WorldWideScience

Sample records for large urban districts

  1. National Implications for Urban School Systems: Strategic Planning in the Human Resource Management Department in a Large Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Clarence; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses several key ongoing issues in a large urban school district. Literature focuses on what make a large urban school district effective in Human Resource Management. The effectiveness is addressed through recruitment and retention practices. A comparison of the school district with current research is the main approach to the…

  2. Associations between Grades and Physical Activity and Food Choices: Results from YRBS from a Large Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Anastasia; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Beard, Jonathan; Young, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between television viewing time, physical activity level, food consumption patterns, and academic performance of adolescents in a large urban school district in the USA where health disparities are prevalent, particularly among minority residents. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  3. Comparison of the enrollment percentages of magnet and non-magnet schools in a large urban school district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Arcia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Are magnet schools in a position to meet diversity ideals? As districts are declared unitary and released from court ordered desegregation, many are framing their commitments to fairness and equity in terms of diversity˜i.e., comparable rates of participation and comparable educational outcomes in all segments the student population. In this study, the enrollment statistics for magnet and contiguous non-magnet public schools in Miami-Dade County Public Schools, a large, urban district that had been released from court ordered desegregation, were compared to each other and to district enrollment averages at two time points: the year the district was declared unitary and four years hence. Findings indicated that within four years of being declared unitary, the gains that the magnet schools had made with regards to Black/non-Black desegregation had eroded substantially. Also, in the four year span, magnet schools had not made significant strides in meeting the diversity ideals adopted by the district at being released from supervision by the court. These findings highlight the difficulty of attaining diversity in student enrollment characteristics when quotas are not used and suggest that recruitment and enrollment policies must be crafted with care if districts are to achieve diversity goals.

  4. Trends in Early Childhood Obesity in a Large Urban School District in the Southwestern United States, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Andrea; Myers, Orrin; Scharmen, Thomas; Kinyua, Peter; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes

    2016-06-02

    Although recent studies indicate that rates of childhood obesity and severe obesity may be declining, few studies have reported prevalence trends in early childhood or differences in trends across sociodemographic groups. The primary aim of this study was to report trends in prevalence of early childhood obesity and severe obesity 2007 through 2014 in a diverse, metropolitan school district in the southwestern United States and determine whether these trends vary by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and disability status. We analyzed height, weight and demographic data from 43,113 kindergarteners enrolled in a large, urban school district in the southwestern United States for 7 school years. Adjusted odds of obesity and severe obesity were calculated to assess changes in prevalence for non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and American Indian students; free or reduced-price lunch participants and nonparticipants; and students with and without disabilities. To test for differences in obesity trends, interaction terms were added to the logistic regressions between school year and sex, race/ethnicity, free or reduced-price lunch participation, and disability status. The adjusted prevalence of both obesity (from 13.1% in 2007-2008 to 12.0% in 2013-20014) and severe obesity (from 2.4% in 2007-2008 to 1.2% in 2013-2014) declined overall. We found no significant interactions between the adjusted prevalence of obesity over time and any of the sociodemographic subgroups. Obesity prevalence declined more among American Indian students than among Hispanic or non-Hispanic white students. In this district, from 2007 through 2014, severe obesity decreased and obesity did not increase, overall and across all sociodemographic subpopulations for kindergarten students.

  5. The Effects of the Great Recession on Educational Attainment: Evidence from a Large Urban High School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordechay, Kfir

    2017-01-01

    Economic crises are a recurrent phenomenon in American society, yet there is little knowledge of the impacts on educational opportunity. Using data from a large high school district as a case study, this research explores the impact of the Great Recession (2007-2009) on high school senior graduation rates in an area at the epicenter of the…

  6. Perceived Implementation Barriers of a One-to-One Computing Initiative in a Large Urban School District: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Brandon; Martin, Florence

    2016-01-01

    One-to-One Computing initiatives are K-12 Educational environments where student and teacher have Internet-connected, wireless computing devices in the classroom and optimally at home as well (Penuel, 2006). One-to-one computing has gained popularity in several schools and school districts across the world. However, there is limited research…

  7. Sustainability Profile for Urban Districts in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    urban designers to creatively improve the sustainable performance of a district" (Kortman et al, 2001). Compared to other tools for assessing urban sustainability, DPL represents a simple and flexible approach. The idea is to use a limited number of indicators based on already collected data. Once...

  8. Grade retention risk among children with asthma and other chronic health conditions in a large urban school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonie, Sheniz; Cross, Chad L; Guillermo, Chrisalbeth J; Gupta, Tina

    2010-09-01

    Asthma accounts for 12.8 million missed school days for children nationwide. Whether this excess absenteeism contributes to poor outcomes such as grade retention is of interest. The Clark County School District in Las Vegas, NV has incorporated the Federal "No Child Left Behind Act," which states that absences per individual in excess of 10 per school year are considered unapproved and may put a child at risk for repeating a grade. The purpose of this study was to determine if children with asthma are at increased risk for absenteeism associated with grade retention. Secondary data were obtained for students in attendance for the 2006-2007 school year. Days absent were weighted for enrollment time. Frequencies were obtained using descriptive statistics, and multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of absenteeism > 10 days per year. Of 300 881 students, 27 299 (9.1%) reported having asthma, as determined by school health records. The population was 52% male, 37% white, and 39% Hispanic. Significant predictors of missing > 10 days per school year included ethnicity, gender, grade, and health status (P 10 school days per year compared with healthy students or those with a medical condition other than asthma (P grade point average by race, gender, and asthma status. Children with asthma have a greater risk of absenteeism associated with grade retention. Therefore, improved asthma management and tailored education is necessary to identify and eliminate asthma triggers in the home and school setting for school-aged children.

  9. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2013 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), in partnership with the National Assessment Governing Board and the Council of the Great City Schools (CGCS), created the Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) in 2002 to support the improvement of student achievement in the nation's large urban districts. NAEP TUDA results in mathematics…

  10. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2013 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), in partnership with the National Assessment Governing Board and the Council of the Great City Schools (CGCS), created the Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) in 2002 to support the improvement of student achievement in the nation's large urban districts. NAEP TUDA results in mathematics…

  11. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2013 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), in partnership with the National Assessment Governing Board and the Council of the Great City Schools (CGCS), created the Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) in 2002 to support the improvement of student achievement in the nation's large urban districts. NAEP TUDA results in mathematics…

  12. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2013 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), in partnership with the National Assessment Governing Board and the Council of the Great City Schools (CGCS), created the Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) in 2002 to support the improvement of student achievement in the nation's large urban districts. NAEP TUDA results in mathematics…

  13. Does Urbanization Affect Rural Poverty? Evidence from Indian Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Calì, Massimiliano; Menon, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Although a high rate of urbanization and a high incidence of rural poverty are two distinct features of many developing countries, there is little knowledge of the effects of the former on the latter. Using a large sample of Indian districts from the 1983-1999 period, the authors find that urbanization has a substantial and systematic poverty-reducing effect in the surrounding rural areas....

  14. The Sustained Reduction of Youth Suicidal Behavior in an Urban, Multicultural School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenere, Frank J.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    An 18-year longitudinal case study of the suicide rates of students attending a large, urban, multicultural school district between 1989 and 2006 is described. The high rate of suicide (5.5 per 100,000 students ages 5-19) in the district during the period 1980-1988 led to the development and implementation of a district-wide Youth Suicide…

  15. Urban district heating using nuclear heat - a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresovski, T.; Oliker, I.

    1979-01-01

    The use of heat from nuclear power plants is of great interest in connection with projected future expansions of large urban district heating systems. Oil price escalation and air pollution from increased burning of fossil fuels are substantial incentivers for the adoption of nuclear heat and power plants. The cost of the hot water piping system from the nuclear plant to the city is a major factor in determining the feasibility of using nuclear heat. To achieve reasonable costs, the heat load should be at least 1500 MW(th), transport temperatures 125-200 0 C and distances preferably 50 km or less. Heat may be extracted from the turbines of conventional power reactors. Alternatively, some special-purpose smaller reactors are under development which are specially suited to production of heat with little or no power coproduct. Many countries are conducting studies of future expansions of district heating systems to use nuclear heat. Several countries are developing technology suitable for this application. Actual experience with the use of nuclear heat for district heating is currently being gained only in the USSR, however. While district heating appears to be a desirable technology at a time of increasing fossil-fuel costs, the use of nuclear heat will require siting of nuclear plants within transmission radius of cities. The institutional barries toward use of nuclear heating will have to be overcome before the energy conservation potential of this approach can be realized on a significant scale. (author)

  16. The Nation's Report Card: A First Look--2013 Mathematics and Reading Trial Urban District Assessment. NCES 2014-466

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), in partnership with the National Assessment Governing Board and the Council of the Great City Schools (CGCS), created the Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) in 2002 to support the improvement of student achievement in the nation's large urban districts. The TUDA focuses attention on urban…

  17. Analysis of large urban fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.

    1984-11-01

    Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures

  18. Energy cascading in large district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    District heat transfer is the most economical utilization of the waste heat of power plants. Optimum utilization and heat transfer over large distances are possible because of a new energy distribution system, the ''energy cascading system,'' in which heat is transferred to several consumer regions at different temperature ranges. It is made more profitable by the use of heat pumps. The optimum flow-line temperature is 368 0 K, and the optimum return-line temperature is 288 0 K, resulting in an approximately 50% reduction of electric power loss at the power plant

  19. Urban Greening as part ofDistrict Energy Services

    OpenAIRE

    MELIN, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Work carried out during this master’s thesis is about urban greening and its close integration with district energy systems. Urban greening is the fact to develop green infrastructures (parks, street trees, ...) instead of grey infrastructures (buildings, roads, ...) in cities. Despite that the actual economic value of green infrastructure is less appreciated at first glance and very difficult to valorize, urban greening has many undeniable advantages such as reducing pollution and heat islan...

  20. Translating measures of sustainable development to urban districts of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2010-01-01

    overviews on the current baselines as well as stages in a transition process. The Dutch tool DPL (Dutch acronym for Duurzaamheid Prestatie voor een Locatie, ‘Sustainability-Profile for locations’) is a tool for mapping sustainability profiles of urban districts through a set of environmental, social...

  1. Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction in an Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish factors that influence the satisfaction levels of teachers in urban school districts. This work also distinguished factors that directly impacted teachers' level of satisfaction towards their work and their attitude towards the administration of their schools. Forty-one teachers from two kindergarten…

  2. A Biography for an Emerging Urban District

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava

    2015-01-01

    Abandoned industrial sites are often the starting oint for urban redevelopment, forcing the involved actors to discuss which qualities are discrded, protected, and reused. By way of a case study of the ongoing redevelopment of the Carlsberg breweries in Copenhagen, the article emphasizes open spa...

  3. Developing a district energy system in a competitive urban market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitola, J.P. [Unicom Thermal Technologies, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In two year`s time, Unicorn Thermal Technologies has grown into one of the largest district cooling systems of 25,000 tons with a 1996 plan to grow to 40,000 tons. This growth is attributed to the development and implementation of a marketing and sales plan based on thorough market research and innovative marketing and sales strategies, and the consistent implementation of those strategies. The beginning of the sales effort was focused around the company`s first district cooling facility, However, it quickly grew into a much broader vision as market acceptance increased. Although the district energy industry has often based its message on being a low cost energy provider, market research and early sales experience indicated that customers choose district cooling as a value added service. As customers began to reserve capacity in the first plant, the idea that district cooling is a value added service and not a commodity energy product was continually reinforced through marketing communications. Although this analysis is a review of developing a district energy system in a competitive urban market, it purposely avoids a long winded discussion of head to head competition.

  4. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2009 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each district that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Trial Urban District Assessment in reading receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Austin Independent School District's student achievement in reading. In 2009,…

  5. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2009 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each district that participated in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 Trial Urban District Assessment in reading receives a one-page snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. This report presents the results for Austin Independent School District's student achievement in reading. In 2009,…

  6. RECRUITING NEW TEACHERS TO URBAN SCHOOL DISTRICTS: WHAT INCENTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTHONY T. MILANOWSKI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Many urban districts in the United States have difficulty attracting and retaining quality teachers, yet they are often themost in need of them. In response, U.S. states and districts are experimenting with financial incentives to attract andretain high-quality teachers in high-need, low-achieving, or hard-to-staff urban schools. However, relatively little isknown about how effective financial incentives are for recruiting new teachers to high-need urban schools. This researchexplores factors that are important to the job choices of teachers in training. Focus groups were held with students atthree universities, and a policy-capturing study was done using 64 job scenarios representing various levels of pay andworking conditions. Focus group results suggested that: a many pre-service teachers, even relatively late in their preparation,are not committed to a particular district and are willing to consider many possibilities, including high needschools; b although pay and benefits were attractive to the students, loan forgiveness and subsidies for further educationwere also attractive; and c small increments of additional salary did not appear as important or attractive as otherjob characteristics. The policy-capturing study showed that working conditions factors, especially principal support, hadmore influence on simulated job choice than pay level, implying that money might be better spent to attract, retain, ortrain better principals than to provide higher beginning salaries to teachers in schools with high-poverty or a high proportionof students of color.

  7. A Feasibility Study on District Heating and Cooling Business Using Urban Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Byoung Youn; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Jae Bong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jae In; Yoon, Jae Ho; Oh, Myung Do; Park, Moon Su; Kang, Han Kee; Yoo, Kyeoung Hoon; Bak, Jong Heon; Kim, Sun Chang; Park, Heong Kee; Bae, Tae Sik [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Investigation of papers related to waste heat utilization using heat pump. Estimate of various kinds of urban waste heat in korea. Investigation and study on optimal control of district heating and cooling system. Prediction of energy saving and environmental benefits when the urban waste heat will be used as heat source and sink of heat pump for district heating and cooling. Estimation of economic feasibility on district heating and cooling project utilizing urban waste heat. (author). 51 refs., figs

  8. Energy saving and emission reduction of China's urban district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xia; Wang, Li; Tong, Lige; Sun, Shufeng; Yue, Xianfang; Yin, Shaowu; Zheng, Lifang

    2013-01-01

    China's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission ranks highest in the world. China is committed to reduce its CO 2 emission by 40% to 45% from the 2005 levels by 2020. To fulfill the target, China's CO 2 emission reduction must exceed 6995 million tons. Energy consumption and CO 2 emission of China's urban district heating (UDH) are increasing. The current policy implemented to improve UDH focuses on replacing coal with natural gas to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emission to some extent. This paper proposes that heat pump heating (HPH) could serve as a replacement for UDH to help realize energy-saving and emission-reduction goals to a greater extent. The paper also analyzes the impact of this replacement on the heating and power generation sectors. The results show that replacing coal-based UDH with HPH decreases energy consumption and CO 2 emission by 43% in the heating sector. In the power generation sector, the efficiency of power generation at the valley electricity time increases by 0.512%, and the ratio of peak–valley difference decreases by 16.5%. The decreases in CO 2 emission from the heating and power generation sectors cumulatively account for 5.55% of China's total CO 2 emission reduction target in 2020. - Highlights: ► Replacing urban district heating with heat pump heating. ► Impact of heat pump heating on heating and power generation sectors. ► Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. ► China should adjust current urban heating strategy

  9. Energy supply and urban planning projects: Analysing tensions around district heating provision in a French eco-district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabillet, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of energy supply choices, this article explores the way in which energy priorities and their climate-related features are incorporated into urban public policy. These choices must take account of different factors, as is the case with district heating, which is justified as a vehicle of renewable energy while subject to pressure in eco-districts because its techno-economic balances are destabilised by falls in demand. Our study focuses particularly on the city of Metz (France), which has chosen district heating as the primary source for provision for the municipal area and for its first eco-district. We analyse the tensions within these choices, with particular attention to the way in which they are negotiated inside municipal departments and with the local energy operator. This enables us to explore the tensions in defining the scale that governs decisions and the linkages between energy-related and urban priorities. - Highlights: • Analyses of tensions in the choice of energy supplies for eco-districts. •District heating networks can be vehicles of renewable energy. • District heating networks are threatened by drops in energy consumption. • Energy supply issues oppose urban planning and energy policy in municipal departments. • Technical and financial adjustments can be made by the municipality to justify its energy choices

  10. Urban form and heat consumption, a comparative study in Copenhagen districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi Dehcheshme, Mostafa; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    Since urban form and land use patterns significantly influence the cities energy needs, the study linkage of energy consumption and urban form is an interdisciplinary issue and one the current central topics of urban planners in recent years. Our concern in this paper, therefore, is to address...... the implications of urban development and form in terms of its impact on energy consumption in ten districts of Copenhagen city. As comparative study, this paper is trying to respond the question: How does urban form impact the heat consumption in households in Copenhagen districts? To respond this question, two...

  11. KPI-Driven Methodology for Urban Renovation at District Level. Sustainable Strategic Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Criado

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable urban renovation is characterized by multiple factors (e.g., technical, socio-economic, environmental and ethical perspectives, different spatial scales and a number of administrative structures that should address the evaluation of alternative scenarios or solutions. This defines a complex decision problem that includes different stakeholders where several aspects need to be considered simultaneously. In spite of the knowledge and experiences during the recent years, there is a need of methods that lead the decision-making processes. In response, a methodology based on a KPI-driven approach for urban renovation at district level is proposed in the European Smart City project CITyFiED. The methodology is a procedure with the energy efficiency as main pillar and the local authorities as client. It is composed of seven phases that ensures an effective dialogue among all the stakeholders, aiming to understand the objectives and needs of the city to deliver a set of customized Strategies for Sustainable Urban Renovation. In order to provide guidance and quantitative criteria, three levels of indicators are integrated into the approach: City Level Indicators (L1 at city & district level, Project Level KPIs (L2, and Impact Assessment Indicators at city level (L3.

  12. Human Resource Support for School Principals in Two, Urban School Districts: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, Chad R.

    2010-01-01

    School districts are increasingly focused on instructional practice in classrooms. Many urban school districts have shifted decision-making responsibility to school principals in order to improve instruction. This reform strategy has been referred to as decentralization or school-based management. Decentralization has a significant influence on…

  13. Excellence in Urban High Schools: An Emerging District/School Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; And Others

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the District/Secondary School Study. The study had two purposes: (1) to identify ways of managing urban high schools to produce excellence, and (2) to recommend policy-relevant guidance to existing school and district administrators. The study design focused on the testing of two specific theories…

  14. When the spell is broken: gentrification, urban tourism and privileged discontent in the Amsterdam canal district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkster, F.M.; Boterman, W.R.

    2017-01-01

    Expansion of urban tourism in historic districts in European cities is putting increasing pressure on these areas as places to live. In Amsterdam, an ever-growing number of tourists visit the famous canal district, which also forms the home of a group of long-term, upper-middle-class residents.

  15. The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics 2011. Trial Urban District Assessment Results at Grades 4 and 8. NCES 2012-452

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Representative samples of fourth- and eighth-grade public school students from 21 urban districts participated in the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in mathematics. Eighteen of the districts participating in the 2011 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) participated in earlier assessment years, while three districts…

  16. Job Satisfaction of Elementary Principals in Large Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine job satisfaction levels of elementary principals in "major urban" districts in Texas and to identify strategies these principals used to cope with the demands of the position. Additionally, the project sought to find structures and supports needed to attract and retain principals in the…

  17. THE PATTERNS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PERI-URBAN SETTLEMENT IN EAST UNGARAN DISTRICT, SEMARANG REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrina Sri Arta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available East Ungaran District is a peri-urban area arising from the urban-rural interaction between Semarang City and Semarang Regency. Interaction of these two regions is supported with the accessibility that is characterized by high commuting flows. The impact of this interaction is mix of urban and rural characteristics in East Ungaran District. This conditions will also affect land use in East Ungaran District, such as housing, economic facilities, and residential infrastructure. The increase of unplanned settlements has the potential to lead to inefficient land use, particularly in residential infrastructure. The purpose of this research is to examine patterns and characteristics of settlements in the East Ungaran District in 2015. This research uses descriptive quantitative with a spatial approach using remote sensing techniques. The results show that there are two types of settlement patterns in East Ungaran District, i.e, clustered pattern and random pattern. The characteristics of settlements are medium up to the good socio-economic condition (such as high income, good education, certificate ownership, permanent construction of housing, and good health and good condition in infrastructure (determined by road conditions, sources of clean water, waste disposal systems, and sanitary systems. © 2015 GJGP UNDIP. All rights reserved.

  18. Wind tunnel measurements of the urban boundary layer development over a historical district in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricci, A.; Burlando, M.; Freda, A.; Repetto, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study aimed at investigating the urban boundary layer in a district of Livorno city, in Tuscany. The wind flow over this area has been measured in the wind tunnel of the University of Genova using a physical model in scale 1:300. Two sets of

  19. Public response to the urban forest in inner-city business districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf

    2003-01-01

    Revitalization programs are under way in many inner-city business districts. An urban forestry program can be an important element in creating an appealing consumer environment, yet it may not be considered a priority given that there are often many physical improvements needs. This research evaluated the role of trees in consumer/...

  20. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  1. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  2. The Nation's Report Card Mathematics 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 4, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  3. The Nation's Report Card Reading 2011 Trial Urban District Snapshot Report. Austin Independent School District. Grade 8, Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This one-page report presents overall results, achievement level percentages and average score results, scores at selected percentiles, average scores for district and large cities, results for student groups (school race, gender, and eligibility for National School Lunch Program) in 2011, and score gaps for student groups. In 2011, the average…

  4. Integrated Solid Waste Management for Urban Area in Basrah District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhussain Abdul Kareem Abbas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The success of waste management requires accurate data on generation and composition of waste which is pivotal for the decisions towards the appropriate waste management system. A five years (2008-2012 study was conducted to evaluate the solid wastes management system in all the six divisions of Basrah district (more than 30 sub-districts. Recent investigations in 2012 resulted information that population of Basrah district has reached 1,018,000 person The quantity of municipal solid waste generated was recorded to be 634 tons per day with MSW generation rates of 0.62 kg per capita per day. Municipal solid waste density was conducted as 192.6 kg/m³ with moisture content of 31.1%. The main components of the MSW were Food wastes represents largest proportion (54.8%, followed by plastic (25.2% and paper (7%. The study results reveal that the MSW stream has the largest proportion of biodegradable and recyclable waste. Therefore, the study recommends to use methods of waste treatment such composting, recycling and incineration in order to reduce the amount of waste that are taken to the landfill.

