended hydrogels (FRESH 3D printing method. Printing performance of the LVE is demonstrated by utilizing alginate as a model biomaterial ink to fabricate parametric CAD models and standard calibration objects. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, 3D bioprinting, Embedded printing, FRESH, Soft materials extrusion

  15. APPHi: Automated Photometry Pipeline for High Cadence Large Volume Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, E.; Castro, J.; Silva, J.; Hernández, J.; Reyes, M.; Hernández, B.; Alvarez, F.; García T.

    2018-04-01

    APPHi (Automated Photometry Pipeline) carries out aperture and differential photometry of TAOS-II project data. It is computationally efficient and can be used also with other astronomical wide-field image data. APPHi works with large volumes of data and handles both FITS and HDF5 formats. Due the large number of stars that the software has to handle in an enormous number of frames, it is optimized to automatically find the best value for parameters to carry out the photometry, such as mask size for aperture, size of window for extraction of a single star, and the number of counts for the threshold for detecting a faint star. Although intended to work with TAOS-II data, APPHi can analyze any set of astronomical images and is a robust and versatile tool to performing stellar aperture and differential photometry.

  16. Effect of large volume paracentesis on plasma volume--a cause of hypovolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, H.W.; Rakov, N.E.; Savage, E.; Reynolds, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    Large volume paracentesis, while effectively relieving symptoms in patients with tense ascites, has been generally avoided due to reports of complications attributed to an acute reduction in intravascular volume. Measurements of plasma volume in these subjects have been by indirect methods and have not uniformly confirmed hypovolemia. We have prospectively evaluated 18 patients (20 paracenteses) with tense ascites and peripheral edema due to chronic liver disease undergoing 5 liter paracentesis for relief of symptoms. Plasma volume pre- and postparacentesis was assessed by a 125 I-labeled human serum albumin dilution technique as well as by the change in hematocrit and postural blood pressure difference. No significant change in serum sodium, urea nitrogen, hematocrit or postural systolic blood pressure difference was noted at 24 or 48 hr after paracentesis. Serum creatinine at 24 hr after paracentesis was unchanged but a small but statistically significant increase in serum creatinine was noted at 48 hr postparacentesis. Plasma volume changed -2.7% (n = 6, not statistically significant) during the first 24 hr and -2.8% (n = 12, not statistically significant) during the 0- to 48-hr period. No complications from paracentesis were noted. These results suggest that 5 liter paracentesis for relief of symptoms is safe in patients with tense ascites and peripheral edema from chronic liver disease

  17. Adsorption of transuranic elements from large volume sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.

    1976-01-01

    Some years ago a sampler for concentrating radionuclides from large volumes of sea water was developed by Silker et al. of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories. They used pure A1 2 O 3 as the adsorbent. The device has been applied successfully to the determination of 238 Pu and 239 Pu in several sea water samples. Our experience on the application of an identical system for the determination of transuranics in Mediterranean sea water was not quite as satisfactory as we had hoped. The chemistry involved in leaching up to 1 kg Al 2 O 3 . with acid, followed by removal of dissolved aluminium from the transuranic fraction, is rather tedious and time-consuming for routine use. The adsorption efficiency of transuranics, checked by dual-bed adsorption did not give consistent results. However, since the principle of the device is attractive enough for handling large volume water samples, it was felt that it was worthwhile to test other types of adsorbents which are easier to handle than Al 2 O 3 . For this purpose, chitosan and manganese dioxide were chosen and series of experiments were conducted in order to examine the suitability of these materials as an adsorbent in the system

  18. Season and outdoor temperature in relation to detection and control of hypertension in a large rural Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Danting; Du, Huaidong; Zhang, Xinwei; Qian, Yijian; Chen, Lingli; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming; Yu, Min

    2014-12-01

    In many Western populations, blood pressure varies moderately with season and outdoor temperature. Relatively little is known about effects of seasonal changes in blood pressure on the detection and control of hypertension in general populations, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We analysed cross-sectional data of 57 375 (42% men) participants aged 30-79 (mean 52.3) years who were enrolled during 2004-08, as part of the China Kadoorie Biobank, from a rural county in the south-east costal Zhejiang Province. Analyses related daily mean outdoor temperature, obtained from local Meteorological Bureau, to mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), rate of newly detected hypertension and, among those with self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension, rate of adequate blood pressure control, using multiple linear and logistic regression models. The overall mean blood pressure was 135.9 mmHg for SBP and 80.5 mmHg for DBP. Daily outdoor temperature ranged between -2.9 and 33.7°C, with July being the hottest month (mean 29.4°C) and January the coldest (mean 4.0°C). Comparing January (the coldest month) with July (the warmest), the differences in the adjusted SBP/DBP were 19.2/7.7 mmHg. Each 10°C lower ambient temperature was associated with 6.9/2.9 mmHg higher SBP/DBP,14.1% higher prevalence of newly detected hypertension and, among those with pre-diagnosed hypertension, 13.0% lower hypertension control rate. In rural China, lower outdoor temperature is strongly associated with higher mean blood pressure and hypertension prevalence as well as poorer hypertension control, and should be considered when conducting population-based hypertension surveys and providing treatment for hypertensive patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. Doping the 1 kton Large Volume Detector with Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Gianmarco [University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio snc, 67100 Coppito (AQ) Italy (Italy); Fulgione, Walter; Porta, Amanda [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, Corso Fiume 4, Torino (Italy); Machado, Ana Amelia Bergamini [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, s.s. 17bis Km 18-10, Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Mal' gin, Alexei [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Shestidesyatiletiya Oktyabrya 7a, Moscow, 117312 (Russian Federation); Molinario, Andrea; Vigorito, Carlo, E-mail: bruno@to.infn.it, E-mail: fulgione@to.infn.it, E-mail: ana.machado@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: malgin@lngs.infn.it, E-mail: amolinar@to.infn.it, E-mail: Amanda.Porta@subatech.in2p3.fr, E-mail: vigorito@to.infn.it [INFN, Via Pietro Giuria 1, Torino (Italy)

    2011-06-01

    The Large Volume Detector (LVD) in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy, is a ν observatory which has been monitoring the Galaxy since June 1992 to study neutrinos from core collapse supernovae. The experiment in the present configuration is made by 840 scintillator detectors, for a total active mass of 1000 tons. The detector sensitivity to neutrino bursts due to a core collapse supernova has been already discussed in term of maximum detectable distance. In this paper we evaluate the improvements that LVD could obtain if all its active scintillator mass was doped with a small amount (0.14% in weight) of Gadolinium. We simulated neutron captures following ν-bar {sub e} inverse beta decay reactions in one LVD counter (1.2 ton) with Gd doped liquid scintillator obtaining an efficiency for the detection of this process of η{sub n}|{sub Gd} = 80% and a mean capture time τ = 25μs, in good agreement with the results obtained by the measures. This implies a gain of a factor ∼ 20 in the signal to noise ratio for neutron capture detection with respect to the undoped liquid scintillator. We discuss how the captures of neutrons from rock radioactivity on Gd modify the background conditions of the detector and we calculate the curves expressing the sensitivity to a ν-bar {sub e} burst from core collapse supernovae depending on the distance of the collapsing star. It results that doping the 1 kton Large Volume Detector with Gd would assure a 90% detection efficiency at the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud (50 kpc), an achievement which is equivalent to that obtained by doubling the number of counters in LVD.

  20. Doping the 1 kton Large Volume Detector with Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Gianmarco; Fulgione, Walter; Porta, Amanda; Machado, Ana Amelia Bergamini; Mal'gin, Alexei; Molinario, Andrea; Vigorito, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The Large Volume Detector (LVD) in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy, is a ν observatory which has been monitoring the Galaxy since June 1992 to study neutrinos from core collapse supernovae. The experiment in the present configuration is made by 840 scintillator detectors, for a total active mass of 1000 tons. The detector sensitivity to neutrino bursts due to a core collapse supernova has been already discussed in term of maximum detectable distance. In this paper we evaluate the improvements that LVD could obtain if all its active scintillator mass was doped with a small amount (0.14% in weight) of Gadolinium. We simulated neutron captures following ν-bar e inverse beta decay reactions in one LVD counter (1.2 ton) with Gd doped liquid scintillator obtaining an efficiency for the detection of this process of η n | Gd = 80% and a mean capture time τ = 25μs, in good agreement with the results obtained by the measures. This implies a gain of a factor ∼ 20 in the signal to noise ratio for neutron capture detection with respect to the undoped liquid scintillator. We discuss how the captures of neutrons from rock radioactivity on Gd modify the background conditions of the detector and we calculate the curves expressing the sensitivity to a ν-bar e burst from core collapse supernovae depending on the distance of the collapsing star. It results that doping the 1 kton Large Volume Detector with Gd would assure a 90% detection efficiency at the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud (50 kpc), an achievement which is equivalent to that obtained by doubling the number of counters in LVD

  1. ESB application for effective synchronization of large volume measurements data

    CERN Document Server

    Wyszkowski, Przemysław Michał

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at CERN aims at measurement of total cross section, elastic scattering and diffractive processes of colliding protons in the Large Hadron Collider. In order for the research to be possible, it is necessary to process huge amounts of data coming from variety of sources: TOTEM detectors, CMS detectors, measurement devices around the Large Hadron Collider tunnel and many other external systems. Preparing final results involves also calculating plenty of intermediate figures, which also need to be stored. In order for the work of the scientist to be effective and convenient it is crucial to provide central point for the data storage, where all raw and intermediate figures will be stored. This thesis aims at presenting the usage of Enterprise Service Bus concept in building software infrastructure for transferring large volume of measurements data. Topics discussed here include technologies and mechanisms realizing the concept of integration bus, model of data transferring system based on ...

  2. SUSY’s Ladder: reframing sequestering at Large Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, Matthew [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Theories with approximate no-scale structure, such as the Large Volume Scenario, have a distinctive hierarchy of multiple mass scales in between TeV gaugino masses and the Planck scale, which we call SUSY’s Ladder. This is a particular realization of Split Supersymmetry in which the same small parameter suppresses gaugino masses relative to scalar soft masses, scalar soft masses relative to the gravitino mass, and the UV cutoff or string scale relative to the Planck scale. This scenario has many phenomenologically interesting properties, and can avoid dangers including the gravitino problem, flavor problems, and the moduli-induced LSP problem that plague other supersymmetric theories. We study SUSY’s Ladder using a superspace formalism that makes the mysterious cancelations in previous computations manifest. This opens the possibility of a consistent effective field theory understanding of the phenomenology of these scenarios, based on power-counting in the small ratio of string to Planck scales. We also show that four-dimensional theories with approximate no-scale structure enforced by a single volume modulus arise only from two special higher-dimensional theories: five-dimensional supergravity and ten-dimensional type IIB supergravity. This gives a phenomenological argument in favor of ten dimensional ultraviolet physics which is different from standard arguments based on the consistency of superstring theory.

  3. An annular BF3 counter of large sensitive volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janardhanan, S.; Swaminathan, N.

    1975-01-01

    An annular neutron counter having a large sensitive volume with inner and outer diameter 31 cms with multiple electrode system fabricated especially to measure the neutron output from fissile region of standard fast reactor fuel of length nearly equivalent to 500 cms is described. The counter efficiency is nearly 0.3% for neutron and sensitivity 0.0018 counts/neutron for (alpha, neutron) and spontaneous fission source. Its other potential applications which are indicated are : (1) quality control of fast reactor fuel pins (2) fuel inventory (3) assessing radioactivity of solid waste packets containing PuO 2 (4) uniformity of fuel loading of a reactor and (5) neutron monitoring in a fuel plant. (M.G.B.)

  4. Investigation of a large volume negative hydrogen ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteille, C.; Bruneteau, A.M.; Bacal, M.

    1995-01-01

    The electron and negative ion densities and temperatures are reported for a large volume hybrid multicusp negative ion source. Based on the scaling laws an analysis is made of the plasma formation and loss processes. It is shown that the positive ions are predominantly lost to the walls, although the observed scaling law is n + ∝I 0.57 d . However, the total plasma loss scales linearly with the discharge current, in agreement with the theoretical model. The negative ion formation and loss is also discussed. It is shown that at low pressure (1 mTorr) the negative ion wall loss becomes a significant part of the total loss. The dependence of n - /n e versus the electron temperature is reported. When the negative ion wall loss is negligible, all the data on n - /n e versus the electron temperatures fit a single curve. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  5. Dilute scintillators for large-volume tracking detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeder, R.A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dieterle, B.D. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Gregory, C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Schaefer, F. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Schum, K. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Strossman, W. (University of California, Riverside, CA (United States)); Smith, D. (Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Prescott, AZ (United States)); Christofek, L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Johnston, K. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Louis, W.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Schillaci, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Volta, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); White, D.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Whitehouse, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Albert, M. (University of Pennsylvania, Phi

    1993-10-01

    Dilute scintillation mixtures emit isotropic light for both fast and slow particles, but retain the Cherenkov light cone from fast particles. Large volume detectors using photomultipliers to reconstruct relativistic tracks will also be sensitive to slow particles if they are filled with these mixtures. Our data show that 0.03 g/l of b-PBD in mineral oil has a 2.4:1 ratio (in the first 12 ns) of isotropic light to Cherenkov light for positron tracks. The light attenuation length is greater than 15 m for wavelength above 400 nm, and the scintillation decay time is about 2 ns for the fast component. There is also a slow isotropic light component that is larger (relative to the fast component) for protons than for electrons. This effect allows particle identification by a technique similar to pulse shape discrimination. These features will be utilized in LSND, a neutrino detector at LAMPF. (orig.)

  6. Outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Bowker; Ashley Askew; H. Ken Cordell; John C. Bergstrom

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsBy 2060, the number of southern adults participating in each of 10 different popular outdoor recreation activities is projected to increase. Depending on future demographic, economic, land use, and population changes, the activity demonstrating the least growth in participants is hunting (8–25 percent). The activity projected to...

  7. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyneel, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2006-07-01

    {gamma}-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple {gamma}-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by {gamma}-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics

  8. Characterization of segmented large volume, high purity germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyneel, B.

    2006-01-01

    γ-ray tracking in future HPGe arrays like AGATA will rely on pulse shape analysis (PSA) of multiple γ-interactions. For this purpose, a simple and fast procedure was developed which enabled the first full characterization of a segmented large volume HPGe detector. An analytical model for the hole mobility in a Ge crystal lattice was developed to describe the hole drift anisotropy with experimental velocity values along the crystal axis as parameters. The new model is based on the drifted Maxwellian hole distribution in Ge. It is verified by reproducing successfully experimental longitudinal hole anisotropy data. A comparison between electron and hole mobility shows large differences for the longitudinal and tangential velocity anisotropy as a function of the electrical field orientation. Measurements on a 12 fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by γ-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60 keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356 keV rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and the digital electronics. The results are

  9. Dark Radiation predictions from general Large Volume Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Mangat, Patrick; Rompineve, Fabrizio; Witkowski, Lukas T.

    2014-09-01

    Recent observations constrain the amount of Dark Radiation (Δ N eff ) and may even hint towards a non-zero value of Δ N eff . It is by now well-known that this puts stringent constraints on the sequestered Large Volume Scenario (LVS), i.e. on LVS realisations with the Standard Model at a singularity. We go beyond this setting by considering LVS models where SM fields are realised on 7-branes in the geometric regime. As we argue, this naturally goes together with high-scale supersymmetry. The abundance of Dark Radiation is determined by the competition between the decay of the lightest modulus to axions, to the SM Higgs and to gauge fields, and leads to strict constraints on these models. Nevertheless, these constructions can in principle meet current DR bounds due to decays into gauge bosons alone. Further, a rather robust prediction for a substantial amount of Dark Radiation can be made. This applies both to cases where the SM 4-cycles are stabilised by D-terms and are small `by accident', i.e. tuning, as well as to fibred models with the small cycles stabilised by loops. In these constructions the DR axion and the QCD axion are the same field and we require a tuning of the initial misalignment to avoid Dark Matter overproduction. Furthermore, we analyse a closely related setting where the SM lives at a singularity but couples to the volume modulus through flavour branes. We conclude that some of the most natural LVS settings with natural values of model parameters lead to Dark Radiation predictions just below the present observational limits. Barring a discovery, rather modest improvements of present Dark Radiation bounds can rule out many of these most simple and generic variants of the LVS.

  10. Study on water boiling noises in a large volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masagutov, R.F.; Krivtsov, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Presented are the results of measurement of the noise spectra during boiling of water in a large volume at the pressure of 1 at. Boiling of the distilled water has been accomplished with the use of the heaters made of the Kh18N10T steel, 50 mm in length, 2 mm in the outside diameter, with the wall thickness of 0.1 mm. The degree of water under heating changed during the experiments from 0 to 80 deg C, and the magnitude of the specific heat flux varied from o to 0.7 - 0.9 qsup(x), where qsup(x) was the specific heat flux of the tube burn-out. The noise spectrum of the boiling water was analyzed at frequencies of 0.5 to 200 kHz. The submerge-type pressure-electric transmitters were used for measurements. At underheating boiling during the experiment the standing waves have formed which determine the structure of the measured spectra. During saturated boiling of water no standing waves were revealed. At underheating over 15 - 20 deg C the water boiling process is accompanied by the noises within the ultrasonic frequency range. The maximum upper boundary of the noise in the experiments amounts to 90 - 100 kHz

  11. Prospects for accelerator neutron sources for large volume minerals analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Spackman, R.

    1988-01-01

    The electron Linac can be regarded as a practical source of thermal neutrons for activation analysis of large volume mineral samples. With a suitable target and moderator, a neutron flux of about 10 10 n/cm/s over 2-3 kg of rock can be generated. The proton Linac gives the possibility of a high neutron yield (> 10 12 n/s) of fast neutrons at selected energies. For the electron Linac, targets of W-U and W-Be are discussed. The advantages and limitations of the system are demonstrated for the analysis of gold in rocks and ores and for platinum in chromitite. These elements were selected as they are most likely to justify an accelerator installation at the present time. Errors due to self shielding in gold particles for thermal neutrons are discussed. The proton Linac is considered for neutrons generated from a lithium target through the 7 Li(p, n) 7 Be reaction. The analysis of gold by fast neutron activation is considered. This approach avoids particle self-absorption and, by appropriate proton energy selection, avoids potentially dominating interfering reactions. The analysis of 235 U in the presence of 238 U and 232 Th is also considered. (author)

  12. Characterization of large volume HPGe detectors. Part II: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyneel, Bart; Reiter, Peter; Pascovici, Gheorghe

    2006-01-01

    Measurements on a 12-fold segmented, n-type, large volume, irregular shaped HPGe detector were performed in order to determine the parameters of anisotropic mobility for electrons and holes as charge carriers created by γ-ray interactions. To characterize the electron mobility the complete outer detector surface was scanned in small steps employing photopeak interactions at 60keV. A precise measurement of the hole drift anisotropy was performed with 356keV γ-rays. The drift velocity anisotropy and crystal geometry cause considerable rise time differences in pulse shapes depending on the position of the spatial charge carrier creation. Pulse shapes of direct and transient signals are reproduced by weighting potential calculations with high precision. The measured angular dependence of rise times is caused by the anisotropic mobility, crystal geometry, changing field strength and space charge effects. Preamplified signals were processed employing digital spectroscopy electronics. Response functions, crosstalk contributions and averaging procedures were taken into account implying novel methods due to the segmentation of the Ge-crystal and digital signal processing electronics

  13. Optical and thermal performance of large-size parabolic-trough solar collectors from outdoor experiments: A test method and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Loreto; López-Martín, Rafael; Zarza, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an outdoor test method to evaluate the optical and thermal performance of parabolic-trough collectors of large size (length ≥ 100 m), similar to those currently installed in solar thermal power plants. Optical performance in line-focus collectors is defined by three parameters, peak-optical efficiency and longitudinal and transversal incidence angle modifiers. In parabolic-troughs, the transversal incidence angle modifier is usually assumed equal to 1, and the incidence angle modifier is referred to the longitudinal incidence angle modifier, which is a factor less than or equal to 1 and must be quantified. These measurements are performed by operating the collector at low fluid temperatures for reducing heat losses. Thermal performance is measured during tests at various operating temperatures, which are defined within the working temperature range of the solar field, and for the condition of maximum optical response. Heat losses are measured from both the experiments performed to measure the overall efficiency and the experiments done by operating the collector to ensure that absorber pipes are not exposed to concentrated solar radiation. The set of parameters describing the performance of a parabolic-trough collector of large size has been measured following the test procedures proposed and explained in the article. - Highlights: • Outdoor test procedures of parabolic-trough solar collector (PTC) of large size working at high temperature are described. • Optical performance measured with cold fluid temperature and thermal performance measured in the complete temperature range. • Experimental data obtained in the testing of a PTC prototype are explained

  14. Topologically-based visualization of large-scale volume data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshima, Y.; Tokunaga, M.; Fujishiro, I.; Takahashi, S.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the recent progress in the performance of computing/measurement environments and the advent of ITBL environments, volume datasets have become larger and more complicated. Although computer visualization is one of the tools to analyze such datasets effectively, it is almost impossible to adjust the visualization parameter value by trial and error without taking the feature of a given volume dataset into consideration. In this article, we introduce a scheme of topologically-based volume visualization, which is intended to choose appropriate visualization parameter values automatically through topological volume skeletonization. (author)

  15. Monitoring Flower Visitation Networks and Interactions between Pairs of Bumble Bees in a Large Outdoor Flight Cage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lihoreau

    Full Text Available Pollinators, such as bees, often develop multi-location routes (traplines to exploit subsets of flower patches within larger plant populations. How individuals establish such foraging areas in the presence of other foragers is poorly explored. Here we investigated the foraging patterns of pairs of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris released sequentially into an 880m2 outdoor flight cage containing 10 feeding stations (artificial flowers. Using motion-sensitive video cameras mounted on flowers, we mapped the flower visitation networks of both foragers, quantified their interactions and compared their foraging success over an entire day. Overall, bees that were released first (residents travelled 37% faster and collected 77% more nectar, thereby reaching a net energy intake rate 64% higher than bees released second (newcomers. However, this prior-experience advantage decreased as newcomers became familiar with the spatial configuration of the flower array. When both bees visited the same flower simultaneously, the most frequent outcome was for the resident to evict the newcomer. On the rare occasions when newcomers evicted residents, the two bees increased their frequency of return visits to that flower. These competitive interactions led to a significant (if only partial spatial overlap between the foraging patterns of pairs of bees. While newcomers may initially use social cues (such as olfactory footprints to exploit flowers used by residents, either because such cues indicate higher rewards and/or safety from predation, residents may attempt to preserve their monopoly over familiar resources through exploitation and interference. We discuss how these interactions may favour spatial partitioning, thereby maximising the foraging efficiency of individuals and colonies.

  16. Monitoring Flower Visitation Networks and Interactions between Pairs of Bumble Bees in a Large Outdoor Flight Cage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Chittka, Lars; Raine, Nigel E

    2016-01-01

    Pollinators, such as bees, often develop multi-location routes (traplines) to exploit subsets of flower patches within larger plant populations. How individuals establish such foraging areas in the presence of other foragers is poorly explored. Here we investigated the foraging patterns of pairs of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) released sequentially into an 880m2 outdoor flight cage containing 10 feeding stations (artificial flowers). Using motion-sensitive video cameras mounted on flowers, we mapped the flower visitation networks of both foragers, quantified their interactions and compared their foraging success over an entire day. Overall, bees that were released first (residents) travelled 37% faster and collected 77% more nectar, thereby reaching a net energy intake rate 64% higher than bees released second (newcomers). However, this prior-experience advantage decreased as newcomers became familiar with the spatial configuration of the flower array. When both bees visited the same flower simultaneously, the most frequent outcome was for the resident to evict the newcomer. On the rare occasions when newcomers evicted residents, the two bees increased their frequency of return visits to that flower. These competitive interactions led to a significant (if only partial) spatial overlap between the foraging patterns of pairs of bees. While newcomers may initially use social cues (such as olfactory footprints) to exploit flowers used by residents, either because such cues indicate higher rewards and/or safety from predation, residents may attempt to preserve their monopoly over familiar resources through exploitation and interference. We discuss how these interactions may favour spatial partitioning, thereby maximising the foraging efficiency of individuals and colonies.

  17. An experimental study on the excitation of large volume airguns in a small volume body of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Baoshan; Yang, Wei; Yuan, Songyong; Ge, Hongkui; Chen, Yong; Guo, Shijun; Xu, Ping

    2010-01-01

    A large volume airgun array is effective in generating seismic waves, which is extensively used in large volume bodies of water such as oceans, lakes and reservoirs. So far, the application of large volume airguns is subject to the distribution of large volume bodies of water. This paper reports an attempt to utilize large volume airguns in a small body of water as a seismic source for seismotectonic studies. We carried out a field experiment in Mapaoquan pond, Fangshan district, Beijing, during the period 25–30 May 2009. Bolt LL1500 airguns, each with volumes of 2000 in 3 , the largest commercial airguns available today, were used in this experiment. We tested the excitation of the airgun array with one or two guns. The airgun array was placed 7–11 m below the water's surface. The near- and far-field seismic motions induced by the airgun source were recorded by a 100 km long seismic profile composed of 16 portable seismometers and a 100 m long strong motion seismograph profile, respectively. The following conclusions can be drawn from this experiment. First, it is feasible to excite large volume airguns in a small volume body of water. Second, seismic signals from a single shot of one airgun can be recognized at the offset up to 15 km. Taking advantage of high source repeatability, we stacked records from 128 shots to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, and direct P-waves can be easily identified at the offset ∼50 km in stacked records. Third, no detectable damage to fish or near-field constructions was caused by the airgun shots. Those results suggest that large volume airguns excited in small bodies of water can be used as a routinely operated seismic source for mid-scale (tens of kilometres) subsurface explorations and monitoring under various running conditions

  18. Performance of large electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Kaw, P. K.; Singh, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an in-house designed large Electron Energy Filter (EEF) utilized in the Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) [S. K. Mattoo, V. P. Anita, L. M. Awasthi, and G. Ravi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3864 (2001)] to secure objectives of (a) removing the presence of remnant primary ionizing energetic electrons and the non-thermal electrons, (b) introducing a radial gradient in plasma electron temperature without greatly affecting the radial profile of plasma density, and (c) providing a control on the scale length of gradient in electron temperature. A set of 19 independent coils of EEF make a variable aspect ratio, rectangular solenoid producing a magnetic field (B x ) of 100 G along its axis and transverse to the ambient axial field (B z ∼ 6.2 G) of LVPD, when all its coils are used. Outside the EEF, magnetic field reduces rapidly to 1 G at a distance of 20 cm from the center of the solenoid on either side of target and source plasma. The EEF divides LVPD plasma into three distinct regions of source, EEF and target plasma. We report that the target plasma (n e ∼ 2 × 10 11  cm −3 and T e ∼ 2 eV) has no detectable energetic electrons and the radial gradients in its electron temperature can be established with scale length between 50 and 600 cm by controlling EEF magnetic field. Our observations reveal that the role of the EEF magnetic field is manifested by the energy dependence of transverse electron transport and enhanced transport caused by the plasma turbulence in the EEF plasma

  19. Some Outdoor Educators' Experiences of Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Terry

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenological study presented in this paper attempts to determine, from outdoor educators, what it meant for them to be teaching outdoor education in Victorian secondary schools during 2004. In 1999, Lugg and Martin surveyed Victorian secondary schools to determine the types of outdoor education programs being run, the objectives of those…

  20. Large-volume injection in gas chromatographic trace analysis using temperature-programmable (PTV) injectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.G.J.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of programmed-temperature vaporising (PTV) injectors for large-volume injection in capillary gas chromatography is briefly reviewed. The principles and optimisation of large-volume PTV injection are discussed. Guidelines are given for selection of the PTV conditions and injection mode for

  1. Calibration of a large volume argon-41 gas-effluent monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, William E.; Lovas, Thomas A.

    1976-01-01

    In September of 1975, a large volume Argon-41 sampler was calibrated using a series connected calibration chamber of known sensitivity and a constant flow of activated Argon gas. The calibration included analysis of the effects of flow rate through the large volume sampler and yielded a calibration constant of 2.34 x 10 -8 μc/cm 3 /CPM. (author)

  2. Transporting large volumes of residual radioactive material: FUSRAP solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressnell, T.; McDaniel, P.; Darby, J.

    1997-01-01

    During the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, many sites in the United States were used by the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission for processing and storing uranium and thorium ores and metals. Some of the sites were owned by the federal government; others were owned by universities or other institutions; and still others, such as chemical plants, were privately owned. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) is one of several U.S. Department of Energy programs created to address radioactive contamination in excess of guidelines at these sites. FUSRAP currently includes 46 sites in 14 states. This article includes the following topics in describing FUSRAP work: Logistics challenges; engineering challenges (package inspection, equipment compatability, moisture content requirements, waste volume estimation); Traffic management

  3. Multi-hadron spectroscopy in a large physical volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulava, John; Hörz, Ben; Morningstar, Colin

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate the effcacy of the stochastic LapH method to treat all-toall quark propagation on a Nf = 2 + 1 CLS ensemble with large linear spatial extent L = 5:5 fm, allowing us to obtain the benchmark elastic isovector p-wave pion-pion scattering amplitude to good precision already on a relati...

  4. Special Properties of Coherence Scanning Interferometers for large Measurement Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to many other optical methods the uncertainty of Coherence Scanning Interferometer (CSI) in vertical direction is independent from the field of view. Therefore CSIs are ideal instruments for measuring 3D-profiles of larger areas (36x28mm 2 , e.g.) with high precision. This is of advantage for the determination of form parameters like flatness, parallelism and steps heights within a short time. In addition, using a telecentric beam path allows measurements of deep lying surfaces (<70mm) and the determination of form parameters with large step-heights. The lateral and spatial resolution, however, are reduced. In this presentation different metrological characteristics together with their potential errors are analyzed for large-scale measuring CSIs. Therefore these instruments are ideal tools in quality control for good/bad selections, e.g. The consequences for the practical use in industry and for standardization are discussed by examples of workpieces of automotive suppliers or from the steel industry.

  5. Outdoors classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  6. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, A. N., E-mail: tgtu-kafedra-ese@mail.ru [Tver State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  7. The Perceived Life Impact of a University Outdoor Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigglesworth, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Learning in the outdoors provides lasting educational experiences. Most students retain information best when doing an activity, and the outdoors allows for these opportunities. Outdoor education (OE) is a large, multi-disciplinary field cultivated from many roots. Since OE offers such vivid learning opportunities, it is an important area for…

  8. Center-stabilized Yang-Mills Theory:Confinement and Large N Volume Independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2008-01-01

    We examine a double trace deformation of SU(N) Yang-Mills theory which, for large N and large volume, is equivalent to unmodified Yang-Mills theory up to O(1/N 2 ) corrections. In contrast to the unmodified theory, large N volume independence is valid in the deformed theory down to arbitrarily small volumes. The double trace deformation prevents the spontaneous breaking of center symmetry which would otherwise disrupt large N volume independence in small volumes. For small values of N, if the theory is formulated on R 3 x S 1 with a sufficiently small compactification size L, then an analytic treatment of the non-perturbative dynamics of the deformed theory is possible. In this regime, we show that the deformed Yang-Mills theory has a mass gap and exhibits linear confinement. Increasing the circumference L or number of colors N decreases the separation of scales on which the analytic treatment relies. However, there are no order parameters which distinguish the small and large radius regimes. Consequently, for small N the deformed theory provides a novel example of a locally four-dimensional pure gauge theory in which one has analytic control over confinement, while for large N it provides a simple fully reduced model for Yang-Mills theory. The construction is easily generalized to QCD and other QCD-like theories

  9. Center-stabilized Yang-Mills theory: Confinement and large N volume independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uensal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.

    2008-01-01

    We examine a double trace deformation of SU(N) Yang-Mills theory which, for large N and large volume, is equivalent to unmodified Yang-Mills theory up to O(1/N 2 ) corrections. In contrast to the unmodified theory, large N volume independence is valid in the deformed theory down to arbitrarily small volumes. The double trace deformation prevents the spontaneous breaking of center symmetry which would otherwise disrupt large N volume independence in small volumes. For small values of N, if the theory is formulated on R 3 xS 1 with a sufficiently small compactification size L, then an analytic treatment of the nonperturbative dynamics of the deformed theory is possible. In this regime, we show that the deformed Yang-Mills theory has a mass gap and exhibits linear confinement. Increasing the circumference L or number of colors N decreases the separation of scales on which the analytic treatment relies. However, there are no order parameters which distinguish the small and large radius regimes. Consequently, for small N the deformed theory provides a novel example of a locally four-dimensional pure-gauge theory in which one has analytic control over confinement, while for large N it provides a simple fully reduced model for Yang-Mills theory. The construction is easily generalized to QCD and other QCD-like theories.

  10. URBAN OUTDOOR ADVERTISING AS A VARIETY OF SMALL ARCHITECTURAL FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVSEEVA H. P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The statement of the problem. The outdoor advertising is the highly developed industry in the leading countries of the world that uses the latest technologies. It largely determines the appearance and visual comfort of the urban environment. The city's outdoor advertising and visual information should correspond to the character of human vital activity. The basic requirements for them are ensuring effective advertising and operational orientation in the maze of streets and squares of the city, informing about the location of the objects, creating an image of a modern city. The city has always been a place striking because of the synthesis of arts. The outdoor advertising market development in Ukraine coincided with the beginning of the process of market reforms in the 90-ies, and in less than ten years its volume has reached considerable proportions. The small and large outdoor advertising objects continue to win the city more space with the rapid development of the country market economy. The concept of small architectural forms (IRF in the urban environment arose long time ago and it is understood as structures, equipment, and decorative exterior amenities, complementing the main urban development. The LFA include: kiosks, vending machines, street lamps (or landscape lamps as they are fashionably called now, stands for posters and advertisements, stairs, fences, fountains, obelisks, memorial plaques, urban street furniture, litter bins, sports design play structures, street planters, park benches, etc. This is a whole balanced set of elements of the urban environment. This directly affects the ergonomics, the usability of elements and products and their durability. The purpose of the article is to study the diversity of IRFs as well as the development and the implementation of the city outdoor advertising concept.

  11. 21 CFR 201.323 - Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals... for Specific Drug Products § 201.323 Aluminum in large and small volume parenterals used in total parenteral nutrition. (a) The aluminum content of large volume parenteral (LVP) drug products used in total...

  12. Development of large-volume rhyolitic ignibrites (LRI'S): The Chalupas Caldera, an example from Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammersley, L.; DePaolo, D.J; Beate, B

    2001-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the generation of large volumes of silicic magma and the eruption of large-volume rhyolitic ignimbrites (LRI's) remain poorly understood. Of particular interest are the relative roles of crustal assimilation, fractional crystallization and magma supply and the processes by which large volumes of magma accumulate in crustal chambers rather than erupt in smaller batches. Isotope geochemistry, combined with study of major and trace element variations of lavas, can be used to infer the relative contribution of crustal material and continued magmatic supply. Timescales for the accumulation of magma can be estimated using detailed geochronology. Magma supply rates can be estimated from eruption rates of nearby volcanoes. In this study we investigate the evolution of the Chalupas LRI, a caldera system in the Ecuadorian Andes where LRI's are rare in comparison to the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) of South America (au)

  13. Refined universal laws for hull volumes and perimeters in large planar maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guitter, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    We consider ensembles of planar maps with two marked vertices at distance k from each other, and look at the closed line separating these vertices and lying at distance d from the first one ( d   <   k ). This line divides the map into two components, the hull at distance d which corresponds to the part of the map lying on the same side as the first vertex and its complementary. The number of faces within the hull is called the hull volume, and the length of the separating line the hull perimeter. We study the statistics of the hull volume and perimeter for arbitrary d and k in the limit of infinitely large planar quadrangulations, triangulations and Eulerian triangulations. We consider more precisely situations where both d and k become large with the ratio d / k remaining finite. For infinitely large maps, two regimes may be encountered: either the hull has a finite volume and its complementary is infinitely large, or the hull itself has an infinite volume and its complementary is of finite size. We compute the probability for the map to be in either regime as a function of d / k as well as a number of universal statistical laws for the hull perimeter and volume when maps are conditioned to be in one regime or the other. (paper)

  14. Large Volume, Behaviorally-relevant Illumination for Optogenetics in Non-human Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Leah C; Pino, Erica N; Boyden, Edward S; Desimone, Robert

    2017-10-03

    This protocol describes a large-volume illuminator, which was developed for optogenetic manipulations in the non-human primate brain. The illuminator is a modified plastic optical fiber with etched tip, such that the light emitting surface area is > 100x that of a conventional fiber. In addition to describing the construction of the large-volume illuminator, this protocol details the quality-control calibration used to ensure even light distribution. Further, this protocol describes techniques for inserting and removing the large volume illuminator. Both superficial and deep structures may be illuminated. This large volume illuminator does not need to be physically coupled to an electrode, and because the illuminator is made of plastic, not glass, it will simply bend in circumstances when traditional optical fibers would shatter. Because this illuminator delivers light over behaviorally-relevant tissue volumes (≈ 10 mm 3 ) with no greater penetration damage than a conventional optical fiber, it facilitates behavioral studies using optogenetics in non-human primates.

  15. Rejecting escape events in large volume Ge detectors by a pulse shape selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Zoppo, A.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Coniglione, R.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.

    1993-01-01

    The dependence of the response to γ-rays of a large volume Ge detector on the interval width of a selected initial rise pulse slope is investigated. The number of escape events associated with a small pulse slope is found to be greater than the corresponding number of full energy events. An escape event rejection procedure based on the observed correlation between energy deposition and pulse shape is discussed. Such a procedure seems particularly suited for the design of highly granular large volume Ge detector arrays. (orig.)

  16. Feasibility of large volume casting cementation process for intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhuying; Chen Baisong; Zeng Jishu; Yu Chengze

    1988-01-01

    The recent tendency of radioactive waste treatment and disposal both in China and abroad is reviewed. The feasibility of the large volume casting cementation process for treating and disposing the intermediate level radioactive waste from spent fuel reprocessing plant in shallow land is assessed on the basis of the analyses of the experimental results (such as formulation study, solidified radioactive waste properties measurement ect.). It can be concluded large volume casting cementation process is a promising, safe and economic process. It is feasible to dispose the intermediate level radioactive waste from reprocessing plant it the disposal site chosen has resonable geological and geographical conditions and some additional effective protection means are taken

  17. Rapid estimate of solid volume in large tuff cores using a gas pycnometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thies, C.; Geddis, A.M.; Guzman, A.G.

    1996-09-01

    A thermally insulated, rigid-volume gas pycnometer system has been developed. The pycnometer chambers have been machined from solid PVC cylinders. Two chambers confine dry high-purity helium at different pressures. A thick-walled design ensures minimal heat exchange with the surrounding environment and a constant volume system, while expansion takes place between the chambers. The internal energy of the gas is assumed constant over the expansion. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the volume of solid material sealed in one of the chambers. Temperature is monitored continuously and incorporated into the calculation of solid volume. Temperature variation between measurements is less than 0.1 degrees C. The data are used to compute grain density for oven-dried Apache Leap tuff core samples. The measured volume of solid and the sample bulk volume are used to estimate porosity and bulk density. Intrinsic permeability was estimated from the porosity and measured pore surface area and is compared to in-situ measurements by the air permeability method. The gas pycnometer accommodates large core samples (0.25 m length x 0.11 m diameter) and can measure solid volume greater than 2.20 cm 3 with less than 1% error

  18. Rapid estimate of solid volume in large tuff cores using a gas pycnometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thies, C. [ed.; Geddis, A.M.; Guzman, A.G. [and others

    1996-09-01

    A thermally insulated, rigid-volume gas pycnometer system has been developed. The pycnometer chambers have been machined from solid PVC cylinders. Two chambers confine dry high-purity helium at different pressures. A thick-walled design ensures minimal heat exchange with the surrounding environment and a constant volume system, while expansion takes place between the chambers. The internal energy of the gas is assumed constant over the expansion. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the volume of solid material sealed in one of the chambers. Temperature is monitored continuously and incorporated into the calculation of solid volume. Temperature variation between measurements is less than 0.1{degrees}C. The data are used to compute grain density for oven-dried Apache Leap tuff core samples. The measured volume of solid and the sample bulk volume are used to estimate porosity and bulk density. Intrinsic permeability was estimated from the porosity and measured pore surface area and is compared to in-situ measurements by the air permeability method. The gas pycnometer accommodates large core samples (0.25 m length x 0.11 m diameter) and can measure solid volume greater than 2.20 cm{sup 3} with less than 1% error.

  19. Large-volume static compression using nano-polycrystalline diamond for opposed anvils in compact cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuchi, T; Sasaki, S; Ohno, Y; Osakabe, T; Odake, S; Kagi, H

    2010-01-01

    In order to extend the pressure regime of intrinsically low-sensitivity methods of measurement, such as neutron scattering and NMR, sample volume to be compressed in compact opposed-anvil cells is desired to be significantly increased. We hereby conducted a series of experiments using two types of compact cells equipped with enforced loading mechanisms. Super-hard nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD) anvils were carefully prepared for large-volume compression in these cells. These anvils are harder, larger and stronger than single crystal diamond anvils, so that they could play an ideal role to accept the larger forces. Supported and unsupported anvil geometries were separately tested to evaluate this expectation. In spite of insufficient support to the anvils, pressures to 14 GPa were generated for the sample volume of > 0.1 mm 3 , without damaging the NPD anvils. These results demonstrate a large future potential of compact cells equipped with NPD anvils and enforced loading mechanism.

  20. High Energy Performance Tests of Large Volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Gondal, M.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Dastageer, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M.M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    High energy prompt gamma ray tests of a large volume cylindrical 100 mm x 100 mm (height x diameter) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector were carried out using a portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. In this study prompt gamma-rays yield were measured from water samples contaminated with toxic elements such nickel, chromium and mercury compounds with gamma ray energies up to 10 MeV. The experimental yield of prompt gamma-rays from toxic elements were compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations. In spite of its higher intrinsic background due to its larger volume, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of high energy gamma-rays from Ni, Cr and Hg samples has been achieved for the large volume LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. (authors)

  1. The impact of large tidal volume ventilation on the absorption of inhaled insulin in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Astrid Heide; Laursen, Torben; Ahrén, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ventilation patterns affect absorption of inhaled compounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of large tidal volume ventilation (LTVV) on the absorption of inhaled insulin in rabbits. Mechanically ventilated rabbits were given human insulin...

  2. Large volume liquid silicone injection in the upper thighs : a never ending story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, SOP; Damen, A; Nicolai, JPA

    This report concerns a 26-year-old male-to-female transsexual who had received a large volume liquid silicone injection of unknown grade into her upper lateral thighs to gain female contour. She presented at our outpatient clinic 4 years after the silicone injection with complaints of pain and

  3. A New Electropositive Filter for Concentrating Enterovirus and Norovirus from Large Volumes of Water - MCEARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    The detection of enteric viruses in environmental water usually requires the concentration of viruses from large volumes of water. The 1MDS electropositive filter is commonly used for concentrating enteric viruses from water but unfortunately these filters are not cost-effective...

  4. Optimization of Large Volume Injection for Improved Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) in Mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Ghorbani, Faranak

    2008-01-01

    Detection of PAH of six benzene rings is somewhat troublesome and lowering the limits of detection (LODs) for these compounds in food is necessary. For this purpose, we optimized a Programmable-Temperature-Vaporisation (PTV) injection with Large Volume Injection (LVI) with regard to the GC-MS det...

  5. Absolute activity determinations on large volume geological samples independent of self-absorption effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a method for measuring the absolute activity of large volume samples by γ-spectroscopy independent of self-absorption effects using Ge detectors. The method yields accurate matrix independent results at the expense of replicative counting of the unknown sample. (orig./HP)

  6. The use of cosmic muons in detecting heterogeneities in large volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabski, V.; Reche, R.; Alfaro, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Sandoval, A.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.

    2008-01-01

    The muon intensity attenuation method to detect heterogeneities in large matter volumes is analyzed. Approximate analytical expressions to estimate the collection time and the signal to noise ratio, are proposed and validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Important parameters, including point spread function and coordinate reconstruction uncertainty are also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations

  7. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nerve agents using large volume injections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenhardt, C.E.A.M.; Kientz, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The use of large volume injections has been studied for the verification of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in water samples. As the use of ethyl acetate caused severe detection problems new potential solvents were evaluated. With the developed procedure, the nerve agents sarin,

  8. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2017-08-28

    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  9. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus; Al-Awami, Ali K.; Beyer, Johanna; Agus, Marco; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  10. GPU-Based 3D Cone-Beam CT Image Reconstruction for Large Data Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 3D cone-beam CT image reconstruction speed is still a severe limitation for clinical application. The computational power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs has been harnessed to provide impressive acceleration of 3D volume image reconstruction. For extra large data volume exceeding the physical graphic memory of GPU, a straightforward compromise is to divide data volume into blocks. Different from the conventional Octree partition method, a new partition scheme is proposed in this paper. This method divides both projection data and reconstructed image volume into subsets according to geometric symmetries in circular cone-beam projection layout, and a fast reconstruction for large data volume can be implemented by packing the subsets of projection data into the RGBA channels of GPU, performing the reconstruction chunk by chunk and combining the individual results in the end. The method is evaluated by reconstructing 3D images from computer-simulation data and real micro-CT data. Our results indicate that the GPU implementation can maintain original precision and speed up the reconstruction process by 110–120 times for circular cone-beam scan, as compared to traditional CPU implementation.

  11. Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Ruefenacht, D; Delpy, D T

    2006-01-01

    Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware

  12. Nonperturbative volume reduction of large-N QCD with adjoint fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringoltz, Barak; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    We use nonperturbative lattice techniques to study the volume-reduced 'Eguchi-Kawai' version of four-dimensional large-N QCD with a single adjoint Dirac fermion. We explore the phase diagram of this single-site theory in the space of quark mass and gauge coupling using Wilson fermions for a number of colors in the range 8≤N≤15. Our evidence suggests that these values of N are large enough to determine the nature of the phase diagram for N→∞. We identify the region in the parameter space where the (Z N ) 4 center symmetry is intact. According to previous theoretical work using the orbifolding paradigm, and assuming that translation invariance is not spontaneously broken in the infinite-volume theory, in this region volume reduction holds: the single-site and infinite-volume theories become equivalent when N→∞. We find strong evidence that this region includes both light and heavy quarks (with masses that are at the cutoff scale), and our results are consistent with this region extending toward the continuum limit. We also compare the action density and the eigenvalue density of the overlap Dirac operator in the fundamental representation with those obtained in large-N pure-gauge theory.

  13. Large-Scale Multi-Resolution Representations for Accurate Interactive Image and Volume Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell B.

    2015-11-25

    The resolutions of acquired image and volume data are ever increasing. However, the resolutions of commodity display devices remain limited. This leads to an increasing gap between data and display resolutions. To bridge this gap, the standard approach is to employ output-sensitive operations on multi-resolution data representations. Output-sensitive operations facilitate interactive applications since their required computations are proportional only to the size of the data that is visible, i.e., the output, and not the full size of the input. Multi-resolution representations, such as image mipmaps, and volume octrees, are crucial in providing these operations direct access to any subset of the data at any resolution corresponding to the output. Despite its widespread use, this standard approach has some shortcomings in three important application areas, namely non-linear image operations, multi-resolution volume rendering, and large-scale image exploration. This dissertation presents new multi-resolution representations for large-scale images and volumes that address these shortcomings. Standard multi-resolution representations require low-pass pre-filtering for anti- aliasing. However, linear pre-filters do not commute with non-linear operations. This becomes problematic when applying non-linear operations directly to any coarse resolution levels in standard representations. Particularly, this leads to inaccurate output when applying non-linear image operations, e.g., color mapping and detail-aware filters, to multi-resolution images. Similarly, in multi-resolution volume rendering, this leads to inconsistency artifacts which manifest as erroneous differences in rendering outputs across resolution levels. To address these issues, we introduce the sparse pdf maps and sparse pdf volumes representations for large-scale images and volumes, respectively. These representations sparsely encode continuous probability density functions (pdfs) of multi-resolution pixel

  14. Outdoorsman: Outdoor Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    This Outdoor Cookery manual provides information and instruction on the basic outdoor skills of building suitable cooking fires, handling fires safely, and storing food. The necessity of having the right kind of fire is stressed (high flames for boiling, low for stewing, and coals for frying and broiling). Tips on gauging temperature, what types…

  15. Effect, Feasibility, and Clinical Relevance of Cell Enrichment in Large Volume Fat Grafting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bo Sonnich; Lykke Sørensen, Celine; Vester-Glowinski, Peter Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Large volume fat grafting is limited by unpredictable volume loss; therefore, methods of improving graft retention have been developed. Fat graft enrichment with either stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells or adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) has been investigated in several animal...... and human studies, and significantly improved graft retention has been reported. Improvement of graft retention and the feasibility of these techniques are equally important in evaluating the clinical relevance of cell enrichment. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed to identify studies on fat graft...... enrichment that used either SVF cells or ASCs, and only studies reporting volume assessment were included. A total of 38 articles (15 human and 23 animal) were included to investigate the effects of cell enrichment on graft retention as well as the feasibility and clinical relevance of cell-enriched fat...

  16. Toxicity Profile With a Large Prostate Volume After External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Fischedick, Karin; Asadpour, Branka; Gagel, Bernd; Piroth, Marc D.; Nussen, Sandra; Eble, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prostate volume on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) before and at different intervals after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A group of 204 patients was surveyed prospectively before (Time A), at the last day (Time B), 2 months after (Time C), and 16 months (median) after (Time D) radiotherapy, with a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). The group was divided into subgroups with a small (11-43 cm 3 ) and a large (44-151 cm 3 ) prostate volume. Results: Patients with large prostates presented with lower urinary bother scores (median 79 vs. 89; p = 0.01) before treatment. Urinary function/bother scores for patients with large prostates decreased significantly compared to patients with small prostates due to irritative/obstructive symptoms only at Time B (pain with urination more than once daily in 48% vs. 18%; p 3 vs. 47 cm 3 ; p < 0.01). Conclusions: Patients with a large prostate volume have a great risk of irritative/obstructive symptoms (particularly dysuria) in the acute radiotherapy phase. These symptoms recover rapidly and do not influence long-term HRQOL

  17. Intraoperative ventilation: incidence and risk factors for receiving large tidal volumes during general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Bustamante Ana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing concern of the potential injurious role of ventilatory over-distention in patients without lung injury. No formal guidelines exist for intraoperative ventilation settings, but the use of tidal volumes (VT under 10 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW has been recommended in healthy patients. We explored the incidence and risk factors for receiving large tidal volumes (VT > 10 mL/kg PBW. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of our prospectively collected perioperative electronic database for current intraoperative ventilation practices and risk factors for receiving large tidal volumes (VT > 10 mL/kg PBW. We included all adults undergoing prolonged (≥ 4 h elective abdominal surgery and collected demographic, preoperative (comorbidities, intraoperative (i.e. ventilatory settings, fluid administration and postoperative (outcomes information. We compared patients receiving exhaled tidal volumes > 10 mL/kg PBW with those that received 8-10 or Results Ventilatory settings were non-uniform in the 429 adults included in the analysis. 17.5% of all patients received VT > 10 mL/kg PBW. 34.0% of all obese patients (body mass index, BMI, ≥ 30, 51% of all patients with a height T > 10 mL/kg PBW. Conclusions Ventilation with VT > 10 mL/kg PBW is still common, although poor correlation with PBW suggests it may be unintentional. BMI ≥ 30, female gender and height

  18. Geophysics Under Pressure: Large-Volume Presses Versus the Diamond-Anvil Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.

    2002-05-01

    Prior to 1970, the legacy of Harvard physicist Percy Bridgman dominated high-pressure geophysics. Massive presses with large-volume devices, including piston-cylinder, opposed-anvil, and multi-anvil configurations, were widely used in both science and industry to achieve a range of crustal and upper mantle temperatures and pressures. George Kennedy of UCLA was a particularly influential advocate of large-volume apparatus for geophysical research prior to his death in 1980. The high-pressure scene began to change in 1959 with the invention of the diamond-anvil cell, which was designed simultaneously and independently by John Jamieson at the University of Chicago and Alvin Van Valkenburg at the National Bureau of Standards in Washington, DC. The compact, inexpensive diamond cell achieved record static pressures and had the advantage of optical access to the high-pressure environment. Nevertheless, members of the geophysical community, who favored the substantial sample volumes, geothermally relevant temperature range, and satisfying bulk of large-volume presses, initially viewed the diamond cell with indifference or even contempt. Several factors led to a gradual shift in emphasis from large-volume presses to diamond-anvil cells in geophysical research during the 1960s and 1970s. These factors include (1) their relatively low cost at time of fiscal restraint, (2) Alvin Van Valkenburg's new position as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation in 1964 (when George Kennedy's proposal for a Nation High-Pressure Laboratory was rejected), (3) the development of lasers and micro-analytical spectroscopic techniques suitable for analyzing samples in a diamond cell, and (4) the attainment of record pressures (e.g., 100 GPa in 1975 by Mao and Bell at the Geophysical Laboratory). Today, a more balanced collaborative approach has been adopted by the geophysics and mineral physics community. Many high-pressure laboratories operate a new generation of less expensive

  19. Assembly, operation and disassembly manual for the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.W.; Campbell, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Assembly, operation and disassembly of the Battelle Large Volume Water Sampler (BLVWS) are described in detail. Step by step instructions of assembly, general operation and disassembly are provided to allow an operator completely unfamiliar with the sampler to successfully apply the BLVWS to his research sampling needs. The sampler permits concentration of both particulate and dissolved radionuclides from large volumes of ocean and fresh water. The water sample passes through a filtration section for particle removal then through sorption or ion exchange beds where species of interest are removed. The sampler components which contact the water being sampled are constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC). The sampler has been successfully applied to many sampling needs over the past fifteen years. 9 references, 8 figures

  20. Studies on a pulse shaping system for fast coincidence with very large volume HPGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.; Chatterjee, M.B.; Sinha, B.K.; Bhattacharya, R.

    1987-01-01

    A variant of the leading edge timing (LET) has been proposed which compensates the ''walk'' due to risetime spread in very large volume (∝100 cm 3 ) HPGe detectors. The method - shape compensated leading edge timing (SCLET) - can be used over a wide dynamic range of energies with 100% efficiency and has been compared with the LET and ARC methods. A time resolution of 10 ns fwhm and 21 ns fwtm has been obtained with 22 Na gamma rays and two HPGe detectors of 96 and 114 cm 3 volume. This circuit is easy to duplicate and use can be a low cost alternative to commercial circuits in experiments requiring a large number of detectors. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations with Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Yáñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino oscillations have been probed during the last few decades using multiple neutrino sources and experimental set-ups. In the recent years, very large volume neutrino telescopes have started contributing to the field. First ANTARES and then IceCube have relied on large and sparsely instrumented volumes to observe atmospheric neutrinos for combinations of baselines and energies inaccessible to other experiments. Using this advantage, the latest result from IceCube starts approaching the precision of other established technologies and is paving the way for future detectors, such as ORCA and PINGU. These new projects seek to provide better measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters and eventually determine the neutrino mass ordering. The results from running experiments and the potential from proposed projects are discussed in this review, emphasizing the experimental challenges involved in the measurements.

  2. Management of Large Volumes of Waste Arising in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    This publication, prepared in light of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety developed after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, addresses the management of large volumes of radioactive waste arising in a nuclear or radiological emergency, as part of overall emergency preparedness. The management of large volumes of waste will be one of many efforts to be dealt with to allow recovery of affected areas, to support return of evacuated or relocated populations and preparations for normal social and economic activities, and/or to mitigate additional environmental impacts. The publication is intended to be of use to national planners and policy makers, facility and programme managers, and other professionals responsible for developing and implementing national plans and strategies to manage radioactive waste arising from nuclear or radiological emergencies.

  3. F-term stabilization of odd axions in LARGE volume scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xin; Shukla, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the LARGE volume scenario, stabilization of axionic moduli is revisited. This includes both even and odd axions with their scalar potential being generated by F-term contributions via various tree-level and non-perturbative effects like fluxed E3-brane instantons and fluxed poly-instantons. In all the cases, we estimate the decay constants and masses of the axions involved

  4. Numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation from land-excited large volume air-gun source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Zhang, W.

    2017-12-01

    The land-excited large volume air-gun source can be used to study regional underground structures and to detect temporal velocity changes. The air-gun source is characterized by rich low frequency energy (from bubble oscillation, 2-8Hz) and high repeatability. It can be excited in rivers, reservoirs or man-made pool. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation from the air-gun source helps to understand the energy partitioning and characteristics of the waveform records at stations. However, the effective energy recorded at a distance station is from the process of bubble oscillation, which can not be approximated by a single point source. We propose a method to simulate the seismic wave propagation from the land-excited large volume air-gun source by finite difference method. The process can be divided into three parts: bubble oscillation and source coupling, solid-fluid coupling and the propagation in the solid medium. For the first part, the wavelet of the bubble oscillation can be simulated by bubble model. We use wave injection method combining the bubble wavelet with elastic wave equation to achieve the source coupling. Then, the solid-fluid boundary condition is implemented along the water bottom. And the last part is the seismic wave propagation in the solid medium, which can be readily implemented by the finite difference method. Our method can get accuracy waveform of land-excited large volume air-gun source. Based on the above forward modeling technology, we analysis the effect of the excited P wave and the energy of converted S wave due to different water shapes. We study two land-excited large volume air-gun fields, one is Binchuan in Yunnan, and the other is Hutubi in Xinjiang. The station in Binchuan, Yunnan is located in a large irregular reservoir, the waveform records have a clear S wave. Nevertheless, the station in Hutubi, Xinjiang is located in a small man-made pool, the waveform records have very weak S wave. Better understanding of

  5. First results on material identification and imaging with a large-volume muon tomography prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesente, S. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Vanini, S. [University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: sara.vanini@pd.infn.it; Benettoni, M. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bonomi, G. [University of Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia and INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Calvini, P. [University of Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G. [INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Squarcia, S. [University of Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Viesti, G. [University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Zenoni, A. [University of Brescia, via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia and INFN Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Zumerle, G. [University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2009-06-11

    The muon tomography technique, based on the Multiple Coulomb Scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed recently as a tool to perform non-destructive assays of large-volume objects without any radiation hazard. In this paper we discuss experimental results obtained with a scanning system prototype, assembled using two large-area CMS Muon Barrel drift chambers. The capability of the apparatus to produce 3D images of objects and to classify them according to their density is presented. We show that the absorption of low-momentum muons in the scanned objects produces an underestimate of their scattering density, making the discrimination of materials heavier than lead more difficult.

  6. First results on material identification and imaging with a large-volume muon tomography prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Pesente, S.; Benettoni, M.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G. [INFN, Sez. di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zumerle, G. [Dip. di Fisica G. Galilei, Universita di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sez. di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonomi, G.; Zenoni, A. [Universita di Brescia, I-25133 Brescia (Italy); INFN, Sez. di Pavia, Via Valotti 9, I-25133 Brescia (Italy); Calvini, P.; Squarcia, S. [Dip. di Fisica, Universita di Genova, Genova (Italy); INFN, Sez. di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on the multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed recently as a tool to perform non-destructive assays of large volume objects without any radiation hazard. In this paper we present the experimental results obtained with a scanning system prototype, assembled using two large area CMS Muon Barrel drift chambers. The imaging capability of the apparatus is shown, and the possibility to discriminate among different materials is discussed in a specific case of detecting lead objects inside a metal matrix. This specific case is dictated by a need in safely handling scrap metal cargoes in the steel industry. (authors)

  7. State-of-the-Art in GPU-Based Large-Scale Volume Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    This survey gives an overview of the current state of the art in GPU techniques for interactive large-scale volume visualization. Modern techniques in this field have brought about a sea change in how interactive visualization and analysis of giga-, tera- and petabytes of volume data can be enabled on GPUs. In addition to combining the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming, a major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount and resolution of data that is actually visible on screen, i.e. \\'output-sensitive\\' algorithms and system designs. This leads to recent output-sensitive approaches that are \\'ray-guided\\', \\'visualization-driven\\' or \\'display-aware\\'. In this survey, we focus on these characteristics and propose a new categorization of GPU-based large-scale volume visualization techniques based on the notions of actual output-resolution visibility and the current working set of volume bricks-the current subset of data that is minimally required to produce an output image of the desired display resolution. Furthermore, we discuss the differences and similarities of different rendering and data traversal strategies in volume rendering by putting them into a common context-the notion of address translation. For our purposes here, we view parallel (distributed) visualization using clusters as an orthogonal set of techniques that we do not discuss in detail but that can be used in conjunction with what we present in this survey. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. State-of-the-Art in GPU-Based Large-Scale Volume Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2015-01-01

    This survey gives an overview of the current state of the art in GPU techniques for interactive large-scale volume visualization. Modern techniques in this field have brought about a sea change in how interactive visualization and analysis of giga-, tera- and petabytes of volume data can be enabled on GPUs. In addition to combining the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming, a major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount and resolution of data that is actually visible on screen, i.e. 'output-sensitive' algorithms and system designs. This leads to recent output-sensitive approaches that are 'ray-guided', 'visualization-driven' or 'display-aware'. In this survey, we focus on these characteristics and propose a new categorization of GPU-based large-scale volume visualization techniques based on the notions of actual output-resolution visibility and the current working set of volume bricks-the current subset of data that is minimally required to produce an output image of the desired display resolution. Furthermore, we discuss the differences and similarities of different rendering and data traversal strategies in volume rendering by putting them into a common context-the notion of address translation. For our purposes here, we view parallel (distributed) visualization using clusters as an orthogonal set of techniques that we do not discuss in detail but that can be used in conjunction with what we present in this survey. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Novel regenerative large-volume immobilized enzyme reactor: preparation, characterization and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Guihua; Wei, Meiping; Chen, Zhengyi; Su, Rihui; Du, Fuyou; Zheng, Yanjie

    2014-09-15

    A novel large-volume immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) on small column was prepared with organic-inorganic hybrid silica particles and applied for fast (10 min) and oriented digestion of protein. At first, a thin enzyme support layer was formed in the bottom of the small column by polymerization with α-methacrylic acid and dimethacrylate. After that, amino SiO2 particles was prepared by the sol-gel method with tetraethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Subsequently, the amino SiO2 particles were activated by glutaraldehyde for covalent immobilization of trypsin. Digestive capability of large-volume IMER for proteins was investigated by using bovine serum albumin (BSA), cytochrome c (Cyt-c) as model proteins. Results showed that although the sequence coverage of the BSA (20%) and Cyt-c (19%) was low, the large-volume IMER could produce peptides with stable specific sequence at 101-105, 156-160, 205-209, 212-218, 229-232, 257-263 and 473-451 of the amino sequence of BSA when digesting 1mg/mL BSA. Eight of common peptides were observed during each of the ten runs of large-volume IMER. Besides, the IMER could be easily regenerated by reactivating with GA and cross-linking with trypsin after breaking the -C=N- bond by 0.01 M HCl. The sequence coverage of BSA from regenerated IMER increased to 25% comparing the non-regenerated IMER (17%). 14 common peptides. accounting for 87.5% of first use of IMER, were produced both with IMER and regenerated IMER. When the IMER was applied for ginkgo albumin digestion, the sequence coverage of two main proteins of ginkgo, ginnacin and legumin, was 56% and 55%, respectively. (Reviewer 2) Above all, the fast and selective digestion property of the large-volume IMER indicated that the regenerative IMER could be tentatively used for the production of potential bioactive peptides and the study of oriented protein digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Large-volume paracentesis with indwelling peritoneal catheter and albumin infusion: a community hospital study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K. Martin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of ascites can be problematic. This is especially true in patients with diuretic refractory ascites who develop a tense abdomen. This often results in hypotension and decreased venous return with resulting renal failure. In this paper, we further examine the risks and benefits of utilizing an indwelling peritoneal catheter to remove large-volume ascites over a 72-h period while maintaining intravascular volume and preventing renal failure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts and identified 36 consecutive patients undergoing continuous large-volume paracentesis with an indwelling peritoneal catheter. At the time of drain placement, no patients had signs or laboratory parameters suggestive of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The patients underwent ascitic fluid removal through an indwelling peritoneal catheter and were supported with scheduled albumin throughout the duration. The catheter was used to remove up to 3 L every 8 h for a maximum of 72 h. Regular laboratory and ascitic fluid testing was performed. All patients had a clinical follow-up within 3 months after the drain placement. Results: An average of 16.5 L was removed over the 72-h time frame of indwelling peritoneal catheter maintenance. The albumin infusion utilized correlated to 12 mg/L removed. The average creatinine trend improved in a statistically significant manner from 1.37 on the day of admission to 1.21 on the day of drain removal. No patients developed renal failure during the hospital course. There were no documented episodes of neutrocytic ascites or bacterial peritonitis throughout the study review. Conclusion: Large-volume peritoneal drainage with an indwelling peritoneal catheter is safe and effective for patients with tense ascites. Concomitant albumin infusion allows for maintenance of renal function, and no increase in infectious complications was noted.

  11. Enhanced FIB-SEM systems for large-volume 3D imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C Shan; Hayworth, Kenneth J; Lu, Zhiyuan; Grob, Patricia; Hassan, Ahmed M; García-Cerdán, José G; Niyogi, Krishna K; Nogales, Eva; Weinberg, Richard J; Hess, Harald F

    2017-01-01

    Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) can automatically generate 3D images with superior z-axis resolution, yielding data that needs minimal image registration and related post-processing. Obstacles blocking wider adoption of FIB-SEM include slow imaging speed and lack of long-term system stability, which caps the maximum possible acquisition volume. Here, we present techniques that accelerate image acquisition while greatly improving FIB-SEM reliability, allowing the system to operate for months and generating continuously imaged volumes > 106 µm3. These volumes are large enough for connectomics, where the excellent z resolution can help in tracing of small neuronal processes and accelerate the tedious and time-consuming human proofreading effort. Even higher resolution can be achieved on smaller volumes. We present example data sets from mammalian neural tissue, Drosophila brain, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to illustrate the power of this novel high-resolution technique to address questions in both connectomics and cell biology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25916.001 PMID:28500755

  12. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  13. A self-sampling method to obtain large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Elizabeth R; Moench, Thomas R; Hees, Paul S; Cone, Richard A

    2003-02-01

    Studies of vaginal physiology and pathophysiology sometime require larger volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions than can be obtained by current methods. A convenient method for self-sampling these secretions outside a clinical setting can facilitate such studies of reproductive health. The goal was to develop a vaginal self-sampling method for collecting large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. A menstrual collection device (the Instead cup) was inserted briefly into the vagina to collect secretions that were then retrieved from the cup by centrifugation in a 50-ml conical tube. All 16 women asked to perform this procedure found it feasible and acceptable. Among 27 samples, an average of 0.5 g of secretions (range, 0.1-1.5 g) was collected. This is a rapid and convenient self-sampling method for obtaining relatively large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. It should prove suitable for a wide range of assays, including those involving sexually transmitted diseases, microbicides, vaginal physiology, immunology, and pathophysiology.

  14. Outdoor thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2011-06-01

    A review of the various approaches in understanding outdoor thermal comfort is presented. The emphasis on field surveys from around the world, particularly across Europe, enables us to understand thermal perception and evaluate outdoor thermal comfort conditions. The consistent low correlations between objective microclimatic variables, subjective thermal sensation and comfort outdoors, internationally, suggest that thermophysiology alone does not adequate describe these relationships. Focusing on the concept of adaptation, it tries to explain how this influences outdoor comfort, enabling us to inhabit and get satisfaction from outdoor spaces throughout the year. Beyond acclimatization and behavioral adaptation, through adjustments in clothing and changes to the metabolic heat, psychological adaptation plays a critical role to ensure thermal comfort and satisfaction with the outdoor environment. Such parameters include recent experiences and expectations; personal choice and perceived control, more important than whether that control is actually exercised; and the need for positive environmental stimulation suggesting that thermal neutrality is not a pre-requisite for thermal comfort. Ultimately, enhancing environmental diversity can influence thermal perception and experience of open spaces.

  15. Hierarchical imaging: a new concept for targeted imaging of large volumes from cells to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Irene; Spomer, Waldemar; Hofmann, Andreas; Thaler, Marlene; Hillmer, Stefan; Gengenbach, Ulrich; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2016-12-12

    Imaging large volumes such as entire cells or small model organisms at nanoscale resolution seemed an unrealistic, rather tedious task so far. Now, technical advances have lead to several electron microscopy (EM) large volume imaging techniques. One is array tomography, where ribbons of ultrathin serial sections are deposited on solid substrates like silicon wafers or glass coverslips. To ensure reliable retrieval of multiple ribbons from the boat of a diamond knife we introduce a substrate holder with 7 axes of translation or rotation specifically designed for that purpose. With this device we are able to deposit hundreds of sections in an ordered way in an area of 22 × 22 mm, the size of a coverslip. Imaging such arrays in a standard wide field fluorescence microscope produces reconstructions with 200 nm lateral resolution and 100 nm (the section thickness) resolution in z. By hierarchical imaging cascades in the scanning electron microscope (SEM), using a new software platform, we can address volumes from single cells to complete organs. In our first example, a cell population isolated from zebrafish spleen, we characterize different cell types according to their organelle inventory by segmenting 3D reconstructions of complete cells imaged with nanoscale resolution. In addition, by screening large numbers of cells at decreased resolution we can define the percentage at which different cell types are present in our preparation. With the second example, the root tip of cress, we illustrate how combining information from intermediate resolution data with high resolution data from selected regions of interest can drastically reduce the amount of data that has to be recorded. By imaging only the interesting parts of a sample considerably less data need to be stored, handled and eventually analysed. Our custom-designed substrate holder allows reproducible generation of section libraries, which can then be imaged in a hierarchical way. We demonstrate, that EM

  16. A Novel Technique for Endovascular Removal of Large Volume Right Atrial Tumor Thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, Barbara, E-mail: nickel.ba@gmail.com [US Teleradiology and Quantum Medical Radiology Group (United States); McClure, Timothy, E-mail: tmcclure@gmail.com; Moriarty, John, E-mail: jmoriarty@mednet.ucla.edu [UCLA Medical Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of large volume pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy has been shown to be a successful treatment modality; however, its use somewhat limited due to the risk of hemorrhage and potential for distal embolization in the setting of large mobile thrombi. In patients where either thrombolysis is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and conventional therapies prove inadequate, surgical thrombectomy may be considered. We present a case of percutaneous endovascular extraction of a large mobile mass extending from the inferior vena cava into the right atrium using the Angiovac device, a venovenous bypass system designed for high-volume aspiration of undesired endovascular material. Standard endovascular methods for removal of cancer-associated thrombus, such as catheter-directed lysis, maceration, and exclusion, may prove inadequate in the setting of underlying tumor thrombus. Where conventional endovascular methods either fail or are unsuitable, endovascular thrombectomy with the Angiovac device may be a useful and safe minimally invasive alternative to open resection.

  17. A Novel Technique for Endovascular Removal of Large Volume Right Atrial Tumor Thrombus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel, Barbara; McClure, Timothy; Moriarty, John

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the setting of large volume pulmonary embolism. Thrombolytic therapy has been shown to be a successful treatment modality; however, its use somewhat limited due to the risk of hemorrhage and potential for distal embolization in the setting of large mobile thrombi. In patients where either thrombolysis is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and conventional therapies prove inadequate, surgical thrombectomy may be considered. We present a case of percutaneous endovascular extraction of a large mobile mass extending from the inferior vena cava into the right atrium using the Angiovac device, a venovenous bypass system designed for high-volume aspiration of undesired endovascular material. Standard endovascular methods for removal of cancer-associated thrombus, such as catheter-directed lysis, maceration, and exclusion, may prove inadequate in the setting of underlying tumor thrombus. Where conventional endovascular methods either fail or are unsuitable, endovascular thrombectomy with the Angiovac device may be a useful and safe minimally invasive alternative to open resection

  18. Open loop control of filament heating power supply for large volume plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugandhi, R., E-mail: ritesh@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Srivastava, P.K.; Sanyasi, A.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Srivastav, Prabhakar [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Awasthi, L.M., E-mail: kushagra.lalit@gmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Mattoo, S.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2017-02-15

    A power supply (20 V, 10 kA) for powering the filamentary cathode has been procured, interfaced and integrated with the centralized control system of Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). Software interface has been developed on the standard Modbus RTU communication protocol. It facilitates the dashboard for configuration, on line status monitoring, alarm management, data acquisition, synchronization and controls. It has been tested for stable operation of the power supply for the operational capabilities. The paper highlights the motivation, interface description, implementation and results obtained.

  19. Open loop control of filament heating power supply for large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, R.; Srivastava, P.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L.M.; Mattoo, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    A power supply (20 V, 10 kA) for powering the filamentary cathode has been procured, interfaced and integrated with the centralized control system of Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). Software interface has been developed on the standard Modbus RTU communication protocol. It facilitates the dashboard for configuration, on line status monitoring, alarm management, data acquisition, synchronization and controls. It has been tested for stable operation of the power supply for the operational capabilities. The paper highlights the motivation, interface description, implementation and results obtained.

  20. Complex Security System for Premises Under Conditions of Large Volume of Passenger Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsystems of the design of a complex security system for premises under conditions of large volume of passenger traffic are considered. These subsystems provide video- and thermal imaging control, radio wave tomography, and gas analysis. Simultaneous application of all examined variants will essentially increase the probability of timely prevention of dangerous situations with the probability of false alarm as low as possible. It is important that finally, this will provide protection of population and will facilitate the work of intelligence services.

  1. Fan-beam scanning laser optical computed tomography for large volume dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, K. H.; Battista, J. J.; Jordan, K. J.

    2017-05-01

    A prototype scanning-laser fan beam optical CT scanner is reported which is capable of high resolution, large volume dosimetry with reasonable scan time. An acylindrical, asymmetric aquarium design is presented which serves to 1) generate parallel-beam scan geometry, 2) focus light towards a small acceptance angle detector, and 3) avoid interference fringe-related artifacts. Preliminary experiments with uniform solution phantoms (11 and 15 cm diameter) and finger phantoms (13.5 mm diameter FEP tubing) demonstrate that the design allows accurate optical CT imaging, with optical CT measurements agreeing within 3% of independent Beer-Lambert law calculations.

  2. Mass anomalous dimension of Adjoint QCD at large N from twisted volume reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Keegan, Liam; Okawa, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider the $SU(N)$ gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, in the limit of large $N$. In this limit the infinite-volume physics of this model can be studied by means of the corresponding twisted reduced model defined on a single site lattice. Making use of this strategy we study the reduced model for various values of $N$ up to 289. By analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the adjoint Dirac operator we test the conformality of the theory and extract the corresponding mass anomalous dimension.

  3. Mass anomalous dimension of adjoint QCD at large N from twisted volume reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Margarita García [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); González-Arroyo, Antonio [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, C-XI, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049-Madrid (Spain); Keegan, Liam [PH-TH, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Okawa, Masanori [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Core of Research for the Energetic Universe, Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    In this work we consider the SU(N) gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, in the limit of large N. In this limit the infinite-volume physics of this model can be studied by means of the corresponding twisted reduced model defined on a single site lattice. Making use of this strategy we study the reduced model for various values of N up to 289. By analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the adjoint Dirac operator we test the conformality of the theory and extract the corresponding mass anomalous dimension.

  4. Biological intrusion barriers for large-volume waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Cline, J.F.; Rickard, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    intrusion of plants and animals into shallow land burial sites with subsequent mobilization of toxic and radiotoxic materials has occured. Based on recent pathway modeling studies, such intrusions can contribute to the dose received by man. This paper describes past work on developing biological intrusion barrier systems for application to large volume waste site stabilization. State-of-the-art concepts employing rock and chemical barriers are discussed relative to long term serviceability and cost of application. The interaction of bio-intrusion barrier systems with other processes affecting trench cover stability are discussed to ensure that trench cover designs minimize the potential dose to man. 3 figures, 6 tables

  5. Characteristics of the NE-213 large-volume neutron counters for muon catalyzed fusion investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystritsky, V.M.; Wozniak, J.; Zinov, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Monte-Carlo method was used to establish the properties and feasibility of a large-volume NE-213 scin illator as an efficient neutron detector. The recoil proton spectra, calculated efficiencies for different detection thresholds and scintillator sizes are presented for the neutron energy up to 15 MeV. The time characteristics, e. g., time resolution, are discussed. It is also shown that no strong influence of light attenuation by the scintilla or itself on calculated efficiencies is observed, when gamma-calibration technique is used. The detector vol me of approximately 100 l is suggested for application in investigations of μ-atom and μ-molecular processes

  6. Fan-beam scanning laser optical computed tomography for large volume dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, K H; Battista, J J; Jordan, K J

    2017-01-01

    A prototype scanning-laser fan beam optical CT scanner is reported which is capable of high resolution, large volume dosimetry with reasonable scan time. An acylindrical, asymmetric aquarium design is presented which serves to 1) generate parallel-beam scan geometry, 2) focus light towards a small acceptance angle detector, and 3) avoid interference fringe-related artifacts. Preliminary experiments with uniform solution phantoms (11 and 15 cm diameter) and finger phantoms (13.5 mm diameter FEP tubing) demonstrate that the design allows accurate optical CT imaging, with optical CT measurements agreeing within 3% of independent Beer-Lambert law calculations. (paper)

  7. Electro-mechanical probe positioning system for large volume plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Sugandhi, R.; Srivastava, P. K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L. M.

    2018-05-01

    An automated electro-mechanical system for the positioning of plasma diagnostics has been designed and implemented in a Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). The system consists of 12 electro-mechanical assemblies, which are orchestrated using the Modbus communication protocol on 4-wire RS485 communications to meet the experimental requirements. Each assembly has a lead screw-based mechanical structure, Wilson feed-through-based vacuum interface, bipolar stepper motor, micro-controller-based stepper drive, and optical encoder for online positioning correction of probes. The novelty of the system lies in the orchestration of multiple drives on a single interface, fabrication and installation of the system for a large experimental device like the LVPD, in-house developed software, and adopted architectural practices. The paper discusses the design, description of hardware and software interfaces, and performance results in LVPD.

  8. SDSS Log Viewer: visual exploratory analysis of large-volume SQL log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Chaomei; Vogeley, Michael S.; Pan, Danny; Thakar, Ani; Raddick, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    User-generated Structured Query Language (SQL) queries are a rich source of information for database analysts, information scientists, and the end users of databases. In this study a group of scientists in astronomy and computer and information scientists work together to analyze a large volume of SQL log data generated by users of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data archive in order to better understand users' data seeking behavior. While statistical analysis of such logs is useful at aggregated levels, efficiently exploring specific patterns of queries is often a challenging task due to the typically large volume of the data, multivariate features, and data requirements specified in SQL queries. To enable and facilitate effective and efficient exploration of the SDSS log data, we designed an interactive visualization tool, called the SDSS Log Viewer, which integrates time series visualization, text visualization, and dynamic query techniques. We describe two analysis scenarios of visual exploration of SDSS log data, including understanding unusually high daily query traffic and modeling the types of data seeking behaviors of massive query generators. The two scenarios demonstrate that the SDSS Log Viewer provides a novel and potentially valuable approach to support these targeted tasks.

  9. A retrospective analysis of complications of large volume liposuction; local perspective from a third world country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, S.M.; Latif, S.; Altaf, H.N.

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the complications that occurred in patients undergoing large volume liposuction and to see if there was a correlation between amount of aspirate and the rate of complications. Methodology: A detailed history, complete physical examination, BMI, and anthropometric measurements were documented for all patients. All patients under went liposuction using tumescent technique under general anesthesia in Yusra General Hospital. Patients were discharged home after 24 to 48 hours. Pressure garments were advised for 6 weeks and were called for weekly follow up for 6 weeks. Pressure garments were advised for 6 weeks. Complications were documented. SPSS version 20 was used for analysis of data. Results: Out of 217 patients, 163 (75%) were female and 54 male. Mean age was 37.1 SD+-6.7 years. Bruising and seroma were most common complications; 4.1% and 2.3%, respectively. The incidence of infection was 0.9%. One patient had over-correction and four patients (1.8%) had under-correction. Significant blood loss was encountered in one patient. Two patients (0.9%) had pulmonary embolism and 2(0.9%) suffered from necrotizing fasciitis. None of our patients undergoing large volume liposuction had fat embolism and there was no mortality. Conclusion: Careful patient selection and strict adherence to guidelines can ensure a good outcome and can minimize risk of complications. Both physicians and patients should be educated to have realistic expectations to avoid complications and improve patient safety. (author)

  10. Broadband frequency ECR ion source concepts with large resonant plasma volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    New techniques are proposed for enhancing the performances of ECR ion sources. The techniques are based on the use of high-power, variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, or broadband microwave radiation, derived from standard TWT technology, to effect large resonant ''volume'' ECR sources. The creation of a large ECR plasma ''volume'' permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of the ECR ion source. If successful, these developments could significantly impact future accelerator designs and accelerator-based, heavy-ion-research programs by providing multiply-charged ion beams with the energies and intensities required for nuclear physics research from existing ECR ion sources. The methods described in this article can be used to retrofit any ECR ion source predicated on B-minimum plasma confinement techniques

  11. Colloids Versus Albumin in Large Volume Paracentesis to Prevent Circulatory Dysfunction: Evidence-based Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Felix F; Khairan, Paramita; Kamelia, Telly; Hasan, Irsan

    2016-04-01

    Large volume paracentesis may cause paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD). Albumin is recommended to prevent this abnormality. Meanwhile, the price of albumin is too expensive and there should be another alternative that may prevent PICD. This report aimed to compare albumin to colloids in preventing PICD. Search strategy was done using PubMed, Scopus, Proquest, dan Academic Health Complete from EBSCO with keywords of "ascites", "albumin", "colloid", "dextran", "hydroxyethyl starch", "gelatin", and "paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction". Articles was limited to randomized clinical trial and meta-analysis with clinical question of "In hepatic cirrhotic patient undergone large volume paracentesis, whether colloids were similar to albumin to prevent PICD". We found one meta-analysis and four randomized clinical trials (RCT). A meta analysis showed that albumin was still superior of which odds ratio 0.34 (0.23-0.51). Three RCTs showed the same results and one RCT showed albumin was not superior than colloids. We conclude that colloids could not constitute albumin to prevent PICD, but colloids still have a role in patient who undergone paracentesis less than five liters.

  12. Capillary gas chromatographic analysis of nerve agents using large volume injections. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinum, T.; Nieuwenhuy, C.

    1994-11-01

    The procedure developed at TNO-Prins Maurits Laboratory (TNO-PML) for the verification of intact organophosphorus chemical warfare agents in water samples was improved. The last step in this procedure, the laborious and non-reproducible transfer of an ethyl acetate extract onto a Tenax-adsorption tube followed by thermal desorption of the Tenax-tube, was replaced by large volume injection of the extract onto a capillary gas chromatographic system. The parameters controlling the injection of a large volume of an extract (200 ul) were investigated and optimized. As ethyl acetate caused severe problems, potential new solvents were evaluated. With the improved procedure, the nerve agents sarin, tabun, soman, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and VX could be determined in freshly prepared water samples at pg/ml (ppt) levels. The fate of the nerve agents under study in water at two pH`s (4.8 and 6) was investigated. For VX, the pH should be adjusted before extraction. Moreover, it is worthwhile to acidify water samples to diminish hydrolysis.

  13. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  14. Large volume recycling of oceanic lithosphere over short time scales: geochemical constraints from the Caribbean Large Igneous Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, F.; Hoernle, K.; Tilton, G.; Graham, D. W.; Kerr, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    isochron diagrams suggests that the age of separation of enriched and depleted components from the depleted MORB source mantle could have been ≤500 Ma before CLIP formation and interpreted to reflect the recycling time of the CLIP source. Mantle plume heads may provide a mechanism for transporting large volumes of possibly young recycled oceanic lithosphere residing in the lower mantle back into the shallow MORB source mantle.

  15. Large electrically induced height and volume changes in poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) /poly(styrenesulfonate) thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charrier, D.S.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kemerink, M.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate large, partly reversible height and volume changes of thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) on the anode of interdigitating gold electrodes under ambient conditions by applying an electrical bias. The height and volume changes were monitored

  16. Characteristics of wilderness users in outdoor recreation assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; H. Ken Cordell; Lawrence A. Hartmann

    1989-01-01

    Wilderness use is often subsumed under outdoor recreation participation in large-scale assessments. Participation monitoring has indicated, however, that wilderness use has been increasing faster than outdoor recreation use in general. In a sample of Forest Service wilderness and nonwildemess users during the summer of 1985, detailed expenditure, activity, and travel...

  17. Automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using track before detect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...

  18. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  19. System of large transport containers for waste from dismantling light water and gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.; Lafontaine, I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the means of transportation of decommissioning wastes, costs of transport, radiological detriment attributable to transport and develops conceptual designs of large transport containers. The document ends with Conclusions and Recommendations

  20. Safe total corporal contouring with large-volume liposuction for the obese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Lakshyajit D; Agarwal, Meenakshi

    2006-01-01

    The advent of the tumescent technique in 1987 allowed for safe total corporal contouring as an ambulatory, single-session megaliposuction with the patient under regional anesthesia supplemented by local anesthetic only in selected areas. Safety and aesthetic issues define large-volume liposuction as having a 5,000-ml aspirate, mega-volume liposuction as having an 8,000-ml aspirate, and giganto-volume liposuction as having an aspirate of 12,000 ml or more. Clinically, a total volume comprising 5,000 ml of fat and wetting solution aspirated during the procedure qualifies for megaliposuction/large-volume liposuction. Between September 2000 and August 2005, 470 cases of liposuction were managed. In 296 (63%) of the 470 cases, the total volume of aspirate exceeded 5 l (range, 5,000-22,000 ml). Concurrent limited or total-block lipectomy was performed in 70 of 296 cases (23.6%). Regional anesthesia with conscious sedation was preferred, except where liposuction targeted areas above the subcostal region (the upper trunk, lateral chest, gynecomastia, breast, arms, and face), or when the patient so desired. Tumescent infiltration was achieved with hypotonic lactated Ringer's solution, adrenalin, triamcinalone, and hyalase in all cases during the last one year of the series. This approach has clinically shown less tissue edema in the postoperative period than with conventional physiologic saline used in place of the Ringer's lactate solution. The amount injected varied from 1,000 to 8,000 ml depending on the size, site, and area. Local anesthetic was included only for the terminal portion of the tumescent mixture, wherever the subcostal regions were infiltrated. The aspirate was restricted to the unstained white/yellow fat, and the amount of fat aspirated did not have any bearing on the amount of solution infiltrated. There were no major complications, and no blood transfusions were administered. The hospital stay ranged from 8 to 24 h for both liposuction and liposuction

  1. Large volume serial section tomography by Xe Plasma FIB dual beam microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, T L; Kelley, R; Winiarski, B; Contreras, L; Daly, M; Gholinia, A; Burke, M G; Withers, P J

    2016-02-01

    Ga(+) Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopes (FIB-SEM) have revolutionised the level of microstructural information that can be recovered in 3D by block face serial section tomography (SST), as well as enabling the site-specific removal of smaller regions for subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. However, Ga(+) FIB material removal rates limit the volumes and depths that can be probed to dimensions in the tens of microns range. Emerging Xe(+) Plasma Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (PFIB-SEM) systems promise faster removal rates. Here we examine the potential of the method for large volume serial section tomography as applied to bainitic steel and WC-Co hard metals. Our studies demonstrate that with careful control of milling parameters precise automated serial sectioning can be achieved with low levels of milling artefacts at removal rates some 60× faster. Volumes that are hundreds of microns in dimension have been collected using fully automated SST routines in feasible timescales (<24h) showing good grain orientation contrast and capturing microstructural features at the tens of nanometres to the tens of microns scale. Accompanying electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show high indexing rates suggesting low levels of surface damage. Further, under high current Ga(+) FIB milling WC-Co is prone to amorphisation of WC surface layers and phase transformation of the Co phase, neither of which have been observed at PFIB currents as high as 60nA at 30kV. Xe(+) PFIB dual beam microscopes promise to radically extend our capability for 3D tomography, 3D EDX, 3D EBSD as well as correlative tomography. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect, Feasibility, and Clinical Relevance of Cell Enrichment in Large Volume Fat Grafting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bo Sonnich; Lykke Sørensen, Celine; Vester-Glowinski, Peter Viktor; Herly, Mikkel; Trojahn Kølle, Stig-Frederik; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz

    2017-07-01

    Large volume fat grafting is limited by unpredictable volume loss; therefore, methods of improving graft retention have been developed. Fat graft enrichment with either stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells or adipose tissue-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) has been investigated in several animal and human studies, and significantly improved graft retention has been reported. Improvement of graft retention and the feasibility of these techniques are equally important in evaluating the clinical relevance of cell enrichment. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed to identify studies on fat graft enrichment that used either SVF cells or ASCs, and only studies reporting volume assessment were included. A total of 38 articles (15 human and 23 animal) were included to investigate the effects of cell enrichment on graft retention as well as the feasibility and clinical relevance of cell-enriched fat grafting. Improvements in graft retention, the SVF to fat (SVF:fat) ratio, and the ASC concentration used for enrichment were emphasized. We proposed an increased retention rate greater than 1.5-fold relative to nonenriched grafts and a maximum SVF:fat ratio of 1:1 as the thresholds for clinical relevance and feasibility, respectively. Nine studies fulfilled these criteria, whereof 6 used ASCs for enrichment. We found no convincing evidence of a clinically relevant effect of SVF enrichment in humans. ASC enrichment has shown promising results in enhancing graft retention, but additional clinical trials are needed to substantiate this claim and also determine the optimal concentration of SVF cells/ASCs for enrichment. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Volume changes of extremely large and giant intracranial aneurysms after treatment with flow diverter stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Angelo; Byrne, James V. [ohn Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford Neurovascular and Neuroradiology Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Rane, Neil; Kueker, Wilhelm; Cellerini, Martino; Corkill, Rufus [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    This study assessed volume changes of unruptured large and giant aneurysms (greatest diameter >20 mm) after treatment with flow diverter (FD) stents. Clinical audit of the cases treated in a single institution, over a 5-year period. Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected from the hospital records. Aneurysm volumes were measured by manual outlining at sequential slices using computerised tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiography data. The audit included eight patients (seven females) with eight aneurysms. Four aneurysms involved the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA), three the supraclinoid ICA and one the basilar artery. Seven patients presented with signs and symptoms of mass effect and one with seizures. All but one aneurysm was treated with a single FD stent; six aneurysms were also coiled (either before or simultaneously with FD placement). Minimum follow-up time was 6 months (mean 20 months). At follow-up, three aneurysms decreased in size, three were unchanged and two increased. Both aneurysms that increased in size showed persistent endosaccular flow at follow-up MR; in one case, failure was attributed to suboptimal position of the stent; in the other case, it was attributed to persistence of a side branch originating from the aneurysm (similar to the endoleak phenomenon of aortic aneurysms). At follow-up, five aneurysms were completely occluded; none of these increased in volume. Complete occlusion of the aneurysms leads, in most cases, to its shrinkage. In cases of late aneurysm growth or regrowth, consideration should be given to possible endoleak as the cause. (orig.)

  4. The Dirt on Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the planning procedure for outdoor classrooms and introduces an integrated unit on monarch butterflies called the Monarch Watch program. Makes recommendations to solve financial problems of outdoor classrooms. (YDS)

  5. Tumor Volume Decrease via Feeder Occlusion for Treating a Large, Firm Trigone Meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Takuma; Hatano, Norikazu; Kanamori, Fumiaki; Muraoka, Shinsuke; Kawabata, Teppei; Takasu, Syuntaro; Watanabe, Tadashi; Kojima, Takao; Nagatani, Tetsuya; Seki, Yukio

    2018-01-01

    Trigone meningiomas are considered a surgical challenge, as they tend to be considerably large and hypervascularized at the time of presentation. We experienced a case of a large and very hard trigone meningioma that was effectively treated using initial microsurgical feeder occlusion followed by surgery in stages. A 19-year-old woman who presented with loss of consciousness was referred to our hospital for surgical treatment of a brain tumor. Radiological findings were compatible with a left ventricular trigone meningioma extending laterally in proximity to the Sylvian fissure. At initial surgery using the transsylvian approach, main feeders originating from the anterior and lateral posterior choroidal arteries were occluded at the inferior horn; however, only a small section of the tumor could initially be removed because of its firmness. Over time, feeder occlusion resulted in tumor necrosis and a 20% decrease in its diameter; the mass effect was alleviated within 1 year. The residual meningioma was then totally excised in staged surgical procedures after resection became more feasible owing to ischemia-induced partial softening of the tumor. When a trigone meningioma is large and very hard, initial microsurgical feeder occlusion in the inferior horn can be a safe and effective option, and can lead to necrosis, volume decrease, and partial softening of the residual tumor to allow for its staged surgical excision.

  6. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin; Liu Yanming

    2013-01-01

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a “black out” phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm× 260 mm× 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Promoting Campus Cycling for Outdoor Recreation and Transportation: Investigating Factors Influencing Student Bicycle Usage on a Large, Southeastern University from an Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Margaret M.; Thomas, Katherine H.; Paschal, Angelia; Tucker, Melanie; Leeper, James; Usdan, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Biking is a popular recreational activity, and understanding how to promote participation is important to college health and recreation professionals. The purpose of this study was to examine factors contributing to cycling behaviors on one large college campus from an ecological perspective. Students were surveyed at a southeastern university in…

  8. Rugged Large Volume Injection for Sensitive Capillary LC-MS Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Roberg-Larsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A rugged and high throughput capillary column (cLC LC-MS switching platform using large volume injection and on-line automatic filtration and filter back-flush (AFFL solid phase extraction (SPE for analysis of environmental water samples with minimal sample preparation is presented. Although narrow columns and on-line sample preparation are used in the platform, high ruggedness is achieved e.g., injection of 100 non-filtrated water samples did not result in a pressure rise/clogging of the SPE/capillary columns (inner diameter 300 μm. In addition, satisfactory retention time stability and chromatographic resolution were also features of the system. The potential of the platform for environmental water samples was demonstrated with various pharmaceutical products, which had detection limits (LOD in the 0.05–12.5 ng/L range. Between-day and within-day repeatability of selected analytes were <20% RSD.