  5. Improving urban district heating systems and assessing the efficiency of the energy usage therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, M. E.; Sharapov, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The report describes issues in connection with improving urban district heating systems from combined heat power plants (CHPs), to propose the ways for improving the reliability and the efficiency of the energy usage (often referred to as “energy efficiency”) in such systems. The main direction of such urban district heating systems improvement suggests transition to combined heating systems that include structural elements of both centralized and decentralized systems. Such systems provide the basic part of thermal power via highly efficient methods for extracting thermal power plants turbines steam, while peak loads are covered by decentralized peak thermal power sources to be mounted at consumers’ locations, with the peak sources being also reserve thermal power sources. The methodology was developed for assessing energy efficiency of the combined district heating systems, implemented as a computer software product capable of comparatively calculating saving on reference fuel for the system.

  6. Analysis of Territorial Planning and Prospects for Further Development of Urban Districts and Settlements in Rostov Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikova Natalia

    2017-01-01

    This article covers the problems of modern urban districts and settlements of the Rostov region with due regard to the organization of their territories. Prospects for the further development of the urban districts and settlements are defined based on the goals of the urban-planning activity. Short-term and mid-term trends of residential construction in the Rostov region are classified in terms of the improvement of town-planning documentation. It is concluded that the territorial planning or...

  7. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation of the central solar heating technology is based on measurements on the case plant in Marstal, Denmark, and on published and unpublished data for other, mainly Danish, CSDHP plants. Evaluations on the thermal, economical and environmental performances are reported, based on the experiences from the last decade. The measurements from the Marstal case are analysed, experiences extracted and minor improvements to the plant design proposed. For the detailed designing and energy planning of CSDHPs, a computer simulation model is developed and validated on the measurements from the Marstal case. The final model is then generalised to a 'generic' model for CSDHPs in general. The meteorological reference data, Danish Reference Year, is applied to find the mean performance for the plant designs. To find the expectable variety of the thermal performance of such plants, a method is proposed where data from a year with poor solar irradiation and a year with strong solar irradiation are applied. Equipped with a simulation tool design studies are carried out spreading from parameter analysis over energy planning for a new settlement to a proposal for the combination of plane solar collectors with high performance solar collectors, exemplified by a trough solar collector. The methodology of utilising computer simulation proved to be a cheap and relevant tool in the design of future solar heating plants. The thesis also exposed the demand for developing computer models for the more advanced solar collector designs and especially for the control operation of CSHPs. In the final chapter the CSHP technology is put into perspective with respect to other possible technologies to find the relevance of the application

  8. Multimorbidity in a large district hospital: A descriptive cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mitchell's Plain District Hospital, Western Cape Department of Health, Cape Town, South Africa. Corresponding author: E de .... group as a whole, 6.3% of patients had mental illness. .... be investigated, research can also be focused specifically on reducing .... strongly affected by social stigma, particularly in the case of illicit.

  9. Large urban fire environment: trends and model city predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.A.; Small, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The urban fire environment that would result from a megaton-yield nuclear weapon burst is considered. The dependence of temperatures and velocities on fire size, burning intensity, turbulence, and radiation is explored, and specific calculations for three model urban areas are presented. In all cases, high velocity fire winds are predicted. The model-city results show the influence of building density and urban sprawl on the fire environment. Additional calculations consider large-area fires with the burning intensity reduced in a blast-damaged urban center

  10. The impact of urban regeneration programmes on health and health-related behaviour: Evaluation of the Dutch District Approach 6.5 years from the start.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    Full Text Available Large-scale regeneration programmes to improve the personal conditions and living circumstances in deprived areas may affect health and the lifestyle of the residents. Previous evaluations concluded that a large-scale urban regeneration programme in the Netherlands had some positive effects within 3.5 years. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects at the longer run.With a quasi-experimental research design we assessed changes in the prevalence of general health, mental health, physical activity, overweight, obesity, and smoking between the pre-intervention (2003-04 -mid 2008 and intervention period (mid 2008-2013-14 in 40 deprived target districts and comparably deprived control districts. We used the Difference-in-Difference (DiD to assess programme impact. Additionally, we stratified analyses by sex and by the intensity of the regeneration programme.Changes in health and health related behaviours from pre-intervention to the intervention period were about equally large in the target districts as in control districts. DiD impact estimates were inconsistent and not statistically significant. Sex differences in DiD estimates were not consistent or significant. Furthermore, DiD impact estimates were not consistently larger in target districts with more intensive intervention programmes.We found no evidence that this Dutch urban regeneration programme had an impact in the longer run on self-reported health and related behaviour at the area level.

  11. Review of Spatial Indexing Techniques for Large Urban Data Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azri, Suhaibah; Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François

    Pressure on land development in urban areas causes progressive efforts in spatial planning and management. The physical expansion of urban areas to accommodate rural migration implies a massive impact to social, economical and political situations of major cities. Most of the models used...... in managing urban areas are moving towards sustainable urban development in order to fulfill current necessities while preserving the resources for future generations. However, in order to manage large amounts of urban spatial data, an efficient spatial data constellation method is needed. With the ease...... of three dimensional (3D) spatial data usage in urban areas as a new source of data input, practical spatial data indexing is necessary to improve data retrieval and management. Current two dimensional (2D) spatial indexing approaches seem not applicable to the current and future spatial developments...

  12. When the spell is broken: gentrification, urban tourism and privileged discontent in the Amsterdam canal district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkster, Fenne M; Boterman, Willem R

    2017-01-01

    Expansion of urban tourism in historic districts in European cities is putting increasing pressure on these areas as places to live. In Amsterdam, an ever-growing number of tourists visit the famous canal district, which also forms the home of a group of long-term, upper-middle-class residents. While such residents are generally depicted as instigators of urban transformation, in this case, they are on the receiving end. Bringing together the literature on the socio-spatial impact of tourism, belonging and the lived experience of place, this article explores the changing relationship between these established residents and their neighbourhood and provides insight into their growing sense of discontent and even powerlessness in the face of neighbourhood change. PMID:29278248

  13. When the spell is broken: gentrification, urban tourism and privileged discontent in the Amsterdam canal district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkster, Fenne M; Boterman, Willem R

    2017-07-01

    Expansion of urban tourism in historic districts in European cities is putting increasing pressure on these areas as places to live. In Amsterdam, an ever-growing number of tourists visit the famous canal district, which also forms the home of a group of long-term, upper-middle-class residents. While such residents are generally depicted as instigators of urban transformation, in this case, they are on the receiving end. Bringing together the literature on the socio-spatial impact of tourism, belonging and the lived experience of place, this article explores the changing relationship between these established residents and their neighbourhood and provides insight into their growing sense of discontent and even powerlessness in the face of neighbourhood change.

  14. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Rojas, Gaudi; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Medico endocrinólogo pediatra; Cabello-Morales, Emilio; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Medico endocrinólogo pediatra magíster en Salud Pública; Hernádez-Diaz, Herminio; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico pediatra; Loza-Munarriz, Cesar; Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico nefrólogo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity according to the criteria of the WHO and CDC in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012. Materials and methods. This cross-sectional study included 1,743 school children of 12 to 17 years of age selected from ten public and private educational institutions, using a randomized and stratified sample of “conglomerados” (neighborhoods). In the selected schools, weight and height were measured. For the diagnosis of ove...

  15. Large Scale Asset Extraction for Urban Images

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed; Nan, Liangliang; Ghanem, Bernard; Wonka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Object proposals are currently used for increasing the computational efficiency of object detection. We propose a novel adaptive pipeline for interleaving object proposals with object classification and use it as a formulation for asset detection. We first preprocess the images using a novel and efficient rectification technique. We then employ a particle filter approach to keep track of three priors, which guide proposed samples and get updated using classifier output. Tests performed on over 1000 urban images demonstrate that our rectification method is faster than existing methods without loss in quality, and that our interleaved proposal method outperforms current state-of-the-art. We further demonstrate that other methods can be improved by incorporating our interleaved proposals. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  16. Large Scale Asset Extraction for Urban Images

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed

    2016-09-16

    Object proposals are currently used for increasing the computational efficiency of object detection. We propose a novel adaptive pipeline for interleaving object proposals with object classification and use it as a formulation for asset detection. We first preprocess the images using a novel and efficient rectification technique. We then employ a particle filter approach to keep track of three priors, which guide proposed samples and get updated using classifier output. Tests performed on over 1000 urban images demonstrate that our rectification method is faster than existing methods without loss in quality, and that our interleaved proposal method outperforms current state-of-the-art. We further demonstrate that other methods can be improved by incorporating our interleaved proposals. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  17. Lessons Learned: A Strategic Alliance to Improve Elementary Physical Education in an Urban School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hannah R; Haguewood, Robin; Tantoco, Nicole; Madsen, Kristine A

    2015-01-01

    Physical education (PE) can help to achieve important public health goals, but is often under-prioritized and lacking in schools. To detail the actions, impact, and successes of a strategic alliance formed by three collaborating organizations to improve PE in a large California school district. Semistructured interviews with alliance members, principals, and teachers in 20 elementary schools, 3 years after the alliance formation. Interviewees reported district-level increases in priority and funding for PE and attributed improvements to the alliance's collection and dissemination of local data on the status of PE. Common goals, trust, and open communication within the alliance were seen as critical to the alliance's success. However, changes in district- or school-level accountability measures for PE were not reported. This strategic alliance succeeded in promoting district-level priority and funding for PE. Ongoing alliance work will focus on increasing accountability measures for PE, which may take longer to implement.

  18. Teen pregnancy and abortion among high school students of the urban district of Antananarivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidiniaina Mamy Randriantsarafara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen pregnancy and abortion phenomena take an ever-growing magnitude in poor countries. Lack of knowledge about reproductive health could aggravate these problems. Methods: Across-sectional survey has been conducted in public, private and denominational high schools of the urban district of Antananarivo, Madagascar, on a sample of 248 students during schoolyear 2012-2013. Data was collected during the third quarter of the schoolyear. Results: Good knowledge about pregnancy and abortion was found in 14.5%, 95% CI [10.4% -19.5%] of students. The media represent almost 60% of the sources of information. Access to care is limited in 48% of cases by feeling shame. Nearly 11% would resort to abortion if an unplanned pregnancy happens. Nearly 6.5%, 95% CI [3.6% - 10.3%] had teen pregnancy problems: 9.6% of boys and 4.1% of girls came encountered these and all cases have ended in induced abortion among girls. The students from the denominational schools and the female gender have more knowledge of about sexuality. The level of knowledge does not significantly influence pregnancy. Female students (p = 0.07 are less prone to teen pregnancy, whereas dating a fixed boyfriend (p <10-4, a large sibship (p = 0.03 and parents in consensual union (p = 0.02 encourage its occurrence. Conclusions: Abortion does not actually represent a remedy in case of pregnancy. Nevertheless, prevention of teen pregnancy is suggested. The control strategy should be multidisciplinary and multisectoral, and focused on targeted information. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 240-246

  19. Fencing as a Part of the Urban Context of the District Blasewitz in Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Potapova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Every city has its unique urban context including the objects that form the historical environment of the city; the material elements represented by buildings, constructions, sculptural and architectural forms, elements of spatial surroundings of monuments and terraced houses; the atmosphere, the landscape elements, and the visage as an element expressing the real nature of the visual object, that is the city space (the open space “enclosed” by material elements.The city of Dresden is not an exception. In its district Blasewitz, one of the most important aspects of urban context is expressed by the fences of the Gründer Epoch. These pompous and fine constructions separating the street space from the park villas have remained since the middle of the XIX century.The article explores the origin of villas as an urban ensemble of the Italian architecture, the development of this type of architecture in the 18-19th centuries and the methods of preservation of all the elements of this structure, including fences. It describes the fences remained in the district Blasewitz and their unique features.

  20. The future of large old trees in urban landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Darren S; Ikin, Karen; Lindenmayer, David B; Manning, Adrian D; Gibbons, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Large old trees are disproportionate providers of structural elements (e.g. hollows, coarse woody debris), which are crucial habitat resources for many species. The decline of large old trees in modified landscapes is of global conservation concern. Once large old trees are removed, they are difficult to replace in the short term due to typically prolonged time periods needed for trees to mature (i.e. centuries). Few studies have investigated the decline of large old trees in urban landscapes. Using a simulation model, we predicted the future availability of native hollow-bearing trees (a surrogate for large old trees) in an expanding city in southeastern Australia. In urban greenspace, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees is likely to decline by 87% over 300 years under existing management practices. Under a worst case scenario, hollow-bearing trees may be completely lost within 115 years. Conversely, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees will likely remain stable in semi-natural nature reserves. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the number of hollow-bearing trees perpetuated in urban greenspace over the long term is most sensitive to the: (1) maximum standing life of trees; (2) number of regenerating seedlings ha(-1); and (3) rate of hollow formation. We tested the efficacy of alternative urban management strategies and found that the only way to arrest the decline of large old trees requires a collective management strategy that ensures: (1) trees remain standing for at least 40% longer than currently tolerated lifespans; (2) the number of seedlings established is increased by at least 60%; and (3) the formation of habitat structures provided by large old trees is accelerated by at least 30% (e.g. artificial structures) to compensate for short term deficits in habitat resources. Immediate implementation of these recommendations is needed to avert long term risk to urban biodiversity.

  1. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The appendices present the following: A) Cad-drawing of the Marstal CSHP design. B) Key values - large-scale solar heating in Denmark. C) Monitoring - a system description. D) WMO-classification of pyranometers (solarimeters). E) The computer simulation model in TRNSYS. F) Selected papers from the author. (EHS)

  2. Faculty Perceptions of Multicultural Teaching in a Large Urban University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigatti, Sylvia M.; Gibau, Gina Sanchez; Boys, Stephanie; Grove, Kathy; Ashburn-Nardo, Leslie; Khaja, Khadiji; Springer, Jennifer Thorington

    2012-01-01

    As college graduates face an increasingly globalized world, it is imperative to consider issues of multicultural instruction in higher education. This study presents qualitative and quantitative findings from a survey of faculty at a large, urban, midwestern university regarding perceptions of multicultural teaching. Faculty were asked how they…

  3. Factors affecting the initial literacy development of urban and rural learners in the Iganga district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banda, Felix

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The initial motivation for the study was data from the Ministry of Education in Uganda that suggests that in terms of academic performance, urban learners continually outperform rural schools at primary and secondary school levels (Ministry of Education 2002. At present all government examinations are written in English. However, the language in education policy in Uganda differentially stipulates the use English as medium of instruction in urban schools and the use of the mother tongue in rural schools (cf. Kyeyune 2004. Other factors which mitigate against rural learners’ successful academic performance are untrained educators, poor infrastructure and school management practices in rural schools, poverty, lack of supportive academic discourse practices, and a general lack of enthusiasm among rural parents (most of whom have very little formal education for their children’s education. Using data from observations of selected urban and rural homes and schools in The Iganga district and field notes in the form of diary entries, the study draws on New Literacy Studies (NLS particularly the notion of literacy as social practice (Street 2001; Gee 2000; Baynham 2000, 2001, to explore the differential effect of urban and rural-based acculturation processes on the initial literacy development of learners. Finally, since 88% of Ugandans live in rural areas (Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2002, the pedagogical implications for primary schools are discussed and suggestions are made on how to establish an inclusive education system.

  4. Urban Vulnerability in Bantul District, Indonesia—Towards Safer and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rijanta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Assuring safer and sustainable development in seismic prone areas requires predictive measurements, i.e., hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment. This research aims to assess urban vulnerability due to seismic hazard through a risk based spatial plan. The idea is to indicate current and future potential losses due to specified hazards with given spatial and temporal units. Herein, urban vulnerability refers to the classic separation between social and physical vulnerability assessments. The research area covers six sub-districts in Bantul, Indonesia. It experienced 6.2 Mw earthquakes on May, 27th, 2006 and suffered a death toll of 5700, economic losses of up to 3.1 billion US$ and damage to nearly 80% of a 508 km2 area. The research area experienced the following regional issues: (1 seismic hazard; (2 rapid land conversion and (3 domination of low-income group. This research employs spatial multi criteria evaluations (SMCE for social vulnerability (SMCE-SV and for physical vulnerability (SMCE-PV. The research reveals that (1 SMCE-SV and SMCE-PV are empirically possible to indicate the urban vulnerability indices; and (2 integrating the urban vulnerability assessment into a spatial plan requires strategic, technical, substantial and procedural integration. In summary, without adequate knowledge and political support, any manifestation towards safer and sustainable development will remain meager and haphazard.

  5. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes. PMID:27417367

  6. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-07-21

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  7. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Twichell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94% felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%. Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82% and allergen-free tables (44% should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55% and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%. Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  8. [Urban malaria in Yaounde (Cameroon). 2. Entomologic study in 2 suburban districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondjo, E; Robert, V; Le Goff, G; Toto, J C; Carnevale, P

    1992-01-01

    A one year entomological survey was carried out to precise the malaria vectors and the malaria transmission in Yaounde, the Cameroon capital (800,000 inhabitants). The study was done in two districts not yet fully urbanized: Nkol Bikok and Nkol Bisson. The latter is located at the periphery and has a pool. Anopheles gambiae was the only human malaria vector. Its agressivity for man depended on the urbanization of the district. Annual man biting rate was 284 in Nkol Bikok and 1,813 in Nkol Bisson. The densities were maximum in May-June and in October-November, corresponding to the end of the short and long rainy seasons. The presence of A. gambiae was permanent except in August-September in Nkol Bikok. In Nkol Bisson the density was higher in the houses near the pool. The yearly inoculation rate (h) was 14 in Nkol Bikok and 30 in Nkol Bisson. The vectorial transmission was observed in may in Nkol Bikok and during four months (June, August, January, February) in Nkol Bisson. These entomological data showed clearly that malaria transmission actually occurred in Yaounde and that the probability to receive at least one infected anopheline bite per year was very near to 1 for inhabitants unprotected against mosquito bites.

  9. Simulation and Evaluation of Low Impact Development of Urban Residential District Based on SWMM and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tielan; Wang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Jinlan

    2017-07-01

    In this study, simulation and evaluation of low impact development in resident district was carried out based on Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and GIS method. In the evaluation model, we added 3 kinds of low impact development facilities, namely permeable pavement, rainwater garden, and green roof. These facilities are used alone or in combination. The model was run under five different rainfall reappearing periods. The simulation results using low impact development facilities were compared with simulation results under the current situation and undeveloped state. The results show that the total amount of runoff was greatly reduced by using various types of low impact development facilities in the urban residential district. The maximum reduction rate was using permeable pavement, reached 29.9%, followed was using rainwater garden, and the worst was using green roof. The lowest cost of reduction of the total amount of runoff was using permeable pavement, the followed was using rainwater garden, and the highest was using green roof. The combination scheme of various low impact development facilities has the highest efficiency of reducing total amount of runoff, and the lowest cost, which considering of the actual situation of the study area. The study indicated that application of low impact development facilities can reduce surface runoff effectively, which should be a useful way for prevention of urban waterlogging.

  10. Integration of large-scale heat pumps in the district heating systems of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bjarne; Werling, Jesper; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the technical and private economic aspects of integrating a large capacity of electric driven HP (heat pumps) in the Greater Copenhagen DH (district heating) system, which is an example of a state-of-the-art large district heating system with many consumers and suppliers....... The analysis was based on using the energy model Balmorel to determine the optimum dispatch of HPs in the system. The potential heat sources in Copenhagen for use in HPs were determined based on data related to temperatures, flows, and hydrography at different locations, while respecting technical constraints...

  11. Improvising innovation in UK urban district heating: The convergence of social and environmental agendas in Aberdeen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Janette

    2015-01-01

    Research on district heating has focused on technical-economic appraisal of its contribution to energy and carbon saving in urban centres. There is however lack of analysis of political and social processes which govern its actual take up. This paper examines these processes through a case study of Aberdeen, Scotland. Interviews and documentary analysis are used to examine the 2002 development of Aberdeen Heat and Power (AHP), an independent energy services company (ESCo). Technical-economic feasibility was a necessary component of appraisal, but not sufficient to govern decision-making. In the UK centralised energy market, DH investment is unattractive to commercial investors, and local authorities lack capacity and expertise in energy provision. In Aberdeen, the politics of fuel poverty converged with climate politics, creating an a-typical willingness to innovate through improvisation. The welfare priority resulted in creation of a non-profit locally-owned ESCo, using cost- rather than market-based heat tariffs. AHP has developed three combined heat and power energy centres and heat networks, supplying 34 MWh/pa of heat. Carbon savings are estimated to be 45% in comparison with electric heating, and heating costs are reduced by a similar amount. The conclusion outlines potential policy improvements. - Highlights: • UK policy proposes district heating for urban low carbon heat. • Technical and economic feasibility are insufficient to drive take-up. • In Aberdeen convergence of social and environmental goals gave impetus to improvisation. • The resulting non-profit ESCo has three CHP and district heat networks, supplying 34 MWh of heat pa. • Carbon and cost savings are 45% in comparison with electric heating

  12. Uncovering urban human mobility from large scale taxi GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinjun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Taxi GPS trajectories data contain massive spatial and temporal information of urban human activity and mobility. Taking taxi as mobile sensors, the information derived from taxi trips benefits the city and transportation planning. The original data used in study are collected from more than 1100 taxi drivers in Harbin city. We firstly divide the city area into 400 different transportation districts and analyze the origin and destination distribution in urban area on weekday and weekend. The Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm is used to cluster pick-up and drop-off locations. Furthermore, four spatial interaction models are calibrated and compared based on trajectories in shopping center of Harbin city to study the pick-up location searching behavior. By extracting taxi trips from GPS data, travel distance, time and average speed in occupied and non-occupied status are then used to investigate human mobility. Finally, we use observed OD matrix of center area in Harbin city to model the traffic distribution patterns based on entropy-maximizing method, and the estimation performance verify its effectiveness in case study.