  9. Improved tolerance of abdominal large-volume radiotherapy due to ornithine aspartate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuttig, H.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of ornithine aspartate on supporting the hepatic function was investigated in a group of 47 patients with tumour dissemination in the pelvic and abdominal region, randomised on the basis of the progress of the serum enzymes GOT, GPT, LAD, LDH, LAP and the alkaline phosphatase during and following completion of a course of large-volume radiotherapy. The adjuvant therapy with ornithine aspartate resulted in reduced enzyme movement with an earlier tendency to normalisation. The results, which are borne out by statistics, clearly show an improvement in the hepatic function on detoxication of toxic degradation products of radiotherapy with reduced impairment of the body's own defence mechanisms. Subjectively too, the course of treatment with ornithine aspartate showed a reduced ratio of side effects as regards lassitude and impairment of the patient's general well-being as compared with the group of patients to whom ornithine aspartate was not simultaneously administered. (orig.) [de

  10. The position response of a large-volume segmented germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descovich, M.; Nolan, P.J.; Boston, A.J.; Dobson, J.; Gros, S.; Cresswell, J.R.; Simpson, J.; Lazarus, I.; Regan, P.H.; Valiente-Dobon, J.J.; Sellin, P.; Pearson, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    The position response of a large-volume segmented coaxial germanium detector is reported. The detector has 24-fold segmentation on its outer contact. The output from each contact was sampled with fast digital signal processing electronics in order to determine the position of the γ-ray interaction from the signal pulse shape. The interaction position was reconstructed in a polar coordinate system by combining the radial information, contained in the rise-time of the pulse leading edge, with the azimuthal information, obtained from the magnitude of the transient charge signals induced on the neighbouring segments. With this method, a position resolution of 3-7mm is achieved in both the radial and the azimuthal directions

  11. The position response of a large-volume segmented germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descovich, M. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mdescovich@lbl.gov; Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Boston, A.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Dobson, J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Gros, S. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Regan, P.H. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Sellin, P. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Pearson, C.J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-21

    The position response of a large-volume segmented coaxial germanium detector is reported. The detector has 24-fold segmentation on its outer contact. The output from each contact was sampled with fast digital signal processing electronics in order to determine the position of the {gamma}-ray interaction from the signal pulse shape. The interaction position was reconstructed in a polar coordinate system by combining the radial information, contained in the rise-time of the pulse leading edge, with the azimuthal information, obtained from the magnitude of the transient charge signals induced on the neighbouring segments. With this method, a position resolution of 3-7mm is achieved in both the radial and the azimuthal directions.

  12. Floating substructure flexibility of large-volume 10MW offshore wind turbine platforms in dynamic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Michael; Hansen, Anders Melchior; Bredmose, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Designing floating substructures for the next generation of 10MW and larger wind turbines has introduced new challenges in capturing relevant physical effects in dynamic simulation tools. In achieving technically and economically optimal floating substructures, structural flexibility may increase to the extent that it becomes relevant to include in addition to the standard rigid body substructure modes which are typically described through linear radiation-diffraction theory. This paper describes a method for the inclusion of substructural flexibility in aero-hydro-servo-elastic dynamic simulations for large-volume substructures, including wave-structure interactions, to form the basis of deriving sectional loads and stresses within the substructure. The method is applied to a case study to illustrate the implementation and relevance. It is found that the flexible mode is significantly excited in an extreme event, indicating an increase in predicted substructure internal loads. (paper)

  13. Development of metallic molds for the large volume plastic scintillator fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Vieira, Jose M.; Rela, Paulo R.; Bruzinga, Wilson A.; Araujo, Eduardo P.; Costa Junior, Nelson P.; Hamada, Margarida M.

    1997-01-01

    The plastic scintillators are radiation detectors made of organic fluorescent compounds dissolved in a solidified polymer matrix. The manufacturing process of large volume detectors (55 liters) at low cost, by polymerization of the styrene monomer plus PPO and POPOP scintillators, was studied in this paper. Metallic molds of ASTM 1200 aluminum and AISI 304 stainless steel were produced by TIG welding process since the polymerization reaction is very exothermic. The measurements of transmittance, luminescence, X-ray fluorescence and light output were carried out in the plastic scintillators made using different metallic molds. The characterization results of the detectors produced in an open system using ASTM 1200 aluminum mold show that there is not quality change in the scintillator, even with aluminum being considered as unstable for styrene monomer. Therefore, the ASTM 1200 aluminum was found to be the best alternative to produce the detector by an open system polymerization. (author). 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. The core collapse supernova rate from 24 years of data of the Large Volume Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, G.; Fulgione, W.; Molinario, A.; Vigorito, C.; LVD Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Large Volume Detector (LVD) at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy is a 1 kt liquid scintillator neutrino observatory mainly designed to study low energy neutrinos from Gravitational Stellar Collapses (GSC) with 100% efficiency over the entire Galaxy. Here we summarize the results of the search for supernova neutrino bursts over the full data set lasting from June 1992 to May 2016 for a total live time of 8211 days. In the lack of a positive observation, either in standalone mode or in coincidence with other experiments, we establish the upper limit to the rate of GSC event in the Milky Way: 0.1 year-1 at 90% c.l..

  15. Dynamic illumination of spatially restricted or large brain volumes via a single tapered optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanello, Ferruccio; Mandelbaum, Gil; Pisanello, Marco; Oldenburg, Ian A; Sileo, Leonardo; Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Peterson, Ralph E; Della Patria, Andrea; Haynes, Trevor M; Emara, Mohamed S; Spagnolo, Barbara; Datta, Sandeep Robert; De Vittorio, Massimo; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2017-08-01

    Optogenetics promises precise spatiotemporal control of neural processes using light. However, the spatial extent of illumination within the brain is difficult to control and cannot be adjusted using standard fiber optics. We demonstrate that optical fibers with tapered tips can be used to illuminate either spatially restricted or large brain volumes. Remotely adjusting the light input angle to the fiber varies the light-emitting portion of the taper over several millimeters without movement of the implant. We use this mode to activate dorsal versus ventral striatum of individual mice and reveal different effects of each manipulation on motor behavior. Conversely, injecting light over the full numerical aperture of the fiber results in light emission from the entire taper surface, achieving broader and more efficient optogenetic activation of neurons, compared to standard flat-faced fiber stimulation. Thus, tapered fibers permit focal or broad illumination that can be precisely and dynamically matched to experimental needs.

  16. Development of a spatially uniform fast ionization wave in a large-volume discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, D.V.; Starikovskaya, S.M.; Starikovskii, A.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    A study is made of a high-voltage nanosecond breakdown in the form of a fast ionization wave produced in a large-volume (401) discharge chamber. The propagation speed of the wave front and the integral energy deposition in a plasma are measured for various regimes of the air discharge at pressures of 10 -2 -4 Torr. A high degree of both the spatial uniformity of the discharge and the reproducibility of the discharge parameters is obtained. The possibility of the development of a fast ionization wave in an electrodeless system is demonstrated. A transition of the breakdown occurring in the form of a fast ionization wave into the streamer breakdown is observed. It is shown that such discharges are promising for technological applications

  17. Radio-chemical dosage of 90Sr in large volumes of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.; Bullier, D.

    1965-01-01

    I. Principle of the method: 1. Fixing on a resin of all the cations present in the water. 2. Elution using 5 N nitric acid and precipitation of strontium as the carbonate. 3. Concentration of the strontium using the fuming nitric acid method. 4. Purification of the strontium on a resin by selective elution with ammonium citrate. 5. The strontium-90 is measured by separation at the 90 Y equilibrium in the form of the oxalate which is then counted. II. Advantages of the method The concentration of the radio-activity starting from large volumes (100 l) is generally tedious but this method which makes use of a fixation on a cationic resin makes it very simple. The rest of the method consists of a series of simple chemical operations using ion-exchange on resins and coprecipitation. Finally, it is possible to dose stable strontium. (authors) [fr

  18. Aerodynamics of the Large-Volume, Flow-Through Detector System. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, H.; Saric, W.; Laananen, D.; Martinez, C.; Carrillo, R.; Myers, J.; Clevenger, D.

    1996-03-01

    The Large-Volume Flow-Through Detector System (LVFTDS) was designed to monitor alpha radiation from Pu, U, and Am in mixed-waste incinerator offgases; however, it can be adapted to other important monitoring uses that span a number of potential markets, including site remediation, indoor air quality, radon testing, and mine shaft monitoring. Goal of this effort was to provide mechanical design information for installation of LVFTDS in an incinerator, with emphasis on ability to withstand the high temperatures and high flow rates expected. The work was successfully carried out in three stages: calculation of pressure drop through the system, materials testing to determine surrogate materials for wind-tunnel testing, and wind-tunnel testing of an actual configuration

  19. Mapping of Outdoor Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Victor G.

    Mapping symbols adopted by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources are presented with their explanations. In an effort to provide standardization and familiarity teachers and other school people involved in an outdoor education program are encouraged to utilize the same symbols in constructing maps. (DK)

  20. Innovation and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Within our fast-paced, fluid society, it is arguable that outdoor education needs to be innovative to play a useful role in young people's overall educational enterprise. A critical view, however, would suggest that we must beware of accepting technological innovation for its own sake. Innovations (or improvements) in education can take the form…

  1. Flow-through electroporation based on constant voltage for large-volume transfection of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Zhan, Yihong; Wang, Hsiang-Yu; Witting, Scott R; Cornetta, Kenneth G; Lu, Chang

    2010-05-21

    Genetic modification of cells is a critical step involved in many cell therapy and gene therapy protocols. In these applications, cell samples of large volume (10(8)-10(9)cells) are often processed for transfection. This poses new challenges for current transfection methods and practices. Here we present a novel flow-through electroporation method for delivery of genes into cells at high flow rates (up to approximately 20 mL/min) based on disposable microfluidic chips, a syringe pump, and a low-cost direct current (DC) power supply that provides a constant voltage. By eliminating pulse generators used in conventional electroporation, we dramatically lowered the cost of the apparatus and improved the stability and consistency of the electroporation field for long-time operation. We tested the delivery of pEFGP-C1 plasmids encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells in the devices of various dimensions and geometries. Cells were mixed with plasmids and then flowed through a fluidic channel continuously while a constant voltage was established across the device. Together with the applied voltage, the geometry and dimensions of the fluidic channel determined the electrical parameters of the electroporation. With the optimal design, approximately 75% of the viable CHO cells were transfected after the procedure. We also generalize the guidelines for scaling up these flow-through electroporation devices. We envision that this technique will serve as a generic and low-cost tool for a variety of clinical applications requiring large volume of transfected cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Large volume serial section tomography by Xe Plasma FIB dual beam microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, T.L. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); FEI Company, Achtseweg Noord 5, Bldg, 5651 GG, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kelley, R. [FEI Company, 5350 NE Dawson Creek Drive, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Winiarski, B. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); FEI Company, Achtseweg Noord 5, Bldg, 5651 GG, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Contreras, L. [FEI Company, 5350 NE Dawson Creek Drive, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Daly, M.; Gholinia, A.; Burke, M.G. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J., E-mail: P.J.Withers@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); BP International Centre for Advanced Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Ga{sup +} Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopes (FIB-SEM) have revolutionised the level of microstructural information that can be recovered in 3D by block face serial section tomography (SST), as well as enabling the site-specific removal of smaller regions for subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. However, Ga{sup +} FIB material removal rates limit the volumes and depths that can be probed to dimensions in the tens of microns range. Emerging Xe{sup +} Plasma Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (PFIB-SEM) systems promise faster removal rates. Here we examine the potential of the method for large volume serial section tomography as applied to bainitic steel and WC–Co hard metals. Our studies demonstrate that with careful control of milling parameters precise automated serial sectioning can be achieved with low levels of milling artefacts at removal rates some 60× faster. Volumes that are hundreds of microns in dimension have been collected using fully automated SST routines in feasible timescales (<24 h) showing good grain orientation contrast and capturing microstructural features at the tens of nanometres to the tens of microns scale. Accompanying electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show high indexing rates suggesting low levels of surface damage. Further, under high current Ga{sup +} FIB milling WC–Co is prone to amorphisation of WC surface layers and phase transformation of the Co phase, neither of which have been observed at PFIB currents as high as 60 nA at 30 kV. Xe{sup +} PFIB dual beam microscopes promise to radically extend our capability for 3D tomography, 3D EDX, 3D EBSD as well as correlative tomography. - Highlights: • The uptake of dual beam FIBs has been rapid but long milling times have limited imaged volumes to tens of micron dimensions. • Emerging plasma Xe{sup +} PFIB-SEM technology offers materials removal rates at least 60× greater than conventional Ga{sup +} FIB systems with

  3. Volume Visualization and Compositing on Large-Scale Displays Using Handheld Touchscreen Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Gastelum, Cristhopper Jacobo Armenta

    2011-07-27

    Advances in the physical sciences have progressively delivered ever increasing, already extremely large data sets to be analyzed. High performance volume rendering has become critical to the scientists for a better understanding of the massive amounts of data to be visualized. Cluster based rendering systems have become the base line to achieve the power and flexibility required to perform such task. Furthermore, display arrays have become the most suitable solution to display these data sets at their natural size and resolution which can be critical for human perception and evaluation. The work in this thesis aims at improving the scalability and usability of volume rendering systems that target visualization on display arrays. The first part deals with improving the performance by introducing the implementations of two parallel compositing algorithms for volume rendering: direct send and binary swap. The High quality Volume Rendering (HVR) framework has been extended to accommodate parallel compositing where previously only serial compositing was possible. The preliminary results show improvements in the compositing times for direct send even for a small number of processors. Unfortunately, the results of binary swap exhibit a negative behavior. This is due to the naive use of the graphics hardware blending mechanism. The expensive transfers account for the lengthy compositing times. The second part targets the development of scalable and intuitive interaction mechanisms. It introduces the development of a new client application for multitouch tablet devices, like the Apple iPad. The main goal is to provide the HVR framework, that has been extended to use tiled displays, a more intuitive and portable interaction mechanism that can get advantage of the new environment. The previous client is a PC application for the typical desktop settings that use a mouse and keyboard as sources of interaction. The current implementation of the client lets the user steer and

  4. Large volume serial section tomography by Xe Plasma FIB dual beam microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, T.L.; Kelley, R.; Winiarski, B.; Contreras, L.; Daly, M.; Gholinia, A.; Burke, M.G.; Withers, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Ga + Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopes (FIB-SEM) have revolutionised the level of microstructural information that can be recovered in 3D by block face serial section tomography (SST), as well as enabling the site-specific removal of smaller regions for subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. However, Ga + FIB material removal rates limit the volumes and depths that can be probed to dimensions in the tens of microns range. Emerging Xe + Plasma Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (PFIB-SEM) systems promise faster removal rates. Here we examine the potential of the method for large volume serial section tomography as applied to bainitic steel and WC–Co hard metals. Our studies demonstrate that with careful control of milling parameters precise automated serial sectioning can be achieved with low levels of milling artefacts at removal rates some 60× faster. Volumes that are hundreds of microns in dimension have been collected using fully automated SST routines in feasible timescales (<24 h) showing good grain orientation contrast and capturing microstructural features at the tens of nanometres to the tens of microns scale. Accompanying electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show high indexing rates suggesting low levels of surface damage. Further, under high current Ga + FIB milling WC–Co is prone to amorphisation of WC surface layers and phase transformation of the Co phase, neither of which have been observed at PFIB currents as high as 60 nA at 30 kV. Xe + PFIB dual beam microscopes promise to radically extend our capability for 3D tomography, 3D EDX, 3D EBSD as well as correlative tomography. - Highlights: • The uptake of dual beam FIBs has been rapid but long milling times have limited imaged volumes to tens of micron dimensions. • Emerging plasma Xe + PFIB-SEM technology offers materials removal rates at least 60× greater than conventional Ga + FIB systems with comparable or less damage. • The

  5. Indoorising the outdoors: Lifestyle sports revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad

  6. Process automation system for integration and operation of Large Volume Plasma Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, R.; Srivastava, P.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L.M.; Mattoo, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis and design of process automation system for Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). • Data flow modeling for process model development. • Modbus based data communication and interfacing. • Interface software development for subsystem control in LabVIEW. - Abstract: Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) has been successfully contributing towards understanding of the plasma turbulence driven by Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG), considered as a major contributor for the plasma loss in the fusion devices. Large size of the device imposes certain difficulties in the operation, such as access of the diagnostics, manual control of subsystems and large number of signals monitoring etc. To achieve integrated operation of the machine, automation is essential for the enhanced performance and operational efficiency. Recently, the machine is undergoing major upgradation for the new physics experiments. The new operation and control system consists of following: (1) PXIe based fast data acquisition system for the equipped diagnostics; (2) Modbus based Process Automation System (PAS) for the subsystem controls and (3) Data Utilization System (DUS) for efficient storage, processing and retrieval of the acquired data. In the ongoing development, data flow model of the machine’s operation has been developed. As a proof of concept, following two subsystems have been successfully integrated: (1) Filament Power Supply (FPS) for the heating of W- filaments based plasma source and (2) Probe Positioning System (PPS) for control of 12 number of linear probe drives for a travel length of 100 cm. The process model of the vacuum production system has been prepared and validated against acquired pressure data. In the next upgrade, all the subsystems of the machine will be integrated in a systematic manner. The automation backbone is based on 4-wire multi-drop serial interface (RS485) using Modbus communication protocol. Software is developed on LabVIEW platform using

  7. Process automation system for integration and operation of Large Volume Plasma Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugandhi, R., E-mail: ritesh@ipr.res.in; Srivastava, P.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L.M.; Mattoo, S.K.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Analysis and design of process automation system for Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). • Data flow modeling for process model development. • Modbus based data communication and interfacing. • Interface software development for subsystem control in LabVIEW. - Abstract: Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) has been successfully contributing towards understanding of the plasma turbulence driven by Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG), considered as a major contributor for the plasma loss in the fusion devices. Large size of the device imposes certain difficulties in the operation, such as access of the diagnostics, manual control of subsystems and large number of signals monitoring etc. To achieve integrated operation of the machine, automation is essential for the enhanced performance and operational efficiency. Recently, the machine is undergoing major upgradation for the new physics experiments. The new operation and control system consists of following: (1) PXIe based fast data acquisition system for the equipped diagnostics; (2) Modbus based Process Automation System (PAS) for the subsystem controls and (3) Data Utilization System (DUS) for efficient storage, processing and retrieval of the acquired data. In the ongoing development, data flow model of the machine’s operation has been developed. As a proof of concept, following two subsystems have been successfully integrated: (1) Filament Power Supply (FPS) for the heating of W- filaments based plasma source and (2) Probe Positioning System (PPS) for control of 12 number of linear probe drives for a travel length of 100 cm. The process model of the vacuum production system has been prepared and validated against acquired pressure data. In the next upgrade, all the subsystems of the machine will be integrated in a systematic manner. The automation backbone is based on 4-wire multi-drop serial interface (RS485) using Modbus communication protocol. Software is developed on LabVIEW platform using

  8. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  9. 'Finite' non-Gaussianities and tensor-scalar ratio in large volume Swiss-cheese compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2009-01-01

    Developing on the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, Nucl. Phys. B 799 (2008) 165-198, (arXiv: 0707.0105)] and [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Large volume axionic Swiss-cheese inflation, Nucl. Phys. B 800 (2008) 384-400, (arXiv: 0712.1260 [hep-th])] and using the formalisms of [S. Yokoyama, T. Suyama, T. Tanaka, Primordial non-Gaussianity in multi-scalar slow-roll inflation, (arXiv: 0705.3178 [astro-ph]); S. Yokoyama, T. Suyama, T. Tanaka, Primordial non-Gaussianity in multi-scalar inflation, Phys. Rev. D 77 (2008) 083511, (arXiv: 0711.2920 [astro-ph])], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-)instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of getting finite values for the non-linear parameter f NL while looking for non-Gaussianities in type IIB compactifications on orientifolds of the Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau WCP 4 [1,1,1,6,9] in the L(arge) V(olume) S(cenarios) limit. We show the same in two contexts. First is multi-field slow-roll inflation with D3-instanton contribution coming from a large number of multiple wrappings of a single (Euclidean) D3-brane around the 'small' divisor yielding f NL ∼O(1). The second is when the slow-roll conditions are violated and for the number of the aforementioned D3-instanton wrappings being of O(1) but more than one, yielding f NL ∼O(1). Based on general arguments not specific to our (string-theory) set-up, we argue that requiring curvature perturbations not to grow at horizon crossing and at super-horizon scales, automatically picks out hybrid inflationary scenarios which in our set up can yield f NL ∼O(1) and tensor-scalar ratio of O(10 -2 ). For all our calculations, the world-sheet instanton contributions to the Kaehler potential coming from the non-perturbative α ' corrections

  10. Major risk from rapid, large-volume landslides in Europe (EU Project RUNOUT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Christopher R. J.; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2003-08-01

    Project RUNOUT has investigated methods for reducing the risk from large-volume landslides in Europe, especially those involving rapid rates of emplacement. Using field data from five test sites (Bad Goisern and Köfels in Austria, Tessina and Vajont in Italy, and the Barranco de Tirajana in Gran Canaria, Spain), the studies have developed (1) techniques for applying geomorphological investigations and optical remote sensing to map landslides and their evolution; (2) analytical, numerical, and cellular automata models for the emplacement of sturzstroms and debris flows; (3) a brittle-failure model for forecasting catastrophic slope failure; (4) new strategies for integrating large-area Global Positioning System (GPS) arrays with local geodetic monitoring networks; (5) methods for raising public awareness of landslide hazards; and (6) Geographic Information System (GIS)-based databases for the test areas. The results highlight the importance of multidisciplinary studies of landslide hazards, combining subjects as diverse as geology and geomorphology, remote sensing, geodesy, fluid dynamics, and social profiling. They have also identified key goals for an improved understanding of the physical processes that govern landslide collapse and runout, as well as for designing strategies for raising public awareness of landslide hazards and for implementing appropriate land management policies for reducing landslide risk.

  11. Active species in a large volume N2-O2 post-discharge reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutasi, K; Pintassilgo, C D; Loureiro, J; Coelho, P J

    2007-01-01

    A large volume post-discharge reactor placed downstream from a flowing N 2 -O 2 microwave discharge is modelled using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The density distributions of the most populated active species present in the reactor-O( 3 P), O 2 (a 1 Δ g ), O 2 (b 1 Σ g + ), NO(X 2 Π), NO(A 2 Σ + ), NO(B 2 Π), NO 2 (X), O 3 , O 2 (X 3 Σ g - ) and N( 4 S)-are calculated and the main source and loss processes for each species are identified for two discharge conditions: (i) p = 2 Torr, f = 2450 MHz, and (ii) p = 8 Torr, f = 915 MHz; in the case of a N 2 -2%O 2 mixture composition and gas flow rate of 2 x 10 3 sccm. The modification of the species relative densities by changing the oxygen percentage in the initial gas mixture composition, in the 0.2%-5% range, are presented. The possible tuning of the species concentrations in the reactor by changing the size of the connecting afterglow tube between the active discharge and the large post-discharge reactor is investigated as well

  12. Analytical and Experimental Investigation of Mixing in Large Passive Containment Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2002-01-01

    This final report details results from the past three years of the three-year UC Berkeley NEER investigation of mixing phenomena in large-scale passive reactor containments. We have completed all of our three-year deliverables specified in our proposal, as summarized for each deliverable in the body of this report, except for the experiments of steam condensation in the presence of noncondensable gas. We have particularly exiting results from the experiments studying the mixing in large insulated containment with a vertical cooling plate. These experiments now have shown why augmentation has been observed in wall-condensation experiments due to the momentum of the steam break-flow entering large volumes. More importantly, we also have shown that the forced-jet augmentation can be predicted using relatively simple correlations, and that it is independent of the break diameter and depends only on the break flow orientation, location, and momentum. This suggests that we will now be able to take credit for this augmentation in reactor safety analysis, improving safety margins for containment structures. We have finished the version 1 of 1-D Lagrangian flow and heat transfer code BMIX++. This version has ability to solve many complex stratified problems, such as multi-components problems, multi-enclosures problems (two enclosures connected by one connection for the current version), incompressible and compressible problems, multi jets, plumes, sinks in one enclosure problems, problems with wall conduction, and the combinations of the above problems. We believe the BMIX++ code is a very powerful computation tool to study stratified enclosures mixing problems

  13. Albumin infusion in patients undergoing large-volume paracentesis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Mauro; Caraceni, Paolo; Navickis, Roberta J; Wilkes, Mahlon M

    2012-04-01

    Albumin infusion reduces the incidence of postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction among patients with cirrhosis and tense ascites, as compared with no treatment. Treatment alternatives to albumin, such as artificial colloids and vasoconstrictors, have been widely investigated. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether morbidity and mortality differ between patients receiving albumin versus alternative treatments. The meta-analysis included randomized trials evaluating albumin infusion in patients with tense ascites. Primary endpoints were postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction, hyponatremia, and mortality. Eligible trials were sought by multiple methods, including computer searches of bibliographic and abstract databases and the Cochrane Library. Results were quantitatively combined under a fixed-effects model. Seventeen trials with 1,225 total patients were included. There was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Compared with alternative treatments, albumin reduced the incidence of postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.55). Significant reductions in that complication by albumin were also shown in subgroup analyses versus each of the other volume expanders tested (e.g., dextran, gelatin, hydroxyethyl starch, and hypertonic saline). The occurrence of hyponatremia was also decreased by albumin, compared with alternative treatments (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.87). In addition, mortality was lower in patients receiving albumin than alternative treatments (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41-0.98). This meta-analysis provides evidence that albumin reduces morbidity and mortality among patients with tense ascites undergoing large-volume paracentesis, as compared with alternative treatments investigated thus far. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. PVR: Patch-to-Volume Reconstruction for Large Area Motion Correction of Fetal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansary, Amir; Rajchl, Martin; McDonagh, Steven G; Murgasova, Maria; Damodaram, Mellisa; Lloyd, David F A; Davidson, Alice; Rutherford, Mary; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rueckert, Daniel; Kainz, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for the correction of motion artifacts that are present in fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the whole uterus. Contrary to current slice-to-volume registration (SVR) methods, requiring an inflexible anatomical enclosure of a single investigated organ, the proposed patch-to-volume reconstruction (PVR) approach is able to reconstruct a large field of view of non-rigidly deforming structures. It relaxes rigid motion assumptions by introducing a specific amount of redundant information that is exploited with parallelized patchwise optimization, super-resolution, and automatic outlier rejection. We further describe and provide an efficient parallel implementation of PVR allowing its execution within reasonable time on commercially available graphics processing units, enabling its use in the clinical practice. We evaluate PVR's computational overhead compared with standard methods and observe improved reconstruction accuracy in the presence of affine motion artifacts compared with conventional SVR in synthetic experiments. Furthermore, we have evaluated our method qualitatively and quantitatively on real fetal MRI data subject to maternal breathing and sudden fetal movements. We evaluate peak-signal-to-noise ratio, structural similarity index, and cross correlation with respect to the originally acquired data and provide a method for visual inspection of reconstruction uncertainty. We further evaluate the distance error for selected anatomical landmarks in the fetal head, as well as calculating the mean and maximum displacements resulting from automatic non-rigid registration to a motion-free ground truth image. These experiments demonstrate a successful application of PVR motion compensation to the whole fetal body, uterus, and placenta.

  15. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... often reported using green areas to “drink beer with friends” and “do sunbathing”. The third paper reflects on the different national approaches towards ethnic minorities’ access to natural areas, in four example-countries Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. This was done through....... In the UK the focus on underrepresented groups seems closely related to the focus on equality for access, while specific focus on access for ethnic minorities is not addressed in the forest and nature legislation and the national forest programs in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands. Paper 4 proposes...

  16. Annealing as grown large volume CZT single crystals for increased spectral resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Longxia

    2008-01-01

    The spectroscopic performance of current large-volume Cadmium 10% Zinc Telluride, Cd 0.9 Zn 0.1 Te, (CZT) detectors is impaired by cumulative effect of tellurium precipitates (secondary phases) presented in CZT single-crystal grown by low-pressure Bridgman techniques(1). This statistical effect may limit the energy resolution of large-volume CZT detectors (typically 2-5% at 662 keV for 12-mm thick devices). The stochastic nature of the interaction prevents the use of any electronic or digital charge correction techniques without a significant reduction in the detector efficiency. This volume constraint hampers the utility of CZT since the detectors are inefficient at detecting photons >1MeV and/or in low fluency situations. During the project, seven runs CZT ingots have been grown, in these ingots the indium dopant concentrations have been changed in the range between 0.5ppm to 6ppm. The I-R mapping imaging method has been employed to study the Te-precipitates. The Teprecipitates in as-grown CZT wafers, and after annealing wafers have been systematically studied by using I-R mapping system (home installed, resolution of 1.5 (micro)m). We employed our I-R standard annealing CZT (Zn=4%) procedure or two-steps annealing into radiation CZT (Zn=10%), we achieved the 'non'-Te precipitates (size 10 9-10 (Omega)-cm. We believe that the Te-precipitates are the p-type defects, its reducing number causes the CZT became n+-type, therefore we varied or reduced the indium dapant concentration during the growth and changed the Te-precipitates size and density by using different Cd-temperature and different annealing procedures. We have made the comparisons among Te-precipitates size, density and Indium dopant concentrations, and we found that the CZT with smaller size of Te-precipitates is suitable for radiation uses but non-Te precipitates is impossible to be used in the radiation detectors, because the CZT would became un-dopant or 'intrinsic' with non radiation affection (we

  17. A new large-volume metal reference standard for radioactive waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzika, F; Hult, M; Stroh, H; Marissens, G; Arnold, D; Burda, O; Kovář, P; Suran, J; Listkowska, A; Tyminski, Z

    2016-03-01

    A new large-volume metal reference standard has been developed. The intended use is for calibration of free-release radioactivity measurement systems and is made up of cast iron tubes placed inside a box of the size of a Euro-pallet (80 × 120 cm). The tubes contain certified activity concentrations of (60)Co (0.290 ± 0.006 Bq g(-1)) and (110m)Ag (3.05 ± 0.09 Bq g(-1)) (reference date: 30 September 2013). They were produced using centrifugal casting from a smelt into which (60)Co was first added and then one piece of neutron irradiated silver wire was progressively diluted. The iron castings were machined to the desirable dimensions. The final material consists of 12 iron tubes of 20 cm outer diameter, 17.6 cm inner diameter, 40 cm length/height and 245.9 kg total mass. This paper describes the reference standard and the process of determining the reference activity values. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J

    2008-01-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  19. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma

  20. On 'light' fermions and proton stability in 'big divisor' D3/D7 large volume compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    Building on our earlier work (Misra and Shukla, Nucl. Phys. B 827:112, 2010; Phys. Lett. B 685:347-352, 2010), we show the possibility of generating ''light'' fermion mass scales of MeV-GeV range (possibly related to the first two generations of quarks/leptons) as well as eV (possibly related to first two generations of neutrinos) in type IIB string theory compactified on Swiss-Cheese orientifolds in the presence of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane restricted to (in principle) stacks of fluxed D7-branes wrapping the ''big'' divisor Σ B . This part of the paper is an expanded version of the latter half of Sect. 3 of a published short invited review (Misra, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 26:1, 2011) written by one of the authors [AM ]. Further, we also show that there are no SUSY GUT-type dimension-five operators corresponding to proton decay, and we estimate the proton lifetime from a SUSY GUT-type four-fermion dimension-six operator to be 10 61 years. Based on GLSM calculations in (Misra and Shukla, Nucl. Phys. B 827:112, 2010) for obtaining the geometric Kaehler potential for the ''big divisor,'' using further the Donaldson's algorithm, we also briefly discuss in the first of the two appendices the metric for the Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau used, which we obtain and which becomes Ricci flat in the large-volume limit. (orig.)

  1. Detecting Boosted Dark Matter from the Sun with Large Volume Neutrino Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joshua; /SLAC; Cui, Yanou; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Zhao, Yue; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2015-04-02

    We study novel scenarios where thermal dark matter (DM) can be efficiently captured in the Sun and annihilate into boosted dark matter. In models with semi-annihilating DM, where DM has a non-minimal stabilization symmetry, or in models with a multi-component DM sector, annihilations of DM can give rise to stable dark sector particles with moderate Lorentz boosts. We investigate both of these possibilities, presenting concrete models as proofs of concept. Both scenarios can yield viable thermal relic DM with masses O(1)-O(100) GeV. Taking advantage of the energetic proton recoils that arise when the boosted DM scatters off matter, we propose a detection strategy which uses large volume terrestrial detectors, such as those designed to detect neutrinos or proton decays. In particular, we propose a search for proton tracks pointing towards the Sun. We focus on signals at Cherenkov-radiation-based detectors such as Super-Kamiokande (SK) and its upgrade Hyper-Kamiokande (HK). We find that with spin-dependent scattering as the dominant DM-nucleus interaction at low energies, boosted DM can leave detectable signals at SK or HK, with sensitivity comparable to DM direct detection experiments while being consistent with current constraints. Our study provides a new search path for DM sectors with non-minimal structure.

  2. On `light' fermions and proton stability in `big divisor' D3/ D7 large volume compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2011-06-01

    Building on our earlier work (Misra and Shukla, Nucl. Phys. B 827:112, 2010; Phys. Lett. B 685:347-352, 2010), we show the possibility of generating "light" fermion mass scales of MeV-GeV range (possibly related to the first two generations of quarks/leptons) as well as eV (possibly related to first two generations of neutrinos) in type IIB string theory compactified on Swiss-Cheese orientifolds in the presence of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane restricted to (in principle) stacks of fluxed D7-branes wrapping the "big" divisor Σ B . This part of the paper is an expanded version of the latter half of Sect. 3 of a published short invited review (Misra, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 26:1, 2011) written by one of the authors [AM]. Further, we also show that there are no SUSY GUT-type dimension-five operators corresponding to proton decay, and we estimate the proton lifetime from a SUSY GUT-type four-fermion dimension-six operator to be 1061 years. Based on GLSM calculations in (Misra and Shukla, Nucl. Phys. B 827:112, 2010) for obtaining the geometric Kähler potential for the "big divisor," using further the Donaldson's algorithm, we also briefly discuss in the first of the two appendices the metric for the Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau used, which we obtain and which becomes Ricci flat in the large-volume limit.

  3. Translational and Brownian motion in laser-Doppler flowmetry of large tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Seghier, M L; Delpy, D T

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the derivation of a precise mathematical relationship existing between the different p-moments of the power spectrum of the photoelectric current, obtained from a laser-Doppler flowmeter (LDF), and the red blood cell speed. The main purpose is that both the Brownian (defining the 'biological zero') and the translational movements are taken into account, clarifying in this way what the exact contribution of each parameter is to the LDF derived signals. The derivation of the equations is based on the quasi-elastic scattering theory and holds for multiple scattering (i.e. measurements in large tissue volumes and/or very high red blood cell concentration). The paper also discusses why experimentally there exists a range in which the relationship between the first moment of the power spectrum and the average red blood cells speed may be considered as 'linear' and what are the physiological determinants that can result in nonlinearity. A correct way to subtract the biological zero from the LDF data is also proposed. The findings should help in the design of improved LDF instruments and in the interpretation of experimental data

  4. Coupled Finite Volume and Finite Element Method Analysis of a Complex Large-Span Roof Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafran, J.; Juszczyk, K.; Kamiński, M.

    2017-12-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and structural analysis for the precise determination of wind impact on internal forces and deformations of structural elements of a longspan roof structure. The Finite Volume Method (FVM) serves for a solution of the fluid flow problem to model the air flow around the structure, whose results are applied in turn as the boundary tractions in the Finite Element Method problem structural solution for the linear elastostatics with small deformations. The first part is carried out with the use of ANSYS 15.0 computer system, whereas the FEM system Robot supports stress analysis in particular roof members. A comparison of the wind pressure distribution throughout the roof surface shows some differences with respect to that available in the engineering designing codes like Eurocode, which deserves separate further numerical studies. Coupling of these two separate numerical techniques appears to be promising in view of future computational models of stochastic nature in large scale structural systems due to the stochastic perturbation method.

  5. Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy in the future large-volume liquid-scintillator detector LENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, Michael; Feilitzsch, F V; Goeger-Neff, M; Lewke, T; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Todor, S; Winter, J [E15 Chair for Astroparticle Physics, Technische Universitat Miinchen, Physik Department, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-11-01

    The recent successes in neutrino physics prove that liquid-scintillator detectors allow to combine high energy resolution, efficient means of background reduction, and a large detection volume. In the planned LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy) experiment, a target mass of 50 kt will enable the investigation of a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical neutrino sources. The high-statistics spectroscopy of geoneutrinos, solar neutrinos and supernova neutrinos will provide new insights in the heat production processes of Earth and Sun, and the workings of a gravitational collapse. The same measurements will as well investigate neutrino properties as oscillation parameters and mass hierarchy. A first spectroscopic measurement of the low flux of diffuse supernova neutrino background is within the sensitivity of the LENA detector. Finally, a life-time limit of several 1034 years can be set to the proton decay into proton and anti-neutrino, testing the predictions of SUSY theory. The present contribution includes a review of the scientific studies that were performed in the last years as well as a report on currently on-going R and D activities.

  6. High-Dimensional Function Approximation With Neural Networks for Large Volumes of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andras, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Approximation of high-dimensional functions is a challenge for neural networks due to the curse of dimensionality. Often the data for which the approximated function is defined resides on a low-dimensional manifold and in principle the approximation of the function over this manifold should improve the approximation performance. It has been show that projecting the data manifold into a lower dimensional space, followed by the neural network approximation of the function over this space, provides a more precise approximation of the function than the approximation of the function with neural networks in the original data space. However, if the data volume is very large, the projection into the low-dimensional space has to be based on a limited sample of the data. Here, we investigate the nature of the approximation error of neural networks trained over the projection space. We show that such neural networks should have better approximation performance than neural networks trained on high-dimensional data even if the projection is based on a relatively sparse sample of the data manifold. We also find that it is preferable to use a uniformly distributed sparse sample of the data for the purpose of the generation of the low-dimensional projection. We illustrate these results considering the practical neural network approximation of a set of functions defined on high-dimensional data including real world data as well.

  7. A Parallel, Finite-Volume Algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong T.

    1999-01-01

    A parallel, finite-volume algorithm has been developed for large-eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent flows. This algorithm includes piecewise linear least-square reconstruction, trilinear finite-element interpolation, Roe flux-difference splitting, and second-order MacCormack time marching. Parallel implementation is done using the message-passing programming model. In this paper, the numerical algorithm is described. To validate the numerical method for turbulence simulation, LES of fully developed turbulent flow in a square duct is performed for a Reynolds number of 320 based on the average friction velocity and the hydraulic diameter of the duct. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) results are available for this test case, and the accuracy of this algorithm for turbulence simulations can be ascertained by comparing the LES solutions with the DNS results. The effects of grid resolution, upwind numerical dissipation, and subgrid-scale dissipation on the accuracy of the LES are examined. Comparison with DNS results shows that the standard Roe flux-difference splitting dissipation adversely affects the accuracy of the turbulence simulation. For accurate turbulence simulations, only 3-5 percent of the standard Roe flux-difference splitting dissipation is needed.

  8. A model for steady-state large-volume plasma generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, H.S.; Miller, J.D.; Schneider, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a simple, new scheme to generate a uniform, steady-state, large-volume plasma is presented. The weakly magnetized plasma is created by direct ionization of the background gas by low-energy electrons generated from thermionic filaments. An annular arrangement of the filaments ensures a uniform plasma density in the radial direction as predicted by theory. Experiments have been performed to characterize the plasma generated in such a configuration. In order to explain the experimental observation, we develop a bulk plasma theory based on plasma transport via cross-field diffusion. As assumed in the theoretical model, the experimental measurements indicate a uniform plasma density along the axis. Both the theory and experiment indicate that the plasma density is a function of the square of the external magnetic field. The theory also predicts the plasma density to be proportional to the neutral density to the two-thirds power in agreement with the experimental data. We also observe the experimental data to agree remarkably well with theoretical prediction for a broad range of system parameters

  9. A uniform laminar air plasma plume with large volume excited by an alternating current voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying

    2015-12-01

    Using a plasma jet composed of two needle electrodes, a laminar plasma plume with large volume is generated in air through an alternating current voltage excitation. Based on high-speed photography, a train of filaments is observed to propagate periodically away from their birth place along the gas flow. The laminar plume is in fact a temporal superposition of the arched filament train. The filament consists of a negative glow near the real time cathode, a positive column near the real time anode, and a Faraday dark space between them. It has been found that the propagation velocity of the filament increases with increasing the gas flow rate. Furthermore, the filament lifetime tends to follow a normal distribution (Gaussian distribution). The most probable lifetime decreases with increasing the gas flow rate or decreasing the averaged peak voltage. Results also indicate that the real time peak current decreases and the real time peak voltage increases with the propagation of the filament along the gas flow. The voltage-current curve indicates that, in every discharge cycle, the filament evolves from a Townsend discharge to a glow one and then the discharge quenches. Characteristic regions including a negative glow, a Faraday dark space, and a positive column can be discerned from the discharge filament. Furthermore, the plasma parameters such as the electron density, the vibrational temperature and the gas temperature are investigated based on the optical spectrum emitted from the laminar plume.

  10. Reduced Albumin Dosing During Large-Volume Paracentesis Is Not Associated with Adverse Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kara B; Mueller, Jessica L; Simon, Tracey G; Zheng, Hui; King, Lindsay Y; Makar, Robert S; Gervais, Debra A; Chung, Raymond T

    2015-07-01

    LVP is used to manage diuretic-resistant ascites in cirrhotic patients. Albumin administration prevents complications including acute kidney injury and paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction, but the optimal dose is unclear. We sought to assess adherence to guidelines enacted in July 2011 at our center for reducing the albumin dose administered at large-volume paracentesis (LVP) and evaluate the cost and rate of complications of LVPs before and after guideline enactment. All LVPs performed on cirrhotic patients in our center's Department of Radiology between July 2009 and January 2014 were studied. Outcomes included adherence to guidelines, LVP complications, and administered albumin cost. Groups were compared using Student's t tests for continuous data and Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests for categorical data. A repeated measurements model accounted for patients with multiple LVPs. Of the 935 LVPs, 288 occurred before guideline implementation (group 1) and 647 occurred after (group 2). The mean dose of albumin administered was 13.7 g/L of ascites removed in group 1 versus 10.3 g/L in group 2 (p albumin administration and associated cost savings was still observed. There was no increase in LVP-related complications after guideline implementation or in the adherent group, suggesting that albumin dose can be safely reduced. Future efforts should be directed at enhancing guideline adherence and potentially further reducing albumin dosing.

  11. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  12. Evaluation of a laser scanner for large volume coordinate metrology: a comparison of results before and after factory calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrucci, M; Muralikrishnan, B; Sawyer, D; Phillips, S; Petrov, P; Yakovlev, Y; Astrelin, A; Milligan, S; Palmateer, J

    2014-01-01

    Large volume laser scanners are increasingly being used for a variety of dimensional metrology applications. Methods to evaluate the performance of these scanners are still under development and there are currently no documentary standards available. This paper describes the results of extensive ranging and volumetric performance tests conducted on a large volume laser scanner. The results demonstrated small but clear systematic errors that are explained in the context of a geometric error model for the instrument. The instrument was subsequently returned to the manufacturer for factory calibration. The ranging and volumetric tests were performed again and the results are compared against those obtained prior to the factory calibration. (paper)

  13. “Finite” non-Gaussianities and tensor-scalar ratio in large volume Swiss-cheese compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2009-03-01

    Developing on the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, Nucl. Phys. B 799 (2008) 165-198, arXiv: 0707.0105] and [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Large volume axionic Swiss-cheese inflation, Nucl. Phys. B 800 (2008) 384-400, arXiv: 0712.1260 [hep-th

  14. Large parallel volumes of finite and compact sets in d-dimensional Euclidean space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen; Kiderlen, Markus

    The r-parallel volume V (Cr) of a compact subset C in d-dimensional Euclidean space is the volume of the set Cr of all points of Euclidean distance at most r > 0 from C. According to Steiner’s formula, V (Cr) is a polynomial in r when C is convex. For finite sets C satisfying a certain geometric...

  15. Type IIB orientifolds, D-brane instantons and the large volume scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plauschinn, Erik

    2009-07-28

    This thesis is concerned with a branch of research in String Theory called String Phenomenology which aims for a better understanding of the connection between String Theory and Particle Physics. In particular, in this work we cover three topics which are important in order to establish this connection. The first topic is about String Theory model building in the context of so-called type IIB orientifolds with orientifold three- and seven-planes. After giving a brief overview, we work out in detail an important consistency condition for String Theory constructions, the so-called tadpole cancellation condition, and we verify explicitly that chiral anomalies are cancelled via the generalised Green-Schwarz mechanism. The second topic is concerned with so-called D-brane instantons which are nonperturbative effects in type II String Theory constructions. We recall the instanton calculus for such configurations, we derive the so-called A eck-Dine-Seiberg superpotential in String Theory and we develop an important constraint, a chiral zero-mode constraint, for instanton contributions in the presence of a realistic Particle Physics sector. The third topic is about moduli stabilisation in type IIB string compactifications. More concretely, we review the so-called KKLT as well as Large Volume Scenario, and we construct and study a model for the latter scenario where the constraint mentioned above has been taken into account explicitly. Although the three topics studied in this thesis are slightly different in nature, there is nevertheless a complex interplay between them with many interrelations. In order to uncover these connections, a detailed study of each individual subject has been performed which has led to new results such as the chiral zero-mode constraint. (orig.)

  16. Addressing challenges in bar-code scanning of large-volume infusion bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Kirthana; Heelon, Mark; Kerr, Gary; Higgins, Thomas L

    2011-08-01

    A hospital pharmacy's efforts to identify and address challenges with bedside scanning of bar codes on large-volume parenteral (LVP) infusion bags are described. Bar-code-assisted medication administration (BCMA) has been shown to reduce medication errors and improve patient safety. After the pilot implementation of a BCMA system and point-of-care scanning procedures at a medical center's intensive care unit, it was noted that nurses' attempted bedside scans of certain LVP bags for product identification purposes often were not successful. An investigation and root-cause analysis, including observation of nurses' scanning technique by a multidisciplinary team, determined that the scanning failures stemmed from the placement of two bar-code imprints-one with the product identification code and another, larger imprint with the expiration date and lot number-adjacently on the LVP bags. The nursing staff was educated on a modified scanning technique, which resulted in significantly improved success rates in the scanning of the most commonly used LVP bags. Representatives of the LVP bag manufacturer met with hospital staff to discuss the problem and corrective measures. As part of a subsequent infusion bag redesign, the manufacturer discontinued the use of the bar-code imprint implicated in the scanning failures. Failures in scanning LVP bags were traced to problematic placement of bar-code imprints on the bags. Interdisciplinary collaboration, consultation with the bag manufacturer, and education of the nursing and pharmacy staff resulted in a reduction in scanning failures and the manufacturer's removal of one of the bar codes from its LVP bags.

  17. Type IIB orientifolds, D-brane instantons and the large volume scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plauschinn, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a branch of research in String Theory called String Phenomenology which aims for a better understanding of the connection between String Theory and Particle Physics. In particular, in this work we cover three topics which are important in order to establish this connection. The first topic is about String Theory model building in the context of so-called type IIB orientifolds with orientifold three- and seven-planes. After giving a brief overview, we work out in detail an important consistency condition for String Theory constructions, the so-called tadpole cancellation condition, and we verify explicitly that chiral anomalies are cancelled via the generalised Green-Schwarz mechanism. The second topic is concerned with so-called D-brane instantons which are nonperturbative effects in type II String Theory constructions. We recall the instanton calculus for such configurations, we derive the so-called A eck-Dine-Seiberg superpotential in String Theory and we develop an important constraint, a chiral zero-mode constraint, for instanton contributions in the presence of a realistic Particle Physics sector. The third topic is about moduli stabilisation in type IIB string compactifications. More concretely, we review the so-called KKLT as well as Large Volume Scenario, and we construct and study a model for the latter scenario where the constraint mentioned above has been taken into account explicitly. Although the three topics studied in this thesis are slightly different in nature, there is nevertheless a complex interplay between them with many interrelations. In order to uncover these connections, a detailed study of each individual subject has been performed which has led to new results such as the chiral zero-mode constraint. (orig.)

  18. A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nian; Lu, Zhenda; Zhao, Jie; McDowell, Matthew T.; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Zhao, Wenting; Cui, Yi

    2014-03-01

    Silicon is an attractive material for anodes in energy storage devices, because it has ten times the theoretical capacity of its state-of-the-art carbonaceous counterpart. Silicon anodes can be used both in traditional lithium-ion batteries and in more recent Li-O2 and Li-S batteries as a replacement for the dendrite-forming lithium metal anodes. The main challenges associated with silicon anodes are structural degradation and instability of the solid-electrolyte interphase caused by the large volume change (~300%) during cycling, the occurrence of side reactions with the electrolyte, and the low volumetric capacity when the material size is reduced to a nanometre scale. Here, we propose a hierarchical structured silicon anode that tackles all three of these problems. Our design is inspired by the structure of a pomegranate, where single silicon nanoparticles are encapsulated by a conductive carbon layer that leaves enough room for expansion and contraction following lithiation and delithiation. An ensemble of these hybrid nanoparticles is then encapsulated by a thicker carbon layer in micrometre-size pouches to act as an electrolyte barrier. As a result of this hierarchical arrangement, the solid-electrolyte interphase remains stable and spatially confined, resulting in superior cyclability (97% capacity retention after 1,000 cycles). In addition, the microstructures lower the electrode-electrolyte contact area, resulting in high Coulombic efficiency (99.87%) and volumetric capacity (1,270 mAh cm-3), and the cycling remains stable even when the areal capacity is increased to the level of commercial lithium-ion batteries (3.7 mAh cm-2).

  19. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Results of long-term measurement of 222Rn concentrations in outdoor atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Boehm, R.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    Results are reported of the authors' long-term measurement of 222 Rn concentrations in the outdoor atmosphere. The measurements started in 1987 and were performed at a height of 1.5 m over a grass-covered ground surface, using till 1991 a Lucas type scintillation chamber and later a large volume scintillation chamber. Graphs are presented and discussed of the course of average monthly radon concentration in 1987-1996 and of annual courses of radon concentration for different time intervals of the day over 1991 to 1995. (A.K.)

  1. Morphological pyramids in multiresolution MIP rendering of large volume data : Survey and new results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    We survey and extend nonlinear signal decompositions based on morphological pyramids, and their application to multiresolution maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering with progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The structure of the resulting multiresolution rendering

  2. Effect of crowd size on patient volume at a large, multipurpose, indoor stadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, R A; Gray, B C; Bennett, P C; Lamparella, V J

    1989-01-01

    A prediction of patient volume expected at "mass gatherings" is desirable in order to provide optimal on-site emergency medical care. While several methods of predicting patient loads have been suggested, a reliable technique has not been established. This study examines the frequency of medical emergencies at the Syracuse University Carrier Dome, a 50,500-seat indoor stadium. Patient volume and level of care at collegiate basketball and football games as well as rock concerts, over a 7-year period were examined and tabulated. This information was analyzed using simple regression and nonparametric statistical methods to determine level of correlation between crowd size and patient volume. These analyses demonstrated no statistically significant increase in patient volume for increasing crowd size for basketball and football events. There was a small but statistically significant increase in patient volume for increasing crowd size for concerts. A comparison of similar crowd size for each of the three events showed that patient frequency is greatest for concerts and smallest for basketball. The study suggests that crowd size alone has only a minor influence on patient volume at any given event. Structuring medical services based solely on expected crowd size and not considering other influences such as event type and duration may give poor results.

  3. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (pOPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools.

  4. Dosimetric Comparison of Split Field and Fixed Jaw Techniques for Large IMRT Target Volumes in the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within ±1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 ± 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 ± 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

  5. Process Improvement to Enhance Quality in a Large Volume Labor and Birth Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ashley M; Bohannon, Jessica; Porthouse, Lisa; Thompson, Heather; Vago, Tony

    using the Lean process, frontline clinicians identified areas that needed improvement, developed and implemented successful strategies that addressed each gap, and enhanced the quality and safety of care for a large volume perinatal service.

  6. State of art data acquisition system for large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, Ritesh; Srivastava, Pankaj; Sanyasi, Amulya Kumar; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, Lalit Mohan; Mattoo, Shiban Krishna; Parmar, Vijay; Makadia, Keyur; Patel, Ishan; Shah, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The Large volume plasma device (LVPD) is a cylindrical device (ϕ = 2m, L = 3m) dedicated for carrying out investigations on plasma physics problems ranging from excitation of whistler structures to plasma turbulence especially, exploring the linear and nonlinear aspects of electron temperature gradient(ETG) driven turbulence, plasma transport over the entire cross section of LVPD. The machine operates in a pulsed mode with repetition cycle of 1 Hz and acquisition pulse length of duration of 15 ms, presently, LVPD has VXI data acquisition system but this is now in phasing out mode because of non-functioning of its various amplifier stages, expandability and unavailability of service support. The VXI system has limited capabilities to meet new experimental requirements in terms of numbers of channel (16), bit resolutions (8 bit), record length (30K points) and calibration support. Recently, integration of new acquisition system for simultaneous sampling of 40 channels of data, collected over multiple time scales with high speed is successfully demonstrated, by configuring latest available hardware and in-house developed software solutions. The operational feasibility provided by LabVIEW platform is not only for operating DAQ system but also for providing controls to various subsystems associated with the device. The new system is based on PXI express instrumentation bus and supersedes the existing VXI based data acquisition system in terms of instrumentation capabilities. This system has capability to measure 32 signals at 60 MHz sampling frequency and 8 signals with 1.25 GHz with 10 bit and 12 bit resolution capability for amplitude measurements. The PXI based system successfully addresses and demonstrate the issues concerning high channel count, high speed data streaming and multiple I/O modules synchronization. The system consists of chassis (NI 1085), 4 high sampling digitizers (NI 5105), 2 very high sampling digitizers (NI 5162), data streaming RAID drive (NI

  7. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  8. Outdoor Education: Definition and Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Phyllis

    Because outdoor education programs occur in every geographic location, are sponsored by all levels of educational institutions, state and local government agencies, and private entrepreneurs, and have no nationally standardized curriculum or measures of competency or knowledge, outdoor education may best be defines as "education in, about, and for…

  9. Temperature monitoring in large volume spread footing foundations: case study "Parque da Cidade" - São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Couto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, the construction of foundation elements from large-volume reinforced concrete is becoming increasingly common. This implies a potential increase in the risk of cracks of thermal origin, due to the heat of hydration of cement. Under these circumstances, these concrete elements need to be treated using the mass concrete theory, widespread in dam construction, but little used when designing buildings. This paper aims to present a case study about the procedures and problems involved in the construction of a spread footing with a volume of approximately 800m³ designed for the foundation of a shopping center in São Paulo, Brazil.

  10. Forced transport of thermal energy in magmatic and phreatomagmatic large volume ignimbrites: Paleomagnetic evidence from the Colli Albani volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolese, Matteo; Giordano, Guido; Cifelli, Francesca; Winkler, Aldo; Mattei, Massimo

    2017-11-01

    Few studies have detailed the thermal architecture of large-volume pyroclastic density current deposits, although such work has a clear importance for understanding the dynamics of eruptions of this magnitude. Here we examine the temperature of emplacement of large-volume caldera-forming ignimbrites related to magmatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions at the Colli Albani volcano, Italy, by using thermal remanent magnetization analysis on both lithic and juvenile clasts. Results show that all the magmatic ignimbrites were deposited at high temperature, between the maximum blocking temperature of the magnetic carrier (600-630 °C) and the glass transition temperature (about 710 °C). Temperature estimations for the phreatomagmatic ignimbrite range between 200 and 400 °C, with most of the clasts emplaced between 200 and 320 °C. Because all the investigated ignimbrites, magmatic and phreatomagmatic, share similar magma composition, volume and mobility, we attribute the temperature difference to magma-water interaction, highlighting its pronounced impact on thermal dissipation, even in large-volume eruptions. The homogeneity of the deposit temperature of each ignimbrite across its areal extent, which is maintained across topographic barriers, suggests that these systems are thermodynamically isolated from the external environment for several tens of kilometers. Based on these findings, we propose that these large-volume ignimbrites are dominated by the mass flux, which forces the lateral transport of mass, momentum, and thermal energy for distances up to tens of kilometers away from the vent. We conclude that spatial variation of the emplacement temperature can be used as a proxy for determining the degree of forced-convection flow.

  11. Outdoor schools: Limits and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Smetáčková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor school is a stable element of Czech educational system. However,many changes have occurred during the last twenty years in the purposes of outdoorschools and in their organization. The article presents various school statistics andresults of research which included questionnaire survey in elementary schools in Pragueand a case study of two classes. The study found that the outdoor school programmesare getting shorter, budgets for outdoor schools are reduced, and prices of outdoorschool programmes for parents are increasing. Because of high prices, almost 20 % ofpupils cannot attend outdoor schools. Nevertheless, according to teachers, pupils andparents, the main purpose of outdoor school programmes is to create a better socialclimate in peer groups. Because of high rates of absence, this goal is partly invalid.Another purpose should be that teachers and children get to know each other better.This goal is invalid as well because many schools hire commercial agencies which limitsthe time that pupils and teachers spend together.

  12. Systems and methods for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Michael V.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Lindquist, Alan; Gallardo, Vincente

    2016-03-15

    A method and device for the detection of low-level harmful substances in a large volume of fluid comprising using a concentrator system to produce a retentate and analyzing the retentate for the presence of at least one harmful substance. The concentrator system performs a method comprising pumping at least 10 liters of fluid from a sample source through a filter. While pumping, the concentrator system diverts retentate from the filter into a container. The concentrator system also recirculates at least part of the retentate in the container again through the filter. The concentrator system controls the speed of the pump with a control system thereby maintaining a fluid pressure less than 25 psi during the pumping of the fluid; monitors the quantity of retentate within the container with a control system, and maintains a reduced volume level of retentate and a target volume of retentate.

  13. An immunomagnetic separator for concentration of pathogenic micro-organisms from large volume samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotariu, Ovidiu; Ogden, Iain D.; MacRae, Marion; Badescu, Vasile; Strachan, Norval J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The standard method of immunomagnetic separation of pathogenic bacteria from food and environmental matrices processes 1 ml volumes. Pathogens present at low levels ( 50 ml). Preliminary results show that between 70 and 113 times more Escherchia coli O157 are recovered compared with the standard 1 ml method

  14. Chromatographic lipophilicity determination using large volume injections of the solvents non-miscible with the mobile phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sârbu, Costel; Naşcu-Briciu, Rodica Domnica; Casoni, Dorina; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-11-30

    A new perspective in the lipophilicity evaluation through RP-HPLC is permitted by analysis of the retention factor (k) obtained by injecting large volumes of test samples prepared in solvents immiscible with mobile phase. The experiment is carried out on representative groups of compounds with increased toxicity (mycotoxins and alkaloids) and amines with important biological activity (naturally occurring monoamine compounds and related drugs), which are covering a large interval of lipophilicity. The stock solution of each compound was prepared in hexane and the used mobile phases were mixtures of methanol or acetonitrile and water, in suited volume ratio. The injected volume was between 10 and 100 μL, while the used stationary phases were RP-18 and RP-8. On both reverse stationary phases the retention factors were linearly decreasing while the injection volume was increasing. In all cases, the linear models were highly statistically significant. On the basis of the obtained results new lipophilicity indices were purposed and discussed. The developed lipophilicity indices and the computationally expressed ones are correlated at a high level of statistical significance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  16. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This is part two of an article on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreation-related outdoor education research published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This part covers resources for outdoor recreation-related outdoor education, ...

  17. A Monte-Carlo code for neutron efficiency calculations for large volume Gd-loaded liquid scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Lynen, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Pochodzalla, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports on a Monte-Carlo program, MSX, developed to evaluate the performance of large-volume, Gd-loaded liquid scintillation detectors used in neutron multiplicity measurements. The results of simulations are presented for the detector intended to count neutrons emitted by the excited target residue in coincidence with the charged products of the projectile fragmentation following relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The latter products could be detected with the ALADIN magnetic spectrometer at GSI-Darmstadt. (orig.) 61 refs.

  18. Considerations in reviewing the waste volume reduction program in a large utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohout, R.; Calzolari, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A program is underway at Ontario Hydro to establish a desirable future scheme for central processing/volume reduction of solid radioactive Low-Level Wastes (LLW) prior to their placement into the centralized storage, and in the future into a disposal facility. The approach being investigated is to furnish the current Waste Volume Reduction Facility (WVRF) with state-of-art processes, reclassify the waste categories and segregate the wastes such that each volume reduction (VR) process is then applied where it would be most effective. The ''optimized'' approach is then compared with other, specific schemes, which basically differ in that each scheme omits one of the major VR processes, thus allowing the next most effective process to take over its role. Each scheme is assessed quantitatively from the viewpoint of cost and VR effectiveness, and qualitatively from the viewpoint of resultant waste form. The economic assessments take into consideration the long term (20 year) impact of selected VR schemes on the overall waste management cost, including construction and operation of the storage facility. This paper highlights the overall study, includes the major results, and identifies aspects that need to be addressed in the selection of a desirable combination of VR processes in absence of knowledge of future waste disposal costs

  19. Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Suk Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system. In contrast to the indoor confinement system, outdoor production system uses pasture-based units and/or deep-bedded hoop structures that promote animal welfare and environmental sustainability with a lower capital investment. In accord with the growing concern for animal and environmental welfare and food safety by the consumers, small farmers practicing an outdoor production system are seeing increased opportunities for marketing their products in the pork niche market. Unlike the general belief that the reproductive and growth performance measures of the outdoor sows and piglets are poorer in comparison with the animals reared indoors, studies showed that there was no significant difference in the performance measures, and some traits were even better in outdoor animals. Improved reproductive and production traits can increase the sustainability of outdoor farming. Present study reviewed the recent studies comparing the performance measures, meat quality and health of indoor and outdoor animals, as well as the efforts to improve the outdoor production system through changes in management such as hut types and breed of animals.

  20. Research trends in outdoor pig production — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Suk; Min, Byungrok; Oh, Sang-Hyon

    2017-01-01

    Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system. In contrast to the indoor confinement system, outdoor production system uses pasture-based units and/or deep-bedded hoop structures that promote animal welfare and environmental sustainability with a lower capital investment. In accord with the growing concern for animal and environmental welfare and food safety by the consumers, small farmers practicing an outdoor production system are seeing increased opportunities for marketing their products in the pork niche market. Unlike the general belief that the reproductive and growth performance measures of the outdoor sows and piglets are poorer in comparison with the animals reared indoors, studies showed that there was no significant difference in the performance measures, and some traits were even better in outdoor animals. Improved reproductive and production traits can increase the sustainability of outdoor farming. Present study reviewed the recent studies comparing the performance measures, meat quality and health of indoor and outdoor animals, as well as the efforts to improve the outdoor production system through changes in management such as hut types and breed of animals. PMID:28728401

  1. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume VI: Large Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Guenter; Bercher, Renate; Buechli, Carmen; Foroughi, Fereydoun; Meyer, Rosa

    1999-01-01

    The department GFA (Grossforschungsanlagen, Large Research Facilities) has been established in October 1998 and its main duty is operation, maintenance and development of the PSI accelerators, the spallation neutron source and the beam transport systems for pions and muons. A large effort of this group concerns the planning and co-ordination of the assembly of the Swiss Light Source (SLS). (author)

  2. Very Large Data Volumes Analysis of Collaborative Systems with Finite Number of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Ion; Ciurea, Cristian; Pavel, Sorin

    2010-01-01

    The collaborative system with finite number of states is defined. A very large database is structured. Operations on large databases are identified. Repetitive procedures for collaborative systems operations are derived. The efficiency of such procedures is analyzed. (Contains 6 tables, 5 footnotes and 3 figures.)

  3. Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970

    Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

  4. The Cost of Becoming an Outdoor Instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashel, Chris

    This article describes instructor criteria in three outdoor organizations: Outward Bound (OB), the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS), and the Wilderness Education Association (WEA). Common requirements for outdoor leadership programs are outdoor experience and skills, advanced first aid, CPR, and a minimum age requirement. Traditionally…

  5. 9 CFR 3.27 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.27 Section 3.27... Pigs and Hamsters Facilities and Operating Standards § 3.27 Facilities, outdoor. (a) Hamsters shall not be housed in outdoor facilities. (b) Guinea pigs shall not be housed in outdoor facilities unless...

  6. Resuscitation of a Polytraumatized Patient with Large Volume Crystalloid-Colloid Infusions – Correlation Between Global and Regional Hemodynamics: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lončarić-Katušin, Mirjana; Belavić, Matija; Žunić, Josip; Gučanin, Snježana; Žilić, Antonio; Korać, Želimir

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive large volume resuscitation is obligatory to achieve necessary tissue oxygenation. An adequate venous preload normalizes global hemodynamics and avoids multiorgan failure (MOF) and death in patients with multiple injuries. Large volume resuscitation is associated with complications in minimally monitored patients. A properly guided resuscitation procedure will finally prevent MOF and patient death. Transpulmonary thermodilution technique and gastric tonometry are used in venous prel...

  7. Environmental gamma radiation monitoring system with a large volume air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Strachotinsky, C.; Witzani, J.

    1986-01-01

    An improved environmental monitoring system has been designed and tested consisting of an ionization chamber with 120 l sensitive volume, operated at atmospheric pressure, and a commercial electrometer amplifier with digital voltmeter. The system is controlled by a desk calculator with printer for automated operation and calculation of dose and doserate. The ionization chamber provides superior dosimetric performance as compared to usual GM-counters and high pressure chambers. The system has been field-tested during the 'European Intercomparison Programme for Environmental Monitoring Instruments' organized by the Commission of the European Communities. (Author)

  8. Large-Scale Context-Aware Volume Navigation using Dynamic Insets

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Awami, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Latest developments in electron microscopy (EM) technology produce high resolution images that enable neuro-scientists to identify and put together the complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, because of the massive size and underlying complexity of this kind of data, processing, navigation and analysis suffer drastically in terms of time and effort. In this work, we propose the use of state-of- the-art navigation techniques, such as dynamic insets, built on a peta-scale volume visualization framework to provide focus and context-awareness to help neuro-scientists in their mission to analyze, reconstruct, navigate and explore EM neuroscience data.

  9. CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of whether you’re a fan of the "beautiful game", you’ve probably heard that the CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011 is the sporting event of the year for the CERN Football Club. This unmissable social, cultural and sporting event will be a chance for CERNois to mingle with external visitors. In the 2011 edition of this legendary tournament, which is over 45 years old, the principle of “fair play” is once again on display. Ten teams – 8 from CERN – are competing for the CFC title. The tournament concludes with a final on 7 July final. Along with a thrilling match, there will also be a host of festivities for the final, including an exhibition game, the final awards ceremony, surprise gifts, a barbeque, musical performances, and more! Make sure to highlight 7 July (after 18.00) on your agenda, and take advantage of what will surely be an unforgettable day! The final tournament matches have been in progress since April and are ...

  10. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific and Technical Report 1999. Volume VI: Large Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, Fereydoun; Bercher, Renate; Buechli, Carmen; Meyer, Rosa [eds.

    2000-07-01

    The department GFA (Grossforschungsanlagen, Large Research Facilities) has been established in October 1998. Its main duty is operation, maintenance and development of the PSI accelerators, the spallation neutron source and the beam transport systems for pions and muons. A large effort of this group concerns the planning and co-ordination of new projects like e.g. the assembly of the synchrotron light source (SLS), design studies of a new proton therapy facility, the ultracold neutron source and a new intensive secondary beam line for low energy muons. A large fraction of this report is devoted to research especially in the field of materials Science. The studies include large scale molecular dynamics computer simulations on the elastic and plastic behavior of nanostructured metals, complemented by experimental mechanical testing using micro-indentation and miniaturized tensile testing, as well as microstructural characterisation and strain field mapping of metallic coatings and thin ceramic layers, the latter done with synchrotron radiation.

  11. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific and Technical Report 1999. Volume VI: Large Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroughi, Fereydoun; Bercher, Renate; Buechli, Carmen; Meyer, Rosa

    2000-01-01

    The department GFA (Grossforschungsanlagen, Large Research Facilities) has been established in October 1998. Its main duty is operation, maintenance and development of the PSI accelerators, the spallation neutron source and the beam transport systems for pions and muons. A large effort of this group concerns the planning and co-ordination of new projects like e.g. the assembly of the synchrotron light source (SLS), design studies of a new proton therapy facility, the ultracold neutron source and a new intensive secondary beam line for low energy muons. A large fraction of this report is devoted to research especially in the field of materials Science. The studies include large scale molecular dynamics computer simulations on the elastic and plastic behavior of nanostructured metals, complemented by experimental mechanical testing using micro-indentation and miniaturized tensile testing, as well as microstructural characterisation and strain field mapping of metallic coatings and thin ceramic layers, the latter done with synchrotron radiation

  12. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume VI: Large Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Guenter; Bercher, Renate; Buechli, Carmen; Foroughi, Fereydoun; Meyer, Rosa [eds.

    1999-09-01

    The department GFA (Grossforschungsanlagen, Large Research Facilities) has been established in October 1998 and its main duty is operation, maintenance and development of the PSI accelerators, the spallation neutron source and the beam transport systems for pions and muons. A large effort of this group concerns the planning and co-ordination of the assembly of the Swiss Light Source (SLS). (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  13. Nuclear waste calorimeter for very large drums with 385 litres sample volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jossens, G.; Mathonat, C. [SETARAM Instrumentation, Caluire (France); Bachelet, F. [CEA Valduc, Is sur Tille (France)

    2015-03-15

    Calorimetry is a very precise and well adapted tool for the classification of drums containing nuclear waste material depending on their level of activities (low, medium, high). A new calorimeter has been developed by SETARAM Instrumentation and the CEA Valduc in France. This new calorimeter is designed for drums having a volume bigger than 100 liters. It guarantees high operator safety by optimizing drum handling and air circulation for cooling, and optimized software for direct measurement of the quantity of nuclear material. The LVC1380 calorimeter makes it possible to work over the range 10 to 3000 mW, which corresponds to approximately 0.03 to 10 g of tritium or 3 to 955 g of {sup 241}Pu in a volume up to 385 liters. This calorimeter is based on the heat flow measurement using Peltier elements which surround the drum in the 3 dimensions and therefore measure all the heat coming from the radioactive stuff whatever its position inside the drum. Calorimeter's insulating layers constitute a thermal barrier designed to filter disturbances until they represent less than 0.001 Celsius degrees and to eliminate long term disturbances associated, for example, with laboratory temperature variations between day and night. A calibration device based on Joule effect has also been designed. Measurement time has been optimized but remains long compared with other methods of measurement such as gamma spectrometry but its main asset is to have a good accuracy for low level activities.

  14. Non-equilibrium Inertial Separation Array for High-throughput, Large-volume Blood Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Baris R; Smith, Kyle C; Edd, Jon F; Nadar, Priyanka; Dlamini, Mcolisi; Kapur, Ravi; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-08-30

    Microfluidic blood processing is used in a range of applications from cancer therapeutics to infectious disease diagnostics. As these applications are being translated to clinical use, processing larger volumes of blood in shorter timescales with high-reliability and robustness is becoming a pressing need. In this work, we report a scaled, label-free cell separation mechanism called non-equilibrium inertial separation array (NISA). The NISA mechanism consists of an array of islands that exert a passive inertial lift force on proximate cells, thus enabling gentler manipulation of the cells without the need of physical contact. As the cells follow their size-based, deterministic path to their equilibrium positions, a preset fraction of the flow is siphoned to separate the smaller cells from the main flow. The NISA device was used to fractionate 400 mL of whole blood in less than 3 hours, and produce an ultrapure buffy coat (96.6% white blood cell yield, 0.0059% red blood cell carryover) by processing whole blood at 3 mL/min, or ∼300 million cells/second. This device presents a feasible alternative for fractionating blood for transfusion, cellular therapy and blood-based diagnostics, and could significantly improve the sensitivity of rare cell isolation devices by increasing the processed whole blood volume.

  15. Construction and Start-up of a Large-Volume Thermostat for Dielectric-Constant Gas Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlone, A.; Moro, F.; Zandt, T.; Gaiser, C.; Fellmuth, B.

    2010-07-01

    A liquid-bath thermostat with a volume of about 800 L was designed to provide a suitable thermal environment for a dielectric-constant gas thermometer (DCGT) in the range from the triple point of mercury to the melting point of gallium. In the article, results obtained with the unique, huge thermostat without the DCGT measuring chamber are reported to demonstrate the capability of controlling the temperature of very large systems at a metrological level. First tests showed that the bath together with its temperature controller provide a temperature variation of less than ±0.5mK peak-to-peak. This temperature instability could be maintained over a period of several days. In the central working volume (diameter—500mm, height—650mm), in which the vacuum chamber containing the measuring system of the DCGT will be placed later, the temperature inhomogeneity has been demonstrated to be also well below 1mK.

  16. Glass-covering of large building volumes. An interdisciplinary evaluation of a shopping centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeman, R [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Technology

    1994-12-31

    Systematized experiences of the function of large glass-covered spaces related to shopping centres, hotels, office buildings etc. are still relatively limited. With the glazed pedestrian precincts of the rebuilt Skaerholmen Centre in Stockholm as the main object of interdisciplinary studies, the aim of this thesis is to provide additional knowledge of large glass-covered spaces (atrium buildings). The studies comprises thermal comfort, temperature conditions, ventilation, energy balance, humidity - mycology, acoustics, operation - maintenance - durability and sociology. To sum up, it is clear that in the Scandinavian climate there is every likelihood of large glass-covered spaces in the public places functioning well from a technical as well as a social point of view. The energy consumption on heating the whole complex, based on theoretical calculations and measurement, is shown to have been reduced by the order of 10%. figs., tabs., refs.

  17. Large-volume heat storage tank made of GFK; Grosswaermespeichertank aus GFK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehl, J.; Schultheis, P. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    1998-12-31

    The Technical University of Ilmenau, the company Verbundwerkstoff- und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn, the Institute for Aerospace and Light-weight construction of Dresden University with its approved testing facilities for plastics and the Institute for Construction Engineering in Berlin and several other institutions co-operated since 1996 in developing a concept for a series of long-term heat storage tanks up to 6,000 cubic metres storage volume made of plastic (GFK components) with a combined thermal insulation. A model tank (sandwich body with proportional thermal insulation layer and selected mixed laminates) with a volume of 1.5 cubic metres was built and installed in November 1996. The tank has been continuously operated at various test levels. The experiment proves the longevity of the materials used. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Zusammenarbeit der TU Ilmenau mit der Fa. Verbundwerkstoff - und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn und dem Institut fuer Luftfahrttechnik und Leichtbau Dresden, seiner akkredierten Pruefstelle fuer Kunststoffe, in Abstimmung mit dem Institut fuer Bautechnik Berlin und weiteren Einrichtungen und Partnern wird seit 1996 an einem Konzept fuer eine Typenreihe Langzeitwaermespeicher bis vorerst 6.000 m{sup 3} Speichervolumen aus Kunststoff (GFK-Komponenten) und kombinierter integrierter thermischer Isolation gearbeitet. Im Vorfeld dieser Entwicklung wurde auf der Basis vorausgewaehlter Materialien und Kompositionen ein Musterspeicher (ein Sandwich - Modellkoerper mit proportionaler Waermedaemmschicht sowie ausgewaehlten Mischlaminaten) mit einem Speichervolumen von 1,5 m{sup 3} realisiert. Dieser Musterspeicher wurde im November 1996 installiert und wird seither kontinuierlich in den entsprechenden Erprobungsstufen betrieben. Der Nachweis der Langlebigkeit der eingesetzten Materialien wurde experimentell erbracht. (orig.)

  18. A large volume striped bass egg incubation chamber: design and comparison with a traditional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    I conducted a comparative study of a new jar design (experimental chamber) with a standard egg incubation vessel (McDonald jar). Experimental chambers measured 0.4 m in diameter by 1.3 m in height and had a volume of 200 L. McDonald hatching jars measured 16 cm in diameter by 45 cm in height and had a volume of 6 L. Post-hatch survival was estimated at 48, 96 and 144 h. Stocking rates resulted in an average egg density of 21.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 21.6 – 22.1) for McDonald jars and 10.9 eggs ml-1 (range = 7.0 – 16.8) for experimental chambers. I was unable to detect an effect of container type on survival to 48, 96 or 144 h. At 144 h striped bass fry survival averaged 37.3% for McDonald jars and 34.2% for experimental chambers. Survival among replicates was significantly different. Survival of striped bass significantly decreased between 96 and 144 h. Mean survival among replicates ranged from 12.4 to 57.3%. I was unable to detect an effect of initial stocking density on survival. Experimental jars allow for incubation of a larger number of eggs in a much smaller space. As hatchery production is often limited by space or water supply, experimental chambers offer an alternative to extending spawning activities, thereby reducing manpower and cost. However, the increase in the number of eggs per rearing container does increase the risk associated with catastrophic loss of a production unit. I conclude the experimental chamber is suitable for striped bass egg incubation.

  19. The BREAST-V: a unifying predictive formula for volume assessment in small, medium, and large breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Benedetto; Farcomeni, Alessio; Ferri, Germano; Campanale, Antonella; Sorotos, Micheal; Santanelli, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    Breast volume assessment enhances preoperative planning of both aesthetic and reconstructive procedures, helping the surgeon in the decision-making process of shaping the breast. Numerous methods of breast size determination are currently reported but are limited by methodologic flaws and variable estimations. The authors aimed to develop a unifying predictive formula for volume assessment in small to large breasts based on anthropomorphic values. Ten anthropomorphic breast measurements and direct volumes of 108 mastectomy specimens from 88 women were collected prospectively. The authors performed a multivariate regression to build the optimal model for development of the predictive formula. The final model was then internally validated. A previously published formula was used as a reference. Mean (±SD) breast weight was 527.9 ± 227.6 g (range, 150 to 1250 g). After model selection, sternal notch-to-nipple, inframammary fold-to-nipple, and inframammary fold-to-fold projection distances emerged as the most important predictors. The resulting formula (the BREAST-V) showed an adjusted R of 0.73. The estimated expected absolute error on new breasts is 89.7 g (95 percent CI, 62.4 to 119.1 g) and the expected relative error is 18.4 percent (95 percent CI, 12.9 to 24.3 percent). Application of reference formula on the sample yielded worse predictions than those derived by the formula, showing an R of 0.55. The BREAST-V is a reliable tool for predicting small to large breast volumes accurately for use as a complementary device in surgeon evaluation. An app entitled BREAST-V for both iOS and Android devices is currently available for free download in the Apple App Store and Google Play Store. Diagnostic, II.

  20. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    The program of experiments conducted at Griffiss Air Force Base was devised to expand the understanding of large underground storage tank behavior as it impacts the performance of volumetric leak detection testing. The report addresses three important questions about testing the ...

  1. Prognostic value of defining the systemic tumor volume with FDG-PET in diffuse large b cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Byung Hyun; Lim, Sang Moo; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Kang, Hye Jin; Na, Im Il; Ryoo, Baek Yeol; Yang, Sung Hyun

    2007-01-01

    We measured the systemic tumor volume using FDG-PET in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBL). We also investigated its prognostic role, and compared it with that of other prognostic factors. FDG PET was performed in 38 newly diagnosed DLBL patients (20 men, 18 women, age 55.715.1 years) at pre-treatment of chemotherapy. Clinical staging of lymphoma was evaluated by Ann Arbor system. On each FDG PET scan, we acquired volume of interest (VOl) at the cut-off value of SUV=2.5 in every measurable tumor by the automatic edge detection software. According to the VOI, we measured the metabolic volume and mean SUV, and estimated volume-activity indexes (SUV Vol) as mean SUV times metabolic volume. And then, we calculated the summed metabolic volume (VOLsum) and summed SUV Vol (SUV Volsum) in every FDG PET scan. Maximum SUV of involved lesion (SUVmax) was also acquired on each FDG PET scan. Time to treatment failure (TTF) was compared among VOLsum (median), SUV Volsum (median), SUVmax (median), clinical stage, gender, age, LDH, and performance status-assigned response designations by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Initial stages of DLBL patients were stage I in 4, II in 14, III in 15, and IV in 4 by Ann Arbor system. Median follow up period was 15.5months, and estimated mean TTF was 22.3 months. Univariate analysis demonstrated that TTF is statistically significantly reduced in those with high VOLsum (>215.1cm2, p=0.004), high SUV Volsum (>1577.5, p=0.003), and increased LDH (p=0.036). TTF did not correlate with SUVmax (p=0.571), clinical stage (p=0.194), gender (p=0.549), and age (p=0.128), and performance status =2 (p=0.074). Multivariate analysis using VOLsum, SUV Volsum, LDH, and performance status demonstrated no statistically significant predictor of TTF (p>0.05). Systemic tumor volume measurement using FDG-PET is suggestive to be the significant prognostic factor in patients with DLBL

  2. Ultra-large scale AFM of lipid droplet arrays: investigating the ink transfer volume in dip pen nanolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Förste, Alexander; Pfirrmann, Marco; Sachs, Johannes; Gröger, Roland; Walheim, Stefan; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Schimmel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    There are only few quantitative studies commenting on the writing process in dip-pen nanolithography with lipids. Lipids are important carrier ink molecules for the delivery of bio-functional patters in bio-nanotechnology. In order to better understand and control the writing process, more information on the transfer of lipid material from the tip to the substrate is needed. The dependence of the transferred ink volume on the dwell time of the tip on the substrate was investigated by topography measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) that is characterized by an ultra-large scan range of 800 × 800 μm 2 . For this purpose arrays of dots of the phospholipid1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were written onto planar glass substrates and the resulting pattern was imaged by large scan area AFM. Two writing regimes were identified, characterized of either a steady decline or a constant ink volume transfer per dot feature. For the steady state ink transfer, a linear relationship between the dwell time and the dot volume was determined, which is characterized by a flow rate of about 16 femtoliters per second. A dependence of the ink transport from the length of pauses before and in between writing the structures was observed and should be taken into account during pattern design when aiming at best writing homogeneity. The ultra-large scan range of the utilized AFM allowed for a simultaneous study of the entire preparation area of almost 1 mm 2 , yielding good statistic results. (paper)

  3. Soft SUSY breaking parameters and RG running of squark and slepton masses in large volume Swiss Cheese compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-01-01

    We consider type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss Cheese Calabi-Yau WCP 4 [1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the 'big' divisor Σ B (as opposed to the 'small' divisor usually done in the literature thus far) as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. After reviewing our proposal of (Misra and Shukla, 2010) for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology pertaining to obtaining a 10 12 GeV gravitino in the inflationary era and a TeV gravitino in the present era, and summarizing our results of (Misra and Shukla, 2010) on soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses, we discuss the one-loop RG running of the squark and slepton masses in mSUGRA-like models (using the running of the gaugino masses) to the EW scale in the large volume limit. Phenomenological constraints and some of the calculated soft SUSY parameters identify the D7-brane Wilson line moduli as the first two generations/families of squarks and sleptons and the D3-brane (restricted to the big divisor) position moduli as the two Higgses for MSSM-like models at TeV scale. We also discuss how the obtained open-string/matter moduli make it easier to impose FCNC constraints, as well as RG flow of off-diagonal squark mass(-squared) matrix elements.

  4. Soft SUSY breaking parameters and RG running of squark and slepton masses in large volume Swiss Cheese compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-03-01

    We consider type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss Cheese Calabi-Yau WCP[1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the “big” divisor ΣB (as opposed to the “small” divisor usually done in the literature thus far) as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. After reviewing our proposal of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology pertaining to obtaining a 10 GeV gravitino in the inflationary era and a TeV gravitino in the present era, and summarizing our results of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) on soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses, we discuss the one-loop RG running of the squark and slepton masses in mSUGRA-like models (using the running of the gaugino masses) to the EW scale in the large volume limit. Phenomenological constraints and some of the calculated soft SUSY parameters identify the D7-brane Wilson line moduli as the first two generations/families of squarks and sleptons and the D3-brane (restricted to the big divisor) position moduli as the two Higgses for MSSM-like models at TeV scale. We also discuss how the obtained open-string/matter moduli make it easier to impose FCNC constraints, as well as RG flow of off-diagonal squark mass(-squared) matrix elements.

  5. the Preliminary Research Based on Seismic Signals Generated by Hutubi Transmitting Seismic Station with One Large-volume Airgun Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Su, J.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, W.; Wang, H.; Wang, B.; Ji, Z.

    2017-12-01

    For studying the subsurface structure and its subtle changes, we built the Hutubi transmitting seismic station with one large-volume airgun array at one artificial water pool in the northern segment of Tianshan mountain, where earthquakes occurred frequently. The airgun array consists of six airguns with every airgun capacity of 2000in3, and the artificial water pool with the top diameter of 100m, bottom diameter of 20m and the depth of 18m.We started the regular excitation experiment with the large-volume airgun source every week since June, 2013. Using seismic signals geneated by the Hutubi airgun source, we made the preliminary research on the airgun source, waveform characteristics and the subsurface velocity changes in the northern Tiansh mountain. The results are as follows: The seismic signal exited by the airgun source is characteristic of low-frequency ,and the dominant frequency is in the range of 2 6Hz. The Hutubi transmitting seismic station can continuously generate long-distance detectable and highly repeatable signals, and the correlation coefficient of sigals is greater than 0.95; and the longest propagation distance arrives to 380km, in addition, the 5000-shot stacked sigal using the phase weighted stack technique can be identified in the station, which is about 1300km from the Hutubi transmitting seismic station. Hutubi large-volume airgun source is fitted to detect and monitor the regional-scale subsurface stress state. Applying correlation test method, we measured weak subsurface velocity changes in the northern Tianshan mountain, and found that the several stations, which are within 150km from the the Hutubi transmitting seismic station, appeared 0.1 0.2% relative velocity changes before the Hutubi MS6.2 earthquake on Dec.8, 2016.

  6. Percutaneous Image-Guided Cryoablation of Challenging Mediastinal Lesions Using Large-Volume Hydrodissection: Technical Considerations and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: Guillaume.koch@gmail.com; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: caudjean@yahoo.fr [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: Nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Rao, Pramod, E-mail: pramodrao@me.com [University of Strasbourg, ICube (France); Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: Georgia.tsoumakidou@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: cazzatorobertoluigi@gmail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: Afshin.gangi@chru-strasbourg.fr [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

    2016-11-15

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to describe the technique of percutaneous image-guided cryoablation with large-volume hydrodissection for the treatment of challenging mediastinal lesions.MethodsBetween March 2014 and June 2015, three patients (mean age 62.7 years) with four neoplastic anterior mediastinal lesions underwent five cryoablation procedures using large-volume hydrodissection. Procedures were performed under general anaesthesia using CT guidance. Lesion characteristics, hydrodissection and cryoablation data, technical success, complications, and clinical outcomes were assessed using retrospective chart review.ResultsLesions (mean size 2.7 cm; range 2–4.3 cm) were in contact with great vessels (n = 13), trachea (n = 3), and mediastinal nerves (n = 6). Hydrodissection was performed intercostally (n = 4), suprasternally (n = 2), transsternally (n = 1), or via the sternoclavicular joint (n = 1) using 1–3 spinal needles over 13.4 (range 7–26) minutes; 450 ml of dilute contrast was injected (range 300–600 ml) and increased mean lesion-collateral structure distance from 1.9 to 7.7 mm. Vulnerable mediastinal nerves were identified in four of five procedures. Technical success was 100 %, with one immediate complication (recurrent laryngeal nerve injury). Mean follow-up period was 15 months. One lesion demonstrated residual disease on restaging PET-CT and was retreated to achieve complete ablation. At last follow-up, two patients remained disease-free, and one patient developed distant disease after 1 year without local recurrence.ConclusionsCryoablation using large-volume hydrodissection is a feasible technique, enabling safe and effective treatment of challenging mediastinal lesions.

  7. Ultra-large scale AFM of lipid droplet arrays: investigating the ink transfer volume in dip pen nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förste, Alexander; Pfirrmann, Marco; Sachs, Johannes; Gröger, Roland; Walheim, Stefan; Brinkmann, Falko; Hirtz, Michael; Fuchs, Harald; Schimmel, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    There are only few quantitative studies commenting on the writing process in dip-pen nanolithography with lipids. Lipids are important carrier ink molecules for the delivery of bio-functional patters in bio-nanotechnology. In order to better understand and control the writing process, more information on the transfer of lipid material from the tip to the substrate is needed. The dependence of the transferred ink volume on the dwell time of the tip on the substrate was investigated by topography measurements with an atomic force microscope (AFM) that is characterized by an ultra-large scan range of 800 × 800 μm2. For this purpose arrays of dots of the phospholipid1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were written onto planar glass substrates and the resulting pattern was imaged by large scan area AFM. Two writing regimes were identified, characterized of either a steady decline or a constant ink volume transfer per dot feature. For the steady state ink transfer, a linear relationship between the dwell time and the dot volume was determined, which is characterized by a flow rate of about 16 femtoliters per second. A dependence of the ink transport from the length of pauses before and in between writing the structures was observed and should be taken into account during pattern design when aiming at best writing homogeneity. The ultra-large scan range of the utilized AFM allowed for a simultaneous study of the entire preparation area of almost 1 mm2, yielding good statistic results.

  8. Reirradiation of Large-Volume Recurrent Glioma With Pulsed Reduced-Dose-Rate Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkison, Jarrod B.; Tome, Wolfgang; Seo, Songwon; Richards, Gregory M.; Robins, H. Ian; Rassmussen, Karl; Welsh, James S.; Mahler, Peter A.; Howard, Steven P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Pulsed reduced-dose-rate radiotherapy (PRDR) is a reirradiation technique that reduces the effective dose rate and increases the treatment time, allowing sublethal damage repair during irradiation. Patients and Methods: A total of 103 patients with recurrent glioma underwent reirradiation using PRDR (86 considered to have Grade 4 at PRDR). PRDR was delivered using a series of 0.2-Gy pulses at 3-min intervals, creating an apparent dose rate of 0.0667 Gy/min to a median dose of 50 Gy (range, 20-60) delivered in 1.8-2.0-Gy fractions. The mean treatment volume was 403.5 ± 189.4 cm 3 according to T 2 -weighted magnetic resonance imaging and a 2-cm margin. Results: For the initial or upgraded Grade 4 cohort (n = 86), the median interval from the first irradiation to PRDR was 14 months. Patients undergoing PRDR within 14 months of the first irradiation (n = 43) had a median survival of 21 weeks. Those treated ≥14 months after radiotherapy had a median survival of 28 weeks (n = 43; p = 0.004 and HR = 1.82 with a 95% CI ranging from 1.25 to 3.10). These data compared favorably to historical data sets, because only 16% of the patients were treated at first relapse (with 46% treated at the second relapse, 32% at the third or fourth relapse, and 4% at the fourth or fifth relapse). The median survival since diagnosis and retreatment was 6.3 years and 11.4 months for low-grade, 4.1 years and 5.6 months for Grade 3, and 1.6 years and 5.1 months for Grade 4 tumors, respectively, according to the initial histologic findings. Multivariate analysis revealed age at the initial diagnosis, initial low-grade disease, and Karnofsky performance score of ≥80 to be significant predictors of survival after initiation of PRDR. Conclusion: PRDR allowed for safe retreatment of larger volumes to high doses with palliative benefit.

  9. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 1: Executive summary, analyses and trades, and system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative large deployable reflector (LDR) system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume includes the executive summary for the total study, a report of thirteen system analysis and trades tasks (optical configuration, aperture size, reflector material, segmented mirror, optical subsystem, thermal, pointing and control, transportation to orbit, structures, contamination control, orbital parameters, orbital environment, and spacecraft functions), and descriptions of three selected LDR system concepts. Supporting information is contained in appendices.

  10. Implication on the core collapse supernova rate from 21 years of data of the Large Volume Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonova, N Y; Antonioli, P; Ashikhmin, V V; Badino, G.; Bari, G; Bertoni, R; Bressan, E; Bruno, G; Dadykin, V L; Dobrynina, E A; Enikeev, R I; Fulgione, W; Galeotti, P; Garbini, M; Ghia, P L; Giusti, P; Gomez, F; Kemp, E; Malgin, A S; Molinario, A; Persiani, R; Pless, I A; Porta, A; Ryasny, V G; Ryazhskaya, O G; Saavedra, O; Sartorelli, G; Shakiryanova, I R; Selvi, M; Trinchero, G C; Vigorito, C; Yakushev, V F; Zichichi, A

    2015-01-01

    The Large Volume Detector (LVD) has been continuously taking data since 1992 at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory. LVD is sensitive to neutrino bursts from gravitational stellar collapses with full detection probability over the Galaxy. We have searched for neutrino bursts in LVD data taken in 7335 days of operation. No evidence of neutrino signals has been found between June 1992 and December 2013. The 90% C.L. upper limit on the rate of core-collapse and failed supernova explosions out to distances of 25 kpc is found to be 0.114/y.

  11. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems. Volume 3: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Facilities and equipment are defined for refining processes to commercial grade of lunar material that is delivered to a 'space manufacturing facility' in beneficiated, primary processed quality. The manufacturing facilities and the equipment for producing elements of large space systems from these materials and providing programmatic assessments of the concepts are also defined. In-space production processes of solar cells (by vapor deposition) and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, converters, and others are described.

  12. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 1, chapters 1-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1979-01-01

    Space program scenarios for production of large space structures from lunar materials are defined. The concept of the space manufacturing facility (SMF) is presented. The manufacturing processes and equipment for the SMF are defined and the conceptual layouts are described for the production of solar cells and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, and converters. A 'reference' SMF was designed and its operation requirements are described.

  13. Immunoglobulin G levels during collection of large volume plasma for fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Thomas; Rothe, Remo; Moog, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    There is a need of comprehensive work dealing with the quality of plasma for fractionation with respect to the IgG content as today most plasma derivates are used to treat patients with immunodeficiencies and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, a prospective study was carried out to analyse IgG levels before plasmapheresis and every 200ml collected plasma. Fifty-four experienced plasmapheresis donors were recruited for subsequent 850ml plasmapheresis using the Aurora Plasmapheresis System. Donorś peripheral blood counts were analysed before and after plasmapheresis using an electronic counter. Total protein, IgG and citrate were measured turbidometrically before, during and after apheresis as well as in the plasma product. Furthermore, platelets, red and white blood cells were analysed as parameters of product quality. An average of 2751±247ml blood was processed in 47±6min. The collected plasma volume was 850±1mL and citrate consumption was 177±15mL. A continuous drop of donors' IgG level was observed during plasmapheresis. The drop was 13% of the IgG baseline value at 800mL collected plasma. Total protein, IgG and cell counts of the plasma product met current guidelines of plasma for fractionation. Donors' IgG levels during apheresis showed a steady decrease without compromising the quality of plasma product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  15. Hierarchical storage of large volume of multidector CT data using distributed servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman; Rosset, Antoine; Heuberger, Joris; Bandon, David

    2006-03-01

    Multidector scanners and hybrid multimodality scanners have the ability to generate large number of high-resolution images resulting in very large data sets. In most cases, these datasets are generated for the sole purpose of generating secondary processed images and 3D rendered images as well as oblique and curved multiplanar reformatted images. It is therefore not essential to archive the original images after they have been processed. We have developed an architecture of distributed archive servers for temporary storage of large image datasets for 3D rendering and image processing without the need for long term storage in PACS archive. With the relatively low cost of storage devices it is possible to configure these servers to hold several months or even years of data, long enough for allowing subsequent re-processing if required by specific clinical situations. We tested the latest generation of RAID servers provided by Apple computers with a capacity of 5 TBytes. We implemented a peer-to-peer data access software based on our Open-Source image management software called OsiriX, allowing remote workstations to directly access DICOM image files located on the server through a new technology called "bonjour". This architecture offers a seamless integration of multiple servers and workstations without the need for central database or complex workflow management tools. It allows efficient access to image data from multiple workstation for image analysis and visualization without the need for image data transfer. It provides a convenient alternative to centralized PACS architecture while avoiding complex and time-consuming data transfer and storage.