  13. Perception of epilepsy among the urban secondary school children of Bareilly district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Shanker Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of knowledge about epilepsy among the students and the population in general, with consequent prejudice and discrimination toward epileptic patients. Objectives: Knowledge, behavior, attitude and myth toward epilepsy among urban school children in Bareilly district was studied. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among students of 10 randomly selected secondary schools of the urban areas in Bareilly district. A structured, pretested questionnaire was used to collect data regarding sociodemographic characteristics and assess the subject′s knowledge, behavior, attitude and myth toward epilepsy. Results: Of the 798 students (533 boys and 265 girls studied, around 98.6% had heard of epilepsy. About 63.7% correctly thought that epilepsy is a brain disorder while 81.8% believed it to be a psychiatric disorder. Other prevalent misconceptions were that epilepsy is an inherited disorder (71.55% and that the disease is transmitted by eating a nonvegetarian diet (49%. Most of them thought that epilepsy can be cured (69.3 and that an epileptic patient needs lifelong treatment (77.2. On witnessing a seizure, about 51.5% of the students would take the person to the hospital. Majority (72.31% of the students thought that children with epilepsy should study in a special school. Conclusions: Although majority of the students had reasonable knowledge of epilepsy, myths and superstitions about the condition still prevail in a significant proportion of the urban school children. It may be worthwhile including awareness programs about epilepsy in school education to dispel misconceptions about epilepsy.

  14. Application of virtual reality GIS in urban planning: an example in Huangdao district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong; Qiao, Xin; Sun, Weichen; Zhang, Litao

    2007-06-01

    As an important development direction of GIS, Virtual Reality GIS was founded in 1950s. After 1990s, due to the fast development of its theory and the computer technology, Virtual Reality has been applied to many fields: military, aerospace, design, manufactory, information management, business, construction, city management, medical, education, etc.. The most famous project is the Virtual Los Angeles implemented by the Urban Simulation Team (UST) of UCLA. The main focus of the UST is a long-term effort to build a real-time Virtual Reality model of the entire Los Angeles basin for use by architects, urban planners, emergency response teams, and the government entities. When completed, the entire Virtual L.A. model will cover an area well in excess of 10000 square miles and will elegantly scale from satellite images to street level views accurate enough to allow the signs in the window of the shops and the graffiti on the walls to be legible. Till now, the virtual L.A. has been applied to urban environments and design analysis, transportation studies, historic reconstruction and education, etc. Compared to the early development abroad, the development of Virtual Reality GIS in China is relatively late. It is researched in some universities in early years. But recently, it has been attended by the populace and been used in many social fields: urban planning, environmental protection, historic protection and recovery, real estate, tourism, education etc.. The application of Virtual Reality in urban planning of Huangdao District, Qingdao City is introduced in this paper.

  15. Inverse relationship between urban green space and childhood autism in California elementary school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Jackson, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Green space has a variety of health benefits. However, little is known about its impact on autism, the fastest-growing neurodevelopmental disorder in children. This study examined the relationship between green space and childhood autism prevalence. Autism count data in 2010 were obtained for 543 of ~560 public elementary school districts in California. Multiple types of green space were measured in each school district, including percentages of forest, grassland, and average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy. Their associations with autism prevalence were evaluated with negative binomial regression models and spatial regression models. We observed inverse associations between several green space metrics and autism prevalence in school districts with high road density, the highly urbanized areas, but not in others. According to negative binomial regression models, adjusted rate ratios (RR) for the relationships in these school districts between autism prevalence and green space metrics in 10% increments were as follows: for forest, RR=0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84-0.95); for grassland, RR=0.90 (95% CI: 0.83-0.97); for average tree canopy, RR=0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.95), and for near-road tree canopy, RR=0.81 (95% CI: 0.73-0.91). These results suggest that increases of 10% in forest, grassland, average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy are associated with a decrease in autism prevalence of 10%, 10% 11% and 19%, respectively. In contrast, urban land and road density were positively associated with autism prevalence. The results of spatial regression models were consistent with those obtained by negative binomial models, except for grassland. Our study suggests that green space, specifically tree cover in areas with high road density, may influence autism prevalence in elementary school children beneficially. Further studies are needed to investigate a potential causal relationship, and the major mechanisms that may underlie the beneficial associations

  16. [Urban habitants' attitudes toward nature-approximating landscape architecture: taking Hongshan District of Wuhan City, China as a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-ping; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Cai, Shao-ping; Gao, Kai; Jia, Ruo

    2011-07-01

    Nature-approximating landscape architecture (NALA) is a concept of sustainable development as applied to landscape architecture, while the urban habitants' awareness and acceptance of NALA idea is the key for the successful application of NALA. Through semi-structured interview, this paper explored the attitudes of the habitants in Hongshan District of Wuhan City toward the NALA design and management, and the influence of the social-economic characteristics of the responders on their attitudes toward the NALA. A fairly low percentage of the responders approved of the NALA design (10.3% - 46.9%) and management (7.4% - 34.9%). The attitudes towards NALA design were mainly affected by the responders' age, and the attitudes toward NALA management were significantly correlated with the responders' age, educational level, and profession. The efficient cause why a large number of responders did not support the NALA was that these responders attached importance to the aesthetic effect of green space, and preferred cleanliness and order. The lack of related ecological knowledge and environmental awareness was the root cause of the lesser support towards NALA. To establish NALA demonstration bases and to intensify the publicity and education of NALA idea and related ecological knowledge could promote an increasing number of urban habitants actively participating in NALA construction.

  17. Seasonal variation of [i]Ganoderma[/i] spore concentrations in urban and suburban districts of the city of Szczecin, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to recent studies,[i] Ganoderma[/i] may be the third genus, after [i]Alternaria[/i] and [i]Cladosporium[/i], the spores of which cause symptoms of allergy, and concentration is related to meteorological factors. The aerobiology of [i]Ganoderma[/i] spores in Szczecin in urban and suburban districts was examined using Lanzoni Volumetric Spore Traps in 2008–2010. [i]Ganoderma[/i] spores were present in the atmosphere on more than 90% of the days from June through September with peak concentrations in June, July and September. The number of days with spores was lower in the suburban district, while the total number of spores collected was higher there than in the urban district. Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed weak relationships between [i]Ganoderma[/i] and meteorological conditions, while testing the significance of differences between the districts showed that urban development did not have a clear impact on the values of meteorological parameters. A significantly higher abundance of spores in the suburbs of Szczecin seemed to be conditioned by the closeness of potential area sources. This study indicates that a single measuring site in the city centre insufficiently reflected the dynamics and level of [i]Ganoderma[/i] spore concentration in peripheral districts.

  18. Seasonal variation of Ganoderma spore concentrations in urban and suburban districts of the city of Szczecin, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka; Przestrzelska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    According to recent studies, Ganoderma may be the third genus, after Alternaria and Cladosporium, the spores of which cause symptoms of allergy, and concentration is related to meteorological factors. The aerobiology of Ganoderma spores in Szczecin in urban and suburban districts was examined using Lanzoni Volumetric Spore Traps in 2008-2010. Ganoderma spores were present in the atmosphere on more than 90% of the days from June through September with peak concentrations in June, July and September. The number of days with spores was lower in the suburban district, while the total number of spores collected was higher there than in the urban district. Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed weak relationships between Ganoderma and meteorological conditions, while testing the significance of differences between the districts showed that urban development did not have a clear impact on the values of meteorological parameters. A significantly higher abundance of spores in the suburbs of Szczecin seemed to be conditioned by the closeness of potential area sources. This study indicates that a single measuring site in the city centre insufficiently reflected the dynamics and level of Ganoderma spore concentration in peripheral districts.

  19. A review of the physics of large urban fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brode, H.L.; Small, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    A review of historical urban fires can help to illustrate the nature of large fires and the devastation that they can cause. The observations and descriptions of those fires provide the basis for understanding the much larger fires that would result from a nuclear explosion. The focus of this paper is on the major physical factors that are relevant to the characterization of such fires. Atmospheric responses in the vicinity of a large smoke column are addressed, and the hazards expected to accompany nuclear fires are briefly discussed

  20. Charting a Path to Graduation. The Effect of Project GRAD on Elementary School Student Outcomes in Four Urban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Jason C.; Holton, Glee Ivory; Doolittle, Fred

    2006-01-01

    In the past decade, school districts around the country have sought to improve struggling urban high schools, where high dropout rates, poor student achievement, and low rates of graduation and college-going remain all too prevalent. In a field crowded with reform initiatives, Project Graduation Really Achieves Dreams (GRAD) stands out as…

  1. [Dynamic changes of urban architecture landscape based on Barista: a case study in Tiexi District of Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-feng; Hu, Yuan-man; He, Hong-shi; Xiong, Zai-ping; Liu, Miao

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, three-dimensional building information was extracted from high resolution satellite image based on Barista software. Combined with ArcGIS software, the dynamic changes of the building landscape in Tiexi District of Shenyang City during urban renewal process were analyzed from the conversion contribution rate, building density, average building height, and built-up area rate. It was found that during this urban renewal process, four dominant landscape types (vacant lot, residential building, industrial building, and road) were the main parts of the landscape changes. The areas of vacant lot, residential building, commercial building, and road increased, while that of industrial building decreased. The building density decreased, while the average building height increased. There was an obvious regional variation in building landscape. The building density in industrial district was higher than that in residential district, while the average building height was in adverse. The further from the city center, the lower the building density and building average height.

  2. Urban sprawl and air quality in large US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-03-01

    This study presents the results of a paper of urban spatial structure and exceedances of the 8-h national ambient air quality standard for ozone in 45 large US metropolitan regions. Through the integration of a published index of sprawl with metropolitan level data on annual ozone exceedances, precursor emissions, and regional climate over a 13-year period, the association between the extent of urban decentralization and the average number of ozone exceedances per year, while controlling for precursor emissions and temperature, is measured. The results of this analysis support the hypothesis that large metropolitan regions ranking highly on a quantitative index of sprawl experience a greater number of ozone exceedances than more spatially compact metropolitan regions. Importantly, this relationship was found to hold when controlling for population size, average ozone season temperatures, and regional emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, suggesting that urban spatial structure may have effects on ozone formation that are independent of its effects on precursor emissions from transportation, industry, and power generation facilities.

  3. BigSUR: large-scale structured urban reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Tom; Femiani, John; Wonka, Peter; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2017-01-01

    The creation of high-quality semantically parsed 3D models for dense metropolitan areas is a fundamental urban modeling problem. Although recent advances in acquisition techniques and processing algorithms have resulted in large-scale imagery or 3D polygonal reconstructions, such data-sources are typically noisy, and incomplete, with no semantic structure. In this paper, we present an automatic data fusion technique that produces high-quality structured models of city blocks. From coarse polygonal meshes, street-level imagery, and GIS footprints, we formulate a binary integer program that globally balances sources of error to produce semantically parsed mass models with associated facade elements. We demonstrate our system on four city regions of varying complexity; our examples typically contain densely built urban blocks spanning hundreds of buildings. In our largest example, we produce a structured model of 37 city blocks spanning a total of 1,011 buildings at a scale and quality previously impossible to achieve automatically.

  4. BigSUR: large-scale structured urban reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Tom

    2017-11-22

    The creation of high-quality semantically parsed 3D models for dense metropolitan areas is a fundamental urban modeling problem. Although recent advances in acquisition techniques and processing algorithms have resulted in large-scale imagery or 3D polygonal reconstructions, such data-sources are typically noisy, and incomplete, with no semantic structure. In this paper, we present an automatic data fusion technique that produces high-quality structured models of city blocks. From coarse polygonal meshes, street-level imagery, and GIS footprints, we formulate a binary integer program that globally balances sources of error to produce semantically parsed mass models with associated facade elements. We demonstrate our system on four city regions of varying complexity; our examples typically contain densely built urban blocks spanning hundreds of buildings. In our largest example, we produce a structured model of 37 city blocks spanning a total of 1,011 buildings at a scale and quality previously impossible to achieve automatically.

  5. Seroprevalence and factors associated with Leptospira infection in an urban district of Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandón-Vargas, Kevin; Osorio, Lyda; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam

    2017-06-12

    Few studies have addressed Leptospira seroprevalence and risk factors in urban populations in Colombia. This study aimed to determine seroprevalence and factors associated with Leptospira infection in inhabitants of an urban district of Cali, Colombia. We collected sociodemographic and environmental data, as well as blood samples, from 353 subjects selected through a multistage cluster sampling design. We performed microagglutination test for the eight main Leptospira serogroups circulating in the region, considering a cut-off titer of ≥ 1:100. Most participants were female (226, 64.8%), with mean age 41.4 years, and 89 (32.6%) lived in low-low socioeconomic stratum (SES-1). Overall seroprevalence was 12.2% (95%CI: 10.3%-14.4%). Factors associated with Leptospira infection were SES 1, older age, single marital status, ethnic groups (Afro-Colombian and white/mestizo), school students, absence of toilet, barefoot walking, travel outside Cali in the previous month, and absence of skin and mucous-membrane lesions in the previous month. Our study suggests domestic and peridomiciliary transmission of Leptospira likely related to activities of daily living and inadequate environmental conditions. SES-1 is a major factor associated with Leptospira infection (adjusted OR = 4.08; 95%CI: 2.54-6.53; p Leptospira infection in the study area. Epidemiological surveillance, improvement of environmental and sanitary conditions in various SES-1 areas, and community educational campaigns are recommended.

  6. Prevalence of canine gastrointestinal helminths in urban Lusaka and rural Katete Districts of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwalya, Eugene C; Nalubamba, King S; Hankanga, C; Namangala, B

    2011-07-01

    Faecal samples were collected from January 2010 through September 2010 to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths infestation in dogs in urban Lusaka and rural Katete Districts of Zambia. A total of 452 faecal samples (n=160 Katete, n=292 Lusaka) were examined by faecal flotation for the presence of helminth eggs and 82.5% of dogs were positive for GI helminths in Katete compared to 76% for Lusaka. Positive results with the presence of at least one parasite corresponded to 72.9% Ancylostoma caninum, 11% Toxocara canis, 4.8% Toxascaris leonina, 2.4% Dipylidium caninum, 0.7% Taeniidae and 0.3% T. vulpis, species for Lusaka while Katete recorded 70.6% A. caninum, 18.1% T. vulpis, 11.1% T. canis, 13.1% D. caninum, 3.8% T. leonina, and 0.6% Taeniidae. Except for T. vulpis and D. caninum (pcaninum showed significant difference in prevalence by age category. The study also showed the presence of zoonotic intestinal helminths A. caninum, T. canis and D. caninum. The study highlights that there was no significant difference in spectrum and prevalence of GI helminths between urban and rural areas in Zambia. It further brings to light the importance of educating owners of dogs on the importance of regular deworming of dogs and control of ectoparasites in order to minimise the risk that these dogs pose to them and the public. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Frail Elders in an Urban District Setting in Malaysia: Multidimensional Frailty and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathasivam, Jeyanthini; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Hairi, Farizah; Ng, Chiu Wan; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-11-01

    In the past decade, the population in Malaysia has been rapidly ageing. This poses new challenges and issues that threaten the ability of the elderly to independently age in place. A multistage cross-sectional study on 789 community-dwelling elderly individuals aged 60 years and above was conducted in an urban district in Malaysia to assess the geriatric syndrome of frailty. Using a multidimensional frailty index, we detected 67.7% prefrail and 5.7% frail elders. Cognitive status was a significant correlate for frailty status among the respondents as well as those who perceived their health status as very poor or quite poor; but self-rated health was no longer significant when controlled for sociodemographic variables. Lower-body weakness and history of falls were associated with increasing frailty levels, and this association persisted in the multivariate model. This study offers support that physical disability, falls, and cognition are important determinants for frailty. This initial work on frailty among urban elders in Malaysia provides important correlations and identifies potential risk factors that can form the basis of information for targeted preventive measures for this vulnerable group in their prefrail state. © 2015 APJPH.

  8. Walking and proximity to the urban growth boundary and central business district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott C; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Pantin, Hilda; Affuso, Olivia; Kumar, Naresh; Wang, Kefeng; Szapocznik, José

    2014-10-01

    Planners have relied on the urban development boundary (UDB)/urban growth boundary (UGB) and central business district (CBD) to encourage contiguous urban development and conserve infrastructure. However, no studies have specifically examined the relationship between proximity to the UDB/UGB and CBD and walking behavior. To examine the relationship between UDB and CBD distance and walking in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who report little choice in where they live after arrival to the U.S. Data were collected in 2008-2010 from 391 healthy, recent Cuban immigrants recruited and assessed within 90 days of arrival to the U.S. who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Analyses in 2012-2013 examined the relationship between UDB and CBD distances for each participant's residential address and purposive walking, controlling for key sociodemographics. Follow-up analyses examined whether Walk Score(®), a built-environment walkability metric based on distance to amenities such as stores and parks, mediated the relationship between purposive walking and each of UDB and CBD distance. Each one-mile increase in distance from the UDB corresponded to an 11% increase in the number of minutes of purposive walking, whereas each one-mile increase from the CBD corresponded to a 5% decrease in the amount of purposive walking. Moreover, Walk Score mediated the relationship between walking and each of UDB and CBD distance. Given the lack of walking and walkable destinations observed in proximity to the UDB/UGB boundary, a sprawl repair approach could be implemented, which strategically introduces mixed-use zoning to encourage walking throughout the boundary's zone. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing, development and demonstration of large scale solar district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Perers, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    In 2013-2014 the project “Testing, development and demonstration of large scale solar district heating systems” was carried out within the Sino-Danish Renewable Energy Development Programme, the so called RED programme jointly developed by the Chinese and Danish governments. In the project Danish...... know how on solar heating plants and solar heating test technology have been transferred from Denmark to China, large solar heating systems have been promoted in China, test capabilities on solar collectors and large scale solar heating systems have been improved in China and Danish-Chinese cooperation...

  10. Identification and Prediction of Large Pedestrian Flow in Urban Areas Based on a Hybrid Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisheng Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, population density has grown quickly with the increasing acceleration of urbanization. At the same time, overcrowded situations are more likely to occur in populous urban areas, increasing the risk of accidents. This paper proposes a synthetic approach to recognize and identify the large pedestrian flow. In particular, a hybrid pedestrian flow detection model was constructed by analyzing real data from major mobile phone operators in China, including information from smartphones and base stations (BS. With the hybrid model, the Log Distance Path Loss (LDPL model was used to estimate the pedestrian density from raw network data, and retrieve information with the Gaussian Progress (GP through supervised learning. Temporal-spatial prediction of the pedestrian data was carried out with Machine Learning (ML approaches. Finally, a case study of a real Central Business District (CBD scenario in Shanghai, China using records of millions of cell phone users was conducted. The results showed that the new approach significantly increases the utility and capacity of the mobile network. A more reasonable overcrowding detection and alert system can be developed to improve safety in subway lines and other hotspot landmark areas, such as the Bundle, People’s Square or Disneyland, where a large passenger flow generally exists.

  11. An assessment of the compliance with good pharmacy practice in an urban and rural district in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, P R; Jayakody, R L; De A Seneviratne, R

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the compliance of private pharmacies to good pharmacy practice (GPP) in an urban and rural district in Sri Lanka and identify deficiencies with a view to improving supply of safe and effective drugs to consumers. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method was used to determine the number of pharmacies that need to be studied and the threshold limit of defective elements. An inspection of 20 pharmacies in the urban and all 18 pharmacies in the rural district was carried out using a structured checklist. Compliance to seven subsystems of GPP was studied. Storage of drugs, maintenance of cold chain, dispensing and documentation were comprehensively substandard in both districts. Individual items of supervision in registration, physical environment and order of the pharmacy were also found to be substandard in both districts. This study shows that the LQAS method can be used to identify inadequate pharmacy services in the community as a whole. There was poor compliance to GPP by the private pharmacies in both districts. There are concerns about the quality of drugs and the safety of private pharmacy services to the community. Some of the deficiencies could be easily corrected by educating the pharmacists and authorised officers, and more effective and streamlined supervision.

  12. De flora van het Urbaan district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Ton

    1999-01-01

    The urban areas in the Netherlands can be considered as a separate flora district; the so-called “Urban district”. It consists of large stony areas, with a “steppe”-like environment and a deviant climate. Characteristic for urban areas are often disturbed and trampled communities of ruderals and

  13. Conflicts between urbanization and agricultural activity in the outlying districts of Beni Mellal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehal, Driss; El makssoudi, Aziz

    2017-04-01

    On 13 May 2016, the IRD and the AviTem - Villa Méditerranée organized an international meeting in Marseilles, within the framework of "villes en question". This innovative pedagogical project has mobilized high school students from both sides of the Mediterranean (France, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia). Accompanied by researchers, mediators and their teachers, they were introduced throughout the school year to the scientific approach. Their objective: to carry out surveys to decipher social links in the neighborhoods of their city. Highlight of the project, the international meeting, labeled by the Grand Tour, is held at the Villa Méditerranée. It enabled the 180 participants (high school students, teachers, researchers, partners) to discuss the question of how urban residents live together, a key issue for our urban societies in the 21st century. This international meeting on social ties in neighborhoods in the Mediterranean was an opportunity for high school students to present their surveys and share their experiences. They also exchanged views with a jury made up of representatives from the world of research and education, who awarded the "Villes en question" prize, which was again in favor of the health and environment club of Al Amria high school for the second consecutive year. The topic we discussed is: "Conflicts between urbanization and agricultural activity in the outlying districts of Beni Mellal". Six scrupulously selected science students traveled to Marseilles with 2 life sciences and earth teachers. Indeed, Béni Mellal, a city in central Morocco, has experienced in recent years the phenomenon of urbanization which has resulted in an expansion of the territory of the city to the peripheral zones in which there remain agricultural areas. How is this coexistence and this evolution experienced by the inhabitants? Students conducted on-site investigations. They were particularly interested in the representations, perceptions and practices of the

  14. Earthquake forecasting test for Kanto district to reduce vulnerability of urban mega earthquake disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nanjo, K.; Hirata, N.