  16. Injury and illness in college outdoor education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Flavio G; Greenwald, Peter W; Holton, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Many colleges offer outdoor education courses such as rock climbing, kayaking, and mountain biking. Since these sports may be perceived as dangerous, we describe the prevalence of injuries and illnesses in a large, university-based outdoor education program. We also compare composite incident rates from this outdoor program to those of traditional college sports. Cohort of college students participating in either Cornell Outdoor Education (COE) or National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports and comparison of incident rates. COE data were prospectively collected in the field; and NCAA data were prospectively collected through the Association's Injury Surveillance System. By definition, a COE injury or illness required follow-up care, prescription medication, or limited course participation. Similarly, a NCAA injury limited further practice or play. Incident rates were calculated as injuries and illnesses per 1000 participant-days (COE) or injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (NCAA). Included COE courses during 2002-2007 totaled 74 005 participant-days. There were 111 injuries and illnesses, rate = 1.50/1000 participant-days (95% CI 1.24-1.81). The NCAA reported 32 646 899 athlete-exposures during 1988-2004 and 181 476 injuries, rate = 5.56/1000 athlete-exposures (95% CI 5.53-5.58). Compared to COE, the relative risk of injury in NCAA sports was 3.7 (95% CI 3.1-4.5) overall and 3.3 (95% CI 2.8-4.0) after excluding the high-contact sports of football, ice hockey, and wrestling. For COE, mountain biking had the highest incident rate (7.5/1000), which was significantly lower than game injury rates in NCAA football and soccer. The most common injuries for both NCAA and COE were soft-tissue injuries such as sprains and strains. Outdoor education at this university-sponsored program was at least as safe as traditional college sports. Overall, college students were less likely to be injured while participating in COE courses than while participating in NCAA sports

  17. Onco plastic volume replacement with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in patients with large ptotic breasts. Is it feasible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Marakby, H.H.; Kotb, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Onco plastic breast conservative surgery has evolved as a safe alternative to the standard mastectomy in the treatment of early breast cancer. The procedure involves tumour resection with an adequate safety margin and either breast reshaping with volume displacement procedures (large or pt otic breasts) or volume replacement with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap (LDF) (small to medium sized non-ptotic breasts). A contra lateral mastopexy procedure is usually necessary with the volume displacement Onco plastic surgery, a procedure that is often rejected by a significant number of patients. This limits the choice of the reconstruction of breast defects in such patients to autologous tissues i.e. LDF. Aim: Aim is to evaluate the feasibility of volume replacement onco plastic breast conservative surgery with lemmatise dorsi myocutaneous flaps for patients with large ptotic breasts. This involves testing the oncologic safety in terms of adequate safety margin, the complications rate and the final cosmetic outcome. The loco regional recurrence rate will be recorded and compared with oncoplastic volume displacement for similar sized breast defects. Patients and methods: A group of 50 female patients with early breast cancers (T2) who presented to the department of surgery at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo, Egypt in the period between carried out in all patient groups and was used to annually follow up the patients. All patients were detected with T2 NO breast cancer by both clinical and radiological examinations. All patients underwent partial mastectomy was and reconstruction with LDFs. Results: The average age at presentation was 46.5 ± 9 years and the range was 26-65 years. Most of the patients were subjected to partial mastectomy in 30 patients (60%), excision of a single quadrant from the four major quadrants was carried out in 15 patients (30%) where skin sparing wide local excision was carried out in only five patients (10%). The safety margin ranged from

  18. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilo, Clara, E-mail: clarabentesgrilo@gmail.com [Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Centro Brasileiro de Estudos em Ecologia de Estradas, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Campus Universitário, 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy [Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into

  19. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilo, Clara; Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into

  20. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific and Technical Report 2000. Volume VI: Large Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroughi, Fereydoun; Bercher, Renate; Buechli, Carmen; Zumkeller, Lotty

    2001-01-01

    The PSI Department Large Research Facilities (GFA) joins the efforts to provide an excellent research environment to Swiss and foreign research groups on the experimental facilities driven by our high intensity proton accelerator complex. Its divisions care for the running, maintenance and enhancement of the accelerator complex, the primary proton beamlines, the targets and the secondary beams as well as the neutron spallation source SINQ. The division for technical support and coordination provides for technical support to the research facility complementary to the basic logistic available from the department for logistics and marketing. Besides running the facilities, the staff of the department is also involved in theoretical and experimental research projects. Some of them address basic scientific questions mainly concerning the properties of micro- or nanostructured materials: experiments as well as large scale computer simulations of molecular dynamics were performed to investigate nonclassical materials properties. Others are related to improvements or extensions of the capabilities of our facilities. We also report on intriguing results from applications of the neutron capture radiography, the prompt gamma activation method and the isotope production facility at SINQ

  1. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific and Technical Report 2000. Volume VI: Large Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foroughi, Fereydoun; Bercher, Renate; Buechli, Carmen; Zumkeller, Lotty [eds.

    2001-07-01

    The PSI Department Large Research Facilities (GFA) joins the efforts to provide an excellent research environment to Swiss and foreign research groups on the experimental facilities driven by our high intensity proton accelerator complex. Its divisions care for the running, maintenance and enhancement of the accelerator complex, the primary proton beamlines, the targets and the secondary beams as well as the neutron spallation source SINQ. The division for technical support and coordination provides for technical support to the research facility complementary to the basic logistic available from the department for logistics and marketing. Besides running the facilities, the staff of the department is also involved in theoretical and experimental research projects. Some of them address basic scientific questions mainly concerning the properties of micro- or nanostructured materials: experiments as well as large scale computer simulations of molecular dynamics were performed to investigate nonclassical materials properties. Others are related to improvements or extensions of the capabilities of our facilities. We also report on intriguing results from applications of the neutron capture radiography, the prompt gamma activation method and the isotope production facility at SINQ.

  2. Radio-chemical dosage of {sup 90}Sr in large volumes of drinking water; Dosage radiochimique du {sup 90}Sr sur des volumes importants d'eaux potables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Patti, F; Bullier, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    I. Principle of the method: 1. Fixing on a resin of all the cations present in the water. 2. Elution using 5 N nitric acid and precipitation of strontium as the carbonate. 3. Concentration of the strontium using the fuming nitric acid method. 4. Purification of the strontium on a resin by selective elution with ammonium citrate. 5. The strontium-90 is measured by separation at the {sup 90}Y equilibrium in the form of the oxalate which is then counted. II. Advantages of the method The concentration of the radio-activity starting from large volumes (100 l) is generally tedious but this method which makes use of a fixation on a cationic resin makes it very simple. The rest of the method consists of a series of simple chemical operations using ion-exchange on resins and coprecipitation. Finally, it is possible to dose stable strontium. (authors) [French] I. Principe du dosage 1. Fixation sur resine de tous les cations presents dans l'eau, 2. Elution par l'acide nitrique 5 N et precipitation du strontium sous forme de carbonate. 3. Concentration du strontium par la methode a l'acide nitrique fumant. 4. Purification du strontium sur resine par elution selective au citrate d'ammonium. 5. Le strontium-90 est dose par separation a l'equilibre du {sup 90}Y sous forme d'oxalate qui est compte. II. Interet de la methode La concentration de la radioactivite a partir de volumes importants (100 l) est generalement fastidieuse, la technique proposee rend cette phase tres simple en utilisant une fixation sur resine cationique. Le reste de la technique est une suite d'operations chimiques simples a realiser, faisant appel a l'echange d'ions sur resine et a la coprecipitation. Enfin, il est possible de realiser le dosage du strontium stable. (auteurs)

  3. Material properties of large-volume cadmium zinc telluride crystals and their relationship to nuclear detector performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.B.; Lund, J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Yoon, H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    The material showing the greatest promise today for production of large-volume gamma-ray spectrometers operable at room temperature is cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Unfortunately, because of deficiencies in the quality of the present material, high-resolution CZT spectrometers have thus far been limited to relatively small dimensions, which makes them inefficient at detecting high photon energies and ineffective for weak radiation signals except in near proximity. To exploit CZT fully, it will be necessary to make substantial improvements in the material quality. Improving the material involves advances in the purity, crystallinity, and control of the electrical compensation mechanism. Sandia National Laboratories, California, in close collaboration with US industry and academia, has initiated efforts to develop a detailed understanding of the underlying material problems limiting the performance of large volume gamma-ray spectrometers and to overcome them through appropriate corrections therein. A variety of analytical and numerical techniques are employed to quantify impurities, compositional and stoichiometric variations, crystallinity, strain, bulk and surface defect states, carrier mobilities and lifetimes, electric field distributions, and contact chemistry. Data from these measurements are correlated with spatial maps of the gamma-ray and alpha particle spectroscopic response to determine improvements in the material purification, crystal growth, detector fabrication, and surface passivation procedures. The results of several analytical techniques will be discussed. The intended accomplishment of this work is to develop a low-cost, high-efficiency CZT spectrometer with an active volume of 5 cm{sup 3} and energy resolution of 1--2% (at 662 keV), which would give the US a new field capability for screening radioactive substances.

  4. SyPRID sampler: A large-volume, high-resolution, autonomous, deep-ocean precision plankton sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Andrew; Kaiser, Carl; Young, Craig M.; Hiebert, Laurel S.; Cole, Eli; Wagner, Jamie K. S.; Van Dover, Cindy Lee

    2017-03-01

    The current standard for large-volume (thousands of cubic meters) zooplankton sampling in the deep sea is the MOCNESS, a system of multiple opening-closing nets, typically lowered to within 50 m of the seabed and towed obliquely to the surface to obtain low-spatial-resolution samples that integrate across 10 s of meters of water depth. The SyPRID (Sentry Precision Robotic Impeller Driven) sampler is an innovative, deep-rated (6000 m) plankton sampler that partners with the Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to obtain paired, large-volume plankton samples at specified depths and survey lines to within 1.5 m of the seabed and with simultaneous collection of sensor data. SyPRID uses a perforated Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight (UHMW) plastic tube to support a fine mesh net within an outer carbon composite tube (tube-within-a-tube design), with an axial flow pump located aft of the capture filter. The pump facilitates flow through the system and reduces or possibly eliminates the bow wave at the mouth opening. The cod end, a hollow truncated cone, is also made of UHMW plastic and includes a collection volume designed to provide an area where zooplankton can collect, out of the high flow region. SyPRID attaches as a saddle-pack to the Sentry vehicle. Sentry itself is configured with a flight control system that enables autonomous survey paths to low altitudes. In its verification deployment at the Blake Ridge Seep (2160 m) on the US Atlantic Margin, SyPRID was operated for 6 h at an altitude of 5 m. It recovered plankton samples, including delicate living larvae, from the near-bottom stratum that is seldom sampled by a typical MOCNESS tow. The prototype SyPRID and its next generations will enable studies of plankton or other particulate distributions associated with localized physico-chemical strata in the water column or above patchy habitats on the seafloor.

  5. Material properties of large-volume cadmium zinc telluride crystals and their relationship to nuclear detector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.B.; Lund, J.; Yoon, H.

    1997-01-01

    The material showing the greatest promise today for production of large-volume gamma-ray spectrometers operable at room temperature is cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Unfortunately, because of deficiencies in the quality of the present material, high-resolution CZT spectrometers have thus far been limited to relatively small dimensions, which makes them inefficient at detecting high photon energies and ineffective for weak radiation signals except in near proximity. To exploit CZT fully, it will be necessary to make substantial improvements in the material quality. Improving the material involves advances in the purity, crystallinity, and control of the electrical compensation mechanism. Sandia National Laboratories, California, in close collaboration with US industry and academia, has initiated efforts to develop a detailed understanding of the underlying material problems limiting the performance of large volume gamma-ray spectrometers and to overcome them through appropriate corrections therein. A variety of analytical and numerical techniques are employed to quantify impurities, compositional and stoichiometric variations, crystallinity, strain, bulk and surface defect states, carrier mobilities and lifetimes, electric field distributions, and contact chemistry. Data from these measurements are correlated with spatial maps of the gamma-ray and alpha particle spectroscopic response to determine improvements in the material purification, crystal growth, detector fabrication, and surface passivation procedures. The results of several analytical techniques will be discussed. The intended accomplishment of this work is to develop a low-cost, high-efficiency CZT spectrometer with an active volume of 5 cm 3 and energy resolution of 1--2% (at 662 keV), which would give the US a new field capability for screening radioactive substances

  6. SU-F-T-538: CyberKnife with MLC for Treatment of Large Volume Tumors: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichay, T; Mayville, A [Mercy Health, Saint Mary’s, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: CyberKnife is a well-documented modality for SRS and SBRT treatments. Typical tumors are small and 1–5 fractions are usually used. We determined the feasibility of using CyberKnife, with an InCise multileaf collimator option, for larger tumors undergoing standard dose and fractionation. The intent was to understand the limitation of using this modality for other external beam radiation treatments. Methods: Five tumors from different anatomical sites with volumes from 127.8 cc to 1,320.5 cc were contoured and planned on a Multiplan V5.1 workstation. The target average diameter ranged from 7 cm to 13 cm. The dose fractionation was 1.8–2.0 Gy/fraction and 25–45 fractions for total doses of 45–81 Gy. The sites planned were: pancreas, head and neck, prostate, anal, and esophagus. The plans were optimized to meet conventional dose constraints based on various RTOG protocols for conventional fractionation. Results: The Multiplan treatment planning system successfully generated clinically acceptable plans for all sites studied. The resulting dose distributions achieved reasonable target coverage, all greater than 95%, and satisfactory normal tissue sparing. Treatment times ranged from 9 minutes to 38 minutes, the longest being a head and neck plan with dual targets receiving different doses and with multiple adjacent critical structures. Conclusion: CyberKnife, with the InCise multileaf collimation option, can achieve acceptable dose distributions in large volume tumors treated with conventional dose and fractionation. Although treatment times are greater than conventional accelerator time; target coverage and dose to critical structures can be kept within a clinically acceptable range. While time limitations exist, when necessary CyberKnife can provide an alternative to traditional treatment modalities for large volume tumors.

  7. Large volume unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: acute toxicity and initial outcome results with rapid arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report acute toxicity, initial outcome results and planning therapeutic parameters in radiation treatment of advanced lung cancer (stage III with volumetric modulated arcs using RapidArc (RA. Methods Twenty-four consecutive patients were treated with RA. All showed locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer with stage IIIA-IIIB and with large volumes (GTV:299 ± 175 cm3, PTV:818 ± 206 cm3. Dose prescription was 66Gy in 33 fractions to mean PTV. Delivery was performed with two partial arcs with a 6 MV photon beam. Results From a dosimetric point of view, RA allowed us to respect most planning objectives on target volumes and organs at risk. In particular: for GTV D1% = 105.6 ± 1.7%, D99% = 96.7 ± 1.8%, D5%-D95% = 6.3 ± 1.4%; contra-lateral lung mean dose resulted in 13.7 ± 3.9Gy, for spinal cord D1% = 39.5 ± 4.0Gy, for heart V45Gy = 9.0 ± 7.0Gy, for esophagus D1% = 67.4 ± 2.2Gy. Delivery time was 133 ± 7s. At three months partial remission > 50% was observed in 56% of patients. Acute toxicities at 3 months showed 91% with grade 1 and 9% with grade 2 esophageal toxicity; 18% presented grade 1 and 9% with grade 2 pneumonia; no grade 3 acute toxicity was observed. The short follow-up does not allow assessment of local control and progression free survival. Conclusions RA proved to be a safe and advantageous treatment modality for NSCLC with large volumes. Long term observation of patients is needed to assess outcome and late toxicity.

  8. Potential of electrical gas discharges for pollution control of large gas volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U.

    1997-01-01

    Non-equilibrium gas discharges in many cases offer an innovative approach to the solution cf industrial air pollution problems. Negative corona discharges are used in electrostatic precipitators to collect dust and fly ash particles. Pulsed positive streamer coronas, dielectric-barrier discharges and possibly also flow-stabilised high pressure glow discharges are emerging technologies for the destruction of air pollutants like nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide in flue gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in industrial effluents. The different discharge types are discussed with special emphasis on their potential for upscaling. Major applications are expected particularly in the removal of dilute concentrations of air pollutants, in odour control and in the simultaneous removal of different pollutants. Dielectric-barrier discharges exhibit disposal efficiencies similar to those of pulsed positive streamer coronas and require less sophisticated feeding circuits in large-scale industrial applications. (author)

  9. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 2: Technology demonstration test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of four large composite multirow bolted joint tests are presented. The tests were conducted to demonstrate the technology for critical joints in highly loaded composite structure and to verify the analytical methods that were developed throughout the program. The test consisted of a wing skin-stringer transition specimen representing a stringer runout and skin splice on the wing lower surface at the side of the fuselage attachment. All tests were static tension tests. The composite material was Toray T-300 fiber with Ciba-Geigy 914 resin in 10 mil tape form. The splice members were metallic, using combinations of aluminum and titanium. Discussions are given of the test article, instrumentation, test setup, test procedures, and test results for each of the four specimens. Some of the analytical predictions are also included.

  10. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. In fulfilling this objective, analytical procedures for joint design and analysis were developed during Phase 1 of the program. Tests were conducted at the element level to supply the empirical data required for methods development. Large composite multirow joints were tested to verify the selected design concepts and for correlation with analysis predictions. The Phase 2 program included additional tests to provide joint design and analysis data, and culminated with several technology demonstration tests of a major joint area representative of a commercial transport wing. The technology demonstration program of Phase 2 is discussed. The analysis methodology development, structural test program, and correlation between test results and analytical strength predictions are reviewed.

  11. Periodic long-range transport in a large volume dc glow discharge dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Edward Jr.; Amatucci, William E.; Compton, Christopher; Christy, Brian; Jackson, Jon David

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper, the authors reported on observations of a variety of particle transport phenomena observed in DUPLEX--the DUsty PLasma EXperiment at the Naval Research Laboratory [E. Thomas, Jr., W. E. Amatucci, C. Compton, and B. Christy, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3154 (2002)]. DUPLEX is a large, transparent polycarbonate cylinder that is 40 cm in radius and 80 cm in height. dc glow discharge argon plasmas are generated in DUPLEX. In this paper, the authors expand upon one particular feature of particle transport in DUPLEX, the long-range (i.e., greater than 15 cm), periodic (T∼2.5 min) transport of suspended alumina particles through the plasma. A detailed description of this particle motion through the plasma is presented. Finally, a qualitative model describing the phenomena that lead to this transport is also given

  12. Connecting to the Good Life through Outdoor Adventure Leadership Experiences Designed for Indigenous Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen D.; Wabano, Mary Jo; Corbiere, Rita G.; Restoule, Brenda M.; Russell, Keith C.; Young, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous voices are largely silent in the outdoor education and adventure therapy literature. The purpose of this research collaboration was to understand how a 10-day outdoor adventure leadership experience (OALE) may promote resilience and well-being for Indigenous youth through their participation in the program. The process was examined…

  13. Marvel-ous Dwarfs: Results from Four Heroically Large Simulated Volumes of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Ferah; Brooks, Alyson; Weisz, Daniel; Bellovary, Jillian; Christensen, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    We present results from high resolution, fully cosmological simulations of cosmic sheets that contain many dwarf galaxies. Together, they create the largest collection of simulated dwarf galaxies to date, with z=0 stellar masses comparable to the LMC or smaller. In total, we have simulated almost 100 luminous dwarf galaxies, forming a sample of simulated dwarfs which span a wide range of physical (stellar and halo mass) and evolutionary properties (merger history). We show how they can be calibrated against a wealth of observations of nearby galaxies including star formation histories, HI masses and kinematics, as well as stellar metallicities. We present preliminary results answering the following key questions: What is the slope of the stellar mass function at extremely low masses? Do halos with HI and no stars exist? What is the scatter in the stellar to halo mass relationship as a function of dwarf mass? What drives the scatter? With this large suite, we are beginning to statistically characterize dwarf galaxies and identify the types and numbers of outliers to expect.

  14. Fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging in large tissue volumes using a gain-modulated ICCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Eppstein, Margaret J; Zhang, Chaoyang; Theru, Sangeeta; Thompson, Alan B; Gurfinkel, Michael; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2003-01-01

    A novel image-intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) imaging system has been developed to perform 3D fluorescence tomographic imaging in the frequency-domain using near-infrared contrast agents. The imager is unique since it (i) employs a large tissue-mimicking phantom, which is shaped and sized to resemble a female breast and part of the extended chest-wall region, and (ii) enables rapid data acquisition in the frequency-domain by using a gain-modulated ICCD camera. Diffusion model predictions are compared to experimental measurements using two different referencing schemes under two different experimental conditions of perfect and imperfect uptake of fluorescent agent into a target. From these experimental measurements, three-dimensional images of fluorescent absorption were reconstructed using a computationally efficient variant of the approximate extended Kalman filter algorithm. The current work represents the first time that 3D fluorescence-enhanced optical tomographic reconstructions have been achieved from experimental measurements of the time-dependent light propagation on a clinically relevant breast-shaped tissue phantom using a gain-modulated ICCD camera

  15. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, D.; Agnes, P. [APC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris 75205 (France); Giganti, C.; Agostino, L.; De Cecco, S., E-mail: dfranco@in2p3.fr, E-mail: cgiganti@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: pagnes@in2p3.fr, E-mail: lagostin@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: sandro.dececco@lpnhe.in2p3.fr [LPNHE Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris 75252 (France); and others

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ''neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ∼15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the {sup 7}Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  16. Large-scale hydrogen combustion experiments: Volume 2, Data plots: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.T.; Torok, R.C.; Randall, D.S.; Sullivan, J.S.; Thompson, L.B.; Haugh, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    Forty large-scale experiments to investigate the combustion behavior of hydrogen during postulated degraded core accidents were conducted in a 16 m (52 ft) diameter sphere. The performance of safety related equipment and cable also was examined. Combustion was initiated by thermal igniters in both premixed hydrogen air-steam atmospheres and during the continuous injection of hydrogen and steam. The effects of steam, igniter location, water sprays, fans and injection rates were studied. Measurements were made of gas concentrations, combustion pressures, temperatures and heat fluxes. Burn fractions and flame speeds also were determined. Near-infrared seeing cameras permitted direct observation of the hydrogen burns. Combustion pressures and temperatures in premixed atmospheres with hydrogen concentrations up to 13 vol% (steam saturated) were less than the theoretical maximum values. Multiple deflagrations were not encountered during continuous hydrogen injection with pre-activated igniters. Moderate pressure rises resulted from diffusion flames. These flames generally were found above the source. Combustion results have been compared to smaller scale experiments. Several safety related equipment items exhibited degraded performance after a number of tests. Most cable samples passed their electrical checks at the end of the test series. These experiments confirm the effectiveness of the deliberate ignition approach to controlling hydrogen. They also provide data for validating computer codes used to predict hydrogen combustion during degraded core accidents, and for assessing the performance of safety related equipment in such environments

  17. Insufficient evidence of benefit regarding mortality due to albumin substitution in HCC-free cirrhotic patients undergoing large volume paracentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kütting, Fabian; Schubert, Jens; Franklin, Jeremy; Bowe, Andrea; Hoffmann, Vera; Demir, Muenevver; Pelc, Agnes; Nierhoff, Dirk; Töx, Ulrich; Steffen, Hans-Michael

    2017-02-01

    Current guidelines for clinical practice recommend the infusion of human albumin after large volume paracentesis. After inspecting the current evidence behind this recommendation, we decided to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to address the effect of albumin on mortality and morbidity in the context of large volume paracentesis. We performed a comprehensive search of large databases and abstract books of conference proceedings up to March 15th 2016 for randomized controlled trials, testing the infusion of human albumin against alternatives (vs no treatment, vs plasma expanders; vs vasoconstrictors) in HCC-free patients suffering from cirrhosis. We analyzed these trials with regard to mortality, changes in plasma renin activity (PRA), hyponatremia, renal impairment, recurrence of ascites with consequential re-admission into hospital and additional complications. We employed trial sequential analysis in order to calculate the number of patients required in controlled trials to be able to determine a statistically significant advantage of the administration of one agent over another with regard to mortality. We were able to include 21 trials totaling 1277 patients. While the administration of albumin prevents a rise in PRA as well as hyponatremia, no improvement in strong clinical endpoints such as mortality could be demonstrated. Trial sequential analysis showed that at least 1550 additional patients need to be recruited into RCTs and analyzed with regard to this question in order to detect or disprove a 25% mortality effect. There is insufficient evidence that the infusion of albumin after LVP significantly lowers mortality in HCC-free patients with advanced liver disease. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Modeling emission rates and exposures from outdoor cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rufus; Princevac, Marko; Weltman, Robert; Ghasemian, Masoud; Arora, Narendra K.; Bond, Tami

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 3 billion individuals rely on solid fuels for cooking globally. For a large portion of these - an estimated 533 million - cooking is outdoors, where emissions from cookstoves pose a health risk to both cooks and other household and village members. Models that estimate emissions rates from stoves in indoor environments that would meet WHO air quality guidelines (AQG), explicitly don't account for outdoor cooking. The objectives of this paper are to link health based exposure guidelines with emissions from outdoor cookstoves, using a Monte Carlo simulation of cooking times from Haryana India coupled with inverse Gaussian dispersion models. Mean emission rates for outdoor cooking that would result in incremental increases in personal exposure equivalent to the WHO AQG during a 24-h period were 126 ± 13 mg/min for cooking while squatting and 99 ± 10 mg/min while standing. Emission rates modeled for outdoor cooking are substantially higher than emission rates for indoor cooking to meet AQG, because the models estimate impact of emissions on personal exposure concentrations rather than microenvironment concentrations, and because the smoke disperses more readily outdoors compared to indoor environments. As a result, many more stoves including the best performing solid-fuel biomass stoves would meet AQG when cooking outdoors, but may also result in substantial localized neighborhood pollution depending on housing density. Inclusion of the neighborhood impact of pollution should be addressed more formally both in guidelines on emissions rates from stoves that would be protective of health, and also in wider health impact evaluation efforts and burden of disease estimates. Emissions guidelines should better represent the different contexts in which stoves are being used, especially because in these contexts the best performing solid fuel stoves have the potential to provide significant benefits.

  19. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 μ Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly 2 S. - We provide direct evidence for the release of silver nanoparticles from exterior paints to the aquatic environment.

  20. Formal education in outdoor studies: introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Regional cultural perspectives involve outdoor studies in different ways in formal curricula. This section focuses on Western Europe, particularly the UK and Scandinavia, although also has a more international reach in Backman’s consideration of the training of teachers and in place-responsive teaching as described by Mannion and Lynch. ‘Outdoor studies’ is not seen in curricula per se but under various more specialised aspects such as outdoor play, outdoor learning, environmental education, ...

  1. Comparison of pathogen DNA isolation methods from large volumes of whole blood to improve molecular diagnosis of bloodstream infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J M Loonen

    Full Text Available For patients suffering from bloodstream infections (BSI molecular diagnostics from whole blood holds promise to provide fast and adequate treatment. However, this approach is hampered by the need of large blood volumes. Three methods for pathogen DNA isolation from whole blood were compared, i.e. an enzymatic method (MolYsis, 1-5 ml, the novel non-enzymatic procedure (Polaris, 1-5 ml, and a method that does not entail removal of human DNA (Triton-Tris-EDTA EasyMAG, 200 µl. These methods were evaluated by processing blood spiked with 0-1000 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Downstream detection was performed with real-time PCR assays. Polaris and MolYsis processing followed by real-time PCRs enabled pathogen detection at clinically relevant concentrations of 1-10 CFU/ml blood. By increasing sample volumes, concurrent lower cycle threshold (Ct values were obtained at clinically relevant pathogen concentrations, demonstrating the benefit of using larger blood volumes. A 100% detection rate at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml for all tested pathogens was obtained with the Polaris enrichment, whereas comparatively lower detection rates were measured for MolYsis (50-67% and EasyMAG (58-79%. For the samples with a concentration of 1 CFU/ml Polaris resulted in most optimal detection rates of 70-75% (MolYsis 17-50% and TTE-EasyMAG 20-36%. The Polaris method was more reproducible, less labour intensive, and faster (45 minutes (including Qiagen DNA extraction vs. 2 hours (MolYsis. In conclusion, Polaris and MolYsis enrichment followed by DNA isolation and real-time PCR enables reliable and sensitive detection of bacteria and fungi from 5 ml blood. With Polaris results are available within 3 hours, showing potential for improved BSI diagnostics.

  2. Does Size Really Matter? Analysis of the Effect of Large Fibroids and Uterine Volumes on Complication Rates of Uterine Artery Embolisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthipun, A. A.; Taylor, J.; Manyonda, I.; Belli, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between large uterine fibroid diameter, uterine volume, number of vials of embolic agent used and risk of complications from uterine artery embolisation (UAE). This was a prospective study involving 121 patients undergoing UAE embolisation for symptomatic uterine fibroids at a single institution. Patients were grouped according to diameter of largest fibroid and uterine volume. Results were also stratified according to the number of vials of embolic agent used and rate of complications. No statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated between the two groups according to diameter of the largest fibroid (large fibroids were classified as ≥10 cm; Fisher's exact test P = 1.00), and no statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated according to uterine volume (large uterine volume was defined as ≥750 cm 3 ; Fisher's exact test P = 0.70). 84 of the 121 patients had documentation of the number of vials used during the procedure. Patients were divided into two groups, with ≥4 used defined as a large number of embolic agent. There was no statistical difference between these two groups and no associated increased risk of developing complications. This study showed no increased incidence of complications in women with large-diameter fibroids or uterine volumes as defined. In addition, there was no evidence of increased complications according to quantity of embolic material used. Therefore, UAE should be offered to women with large fibroids and uterine volumes.

  3. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation.......To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation....

  4. Outdoor Education for Bereaved Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    For many outdoor education providers, bereaved children and young people at first appear to be a new target audience. A new target audience naturally raises questions of programme planning and can give the provider a pressurised need to succeed: "Do I as the organiser have to develop a whole new programme?", "May I be required to provide some form…

  5. Taking the New Curriculum Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    A review of research on outdoor learning by Rickinson "et al." (2004) highlights the demonstrable educational benefits and provides a source of support, justification and an evidence base for educators looking to undertake more learning outside the classroom. Bird (2004) also reviewed the widely reported health benefits of outdoor…

  6. Signature Pedagogies in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    The new National health and physical education curriculum in Australia includes outdoor education activities as a viable way to achieve intended learning outcomes. However, most health and physical education teacher education courses do not provide a strong focus on the theories, skills and pedagogies that are unique to the effective use of…

  7. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  8. Expanding & strengthening outdoor recreation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter S. Hopkins

    1971-01-01

    Though the Forest Service has pioneered in outdoor recreation research, the funding for recreation research has been inadequate. Specific needs for research are outlined. There is a need to define recreation and recreation research in terms that busy legislators can understand.

  9. Characterization of large volume CdZnTe detectors with a quad-grid structure for the COBRA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatsch, Katja [TU Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Collaboration: COBRA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The COBRA experiment uses room temperature semiconductor detectors made of Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride, which contains several double beta isotopes, to search for neutrinoless double beta-decay. To compensate for poor hole transport in CdZnTe the detectors are equipped with a coplanar grid (CPG) instead of a planar anode. Currently, a demonstrator setup consisting of 64 1 cm{sup 3} CPG-detectors is in operation at the LNGS in Italy to prove the concept and to determine the long-term stability of the detectors and the instrumentation. For a future large scale experiment it is planned to use larger CdZnTe detectors with a volume of 6 cm{sup 3}, because of the better surface-to-volume ratio and the higher full energy detection efficiency. This will also reduce the background contribution of surface contaminations. Before the installation at the LNGS the new detector design is validated and studied in detail. This talk presents a laboratory experiment for the characterization with γ-radiation of 6 cm{sup 3} CdZnTe quad-grid detectors. The anode of such a detector is divided into four sub-CPGs. The characterization routine consists of the determination of the optimal working point and two-dimensional spatially resolved scans with a highly collimated γ-source.

  10. Plasma properties in a large-volume, cylindrical and asymmetric radio-frequency capacitively coupled industrial-prototype reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazović, Saša; Puač, Nevena; Spasić, Kosta; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran Lj; Cvelbar, Uroš; Mozetič, Miran; Radetić, Maja

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a large-volume low-pressure cylindrical plasma reactor with a size that matches industrial reactors for treatment of textiles. It was shown that it efficiently produces plasmas with only a small increase in power as compared with a similar reactor with 50 times smaller volume. Plasma generated at 13.56 MHz was stable from transition to streamers and capable of long-term continuous operation. An industrial-scale asymmetric cylindrical reactor of simple design and construction enabled good control over a wide range of active plasma species and ion concentrations. Detailed characterization of the discharge was performed using derivative, Langmuir and catalytic probes which enabled determination of the optimal sets of plasma parameters necessary for successful industry implementation and process control. Since neutral atomic oxygen plays a major role in many of the material processing applications, its spatial profile was measured using nickel catalytic probe over a wide range of plasma parameters. The spatial profiles show diffusion profiles with particle production close to the powered electrode and significant wall losses due to surface recombination. Oxygen atom densities range from 10 19 m −3 near the powered electrode to 10 17 m −3 near the wall. The concentrations of ions at the same time are changing from 10 16 to the 10 15 m −3 at the grounded chamber wall. (paper)

  11. Large-volume excitation of air, argon, nitrogen and combustible mixtures by thermal jets produced by nanosecond spark discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Sergey; Hayashi, Jun; Salmon, Arthur; Stancu, Gabi D.; Laux, Christophe O.

    2017-04-01

    This work presents experimental observations of strong expanding thermal jets following the application of nanosecond spark discharges. These jets propagate in a toroidal shape perpendicular to the interelectrode axis, with high velocities of up to 30 m s-1 and over distances of the order of a cm. Their propagation length is much larger than the thermal expansion region produced by the conventional millisecond sparks used in car engine ignition, thus greatly improving the volumetric excitation of gas mixtures. The shape and velocity of the jets is found to be fairly insensitive to the shape of the electrodes. In addition, their spatial extent is found to increase with the number of nanosecond sparks and with the discharge voltage, and to decrease slightly with the pressure between 1 and 7 atm at constant applied voltage. Finally, this thermal jet phenomenon is observed in experiments conducted with many types of gas mixtures, including air, nitrogen, argon, and combustible CH4/air mixtures. This makes nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges particularly attractive for aerodynamic flow control or plasma-assisted combustion because of their ability to excite large volumes of gas, typically about 100 times the volume of the discharge.

  12. Pretherapy metabolic tumour volume is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasanelli, Myriam; Meignan, Michel; Haioun, Corinne; Itti, Emmanuel [Paris-Est University, Nuclear Medicine and Lymphoid Malignancies Unit, Henri Mondor Hospital, Creteil (France); Berriolo-Riedinger, Alina; Casasnovas, Rene-Olivier [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Georges-Francois Leclerc Center, Le Bocage Hospital, Dijon (France); Biggi, Alberto; Gallamini, Andrea [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Santa Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Siegel, Barry A.; Cashen, Amanda F. [Washington University School of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vera, Pierre; Tilly, Herve [Nuclear Medicine and Hematology, Henri Becquerel Center, Rouen (France); Versari, Annibale [Nuclear Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    We investigated the prognostic value of total metabolic tumour volume (TMTV) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). TMTV was measured in 114 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at baseline before immunochemotherapy. TMTV was computed by summing the volumes of all lymphomatous lesions after applying the local SUVmax threshold of 41 % using semiautomatic software. Prognostic value was assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median follow-up was 39 months. Average pretherapy TMTV was 509 ± 568 cm{sup 3}. The 3-year estimates of PFS were 77 % in the low metabolic burden group (TMTV ≤550 cm{sup 3}) and 60 % in the high metabolic burden group (TMTV >550 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.04), and prediction of OS was even better (87 % vs. 60 %, p = 0.0003). Cox regression showed independence of TMTV for OS prediction (p = 0.002) compared with other pretherapy indices of tumour burden, such as tumour bulk and the International Prognostic Index. Pretherapy TMTV is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with DLBCL. (orig.)

  13. Learners' Experiences of Peer Tutoring in the Context of Outdoor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article explores peer tutoring in the context of outdoor learning at a primary school in Lesotho. The peer-tutoring approach was trialled to explore its effectiveness in promoting learning in large class sizes which characterise primary and secondary schools in Lesotho. An urban primary school was purposively selected ...

  14. Social indicators and outdoor recreation: the forgotten sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Peine; Robert W. Marans; Charles C. Harris

    1980-01-01

    Following a brief historical overview of the social indicators movement, outdoor recreation measures which can be considered as social indicators are discussed. Such indicators are largely derived from social surveys. Illustrative data from 53 such surveys are presented. Despite the availability of such data, there have been few attempts to adapt them as established...

  15. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  16. Benchmarking Outdoor Expeditionary Program Risk Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerts-Brandsma, Lisa; Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Utah and the National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) completed a study that developed a risk management taxonomy in the outdoor adventure industry and assessed how different outdoor expeditionary programs (OEPs) managed risk (Szolosi, Sibthorp, Paisley, & Gookin, 2003). By unifying the language around risk, the…

  17. Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center. Program Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC. European Area.

    Describing Department of Defense Dependents Schools Europe (DODDSEUR) use of Hinterbrand Lodge Outdoor Education Center, this document is directed to sponsors wishing to take groups to Hinterbrand for one or more of the five program options (outdoor education week, teacher weekend, school-designed outdoor education program, administrative faculty…

  18. Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

  19. 9 CFR 3.52 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.52 Section 3.52 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... outdoors when the atmospheric temperature falls below 40 °F. (d) Protection from predators. Outdoor housing...

  20. Determination of average fission fraction produced by 14 MeV neutrons in assemblies with large volume of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dalun; Li Benci; Wang Xiuchun; Li Yijun; Zhang Shaohua; He Yongwu

    1991-07-01

    The average fission fraction of 238 U caused by 14 MeV neutrons in assemblies with large volume depleted uranium has been determined. The measured value of p f 238U (R ∞ depleted ) 14 was 0.897 ± 0.036. Measurements were also completed for neutron flux distribution and average fission fraction of 235 U isotope in depleted uranium sphere. Values of p f 238U (R depleted ) have been obtained by using a series of uranium spheres. For a sphere with Φ 600 the p f 23 '8 U (R 300 depleted ) is 0.823 ± 0.041, the density of depleted uranium assembly is 18.8g/cm 3 and total weight of assembly is about 2.8t

  1. Heterogeneous asymmetric recombinase polymerase amplification (haRPA) for rapid hygiene control of large-volume water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsäßer, Dennis; Ho, Johannes; Niessner, Reinhard; Tiehm, Andreas; Seidel, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Hygiene of drinking water is periodically controlled by cultivation and enumeration of indicator bacteria. Rapid and comprehensive measurements of emerging pathogens are of increasing interest to improve drinking water safety. In this study, the feasibility to detect bacteriophage PhiX174 as a potential indicator for virus contamination in large volumes of water is demonstrated. Three consecutive concentration methods (continuous ultrafiltration, monolithic adsorption filtration, and centrifugal ultrafiltration) were combined to concentrate phages stepwise from 1250 L drinking water into 1 mL. Heterogeneous asymmetric recombinase polymerase amplification (haRPA) is applied as rapid detection method. Field measurements were conducted to test the developed system for hygiene online monitoring under realistic conditions. We could show that this system allows the detection of artificial contaminations of bacteriophage PhiX174 in drinking water pipelines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, P. K., E-mail: pkumar@ipr.res.in; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M., E-mail: kushagra.lalit@gmail.com; Mattoo, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  3. Analysis of plant hormones by microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography coupled with on-line large volume sample stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongbao; Lin, Zian; Zhang, Lin; Cai, Yan; Zhang, Lan

    2012-04-07

    A novel method of microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEEKC) coupled with on-line large volume sample stacking was developed for the analysis of six plant hormones including indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, indole-3-propionic acid, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, abscisic acid and salicylic acid. Baseline separation of six plant hormones was achieved within 10 min by using the microemulsion background electrolyte containing a 97.2% (w/w) 10 mM borate buffer at pH 9.2, 1.0% (w/w) ethyl acetate as oil droplets, 0.6% (w/w) sodium dodecyl sulphate as surfactant and 1.2% (w/w) 1-butanol as cosurfactant. In addition, an on-line concentration method based on a large volume sample stacking technique and multiple wavelength detection was adopted for improving the detection sensitivity in order to determine trace level hormones in a real sample. The optimal method provided about 50-100 fold increase in detection sensitivity compared with a single MEEKC method, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were between 0.005 and 0.02 μg mL(-1). The proposed method was simple, rapid and sensitive and could be applied to the determination of six plant hormones in spiked water samples, tobacco leaves and 1-naphthylacetic acid in leaf fertilizer. The recoveries ranged from 76.0% to 119.1%, and good reproducibilities were obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 6.6%.

  4. Enrichment of circulating tumor cells from a large blood volume using leukapheresis and elutriation: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eifler, Robert L; Lind, Judith; Falkenhagen, Dieter; Weber, Viktoria; Fischer, Michael B; Zeillinger, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of a sequential process using leukapheresis, elutriation, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to enrich and isolate circulating tumor cells from a large blood volume to allow further molecular analysis. Mononuclear cells were collected from 10 L of blood by leukapheresis, to which carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester prelabeled CaOV-3 tumor cells were spiked at a ratio of 26 to 10⁶ leukocytes. Elutriation separated the spiked leukapheresates primarily by cell size into distinct fractions, and leukocytes and tumor cells, characterized as carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester positive, EpCAM positive and CD45 negative events, were quantified by flow cytometry. Tumor cells were isolated from the last fraction using FACS or anti-EpCAM coupled immunomagnetic beads, and their recovery and purity determined by fluorescent microscopy and real-time PCR. Leukapheresis collected 13.5 x 10⁹ mononuclear cells with 87% efficiency. In total, 53 to 78% of spiked tumor cells were pre-enriched in the last elutriation fraction among 1.6 x 10⁹ monocytes. Flow cytometry predicted a circulating tumor cell purity of ~90% giving an enrichment of 100,000-fold following leukapheresis, elutriation, and FACS, where CaOV-3 cells were identified as EpCAM positive and CD45 negative events. FACS confirmed this purity. Alternatively, immunomagnetic bead adsorption recovered 10% of tumor cells with a median purity of 3.5%. This proof of concept study demonstrated that elutriation and FACS following leukapheresis are able to enrich and isolate tumor cells from a large blood volume for molecular characterization. Copyright © 2010 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  5. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) I

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    Article made available with the permission of the New Zealand Journal of Outdoor Education. This article reports on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreationrelated outdoor education research literature published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered by the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This article is divided into two parts, both published in this issue of th...

  6. The Viking viewer for connectomics: scalable multi-user annotation and summarization of large volume data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J R; Mohammed, S; Grimm, B; Jones, B W; Koshevoy, P; Tasdizen, T; Whitaker, R; Marc, R E

    2011-01-01

    Modern microscope automation permits the collection of vast amounts of continuous anatomical imagery in both two and three dimensions. These large data sets present significant challenges for data storage, access, viewing, annotation and analysis. The cost and overhead of collecting and storing the data can be extremely high. Large data sets quickly exceed an individual's capability for timely analysis and present challenges in efficiently applying transforms, if needed. Finally annotated anatomical data sets can represent a significant investment of resources and should be easily accessible to the scientific community. The Viking application was our solution created to view and annotate a 16.5 TB ultrastructural retinal connectome volume and we demonstrate its utility in reconstructing neural networks for a distinctive retinal amacrine cell class. Viking has several key features. (1) It works over the internet using HTTP and supports many concurrent users limited only by hardware. (2) It supports a multi-user, collaborative annotation strategy. (3) It cleanly demarcates viewing and analysis from data collection and hosting. (4) It is capable of applying transformations in real-time. (5) It has an easily extensible user interface, allowing addition of specialized modules without rewriting the viewer. © 2010 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. Outdoor radon variation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, Elena; Simion, Florin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The results of a long-term survey (1992 - 2006) of the variations of outdoor radon concentrations in semi-natural location from Romania are reported in the present paper. Measurements, covering between two and four sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, evening and night), were performed on a daily bases by 37 Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Stations from National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network. The method used was based on indirect determination of outdoor radon from aerosol samples collected on glass micro-fibre filters by drawing the air through the filters. The sampling was performed in a fixed place at a height of 2 m above the ground surface. Total beta counting of aerosol samples collected was performed immediately and after 20 hours. Values recorded during the years of continuous measurement indicated the presence of several patterns in the long-term variation of outdoor radon concentration: diurnal, seasonal and annual variation. For diurnal variation, outdoor radon concentration shows a maximum values in the night (early hours) and minimum values by day (in the afternoon). On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. Late autumn - beginning of winter maximum and an early spring minimum are characteristic for seasonal patterns. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.33 in winter compared with 3.0 in the summer months. The variations of outdoor radon levels showed little correlation with the uranium concentration of the ground and were attributed to changes in soil moisture content. In dry seasons, because of the low precipitation, the soil was drying out in the summer allowing fractures to develop and radon to migrate easily through the ground. Depending on micro-climatic and geological conditions, outdoor radon average concentrations in different regions of Romania are from 1200 mBq/mc to 13065 mBq/mc. The smallest

  8. PARENTS ATTITUDE ABOUT OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Martinović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire-based survey was conducted on a sample of 238 parents whose children attend the third and fourth grades in two Belgrade elementary schools: “Oslobodioci Beograda” and “Borislav Pekic”. The aim of this study was to deter¬mi¬ne the incidence of outdoor activities and the attitude of the third and fourth graders’ parents towards it. Statistical data processing was based on the use of the –R, and every question represented a random variable. The analysis of the collected data has proved the presence of outdoor activities among these pupils and their positive attitude towards camping out, as well as a positive attitude of their parents.

  9. THE IMPORTANCE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE MANAGEMENT AND PROCESSING OF LARGE DATA VOLUMES IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARINA-ELENA STEGĂROIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Under a computerized society, technological resources become a source of identification for any community, institution or country. Globalization of information becomes a reality, all the resources having entered into a relationship of subordination with the World Wide Web, the information highways and the Internet. "Information technology - with its most important branch, data management computer science - enters a new era, in which the computer leads to the benefit of a navigable and transparent communication space, focusing on information". Therefore, in an information-based economy, information systems have been established which, based on management systems through the methods of algebra, with applications in economic engineering, have come to manage and process large volumes of data, especially in public institutions. Consequently, the Ministry of Public Affairs has implemented the “Increasing the public administration’s responsibility by modernising the information systems for generating the reports of the financial situations of public institutions” project (FOREXEBUG”, cod SMIS 34952, for which it received in 2012 non-refundable financing from the European Social Fund through the Operational Program for Developing the Administrative Capacity 2007-2013, based on which this paper will analyse the usefulness of implementing such a program in public institutions. Such a system aims to achieve a new form of reporting of budget execution and financial statements (including information related to legal commitments submitted monthly by each public institution in electronic, standardized, secure form, with increasing the reliability of data collected by cross-checking data from the treasury and providing reliable information for use by the Ministry of Finance, public institutions, other relevant institutions and the public, both at the level of detail and the consolidation possibilities at various levels, in parallel with their use for

  10. P08.52 Proton therapy re-Irradiation in large-volume recurrent glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelio, D.; Widesott, L.; Vennarini, S.; Fellin, F.; Maines, F.; Righetto, R.; Lorentini, S.; Farace, P.; Schwarz, M.; Amichetti, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To report preliminary results of re-irradiation with proton therapy (PT) in large-volume recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM). Matherial/Methods: Between January and December 2015 ten patients (pts) with rGBM were re-irradiated with PT. All pts were previously treated with photon radiotherapy (60 Gy) with concomitant and adjuvant TMZ for 1–20 cycles (median, 7). Seven pts were re-irradiated at first relapse/progression. Four patients were re-irradiated after partial tumor resection. Median age and Karnofsky performance status at re-irradiation were 57 years (range, 41–68) and 80%, (range, 70–100), respectively. Median time between prior radiotherapy and PT was 9 months (range, 5–24). Target definition was based on CT, MR, and 18F-DOPA PET imaging. GTV included any area of contrast enhancement after contrast medium administration plus any pathological PET uptake regions. CTV was generated by adding to GTV a 3-mm uniform margin manually corrected in proximity of anatomical barriers. CTV was expanded by 4 mm to create PTV. Median PTV volume was 90 cc (range, 46–231). All pts received 36 GyRBE in 18 fractions. Four pts also received concomitant temozolomide (75 mg/m2/die, 7 days/week). All pts were treated with active beam scanning PT using 2–3 fields with single field optimization technique. Results: All pts completed the treatment without breaks. Registered acute side effects (according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 - CTCAE) include grade 1–2 skin erythema, alopecia, fatigue, conjunctivitis, concentration impairment, dysphasia, and headache. There were no grade 3 or higher toxicities. One patient developed grade 1 neutropenia. Five pts started PT under steroids (2–7 mg/daily); two of them reduced the dose during PT, while three kept the same steroids dose. None of remaining pts needed steroids therapy. Registered late side effects (according to CTCAE version 4.0) include grade 1–2 alopecia, fatigue

  11. Study of n-γ discrimination by digital charge comparison method for a large volume liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moszynski, M.; Costa, G.J.; Guillaume, G.; Heusch, B.; Huck, A.; Ring, C.; Bizard, G.; Durand, D.; Peter, J.; Tamain, B.; El Masri, Y.; Hanappe, F.

    1992-01-01

    The study of the n-γ discrimination for a large 41 volume BC501A liquid scintillator coupled to a 130 mm diameter XP4512B photomultiplier was carried out by digital charge comparison method. A very good n-γ discrimination down to 100 keV of recoil electron energy was achieved. The measured relative intensity of the charge integrated at the slow component of the scintillation pulse and the photoelectron yield of the tested counter allow the factor of merit of the n-γ discrimination spectra to be calculated and to be compared with those measured experimentally. This shows that the main limitation of the n-γ discrimination is associated with the statistical fluctuation of the photoelectron number at the slow component. A serious effect of the distortion in the cable used to send the photomultiplier pulse to the electronics for the n-γ discrimination was studied. This suggests that the length of RG58 cable should be limited to about 40 m to preserve a high quality n-γ discrimination. (orig.)

  12. APS 6BM-B Large Volume High Pressure Beamline: A Workhorse for Rock and Mineral Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Whitaker, M. L.; Baldwin, K. J.; Huebsch, W. R.; Vaughan, M. T.; Weidner, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    With the inheritance of decades of technical innovations at the NSLS X17B2 Beamline, APS 6BM-B Beamline was established in 2015 and is a dedicated beamline for synchrotron-based large volume high pressure research in earth sciences, especially rock and mineral physics. Currently a 250-ton hydraulic press equipped with a D-DIA module is installed and a Rotational Drickamer Apparatus from Yale University is hosted every cycle, covering a pressure range from crust to lower mantle. 6BM-B operates in white beam mode with an effective energy range of 20-100 keV. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction data is collected using a 10-element solid state Ge array detector arranged in a circular geometry to allow for the real time assessment of stress. Direct radiographic imaging using Prosillica CCD camera and scintillating YAG crystals yields sample strain and strain rate. In addition to applications in phase transitions, equation of states measurements, sound velocity measurements, this setup is ideal for studies of steady state and dynamic deformation process. In this presentation, technical features and strengths of 6BM-B will be discussed. Most recent progress and science highlights of our user community will be showcased.

  13. Solid-Phase Extraction and Large-Volume Sample Stacking-Capillary Electrophoresis for Determination of Tetracycline Residues in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Islas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase extraction in combination with large-volume sample stacking-capillary electrophoresis (SPE-LVSS-CE was applied to measure chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline in milk samples. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method had a linear range of 29 to 200 µg·L−1, with limits of detection ranging from 18.6 to 23.8 µg·L−1 with inter- and intraday repeatabilities < 10% (as a relative standard deviation in all cases. The enrichment factors obtained were from 50.33 to 70.85 for all the TCs compared with a conventional capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE. This method is adequate to analyze tetracyclines below the most restrictive established maximum residue limits. The proposed method was employed in the analysis of 15 milk samples from different brands. Two of the tested samples were positive for the presence of oxytetracycline with concentrations of 95 and 126 µg·L−1. SPE-LVSS-CE is a robust, easy, and efficient strategy for online preconcentration of tetracycline residues in complex matrices.

  14. Safety Analysis in Large Volume Vacuum Systems Like Tokamak: Experiments and Numerical Simulation to Analyze Vacuum Ruptures Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malizia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The large volume vacuum systems are used in many industrial operations and research laboratories. Accidents in these systems should have a relevant economical and safety impact. A loss of vacuum accident (LOVA due to a failure of the main vacuum vessel can result in a fast pressurization of the vessel and consequent mobilization dispersion of hazardous internal material through the braches. It is clear that the influence of flow fields, consequence of accidents like LOVA, on dust resuspension is a key safety issue. In order to develop this analysis an experimental facility is been developed: STARDUST. This last facility has been used to improve the knowledge about LOVA to replicate a condition more similar to appropriate operative condition like to kamaks. By the experimental data the boundary conditions have been extrapolated to give the proper input for the 2D thermofluid-dynamics numerical simulations, developed by the commercial CFD numerical code. The benchmark of numerical simulation results with the experimental ones has been used to validate and tune the 2D thermofluid-dynamics numerical model that has been developed by the authors to replicate the LOVA conditions inside STARDUST. In present work, the facility, materials, numerical model, and relevant results will be presented.

  15. Evaluation of thermal stress in the anode chamber wall of a large volume magnetic bucket ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Russell; Horiike, Hiroshi; Kuriyama, Masaaki; Ohara, Yoshihiro

    1984-02-01

    Thermal stress analysis was performed on the plasma chamber of the Large Volume Magnetic Multipole Bucket Ion Source (LVB) designed for use on the JT-60 NBI system. The energy absorbed by the walls of the plasma chambers of neutral beam injectors is of the order of 1% of the accelerator electrical drain power. A previous study indicates that a moderately high heat flux, of about 600W/cm 2 , is concentrated on the magnetic field cusp lines during normal full power operation. Abnormal arc discharges during conditioning of a stainless steel LVB produced localized melting of the stainless steel at several locations near the cusps lines. The power contained in abnormal arc discharges (arc spots) was estimated from the observed melting. Thermal stress analysis was performed numerically on representative sections of the copper LVB design for both stable and abnormal arc discharge conditions. Results show that this chamber should not fail due to thermal fatigue stesses arising from normal arc discharges. However, fatigue failure may occur after several hundred to a few thousand arc spots of 30mS duration at any one location. Limited arc discharge operation of the copper bucket was performed to partially verify the chamber's durability. (author)

  16. Development of large-volume, high-resolution tracking detectors based on capillaries filled with liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buontempo, S.; Fabre, J.P.; Frenkel, A.; Gregoire, G.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Kushnirenko, A.; Martellotti, G.; Michel, L.; Mondardini, M.R.; Penso, G.; Siegmund, W.P.; Strack, R.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.; Zymin, K.

    1995-01-01

    Searches for the decay of short-lived particles require real time, high-resolution tracking in active targets, which in the case of neutrino physics should be of large volume. The possibility of achieving this by using glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator is being investigated in the framework of the CHORUS experiment at CERN. In this paper, after outlining the application foreseen, advances in the tracking technique are discussed and results from tests are reported. An active target of dimensions 180x2x2 cm 3 has been assembled from capillaries with 20 μm diameter pores. The readout scheme currently in operation allows the reading of similar 5x10 5 channels using a single chain of image intensifiers having a resolution of σ similar 20 μm. Following the development of new liquid scintillators and purification methods an attenuation length of similar 3 m has been obtained. This translates into a hit density of 3.5 per mm for a minimum-ionizing particle that crosses the active target at a distance of 1 m from the readout end. (orig.)

  17. Successful Large-volume Leukapheresis for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Collection in a Very-low-weight Brain Tumor Infant with Coagulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Liao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral apheresis has become a safe procedure to collect hematopoietic stem cells, even in pediatric patients and donors. However, the apheresis procedure for small and sick children is more complicated due to difficult venous access, relatively large extracorporeal volume, toxicity of citrate, and unstable hemostasis. We report a small and sick child with refractory medulloblastoma, impaired liver function, and coagulopathy after several major cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. She successfully received large-volume leukapheresis for hematopoietic stem cell collection, although the patient experienced severe coagulopathy during the procedures. Health care providers should be alert to this potential risk.

  18. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  19. Outdoor Acoustics as a General Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    A tutorial paper exploring the characteristics of sound outdoors. Outdoor acoustics is contrasted to room acoustics. A number of important aspects of outdoor acoustics are exemplified and theoretical approaches are outlined. These are influence of ground impedance, influence of weather, screening...... to the application in question. In this way results providing a certain level of accuracy are obtained using methods which are balanced with the accuracy of the input data. Advanced measurement techniques are looked into and suggestions for future research are made...

  20. Mobile Phones and Outdoor Advertising: Measurable Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Quercia, Daniele; Di Lorenzo, Giusy; Calabrese, Francesco; Ratti, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Television and newspapers sit at the top of many agency marketing plans, while outdoor advertising stays at the bottom. The reason for this is that it’s difficult to account for who views a billboard, so there is no way of consistently determining the effectiveness of outdoor advertising. As a result, agencies do not consider the medium and allocate their money elsewhere. To change this situation, one needs to create new credible audience measurements for the outdoor marketing industry. He...

  1. Estimated environmental radionuclide transfer and deposition into outdoor swimming pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Kazumi; Nagata, Izumi; Sueki, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large radioactive discharge occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This plant is located within a climatically temperate region where outdoor swimming pools are popular. Although it is relatively easy to decontaminate pools by refilling them with fresh water, it is difficult to maintain safe conditions given highly contaminated diurnal dust falls from the surrounding contaminated ground. Our objectives in this paper were to conduct daily radioactivity measurements, to determine the quantity of radioactive contaminants from the surrounding environment that invade outdoor pools, and to investigate the efficacy of traditional pool cleaners in removing radioactive contaminants. The depositions in the paper filterable particulates ranged from 0 to 62,5 Bq/m 2 /day, with the highest levels found in the southern Tohoku District containing Fukushima Prefecture and in the Kanto District containing Tokyo Metro. They were approximately correlated with the ground contamination. Traditional pool cleaners eliminated 99% of contaminants at the bottom of the pool, reducing the concentration to 41 Bq/m 2 after cleaning. Authors recommended the deposition or the blown radionuclides into outdoor swimming pools must be considered into pool regulations when the environments exactly polluted with radionuclides. - Highlights: • Deposition into outdoor swimming pool in a habitable areas estimated 72 Bq/m 2 /day. • More than 500 Bq/m 2 /day deposition will exceed our national guideline (10 Bq/l) of swimming pool. • Vacuum pool cleaner eliminates 99% radionuclides deposition

  2. Definitions of Outdoor Recreation and Other Associated Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice L.

    This document defines terms related to outdoor recreation: (1) outdoor recreation includes activities that occur outdoors in an urban and man-made environment as well as those activities traditionally associated with the natural environment; (2) outdoor education is education in, about, and for the outdoors; (3) environmental education is an…

  3. Material inhomogeneities in Cd1-xZnxTe and their effects on large volume gamma-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scyoc, J.M. Van; Lund, J.C.; Morse, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (Cd 1-x Zn x Te or CZT) has shown great promise as a material for room-temperature x-ray and gamma-ray detectors. In particular, polycrystalline material grown by the High Pressure Bridgman method with nominal Zn fraction (x) from 0.1 to 0.2 has been used to fabricate high resolution gamma-ray spectrometers with resolution approaching that of cooled high-purity Ge. For increased sensitivity, large areas (> 1 cm 2 ) are required, and for good sensitivity to high energy gamma photons, thick detectors (on the order of 1 cm) are required. Thus there has been a push for the development of CZT detectors with a volume greater than 1 cm 3 . However, nonuniformities in the material over this scale degrade the performance of the detectors. Variations in the zinc fraction, and thus the bandgap, and changes in the impurity distributions, both of which arise from the selective segregation of elements during crystal growth, result in spectral distortions. In this work several materials characterization techniques were combined with detector evaluations to determine the materials properties limiting detector performance. Materials measurements were performed on detectors found to have differing performance. Measurements conducted include infrared transmission (IR), particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE), photoluminescence (PL), and triaxial x-ray diffraction (TAXRD). To varying degrees, these measurements reveal that poor-performance detectors exhibit higher nonuniformities than spectrometer-grade detectors. This is reasonable, as regions of CZT material with different properties will give different localized spectral responses, which combine to result in a degraded spectrum for the total device

  4. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event.

  5. Large wood recruitment processes and transported volumes in Swiss mountain streams during the extreme flood of August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeb, Nicolas; Rickenmann, Dieter; Badoux, Alexandre; Rickli, Christian; Waldner, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The extreme flood event that occurred in August 2005 was the most costly (documented) natural hazard event in the history of Switzerland. The flood was accompanied by the mobilization of > 69,000 m3 of large wood (LW) throughout the affected area. As recognized afterward, wood played an important role in exacerbating the damages, mainly because of log jams at bridges and weirs. The present study aimed at assessing the risk posed by wood in various catchments by investigating the amount and spatial variability of recruited and transported LW. Data regarding LW quantities were obtained by field surveys, remote sensing techniques (LiDAR), and GIS analysis and was subsequently translated into a conceptual model of wood transport mass balance. Detailed wood budgets and transport diagrams were established for four study catchments of Swiss mountain streams, showing the spatial variability of LW recruitment and deposition. Despite some uncertainties with regard to parameter assumptions, the sum of reconstructed wood input and observed deposition volumes agree reasonably well. Mass wasting such as landslides and debris flows were the dominant recruitment processes in headwater streams. In contrast, LW recruitment from lateral bank erosion became significant in the lower part of mountain streams where the catchment reached a size of about 100 km2. According to our analysis, 88% of the reconstructed total wood input was fresh, i.e., coming from living trees that were recruited from adjacent areas during the event. This implies an average deadwood contribution of 12%, most of which was estimated to have been in-channel deadwood entrained during the flood event.

  6. Research on volume metrology method of large vertical energy storage tank based on internal electro-optical distance-ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huadong; Shi, Haolei; Yi, Pengju; Liu, Ying; Li, Cunjun; Li, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    A Volume Metrology method based on Internal Electro-optical Distance-ranging method is established for large vertical energy storage tank. After analyzing the vertical tank volume calculation mathematical model, the key processing algorithms, such as gross error elimination, filtering, streamline, and radius calculation are studied for the point cloud data. The corresponding volume values are automatically calculated in the different liquids by calculating the cross-sectional area along the horizontal direction and integrating from vertical direction. To design the comparison system, a vertical tank which the nominal capacity is 20,000 m3 is selected as the research object, and there are shown that the method has good repeatability and reproducibility. Through using the conventional capacity measurement method as reference, the relative deviation of calculated volume is less than 0.1%, meeting the measurement requirements. And the feasibility and effectiveness are demonstrated.

  7. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of Volume Reduction and Self-Disposal for Large Metal Wastes including the Steam Generator of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kune Woo; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    This report focuses on technologies of volume reduction and self-disposal for large metal wastes including the steam generator of nuclear power plants. This report consists of the cases of treatments and foreign and domestic technologies for steam generator replacement

  8. United States of America: outdoor recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.Ken Cordell; G.Theodore Green; V.R. Leeworthy; R. Stephens; M.J. Fly; Carter J. Betz

    2005-01-01

    the first nationwide survey of outdoor recreation in the USA was conducted in 1960 for the outdoor recreation resources review commission (ORRC, 1962; Cordell et al., 1996). since that time, seven additional national surveys have been conducted, in 1965, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1983, 1995, and 2000/01 - summary details are presented in Table 16.1.

  9. Planning School Grounds for Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl; Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This publication covers the planning and design of school grounds for outdoor learning in new and existing K-12 facilities. Curriculum development as well as athletic field planning and maintenance are not covered although some references on these topics are provided. It discusses the different types of outdoor learning environments that can be…

  10. The "F" Word: Feminism in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tonia

    2016-01-01

    Women have embarked on outdoor careers believing the profession to be a level playing field and one that offers occupational alternatives to traditional sporting activities and educational opportunities. This paper seeks to provide a critical analysis of the pockets of bias associated with the status of women in outdoor education (OE),…

  11. Monitoring Outdoor Alcohol Advertising in Developing Countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses on the placement, channels, size and content of outdoor alcohol advertising practices (N=807) in relation to existing regulations are given. For example, in Gambia, the country with the most stringent alcohol marketing regulations of all countries studied, outdoor alcohol advertisements are on average smaller and ...

  12. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  13. Een toekomst voor outdoor fitness in Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske

    De eerste kennismaking met outdoor fitness was in het Fuxing Park in Shanghai, een park waar jong en oud samen komen om te sporten (outdoor fitness, dans en tai-chi) of om ontspannen hun vrije dag door te brengen. een unieke ervaring die verwarring en allerlei vragen tot gevolg had. waarom komen

  14. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's natural... launch the America's Great Outdoors Initiative. Building on input from tens of thousands of people across... engine of growth. As part of our National Travel and Tourism Strategy, my Administration is working to...

  15. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  16. Effects of large volume injection of aliphatic alcohols as sample diluents on the retention of low hydrophobic solutes in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Victor; Galaon, Toma; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2014-01-03

    Recent studies showed that injection of large volume of hydrophobic solvents used as sample diluents could be applied in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). This study reports a systematic research focused on the influence of a series of aliphatic alcohols (from methanol to 1-octanol) on the retention process in RP-LC, when large volumes of sample are injected on the column. Several model analytes with low hydrophobic character were studied by RP-LC process, for mobile phases containing methanol or acetonitrile as organic modifiers in different proportions with aqueous component. It was found that starting with 1-butanol, the aliphatic alcohols can be used as sample solvents and they can be injected in high volumes, but they may influence the retention factor and peak shape of the dissolved solutes. The dependence of the retention factor of the studied analytes on the injection volume of these alcohols is linear, with a decrease of its value as the sample volume is increased. The retention process in case of injecting up to 200μL of upper alcohols is dependent also on the content of the organic modifier (methanol or acetonitrile) in mobile phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Online Tracking of Outdoor Lighting Variations for Augmented Reality with Moving Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Liu , Yanli; Granier , Xavier

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In augmented reality, one of key tasks to achieve a convincing visual appearance consistency between virtual objects and video scenes is to have a coherent illumination along the whole sequence. As outdoor illumination is largely dependent on the weather, the lighting condition may change from frame to frame. In this paper, we propose a full image-based approach for online tracking of outdoor illumination variations from videos captured with moving cameras. Our key ide...

  18. A new adsorption-elution technique for the concentration of aquatic extracellular antibiotic resistance genes from large volumes of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Ning; Liu, Lu; Qiu, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Xuan; Yang, Dong; Li, Jing; Liu, Wei-Li; Jin, Min; Li, Jun-Wen

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular antibiotic resistance genes (eARGs) that help in the transmission and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are emerging environmental contaminants in water, and there is therefore a growing need to assess environmental levels and associated risks of eARGs. However, as they are present in low amounts, it is difficult to detect eARGs in water directly with PCR techniques. Here, we prepared a new type of nucleic acid adsorption particle (NAAP) with high capacity and developed an optimal adsorption-elution method to concentrate eARGs from large volumes of water. With this technique, we were able to achieve an eARG recovery rate of above 95% from 10 L of water samples. Moreover, combining this new method with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), the sensitivity of the eARG detection was 10(4) times that of single qPCR, with the detection limit lowered to 100 gene copies (GCs)/L. Our analyses showed that the eARG load, virus load and certain water characteristics such as pH, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), and turbidity affected the eARGs recovery rate. However, high eARGs recovery rates always remained within the standard limits for natural surface water quality, while eARG levels in water were lower than the detection limits of single qPCR assays. The recovery rates were not affected by water temperature and heterotrophic plate counts (HPC). The eARGs whatever located in the plasmids or the short-length linear DNAs can be recovered from the water. Furthermore, the recovery rate was high even in the presence of high concentrations of plasmids in different natural water (Haihe river, well water, raw water for drinking water, Jinhe river, Tuanbo lake and the Yunqiao reservoir). By this technology, eARGs concentrations were found ranging from (2.70 ± 0.73) × 10(2) to (4.58 ± 0.47) × 10(4) GCs/L for the extracellular ampicillin resistance gene and (5.43 ± 0.41) × 10(2) to (2.14 ± 0.23) × 10(4) GCs/L for the extracellular gentamicin

  19. In vitro validation of a Pitot-based flow meter for the measurement of respiratory volume and flow in large animal anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moens, Yves P S; Gootjes, Peter; Ionita, Jean-Claude; Heinonen, Erkki; Schatzmann, Urs

    2009-05-01

    To remodel and validate commercially available monitors and their Pitot tube-based flow sensors for use in large animals, using in vitro techniques. Prospective, in vitro experiment. Both the original and the remodelled sensor were studied with a reference flow generator. Measurements were taken of the static flow-pressure relationship and linearity of the flow signal. Sensor airway resistance was calculated. Following recalibration of the host monitor, volumes ranging from 1 to 7 L were generated by a calibration syringe, and bias and precision of spirometric volume was determined. Where manual recalibration was not available, a conversion factor for volume measurement was determined. The influence of gas composition mixture and peak flow on the conversion factor was studied. Both the original and the remodelled sensor showed similar static flow-pressure relationships and linearity of the flow signal. Mean bias (%) of displayed values compared with the reference volume of 3, 5 and 7 L varied between -0.4% and +2.4%, and this was significantly smaller than that for 1 L (4.8% to +5.0%). Conversion factors for 3, 5 and 7 L were very similar (mean 6.00 +/- 0.2, range 5.91-6.06) and were not significantly influenced by the gas mixture used. Increasing peak flow caused a small decrease in the conversion factor. Volume measurement error and conversion factors for inspiration and expiration were close to identity. The combination of the host monitor with the remodelled flow sensor allowed accurate in vitro measurement of flows and volumes in a range expected during large animal anaesthesia. This combination has potential as a reliable spirometric monitor for use during large animal anaesthesia.

  20. Community perceptions on outdoor malaria transmission in Kilombero Valley, Southern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Irene R; Ngowo, Halfan; Dillip, Angel; Msellemu, Daniel; Madumla, Edith P; Okumu, Fredros O; Coetzee, Maureen; Mnyone, Ladslaus L; Manderson, Lenore

    2017-07-04

    were reported to be the main reasons for staying outdoors during the evening. Participants reported wearing long sleeved clothes, fanning and slapping themselves, using repellents, and burning cow dung and neem tree leaves to chase away mosquitoes. Community understanding of multiple prevention strategies is crucial given changes in mosquito host seeking behaviour and the increased incidence of outdoor biting. The current low use of outdoor control measures is attributed largely to limited awareness of outdoor transmission. Improved community understanding of outdoor malaria transmission is critical: efforts to reduce or eliminate malaria transmission will not be successful if the control of outdoor transmission is not emphasized.

  1. Radon parameters in outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Zock, Ch.; Wendt, J.; Reineking, A.

    2002-01-01

    For dose estimation by inhalation of the short lived radon progeny in outdoor air, the equilibrium factor (F), the unattached fraction (f p ), and the activity size distribution of the radon progeny were measured. Besides the radon parameter the meteorological parameter like temperature, wind speed, and rainfall intensity were registered. The measurements were carried out continuously for several weeks to find out the variation with time (day/night) and for different weather conditions. The radon gas, the unattached and aerosol-attached radon progenies were measured with an monitor developed for continuous measurements in outdoor air with low activity concentrations. For the determination of the activity size distribution a low pressure online alpha cascade impactor was used. The measured values of the equilibrium factor varied between 0.5-0.8 depending on weather conditions and time of the day. For high pressure weather conditions a diurnal variation of the F-factor was obtained. A lower average value (F=0.25) was registered during rainy days. The obtained f p -values varied between 0.04 and 0.12. They were higher than expected. The measured activity size distribution of the radon progeny averaged over a measurement period of three weeks can be approximated by a sum of three log-normal distributions. The greatest activity fraction is adsorbed on aerosol particles in the accumulation size range (100-1000 nm) with activity median diameters and geometric standard deviation values between 250-450 nm and 1.5-3.0, respectively. The activity median diameter of this accumulation mode in outdoor air was significantly greater than in indoor air (150-250 nm). An influence of the weather conditions on the activity of the accumulation particles was not significant. In contrast to the results of measurements in houses a small but significant fraction of the radon progeny (average value: 2%) is attached on coarse particles (>1000 nm). This fraction varied between 0-10%. 20

  2. Dairy cow preference for different types of outdoor access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Anne-Marieke C; Weary, Daniel M; Costa, Joao H C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2018-02-01

    decline in perching during the day when cows were provided access to either outdoor option at night. Lying time in the pasture phase was lower than in the baseline or sand phase. During the nighttime, lying time outside was not different between the sand (55.4 ± 7.9%) and pasture (52.0 ± 7.4%) phases. In summary, cows spent a considerable amount of time outside during the night when given the opportunity and showed a preference for a large pasture versus a small sand pack as an outdoor area. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Portable waveguide display system with a large field of view by integrating freeform elements and volume holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Liu, Juan; Yao, Xincheng; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-02-09

    A compact waveguide display system integrating freeform elements and volume holograms is presented here for the first time. The use of freeform elements can broaden the field of view, which limits the applications of a holographic waveguide. An optimized system can achieve a diagonal field of view of 45° when the thickness of the waveguide planar is 3mm. Freeform-elements in-coupler and the volume holograms out-coupler were designed in detail in our study, and the influence of grating configurations on diffraction efficiency was analyzed thoroughly. The off-axis aberrations were well compensated by the in-coupler and the diffraction efficiency of the optimized waveguide display system could reach 87.57%. With integrated design, stability and reliability of this monochromatic display system were achieved and the alignment of the system was easily controlled by the record of the volume holograms, which makes mass production possible.

  4. Association between Outdoor Fungal Concentrations during Winter and Pulmonary Function in Children with and without Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor fungi are important components of airborne particulate matter (PM. However, the associations between pulmonary function and outdoor fungi are less well known compared to other airborne PM constituents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between outdoor fungi and pulmonary function in children. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF rates were measured daily in 339 schoolchildren (including 36 with asthma, aged 10 to 12, 2 to 27 February 2015. Airborne PM was collected on filters, using a high volume air sampler, each day during the study period. The daily concentration of outdoor fungi-associated PM was calculated using a culture-based method. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF values and daily concentrations of outdoor fungi, and the daily levels of suspended PM (SPM and PM ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5. An increase in the interquartile range (46.2 CFU/m3 for outdoor fungal concentration led to PEF changes of −1.18 L/min (95% confidence interval, −2.27 to −0.08 in all children, 1.22 L/min (−2.96 to 5.41 in children without asthma, and −1.44 L/min (−2.57 to −0.32 in children with asthma. Outdoor fungi showed a significant negative correlation with PM2.5 levels (r = −0.4, p = 0.04, but not with SPM (r = ‒0.3, p = 0.10 levels. Outdoor fungi may be associated with pulmonary dysfunction in children. Furthermore, children with asthma may show greater pulmonary dysfunction than those without asthma.

  5. System of large transport containers for waste from dismantling light water and gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.; Lafontaine, I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to introduce the main types of nuclear reactor in the European Community (EC), select reference plants for further study, estimate the waste streams from the reference reactors, survey the transport regulations and assess existing containers

  6. Solid phase extraction of large volume of water and beverage samples to improve detection limits for GC-MS analysis of bisphenol A and four other bisphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Popovic, Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) of large volumes of water and beverage products was investigated for the GC-MS analysis of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol E (BPE), and bisphenol B (BPB). While absolute recoveries of the method were improved for water and some beverage products (e.g. diet cola, iced tea), breakthrough may also have occurred during SPE of 200 mL of other beverages (e.g. BPF in cola). Improvements in method detection limits were observed with the analysis of large sample volumes for all bisphenols at ppt (pg/g) to sub-ppt levels. This improvement was found to be proportional to sample volumes for water and beverage products with less interferences and noise levels around the analytes. Matrix effects and interferences were observed during SPE of larger volumes (100 and 200 mL) of the beverage products, and affected the accurate analysis of BPF. This improved method was used to analyse bisphenols in various beverage samples, and only BPA was detected, with levels ranging from 0.022 to 0.030 ng/g for products in PET bottles, and 0.085 to 0.32 ng/g for products in cans.

  7. New methods to interpolate large volume of data from points or particles (Mesh-Free) methods application for its scientific visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Lopez, Y.; Yervilla Herrera, H.; Viamontes Esquivel, A.; Recarey Morfa, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    In the following paper we developed a new method to interpolate large volumes of scattered data, focused mainly on the results of the Mesh free Methods, Points Methods and the Particles Methods application. Through this one, we use local radial basis function as interpolating functions. We also use over-tree as the data structure that allows to accelerate the localization of the data that influences to interpolate the values at a new point, speeding up the application of scientific visualization techniques to generate images from large data volumes from the application of Mesh-free Methods, Points and Particle Methods, in the resolution of diverse models of physics-mathematics. As an example, the results obtained after applying this method using the local interpolation functions of Shepard are shown. (Author) 22 refs

  8. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    in the field of outdoor recreation, and reveal similarities, differences, gaps and future needs. Among the main findings is a contradiction between the expressed political importance of outdoor recreation at the national level, and the absence of binding commitments for action. The majority of the countries...... surveyed recognise and express outdoor recreation in some form of political and/or legislative way. However, recreation monitoring or measurements are rarely mentioned in relevant policies or acts at the national, regional or local level, perhaps due to a l ack of political will or resources. The analysis...

  9. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  10. Quantifying the Impact of Immediate Reconstruction in Postmastectomy Radiation: A Large, Dose-Volume Histogram-Based Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nisha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Cordeiro, Peter G. [Department of Plastic Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Keam, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ballangrud, Ase [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Nerbun, Claire T.; Woch, Katherine M.; Stein, Nicholas F.; Zhou Ying [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ho, Alice Y., E-mail: HoA1234@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) using dose-volume histogram (DVH) data. Methods and Materials: Two hundred forty-seven women underwent PMRT at our center, 196 with implant reconstruction and 51 without reconstruction. Patients with reconstruction were treated with tangential photons, and patients without reconstruction were treated with en-face electron fields and customized bolus. Twenty percent of patients received internal mammary node (IMN) treatment. The DVH data were compared between groups. Ipsilateral lung parameters included V20 (% volume receiving 20 Gy), V40 (% volume receiving 40 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. Heart parameters included V25 (% volume receiving 25 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. IMN coverage was assessed when applicable. Chest wall coverage was assessed in patients with reconstruction. Propensity-matched analysis adjusted for potential confounders of laterality and IMN treatment. Results: Reconstruction was associated with lower lung V20, mean dose, and maximum dose compared with no reconstruction (all P<.0001). These associations persisted on propensity-matched analysis (all P<.0001). Heart doses were similar between groups (P=NS). Ninety percent of patients with reconstruction had excellent chest wall coverage (D95 >98%). IMN coverage was superior in patients with reconstruction (D95 >92.0 vs 75.7%, P<.001). IMN treatment significantly increased lung and heart parameters in patients with reconstruction (all P<.05) but minimally affected those without reconstruction (all P>.05). Among IMN-treated patients, only lower lung V20 in those without reconstruction persisted (P=.022), and mean and maximum heart doses were higher than in patients without reconstruction (P=.006, P=.015, respectively). Conclusions: Implant reconstruction does not compromise the technical quality of PMRT when the IMNs are untreated. Treatment technique, not reconstruction, is the primary

  11. Large volume TENAX {sup registered} extraction of the bioaccessible fraction of sediment-associated organic compounds for a subsequent effect-directed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, K.; Brack, W. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre or Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Effect-Directed Analysis

    2007-06-15

    Background, Aim and Scope: Effect-directed analysis (EDA) is a powerful tool for the identification of key toxicants in complex environmental samples. In most cases, EDA is based on total extraction of organic contaminants leading to an erroneous prioritization with regard to hazard and risk. Bioaccessibility-directed extraction aims to discriminate between contaminants that take part in partitioning between sediment and biota in a relevant time frame and those that are enclosed in structures, that do not allow rapid desorption. Standard protocols of targeted extraction of rapidly desorbing, and thus bioaccessible fraction using TENAX {sup registered} are based only on small amounts of sediment. In order to get sufficient amounts of extracts for subsequent biotesting, fractionation, and structure elucidation a large volume extraction technique needs to be developed applying one selected extraction time and excluding toxic procedural blanks. Materials and Methods: Desorption behaviour of sediment contaminants was determined by a consecutive solid-solid extraction of sediment using TENAX {sup registered} fitting a tri-compartment model on experimental data. Time needed to remove the rapidly desorbing fraction trap was calculated to select a fixed extraction time for single extraction procedures. Up-scaling by about a factor of 100 provided a large volume extraction technique for EDA. Reproducibility and comparability to small volume approach were proved. Blanks of respective TENAX {sup registered} mass were investigated using Scenedesmus vacuolatus and Artemia salina as test organisms. Results: Desorption kinetics showed that 12 to 30 % of sediment associated pollutants are available for rapid desorption. t{sub r}ap is compound dependent and covers a range of 2 to 18 h. On that basis a fixed extraction time of 24 h was selected. Validation of large volume approach was done by the means of comparison to small method and reproducibility. The large volume showed a good

  12. Fostering Trust in Outdoor Leaders: The Role of Personal Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…

  13. Towards Consensus on the Nature of Outdoor Education. Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter; Loynes, Chris

    1997-01-01

    At a European conference in Finland, various outdoor education organizations drafted a statement of intent for the newly created European Institute for Outdoor Adventure Education. Their common view of outdoor education is that it strives to stimulate personal and social development experientially through some experience of the outdoors. Discusses…

  14. Daily indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W

    2016-02-01

    The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme temperature events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor temperature and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor temperature and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor temperatures showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor temperatures. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of temperature and relative humidity.

  15. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  16. Low volume, large force (>1mN) and nanometer resolution, electrostatic microactuator for low displacement applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2003-01-01

    A compact electrostatic microactuator suitable for low displacement applications is proposed. The actuator employs a large number of basic units working in parallel together with a built-in mechanical transformation to generate large force. Influence of distinct design parameters on actuator

  17. The little book of maths outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This is a unique book that supports the current thinking behind outdoor learning. It features over 40 ideas for outdoor activities that support mathematics in the early years and the specific areas of learning in the revised EYFS. All the ideas are tried and tested by Terry and this book will prove to be popular in the early years and well into Key stage 1.

  18. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critic...

  19. Large-volume injection of sample diluents not miscible with the mobile phase as an alternative approach in sample preparation for bioanalysis: an application for fenspiride bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Udrescu, Stefan; Albu, Florin; Tache, Florentin; David, Victor

    2011-09-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction of target compounds from biological matrices followed by the injection of a large volume from the organic layer into the chromatographic column operated under reversed-phase (RP) conditions would successfully combine the selectivity and the straightforward character of the procedure in order to enhance sensitivity, compared with the usual approach of involving solvent evaporation and residue re-dissolution. Large-volume injection of samples in diluents that are not miscible with the mobile phase was recently introduced in chromatographic practice. The risk of random errors produced during the manipulation of samples is also substantially reduced. A bioanalytical method designed for the bioequivalence of fenspiride containing pharmaceutical formulations was based on a sample preparation procedure involving extraction of the target analyte and the internal standard (trimetazidine) from alkalinized plasma samples in 1-octanol. A volume of 75 µl from the octanol layer was directly injected on a Zorbax SB C18 Rapid Resolution, 50 mm length × 4.6 mm internal diameter × 1.8 µm particle size column, with the RP separation being carried out under gradient elution conditions. Detection was made through positive ESI and MS/MS. Aspects related to method development and validation are discussed. The bioanalytical method was successfully applied to assess bioequivalence of a modified release pharmaceutical formulation containing 80 mg fenspiride hydrochloride during two different studies carried out as single-dose administration under fasting and fed conditions (four arms), and multiple doses administration, respectively. The quality attributes assigned to the bioanalytical method, as resulting from its application to the bioequivalence studies, are highlighted and fully demonstrate that sample preparation based on large-volume injection of immiscible diluents has an increased potential for application in bioanalysis.

  20. Measurement of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations during Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Paul, Prateek; Stieff, Alex; Stieff, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    Superstorm Sandy affected much of the US East Coast extending over 1800 km. It passed over the test location in the State of Maryland on 29 October 2012. Being 350 km away from the regions of highest intensity the storm was of lower intensity at the test location. Continuous radon monitors and passive radon monitors were used for the measurement. The test location was the basement of a single family home representing the indoor concentration. A partially opened garage of the same test home represented the outdoor radon concentration. In 24 h, the atmospheric pressure dropped from 990 to 960 mbar and the indoor radon concentration increased from 70 to 1500 Bq m(-3) and returned to the normal of 70 Bq m(-3) at the end of the storm. Throughout the storm, the outdoor radon concentration was not significantly affected. Probable reasons for such surprisingly large changes are discussed. However, the outdoor temperature dropped from 13°C to 7°C during the radon peak.

  1. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  2. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, G. Neil

    2013-01-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  3. Containment at the Source during Waste Volume Reduction of Large Radioactive Components Using Oxylance High-Temperature Cutting Equipment - 13595

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeney, G. Neil [Health Physicist, HazMat CATS, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As a waste-volume reduction and management technique, highly contaminated Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) housings were severed from the Reactor Pressure Vessel Head (RPVH) inside the San Onofre Unit 2 primary containment utilizing Oxylance high-temperature cutting equipment and techniques. Presented are relevant data concerning: - Radiological profiles of the RPVH and individual CEDMs; - Design overviews of the engineering controls and the specialized confinement housings; - Utilization of specialized shielding; - Observations of apparent metallurgical-contamination coalescence phenomena at high temperatures resulting in positive control over loose-surface contamination conditions; - General results of radiological and industrial hygiene air sampling and monitoring; - Collective dose and personnel contamination event statistics; - Lessons learned. (author)

  4. The Contribution of Outdoor Recreation and Outdoor Education to the Economy of Scotland: Case Studies and Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and education contribute substantially to the Scottish economy. Outdoor recreation generates considerable tourism income, much of it in rural areas, and also extends the traditional tourist season. Outdoor education centers are significant employers in certain rural areas. In addition, "therapeutic" outdoor programs…

  5. Large-Animal Biventricular Working Heart Perfusion System with Low Priming Volume-Comparison between in vivo and ex vivo Cardiac Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, Jan-Michael; Mayr, Tanja Axinja Jelena; Jauch, Judith; Guethoff, Sonja; Buchholz, Stefan; Reichart, Bruno; Bauer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Existing large-animal, ex vivo, cardiac perfusion models are restricted in their ability to establish an ischemia/reperfusion condition as seen in cardiac surgery or transplantation. Other working heart systems only challenge one ventricle or require a substantially larger priming volume. We describe a novel biventricular cardiac perfusion system with reduced priming volume. Juvenile pig hearts were cardiopleged, explanted, and reperfused ex vivo after 150 minutes of cold ischemia. Autologous whole blood was used as perfusate (minimal priming volume 350 mL). After 15 minutes of Langendorff perfusion (LM), the system was switched into a biventricular working mode (WM) and studied for 3 hours. During reperfusion, complete unloading of both ventricles and constant-pressure coronary perfusion was achieved. During working mode perfusion, the preload and afterload pressure of both ventricles was controlled within the targeted physiologic range. Functional parameters such as left ventricular work index were reduced in ex vivo working mode (in vivo: 787 ± 186 vs. 1 h WM 498 ± 66 mm Hg·mL/g·min; p  hours while functional and blood parameters are easily accessible. Moreover, because of the minimal priming volume, the novel ex vivo cardiac perfusion circuit allows for autologous perfusion, using the limited amount of blood available from the organ donating animal. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Volume 2: Technology assessment and technology development plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Jones, Peter A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to define reasonable and representative LDR system concepts for the purpose of defining a technology development program aimed at providing the requisite technological capability necessary to start LDR development by the end of 1991. This volume presents thirteen technology assessments and technology development plans, as well as an overview and summary of the LDR concepts. Twenty-two proposed augmentation projects are described (selected from more than 30 candidates). The five LDR technology areas most in need of supplementary support are: cryogenic cooling; astronaut assembly of the optically precise LDR in space; active segmented primary mirror; dynamic structural control; and primary mirror contamination control. Three broad, time-phased, five-year programs were synthesized from the 22 projects, scheduled, and funding requirements estimated.

  7. A novel optical microscope for imaging large embryos and tissue volumes with sub-cellular resolution throughout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Gail; Trägårdh, Johanna; Amor, Rumelo; Dempster, John; Reid, Es; Amos, William Bradshaw

    2016-09-23

    Current optical microscope objectives of low magnification have low numerical aperture and therefore have too little depth resolution and discrimination to perform well in confocal and nonlinear microscopy. This is a serious limitation in important areas, including the phenotypic screening of human genes in transgenic mice by study of embryos undergoing advanced organogenesis. We have built an optical lens system for 3D imaging of objects up to 6 mm wide and 3 mm thick with depth resolution of only a few microns instead of the tens of microns currently attained, allowing sub-cellular detail to be resolved throughout the volume. We present this lens, called the Mesolens, with performance data and images from biological specimens including confocal images of whole fixed and intact fluorescently-stained 12.5-day old mouse embryos.

  8. Dosimetric Coverage of the Prostate, Normal Tissue Sparing, and Acute Toxicity with High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Large Prostate Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurposeTo evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes.Materials and MethodsOne hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38% unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.ResultsMedian follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3% patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17% patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p=0.04. There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity.ConclusionsDosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes.

  9. Dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with high-dose-rate brachytherapy for large prostate volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, George; Strom, Tobin J.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Mellon, Eric A.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Biagioli, Matthew C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States); Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: mcbiagioli@yahoo.com [Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Newnan, GA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: to evaluate dosimetric coverage of the prostate, normal tissue sparing, and acute toxicity with HDR brachytherapy for large prostate volumes. Materials and methods: one hundred and two prostate cancer patients with prostate volumes >50 mL (range: 5-29 mL) were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy ± intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions between 2009 and 2013. HDR brachytherapy monotherapy doses consisted of two 1,350-1,400 cGy fractions separated by 2-3 weeks, and HDR brachytherapy boost doses consisted of two 950-1,150 cGy fractions separated by 4 weeks. Twelve of 32 (38%) unfavorable intermediate risk, high risk, and very high risk patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4. Results: median follow-up was 14 months. Dosimetric goals were achieved in over 90% of cases. Three of 102 (3%) patients developed Grade 2 acute proctitis. No variables were significantly associated with Grade 2 acute proctitis. Seventeen of 102 (17%) patients developed Grade 2 acute urinary retention. American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score was the only variable significantly associated with Grade 2 acute urinary retention (p-0.04). There was no ≥ Grade 3 acute toxicity. Conclusions: dosimetric coverage of the prostate and normal tissue sparing were adequate in patients with prostate volumes >50 mL. Higher pre-treatment AUA symptom scores increased the relative risk of Grade 2 acute urinary retention. However, the overall incidence of acute toxicity was acceptable in patients with large prostate volumes. (author)

  10. High failure rates after (131)I therapy in Graves hyperthyroidism patients with large thyroid volumes, high iodine uptake, and high iodine turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jeroen A F; Verkooijen, Helena M; Valk, Gerlof D; Zelissen, Pierre M J; de Keizer, Bart

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify patient characteristics positively and independently associated with I-iodide treatment failure in a large cohort of patients with Graves hyperthyroidism treated with either a calculated "standard" activity of 3.7 MBq/mL (0.1 mCi) or 7.4 MBq/mL (0.2 mCi) of thyroid volume. Data on 385 consecutive patients were prospectively collected. Clinical treatment outcome up to 1 year in relation to thyroid volume, 5- and 24-hour I uptake, 5/24-hour I uptake ratio, and the administered activity of radioiodine were analyzed. Overall treatment results were hypothyroidism in 46%, euthyroidism in 29%, and recurrent hyperthyroidism in 26% of patients. Thyroid volume (P = 0.000), 5/24-hour uptake ratio (P = 0.000), and 5- and 24-hour uptake alone (respectively, P = 0.000 and P = 0.002) were significantly associated with therapy outcome. Patients with a combination of a thyroid volume greater than 50 mL and a 5/24-hour uptake ratio 0.8 or greater showed treatment failure in 70% and 42% (respectively, 3.7 MBq/mL, n = 20; and 7.4 MBq/mL, n = 41).Thyroid volume and 5/24-hour uptake ratio were positively and independently associated with recurrent hyperthyroidism (respectively, odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.39-11.76; and OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.59-5.59). Higher activities of 7.4 MBq/mL I were associated with a lower risk of treatment failure (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.62). Large thyroid volumes and high 5/24-hour uptake ratios are positively and independently associated with recurrent hyperthyroidism following I therapy in Graves hyperthyroidism. Higher success rates can be achieved when account is taken of these poor prognostic factors. In consequence, these patients should be treated with activities greater than 7.4 MBq/mL.