    2012-12-01

    Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is a global project on earthquake predictability research. The final goal of this project is to search for the intrinsic predictability of the earthquake rupture process through forecast testing experiments. The Earthquake Research Institute, the University of Tokyo joined CSEP and started the Japanese testing center called as CSEP-Japan. This testing center provides an open access to researchers contributing earthquake forecast models applied to Japan. Now more than 100 earthquake forecast models were submitted on the prospective experiment. The models are separated into 4 testing classes (1 day, 3 months, 1 year and 3 years) and 3 testing regions covering an area of Japan including sea area, Japanese mainland and Kanto district. We evaluate the performance of the models in the official suite of tests defined by CSEP. The total number of experiments was implemented for approximately 300 rounds. These results provide new knowledge concerning statistical forecasting models. We started a study for constructing a 3-dimensional earthquake forecasting model for Kanto district in Japan based on CSEP experiments under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters. Because seismicity of the area ranges from shallower part to a depth of 80 km due to subducting Philippine Sea plate and Pacific plate, we need to study effect of depth distribution. We will develop models for forecasting based on the results of 2-D modeling. We defined the 3D - forecasting area in the Kanto region with test classes of 1 day, 3 months, 1 year and 3 years, and magnitudes from 4.0 to 9.0 as in CSEP-Japan. In the first step of the study, we will install RI10K model (Nanjo, 2011) and the HISTETAS models (Ogata, 2011) to know if those models have good performance as in the 3 months 2-D CSEP-Japan experiments in the Kanto region before the 2011 Tohoku event (Yokoi et al., in preparation). We use CSEP

  15. Examining the Role of Professional Development in a Large School District's iPad Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Ko, Yujung; Willmann, Amanda; Fickert, Cynda

    2018-01-01

    This study examined 342 teachers' views of professional development (PD) provided by a large school district to support its iPad initiative. We were interested in investigating teachers' perceptions of this district-provided PD, any change in teachers' views, and how they used iPads in their instruction while/after receiving PD. The findings,…

  16. Rural-Urban Differences in Household Treatment-Seeking Behaviour for Suspected Malaria in Children at Bata District, Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Romay-Barja

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years old in Equatorial Guinea. However, little is known about the community management of malaria and treatment-seeking patterns. We aimed to assess symptoms of children with reported malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour of their caretakers in rural and urban areas in the Bata District.A cross-sectional study was conducted in the district of Bata and 440 houses were selected from 18 rural villages and 26 urban neighbourhoods. Differences between rural and urban caregivers and children with reported malaria were assessed through the chi-squared test for independence of categorical variables and the t-Student or the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test for normally or not-normally distributed continuous variables, respectively.Differences between rural and urban households were observed in caregiver treatment-seeking patterns. Fever was the main symptom associated with malaria in both areas. Malaria was treated first at home, particularly in rural areas. The second step was to seek treatment outside the home, mainly at hospital and Health Centre for rural households and at hospital and private clinic for urban ones. Artemether monotherapy was the antimalarial treatment prescribed most often. Households waited for more than 24 hours before seeking treatment outside and delays were longest in rural areas. The total cost of treatment was higher in urban than in rural areas in Bata.The delays in seeking treatment, the type of malaria therapy received and the cost of treatment are the principal problems found in Bata District. Important steps for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in this area are to provide sufficient supplies of effective antimalarial drugs and to improve malaria treatment skills in households and in both public and private sectors.

  17. Rural Districts between Urbanization and Land Abandonment: Undermining Long-Term Changes in Mediterranean Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Zambon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates changes in the rural landscapes of a Mediterranean country (Greece over a long time period (1970–2015 encompassing economic expansions and recessions. Using a spatial distribution of 5 basic agricultural land-use classes (arable land, garden crop, vineyards, tree crop and fallow land derived from official statistics at 6 years (1970, 1979, 1988, 1997, 2006, 2015, a quantitative analysis based on correlation and multivariate techniques was carried out to identify recent changes in the Greek agricultural landscape at prefectural level during different economic waves. Empirical results evidenced both intuitive and counter-intuitive landscape transformations, including: (i a progressive, spatially-homogeneous reduction of cropland; (ii a (more or less rapid decrease in the surface of high-input crops, including arable land, horticulture and vineyards; (iii a parallel increase in the surface of tree crops, especially olive; (iv a spatially-heterogeneous decrease of fallow land concentrated in metropolitan and tourism districts, especially in the last decade; and, finally, (v increasingly diversified landscapes in rural, accessible areas close to the sea coast. Based on a correlation analysis with background socioeconomic indicators, our findings reflect the multiple impacts of urbanization and land abandonment on the composition and diversity of rural landscapes. Changes in agricultural land-use were moulded by multiple drivers depending on latent transformations in rural systems and inherent conflicts with expanding urban regions. Together with market conditions and the Common Agricultural Policy subsidy regime, social contexts and the economic cycle are important when identifying long-term changes in agricultural landscapes, especially in transitional socio-ecological systems.

  18. Association between Childhood Diarrhoeal Incidence and Climatic Factors in Urban and Rural Settings in the Health District of Mbour, Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhna Thiam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the association between childhood diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors in rural and urban settings in the health district of Mbour in western Senegal. We used monthly diarrhoeal case records among children under five years registered in 24 health facilities over a four-year period (2011–2014. Climatic data (i.e., daily temperature, night temperature and rainfall for the same four-year period were obtained. We performed a negative binomial regression model to establish the relationship between monthly diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors of the same and the previous month. There were two annual peaks in diarrhoeal incidence: one during the cold dry season and one during the rainy season. We observed a positive association between diarrhoeal incidence and high average temperature of 36 °C and above and high cumulative monthly rainfall at 57 mm and above. The association between diarrhoeal incidence and temperature was stronger in rural compared to urban settings, while higher rainfall was associated with higher diarrhoeal incidence in the urban settings. Concluding, this study identified significant health–climate interactions and calls for effective preventive measures in the health district of Mbour. Particular attention should be paid to urban settings where diarrhoea was most common in order to reduce the high incidence in the context of climatic variability, which is expected to increase in urban areas in the face of global warming.

  19. Association between Childhood Diarrhoeal Incidence and Climatic Factors in Urban and Rural Settings in the Health District of Mbour, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Sokhna; Diène, Aminata N; Sy, Ibrahima; Winkler, Mirko S; Schindler, Christian; Ndione, Jacques A; Faye, Ousmane; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-09-12

    We assessed the association between childhood diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors in rural and urban settings in the health district of Mbour in western Senegal. We used monthly diarrhoeal case records among children under five years registered in 24 health facilities over a four-year period (2011-2014). Climatic data (i.e., daily temperature, night temperature and rainfall) for the same four-year period were obtained. We performed a negative binomial regression model to establish the relationship between monthly diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors of the same and the previous month. There were two annual peaks in diarrhoeal incidence: one during the cold dry season and one during the rainy season. We observed a positive association between diarrhoeal incidence and high average temperature of 36 °C and above and high cumulative monthly rainfall at 57 mm and above. The association between diarrhoeal incidence and temperature was stronger in rural compared to urban settings, while higher rainfall was associated with higher diarrhoeal incidence in the urban settings. Concluding, this study identified significant health-climate interactions and calls for effective preventive measures in the health district of Mbour. Particular attention should be paid to urban settings where diarrhoea was most common in order to reduce the high incidence in the context of climatic variability, which is expected to increase in urban areas in the face of global warming.

  20. Underperformance of Planning for Peri-Urban Rural Sustainable Development: The Case of Mentougou District in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the basic cell of social structures and spatial units, rural settlement is now experiencing profound changes through the rapid urbanization process underway in China, particularly in peri-urban areas which serve as the main platform and battlefield for urban–rural integration in China’s latest round of new urbanization. Therefore, how to achieve better planning for rural settlement in peri-urban areas is becoming a pressing and paramount research agenda. This paper attempts to explore the possible reasons for the underperformance of planning practice for rural settlement in peri-urban areas of China by taking the Mentougou district of Beijing as a case study. Following a quick and comprehensive review of planning in Mentougou district, a systematic and critical evaluation is then conducted accordingly. It shows that the plans generally play a positive role in development orientation and implementation. Yet, there is still a lot of room for improvement, particularly in the following aspects: (1 lack of initiative and innovation at the local level; (2 lack of long-term vision and consistent implementation; (3 lack of rationale-oriented approach; (4 lack of scientific and in-depth research; (5 lack of multi-stakeholder participation. As a way forward, this paper thus proposes a revised planning scheme for local practice, including classification of typologies and the customized planning design for each typology. At last, this paper calls for more in-depth scientific research on some key topics in the planning field, domestically and internationally.

  1. [Urban alternate host cycle of Taenia saginata in Wittstock County, district of Potsdam (East Germany)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, H; Mentzel, U

    1984-08-01

    The urban alternate host cycle of Taenia saginata in the county of Wittstock, district of Potsdam (GDR). Investigations of the epidemiology of bovine cysticercosis and human taeniasis were carried out in the county of Wittstock from 1979 till 1980. The analysis was based on the examination of human faeces, sewage and sewage sludge, the registration of infested humans, anticestodica consumption, number of infested cattle, areas for squirting out sewage, fodder supply areas and location of cattle. These data were mapped. There is a direct connection between the prevalence of Cysticercus bovis in more than 50 per cent of the infested cattle of the county of Wittstock and the squirting out of the sewage of the county town. 21 to 27 million Taenia eggs per day get into the waste-water purification plant. The proportion of infested humans and infested cattle is 1: 250 or 1: 290, respectively. The prevalence of adult tapeworms is 0.008-0.18%, and that of cysticerci is 20%.

  2. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Rojas, Gaudi; Cabello-Morales, Emilio; Hernádez-Diaz, Herminio; Loza-Munarriz, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity according to the criteria of the WHO and CDC in adolescents from an urban district of Lima, Peru 2012. This cross-sectional study included 1,743 school children of 12 to 17 years of age selected from ten public and private educational institutions, using a randomized and stratified sample of "conglomerados" (neighborhoods). In the selected schools, weight and height were measured. For the diagnosis of overweight and obesity, criteria from the WHO and CDC were used. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. According to the WHO criteria, the prevalence of overweight was 33.7% (95% CI 31.5-36.0) and obesity was 14.4% (95% CI 12.8-16.1). According to CDC criteria, the prevalence of overweight was 26.5% (95% CI 24.4-28.6) and obesity was 13.9% (95% CI 12.3-15.6). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in males aged 12 and 13 years old and private educational institutions (poverweight and obesity. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found, predominantly in male students between 12 and 13 years and private educational institutions. It is necessary to initiate intervention measures that can contribute to the prevention of chronic diseases in adulthood, secondary to obesity in adolescence.

  3. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE DURING MENOPAUSE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN URBAN AREA OF DISTRICT VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Verma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - Menopause is a universal reproductive phenomenon. All the nutrients plays important role at the time of menopause and in prevention of diseases. Deficiency of vitamin D is one of the major contributory factors responsible for lower bone mineral density (BMD in menopausal women. Iron deficiency anemia is common among menopausal women. The present study was conducted to assess the views on importance of nutrition & intake of various food items during menopause. Methods: - Community based   cross sectional study. A total of 100 women aged 45-55 years in post-menopausal phase were selected from urban areas of district Varanasi during 2012-13. Data were collected by pretested questionnaire cum interview method. Results: - In the present study half of respondent belonged to 40-45 years age group. When they were asked about importance of nutrition during menopause 70% respondent said that they paid attention on their diet during menopause. 79% women preferred food being cooked in their kitchen. 69% women took milk in their regular diet. 95% women’s took fruits and vegetables in their diet. Only 76% have knowledge of added requirement of iron & calcium but only 59% women had iron and calcium reach foods in their regular diet. Conclusion: - In the present study about three fourth respondents knew about nutritional importance during menopause.

  4. Heavy metal status of soil and vegetables grown on peri-urban area of Lahore district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Khan, Shahid Javid, Atif Muhmood, Tahir Mjeed, Abid Niaz and Abdul Majeed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Use of wastewater for growing vegetables has become a common practice around big cities. Wastewater contains organic material and inorganic elements essential for plant growth but also contain heavy metals which may be lethal for animals and humans if their concentration increases than permissible limit. To monitor this situation, a survey was conducted to ascertain the addition of heavy metals into agricultural fields through wastewater irrigation and their translocation in to the edible parts of the vegetables. For this purpose, during year 2009-10, 25 sewage water, 76 soil, 40 leaf and 30 vegetable samples (tomato, spinach, carrot and cauliflower were taken from peri-urban area of Lahore district. These samples were analyzed for Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd and Ni contents. The analysis showed that in wastewater concentration of Cu (100 %, Mn (72 %, Ni (32 % and Cd (44% were higher than the safe limits while Zn, Fe and Pb concentration was below permissible limits. In soil DTPA extractable concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cd was in safe limit and ranged between 1.30-8.02, 1.06 -5.42, 8.60-35.03, 8.7-30.07, 2.11-30.86, 0.28-1.76 and 0.05-0.52 mg kg-1 respectively. In vegetable, 100 % leaf and fruit samples were contaminated and accumulation of heavy metals was higher than the WHO/FAO recommended permissible limits.

  5. Bacterial pathogen spectrum of acute diarrheal outpatients in an urbanized rural district in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To conduct a one-year pathogen surveillance of acute diarrheal disease based on outpatient clinics in township hospitals in rural Hongta District of Yunnan Province, China. Methods: Fecal specimens of acute diarrhea cases and relevant epidemiological information were collected. Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas shigelloides and diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (DEC were examined. Results: Among the 797 stool specimens sampled, 198 samples (24.8% were positive in pathogen isolation, and 223 strains were isolated. The order of isolation rates from high to low were DEC, Aeromonas, P. shigelloides, Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio. The overall positive rate in middle school students and preschool children was relatively high; while the overall positive rate of less than 1-year-old infants and above 55 years olds was relatively low. The isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Some cases had the same or very close onset time, and the isolates had similar PFGE patterns, suggesting a possible outbreak once occurred but was not detected by the current infectious disease reporting system. Conclusions: Pathogen infection and transmission in rapidly urbanized rural areas is a serious issue. There is a great need for a more sensitive and accurate mode of monitoring, reporting and outbreak identification of diarrheal disease. Keywords: Diarrheal disease, Diarrheogenic pathogen, Molecular typing, Surveillance, Bacterial pathogen

  6. ICTs and development: assessing internet and mobile phone use among the urban poor in Kawempe division, Kampala district

    OpenAIRE

    Namatovu, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Master thesis in development management- University of Agder, 2012 This study set out to understand and assess internet and mobile phone uses among the urban poor in Kawempe division in Kampala district, Uganda. As the internet and mobile phones are rapidly diffusing through communities with more people having access to them, it is important to understand what people are actually doing with their access. There has been so much optimism and scepticism among scholars around the potential of ...

  7. 3D exploitation of large urban photo archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Peter; Snavely, Noah; Anderson, Ross

    2010-04-01

    Recent work in computer vision has demonstrated the potential to automatically recover camera and scene geometry from large collections of uncooperatively-collected photos. At the same time, aerial ladar and Geographic Information System (GIS) data are becoming more readily accessible. In this paper, we present a system for fusing these data sources in order to transfer 3D and GIS information into outdoor urban imagery. Applying this system to 1000+ pictures shot of the lower Manhattan skyline and the Statue of Liberty, we present two proof-of-concept examples of geometry-based photo enhancement which are difficult to perform via conventional image processing: feature annotation and image-based querying. In these examples, high-level knowledge projects from 3D world-space into georegistered 2D image planes and/or propagates between different photos. Such automatic capabilities lay the groundwork for future real-time labeling of imagery shot in complex city environments by mobile smart phones.

  8. Estimating the Efficiency of Michigan's Rural and Urban Public School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranowski, Rita

    2012-01-01

    This study examined student achievement in Michigan public school districts to determine if rural school districts are demonstrating greater financial efficiency by producing higher levels of student achievement than school districts in other geographic locations with similar socioeconomics. Three models were developed using multiple regression…

  9. Exploring the Space between: Social Networks, Trust, and Urban School District Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Alan J.; Finnigan, Kara S.

    2012-01-01

    A number of scholars are exploring the district context in which schools are embedded. These studies suggest the importance of the district office as a support or constraint to the work of schools and offer strategies for building relations between district and site leaders. While this is an important task, what is frequently overlooked is that…

  10. An Investigation of the Relationship between the Components of School Climate and Leadership Behaviors on Student Achievement: Urban School Districts in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karmen J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate the relationship between the components of school climate and leadership behaviors on student achievement in an urban school district in the mid-atlantic region. School climate and leadership behaviors for the participating school districts was determined by the School Climate Survey (Corner…

  11. Urbanization and economic development: a bias toward large cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, R L; Shatter, A M

    1996-01-01

    "We find that a nation's urban population percentage increases with GDP per capita; industrialization; export orientation; and possibly, foreign assistance. It decreases with the importance of agriculture. Industrialization and agricultural importance have the same implications for the concentration of urban population in cities with 100,000+ population as for the urban percentage. Greater export orientation reduces such concentration. Finally, GDP per capita, population, and export orientation reduce primacy. Political factors, such as whether a country's largest city is also its capital, affect primacy. Our results do not seem to imply that developing-country urbanization today differs fundamentally from urbanization in the past." excerpt

  12. Reserch on Urban Spatial Expansion Model Based on Multi-Object Gray Decision-Making and Ca: a Case Study of Pidu District, Chengdu City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Li, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This paper from the perspective of the Neighbor cellular space, Proposed a new urban space expansion model based on a new multi-objective gray decision and CA. The model solved the traditional cellular automata conversion rules is difficult to meet the needs of the inner space-time analysis of urban changes and to overcome the problem of uncertainty in the combination of urban drivers and urban cellular automata. At the same time, the study takes Pidu District as a research area and carries out urban spatial simulation prediction and analysis, and draws the following conclusions: (1) The design idea of the urban spatial expansion model proposed in this paper is that the urban driving factor and the neighborhood function are tightly coupled by the multi-objective grey decision method based on geographical conditions. The simulation results show that the simulation error of urban spatial expansion is less than 5.27 %. The Kappa coefficient is 0.84. It shows that the model can better capture the inner transformation mechanism of the city. (2) We made a simulation prediction for Pidu District of Chengdu by discussing Pidu District of Chengdu as a system instance.In this way, we analyzed the urban growth tendency of this area.presenting a contiguous increasing mode, which is called "urban intensive development". This expansion mode accorded with sustainable development theory and the ecological urbanization design theory.

  13. Effects of Urbanization on Landscape Patterns in a Mountainous Area: A Case Study in the Mentougou District, Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We explored the process of urbanization in a mountainous area to seek a sustainable urbanization strategy. Previous urbanization research has mainly focused on flat terrain and coastal areas, and urbanization in mountainous areas remains poorly understood. This study integrated geographic information systems, remote sensing, and statistical analysis to quantify landscape patterns dynamics in response to urbanization, with a case study of Mentougou District in Beijing, China from 1985 to 2014. We found that the total built-up area increased along with the population and economic indicators. The built-up area increased by one-third over the study period, with 73.38% of the increase from converted cropland and 12.22% from converted orchard. The urban expansion area was concentrated in the plain sub-region (<200 m elevation, comprising 68.85% of the expansion area. The landscape patterns varied over this period. For the whole region, the low mountain sub-region and the high mountain sub-region, landscape patterns gradually became more heterogeneous and fragmented, but they showed the opposite trend in the plain sub-region. None of the urbanization indicators (population, economic and built-up land area were significantly correlated with landscape metrics for the whole region, but they were significantly correlated in the plain sub-region. The impacts of urbanization on landscape patterns were mainly focused on the plain sub-region, and the effects in the low mountain and high mountain sub-regions were weak. Future urban development in mountainous areas should focus on the protection of cropland and local industries as part of a sustainable development strategy for the whole region.

  14. Large-scale urban point cloud labeling and reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Li, Zhuqiang; Li, Anjian; Liu, Fangyu

    2018-04-01

    The large number of object categories and many overlapping or closely neighboring objects in large-scale urban scenes pose great challenges in point cloud classification. In this paper, a novel framework is proposed for classification and reconstruction of airborne laser scanning point cloud data. To label point clouds, we present a rectified linear units neural network named ReLu-NN where the rectified linear units (ReLu) instead of the traditional sigmoid are taken as the activation function in order to speed up the convergence. Since the features of the point cloud are sparse, we reduce the number of neurons by the dropout to avoid over-fitting of the training process. The set of feature descriptors for each 3D point is encoded through self-taught learning, and forms a discriminative feature representation which is taken as the input of the ReLu-NN. The segmented building points are consolidated through an edge-aware point set resampling algorithm, and then they are reconstructed into 3D lightweight models using the 2.5D contouring method (Zhou and Neumann, 2010). Compared with deep learning approaches, the ReLu-NN introduced can easily classify unorganized point clouds without rasterizing the data, and it does not need a large number of training samples. Most of the parameters in the network are learned, and thus the intensive parameter tuning cost is significantly reduced. Experimental results on various datasets demonstrate that the proposed framework achieves better performance than other related algorithms in terms of classification accuracy and reconstruction quality.

  15. Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry...

  16. Nuclear EMP simulation for large-scale urban environments. FDTD for electrically large problems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilcox, Trevor [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Randall J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shao, Xuan-Min [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costigan, Keeley R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-13

    In case of a terrorist nuclear attack in a metropolitan area, EMP measurement could provide: (1) a prompt confirmation of the nature of the explosion (chemical or nuclear) for emergency response; and (2) and characterization parameters of the device (reaction history, yield) for technical forensics. However, urban environment could affect the fidelity of the prompt EMP measurement (as well as all other types of prompt measurement): (1) Nuclear EMP wavefront would no longer be coherent, due to incoherent production, attenuation, and propagation of gamma and electrons; and (2) EMP propagation from source region outward would undergo complicated transmission, reflection, and diffraction processes. EMP simulation for electrically-large urban environment: (1) Coupled MCNP/FDTD (Finite-difference time domain Maxwell solver) approach; and (2) FDTD tends to be limited to problems that are not 'too' large compared to the wavelengths of interest because of numerical dispersion and anisotropy. We use a higher-order low-dispersion, isotropic FDTD algorithm for EMP propagation.

  17. Environmental analysis of a potential district heating network powered by a large-scale cogeneration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravina, Marco; Panepinto, Deborah; Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Genon, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    Among the solutions for the achievement of environmental sustainability in the energy sector, district heating (DH) with combined heat and power (CHP) systems is increasingly being used. The Italian city of Turin is in a leading position in this field, having one of the largest DH networks in Europe. The aim of this work is the analysis of a further development of the network, addressed to reduce the presence of pollutants in a city that has long been subject to high concentration levels. The environmental compatibility of this intervention, especially in terms of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, is evaluated. The pollutants dispersion is estimated using the CALPUFF model. The forecasting scenario is created firstly by simulating the energy production of the main generation plants in response to the estimated heat demand, and secondly by investigating the amount and the dispersion of pollutants removed due to the elimination of the centralized residential heaters. The results show a future reduction in ground level average NO x concentration ranging between 0.2 and 4 μg/m 3 . The concentration of PM remains almost unchanged. Measures are then taken to lower the uncertainty in the simulation scenarios. This study provides important information on the effects of a change of the energy configuration on air quality in an urban area. The proposed methodological approach is comprehensive and repeatable.

  18. DHC in Helsinki - The Ultimate Heating and Cooling Solution for a Large Urban Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirgentius, Niko; Riipinen, Marko

    2010-09-15

    Since the 1950s there has been successful district energy business in Helsinki. It has been the main factor for superior energy efficiency and low CO2 emissions both in heating and cooling as well as providing clean air for the metropolitan area. The system has been grown by commercial basis based on customers' own willingness to select district energy solution. It also provided a profitable energy business to local energy company, Helsinki Energy. Helsinki DHC system is a good example of ultimate urban energy solution that provides benefits for the customer, energy company, metropolitan area and for the whole society as well.

  19. Assessing the Impact of Urbanization on Direct Runoff Using Improved Composite CN Method in a Large Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuanman; Shi, Tuo; Zong, Min; Walter, M Todd

    2018-04-17

    Urbanization is one of the most widespread anthropogenic activities, which brings a range of physical and biochemical changes to hydrological system and processes. Increasing direct runoff caused by land use change has become a major challenge for urban ecological security. Reliable prediction of the quantity and rate of surface runoff is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for large ungauged urban areas. In this study, we combined Geographic Information System and remote sensing technology with an improved Soil Conservation Service curve number model to evaluate the effects of land use change on direct runoff volume of the four-ring area in Shenyang, China, and analyzed trends of direct runoff at different scales. Through analyzing trends of direct runoff from 1984 to 2015 at different scales, we explored how urbanization and other potential factors affect direct runoff changes. Total direct runoff volume increased over time, and trends varied from the inner urban area to suburban area. Zones 1 and 2 had a tendency toward decreasing direct runoff volume and risks, while Zones 3 and 4 showed gradual increases at both regional and pixel scales. The most important influence on direct runoff change was urban surface change caused by urbanization. This study presents a framework for identifying hotspots of runoff increase, which can provide important guidance to urban managers in future green infrastructure planning, in the hopes of improving the security of urban water ecological patterns.

  20. Assessing the Impact of Urbanization on Direct Runoff Using Improved Composite CN Method in a Large Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuanman; Shi, Tuo; Zong, Min; Walter, M. Todd

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the most widespread anthropogenic activities, which brings a range of physical and biochemical changes to hydrological system and processes. Increasing direct runoff caused by land use change has become a major challenge for urban ecological security. Reliable prediction of the quantity and rate of surface runoff is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for large ungauged urban areas. In this study, we combined Geographic Information System and remote sensing technology with an improved Soil Conservation Service curve number model to evaluate the effects of land use change on direct runoff volume of the four-ring area in Shenyang, China, and analyzed trends of direct runoff at different scales. Through analyzing trends of direct runoff from 1984 to 2015 at different scales, we explored how urbanization and other potential factors affect direct runoff changes. Total direct runoff volume increased over time, and trends varied from the inner urban area to suburban area. Zones 1 and 2 had a tendency toward decreasing direct runoff volume and risks, while Zones 3 and 4 showed gradual increases at both regional and pixel scales. The most important influence on direct runoff change was urban surface change caused by urbanization. This study presents a framework for identifying hotspots of runoff increase, which can provide important guidance to urban managers in future green infrastructure planning, in the hopes of improving the security of urban water ecological patterns. PMID:29673182

  1. [Composition characteristics of atmospheric volatile organic compounds in the urban area of Beibei District, Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Hao, Qing-ju; Ji, Dong-sheng; Zhang, Jun-ke; Liu, Zi-rui; Hu, Bo; Wang, Yue-si; Jiang, Chang-sheng

    2014-09-01

    In order to study the composition and distribution of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) in the atmosphere in the urban area of Beibei district, Chongqing, atmospheric samples were collected from March 2012 to February 2013 with special stainless steel cylinders, and analyzed with a three-stage preconcentration method coupled with GC-MS. 78 species of VOCs were detected in this study, of which there were 25 species of alkanes, 15 species of olefins, 28 species of aromatic hydrocarbons and 10 species of halogenated hydrocarbons. The results showed that the top seven species of VOCs according to the order of annual average concentration in the atmosphere of Beibei were: Dichloromethane (3. 08 x 10(-9) ) , Benzene (2. 09 x 10-9) , Isopentane (1. 85 x 10 -9) , Toluene (1. 51 x 10(-9)) , Propane (1. 51 x 10(-9)), m/p-xylene (1.43 x 10(-9)) and Styrene (1. 39 x 10-9). The concentration of TVOCs (Total Volatile Organic Compounds) in the atmosphere of Beibei was 33. 89 x 10 -9 during the measuring period, and the seasonal variation was obvious with the order of spring (42. 57 x 10 -9) > autumn (33.89 x 10-9) > winter (31.91 x 10 -9) > summer (27.04 x 10(-9)). In the composition of TVOCs, alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons provided the largest contribution to TVOCs (31.5% and 30.7% ) , followed by halogenated hydrocarbon, accounting for 27.4% , and the last one was olefins, with only 10.4%. By means of ozone formation potential, the analysis results showed that olefins and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were the two important materials which made the biggest contribution to the formation of ozone in the atmosphere of Beibei. We further analyzed the sources of VOCs in atmosphere of Beibei by the method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Vehicle exhaust was the biggest source and its contribution to VOCs was 50. 41%. The calculated results with T/B value also confirmed that traffic was the biggest source contributing to the VOCs in atmosphere of Beibei.

  2. Risk factors for antenatal hypovitaminosis D in an urban district in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhary, Noriklil Bukhary Ismail; Isa, Zaleha Md; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Lin, Khor Geok; Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Hassan, Haslinda; Yeop, Noor Sharifatul Hana

    2016-07-13

    Pregnant women form one of the high risk groups facing hypovitaminosis D. Low level of vitamin D will affect directly or indirectly both mother and fetus. Screening vitamin D in the first trimester of pregnancy is important to determine the necessary preventive action. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D and its risk factors among pregnant women in the first trimester. A cross sectional study was carried out among first trimester pregnant women during their first antenatal visit. Samples were taken from different ethnicities in an urban district in Malaysia. A total of 396 respondents (99 % response rate) aged 18-40 years completed self-administered and guided questionnaire (characteristics and risk factors), validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for vitamin D in Malaysia (FFQ vitamin D/My), anthropometric measures (weight and height), blood test for serum 25(OH)D, skin measurement using Mexameter (MX 18) and Fitzpatrick Skin Type Chart Measurement (FSTCM). Data were analyzed to determine the association between risk factors and hypovitaminosis D. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) was 90.4 % (358). The mean age of respondents was 28.06 ± 4.09 years old. The independent predictors of hypovitaminosis D were Malay ethnicity (OR 33.68; 95 % CI: 12.81, 88.56), Indian ethnicity (OR 16.86; 95 % CI: 3.78,75.20), secondary education (OR 12.12; 95 % CI: 2.71, 54.16) and tertiary education (OR 14.38; 95 % Cl: 3.31, 62.45). Awareness should be raised among Malay and Indian pregnant women with secondary and tertiary education who consumed vitamin D (especially milk) poorly in order to prevent adverse health outcomes. Further studies need to be conducted among health care workers to determine their level of knowledge related to vitamin D, as they are front liner in detecting the hypovitaminosis D.

  3. Urban transformations in the district of La Plata since the nineties. A compact or a diffuse city model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Constanza Frediani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade several studies done on the transformation of the city from compact to more scattered and fragmented have shown the concern for the effects the open and scattered city may have upon the environment. Although we consider that the urban models, "compact" and "diffuse", actually cannot be found in isolation, they are used to represent the extremes that relate the model of our city with these two models. The purpose of the present paper is to recognize in La Plata District, the behavioral pattern variable that causes the territorial conflicts in each of the models.

  4. Large urban projects and social actors : Forces supporting and opposing the production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuenya, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    This research studies, by means of the analysis of a paradigmatic large urban project in Buenos Aires, the production process of a large urban project furthered by the State and directed to create a new centrality. The analysis is focused on the forces supporting and opposition the project that were

  5. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE OF CONTRACEPTIVES AND ITS PRACTICE AMONG MARRIED WOMEN IN URBAN SLUMS OF LUCKNOW DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andleeb Rizvi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Not many studies have been conducted regarding contraceptive practices in the slums of Lucknow. This study will be helpful in the assessing the current scenario of prevalence of contraceptive use and various bio-social characteristics that can affect the contraceptive use by the women residing in urban slums of Lucknow. Objectives: To assess the knowledge of contraceptives and its practices among married women in urban slums of Lucknow district. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Based on thirty cluster sampling technique, thirty urban slums were selected. Total 600 married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years were interviewed in the period of one year from August 2010 to August 2011. Data was collected through preformed and pretested schedule and analysis was done using chi squared test and multiple logistic regression through SPSS 17.0 software. Results: It was found that 99.2 percent married women had the knowledge of contraceptives but its use was only 46.7 percent. Most commonly used contraceptive was condom. Among women who had ever used contraceptives, about 56.3 percent women were current users. Fear of side effects/ health concern was the main reason for discontinuing contraceptive use. Conclusions: Though knowledge of contraceptives among women residing in urban slums of Lucknow was good but contraceptive use was far lagging behind.

  6. Urban Knowledge and Large Housing Estates in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Dimitrova, Elena; Schmeidler, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Urban challenges have become increasingly important in policy making in Europe during recent decades and greater resources and research activities have been directed toward addressing these challenges. While cities during the 1970s and 1980s were mainly considered as problem containers, they have...

  7. Shelter planning based on self-saving concepts in urban residential districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buri Qi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing population density in Asia, the potential higher risk was resulted from the residential districts with the higher plot ratio, especially in some megapolis (eg. Beijing and Shanghai. Presently it is more difficult for the rescue operation during the disasters because of the decreasing safe space among the buildings as a result of higher buildings and denser the district. Thus, an immediate self-saving action is more important than before during the disaster in the residential districts, and its realization depends on the reasonable shelter planning and its management system. In this study, the factors related to the self-saving were analyzed and concluded by the related the literatures retrieval and case study, and the case study was done by the in-depth interview and questionnaires in three different residential districts in Shanghai. It was found that the following factors related to the self-saving should be considered in the shelters planning: the distribution of the shelters including their space accessibility and area, evacuation passageways, the facilities of the disaster prevention (such as fire hydrant and guide signs and subsidiary facilities (such as vegetation for the disaster prevention, the social cohesion, awareness of the self-saving and disaster prevention. Simultaneously, the shelters planning countermeasures based on the self-saving were proposed, which provided some theoretical bases for the study  and plan of the security residential districts in future.

  8. Districts on the Edge: The Impact of Urban Sprawl on a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Portrays the controversy surrounding schools and education in a rural community experiencing both an influx of urban and suburban newcomers and the effects of urban sprawl. Reports on surveys of student educational attitudes, household information, and outside activities, and on interviews with teachers, school administrators, and residents.…

  9. Wood-based bioenergy value chain in mountain urban districts: An integrated environmental accounting framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodinoska, Natasha; Buonocore, Elvira; Paletto, Alessandro; Franzese, Pier Paolo

    2017-01-01

    emissions released by the value chain. The scenario analysis indicates that using both local sawmill residues and local forest wood chips to power the heating plant could further lower the environmental burden of the bioenergy chain, maximizing local and renewable resources use while reducing waste disposal. The multi-method environmental accounting framework provided a large set of performance and sustainability indicators useful for both local managers and policy makers in charge of ensuring a sustainable management of local forests and energy security of urban settlements.

  10. Large-Scale Urban Projects, Production of Space and Neo-liberal Hegemony: A Comparative Study of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet PENPECİOĞLU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of neo-liberalism, large-scale urban projects (LDPs have become a powerful mechanism of urban policy. Creating spaces of neo-liberal urbanization such as central business districts, tourism centers, gated residences and shopping malls, LDPs play a role not only in the reproduction of capital accumulation relations but also in the shift of urban political priorities towards the construction of neo-liberal hegemony. The construction of neo-liberal hegemony and the role played by LDPs in this process could not only be investigated by the analysis of capital accumulation. For such an investigation; the role of state and civil society actors in LDPs, their collaborative and conflictual relationships should be researched and their functions in hegemony should be revealed. In the case of Izmir’s two LDPs, namely the New City Center (NCC and Inciraltı Tourism Center (ITC projects, this study analyzes the relationship between the production of space and neo-liberal hegemony. In the NCC project, local governments, investors, local capital organizations and professional chambers collaborated and disseminated hegemonic discourse, which provided social support for the project. Through these relationships and discourses, the NCC project has become a hegemonic project for producing space and constructed neo-liberal hegemony over urban political priorities. In contrast to the NCC project, the ITC project saw no collaboration between state and organized civil society actors. The social opposition against the ITC project, initiated by professional chambers, has brought legal action against the ITC development plans in order to prevent their implementation. As a result, the ITC project did not acquire the consent of organized social groups and failed to become a hegemonic project for producing space.

  11. Acute admissions to medical departments. A comparison between an urban and a rural district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J C; Evald, T; Elbrønd, R

    1995-01-01

    of admissions for social reasons was 13 percent to the city hospital versus 3 percent to the district hospital. Relevant alternatives to hospitalization seemed to exist in 50 percent of the admissions to the city hospital versus only 3 percent to the district hospital. Since patients admitted for social reasons...... block hospital beds for a longer time period than those admitted for other reasons, these differences may to some extent explain why length of hospital stay is longer in city hospitals than in rural ones....

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF LARGE WOODY DEBRIS IN STREAM REHABILITATION PROJECTS IN URBAN BASINS. (R825284)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban stream rehabilitation projects commonly include log placement to establish the types of habitat features associated with large woody debris (LWD) in undisturbed streams. Six urban in-stream rehabilitation projects were examined in the Puget Sound Lowland of western Washi...

  13. Co-adapting societal and ecological interactions following large disturbances in urban park woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Carreiro; Wayne Zipperer

    2011-01-01

    The responses of urban park woodlands to large disturbances provide the opportunity to identify and examine linkages in social-ecological systems in urban landscapes.We propose that the Panarchy model consisting of hierarchically nested adaptive cycles provides a useful framework to evaluate those linkages.We use two case studies as examples – Cherokee Park in...

  14. Exclusive Breast Feeding-Knowledge In Different Groups Of Women In Rural And Urban Areas Of Lucknow District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Naim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study on S6 females was conducted in the rural and urban areas of Lucknow district of Uttar Pradesh to assess the knowledge of females about exclusive breast-feeding. Knowledge from adolescent girls, married and lactating women was assessed by a pre­tested questionnaire for biosocial correlates (such as marital status,educational status, medium of education, working status, socio-economics status and family size, sources of information, time of initation of breast-feeding and the best method of feeding a baby <4 months of age. Only 9.8% in urban and 13.3% in rural areas had complete knowledge of Exclusive breast-feeding. Educated females had more knowledge in both urban and rural areas of initiating breast-feeding within 1 hr of delivery as compared to un-educated females. The study highlights the needs for continuing medical education and for including knowledge about Exclusive breast-feeding in school curriculum of adolescent girls.

  15. Perceptions about availability and adequacy of drinking water in a large California school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anisha I; Bogart, Laura M; Uyeda, Kimberly E; Rabin, Alexa; Schuster, Mark A

    2010-03-01

    Concerns about the influence of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on obesity have led experts to recommend that water be freely available in schools. We explored perceptions about the adequacy of drinking water provision in a large California school district to develop policies and programs to encourage student water consumption. From March to September 2007, we used semistructured interviews to ask 26 California key stakeholders - including school administrators and staff, health and nutrition agency representatives, and families - about school drinking water accessibility; attitudes about, facilitators of, and barriers to drinking water provision; and ideas for increasing water consumption. Interviews were analyzed to determine common themes. Although stakeholders said that water was available from school drinking fountains, they expressed concerns about the appeal, taste, appearance, and safety of fountain water and worried about the affordability and environmental effect of bottled water sold in schools. Stakeholders supported efforts to improve free drinking water availability in schools, but perceived barriers (eg, cost) and mistaken beliefs that regulations and beverage contracts prohibit serving free water may prevent schools from doing so. Some schools provide water through cold-filtered water dispensers and self-serve water coolers. This is the first study to explore stakeholder perceptions about the adequacy of drinking water in US schools. Although limited in scope, our study suggests that water available in at least some schools may be inadequate. Collaborative efforts among schools, communities, and policy makers are needed to improve school drinking water provision.

  16. Characterization of anthropogenic impacts in a large urban center by examining the spatial distribution of halogenated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Chen-Chou; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-08-01

    Anthropogenic impacts have continuously intensified in mega urban centers with increasing urbanization and growing population. The spatial distribution pattern of such impacts can be assessed with soil halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) as HFRs are mostly derived from the production and use of various consumer products. In the present study, soil samples were collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD), a large urbanized region in southern China, and its surrounding areas and analyzed for a group of HFRs, i.e., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane, bis(hexachlorocyclopentadieno)cyclooctane (DP) and hexabromobenzene. The sum concentrations of HFRs and PBDEs were in the ranges of 0.66-6500 and 0.37-5700 (mean: 290 and 250) ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively, around the middle level of the global range. BDE-209 was the predominant compound likely due to the huge amounts of usage and its persistence. The concentrations of HFRs were greater in the land-use types of residency, industry and landfill than in agriculture, forestry and drinking water source, and were also greater in the central PRD than in its surrounding areas. The concentrations of HFRs were moderately significantly (r(2) = 0.32-0.57; p urbanization levels, population densities and gross domestic productions in fifteen administrative districts. The spatial distribution of DP isomers appeared to be stereoselective as indicated by the similarity in the spatial patterns for the ratio of anti-DP versus the sum of DP isomers (fanti-DP) and DP concentrations. Finally, the concentrations of HFRs sharply decreased with increasing distance from an e-waste recycling site, indicating that e-waste derived HFRs largely remained in local soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Expansion Strategy of Agricultural Industrial Chain of Suburban Villages and Towns in the Process of Urbanization - A Case Study of Yongle Town in Nanming District of Guiyano City

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Li; Zhu, Jing

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the connotation of agricultural industrial chain, taking Yongle Town in Nanming District of Guiyang City as an example, this paper analyzes me advantages and constraint factors of the suburban villages and towns in the process of expanding agricultural industrial chain in the context of urbanization. Corresponding strategies of expanding the agricultural industrial chain of Yongle Town in the process of urbanization as follows, vigorously develop the leading enterp...

  18. Rural and urban transit district benchmarking : effectiveness and efficiency guidance document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rural and urban transit systems have sought ways to compare performance across agencies, : identifying successful service delivery strategies and applying these concepts to achieve : successful results within their agency. Benchmarking is a method us...

  19. women's access to emerging urban land in the sissala east district

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The evidence shows that though women do access and hold urban land rights through purchase, they ..... More married women own land than unmarried women. ... satisfied with her” (UNCHS-Habitat, 2001). ... nerative jobs as shown in Fig.

  20. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_TargetUrbanAreaCorridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County, Targeted Urban Area Corridors. This coverage was created for the Office of Community & Economic Development (OCED)...