  11. META II: Formal Co-Verification of Correctness of Large-Scale Cyber-Physical Systems during Design. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    design space is large. His research contributions are to the field of Decision-based Design, specifically in linking consumer preferences and...Integrating Consumer Preferences into Engineering Design, to be published in 2012. He received his PhD from Northwestern University in Mechanical

  12. The Limits and Possibilities of International Large-Scale Assessments. Education Policy Brief. Volume 9, Number 2, Spring 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David J.; Prusinski, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The staff of the Center for Evaluation & Education Policy (CEEP) at Indiana University is often asked about how international large-scale assessments influence U.S. educational policy. This policy brief is designed to provide answers to some of the most frequently asked questions encountered by CEEP researchers concerning the three most popular…

  13. Indoor radon concentration and outdoor/indoor pressure difference correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Fronka, A.; Moucka, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the current approach to the radon issue, the radon risk for people living in a building is estimated based on the average indoor radon concentration. Short-term measurements as usually applied fail to reflect the wide range of radon variations arising from ventilation, radon supply and, in particular, human activities in the building. For this reason, efforts are made to find a new approach to the assessment of the quality of a building as a radon barrier, independent of the weather conditions and residential habits. A simple model of radon volume activity entering the building at a constant rate and simultaneously ventilated at a constant rate is applicable to this task. The rate of radon ingress can be regarded as a parameter making it possible to quantify the leakage of structures provided the barrier against the radon in a soil gas. The ventilation rate, on the other hand, characterizes the leakage of the whole building envelope at a given outdoor/indoor pressure difference. A unique measuring technique called the blower door exists whereby a defined pressure difference between the indoor and outdoor atmosphere can be established. Under such conditions both the ventilation rate and the rate of radon ingress can be measured and expressed as a function of the pressure difference. An analysis of the model of a room with a constant ventilation and constant radon supply is presented and the relationship between radon supply and ventilation rate can be assumed. Some experimental results show how the model can be utilized. The real indoor-outdoor air pressure differences, the indoor-soil air pressure differences, and some effects of different ventilation regimes are given. Other experiments, which have been done by using the blower door method, illustrate the possible effects and some restrictions for a routine application are discussed

  14. Analysis of Lung Tumor Motion in a Large Sample: Patterns and Factors Influencing Precise Delineation of Internal Target Volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knybel, Lukas [Department of Oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic); VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Cvek, Jakub, E-mail: Jakub.cvek@fno.cz [Department of Oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic); Molenda, Lukas; Stieberova, Natalie; Feltl, David [Department of Oncology, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate lung tumor motion during respiration and to describe factors affecting the range and variability of motion in patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Log file analysis from online respiratory tumor tracking was performed in 145 patients. Geometric tumor location in the lungs, tumor volume and origin (primary or metastatic), sex, and tumor motion amplitudes in the superior-inferior (SI), latero-lateral (LL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were recorded. Tumor motion variability during treatment was described using intrafraction/interfraction amplitude variability and tumor motion baseline changes. Tumor movement dependent on the tumor volume, position and origin, and sex were evaluated using statistical regression and correlation analysis. Results: After analysis of >500 hours of data, the highest rates of motion amplitudes, intrafraction/interfraction variation, and tumor baseline changes were in the SI direction (6.0 ± 2.2 mm, 2.2 ± 1.8 mm, 1.1 ± 0.9 mm, and −0.1 ± 2.6 mm). The mean motion amplitudes in the lower/upper geometric halves of the lungs were significantly different (P<.001). Motion amplitudes >15 mm were observed only in the lower geometric quarter of the lungs. Higher tumor motion amplitudes generated higher intrafraction variations (R=.86, P<.001). Interfraction variations and baseline changes >3 mm indicated tumors contacting mediastinal structures or parietal pleura. On univariate analysis, neither sex nor tumor origin (primary vs metastatic) was an independent predictive factor of different movement patterns. Metastatic lesions in women, but not men, showed significantly higher mean amplitudes (P=.03) and variability (primary, 2.7 mm; metastatic, 4.9 mm; P=.002) than primary tumors. Conclusion: Online tracking showed significant irregularities in lung tumor movement during respiration. Motion amplitude was significantly lower in upper lobe

  15. Analysis of Lung Tumor Motion in a Large Sample: Patterns and Factors Influencing Precise Delineation of Internal Target Volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knybel, Lukas; Cvek, Jakub; Molenda, Lukas; Stieberova, Natalie; Feltl, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate lung tumor motion during respiration and to describe factors affecting the range and variability of motion in patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Log file analysis from online respiratory tumor tracking was performed in 145 patients. Geometric tumor location in the lungs, tumor volume and origin (primary or metastatic), sex, and tumor motion amplitudes in the superior-inferior (SI), latero-lateral (LL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were recorded. Tumor motion variability during treatment was described using intrafraction/interfraction amplitude variability and tumor motion baseline changes. Tumor movement dependent on the tumor volume, position and origin, and sex were evaluated using statistical regression and correlation analysis. Results: After analysis of >500 hours of data, the highest rates of motion amplitudes, intrafraction/interfraction variation, and tumor baseline changes were in the SI direction (6.0 ± 2.2 mm, 2.2 ± 1.8 mm, 1.1 ± 0.9 mm, and −0.1 ± 2.6 mm). The mean motion amplitudes in the lower/upper geometric halves of the lungs were significantly different (P 15 mm were observed only in the lower geometric quarter of the lungs. Higher tumor motion amplitudes generated higher intrafraction variations (R=.86, P 3 mm indicated tumors contacting mediastinal structures or parietal pleura. On univariate analysis, neither sex nor tumor origin (primary vs metastatic) was an independent predictive factor of different movement patterns. Metastatic lesions in women, but not men, showed significantly higher mean amplitudes (P=.03) and variability (primary, 2.7 mm; metastatic, 4.9 mm; P=.002) than primary tumors. Conclusion: Online tracking showed significant irregularities in lung tumor movement during respiration. Motion amplitude was significantly lower in upper lobe tumors; higher interfraction amplitude variability indicated tumors in contact

  16. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  17. 'Dip-sticks' calibration handles self-attenuation and coincidence effects in large-volume gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wolterbeek, H T

    2000-01-01

    Routine gamma-spectrometric analyses of samples with low-level activities (e.g. food, water, environmental and industrial samples) are often performed in large samples, placed close to the detector. In these geometries, detection sensitivity is improved but large errors are introduced due to self-attenuation and coincidence summing. Current approaches to these problems comprise computational methods and spiked standard materials. However, the first are often regarded as too complex for practical routine use, the latter never fully match real samples. In the present study, we introduce a dip-sticks calibration as a fast and easy practical solution to this quantification problem in a routine analytical setting. In the proposed set-up, calibrations are performed within the sample itself, thus making it a broadly accessible matching-reference approach, which is principally usable for all sample matrices.

  18. System of large transport containers for waste from dismantling light water and gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1986-09-01

    This report deals with the operational, radiological and economic aspects of transport as well as conceptual designs of large containers for the transport of radioactive decommissioning wastes from nuclear power plants within the member states of the European Economic Community. The means of transport, the costs and radiological detriment are considered, and conceptual designs of containers are described. Recommendations are made for further studies. (U.K.)

  19. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  20. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  1. Neutron multicounter detector for investigation of content and spatial distribution of fission materials in large volume samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiderska-Kowalczyk, M.; Starosta, W.; Zoltowski, T.

    1998-01-01

    The experimental device is a neutron coincidence well counter. It can be applied for passive assay of fissile - especially for plutonium bearing - materials. It consist of a set of 3 He tubes placed inside a polyethylene moderator; outputs from the tubes, first processed by preamplifier/amplifier/discriminator circuits, are then analysed using neutron correlator connected with a PC, and correlation techniques implemented in software. Such a neutron counter allows for determination of plutonium mass ( 240 Pu effective mass) in nonmultiplying samples having fairly big volume (up to 0.14 m 3 ). For determination of neutron sources distribution inside the sample, the heuristic methods based on hierarchical cluster analysis are applied. As an input parameters, amplitudes and phases of two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the count profiles matrices for known point sources distributions and for the examined samples, are taken. Such matrices are collected by means of sample scanning by detection head. During clustering process, counts profiles for unknown samples fitted into dendrograms using the 'proximity' criterion of the examined sample profile to standard samples profiles. Distribution of neutron sources in an examined sample is then evaluated on the basis of comparison with standard sources distributions. (author)

  2. Development of a unified sizing method for gas radiation heating facilities used in large-volume buildings; Developpement d'une methode de dimensionnement unifiee d'installations de chauffage radiant gaz pour les batiments de grand volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, M.; Bego, L.; Douls, Y.; Le Dean, P.; Paradowski, V. [Gaz de France, GDF, Dir. de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    Builders now have perfect command of the natural gas heating technique used for large-volume buildings. However, the sizing of heating facilities still leaves grounds for discussion, whatever the energies actually used. Accordingly, between 1997 and 1999, the ATG (technical association of the Gas industry in France), seven French manufacturers of 'large volume' heating equipment, the Chaleur Et Rayonnement (CER) association and Gaz de France decided to collaborate and develop a 'unified sizing method' for heating facilities using radiating emitters. During the first year of the study, the above partners worked on the said method (theoretical thermal study of the radiative phenomena, and then adaptation to the methods currently used by the various manufacturers). In 1998, with the support of the ADEME (the French environment and energy control agency), the partners tested the method on five industrial buildings (studying the thermal behavior and making air renewal measurements with search gases). This work made it possible to either confirm or adapt the theoretical evaluations which had been made originally. In 1999, a software program was produced to make the developed method more user friendly. The program can be used to determine the power to be installed, but also to assess the quality of the chosen configuration of the emitters (unit power, inclination, orientation) for optimum customer comfort. (authors)

  3. Effect of NaOH on large-volume sample stacking of haloacetic acids in capillary zone electrophoresis with a low-pH buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chuanhong; Zhu, Lingyan; Ang, Chay Hoon; Lee, Hian Kee

    2003-06-01

    Large-volume sample stacking (LVSS) is an effective on-capillary sample concentration method in capillary zone electrophoresis, which can be applied to the sample in a low-conductivity matrix. NaOH solution is commonly used to back-extract acidic compounds from organic solvent in sample pretreatment. The effect of NaOH as sample matrix on LVSS of haloacetic acids was investigated in this study. It was found that the presence of NaOH in sample did not compromise, but rather help the sample stacking performance if a low pH background electrolyte (BGE) was used. The sensitivity enhancement factor was higher than the case when sample was dissolved in pure water or diluted BGE. Compared with conventional injection (0.4% capillary volume), 97-120-fold sensitivity enhancement in terms of peak height was obtained without deterioration of separation with an injection amount equal to 20% of the capillary volume. This method was applied to determine haloacetic acids in tap water by combination with liquid-liquid extraction and back-extraction into NaOH solution. Limits of detection at sub-ppb levels were obtained for real samples with direct UV detection.

  4. On Assumptions in Development of a Mathematical Model of Thermo-gravitational Convection in the Large Volume Process Tanks Taking into Account Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Shkapov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a mathematical model of thermo-gravity convection in a large volume vertical cylinder. The heat is removed from the product via the cooling jacket at the top of the cylinder. We suppose that a laminar fluid motion takes place. The model is based on the NavierStokes equation, the equation of heat transfer through the wall, and the heat transfer equation. The peculiarity of the process in large volume tanks was the distribution of the physical parameters of the coordinates that was taken into account when constructing the model. The model corresponds to a process of wort beer fermentation in the cylindrical-conical tanks (CCT. The CCT volume is divided into three zones and for each zone model equations was obtained. The first zone has an annular cross-section and it is limited to the height by the cooling jacket. In this zone the heat flow from the cooling jacket to the product is uppermost. Model equation of the first zone describes the process of heat transfer through the wall and is presented by linear inhomogeneous differential equation in partial derivatives that is solved analytically. For the second and third zones description there was a number of engineering assumptions. The fluid was considered Newtonian, viscous and incompressible. Convective motion considered in the Boussinesq approximation. The effect of viscous dissipation is not considered. The topology of fluid motion is similar to the cylindrical Poiseuille. The second zone model consists of the Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates with the introduction of a simplified and the heat equation in the liquid layer. The volume that is occupied by an upward convective flow pertains to the third area. Convective flows do not mix and do not exchange heat. At the start of the process a medium has the same temperature and a zero initial velocity in the whole volume that allows us to specify the initial conditions for the process. The paper shows the

  5. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...

  6. Automated transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM for large volume analysis at nanoscale resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kuwajima

    Full Text Available Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm(2 (65.54 µm per side at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM system, which were only 66.59 µm(2 (8.160 µm per side at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm(2 and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm. Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems.

  7. Outdoor ultraviolet exposure of children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffey, B.L.; Gibson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The weekday and weekend outdoor ultraviolet exposure of young people from primary and secondary schools in three geographically distinct regions of England was determined over a 3-month period in summer. Ultraviolet exposure was measured using personal film badges worn by each young person and time spent outdoors, in hourly intervals, assessed using exposure records. In each area a class of 9-10 year-old children from a primary school and a class of 14-15-year-old adolescents from a secondary school took part, giving a total of 180 subjects. We found that primary school children received higher outdoor ultraviolet exposure than young people in secondary schools, and geographical differences in exposure could not be accounted for solely by differences in ambient ultraviolet. There was little difference between the exposure of males and females. Children and adolescents did not behave as homogeneous groups with regard to exposure. (Author)

  8. Subject related teaching in udeskole (outdoor school)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Karen Seierøe

    Subject related teaching in udeskole In this symposium, subject related teaching on a regular basis in the outdoors, known as udeskole will be described and discussed. Based on recent and ongoing research and development, the education taking the place of teaching into account of the learning...... will identify the necessity of doing research into the field, as 18,4% of all Danish schools is shown to have one or more classes working with udeskole (Barfod et al, 2016). Secondly, the subject related teaching in the outdoors will be exemplified by four research projects. First, the subject ‘Danish...... teaching in the outdoors will be supplemented with recent research upon barriers for using external learning environments ‘the open school’ in Skive Muncipiality. Closing the seminar will be a presentation of the national Danish Network UdeskoleNet and its application. Sources: Barfod, K., Ejbye-Ernst, N...

  9. Radiometric monitoring outdoor municipality Pocinhos-PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton

    2015-01-01

    Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)

  10. Numerical Study for a Large Volume Droplet on the Dual-rough Surface: Apparent Contact Angle, Contact Angle Hysteresis and Transition Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian; Jin, Yanli; Dong, He; Liu, Jiawei; Ye, Senbin

    2018-06-14

    The profile, apparent contact angle (ACA), contact angle hysteresis (CAH) and wetting state transmission energy barrier (WSTEB) are important static and dynamic properties of a large volume droplet on the hierarchical surface. Understanding them can provide us with important insights to functional surfaces and promote the application in corresponding areas. In this paper, we established three theoretical models (Model 1, Model 2 and Model 3) and corresponding numerical methods, which were obtained by the free energy minimization and the nonlinear optimization algorithm, to predict the profile, ACA, CAH and WSTEB of a large volume droplet on the horizontal regular dual-rough surface. In consideration of the gravity, the energy barrier on the contact circle, the dual heterogenous structures and their roughness on the surface, the models are more universal and accurate than previous models. It showed that the predictions of the models were in good agreement with the results from the experiment or literature. The models are promising to become novel design approaches of functional surfaces, which are frequently applied in microfluidic chips, water self-catchment system and dropwise condensation heat transfer system.

  11. Use of nitrogen to remove solvent from through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface during analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by large volume injection in gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Áragón, Alvaro; Toledano, Rosa M; Cortés, José M; Vázquez, Ana M; Villén, Jesús

    2014-04-25

    The through oven transfer adsorption desorption (TOTAD) interface allows large volume injection (LVI) in gas chromatography and the on-line coupling of liquid chromatography and gas chromatography (LC-GC), enabling the LC step to be carried out in normal as well as in reversed phase. However, large amounts of helium, which is both expensive and scarce, are necessary for solvent elimination. We describe how slight modification of the interface and the operating mode allows nitrogen to be used during the solvent elimination steps. In order to evaluate the performance of the new system, volumes ranging from 20 to 100μL of methanolic solutions of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were sampled. No significant differences were found in the repeatability and sensitivity of the analyses of standard PAH solutions when using nitrogen or helium. The performance using the proposed modification was similar and equally satisfactory when using nitrogen or helium for solvent elimination in the TOTAD interface. In conclusion, the use of nitrogen will make analyses less expensive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-05

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH 4 + strategy for ethylene and SO 2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO 2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO 2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO 2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be gas targets from real samples by SERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Magma Chamber Model of Batur Caldera, Bali, Indonesia: Compositional Variation of Two Facies, Large-Volume Dacitic Ignimbrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igan S. Sutawidjaja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.2.111-124Batur is one of the finest known calderas on Earth, and is the source of at least two major ignimbrite eruptions with a combined volume of some 84 km3 and 19 km3. These ignimbrites have a similar compositions, raising the question of whether they are geneticaly related. The Batur Ignimbrite-1 (BI-1 is crystal poor, containing rhyodacitic (68 - 70wt % SiO2, white to grey pumices and partly welded and unwelded. The overlying Batur Ignimbrite-2 (BI-2 is a homogeneous grey to black dacitic pumices (64 - 66 wt % SiO2, unwelded and densely welded (40 - 60% vesicularity, crystal and lithic rich. Phase equilibria indicate that the Batur magma equilibrated at temperatures of 1100 - 1300oC with melt water contents of 3 - 6 wt%. The post-eruptive Batur magma was cooler (<1100oC and it is melt more water rich (> 6 wt % H2O. A pressure of 20 kbar is infered from mineral barometry for the Batur magma chamber. Magmatic chamber model is one in which crystals and melt separate from a convecting Batur magma by density differences, resulting in a stratified magma chamber with a homogeneous central zone, a crystal-rich accumulation zone near the walls or base, and a buoyant, melt-rich zone near the top. This is consistent with the estimated magma temperatures and densities: the pre-eruptive BI-1 magma was hoter (1300oC and more volatile rich (6 wt % H2O with density 2.25 g/cm3 than the BI-2 magma (1200oC; 4 wt % H2O in density was higher (2.50 g/cm3. Batur melt characteristics and intensive parameters are consistent with a volatile oversaturation-driven eruption. However, the higher H2O content, high viscosity and low crystal content of the BI-1 magma imply an external eruption trigger.

  14. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  15. Continuous measurements of outdoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Ueno, K.; Komura, K.; Kato, I.; Jin Yihe

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied and developed an electrostatic 222 Rn monitor and have measured continuously outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations at Nagoya University since 1985. Four 222 Rn monitors were newly constructed to measure outdoor 222 Rn concentrations at other locations. The 222 Rn concentrations at Nagoya and Kasugai show a clear diurnal variation in autumn, and a seasonal pattern of a spring-summer minimum and a autumn-winter maximum. The results at Toki are the same pattern as that at Nagoya except spring. The concentrations at Kanazawa show a slight seasonal variation. A clear diurnal variation is observed in summer. (4 figs.)

  16. Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantakokko, Merja; Mänty, Minna; Iwarsson, Susanne; Törmäkangas, Timo; Leinonen, Raija; Heikkinen, Eino; Rantanen, Taina

    2009-04-01

    To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation. Observational prospective cohort study and cross-sectional analyses. Community and research center. Seven hundred twenty-seven community-living people aged 75 to 81 were interviewed at baseline, of whom 314 took part in a 3.5-year follow-up. Fear of moving outdoors and its potential individual and environmental correlates were assessed at baseline. Perceived difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km were assessed twice a year over a 3.5-year period. At baseline, 65% of the women and 29% of the men reported fear of moving outdoors. Poor socioeconomic status; musculoskeletal diseases; slow walking speed; and the presence of poor street conditions, hills in the nearby environment, and noisy traffic correlated with fear of moving outdoors. At the first 6-month follow-up, participants with fear of moving outdoors had more than four times the adjusted risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92-11.00) of developing difficulties in walking 0.5 km and a three times greater adjusted risk (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.49-6.46) for developing difficulty in walking 2 km compared with those without fear. The difference in the prevalence of walking difficulties remained statistically significant over the 3.5-year follow-up (P=.02 and P=.009, respectively). Fear of moving outdoors is common in older adults and increases the risk of developing self-reported difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km. Knowledge about individual and environmental factors underlying fear of moving outdoors and finding ways to alleviate fear of moving outdoors are important for community planning and prevention of disability.

  17. Turismo Activo y Outdoor Training: Metodología. (Adventure Sport Tourism and Outdoor Training: Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gómez Encinas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los aspectos más atractivos que tiene el outdoor training es su supuesta capacidad para conseguir que los aprendizajes obtenidos a través de sus actividades sean transferidos a otros ámbitos de la vida personal y profesional de sus participantes. En este sentido, la clave está en la metodología empleada. Este artículo profundiza en las fases que estructuran el proceso formativo del outdoor training describiendo: 1 las bases folosóficas que lo apoyan y que están expresadas en la teoría de la “educación a través de la experiencia” y 2 las diferentes fases que estructuran el proceso de formación de un outdoor, haciendo una descripción en profundidad de cada una de ellas: a Pre-Outdoor (Análisis y valoración de las necesidades, diseño de la actividad y reunión previa a la actividad, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflexión y transferencia, y d Seguimiento posterior.AbstractOne of the most attractive aspects that has the outdoor training is their supposed capacity to get that the learnings obtained through their activities are transferred to other environments of the personal life and their participants' professional. In this sense, the key is in the used methodology. This article deepens in the phases that structure the formative process of the outdoor training describing: 1 the philosophy´s bases that support this process and that are expressed in the theory of experiential education, and 2 the different phases that structure the process of formation of an outdoor, making a description in depth of each one of them: to Pre-Outdoor (Analysis and valuation of the necessities, design of the activity and previous meeting to the activity, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflection and transfer, and d Later Pursuit.

  18. JUICE: a data management system that facilitates the analysis of large volumes of information in an EST project workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Mariano; Silva, Herman; Saba, Juan; Guziolowski, Carito; Vizoso, Paula; Martinez, Veronica; Maldonado, Jonathan; Morales, Andrea; Caroca, Rodrigo; Cambiazo, Veronica; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Gonzalez, Mauricio; Orellana, Ariel; Retamales, Julio; Meisel, Lee A

    2006-11-23

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) analyses provide a rapid and economical means to identify candidate genes that may be involved in a particular biological process. These ESTs are useful in many Functional Genomics studies. However, the large quantity and complexity of the data generated during an EST sequencing project can make the analysis of this information a daunting task. In an attempt to make this task friendlier, we have developed JUICE, an open source data management system (Apache + PHP + MySQL on Linux), which enables the user to easily upload, organize, visualize and search the different types of data generated in an EST project pipeline. In contrast to other systems, the JUICE data management system allows a branched pipeline to be established, modified and expanded, during the course of an EST project. The web interfaces and tools in JUICE enable the users to visualize the information in a graphical, user-friendly manner. The user may browse or search for sequences and/or sequence information within all the branches of the pipeline. The user can search using terms associated with the sequence name, annotation or other characteristics stored in JUICE and associated with sequences or sequence groups. Groups of sequences can be created by the user, stored in a clipboard and/or downloaded for further analyses. Different user profiles restrict the access of each user depending upon their role in the project. The user may have access exclusively to visualize sequence information, access to annotate sequences and sequence information, or administrative access. JUICE is an open source data management system that has been developed to aid users in organizing and analyzing the large amount of data generated in an EST Project workflow. JUICE has been used in one of the first functional genomics projects in Chile, entitled "Functional Genomics in nectarines: Platform to potentiate the competitiveness of Chile in fruit exportation". However, due to its ability to

  19. JUICE: a data management system that facilitates the analysis of large volumes of information in an EST project workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Veronica

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed sequence tag (EST analyses provide a rapid and economical means to identify candidate genes that may be involved in a particular biological process. These ESTs are useful in many Functional Genomics studies. However, the large quantity and complexity of the data generated during an EST sequencing project can make the analysis of this information a daunting task. Results In an attempt to make this task friendlier, we have developed JUICE, an open source data management system (Apache + PHP + MySQL on Linux, which enables the user to easily upload, organize, visualize and search the different types of data generated in an EST project pipeline. In contrast to other systems, the JUICE data management system allows a branched pipeline to be established, modified and expanded, during the course of an EST project. The web interfaces and tools in JUICE enable the users to visualize the information in a graphical, user-friendly manner. The user may browse or search for sequences and/or sequence information within all the branches of the pipeline. The user can search using terms associated with the sequence name, annotation or other characteristics stored in JUICE and associated with sequences or sequence groups. Groups of sequences can be created by the user, stored in a clipboard and/or downloaded for further analyses. Different user profiles restrict the access of each user depending upon their role in the project. The user may have access exclusively to visualize sequence information, access to annotate sequences and sequence information, or administrative access. Conclusion JUICE is an open source data management system that has been developed to aid users in organizing and analyzing the large amount of data generated in an EST Project workflow. JUICE has been used in one of the first functional genomics projects in Chile, entitled "Functional Genomics in nectarines: Platform to potentiate the competitiveness of Chile in

  20. Estimation of indoor and outdoor ratios of selected volatile organic compounds in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Szyszkowicz, Mieczyslaw; Jovic, Branka; Cakmak, Sabit; Austin, Claire C.; Zhu, Jiping

    2016-09-01

    Indoor air and outdoor air concentration (I/O) ratio can be used to identify the origins of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). I/O ratios of 25 VOCs in Canada were estimated based on the data collected in various areas in Canada between September 2009 and December 2011. The indoor VOC data were extracted from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Outdoor VOC data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) Network. The sampling locations covered nine areas in six provinces in Canada. Indoor air concentrations were found higher than outdoor air for all studied VOCs, except for carbon tetrachloride. Two different approaches were employed to estimate the I/O ratios; both approaches produced similar I/O values. The I/O ratios obtained from this study were similar to two other Canadian studies where indoor air and outdoor air of individual dwellings were measured. However, the I/O ratios found in Canada were higher than those in European cities and in two large USA cities, possibly due to the fact that the outdoor air concentrations recorded in the Canadian studies were lower. Possible source origins identified for the studied VOCs based on their I/O ratios were similar to those reported by others. In general, chlorinated hydrocarbons, short-chain (C5, C6) n-alkanes and benzene had significant outdoor sources, while long-chain (C10sbnd C12) n-alkanes, terpenes, naphthalene and styrene had significant indoor sources. The remaining VOCs had mixed indoor and outdoor sources.

  1. Mathematical model development of heat and mass exchange processes in the outdoor swimming pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Shaptala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Currently exploitation of outdoor swimming pools is often not cost-effective and, despite of their relevance, such pools are closed in large quantities. At this time there is no the whole mathematical model which would allow assessing qualitatively the effect of energy-saving measures. The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes for calculating basic heat and mass losses that occur during its exploitation. Methodology. The method for determination of heat and mass loses based on the theory of similarity criteria equations is used. Findings. The main types of heat and mass losses of outdoor pool were analyzed. The most significant types were allocated and mathematically described. Namely: by evaporation of water from the surface of the pool, by natural and forced convection, by radiation to the environment, heat consumption for water heating. Originality. The mathematical model of heat and mass exchange process of the outdoor swimming pool was developed, which allows calculating the basic heat and mass loses that occur during its exploitation. Practical value. The method of determining heat and mass loses of outdoor swimming pool as a software system was developed and implemented. It is based on the mathematical model proposed by the authors. This method can be used for the conceptual design of energy-efficient structures of outdoor pools, to assess their use of energy-intensive and selecting the optimum energy-saving measures. A further step in research in this area is the experimental validation of the method of calculation of heat losses in outdoor swimming pools with its use as an example the pool of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan. The outdoor pool, with water heating- up from the boiler room of the university, is operated year-round.

  2. Environmental Monitoring and Characterization of Radiation Sources on UF Campus Using a Large Volume NaI Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Jesse A.; Gardiner, Hannah E.; Jordan, Kelly A.; Baciak, James E.

    2016-09-01

    Environmental radiation surveys are important for applications such as safety and regulations. This is especially true for areas exposed to emissions from nuclear reactors, such as the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR). At the University of Florida, surveys are performed using the RSX-1 NaI detector, developed by Radiation Solutions Inc. The detector uses incoming gamma rays and an Advanced Digital Spectrometer module to produce a linear energy spectrum. These spectra can then be analyzed in real time with a personal computer using the built in software, RadAssist. We report on radiation levels around the University of Florida campus using two mobile detection platforms, car-borne and cart-borne. The car-borne surveys provide a larger, broader map of campus radiation levels. On the other hand, cart-borne surveys provide a more detailed radiation map because of its ability to reach places on campus cars cannot go. Throughout the survey data, there are consistent radon decay product energy peaks in addition to other sources such as medical I-131 found in a large crowd of people. Finally, we investigate further applications of this mobile detection platform, such as tracking the Ar-41 plume emitted from the UFTR and detection of potential environmental hazards.

  3. Public effective doses from environmental natural gamma exposures indoors and outdoors in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Roositalab, Jalil; Mohammadi, Jahangir

    2015-01-01

    The effective doses of public in Iran due to external gamma exposures from terrestrial radionuclides and from cosmic radiation indoors and outdoors of normal natural background radiation areas were determined by measurements and by calculations. For direct measurements, three measurement methods were used including a NaI(TI) scintillation survey meter for preliminary screening, a pressurised ionising chamber for more precise measurements and early warning measurement equipment systems. Measurements were carried out in a large number of locations indoors and outdoors ∼1000 houses selected randomly in 36 large cities of Iran. The external gamma doses of public from living indoors and outdoors were also calculated based on the radioactivity measurements of samples taken from soil and building materials by gamma spectrometry using a high-resolution HPGe system. The national mean background gamma dose rates in air indoors and outdoors based on measurements are 126.9±24.3 and 111.7±17.72 nGy h -1 , respectively. When the contribution from cosmic rays was excluded, the values indoors and outdoors are 109.2±20.2 and 70.2±20.59.4 nGy h -1 , respectively. The dose rates determined for indoors and outdoors by calculations are 101.5±9.2 and 72.2±9.4 nGy h -1 , respectively, which are in good agreement with directly measured dose rates within statistical variations. By considering a population-weighted mean for terrestrial radiation, the ratio of indoor to outdoor dose rates is 1.55. The mean annual effective dose of each individual member of the public from terrestrial radionuclides and cosmic radiation, indoors and outdoors, is 0.86±0.16 mSv y -1 by measurements and 0.8±0.2 mSv y -1 by calculations. The results of this national survey of public annual effective doses from national natural background external gamma radiation determined by measurements and calculations indoors and outdoors of 1000 houses in 36 cities of Iran are presented and discussed. (authors)

  4. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO 2 -neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream

  5. Factors affecting autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell collections by large-volume leukapheresis: a single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araci Massami Sakashita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate factors affecting peripheral bloodhematopoietic stem cell yield in patients undergoing large-volumeleukapheresis for autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection.Methods: Data from 304 consecutive autologous peripheral bloodstem cell donors mobilized with hematopoietic growth factor (usually G-CSF, associated or not with chemotherapy, at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein between February 1999 and June 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The objective was to obtain at least 2 x 106CD34+ cells/kg of body weight. Pre-mobilization factors analyzedincluded patient’s age, gender and diagnosis. Post mobilizationparameters evaluated were pre-apheresis peripheral white bloodcell count, immature circulating cell count, mononuclear cell count,peripheral blood CD34+ cell count, platelet count, and hemoglobinlevel. The effect of pre and post-mobilization factors on hematopoietic stem cell collection yield was investigated using logistic regression analysis (univariate and multivariate approaches. Results: Premobilization factors correlating to poor CD34+ cell yield in univariate analysis were acute myeloid leukemia (p = 0.017 and other hematological diseases (p = 0.023. Significant post-mobilization factors included peripheral blood immature circulating cells (p = 0.001, granulocytes (p = 0.002, hemoglobin level (p = 0.016, and CD34+ cell concentration (p < 0.001 in the first harvesting day. However, according to multivariate analysis, peripheral blood CD34+ cell content (p < 0.001 was the only independent factor that significantly correlated to poor hematopoietic stem cell yield. Conclusion: In this study, peripheral blood CD34+ cell concentration was the only factor significantly correlated to yield in patients submitted to for autologous collection.

  6. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R. [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO{sub 2}-neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream.

  7. Outdoor air dominates burden of disease from indoor exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänninen, O.; Asikainen, A.; Carrer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin.......Both indoor and outdoor sources of air pollution have significant public health impacts in Europe. Based on quantitative modelling of the burden of disease the outdoor sources dominate the impacts by a clear margin....

  8. 9 CFR 3.103 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator. The fence must be constructed so that it protects marine mammals by restricting animals and... effective natural barrier that restricts the marine mammals to the facility and restricts entry by animals... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.103 Section 3...

  9. 9 CFR 3.127 - Facilities, outdoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facilities, outdoor. 3.127 Section 3.127 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  10. Sensory Perception, Rationalism and Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    There is a strong emphasis on sensory perception and "hands-on" learning in the outdoor environmental education of children. In addition, normative concerns infuse children's environmental curricula, and in particular, the notion that environmental education is not a passive undertaking; when one appreciates the essential value of the…

  11. Sustainability in outdoor recreation and tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Kelly Bricker; Jeremy Schultz

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor recreation and tourism represents a major service by which the public identifies with and better understands natural resources, even to the extent that it can foster environmental stewardship (for example, see Winter and Chavez 2008). Yet, myriad threats to recreation and tourism exist which need to be addressed. Addressing these threats can be...

  12. Converging social trends - emerging outdoor recreation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Reidel

    1980-01-01

    I can't recall when I have attended a national conference with a more clearly defined objective than this one. We are here to document outdoor recreation trends and explore their meaning for the future. The word "trend" appears no less than 45 times in the conference brochure, and the symposium organizers are determined that the proceedings will be...

  13. Outdoor i integrationsarbejde - et nyt EU projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lis Reinholdt

    2014-01-01

    Beskriver opstarten af det internationale projekt, hvor omgivelserne anvendes i læreprocesser for nytilkomne. Samarbejdspartnere er Linköbing Universitet i Sverige, Novia Yrkeshøgskola i Finland, Bologna Universitet i Italien. Projektet vil udvikle læreplan til anvendelse for undervisere af nytil...... nytilkomne, hvor Outdoor learning i naturen og de kulturelle omgivelser anvendes....

  14. Establishing the Competence of Outdoor Training Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Bertie

    1997-01-01

    The United Kingdom lacks a framework of nationally recognized professional qualifications for outdoor trainers and facilitators. Various definitions of competence are examined, and suggestions are offered for improving approaches to establishing staff competence. Includes a model of personal development dimensions, and compares U.K. and U.S.…

  15. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... protecting an iconic vast public land, or by creating a community garden or an urban park. Last year, I was... leaders, students, and community groups led to a report unveiled in February, America's Great Outdoors: A Promise to Future Generations, which lays the foundation for smarter, more community-driven action to...

  16. Playing with Power: An Outdoor Classroom Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood-Bird, Eden

    2017-01-01

    In this ethnographic research, discovery of how preschool-aged children use play to wield their individual power in the outdoors is documented in a single classroom. Embedded as a participant-researcher and working from constructivist and critical theory orientations, the researcher seeks to understand how children use their play to construct the…

  17. Issues in Outdoor Recreation: Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Clayne R., Comp.; Thorstenson, Clark T., Comp.

    This book is a compilation of selected writings on the subject of outdoor recreation. It is addressed to students specializing in recreation and resource management, and teachers, conservationists, and the public in general. Seven chapters contain articles discussing issues, facts, and concerns in the field of recreation and represent various…

  18. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  19. Learning Leadership: Becoming an Outdoor Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoksen, Elisabeth; Lynch, Pip

    2018-01-01

    Recent leadership research has demonstrated a need for better understanding the process of becominga leader because it might be qualitatively different to being a leader. If so, there is likely to be a need for pedagogies designed deliberately to support first-time outdoor leadership experiences and any such pedagogies must be informed by the…

  20. Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

    Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

  1. Outdoor Lighting Networks: Market, Technologies and Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Wang, J.; Chen, R.; Jiang , D.; Yang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Providing the right amount of light where and when it is needed is an opportunity to transform today’s cities into smart and livable urban spaces. New technologies are being introduced, such are adaptivecontrols and outdoor lighting networks, which can deliver energy andcost savings through adaptive

  2. Confirmation of the Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Tim; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Responses of 75 expert outdoor leaders from Canada and the United States concerning leadership in 12 hypothetical backpacking scenarios provided partial support for a theory that predicted probability of leadership style (democratic, autocratic, or abdicratic) based on favorability of conditions, task orientation, and relationship orientation.…

  3. Designing interactive outdoor games for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soute, I.A.C.; Markopoulos, P.; Nijholt, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile outdoor games for groups of children have emerged recently as a credible technological proposition and as an area of research and development that promises substantial benefits for children regarding a more active lifestyle and the development of social skills. This chapter examines

  4. Natural areas and urban populations: communication and environmental education challenges and actions in outdoor recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez

    2005-01-01

    Challenges, opportunities, and actions exist in areas where large urban populations interface with natural areas, such as outdoor recreation sites in southern California. Challenges in the interface include intense recreation use, public safety issues, and complex information strategies. Research results on communications and environmental education offer opportunities...

  5. Wild Places, Wildlife, and Eco-Tourism: Outdoor Leadership Demands in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Sally A. G.

    This paper discusses wilderness preservation as related to outdoor leadership and explains how eco-tourism can promote preservation. Although historically, the wilderness in the United States was largely destroyed in the name of progress, our cultural heritage evolved from that wilderness. The Wilderness Act was the first legislation in the…

  6. Enclosed outdoor photobioreactors: light regime, photosynthetic efficiency, scale-up, and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Mur, L.R.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Enclosed outdoor photobioreactors need to be developed and designed for large-scale production of phototrophic microorganisms. Both light regime and photosynthetic efficiency were analyzed in characteristic examples of state-of-the-art pilot-scale photobioreactors. In this study it is shown that

  7. Outdoor air temperature and mortality in The Netherlands: a time-series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Death rates become progressively higher when outdoor air temperature rises above or falls below 20-25 degrees C. This study addresses the question of whether this relation is largely attributable to the direct effects of exposure to heat and cold on the human body in general, and on the circulatory

  8. Federal outdoor recreation trends: effects on economic opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric White; J.M. Bowker; Ashley E. Askew; Linda L. Langner; J. Ross Arnold; Donald B.K. English

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor recreation is a central way that people interact with the natural environment. Federal land agencies are key providers of settings, facilities, and landscapes for recreation. Outdoor recreation is also an important driver of economic activity in rural communities near recreation destinations and across the United States. Future participation in outdoor...

  9. Determination of Science Teachers' Opinions about Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubat, Ulas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to discover what science teachers' opinions about outdoor education learning environments are. Outdoor education learning environments contribute to problem-solving, critical and creative thinking skills of students. For this reason, outdoor education learning environments are very important for students to learn by…

  10. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  11. Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

  12. Outdoor Education in Senior Schooling: Clarifying the Body of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Australia has a state-based educational system. In some of these states, outdoor education exists as part of the formal accredited secondary school curriculum. In this paper I analyse the content of these senior secondary school outdoor courses as a means to help delineate and describe the body of knowledge of outdoor education. I suggest outdoor…

  13. Physical Education & Outdoor Education: Complementary but Discrete Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter; McCullagh, John

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Council for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (ACHPER) includes Outdoor Education (OE) as a component of Physical Education (PE). Yet Outdoor Education is clearly thought of by many as a discrete discipline separate from Physical Education. Outdoor Education has a body of knowledge that differs from that of Physical…

  14. Split-second recognition: what makes outdoor advertising work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meurs, A.; Aristoff, M.

    2009-01-01

    CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was

  15. Risk Management and Litigation Avoidance in Outdoor Recreation Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Glenda

    This paper reviews aspects of Canadian and U.S. law related to liability and negligence of outdoor programs and suggests strategies for risk management. To prove negligence, an individual injured in an outdoor program must prove that the outdoor leader had a duty of care to the participant, standards of care were breached, actual injury was…

  16. People participation in natural outdoors recreation activities and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the visitors believe natural outdoor recreation in the south-west of the country ... These identified benefits of Natural Outdoors Recreational in the course of the ... promotion, employment, urban aesthetic, healthy livings and improve tourism ... outdoor recreation centres to augment medical service in improving life span ...

  17. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  18. Observed decreases in the Canadian outdoor skating season due to recent winter warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damyanov, Nikolay N; Mysak, Lawrence A; Damon Matthews, H

    2012-01-01

    Global warming has the potential to negatively affect one of Canada’s primary sources of winter recreation: hockey and ice skating on outdoor rinks. Observed changes in winter temperatures in Canada suggest changes in the meteorological conditions required to support the creation and maintenance of outdoor skating rinks; while there have been observed increases in the ice-free period of several natural water bodies, there has been no study of potential trends in the duration of the season supporting the construction of outdoor skating rinks. Here we show that the outdoor skating season (OSS) in Canada has significantly shortened in many regions of the country as a result of changing climate conditions. We first established a meteorological criterion for the beginning, and a proxy for the length of the OSS. We extracted this information from daily maximum temperature observations from 1951 to 2005, and tested it for significant changes over time due to global warming as well as due to changes in patterns of large-scale natural climate variability. We found that many locations have seen a statistically significant decrease in the OSS length, particularly in Southwest and Central Canada. This suggests that future global warming has the potential to significantly compromise the viability of outdoor skating in Canada. (letter)

  19. Outdoor blue spaces, human health and well-being: A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Zijlema, Wilma; Vert, Cristina; White, Mathew P; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-11-01

    A growing number of quantitative studies have investigated the potential benefits of outdoor blue spaces (lakes, rivers, sea, etc) and human health, but there is not yet a systematic review synthesizing this evidence. To systematically review the current quantitative evidence on human health and well-being benefits of outdoor blue spaces. Following PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analysis, observational and experimental quantitative studies focusing on both residential and non-residential outdoor blue space exposure were searched using specific keywords. In total 35 studies were included in the current systematic review, most of them being classified as of "good quality" (N=22). The balance of evidence suggested a positive association between greater exposure to outdoor blue spaces and both benefits to mental health and well-being (N=12 studies) and levels of physical activity (N=13 studies). The evidence of an association between outdoor blue space exposure and general health (N=6 studies), obesity (N=8 studies) and cardiovascular (N=4 studies) and related outcomes was less consistent. Although encouraging, there remains relatively few studies and a large degree of heterogeneity in terms of study design, exposure metrics and outcome measures, making synthesis difficult. Further research is needed using longitudinal research and natural experiments, preferably across a broader range of countries, to better understand the causal associations between blue spaces, health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Observed decreases in the Canadian outdoor skating season due to recent winter warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanov, Nikolay N.; Damon Matthews, H.; Mysak, Lawrence A.

    2012-03-01

    Global warming has the potential to negatively affect one of Canada’s primary sources of winter recreation: hockey and ice skating on outdoor rinks. Observed changes in winter temperatures in Canada suggest changes in the meteorological conditions required to support the creation and maintenance of outdoor skating rinks; while there have been observed increases in the ice-free period of several natural water bodies, there has been no study of potential trends in the duration of the season supporting the construction of outdoor skating rinks. Here we show that the outdoor skating season (OSS) in Canada has significantly shortened in many regions of the country as a result of changing climate conditions. We first established a meteorological criterion for the beginning, and a proxy for the length of the OSS. We extracted this information from daily maximum temperature observations from 1951 to 2005, and tested it for significant changes over time due to global warming as well as due to changes in patterns of large-scale natural climate variability. We found that many locations have seen a statistically significant decrease in the OSS length, particularly in Southwest and Central Canada. This suggests that future global warming has the potential to significantly compromise the viability of outdoor skating in Canada.

  1. Pre-column dilution large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of multi-class pesticides in cabbages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qisheng; Shen, Lingling; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Dianbao; Li, Siming; Yao, Jinting; Zhan, Song; Huang, Taohong; Hashi, Yuki; Kawano, Shin-ichi; Liu, Zhaofeng; Zhou, Ting

    2016-04-15

    Pre-column dilution large volume injection (PD-LVI), a novel sample injection technique for reverse phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), was developed in this study. The PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system was designed by slightly modifying the commercial UHPLC-MS/MS equipment with a mixer chamber. During the procedure of PD-LVI, sample solution of 200μL was directly carried by the organic mobile phase to the mixer and diluted with the aqueous mobile phase. After the mixture was introduced to the UHPLC column in a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (15/85, v/v), the target analytes were stacked on the head of the column until following separation. Using QuEChERS extraction, no additional steps such as solvent evaporation or residue redissolution were needed before injection. The features of PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS system were systematically investigated, including the injection volume, the mixer volume, the precondition time and the gradient elution. The efficiency of this approach was demonstrated by direct analysis of 24 pesticides in cabbages. Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.00074-0.8 ng/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 63.3-109% with relative standard deviations less than 8.1%. Compared with common UHPLC-MS/MS technique, PD-LVI UHPLC-MS/MS showed significant advantages such as excellent sensitivity and reliability. The mechanism of PD-LVI was demonstrated to be based on the column-head stacking effect with pre-column dilution. Based on the results, PD-LVI as a simple and effective sample injection technique of reverse phase UHPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of trace analytes in complex samples showed a great promising prospect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Injury rates from walking, gardening, weightlifting, outdoor bicycling, and aerobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, K E; Heath, G W; Kresnow, M J; Sacks, J J; Branche, C M

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this survey was to estimate the frequency of injuries associated with five commonly performed moderately intense activities: walking for exercise, gardening and yard work, weightlifting, aerobic dance, and outdoor bicycling. National estimates were derived from weighted responses of over 5,000 individuals contacted between April 28 and September 18, 1994, via random-digit dialing of U.S. residential telephone numbers. Self-reported participation in these five activities in the late spring and summer of 1994 was common, ranging from an estimated 14.5 +/- 1.2% of the population for aerobics (nearly 30 million people) to 73.0 +/- 1.5% for walking (about 138 million people). Among participants, the activity-specific 30-d prevalence of injury ranged from 0.9 +- 0.5% for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.4 +- 1.3% for weightlifting. The estimated number in the 30 d of people injured in the 30 d before their interview ranged from 330,000 for outdoor bicycle riding to 2.1 million for gardening or yard work. Incidence rates for injury causing reduced participation in activity were 1.1 +/- 0.5x100 participantsx30 d for walking, 1.1 +/- 0.4 for gardening, and 3.3 +/- 1.9 for weightlifting. During walking and gardening, men and women were equally likely to be injured, but younger people (18-44 yr) were more likely to be injured than older people (45 + yr). Injury rates were low, yet large numbers of people were injured because participation rates were high. Most injuries were minor, but injuries may reduce participation in these otherwise beneficial activities. Additional studies to confirm the magnitude of the problem, to identify modifiable risk factors, and to recommend methods to reduce the frequency of such injuries are needed.

  3. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals - that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  4. Robotic Assisted Simple Prostatectomy versus Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Large Volume Prostate: A Comparative Analysis from a High Volume Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, Paolo; Fossati, Nicola; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Pokorny, Morgan; De Groote, Ruben; Geurts, Nicolas; Goossens, Marijn; Schatterman, Peter; De Naeyer, Geert; Mottrie, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    We report a comparative analysis of robotic assisted simple prostatectomy vs holmium laser enucleation of the prostate in patients who had benign prostatic hyperplasia with a large volume prostate (greater than 100 ml). A total of 81 patients underwent robotic assisted simple prostatectomy and 45 underwent holmium laser enucleation of the prostate in a 7-year period. Patients were preoperatively assessed with transrectal ultrasound and uroflowmetry. Functional parameters were assessed postoperatively during followup. Perioperative outcomes included operative time, postoperative hemoglobin, catheterization time and hospitalization. Complications were reported according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Compared to the holmium laser enucleation group, patients treated with prostatectomy were significantly younger (median age 69 vs 74 years, p = 0.032) and less healthy (Charlson comorbidity index 2 or greater in 62% vs 29%, p = 0.0003), and had a lower rate of suprapubic catheterization (23% vs 42%, p = 0.028) and a higher preoperative I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) (25 vs 21, p = 0.049). Both groups showed an improvement in the maximum flow rate (15 vs 11 ml per second, p = 0.7), and a significant reduction in post-void residual urine (-73 vs -100 ml, p = 0.4) and I-PSS (-20 vs -18, p = 0.8). Median operative time (105 vs 105 minutes, p = 0.9) and postoperative hemoglobin (13.2 vs 13.8 gm/dl, p = 0.08) were similar for robotic assisted prostatectomy and holmium laser enucleation, respectively. Median catheterization time (3 vs 2 days, p = 0.005) and median hospitalization (4 vs 2 days, p = 0.0001) were slightly shorter in the holmium laser group. Complication rates were similar with no Clavien grade greater than 3 in either group. Our results from a single center suggest comparable outcomes for robotic assisted simple prostatectomy and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate in patients with a large volume prostate. These findings require

  5. Health effects from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; McKone, T.E.; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is a major contributor to human disease burden as continuously shown in the Global Burden of Disease study series. Exposures to PM2.5 concentration outdoors and indoors contribute almost equally to this burden. Despite the importance, health...... impacts from exposure to PM2.5 are often excluded from life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) characterization profiles. This is in large part because of the lack of well-vetted harmonized guidance about how to consistently assess the exposures and impacts of indoor and outdoor emissions of PM2.5 and its...... precursors. We present a framework for calculating characterization factors for indoor and outdoor emissions of primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors, and a roadmap for further refining this modelling framework for operational use in LCIA. The framework was developed over the last three years...

  6. Characterizing health impacts from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigon, Bruce; Fantke, Peter; McKone, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is a major contributor to human disease burden as continuously shown in the Global Burden of Disease study series. Exposures to PM2.5 concentration outdoors and indoors contribute almost equally to this burden. Despite the importance, health...... impacts from exposure to PM2.5 are often excluded from life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) characterization profiles. This is in large part because of the lack of well-vetted harmonized guidance about how to consistently assess the exposures and impacts of indoor and outdoor emissions of PM2.5 and its...... precursors. We present a framework for calculating characterization factors for indoor and outdoor emissions of primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors, and a roadmap for further refining this modelling framework for operational use in LCIA. The framework was developed over the last three years...