  1. Urban-rural disparities in the nutritional status of school adolescent girls in the Mizan district, south-western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berheto, Tezera M; Mikitie, Wondafrash K; Argaw, Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition that occurs during adolescence has important consequences for the future growth and development of the individual, particularly in girls in developing countries. Besides limiting growth, adolescent malnutrition has important consequences for society. Despite this, there is a lack of information on the nutritional status of adolescent girls in Ethiopia. This study was therefore performed to help redress this lack of data and to provide information for future improvements by health planners and policy makers. A comparative cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the urban-rural disparity in nutritional status of adolescent school girls in the Mizan district in south-western Ethiopia. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 622 adolescent girls, 311 each from urban and rural locations. Trained field workers used structured questionnaires to obtain the desired information from the respondents. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight were collected using standard procedures and appropriate quality control measures. Height-for-age Z-scores and body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-scores were generated using AnthroPlus software. The independent sample t-test and χ2 test were used to determine statistical significance. There were no significant differences in the ages or physical activities of the two populations of girls studied. Consumption of cereal, vegetables, sweets, sugars, fats, meat, and eggs was similar between the two groups, although slight differences were found with regard to legumes, milk, and fruit consumption. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of mild underweight girls and overweight girls in the urban and rural groups (26.5% vs 22.3% and 7.5% vs 5.2%, respectively). Significant stunting was, however, present in the rural population (40.9% vs. 17.8% in the urban group). Although overall lower than the reference data provided by WHO, the mean BMI-for-age Z-scores and height-for-age Z

  2. Bird assemblages in natural and urbanized habitats along elevational gradient in Nainital district (western Himalaya of Uttarakhand state, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh BHATT, Kamal Kant JOSHI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Indian subcontinent is amongst the biologically better known parts of the tropics and its bird fauna has been well documented. However, avian community composition and diversity along elevational gradients and amongst habitat types remains unclear in India. We attempted to estimate bird assemblages in terms of diversity, species composition, status and abundance in urban and forest habitats of Nainital district of Uttarakhand (350–2450 m asl; 29°N, Western Himalayas. We sampled different elevational gradients and to understand the effect of urbanization and season on avian community composition. Field studies were conducted during January 2005 to January 2007. Results indicated that the forest had more complex bird community structure in terms of higher species richness (14.35 vs 8.69, higher species diversity (Shannon’s index 4.00 vs 3.54, higher evenness (0.838 vs 0.811 and more rare species (17 vs 5 as compared to urban habitat. However, the abundance of 11 species was higher in urban habitats. Bird Species Richness (BSR varied considerably among study areas (91 to 113 species, was highest (113 species at mid elevation (1450–1700 m asl and decreased (22 species at high elevation (1900–2450 m asl. It seems that high BSR at mid altitudes is not caused by the presence of a group of mid altitude specialists but rather that there is an overlap in the distribution of low land and high elevation specialists at this altitude. BSR and Bird Species Diversity fluctuated across seasons but not habitat type [Current Zoology 57 (3: 318–329, 2011].

  3. The Feasibility of Small Hydro-Electric Generation in a Large Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Benson Y. Zhang; Adam Taylor

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities of generating electric power from relatively small hydro-electric sources in a large urban area is investigated. Two different aspects of hydro-electric sources have been studied: storm/waste water pipes in large multi-tenanted residential buildings and urban storm water discharge area (CSI area). The potential to generate from these sources has been investigated using a micro-turbine. The potential electric power which could be extracted from the sources was estimated using...

  4. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors in children living in urban and rural settings from Bata District, Equatorial Guinea, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncogo, Policarpo; Romay-Barja, Maria; Benito, Agustin; Aparicio, Pilar; Nseng, Gloria; Berzosa, Pedro; Santana-Morales, Maria A; Riloha, Matilde; Valladares, Basilio; Herrador, Zaida

    2017-01-01

    Anemia in children under 5 years of age is a global public health problem. According to the World Health Organization the current rate of anemia among preschool aged children in Equatorial Guinea is 66%. No information is available above this age. The cross-sectional Prevamal Survey was conducted in 2013 aimed at providing baseline data on malaria prevalence in children aged 2 months-15 years old. Sampling was carried out with the use of a multistage, stratified cluster strategy in the district of Bata, Equatorial Guinea. The χ2 test and adjusted Poisson regression models were applied to assess the association between social-demographic and economic factors, malaria and anemia. A total of 1436 children were tested, out of which 1,421 children (99%) were tested for anemia. Over 85% were anemic; out of them, 284 (24%), 815 (67%) and 111 (9%) children had mild, moderate and severe anemia, respectively. Severe anemia was more frequent among children aged 2-12 months old and those living in rural sites. About 47% tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). This rate was significantly higher in rural villages (66%; panemia and malaria was higher in rural settings (panemia in urban areas displayed a heterogeneity and complexity that differed from the rural environment: in urban neighbourhoods, children with concomitant malaria infection were more likely to be anemic (adjusted prevalence rate (aPR):1.19; CI 95%: 1.12-1.28). Moreover, the prevalence of anemia was higher in children aged above 13 months compared to younger children (pchildren' parents being employees (aPR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.96) or self-employed (aPR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.97) vs. working in agriculture and/or fishing negatively associated with anemia among urban children. This marked urban-rural variation indicates the importance of targeting specific areas or districts. Strategies aimed at reducing malaria are clearly paramount in this country. Prevention and treatment of other factors

  5. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors in children living in urban and rural settings from Bata District, Equatorial Guinea, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Policarpo Ncogo

    Full Text Available Anemia in children under 5 years of age is a global public health problem. According to the World Health Organization the current rate of anemia among preschool aged children in Equatorial Guinea is 66%. No information is available above this age. The cross-sectional Prevamal Survey was conducted in 2013 aimed at providing baseline data on malaria prevalence in children aged 2 months-15 years old. Sampling was carried out with the use of a multistage, stratified cluster strategy in the district of Bata, Equatorial Guinea. The χ2 test and adjusted Poisson regression models were applied to assess the association between social-demographic and economic factors, malaria and anemia. A total of 1436 children were tested, out of which 1,421 children (99% were tested for anemia. Over 85% were anemic; out of them, 284 (24%, 815 (67% and 111 (9% children had mild, moderate and severe anemia, respectively. Severe anemia was more frequent among children aged 2-12 months old and those living in rural sites. About 47% tested positive for malaria via a rapid diagnostic test (RDT. This rate was significantly higher in rural villages (66%; p<0.001. The prevalence of anemia and malaria was higher in rural settings (p<0.001. On the other hand, anemia in urban areas displayed a heterogeneity and complexity that differed from the rural environment: in urban neighbourhoods, children with concomitant malaria infection were more likely to be anemic (adjusted prevalence rate (aPR:1.19; CI 95%: 1.12-1.28. Moreover, the prevalence of anemia was higher in children aged above 13 months compared to younger children (p<0.005. Belonging to the poorest wealth tertile were positively (aPR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.05-1.24 and children' parents being employees (aPR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.96 or self-employed (aPR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.97 vs. working in agriculture and/or fishing negatively associated with anemia among urban children. This marked urban-rural variation indicates the

  6. Industrialization Impact on Worker Mobility and Land Use in Peri Urban Area (Case study of Semarang District, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, H. B.; Kurniawati, H.; Hutama, S. T. E. W.

    2018-02-01

    In many cases, industrialization has stimulated the urbanization process massively. It tends to attract substantial number of labor migrants from nearby region to fulfill the demand of workers. The paper reports the research result of industrialization phenomena in Semarang district, Indonesia. It carried out the survey by taking 250 samples of migrant workers. The result shows that the presence of labor-intensive industries becomes the most influence factor for many migrants, rather than the driving factors from the place of origin. The attraction factor could cover regional and across the province force, as indicated that all migrant respondents come from both inside and outside of Central Java Province. Furthermore, based on the land-use distribution of the migrant settlement area, it indicates a growing land-use change, both of land cover and land functions.

  7. A Study of At-Risk Students' Perceptions of an Online Academic Credit Recovery Program in an Urban North Texas Independent School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mychl K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to describe and analyze at-risk high school students' perceptions of their experiences with online academic credit recovery classes offered to them through an urban school district's dropout prevention department. The review of literature concerning curricula for online programs revealed that the variety of…

  8. To Be Alone or in a Group: An Exploration into How the School-Based Experiences Differ for Black Male Teachers across One Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Travis J.

    2018-01-01

    One urban district administered the Black Male Teacher Environment Survey (BMTES) to each of its Black male teachers to measure their school-based experiences. This article highlights descriptive statistics from the 86 Black male teacher respondents. Findings suggest that participants' background characteristics and school-based experiences varied…

  9. No One Way: Differentiating School District Leadership and Support for School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stephen E.; Mascall, Blair; Stiegelbauer, Suzanne; Park, Jaddon

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings from a qualitative investigation of how school district administrators in four mid to large sized urban school districts (10,000-50,000) identify and address differences in school performance. The analysis explores the interaction between district policies and actions that centralize and standardize expectations for…

  10. Soil contamination from urban and industrial activity: example of the mining district of Linares (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J.; Llamas, J. F.; de Miguel, E.; Rey, J.; Hidalgo, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    The Linares region (southern Spain) has been subjected to two important sources of pollution: the intensive mining works and the urban-industrial activity. To obtain a geochemical characterisation of the soil, 31 trace elements were analysed and 669 soil samples were collected. By means of clustering analysis, we identified groups of elements and grid squares in which relations could be established concerning soil lithology, urban and industrial activities and the degree of pollution impact; in addition, we were able to characterise the geochemical background of the study area. The multivariate study led us to identify four factors. Particularly important was factor 2, which represented the elements associated with mineral paragenesis (Cu, Pb, As, Co, Mn, Zn, Sn, Ba). This factor also contains elements related with an urban-industrial activity, such as Pb, Cu, Zn, As and Ba. Furthermore, we identified factor 4, associating Ni, V and Cr, and which is related to the use of fuels.

  11. Assessment of trace metal contamination in groundwater in a highly urbanizing area of Shenfu New District, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yintao; Zang, Xinghua; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Shichao; Sun, Shaobin; Liu, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Shenfu New District, located between two old industrial cities, Shenyang and Fushun, is a typical area undergoing industrialization and urbanization in China. The sources and distributions of heavy metals were analyzed in groundwater by multivariate analysis and GIS, and the impact of urbanization on the aqueous distribution of these metals was investigated. The results indicated that the mean contents of zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the wet periods were about two times of those in the dry period. Nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) were considered to be associated with the same anthropogenic origins (i.e., wastewater from agricultural processing). The concentration of Zn was high under natural conditions, but was also affected by human activities (e.g., wastewater from foundry and instrument manufacturers). As, Cd, and Pb are likely derived from both anthropogenic and natural sources (agricultural and water-rock interactions). The spatial distributions of heavy metals in groundwater were region-specific, with the highest concentrations mostly along the Hun River. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) values from the dry and wet periods showed similar trends at different sampling sites. Only one site's HPI was above the critical value of 100. These results provide information that can be used to understand potential threats to the groundwater resources of other developing cities.

  12. Intelligent Pressure Management to Reduce Leakage in Urban Water Supply Networks, A Case Study of Sarafrazan District, Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Soltani Asl

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water losses are inevitable in urban water distribution systems. The two approaches adopted nowadays to combat this problem include management of hydraulic parameters such as pressure and leakage detection in the network. Intellitgent pressure management is a suitable technique for controlling leakage and reducing damages due to high operating pressures in a network. This paper aims to investigate the effects of pressure reduction on leakage. The EPANET 2.10 software is used to simulate the water distribution network in the Sarafrazan District,Mashhad, assuming leakage from network nodes. The results are then used to develop a pressure variation program based on the patterns obtained from the simulation, which is applied to the pressure reducing valve. The results show that pressure management can reduce nightly leakage by up to 35% while maintaining a more uniform pressure distribution. Implementation of the time-dependent pressure pattern by applying programmable pressure reducing valves in a real urban water distribution network is feasible and plays a key role in reducing water losses to leakage.

  13. A comparative study on nutritional status and body composition of urban and rural schoolchildren from Brandsen district (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesani, Maria Florencia; Garraza, Mariela; Bergel Sanchís, María Laura; Luis, María Antonia; Torres, María Fernanda; Quintero, Fabián Aníbal; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze whether nutritional status and body composition varies according to the environment of residence (urban or rural) of children in the Brandsen district (Argentina). Weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were performed in 1368 schoolchildren aged 3 to 14. NHANES III reference was used to estimate nutritional status -underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity- and to evaluate body composition -deficit and excess of adipose (DA, EA) and muscular (DM, EM) tissues of the arm-. Central fat distribution (CFD) was estimated using the subscapular-tricipital index. A structured questionnaire was implemented to evaluate socio-environmental characteristics. Nutritional categories based on body size and body composition were compared between urban and rural areas of residence using Chi-squared tests (χ2). The results indicated for the total sample: 1.1% underweight, 6.9% stunting, 0.4% wasting, 12.1% overweight, 9.7% obesity, 22.0% DM, 2.5% EM, 0.1% DA, 17.6% EA, and 8.5% CFD. Significant differences between urban and rural areas were found only for CFD. The socio-environmental analysis showed that while access to public services and housing quality was significantly better in the urban area, a considerable number of city households lived under deficient conditions, lacked health insurance and had low socioeconomic level. Fifty-three percent of the undernourished children had DM without urban-rural significant differences, and none of them showed DA. In the overweight plus obesity group, 62.8% presented EA, 6.4% EM, 4.7% DM, and 22.8% CFD. The highest percentages of DM and CFD were recorded in rural areas (p = 0.00). We conclude that the child population shows the "double burden" of malnutrition. The environment of residence does not promote any differentiation in the nutritional status. Nevertheless, the increment of central adiposity and, in some cases of muscle deficit in rural

  14. A comparative study on nutritional status and body composition of urban and rural schoolchildren from Brandsen district (Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Florencia Cesani

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze whether nutritional status and body composition varies according to the environment of residence (urban or rural of children in the Brandsen district (Argentina. Weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were performed in 1368 schoolchildren aged 3 to 14. NHANES III reference was used to estimate nutritional status -underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity- and to evaluate body composition -deficit and excess of adipose (DA, EA and muscular (DM, EM tissues of the arm-. Central fat distribution (CFD was estimated using the subscapular-tricipital index. A structured questionnaire was implemented to evaluate socio-environmental characteristics. Nutritional categories based on body size and body composition were compared between urban and rural areas of residence using Chi-squared tests (χ2. The results indicated for the total sample: 1.1% underweight, 6.9% stunting, 0.4% wasting, 12.1% overweight, 9.7% obesity, 22.0% DM, 2.5% EM, 0.1% DA, 17.6% EA, and 8.5% CFD. Significant differences between urban and rural areas were found only for CFD. The socio-environmental analysis showed that while access to public services and housing quality was significantly better in the urban area, a considerable number of city households lived under deficient conditions, lacked health insurance and had low socioeconomic level. Fifty-three percent of the undernourished children had DM without urban-rural significant differences, and none of them showed DA. In the overweight plus obesity group, 62.8% presented EA, 6.4% EM, 4.7% DM, and 22.8% CFD. The highest percentages of DM and CFD were recorded in rural areas (p = 0.00. We conclude that the child population shows the "double burden" of malnutrition. The environment of residence does not promote any differentiation in the nutritional status. Nevertheless, the increment of central adiposity and, in some cases of muscle deficit in

  15. Child- and elder-friendly urban public places in Fatahillah Square Historical District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinaga, F.; LKatoppo, M.; Hidayat, J.

    2018-03-01

    Fatahillah square as an important historical urban square in Jakarta has problems in eye level area integrative processing. Visitors cannot enjoy their time while in the square regarding their visuals, feelings, space, and bodies comfort. These also lead to other problems in which the square is lack of friendly and convenient places for children, the elderly and also the disabled, especially people with limited moving space. The research will attempt in proposing design inception for the Fatahillah Square that is using inclusive user-centered design approach, while in the same time incorporate theoretical studies of children and elderly-design considerations. The first stage of this research was building inclusive design parameter; begin with a context-led research which assesses the quality of Fatahillah square through three basic components of urban space: hardware, software and orgware. The second stage of this research is to propose inclusive design inception for the Fatahillah square.

  16. Work/Life Practices and the Recruitment and Retention of Large School Districts' Foodservice Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mary Kate

    2010-01-01

    With the forthcoming retirement of school foodservice directors, the increasing pressures faced by employees at home and work, and the financial constraints of school districts, recruiting and retaining skilled and diverse employees will be challenging. Marketing work/life benefits to potential employees and supporting these policies to current…

  17. Achievement Gap Projection for Standardized Testing through Logistic Regression within a Large Arizona School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermeyer, Steven Bruce

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades high-stakes testing has become more political than educational. The Districts within Arizona are bound by the mandates of both AZ LEARNS and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. At the time of this writing, both legislative mandates relied on the Arizona Instrument for Measuring Standards (AIMS) as State Tests for gauging…

  18. Photorealistic large-scale urban city model reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullis, Charalambos; You, Suya

    2009-01-01

    The rapid and efficient creation of virtual environments has become a crucial part of virtual reality applications. In particular, civil and defense applications often require and employ detailed models of operations areas for training, simulations of different scenarios, planning for natural or man-made events, monitoring, surveillance, games, and films. A realistic representation of the large-scale environments is therefore imperative for the success of such applications since it increases the immersive experience of its users and helps reduce the difference between physical and virtual reality. However, the task of creating such large-scale virtual environments still remains a time-consuming and manual work. In this work, we propose a novel method for the rapid reconstruction of photorealistic large-scale virtual environments. First, a novel, extendible, parameterized geometric primitive is presented for the automatic building identification and reconstruction of building structures. In addition, buildings with complex roofs containing complex linear and nonlinear surfaces are reconstructed interactively using a linear polygonal and a nonlinear primitive, respectively. Second, we present a rendering pipeline for the composition of photorealistic textures, which unlike existing techniques, can recover missing or occluded texture information by integrating multiple information captured from different optical sensors (ground, aerial, and satellite).

  19. Primary school teachers’ opinions and attitudes towards stuttering in two South African urban education districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Abrahams

    2016-07-01

    Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research design was used. Primary schools intwo education districts in Western Cape, South Africa, were sampled. The POSHA-S, a selfadministeredquestionnaire, was completed by a cluster sample of 469 participants. Results: Overall positive attitudes towards stuttering were found, specifically related to thepotential of people who stutter, although the result should be interpreted with caution as thesample was not homogenously positive. Teachers still had misconceptions about personalitystereotypes and the cause of stuttering. The attitudes of the South African sample were slightlymore positive compared with the samples in the current POSHA-S database. Conclusion: When developing stuttering intervention strategies, there are a number of keyconsiderations to take into account. The study provides a basis for speech-language therapiststo think about intervention with teachers and which areas of stuttering to consider.

  20. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities Deon E. Terblanche and Liisa Jalkanen dterblanche@wmo.int ljalkanen@wmo.int World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland The 21st Century could amongst others, become known as the century in which our species has evolved from Homo sapiens to Homo urbanus. By now the urban population has surpassed the rural population and the rate of urbanization will continue at such a pace that by 2050 urban dwellers could outnumber their rural counterpart by more than two to one. Most of this growth in urban population will occur in developing countries and along coastal areas. Urbanization is to a large extent the outcome of humans seeking a better life through improved opportunities presented by high-density communities. Megacities and large urban complexes provide more job opportunities and social structures, better transport and communication links and a relative abundance of physical goods and services when compared to most rural areas. Unfortunately these urban complexes also present numerous social and environmental challenges. Urban areas differ from their surroundings by morphology, population density, and with high concentration of industrial activities, energy consumption and transport. They also pose unique challenges to atmospheric modelling and monitoring and create a multi-disciplinary spectrum of potential threats, including air pollution, which need to be addressed in an integrated way. These areas are also vulnerable to the changing climate and its implications to sea-level and extreme events, air quality and related health impacts. Many urban activities are significantly impacted by weather events that would not be considered to be of high impact in less densely populated areas. For instance, moderate precipitation events can cause flooding and landslides as modified urban catchments generally have higher run-off to rainfall ratios than their more pristine rural

  1. The use of ERTS-1 images in the search for large sulfide deposits in the Chagai District, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual examination of color composites was tested under relatively ideal conditions for direct detection of large hydrothermal sulfide deposits at the low-grade porphyry copper deposit at Saindak, western Chagai District, Pakistan. The Saindak deposit is characterized by an elongate zone of easily eroded sulfide-rich rock surrounded by a resistant rim of hornfels and propylitically altered rock. The geomorphic features related to the Saindak deposit are easily distinguished on ERTS-1 images. Attempts to detect a color anomaly using false-color composites were not successful. About 36,000 square km of the western Chagai District were examined on false-color composites for direct evidence of large sulfide deposits. New geologic information acquired from the images was used in conjunction with the known geology to evaluate two previously known proposed areas and to suggest seven additional targets for field checking, one of which is proposed on the basis of tonal anomaly alone. The study also showed that Saindak-type deposits are not likely to be present in some extensive areas of the Chagai District; and also that a rim like that at Saindak does not form if regional metamorphism has increased the resistance of the country rock to erosion.

  2. A study of cooperative urban district geoexchange for heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-20

    Natural gas is the largest source for home heating in Canada. However, natural gas prices are sensitive to falling continental supplies, and the increased penetration of natural gas-fired electricity generation in areas of North America is placing additional pressure on continental sources and prices. This feasibility study examined the use of urban geo-exchange projects and community power developers (CPD) to increase the number of geo-exchange units installed by reducing high upfront costs while improving market infrastructure and consumer awareness and confidence. The CPD will provide community building and resource development services in order to facilitate cooperatively owned organization's to manage shared geothermal assets. An urban block in Toronto was used as a case study of a potential redevelopment site. The study showed that a shared geo-exchange system will increase the per residence installation costs. It was concluded that CPDs will play an important role in increasing geo-exchange penetration by addressing the lack of public awareness in renewable energy systems. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Intestinal helminths of feral cat populations from urban and suburban districts of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Prabhaker, K S; Al-Ibrahim, Roda; Lewis, John W

    2010-03-25

    A survey of the helminths of 658 adult cats from feral urban and suburban populations in Qatar was conducted across all months in 2006 and 2007. Six species of helminths were identified, comprising two cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis [73.6%] and Diplopylidium acanthotetra [47.1%]) and four nematodes (Ancylostoma tubaeforme [14.7%], Physaloptera praeputialis [5.2%], Toxocara cati [0.8%] and Toxascaris leonina [0.2%]), and 83% of cats were infected with at least one of these. The average number of species harboured was 1.4 and the average worm burden was 55.8 worms/cat. The vast majority of worms (97.6%) were cestodes, nematodes being relatively rare. Prevalence and abundance of infections were analyzed, taking into consideration four factors: year (2006 and 2007), site (urban and suburban), season (winter and summer) and sex of the host. Analyses revealed marked year effects, female host bias in some species and interactions involving combination of factors, but especially sex and season of the year. The results indicate that whilst the majority of adult feral cats in Qatar carry helminth infections, infections are variable between years and subject to annual changes that may reflect climatic and other environmental changes in the rapidly developing city of Doha and its suburban surroundings. Only two species have the potential to infect humans and both were rare among the sampled cats (A. tubaeforme and T. cati).

  4. A study of cooperative urban district geoexchange for heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas is the largest source for home heating in Canada. However, natural gas prices are sensitive to falling continental supplies, and the increased penetration of natural gas-fired electricity generation in areas of North America is placing additional pressure on continental sources and prices. This feasibility study examined the use of urban geo-exchange projects and community power developers (CPD) to increase the number of geo-exchange units installed by reducing high upfront costs while improving market infrastructure and consumer awareness and confidence. The CPD will provide community building and resource development services in order to facilitate cooperatively owned organization's to manage shared geothermal assets. An urban block in Toronto was used as a case study of a potential redevelopment site. The study showed that a shared geo-exchange system will increase the per residence installation costs. It was concluded that CPDs will play an important role in increasing geo-exchange penetration by addressing the lack of public awareness in renewable energy systems. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. The Extent of Heavy Metal Pollution and Their Potential Health Risk in Topsoils of the Massively Urbanized District of Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Syed Taseer Abbas; Luo, Fan; Ye, Rong; Younas, Hassan; Hu, Xue-Feng; Chen, Long-Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Urbanization and industrialization increase the concentrations of heavy metals in soils, which affect human health. A total of 127 topsoil samples were collected from the massively urbanized and industrialized district of Shanghai: Baoshan District. The sampling sites were isolated based on the land-use practice: industrial area, roadside area, residential area, and agricultural area. The absolute concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry and compared with Shanghai and the National soil background values. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and Nemerow pollution index were used to determine the existence and severity of the pollution of heavy metals. Enrichment factor (EF) analysis, spatial variability of pollution, and multivariate statistical analyses also were employed to determine the anthropogenic loading of heavy metals, their spatial dependency, and correlation among their sources, respectively. Moreover, potential ecological risk and human health risk [carcinogenic risk (RI) and noncarcinogenic hazard (HI)] were evaluated. The average concentration of all the metals (accounted as 229, 128, 56, 719, 55, 119, and 0.3 mg kg -1 for Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, respectively) was many folds higher than the background values. The indices depicted that the pollution exists in all the sites and severity decreases in the following order: industrial soils > roadside soil > residential soils > agricultural soils. However, Zn, Pb, and Cd showed high levels of pollution in all the soils. The EF values suggested that the majority of heavy metals are anthropogenically loaded; spatial variability showed that the pollution is more concentrated in Songnan town; Pearson's correlation, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis suggested different sources of origin for the majority of the heavy metals. RI of Cr and Pb ranged between 2.8E-04 and 2.7E-07. However, HI was site

  6. Optimized district heating supply temperature for large networks; Optimerad framledningstemperatur foer stora fjaerrvaermenaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, Lisa; Boman, Katarina

    2012-02-15

    The supply temperature of the Uppsala district heating network was optimized using a model-based control strategy. Simulation of the network showed that the supply temperature could be decreased by in average 8 deg and the electricity production of the plants supplying the network could be increased with 2.5 % during the period January- April, giving an extra income of 1.2 MSEK due to increased income from electricity sales

  7. Assessment of oral health status and periodontal treatment needs among rural, semi-urban, urban, and metropolitan population of Gurgaon District, Haryana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of various etiologic factors in periodontal disease has been investigated by means of epidemiologic surveys and clinical studies. The community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN provides a picture of the public health requirements in the periodontal field, which is essential for national oral health policy-making and specific interventions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 4000 individuals among rural, semi-urban, and metro population of Gurgaon District, Haryana State, to find out the oral health status and periodontal treatment needs (TNs using CPITN index. Results: An inference was drawn from the results that among 4000 participants from all the four population groups' maximum, i.e., 63.80% of individuals needed TN2 whereas 18.20% of individuals needed TN3 and 18.10% of individuals needed TN1. Conclusion: It can be concluded with a word of hope and a word of warning. Hope lies in the fact that the measurement of periodontal diseases by epidemiological study of this condition is improving and receiving wide spread attention. The warning lies in the varied nature of the condition which goes to make up periodontal disease and perplexing ways in which these conditions blend. In addition to dental practitioner, periodontist and public health workers must devote more time and effort toward controlling periodontal disease than they seem to be devoting at present.

  8. Primary school teachers' opinions and attitudes towards stuttering in two South African urban education districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Kristen; Harty, Michal; St Louis, Kenneth O; Thabane, Lehana; Kathard, Harsha

    2016-07-27

    As teachers form an important part of the intervention process with childrenwho stutter in primary school, the primary aim was to describe primary school teachers'attitudes in South Africa. The secondary aim was to compare teachers' attitudes towardsstuttering in South Africa with those from a pooled group of respondents in the Public OpinionSurvey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) database from different countries collectedin 2009-2014. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research design was used. Primary schools intwo education districts in Western Cape, South Africa, were sampled. The POSHA-S, a selfadministeredquestionnaire, was completed by a cluster sample of 469 participants. Overall positive attitudes towards stuttering were found, specifically related to thepotential of people who stutter, although the result should be interpreted with caution as thesample was not homogenously positive. Teachers still had misconceptions about personalitystereotypes and the cause of stuttering. The attitudes of the South African sample were slightlymore positive compared with the samples in the current POSHA-S database. When developing stuttering intervention strategies, there are a number of keyconsiderations to take into account. The study provides a basis for speech-language therapiststo think about intervention with teachers and which areas of stuttering to consider.

  9. Hydro-geochemical modeling of subalpine urbanized area: geochemical characterization of the shallow and deep aquifers of the urban district of Como (first results).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrana, Silvia; Brunamonte, Fabio; Frascoli, Francesca; Ferrario, Maria Francesca; Michetti, Alessandro Maria; Pozzi, Andrea; Gambillara, Roberto; Binda, Gilberto

    2016-04-01

    One of the greatest environmental and social-economics threats is climate change. This topic, in the next few years, will have a significant impact on the availability of water resources of many regions. This is compounded by the strong anthropization of water systems that shows an intensification of conflicts for water resource exploitation. Therefore, it is necessary a sustainable manage of natural resources thorough knowledge of the hosting territories. The development of investigation and data processing methods are essential to reduce costs for the suitable use and protection of resources. Identify a sample area for testing the best approach is crucial. This research aims to find a valid methodology for the characterization, modeling and management of subalpine urban aquifers, and the urban district of Como appears perfect. The city of Como is located at the southern end of the western sector of Lake Como (N Italy). It is a coastal town, placed on a small alluvial plain, therefore in close communication with the lake. The plain is drained by two streams, which are presently artificially buried, and have an underground flow path in the urban section till the mouth. This city area, so, is suitable for this project as it is intensely urbanized, its dimensions is not too extensive and it is characterized by two aquifers very important and little known. These are a shallow aquifer and a deep aquifer, which are important not only for any water supply, but also for the stability of the ground subsidence in the city. This research is also the opportunity to work in a particular well-known area with high scientific significance; however, there is complete absence of information regarding the deep aquifer. Great importance has also the chosen and used of the more powerful open source software for this type of area, such as PHREEQC, EnvironInsite, PHREEQE etc., used for geological and geochemical data processing. The main goal of this preliminary work is the

  10. [Ecological risk assessment of rural-urban ecotone based on landscape pattern: A case study in Daiyue District of Tai' an City, Shandong Province of East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hao-Peng; Yu, Kai-Qin; Feng, Yong-jun

    2013-03-01

    Based on the remote sensing data in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this paper analyzed the variation trends of the land use type and landscape pattern in Daiyue District of Tai' an City from 2000 to 2010. The ecological risk index was built, that of the District was re-sampled and spatially interpolated, and the spatiotemporal pattern of the ecological risk in the rural-urban ecotone of the District was analyzed. In 2000-2010, the main variation trend of the land use type in the District was the shift from natural landscape to artificial landscape. The intensity of human disturbance was larger in cultivated land, garden plot, and forestland than in other landscape types, while the human disturbance in water area was smaller. The ecological loss degree of cultivated land and water area decreased somewhat, while that of the other land use types presented an increasing trend. The ecological risk distribution in the District was discrete in 2000 and 2010, but most centralized in 2005. The ecological risk of each ecological risk sub-area had an increasing trend in 2000-2005, but was in adverse in 2005-2010. In 2000-2010, the ecological risk of the District was mainly at medium level. Spatially, the distribution of the ecological risk in the District had an obvious differentiation, with an overall diffusive increasing from forestland as the center to the surrounding areas. In the District, the ecological risk was mainly at medium and higher levels, the area with lower ecological risk had an obvious dynamic change, while that with the lowest and highest ecological risk had less change.

  11. [Assessment and early warning of land ecological security in rapidly urbanizing coastal area: A case study of Caofeidian new district, Hebei, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Ying; Wang, Shu-tao; Men, Ming-xin; Xu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Assessment and early warning of land ecological security (LES) in rapidly urbanizing coastal area is an important issue to ensure sustainable land use and effective maintenance of land ecological security. In this study, an index system for the land ecological security of Caofeidian new district was established based on the Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R) model. Initial assessment units of 1 km x 1 km created with the remote sensing data and GIS methods were spatially interpolated to a fine pixel size of 30 m x 30 m, which were combined with the early warning method (using classification tree method) to evaluate the land ecological security of Caofeidian in 2005 and 2013. The early warning level was classed into four categories: security with degradation potential, sub-security with slow degradation, sub-security with rapid degradation, and insecurity. Result indicated that, from 2005 to 2013, the average LES of Caofeidian dropped from 0.55 to 0.52, indicating a degradation of land ecological security from medium security level to medium-low security level. The areas at the levels of insecurity with rapid degradation were mainly located in the rapid urbanization areas, illustrating that rapid expansion of urban construction land was the key factor to the deterioration of the regional land ecological security. Industrial District, Shilihai town and Nanpu saltern, in which the lands at the levels of insecurity and sub-security with rapid degradation or slow degradation accounted for 58.3%, 98.9% and 81.2% of their respective districts, were at the stage of high early warning. Thus, land ecological security regulation for these districts should be strengthened in near future. The study could provide a reference for land use planning and ecological protection of Caofeidian new district.

  12. A STUDY OF HEALTH RISK BEHAVIOUR AMONGST 14-19 YEAR ADOLESCENT STUDENTS IN URBAN AREAS OF DISTRICT JHANSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Kariwal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the prevalence of health risk behaviours amongst 14-19 year adolescent students in urban areas of District Jhansi (Uttar Pradesh. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Units of study and Study area: 14-I9year old adolescent students studying in various Colleges ofJhansi. Sampling technique: Two stage cluster sampling. Participants :366 students [263 (71.86% male and I 03 (28.14% female]. Results: Main risk behaviour amongstudents found to be cigarette/bidi smoking, drinking alcohol and tobacco use. 15.30% students tried cigarette/bidi smoking at least once in lifetime while 5.46% smokers tried smoking at age less than 14 years. 0.82% students were found doing heavy smoking. Among smokers 21.03% never fried to quit smoking in past 6 months. All these behaviours were more common among male than in female. Out of all students, 19.95% had ever drink alcohol and 4.64% had theirfirst drink of alcohol at age less than14 years. Drinking habits were also more common among male than in female. Favourite celebrity were the most common role models seen smoking (38.79% and drinking (16. 94% followed by father smoking (24.60% and drinking (14.48%.

  13. Recipes and nutritional value of dishes prepared from green-leafy vegetables in an urban district of Antananarivo (Madagascar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randrianatoandro, Verohanitra Annie; Avallone, Sylvie; Picq, Christian; Ralison, Charlotte; Trèche, Serge

    2010-06-01

    The recipes of 50 multi-ingredient dishes consumed by the population in an urban district were noted down. The nutritional value was determined as well as the cook value of the dishes in order to evaluate the severity of the thermal treatment. The recipes were simple and involved steps such as boiling, mixing, and cutting. Fibre contents were rather low except when the leaf stems were included. All the dishes had very high beta-carotene content (15.8-25.0 mg/100 g dry matter) and retinol activity equivalent (RAE) (1.3-2.3 mg RAE/100 g dry matter) because of the high proportion of fresh leafy vegetables (from 41.2% to 58.8% of the total dry matter of the ingredients). When meat was added to the preparation, the micronutrient content (iron, zinc, and retinol) was not increased significantly. In three dishes, a positive correlation was found between the thermal treatment severity and the 13-cis-beta-carotene amount.

  14. Study on the association between ambient air pollution and daily cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in an urban district of Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Li, Liping; Krafft, Thomas; Lv, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Pei, Desheng

    2011-06-01

    The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003-2006) and years with high level interventions in preparation for and during the Olympics/Paralympics (2007-2008). Concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to evaluate daily numbers of cardiovascular/respiratory deaths in relation to each air pollutant, controlling for time trends and meteorological influences such as temperature and relative humidity. The results show that the daily cardiovascular/respiratory death rates were significantly associated with the concentration air pollutants, especially deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The current day effects of PM10 and NO2 were higher than that of single lags (distributed lags) and moving average lags for respiratory disease mortality. The largest RR of SO2 for respiratory disease mortality was in Lag02. For cardiovascular disease mortality, the largest RR was in Lag01 for PM10, and in current day (Lag0) for SO2 and NO2. NO2 was associated with the largest RRs for deaths from both cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease.

  15. The influence of father's child feeding knowledge and practices on children's dietary diversity: a study in urban and rural districts of Northern Ethiopia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Selamawit M; Dinant, GeertJan; Blanco, Roman; Crutzen, Rik; Mulugeta, Afework; Spigt, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Infant and young child feeding has been recognised as an essential element to improve growth of children, especially in developing countries where malnutrition among children and its dire consequences are very prevalent. However, little attention has been paid on the influence of fathers on child feeding practices, although fathers are very important in raising well-adjusted, happy and successful children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the influence of fathers' child feeding knowledge and practice on children's dietary diversity. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 850 eligible urban and rural households with children of 6-23 months. The father and mother of the child were interviewed on children's dietary diversity and fathers' knowledge and practice of child feeding. Nearly half (46%) of the children in the rural district did not meet the minimum dietary diversity, and in the urban district, the rate was even worse (72%). Grains were the common food group given to the children in both districts, whereas flesh food was the least commonly consumed food group. Additionally, low vitamin A-rich food and other fruit and vegetable consumption seem to be a problem in both districts. Almost all dimensions of fathers' knowledge and practice were significantly related to children's minimum dietary diversity; especially, fathers' knowledge of food groups was an important predictor (P-value child feeding, especially about food groups, are recommended to improve children's dietary diversity in the study communities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluating Inundation in Urban Drainage Systems in Tamalanrea District Makassar Based Ecodrainase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfidhdha, Rizky; Karnaningroem, Nieke

    2018-03-01

    Makassar City is one of the major cities in Indonesia with a population of approximately 1.7 million inhabitants, which continues to grow and followed the development of urban infrastructure facilities. The development also resulted in adverse effects on the environment, especially for water catchment area turns into a watertight region resulting changes in surface runoff were greater, especially in the rainy season because the drainage coefficient values are increasing as well. The purpose of this study was to analyze the capacity of the capacity of drainage channels in terms of technical aspects, analyze and formulate efforts to address flooding in a drainage channel system environmentally friendly in terms of environmental aspects, and Calculating the cost and benefit the development of the handling of flooding with a drainage channel system environmentally friendly in terms of financial aspects. The results obtained from the analysis of the technical aspects there are 14 of 41 channel capacity is insufficient accommodation capacity, resulting in the analysis of environmental aspects require 867 infiltration wells, and 3.19 rate of Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR).

  17. Homeless Students and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Large Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kerri J.

    2016-01-01

    Child homelessness has recently reached levels unprecedented in the United States since the Great Depression. Contemporary research has attempted to isolate the effects of homelessness on education, with mixed results. This study reports results from a study in one large urban area and finds that there is no meaningful difference in achievement…

  18. The role of one large greenspace in mitigating London's nocturnal urban heat island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doick, Kieron J; Peace, Andrew; Hutchings, Tony R

    2014-09-15

    The term urban heat island (UHI) describes a phenomenon where cities are on average warmer than the surrounding rural area. Trees and greenspaces are recognised for their strong potential to regulate urban air temperatures and combat the UHI. Empirical data is required in the UK to inform predictions on cooling by urban greenspaces and guide planning to maximise cooling of urban populations. We describe a 5-month study to measure the temperature profile of one of central London's large greenspaces and also in an adjacent street to determine the extent to which the greenspace reduced night-time UHI intensity. Statistical modelling displayed an exponential decay in the extent of cooling with increased distance from the greenspace. The extent of cooling ranged from an estimated 20 m on some nights to 440 m on other nights. The mean temperature reduction over these distances was 1.1 °C in the summer months, with a maximum of 4 °C cooling observed on some nights. Results suggest that calculation of London's UHI using Met Stations close to urban greenspace can underestimate 'urban' heat island intensity due to the cooling effect of the greenspace and values could be in the region of 45% higher. Our results lend support to claims that urban greenspace is an important component of UHI mitigation strategies. Lack of certainty over the variables that govern the extent of the greenspace cooling influence indicates that the multifaceted roles of trees and greenspaces in the UK's urban environment merit further consideration. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrating Infrastructure and Institutions for Water Security in Large Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, J.; Jawitz, J. W.; Carrera, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban growth has forced cities to procure more freshwater to meet demands; however the relationship between urban water security, water availability and water management is not well understood. This work quantifies the urban water security of 108 large cities in the United States (n=50) and Africa (n=58) based on their hydrologic, hydraulic and institutional settings. Using publicly available data, urban water availability was estimated as the volume of water available from local water resources and those captured via hydraulic infrastructure (e.g. reservoirs, wellfields, aqueducts) while urban water institutions were assessed according to their ability to deliver, supply and regulate water resources to cities. When assessing availability, cities relying on local water resources comprised a minority (37%) of those assessed. The majority of cities (55%) instead rely on captured water to meet urban demands, with African cities reaching farther and accessing a greater number and variety of sources for water supply than US cities. Cities using captured water generally had poorer access to local water resources and maintained significantly more complex strategies for water delivery, supply and regulatory management. Eight cities, all African, are identified in this work as having water insecurity issues. These cities lack sufficient infrastructure and institutional complexity to capture and deliver adequate amounts of water for urban use. Together, these findings highlight the important interconnection between infrastructure investments and management techniques for urban areas with a limited or dwindling natural abundance of water. Addressing water security challenges in the future will require that more attention be placed not only on increasing water availability, but on developing the institutional support to manage captured water supplies.

  20. Estuarine habitat quality reflects urbanization at large spatial scales in South Carolina's coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dolah, Robert F; Riekerk, George H M; Bergquist, Derk C; Felber, Jordan; Chestnut, David E; Holland, A Fredrick

    2008-02-01

    analyses support the hypotheses that estuarine habitat quality reflects upland development patterns at large spatial scales, and that upland urbanization can result in increased risk of biological degradation and reduced safe human use of South Carolina's coastal resources.

  1. The State of the Gate: A Description of Instructional Practice in Algebra in Five Urban Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litke, Erica G.

    2015-01-01

    Algebra is considered a linchpin for success in secondary mathematics, serving as a gatekeeper to higher-level courses. Access to algebra is also considered an important lever for educational equity. Yet despite its prominence, large-scale examinations of algebra instruction are rare. In my dissertation, I endeavor to better understand what…

  2. Case Study of Urban Water Distribution Networks Districting Management Based on Water Leakage Control

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, S.; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, S.; Zhou, Y.; Diao, K.

    2009-01-01

    Globally, water demand is rising and resources are diminishing. Most of the world's water systems have been highly successful in delivering high-quality water to large populations. However, most of these systems also incur a notable amount of loss in their operations. Water loss from the water supply system has long been a feature of operations management, even in the countries with a well-developed infrastructure and good operating practices. There is no doubt that the sustainable management...

  3. Highlights of a recycling behaviour study in South Africa’s large urban areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available behaviour study in South Africa?s large urban areas WF STRYDOM CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 Email: wstrydom@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION The recently promulgated National Environmental Management... representative sample of 2 004 respondents in 11 of the larger South African urban areas, including all the metropolitan municipalities. The survey was conducted in November 2010, before the Waste Act was widely implemented. The objective of the study was...

  4. Powerful and large regional authorities are needed to preserve green open space for urban agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aalbers

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification and assessment of strategies for the conservation and multifunctional development of green open space in the urban fringe of European urban regions is a challenge to both the academic and the real life world. Within the EU funded research project PLUREL – Peri-urban land use relationships – ‘Strategies and sustainability assessment tools for urban rural linkages’, we developed a methodology for international comparison of regional strategies that considers the policy context at supra-regional level. This methodology helped to explain the reported impacts of strategies. For this we further elaborated the theoretical concept of policy arrangements and policy dimensions by Van Tatenhove et al. (2000 and Arts et al. (2006. Strategies and policy contexts referred to are from Montpellier Agglomeration, a formal coalition of now 31 municipalities, Leipzig-Halle region, a functional urban region (FUR with governance coalitions around green open space preservation strategies, and Hangzhou in China, a very large city with hierarchical formal government. Results showed how the means of influence from different government levels can complement and reinforce each other and raise the effectiveness of the strategies. A combination of hierarchical government with a horizontal coalition between local authorities covering the full FUR can be very effective for managing the land use developments in the urban fringe, even when private business, CSOs or other NGOs are not included in the coalition. Supra-regional authorities do not have to possess the land resources, but setting the Rules of the Game is a powerful means of influence to coerce local municipalities to preserve green open space in the urban fringe.