  7. AGN Populations in Large-volume X-Ray Surveys: Photometric Redshifts and Population Types Found in the Stripe 82X Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananna, Tonima Tasnin; Salvato, Mara; LaMassa, Stephanie; Urry, C. Megan; Cappelluti, Nico; Cardamone, Carolin; Civano, Francesca; Farrah, Duncan; Gilfanov, Marat; Glikman, Eilat; Hamilton, Mark; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Marchesi, Stefano; Merloni, Andrea; Nandra, Kirpal; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Richards, Gordon T.; Timlin, John

    2017-11-01

    Multiwavelength surveys covering large sky volumes are necessary to obtain an accurate census of rare objects such as high-luminosity and/or high-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Stripe 82X is a 31.3 X-ray survey with Chandra and XMM-Newton observations overlapping the legacy Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 field, which has a rich investment of multiwavelength coverage from the ultraviolet to the radio. The wide-area nature of this survey presents new challenges for photometric redshifts for AGNs compared to previous work on narrow-deep fields because it probes different populations of objects that need to be identified and represented in the library of templates. Here we present an updated X-ray plus multiwavelength matched catalog, including Spitzer counterparts, and estimated photometric redshifts for 5961 (96% of a total of 6181) X-ray sources that have a normalized median absolute deviation, σnmad=0.06, and an outlier fraction, η = 13.7%. The populations found in this survey and the template libraries used for photometric redshifts provide important guiding principles for upcoming large-area surveys such as eROSITA and 3XMM (in X-ray) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (optical).

  8. Matrix vaccination guidelines : 2015 ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosie, Margaret J; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: In 2013, the ABCD published 'Matrix vaccination guidelines: ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries' in a Special Issue of the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 540-544). The ABCD's vaccination recommendations

  9. Highly selective solid-phase extraction and large volume injection for the robust gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of TCA and TBA in wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insa, S; Anticó, E; Ferreira, V

    2005-09-30

    A reliable solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) in wines has been developed. In the proposed procedure 50 mL of wine are extracted in a 1 mL cartridge filled with 50 mg of LiChrolut EN resins. Most wine volatiles are washed up with 12.5 mL of a water:methanol solution (70%, v/v) containing 1% of NaHCO3. Analytes are further eluted with 0.6 mL of dichloromethane. A 40 microL aliquot of this extract is directly injected into a PTV injector operated in the solvent split mode, and analysed by gas chromatography (GC)-ion trap mass spectrometry using the selected ion storage mode. The solid-phase extraction, including sample volume and rinsing and elution solvents, and the large volume GC injection have been carefully evaluated and optimized. The resulting method is precise (RSD (%) TBA, respectively), robust (the absolute recoveries of both analytes are higher than 80% and consistent wine to wine) and friendly to the GC-MS system (the extract is clean, simple and free from non-volatiles).

  10. Large-volume multi-tined expandable RF ablation in pig livers: comparison of 2D and volumetric measurements of the ablation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangard, Christopher; Roesgen, Silvia; Lackner, Klaus J.; Wahba, Roger; Stippel, Dirk L.; Wiemker, Rafael; Hellmich, Martin; Reiter, Hannah; Fischer, Juergen H.

    2010-01-01

    To compare two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) measurements of ablation zones (AZs) related to the shaft of two different large-volume monopolar multi-tined expandable electrodes. Percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation was performed in 12 pigs (81.6±7.8 kg) using two electrodes (LeVeen 5 cm, Rita XL 5 cm; n=6 in each group). Contrast-enhanced CT with the electrode shaft in place evaluated the AZ. The largest sphere centred on the electrode shaft within the AZ was calculated (1) based on the 2D axial CT image in the plane of the shaft assuming rotational symmetry of the AZ and (2) using prototype software and the 3D volume data of the AZ measured with CT. The mean largest diameter of a sphere centred on the electrode shaft was always smaller using the 3D data of the AZ than using 2D CT measurements assuming rotational symmetry of the AZ (3D vs 2D): LeVeen 18.2±4.8 mm; 24.5 ±3.1 mm; p=0.001; Rita XL 20.0±3.7 mm; 28.8±4.9 mm; p=0.0002. All AZ showed indentations around the tines. Two-dimensional CT measurements assuming rotational symmetry of the AZ overestimate the largest ablated sphere centred on the electrode shaft compared with 3D CT measurements. (orig.)

  11. An evaluation on the design optimization of large capacity tanks in the chemical and volume control system for YGN 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Deuk Yoon; Ko, Yong Sang; Kim, Seok Bum

    1996-06-01

    The design of Yonggwang nuclear power plant units 3 and 4 (YGN 3 and 4) is referenced to that of Palo Verde nuclear power plant (Palo Verde NPP) in Arizona, USA. The reactor vessel and steam generator of YGN 3 and 4 are smaller than that of Palo Verde NPP because Palo Verde NPP produces 1,300 Mw electricity, on the other hand, YGN 3 and 4 produces 1,000 Mw electricity. However, other components and systems of YGN 3 and 4 are the same as those of Palo verde NPP. The oversized system components may be considered to ensure the safety and operability by providing sufficient design margin, but it requires unnecessary cost burden to the owner of the plant. This report focuses on the optimization of the volume of the large tanks (i.e., above 400,000 gallons) in CVCS. These tanks are refueling water tank (RWT), reactor makeup water tank (RMWT) and holdup tank (HT). It has been performed that the calculation on the required tank volume based on design requirements, comparison on the calculation results with as-built design, and estimation on the instrumentation setpoint. 19 tabs., 12 figs., 13 refs. (Author)

  12. Radionuclides and particles in seawater with the large volume in situ filtration and concentration system in the coastal waters off Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aono, Tatsuo; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Okubo, Ayako; Zheng, Jian; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2008-01-01

    It is necessary to determine the radionuclides in dissolved and particulate state in order to clarify the distributions and behavior of these in seawater. Because the concentrations of radionuclides and particles are very low in the ocean, it is difficult to concentrate and fractionate the particulate matters with the filtration systems in seawater. The large volume in situ filtration and concentration system (LV-FiCS) was developed to collect various forms of trace radionuclides and particles in seawater. The LV-FiCS has been operated during several cruises in the coastal waters off Japan, and several m 3 of seawaters were filtered through different kinds of filters and then pass through the adsorbents to concentrate radionuclides simultaneously. This system could be shown the vertical profiles of thorium with the size-fractionated method and the behavior of these nuclides in the ocean. (author)

  13. Large-eddy simulations of 3D Taylor-Green vortex: comparison of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Volume methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajzer, A; Pozorski, J; Szewc, K

    2014-01-01

    In the paper we present Large-eddy simulation (LES) results of 3D Taylor- Green vortex obtained by the three different computational approaches: Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM). The Smagorinsky model was chosen as a subgrid-scale closure in LES for all considered methods and a selection of spatial resolutions have been investigated. The SPH and LBM computations have been carried out with the use of the in-house codes executed on GPU and compared, for validation purposes, with the FVM results obtained using the open-source CFD software OpenFOAM. A comparative study in terms of one-point statistics and turbulent energy spectra shows a good agreement of LES results for all methods. An analysis of the GPU code efficiency and implementation difficulties has been made. It is shown that both SPH and LBM may offer a significant advantage over mesh-based CFD methods.

  14. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and beverages using membrane-assisted solvent extraction in combination with large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Rosario; Schellin, Manuela; Popp, Peter

    2007-09-07

    Membrane-assisted solvent extraction (MASE) in combination with large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS) was applied for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. The MASE conditions were optimized for achieving high enrichment of the analytes from aqueous samples, in terms of extraction conditions (shaking speed, extraction temperature and time), extraction solvent and composition (ionic strength, sample pH and presence of organic solvent). Parameters like linearity and reproducibility of the procedure were determined. The extraction efficiency was above 65% for all the analytes and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for five consecutive extractions ranged from 6 to 18%. At optimized conditions detection limits at the ng/L level were achieved. The effectiveness of the method was tested by analyzing real samples, such as river water, apple juice, red wine and milk.

  15. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4+ strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS.

  16. Curriculum Development in Outdoor Education: Tasmanian Teachers' Perspectives on the New Pre-Tertiary Outdoor Leadership Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, Janet; Morse, Marcus; Shaw, Simon; Smith, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines how outdoor education teachers in Tasmania, Australia have implemented and perceive a new pre-tertiary Outdoor Leadership curriculum document. It draws on an analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 11 outdoor education teachers. The results revealed that teachers were generally welcoming of the new higher-order…

  17. Geometric and Colour Data Fusion for Outdoor 3D Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chacón

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture, we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields.

  18. Outdoor ultrafine particle concentrations in front of fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vert, Cristina; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been associated with negative effects on human health. Emissions from motor vehicles are the principal source of UFPs in urban air. A study in Vancouver suggested that UFP concentrations were related to density of fast food restaurants near the monitoring sites. A previous monitoring campaign could not separate the contribution of restaurants from road traffic. The main goal of this study has been the quantification of fast food restaurants' contribution to outdoor UFP concentrations. A portable particle number counter (DiscMini) has been used to carry out mobile monitoring in a largely pedestrianized area in the city center of Utrecht. A fixed route passing 17 fast food restaurants was followed on 8 days. UFP concentrations in front of the restaurants were 1.61 times higher than in a nearby square without any local sources used as control area and 1.22 times higher compared with all measurements conducted in between the restaurants. Adjustment for other sources such as passing mopeds, smokers or candles did not explain the increase. In conclusion, fast food restaurants result in significant increases in outdoor UFP concentrations in front of the restaurant.

  19. Technique for Outdoor Test on Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sansoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor experimentation of solar cells is essential to maximize their performance and to assess utilization requirements and limits. More generally tests with direct exposure to the sun are useful to understand the behavior of components and new materials for solar applications in real working conditions. Insolation and ambient factors are uncontrollable but can be monitored to know the environmental situation of the solar exposure experiment. A parallel characterization of the photocells can be performed in laboratory under controllable and reproducible conditions. A methodology to execute solar exposure tests is proposed and practically applied on photovoltaic cells for a solar cogeneration system. The cells are measured with concentrated solar light obtained utilizing a large Fresnel lens mounted on a sun tracker. Outdoor measurements monitor the effects of the exposure of two multijunction photovoltaic cells to focused sunlight. The main result is the continuous acquisition of the V-I (voltage-current curve for the cells in different conditions of solar concentration and temperature of exercise to assess their behavior. The research investigates electrical power extracted, efficiency, temperatures reached, and possible damages of the photovoltaic cell.

  20. Outdoor air pollution and respiratory health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhong, Nanshan

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid economic development occurring in the last decade in many countries of Asia, the level of air pollution has increased from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. Compared with Europe and North America, the potential health effects of this increasing air pollution in Asia remain largely unmeasured. Recent data published by the Health Effects Institute from some major cities in India and China reveal that a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with an increase in mortality of 0.6% in daily all-natural cause mortality, with higher risks being found at extremes of high temperatures and in the lowest economically advantaged population. Other Asian studies have confirmed the link between hospital admissions for the worsening of COPD and the increase in asthma prevalence to levels of outdoor air pollutants. Although potential health effects appear to be similar to already-published Western data, it is important that further studies be carried out in Asia that will inform the public and the authorities of the necessity to curb levels of outdoor air pollutants to acceptable levels. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  2. Prescribing Outdoor Physical Activity to Children: Health Care Providers’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W.; James, J. Joy; Battista, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children’s outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children’s HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included. PMID:29152542

  3. Prescribing Outdoor Physical Activity to Children: Health Care Providers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiana, Richard W; James, J Joy; Battista, Rebecca A

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence exists on health care provider (HCP) prescriptions for children's outdoor physical activity (PA). Semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 children's HCPs to explore perspectives on outdoor PA prescription programs for children and barriers to implementation. Thematic analytic techniques were used to analyze the data. Most participants reported an awareness of health benefits to children being in the outdoors. Ten themes emerged from the data related to 3 thematic categories: (1) current strategies that HCPs are using to promote PA among children, (2) barriers that HCPs see to prescribing outdoor PA, and (3) potential strategies for promoting outdoor PA among children. Assessment of the local outdoor PA environment and resource development must be done prior to a prescription program. HCPs should be skilled in conducting conversations and setting goals related to outdoor PA tailored to the patient. Developing a system for follow-up with patients on established goals should also be included.

  4. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  5. Obstacole in implementarea activitatilor de tip outdoor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel

    2013-01-01

    It is never easy to implement new ways of teaching, and during this process the changing agent will often face a number of different barriers. Which kind of barriers depends of course what kind of changes we are talking about. There are a number of countries where teachers have tried to implement...... outdoor learning, and some of these experiences will be described in this article....

  6. Marketingová komunikace Outdoor Training Clubu

    OpenAIRE

    Soukeníková, Karla

    2017-01-01

    Title: Outdoor Training Club's Marketing Communication Goals: The aim of the thesis is to evaluate current club's marketing communication and come up with the suggestions of how to improve marketing communication, which would be benefit for the club and it helps acquire new potential customers. Methods: Electronic and written questionnaire, informal semi-structured interviews, document analysis. Results: Based on research and interview with the owner, I found that the current marketing commun...

  7. Slam estimation in dynamic outdoor environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zheyuan; Hu, Zhencheng; Uchimura, Keiichi; コ, シンテイ; ウチムラ, ケイイチ; 胡, 振程; 内村, 圭一

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three different approaches to estimate simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) in dynamic outdoor environments. SLAM has been intensively researched in recent years in the field of robotics and intelligent vehicles, many approaches have been proposed including occupancy grid mapping method (Bayesian, Dempster-Shafer and Fuzzy Logic), Localization estimation method (edge or point features based direct scan matching techniques, probabilistic likelihood, EK...

  8. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Barbour, Elie K.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Investigation of the Relationship Between Gross Tumor Volume Location and Pneumonitis Rates Using a Large Clinical Database of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L.; Liao Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non–small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior–inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman–Kutcher–Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Results: Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose–volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Conclusions: Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant

  10. A propidium monoazide–quantitative PCR method for the detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters

    KAUST Repository

    Salam, Khaled W.

    2014-08-23

    The development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. Coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 mL), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. In this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diodes for photoactivating PMA and membrane filtration into the PMA-qPCR assay for the rapid detection and quantification of viable Enterococcus faecalis cells in 10-mL samples of marine waters. The assay was optimized in phosphate-buffered saline and seawater, reducing the qPCR signal of heat-killed E. faecalis cells by 4 log10 and 3 log10 units, respectively. Results suggest that high total dissolved solid concentration (32 g/L) in seawater can reduce PMA activity. Optimal PMA-qPCR standard curves with a 6-log dynamic range and detection limit of 102 cells/mL were generated for quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in marine waters. The developed assay was compared with the standard membrane filter (MF) method by quantifying viable E. faecalis cells in seawater samples exposed to solar radiation. The results of the developed PMA-qPCR assay did not match that of the standard MF method. This difference in the results reflects the different physiological states of E. faecalis cells in seawater. In conclusion, the developed assay is a rapid (∼5 h) method for the quantification of viable E. faecalis cells in marine recreational waters, which should be further improved and tested in different seawater settings. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. Investigation of the relationship between gross tumor volume location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of non-small-cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Tucker, Susan L; Liao, Zhongxing; Martel, Mary K

    2012-04-01

    Studies have suggested that function may vary throughout the lung, and that patients who have tumors located in the base of the lung are more susceptible to radiation pneumonitis. The purpose of our study was to investigate the relationship between gross tumor volume (GTV) location and pneumonitis rates using a large clinical database of 547 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. The GTV centroids of all patients were mapped onto one common coordinate system, in which the boundaries of the coordinate system were defined by the extreme points of each individual patient lung. The data were qualitatively analyzed by graphing all centroids and displaying the data according to the presence of severe pneumonitis, tumor stage, and smoking status. The centroids were grouped according to superior-inferior segments, and the pneumonitis rates were analyzed. In addition, we incorporated the GTV centroid information into a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability model and tested whether adding spatial information significantly improved the fit of the model. Of the 547 patients analyzed, 111 (20.3%) experienced severe radiation pneumonitis. The pneumonitis incidence rates were 16%, 23%, and 21% for the superior, middle, and inferior thirds of the lung, respectively. Qualitatively, the GTV centroids of nonsmokers were notably absent from the superior portion of the lung. In addition, the GTV centroids of patients who had Stage III and IV clinical staging were concentrated toward the medial edge of the lung. The comparison between the GTV centroid model and the conventional dose-volume model did not yield a statistically significant difference in model fit. Lower pneumonitis rates were noted for the superior portion of the lung; however the differences were not statistically significant. For our patient cohort, incorporating GTV centroid information did not lead to a statistically significant improvement in the fit of the pneumonitis model. Copyright

  12. A dosimetric comparison of 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy with an SIB for large and small breast volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, Andrea [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Central Coast Cancer Centre, Gosford Hospital, Gosford, New South Wales (Australia); Atyeo, John, E-mail: john.atyeo@sydney.edu.au [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Rinks, Marianne [Department of Health Science (MRS), The University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Radiation Oncology, Cancer Services, Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District, Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Morgia, Marita; Lamoury, Gillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation therapy to the breast is a complex task, with many different techniques that can be employed to ensure adequate dose target coverage while minimizing doses to the organs at risk. This study compares the dose planning outcomes of 3 radiation treatment modalities, 3 dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and static tomotherapy, for left-sided whole-breast radiation treatment with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Overall, 20 patients with left-sided breast cancer were separated into 2 cohorts, small and large, based on breast volume. Dose plans were produced for each patient using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and static tomotherapy. All patients were prescribed a dose of 45 Gy in 20 fractions to the breast with an SIB of 56 Gy in 20 fractions to the tumor bed and normalized so that D{sub 98%} > 95% of the prescription dose. Dosimetric comparisons were made between the 3 modalities and the interaction of patient size. All 3 modalities offered adequate planning target volume (PTV) coverage with D{sub 98%} > 95% and D{sub 2%} < 107%. Static tomotherapy offered significantly improved (p = 0.006) dose homogeneity to the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.079 ± 0.011) and breast minus the SIB volume (Breast{sub SIB}) (p < 0.001, 0.15 ± 0.03) compared with the PTV{sub boost} {sub eval} (0.085 ± 0.008, 0.088 ± 0.12) and Breast{sub SIB} (0.22 ± 0.05, 0.23 ± 0.03) for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively. Static tomotherapy also offered statistically significant reductions (p < 0.001) in doses to the ipsilateral lung mean dose of 6.79 ± 2.11 Gy compared with 7.75 ± 2.54 Gy and 8.29 ± 2.76 Gy for IMRT and 3D-CRT, respectively, and significantly (p < 0.001) reduced heart doses (mean = 2.83 ± 1.26 Gy) compared to both IMRT and 3D-CRT (mean = 3.70 ± 1.44 Gy and 3.91 ± 1.58 Gy). Static tomotherapy is the dosimetrically superior modality for the whole breast with an SIB compared with IMRT and 3D-CRT. IMRT is superior to 3D

  13. Open Data, Jupyter Notebooks and Geospatial Data Standards Combined - Opening up large volumes of marine and climate data to other communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, O.; Siemen, S.; Wagemann, J.

    2017-12-01

    The EU-funded Earthserver-2 project aims to offer on-demand access to large volumes of environmental data (Earth Observation, Marine, Climate data and Planetary data) via the interface standard Web Coverage Service defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium. Providing access to data via OGC web services (e.g. WCS and WMS) has the potential to open up services to a wider audience, especially to users outside the respective communities. Especially WCS 2.0 with its processing extension Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) is highly beneficial to make large volumes accessible to non-expert communities. Users do not have to deal with custom community data formats, such as GRIB for the meteorological community, but can directly access the data in a format they are more familiar with, such as NetCDF, JSON or CSV. Data requests can further directly be integrated into custom processing routines and users are not required to download Gigabytes of data anymore. WCS supports trim (reduction of data extent) and slice (reduction of data dimension) operations on multi-dimensional data, providing users a very flexible on-demand access to the data. WCPS allows the user to craft queries to run on the data using a text-based query language, similar to SQL. These queries can be very powerful, e.g. condensing a three-dimensional data cube into its two-dimensional mean. However, the more processing-intensive the more complex the query. As part of the EarthServer-2 project, we developed a python library that helps users to generate complex WCPS queries with Python, a programming language they are more familiar with. The interactive presentation aims to give practical examples how users can benefit from two specific WCS services from the Marine and Climate community. Use-cases from the two communities will show different approaches to take advantage of a Web Coverage (Processing) Service. The entire content is available with Jupyter Notebooks, as they prove to be a highly beneficial tool

  14. Towards large volume big divisor D3/D7 " μ-split supersymmetry" and Ricci-flat Swiss-cheese metrics, and dimension-six neutrino mass operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuria, Mansi; Misra, Aalok

    2012-02-01

    We show that it is possible to realize a " μ-split SUSY" scenario (Cheng and Cheng, 2005) [1] in the context of large volume limit of type IIB compactifications on Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau orientifolds in the presence of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane and a (stack of) D7-brane(s) wrapping the "big" divisor. For this, we investigate the possibility of getting one Higgs to be light while other to be heavy in addition to a heavy higgsino mass parameter. Further, we examine the existence of long lived gluino that manifests one of the major consequences of μ-split SUSY scenario, by computing its decay width as well as lifetime corresponding to the three-body decays of the gluino into either a quark, a squark and a neutralino or a quark, squark and goldstino, as well as two-body decays of the gluino into either a neutralino and a gluon or a goldstino and a gluon. Guided by the geometric Kähler potential for Σ obtained in Misra and Shukla (2010) [2] based on GLSM techniques, and the Donaldson's algorithm (Barun et al., 2008) [3] for obtaining numerically a Ricci-flat metric, we give details of our calculation in Misra and Shukla (2011) [4] pertaining to our proposed metric for the full Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau (the geometric Kähler potential being needed to be included in the full moduli space Kähler potential in the presence of the mobile space-time filling D3-brane), but for simplicity of calculation, close to the big divisor, which is Ricci-flat in the large volume limit. Also, as an application of the one-loop RG flow solution for the higgsino mass parameter, we show that the contribution to the neutrino masses at the EW scale from dimension-six operators arising from the Kähler potential, is suppressed relative to the Weinberg-type dimension-five operators.

  15. Differences between Outdoor and Indoor Sound Levels for Open, Tilted, and Closed Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Barbara; Piquerez, André; Habermacher, Manuel; Ragettli, Martina; Röösli, Martin; Brink, Mark; Cajochen, Christian; Vienneau, Danielle; Foraster, Maria; Müller, Uwe; Wunderli, Jean Marc

    2018-01-18

    Noise exposure prediction models for health effect studies normally estimate free field exposure levels outside. However, to assess the noise exposure inside dwellings, an estimate of indoor sound levels is necessary. To date, little field data is available about the difference between indoor and outdoor noise levels and factors affecting the damping of outside noise. This is a major cause of uncertainty in indoor noise exposure prediction and may lead to exposure misclassification in health assessments. This study aims to determine sound level differences between the indoors and the outdoors for different window positions and how this sound damping is related to building characteristics. For this purpose, measurements were carried out at home in a sample of 102 Swiss residents exposed to road traffic noise. Sound pressure level recordings were performed outdoors and indoors, in the living room and in the bedroom. Three scenarios-of open, tilted, and closed windows-were recorded for three minutes each. For each situation, data on additional parameters such as the orientation towards the source, floor, and room, as well as sound insulation characteristics were collected. On that basis, linear regression models were established. The median outdoor-indoor sound level differences were of 10 dB(A) for open, 16 dB(A) for tilted, and 28 dB(A) for closed windows. For open and tilted windows, the most relevant parameters affecting the outdoor-indoor differences were the position of the window, the type and volume of the room, and the age of the building. For closed windows, the relevant parameters were the sound level outside, the material of the window frame, the existence of window gaskets, and the number of windows.

  16. Outdoor time, physical activity and sedentary time among young children: The 2012-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Richard; Garriguet, Didier; Tremblay, Mark S

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that children who spend more time outdoors are more active and spend less time sedentary, but these studies were limited by the use of small convenience samples. We examined the relationship between outdoor time and measures of physical activity (PA), screen time and sedentary time in a nationally-representative sample of young children. Parental reports of outdoor time were obtained for 594 children aged 3-6 years (47.8% girls) who participated in the 2012-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Participants were asked to wear an Actical accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Outdoor time and screen time were assessed by parent reports. The relationships between outdoor time and measures of PA, screen time and sedentary time were examined with linear regression models. Adherence to PA guidelines was estimated based on a betabinomial distribution, and adherence with the screen time guidelines was assessed through logistic regression models. All analyses were stratified by age group (3-4 and 5-6 year olds) and adjusted for sex, parental education and household income. Among 5-6 year olds, each additional hour spent outdoors was associated with an additional 10 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (95% CI: 6-14), 27,455 more accelerometer counts/day (95% CI: 11,929-42,980) and an increased likelihood of meeting the PA guidelines (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.68-3.82). No significant relationships were observed among 3-4 year olds. Outdoor time has a large effect on PA among 5-6 year olds at a population level. Future studies should examine the correlates of outdoor time to inform novel PA promotion interventions.

  17. Households’ willingness to pay for access to outdoor recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Cathrine Ulla

    and the profile of the price premium. There is a large correlation between the income level within a neighborhood and the level of outdoor recreation. Controlling for unobserved quality through fixed effects reveals that the price premium increases with prices, but when controlling for the general price level...... using the trade price of neighboring homes (a lag), the price premium becomes constant. Controlling for local neighborhood affluence and unobserved quality on a larger scale yields the same results as the spatial lag term but with a more robust model due to the absence of endogeneity. The paper offers......This paper investigates how household demand for access to nature varies across a Danish housing market. I use conditional quantile regressions to estimate the implicit price for a change in nature area conditional on the home price. If there are systematic differences in the willingness to pay...

  18. A measurement of the efficiency for the detection of neutrons in the momentum range 200 to 3200 MeV/c, in large volume liquid scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.; Clark, A.G.; Duke, P.J.

    1976-04-01

    A description is given of a system of 194 large volume liquid scintillation counters designed to detect neutrons in an experiment on the reaction π - p → π 0 n in the resonance region. The detection efficiency of the system has been determined, as a function of neutron momentum, in three separate measurements, covering the range 200 to 3200 MeV/c. Below 400 MeV/c the efficiency shows the expected momentum dependence near threshold, rising to a maximum of 50% near 300 MeV/c and then falling to 43% near 400 MeV/c. In the region 400 to 700 MeV/c the efficiency rises to 47% near 600 MeV/c and falls again to 43%, an effect not seen before; the efficiency was expected to be almost momentum independent in this region. Above the threshold for inelastic processes in nucleon-nucleon collision (approximately 800 MeV/c) the efficiency rises significantly reaching a maximum value of 65% above 1700 MeV/c. (author)

  19. Determination of tributyltin in environmental water matrices using stir bar sorptive extraction with in-situ derivatisation and large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, N R; Santalla, R P; Nogueira, J M F

    2014-08-01

    Stir bar sorptive extraction with in-situ derivatization using sodium tetrahydridoborate (NaBH4) followed by liquid desorption and large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection under the selected ion monitoring mode (SBSE(NaBH4)in-situ-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) was successfully developed for the determination of tributyltin (TBT) in environmental water matrices. NaBH4 proved to be an effective and easy in-situ speciation agent for TBT in aqueous media, allowing the formation of adducts with enough stability and suitable polarity for SBSE analysis. Assays performed on water samples spiked at the 10.0μg/L, yielded convenient recoveries (68.2±3.0%), showed good accuracy, suitable precision (RSD<9.0%), low detection limits (23ng/L) and excellent linear dynamic range (r(2)=0.9999) from 0.1 to 170.0µg/L, under optimized experimental conditions. By using the standard addition method, the application of the present methodology to real surface water samples allowed very good performance at the trace level. The proposed methodology proved to be a feasible alternative for routine quality control analysis, easy to implement, reliable and sensitive to monitor TBT in environmental water matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High-sensitivity direct analysis of aflatoxins in peanuts and cereal matrices by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection involving a large volume flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulkar, Dasharath; Goon, Arnab; Dhanshetty, Manisha; Khan, Zareen; Satav, Sagar; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2018-04-03

    This paper reports a sensitive and cost effective method of analysis for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The sample preparation method was primarily optimised in peanuts, followed by its validation in a range of peanut-processed products and cereal (rice, corn, millets) matrices. Peanut slurry [12.5 g peanut + 12.5 mL water] was extracted with methanol: water (8:2, 100 mL), cleaned through an immunoaffinity column and thereafter measured directly by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence (UPLC-FLD) detection, within a chromatographic runtime of 5 minutes. The use of a large volume flow cell in the FLD nullified the requirement of any post-column derivatisation and provided the lowest ever reported limits of quantification of 0.025 for B1 and G1 and 0.01 μg/kg for B2 and G2. The single laboratory validation of the method provided acceptable selectivity, linearity, recovery and precision for reliable quantifications in all the test matrices as well as demonstrated compliance with the EC 401/2006 guidelines for analytical quality control of aflatoxins in foodstuffs.

  1. The design and performance of a large-volume spherical CsI(Tl) scintillation counter for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, L J; Chirkin, V M; Potapov, V N; Ivanov, O P; Ignatov, S M

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents details of the design and performance of a prototype large-volume scintillation detector used for gamma-ray spectroscopy. In this detector, a spherical CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal having a diameter of 5.7 cm was polished and packed in dry MgO powder. The scintillation light from the crystal was viewed using a single 1x1 cm sup 2 silicon PIN diode. A low-noise preamplifier was also integrated within the detector housing. The measured noise level was equivalent to approx 800 electrons (FWHM). Such a configuration provided a very good light collection efficiency, which resulted in an average of 20 electrons being generated per keV of energy deposited in the crystal. One of the key features of the detector design is that it minimises spatial variations in the light collection efficiency throughout the detector. Compared with a standard 3 in. NaI scintillation counter, this feature leads to a much-improved energy resolution, particularly for photon energies above 1 MeV. The results presented ...

  2. Water pollution screening by large-volume injection of aqueous samples and application to GC/MS analysis of a river Elbe sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S.; Efer, J.; Engewald, W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie

    1997-03-01

    The large-volume sampling of aqueous samples in a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector was used successfully for the target and non-target analysis of real samples. In this still rarely applied method, e.g., 1 mL of the water sample to be analyzed is slowly injected direct into the PTV. The vaporized water is eliminated through the split vent. The analytes are concentrated onto an adsorbent inside the insert and subsequently thermally desorbed. The capability of the method is demonstrated using a sample from the river Elbe. By means of coupling this method with a mass selective detector in SIM mode (target analysis) the method allows the determination of pollutants in the concentration range up to 0.01 {mu}g/L. Furthermore, PTV enrichment is an effective and time-saving method for non-target analysis in SCAN mode. In a sample from the river Elbe over 20 compounds were identified. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Towards Large Volume Big Divisor D3-D7 "mu-Split Supersymmetry" and Ricci-Flat Swiss-Cheese Metrics, and Dimension-Six Neutrino Mass Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuria, Mansi

    2012-01-01

    We show that it is possible to realize a "mu-split SUSY" scenario [1] in the context of large volume limit of type IIB compactifications on Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau's in the presence of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane and a (stack of) D7-brane(s) wrapping the "big" divisor Sigma_B. For this, we investigate the possibility of getting one Higgs to be light while other to be heavy in addition to a heavy Higgsino mass parameter. Further, we examine the existence of long lived gluino that manifests one of the major consequences of mu-split SUSY scenario, by computing its decay width as well as lifetime corresponding to the 3-body decays of the gluino into a quark, a squark and a neutralino or Goldstino, as well as 2-body decays of the gluino into either a neutralino or a Goldstino and a gluon. Guided by the geometric Kaehler potential for Sigma_B obtained in [2] based on GLSM techniques, and the Donaldson's algorithm [3] for obtaining numerically a Ricci-flat metric, we give details of our calculation in [4] p...

  4. Pengaruh Outdoor Learning Terhadap Kemampuan Berpikir Kritis Matematis Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Cristi Crismono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Hipotesis pada penelitian ini adalah Outdoor Learning berpengaruh dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Mengacu pada teori perkembangan kognitifnya penggunaan Outdoor Learning dengan memanfaatkan lingkungan sekitar pada media pembelajaran dan semua aktifitas belajar yang dilakukan oleh siswa di bawah pengawasan dan bimbingan guru. Penggunaan sumber belajar yang bersifat kontektual mampu mengembangkan kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Data penelitian dapat diperoleh dengan menggunakan tes yang terdiri dari seperangkat soal uraian untuk mengukur dan mengetahui  kemampuan  awal  matematika  berupa  kemampuan  berpikir  kritis siswa. Hasil analisis pengaruh penerapan metode Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa yang telah dilakukan diketahui bahwa terdapat pengaruh positif penerapan metode Outdoor Learning terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa. Kesimpulan dari peneitian ini adalah metode Outdoor learning berpengaruh terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis siswa.

  5. Quantitative method of viral pollution determination for large volume of water using ferric hydroxide gel impregnated on the surface of glassfibre cartridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Homma

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative method of viral pollution determination for large volume of water using ferric hydroxide gel impregnated on the surface of glassfibre cartridge filter. The use of ferric hydroxide gel, impregnated on the surface of glassfibre cartridge filter enable us to recover 62.5% of virus (Poliomylitis type I, Lsc strain exsogeneously added to 400 liters of tap-water. The virus concentrator system consists of four cartridge filters, in which the three first one are clarifiers, where the contaminants are removed physically, without significant virus loss at this stage. The last cartridge filter is impregnated with ferric hydroxide gel, where the virus is adsorbed. After the required volume of water has been processed, the last filter is removed from the system and the viruses are recovered from the gel, using 1 liter of glycine/NaOH buffer, at pH 11. Immediately the eluate is clarified through series of cellulose acetate membranes mounted in a 142mm Millipore filter. For the second step of virus concentration, HC1 1N is added slowly to the eluate to achieve pH 3.5-4. MgC1, is added to give a final concentration of 0.05M and the viruses are readsorbed on a 0.45 , porosity (HA cellulose acetate membrane, mounted in a 90 mm Millipore filter. The viruses are recovered using the same eluent plus 10% of fetal calf serum, to a final volume of 3 ml. In this way, it was possible to concentrate virus from 400 liters of tap-water, into 1 liter in the first stage of virus concentration and just to 3 ml of final volume in a second step. The efficiency, simplicity and low operational cost, provded by the method, make it feasible to study viral pollution of recreational and tap-water sources.Relata-se o emprego de um concentrador portátil, o qual se mostrou capaz de recuperar 62,5% dos vírus (Polio I, amostra Lsc experimentalmente dispersos em 400 litros de água, os quais foram reduzidos a 3 ml. O sistema concentrador de vírus é composto de quatro

  6. The prognostic value of baseline {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in steroid-naive large-vessel vasculitis: introduction of volume-based parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellavedova, L. [Ospedale Civile di Legnano, PET/CT Center - Nuclear Medicine Department, Legnano (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Health Sciences, Milan (Italy); Carletto, M.; Maffioli, L.S. [Ospedale Civile di Legnano, PET/CT Center - Nuclear Medicine Department, Legnano (Italy); Faggioli, P.; Sciascera, A.; Mazzone, A. [Ospedale Civile di Legnano, Internal Medicine Department, Legnano (Italy); Del Sole, A. [University of Milan, Department of Health Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to analyse if the result of a baseline {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan, in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) patients, is able to predict the course of the disease, not only in terms of presence/absence of final complications but also in terms of favourable/complicated progress (response to steroid therapy, time to steroid suspension, relapses, etc.). A total of 46 consecutive patients, who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT between May 2010 and March 2013 for fever of unknown origin (FUO) or suspected vasculitis (before starting corticosteroid therapy), were enrolled. The diagnosis of LVV was confirmed in 17 patients. Considering follow-up results, positive LVV patients were divided into two groups, one characterized by favourable (nine) and the other by complicated progress (eight), on the basis of presence/absence of vascular complications, presence/absence of at least another positive PET/CT during follow-up and impossibility to comply with the tapering schedule of the steroid due to biochemical/symptomatic relapse. Vessel uptake in subjects of the two groups was compared in terms of intensity and extension. To evaluate the extent of active disease, we introduced two volume-based parameters: ''volume of increased uptake'' (VIU) and ''total lesion glycolysis'' (TLG). The threshold used to calculate VIU on vessel walls was obtained by the ''vessel to liver'' ratio by means of receiver-operating characteristic analysis and was set at 0.92 x liver maximum standardized uptake value in each patient. Measures of tracer uptake intensity were significantly higher in patients with complicated progress compared to those with a favourable one (p < 0.05). Measures of disease extension were even more significant and TLG emerged as the best parameter to separate the two groups of patients (p = 0.01). This pilot study shows that, in LVV patients, the

  7. The prognostic value of baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT in steroid-naive large-vessel vasculitis: introduction of volume-based parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellavedova, L.; Carletto, M.; Maffioli, L.S.; Faggioli, P.; Sciascera, A.; Mazzone, A.; Del Sole, A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse if the result of a baseline 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan, in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) patients, is able to predict the course of the disease, not only in terms of presence/absence of final complications but also in terms of favourable/complicated progress (response to steroid therapy, time to steroid suspension, relapses, etc.). A total of 46 consecutive patients, who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT between May 2010 and March 2013 for fever of unknown origin (FUO) or suspected vasculitis (before starting corticosteroid therapy), were enrolled. The diagnosis of LVV was confirmed in 17 patients. Considering follow-up results, positive LVV patients were divided into two groups, one characterized by favourable (nine) and the other by complicated progress (eight), on the basis of presence/absence of vascular complications, presence/absence of at least another positive PET/CT during follow-up and impossibility to comply with the tapering schedule of the steroid due to biochemical/symptomatic relapse. Vessel uptake in subjects of the two groups was compared in terms of intensity and extension. To evaluate the extent of active disease, we introduced two volume-based parameters: ''volume of increased uptake'' (VIU) and ''total lesion glycolysis'' (TLG). The threshold used to calculate VIU on vessel walls was obtained by the ''vessel to liver'' ratio by means of receiver-operating characteristic analysis and was set at 0.92 x liver maximum standardized uptake value in each patient. Measures of tracer uptake intensity were significantly higher in patients with complicated progress compared to those with a favourable one (p < 0.05). Measures of disease extension were even more significant and TLG emerged as the best parameter to separate the two groups of patients (p = 0.01). This pilot study shows that, in LVV patients, the combined

  8. Outdoor Education Course - The New Product of a Company Offer

    OpenAIRE

    Beránek, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    and Key Words Title: Outdoor Education Course- The New Product of a Company Offer Aim: Analysis and evaluation of needs and attitudes of the present company clients of Firma na zážitky, s.r.o. company in the outdoor education field to frame a pilot project of an outdoor course programme. Method: Method of questionnare was used to analyse and evaluate needs and attitudes ofthe company clients. Results: A project of outdoor course programme was created according to results of realized research....

  9. Indoor/Outdoor Air Quality Assessment at School near the Steel Plant in Taranto (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Gilio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the air quality in primary school placed in district of Taranto (south of Italy, an area of high environmental risk because of closeness between large industrial complex and urban settlement. The chemical characterization of PM2.5 was performed to identify origin of pollutants detected inside school and the comparison between indoor and outdoor levels of PAHs and metals allowed evaluating intrusion of outdoor pollutants or the existence of specific indoor sources. The results showed that the indoor and outdoor levels of PM2.5, BaP, Cd, Ni, As, and Pb never exceeded the target values issued by World Health Organization (WHO. Nevertheless, high metals and PAHs concentrations were detected especially when school were downwind to the steel plant. The I/O ratio showed the impact of outdoor pollutants, especially of industrial markers as Fe, Mn, Zn, and Pb, on indoor air quality. This result was confirmed by values of diagnostic ratio as B(aP/B(gP, IP/(IP + BgP, BaP/Chry, and BaP/(BaP + Chry, which showed range characteristics of coke and coal combustion. However, Ni and As showed I/O ratio of 2.5 and 1.4, respectively, suggesting the presence of indoor sources.

  10. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  11. Renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to the renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting, traffic will be limited to one way along “Route Gregory” from the E entrance (France) up to “Route Fermi” just before the water tower between 12th and 23rd July 2010. Disruption can also be expected in the car parks “Les Erables” and “Les Tilleuls” close to building 30 and also the car park in front of building 377, between 19th and 30th July 2010. Thanks for your understanding. SEM Group

  12. The Outdoor Classroom: School Camping as Education in NSW 1890-1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Light, Richard

    2010-01-01

    At all levels of education in New South Wales outdoor experiences and outdoor education are a prominent part of the curriculum. This emphasis on the outdoors begins early. Outdoor activities are an important part of most primary schools whether they are public or private. Likewise at secondary level and at university outdoor education is still an…

  13. A Guide to Outdoor Education Resources and Programs for the Handicapped. Outdoor Education for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Univ., Lexington.

    The resource guide is designed to assist educators, park resource persons, and parents of disabled children in locating and identifying sources of information for developing, implementing, and evaluating outdoor education programs for all disabled children and youth. The guide has two main parts. The first part contains an annotated bibliography…

  14. The determination of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters by large-volume injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, Will J; Yingling, Virginia; Johnson, Todd

    2014-03-21

    A simple and sensitive analytical method was developed to quantify levels of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters. The analytical method consisted of solvent exchanging acrylamide from 2mL of water into 2mL of dichloromethane using acetonitrile as an intermediate. The sample was then directly analyzed by large-volume (750μL) injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The method detection limit and reporting level were 2.4ng/L and 17ng/L of acrylamide, respectively. The recovery of acrylamide during solvent exchange was 95±2.8% and the matrix effects were 12±2.2% in river water. The use of atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization reduced matrix effects; however, it also reduced method sensitivity by a factor of 2.2 compared to electrospray ionization. Matrix effects were compensated for by the use of an isotopically-labeled internal standard and the method accuracy was 89±3.0% at 25ng/L of acrylamide and 102±2.6% at 250ng/L of acrylamide. The precision of the method was less than 6% relative standard deviation at both 25ng/L and 250ng/L of acrylamide. Samples from a sand-and-gravel mine and a drinking-water treatment plant were acquired to demonstrate the method. The concentrations of acrylamide at the sand-and-gravel mine were up to 280ng/L. In the drinking-water treatment plant, the concentration of acrylamide was approximately double in the finished drinking water when compared to other stages in the drinking-water treatment process. Disinfection or fluoridation may result in higher concentrations of acrylamide in finished drinking water; however, further research in this area is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of Raman Spectroscopy and Delta Volume Growth from Void Collapse to Assess Overwrap Stress Gradients Compromising the Reliability of Large Kevlar/Epoxy COPVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezirian, Michael T.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    2009-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are frequently used for storing pressurized gases aboard spacecraft and aircraft when weight saving is desirable compared to all-metal versions. Failure mechanisms in fibrous COPVs and variability in lifetime can be very different from their metallic counterparts; in the former, catastrophic stress-rupture can occur with virtually no warning, whereas in latter, a leak before burst design philosophy can be implemented. Qualification and certification typically requires only one burst test on a production sample (possibly after several pressure cycles) and the vessel need only meet a design burst strength (the maximum operating pressure divided by a knockdown factor). Typically there is no requirement to assess variability in burst strength or lifetime, much less determine production and materials processing parameters important to control of such variability. Characterizing such variability and its source is crucial to models for calculating required reliability over a given lifetime (e.g. R = 0.9999 for 15 years). In this paper we present a case study of how lack of control of certain process parameters in COPV manufacturing can result in variations among vessels and between production runs that can greatly increase uncertainty and reduce reliability. The vessels considered are 40-inch ( NASA Glenn Research center, Cleveland, OH, 44135 29,500 in3 ) spherical COPVs with a 0.74 in. thick Kevlar49/epoxy overwrap and with a titanium liner of which 34 were originally produced. Two burst tests were eventually performed that unexpectedly differed by almost 5%, and were 10% lower than anticipated from burst tests on 26-inch sister vessels similar in every detail. A major observation from measurements made during proof testing (autofrettage) of the 40-inch vessels was that permanent volume growth from liner yielding varied by a factor of more than two (150 in3 to 360 in3 ), which suggests large differences in the residual

  16. LightSavers : accelerating advanced outdoor lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, B.; Pickering, M.

    2010-01-15

    This paper provided an update to the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) LightSavers program. The program was designed to accelerate market transformation for light emitting diode (LED) and advanced lighting management systems in outdoor lighting applications. It is expected that the program will result in significant electricity savings and emissions reductions within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and other Ontario municipalities. The first phase of the program established advanced outdoor lighting pilot programs in parking lots, garages, and pathway lighting applications that were guided by a common monitoring protocol to ensure useful and reliable assessment of the pilot programs. The TAF has since developed a strategy to strengthen public understanding and support for the use of advanced lighting, and continues to address policy issues that may impact the future of LED lighting programs. The TAF has also activated an electronic newsletter, delivered public workshops, and has been represented at several conferences. A working partnership has been established with Toronto Hydro Energy Services. Five pilot sites have been installed and have begun to provide monitoring data. Details of the pilot programs were provided. 16 figs.

  17. Indoor versus outdoor time in preschoolers at child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Saelens, Brian E; Zhou, Chuan; Kerr, Jacqueline; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2013-01-01

    Being outdoors may have health benefits including being more physically active. Understanding the relationship between outdoor time and health is hampered by the difficulty of measuring outdoor time. To examine the accuracy and validity of light-sensor and GPS methods for quantifying outdoor time among those aged 3-5 years at child care. A total of 45 children (mean age 4.5 years, 64% boys) from five child care centers wore portable accelerometers with built-in light sensors and a separate GPS device around their waists during child care, providing 80,648 episodes (15 seconds each) for analysis. Direct observation (gold standard) of children being outdoors versus indoors was conducted for 2 days at each center. GPS signal-to-noise ratios, processed through the Personal Activity and Location Measurement System were used to define indoor versus outdoor locations. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to determine thresholds for defining being indoors versus outdoors. Data were collected in Fall 2011, analyzed in 2012. Mean observed outdoor time was 63 [±44; range: 18-152] minutes/day. Mean light-sensor levels were significantly higher outdoors. The area under the ROC curve for location based on light sensor for all weather conditions was 0.82 (range: 0.70 on partly cloudy days to 0.97 on sunny days); for GPS, it was 0.89. The light sensor had a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 86%. GPS had a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 88%. A light sensor and a GPS device both distinguish indoor from outdoor time for preschoolers with moderate to high levels of accuracy. These devices can increase the feasibility and lower the cost of measuring outdoor time in studies of preschool children. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Education in and for the Outdoors. Report of the National Conference on Outdoor Education (Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Michigan, May 2-4, 1962).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The two board aspects of outdoor education considered in this document are education in the outdoors, using the natural environment as a laboratory for learning, and education for the outdoors, with a focus on teaching skills and appreciations for outdoor recreation. Conference procedures, keynote addresses, current practices, contributions to…

  19. Local Treatment for Monochrome Outdoor Painted Metal Sculptures: Assessing the suitability of conservation paints for retouching

    OpenAIRE

    van Basten, Nikki; Defeyt, Catherine; Rivenc, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    When outdoor painted sculptures get chipped, scratched or abraded, conservators might consider local retouching treatments as an option that would protect the exposed metal substrate and restore the aesthetic integrity, thus postponing a very costly and invasive overall repainting. Unfortunately, matching colour gloss and texture on large monochrome surfaces is always challenging. This paper reports on research undertaken to investigate some of the materials and application techniques that co...

  20. Mathematical model development of heat and mass exchange processes in the outdoor swimming pool

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Shaptala; D. E. Shaptala

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Currently exploitation of outdoor swimming pools is often not cost-effective and, despite of their relevance, such pools are closed in large quantities. At this time there is no the whole mathematical model which would allow assessing qualitatively the effect of energy-saving measures. The aim of this work is to develop a mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes for calculating basic heat and mass losses that occur during its exploitation. Methodology. The m...