  5. Pollution characteristics, sources and lung cancer risk of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a new urban district of Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Xia, Zhonghuan; Wu, Minmin; Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Shiqi; Yin, Jing; Zhou, Yanchi; Yang, Hao

    2017-05-01

    This paper focused on the pollution characteristics, sources and lung cancer risk of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a new urban district of Nanjing, China. Gaseous and aerosol PM 2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5μm) samples were collected in spring of 2015. Sixteen PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. Firstly, arithmetic mean concentrations of PAHs and BaP eq (benzo[a]pyrene equivalent) were calculated. The mean concentrations of PAHs were 29.26±14.13, 18.14±5.37 and 48.47±16.03ng/m 3 in gas phase, particle phase and both phases, respectively. The mean concentrations of BaP eq were 0.87±0.51, 2.71±2.17 and 4.06±2.31ng/m 3 in gas phase, particle phase and both phases, respectively. Secondly, diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis were adopted to identify the sources of PAHs and the outcomes were the same: traffic exhaust was the predominant source followed by fuel combustion and industrial process. Finally, incremental lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure to PAHs for population groups of different age and gender were estimated based on a Monte Carlo simulation. ILCR values caused by particle phase PAHs were greater than those caused by gas phase PAHs. ILCR values for adults were greater than those for other age groups. ILCR values caused by total (gas+particle) PAHs for diverse groups were all greater than the significant level (l0 -6 ), indicating high potential lung cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis results showed that cancer slope factor for BaP inhalation exposure and BaP eq concentration had greater impact than body weight and inhalation rate on the ILCR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Prevalence and incidence of neurological disorders among adult Ugandans in rural and urban Mukono district; a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddumukasa, Mark; Mugenyi, Leviticus; Kaddumukasa, Martin N; Ddumba, Edward; Devereaux, Michael; Furlan, Anthony; Sajatovic, Martha; Katabira, Elly

    2016-11-17

    The burden of neurological diseases is increasing in developing countries. However, there is a prominent scarcity of literature on the incidence of neurological diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the prevalence and incidence of neurological diseases in this setting to serve as a baseline for planning and care for neurological disorders in Uganda. The study was conducted within rural and urban Mukono district, east of Kampala city of Uganda, central region. Over a period of six months, a cross sectional survey was conducted and screening was performed using a standardized questionnaire. All subjects with neurological symptoms and signs were reviewed by a team of neurologists and neurological diagnoses made. Of the 3000 study subjects, 50.3% (1510/3000) were from the rural setting. Out of the participants screened, 67.4% were female, with a median age of 33 years. Among the 98 subjects with confirmed neurological disorders, the frequency of diseases was as follows; peripheral neuropathy (46.2%), chronic headaches (26.4%), and epilepsy (8.5%), followed by pain syndromes (7.5%), stroke (6.6%) and tremors/Parkinson disease (3.8%). The crude prevalence rates of these disorders (95% CI) were 14.3% (8.5-24.1); 13.3% (7.7-22.8); 33.7% (23.9-47.4) for stroke, epilepsy and peripheral neuropathy respectively. Peripheral neuropathy followed by chronic headaches had the highest estimated incidence/1000 years. Stroke had an estimated incidence of 3.6 new cases with 95% CI of (2.1-6.1)/1000 years. Peripheral neuropathy, chronic headaches and epilepsy disorders are major causes of morbidity in Sub-Saharan settings. There is an urgent need of more robust and powered studies to determine the incidence of these diseases.

  7. Study on the Association between Ambient Air Pollution and Daily Cardiovascular and Respiratory Mortality in an Urban District of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krafft

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM, SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003–2006 and years with high level interventions in preparation for and during the Olympics/Paralympics (2007–2008. Concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to evaluate daily numbers of cardiovascular/ respiratory deaths in relation to each air pollutant, controlling for time trends and meteorological influences such as temperature and relative humidity. The results show that the daily cardiovascular/respiratory death rates were significantly associated with the concentration air pollutants, especially deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The current day effects of PM10 and NO2 were higher than that of single lags (distributed lags and moving average lags for respiratory disease mortality. The largest RR of SO2 for respiratory disease mortality was in Lag02. For cardiovascular disease mortality, the largest RR was in Lag01 for PM10, and in current day (Lag0 for SO2 and NO2. NO2 was associated with the largest RRs for deaths from both cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease.

  8. Practices and attitudinal behavior about drinking water in an urban slum of district Rohtak, Haryana: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, approximately, one billion people lack access to safe drinking water and 1.59 million deaths per year are because of contaminated water, primarily in children age <5 years. WHO reported that more than 90% of diarrhea cases can be prevented by enhancing the availability of clean water and improving hygiene measures. Methodology: The study was conducted in an urban slum of Rohtak district. Investigator interviewed the mothers at their home having children age less than 5 years using study tools in their vernacular language. Study Design: The study was a community based epidemiological study with cross-sectional design. Study Participants: 400 mothers having children less than 5 years. Results: Most of subjects (59% were in the age group of 15-25 years followed by in 25-35 years. One third of subjects belonged to upper caste and 29% of subjects from backward class. The study found that 80% of mother store water in earthen pitcher followed by plastic jug (14%. 78% of mothers said that their source of drinking water was tap while 12% had Hand pump. 83.5% of subjects said that they drink water as such ie without filtering, boiling or chlorination. Conclusion and Recommendations: The study concluded that the prevalence of diarrhea is more among children < 5 years this is because of poor knowledge, poor attitude and inadequate storage water practices of water. The study recommends creating awareness how to diminish contamination of water at household level, creating community groups for women to learn about treatment of water at household level.

  9. Diffusion of school-based prevention programs in two urban districts: adaptations, rationales, and suggestions for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Wanis, Maggie G; Bazell, Nickie

    2010-03-01

    The diffusion of school-based preventive interventions involves the balancing of high-fidelity implementation of empirically-supported programs with flexibility to permit local stakeholders to target the specific needs of their youth. There has been little systematic research that directly seeks to integrate research- and community-driven approaches to diffusion. The present study provides a primarily qualitative investigation of the initial roll-out of two empirically-supported substance and violence prevention programs in two urban school districts that serve a high proportion of low-income, ethnic minority youth. The predominant ethnic group in most of our study schools was Asian American, followed by smaller numbers of Latinos, African Americans, and European Americans. We examined the adaptations made by experienced health teachers as they implemented the programs, the elicitation of suggested adaptations to the curricula from student and teacher stakeholders, and the evaluation of the consistency of these suggested adaptations with the core components of the programs. Data sources include extensive classroom observations of curricula delivery and interviews with students, teachers, and program developers. All health teachers made adaptations, primarily with respect to instructional format, integration of real-life experiences into the curriculum, and supplementation with additional resources; pedagogical and class management issues were cited as the rationale for these changes. Students and teachers were equally likely to propose adaptations that met with the program developers' approval with respect to program theory and implementation logistics. Tensions between teaching practice and prevention science-as well as implications for future research and practice in school-based prevention-are considered.

  10. Long-term modelling of Carbon Capture and Storage, Nuclear Fusion, and large-scale District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Lüthje, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    before 2050. The modelling tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement ETSAP include both multi-regional global and long-term energy models till 2100, as well as national or regional models with shorter time horizons. Examples are the EFDA-TIMES model, focusing...... on nuclear fusion and the Pan European TIMES model, respectively. In the next decades CCS can be a driver for the development and expansion of large-scale district heating systems, which are currently widespread in Europe, Korea and China, and with large potentials in North America. If fusion will replace...... fossil fuel power plants with CCS in the second half of the century, the same infrastructure for heat distribution can be used which will support the penetration of both technologies. This paper will address the issue of infrastructure development and the use of CCS and fusion technologies using...

  11. Risks posed by large seismic events in the gold mining districts of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available buildings are considered vulnerable to damage by large seismic events, posing safety and financial risks. It is recommended that an earthquake engineer inspect the building stock and review the content and enforcement of building codes. Appropriate training...

  12. Artemisinin combination therapies price disparity between government and private health sectors and its implication on antimalarial drug consumption pattern in Morogoro Urban District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisa, Allen Lewis; Kiriba, Deodatus

    2012-03-28

    Universal access to effective treatments is a goal of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. However, despite official commitments and substantial increases in financing, this objective remains elusive, as development assistance continue to be routed largely through government channels, leaving the much needed highly effective treatments inaccessible or unaffordable to those seeking services in the private sector. To quantify the effect of price disparity between the government and private health systems, this study have audited 92 government and private Drug Selling Units (DSUs) in Morogoro urban district in Tanzania to determine the levels, trend and consumption pattern of antimalarial drugs in the two health systems. A combination of observation, interviews and questionnaire administered to the service providers of the randomly selected DSUs were used to collect data. ALU was the most selling antimalarial drug in the government health system at a subsidized price of 300 TShs (0.18 US$). By contrast, ALU that was available in the private sector (coartem) was being sold at a price of about 10,000 TShs (5.9 US$), the price that was by far unaffordable, prompting people to resort to cheap but failed drugs. As a result, metakelfin (the phased out drug) was the most selling drug in the private health system at a price ranging from 500 to 2,000 TShs (0.29-1.18 US$). In order for the prompt diagnosis and treatment with effective drugs intervention to have big impact on malaria in mostly low socioeconomic malaria-endemic areas of Africa, inequities in affordability and access to effective treatment must be eliminated. For this to be ensued, subsidized drugs should be made available in both government and private health sectors to promote a universal access to effective safe and affordable life saving antimalarial drugs.

  13. Artemisinin combination therapies price disparity between government and private health sectors and its implication on antimalarial drug consumption pattern in Morogoro Urban District, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malisa Allen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal access to effective treatments is a goal of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. However, despite official commitments and substantial increases in financing, this objective remains elusive, as development assistance continue to be routed largely through government channels, leaving the much needed highly effective treatments inaccessible or unaffordable to those seeking services in the private sector. Methods To quantify the effect of price disparity between the government and private health systems, this study have audited 92 government and private Drug Selling Units (DSUs in Morogoro urban district in Tanzania to determine the levels, trend and consumption pattern of antimalarial drugs in the two health systems. A combination of observation, interviews and questionnaire administered to the service providers of the randomly selected DSUs were used to collect data. Results ALU was the most selling antimalarial drug in the government health system at a subsidized price of 300 TShs (0.18 US$. By contrast, ALU that was available in the private sector (coartem was being sold at a price of about 10,000 TShs (5.9 US$, the price that was by far unaffordable, prompting people to resort to cheap but failed drugs. As a result, metakelfin (the phased out drug was the most selling drug in the private health system at a price ranging from 500 to 2,000 TShs (0.29–1.18 US$. Conclusions In order for the prompt diagnosis and treatment with effective drugs intervention to have big impact on malaria in mostly low socioeconomic malaria-endemic areas of Africa, inequities in affordability and access to effective treatment must be eliminated. For this to be ensued, subsidized drugs should be made available in both government and private health sectors to promote a universal access to effective safe and affordable life saving antimalarial drugs.

  14. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie Keith; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier–Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were valida...

  15. Towards Rapid Generation and Visualisation of Large 3D Urban Landscapes for Mobile Device Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Brujic-Okretic, V.; Gatzidis, C.; Liarokapis, F.; Baker, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a procedural 3D modelling solution for mobile devices is presented based on scripting algorithms allowing for both the automatic and also semi-automatic creation of photorealistic quality virtual urban content. The combination of aerial images, GIS data, 2D ground maps and terrestrial photographs as input data coupled with a user-friendly customized interface permits the automatic and interactive generation of large-scale, accurate, georeferenced and fully-textured 3D virtual ci...

  16. The prevalence of two ‘commonly’ encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Ray; Burnett, Elisabeth; Luff, Natalie; Wagner, Craig; Stinga, Georgia; Carney, Clare; Sheridan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation.\\ud \\ud Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), ...

  17. Effectiveness of Acupuncture Therapy on Stress in a Large Urban College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Stefanie; Burnis, James; Denton, Antony; Krasnow, Aaron; Raghu, T S; Mathis, Kimberly

    2017-06-01

    This study is a randomized controlled clinical trial to study the effectiveness of acupuncture on the perception of stress in patients who study or work on a large, urban college campus. The hypothesis was that verum acupuncture would demonstrate a significant positive impact on perceived stress as compared to sham acupuncture. This study included 111 participants with high self-reported stress levels who either studied or worked at a large, urban public university in the southwestern United States. However, only 62 participants completed the study. The participants were randomized into a verum acupuncture or sham acupuncture group. Both the groups received treatment once a week for 12 weeks. The Cohen's global measure of perceived stress scale (PSS-14) was completed by each participant prior to treatment, at 6 weeks, at 12 weeks, and 6 weeks and 12 weeks post-treatment completion. While participants of both the groups showed a substantial initial decrease in perceived stress scores, at 12 weeks post treatment, the verum acupuncture group showed a significantly greater treatment effect than the sham acupuncture group. This study indicates that acupuncture may be successful in decreasing the perception of stress in students and staff at a large urban university, and this effect persists for at least 3 months after the completion of treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Large Eddy Simulation of Unstably Stratified Turbulent Flow over Urban-Like Building Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal instability induced by solar radiation is the most common condition of urban atmosphere in daytime. Compared to researches under neutral conditions, only a few numerical works studied the unstable urban boundary layer and the effect of buoyancy force is unclear. In this paper, unstably stratified turbulent boundary layer flow over three-dimensional urban-like building arrays with ground heating is simulated. Large eddy simulation is applied to capture main turbulence structures and the effect of buoyancy force on turbulence can be investigated. Lagrangian dynamic subgrid scale model is used for complex flow together with a wall function, taking into account the large pressure gradient near buildings. The numerical model and method are verified with the results measured in wind tunnel experiment. The simulated results satisfy well with the experiment in mean velocity and temperature, as well as turbulent intensities. Mean flow structure inside canopy layer varies with thermal instability, while no large secondary vortex is observed. Turbulent intensities are enhanced, as buoyancy force contributes to the production of turbulent kinetic energy.

  19. An analysis of factors that influence secondary science teachers in an urban school district in South Texas to remain in the teaching profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Bonnie

    This quantitative study is an examination of personal and professional factors that contribute to science teachers continuing to teach science in an urban area in South Texas despite the growing demands of the profession. This study examines why teachers in general leave the profession but focuses on what factors influenced these teachers to stay. Personal retention factors measured included being an effective teacher and positive rapport with students. Professional retention factors included administrative support and adequate time to meet professional obligations. There are 149 secondary science teachers in this large urban school district. Data was gathered from 109 of these educators to analyze factors personal and professional factors in regards to why these teachers remain in the field. For the purposes of this study a secondary science teacher will be any teacher who teaches science in grades 6-12, which is considered middle (6 through 8) and high school (9 through 12) in this area. The data for this quantitative study was collected by a paper survey (N=109) that was distributed at a professional learning session at the beginning of the school year. A Principal Component Analysis was run followed by three multiple regression analyses of the pertinent components to determine if there is any relationship between the demographics of the participants and personal and professional factors that cause these teachers to remain in the field. The results of this study will contribute to the literature regarding teacher education and theory that examines teacher practice affecting change. The results showed that professional factors like the amount of resources and the quality of those resources to assist teachers with job efficacy mattered as much as the personal factors such as positive teaching experience and an intrinsic sense of being an effective educator. Further implications of this study include an exploration of Generalist certifications at the middle grades

  20. Development and validation of a detailed TRNSYS-Matlab model for large solar collector fields for district heating applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the development of a detailed TRNSYS-Matlab model to simulate the behavior of a large solar collector field for district heating application. The model includes and investigates aspects which are not always considered by simpler models, such as flow distribution...... programming and computing time. Thermal capacity was worth being considered only for the bulkier components, such as the longer distribution and transmission pipes. The actual control strategy, which regulates the flow rates in the solar heating plant, was accurately reproduced in the model, as proved...... in the different rows, effect of the flow regime on the collector efficiency, thermal capacity of the components and effect of shadows from row to row. The model was compared with measurements from a solar collector field and the impact of each aspect was evaluated. A good agreement between model and measurements...

  1. Incidence of trampoline related pediatric fractures in a large district general hospital in the United Kingdom: lessons to be learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangal, K K; Neen, D; Dodds, R

    2006-04-01

    To test the observation that the incidence of trampoline related pediatric fractures is increasing-both nationally and in a large district general hospital. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of patient records establishing mechanism of injury of pediatric fractures over three consecutive summers from 2000-03. Theatre records of fractures treated operatively were used as the initial data source. A statistically significant increase in trampoline related injuries was discovered. This reflects the rising incidence of injuries from national data and furthermore corresponds to the growing popularity of domestic use trampolines in the UK. The incidence of injuries is increasing. There are lessons to be learnt from existing work from countries where trampoline prevalence has been greater for longer. The authors recommend various safety measures that may reduce children's injuries.

  2. Why are large cities faster? Universal scaling and self-similarity in urban organization and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, L. M. A.; Lobo, J.; West, G. B.

    2008-06-01

    Cities have existed since the beginning of civilization and have always been intimately connected with humanity's cultural and technological development. Much about the human and social dynamics that takes place is cities is intuitively recognizable across time, space and culture; yet we still do not have a clear cut answer as to why cities exist or to what factors are critical to make them thrive or collapse. Here, we construct an extensive quantitative characterization of the variation of many urban indicators with city size, using large data sets for American, European and Chinese cities. We show that social and economic quantities, characterizing the creation of wealth and new ideas, show increasing returns to population scale, which appear quantitatively as a power law of city size with an exponent β≃ 1.15 > 1. Concurrently, quantities characterizing material infrastructure typically show economies of scale, namely β≃ 0.8 exponential growth, which inexorably lead to crises of urban organization. To avoid them we show that growth may proceed in cycles, separated by major urban adaptations, with the unintended consequence that the duration of such cycles decreases with larger urban population size and is now estimated to be shorter than a human lifetime.

  3. Spatiotemporally enhancing time-series DMSP/OLS nighttime light imagery for assessing large-scale urban dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanhua; Weng, Qihao

    2017-06-01

    Accurate, up-to-date, and consistent information of urban extents is vital for numerous applications central to urban planning, ecosystem management, and environmental assessment and monitoring. However, current large-scale urban extent products are not uniform with respect to definition, spatial resolution, temporal frequency, and thematic representation. This study aimed to enhance, spatiotemporally, time-series DMSP/OLS nighttime light (NTL) data for detecting large-scale urban changes. The enhanced NTL time series from 1992 to 2013 were firstly generated by implementing global inter-calibration, vegetation-based spatial adjustment, and urban archetype-based temporal modification. The dataset was then used for updating and backdating urban changes for the contiguous U.S.A. (CONUS) and China by using the Object-based Urban Thresholding method (i.e., NTL-OUT method, Xie and Weng, 2016b). The results showed that the updated urban extents were reasonably accurate, with city-scale RMSE (root mean square error) of 27 km2 and Kappa of 0.65 for CONUS, and 55 km2 and 0.59 for China, respectively. The backdated urban extents yielded similar accuracy, with RMSE of 23 km2 and Kappa of 0.63 in CONUS, while 60 km2 and 0.60 in China. The accuracy assessment further revealed that the spatial enhancement greatly improved the accuracy of urban updating and backdating by significantly reducing RMSE and slightly increasing Kappa values. The temporal enhancement also reduced RMSE, and improved the spatial consistency between estimated and reference urban extents. Although the utilization of enhanced NTL data successfully detected urban size change, relatively low locational accuracy of the detected urban changes was observed. It is suggested that the proposed methodology would be more effective for updating and backdating global urban maps if further fusion of NTL data with higher spatial resolution imagery was implemented.

  4. Parameterization of a Hydrological Model for a Large, Ungauged Urban Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Krebs

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization leads to the replacement of natural areas by impervious surfaces and affects the catchment hydrological cycle with adverse environmental impacts. Low impact development tools (LID that mimic hydrological processes of natural areas have been developed and applied to mitigate these impacts. Hydrological simulations are one possibility to evaluate the LID performance but the associated small-scale processes require a highly spatially distributed and explicit modeling approach. However, detailed data for model development are often not available for large urban areas, hampering the model parameterization. In this paper we propose a methodology to parameterize a hydrological model to a large, ungauged urban area by maintaining at the same time a detailed surface discretization for direct parameter manipulation for LID simulation and a firm reliance on available data for model conceptualization. Catchment delineation was based on a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM and model parameterization relied on a novel model regionalization approach. The impact of automated delineation and model regionalization on simulation results was evaluated for three monitored study catchments (5.87–12.59 ha. The simulated runoff peak was most sensitive to accurate catchment discretization and calibration, while both the runoff volume and the fit of the hydrograph were less affected.

  5. Assessing the Performance of Large Scale Green Roofs and Their Impact on the Urban Microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls-Mantey, L.; Foti, R.; Montalto, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    In ultra-urban environments green roofs offer a feasible solution to add green infrastructure (GI) in neighborhoods where space is limited. Green roofs offer the typical advantages of urban GI such as stormwater reduction and management while providing direct benefits to the buildings on which they are installed through thermal protection and mitigation of temperature fluctuations. At 6.8 acres, the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center (JJCC) in New York City, hosts the second largest green roof in the United States. Since its installation in August 2013, the Sustainable Water Resource (SWRE) Laboratory at Drexel University has monitored the climate on and around the green roof by means of four weather stations situated on various roof and ground locations. Using two years of fine scale climatic data collected at the JJCC, this study explores the energy balance of a large scale green roof system. Temperature, radiation, evapotranspiration and wind profiles pre- and post- installation of the JJCC green roof were analyzed and compared across monitored locations, with the goal of identifying the impact of the green roof on the building and urban micro-climate. Our findings indicate that the presence of the green roof, not only altered the climatic conditions above the JJCC, but also had a measurable impact on the climatic profile of the areas immediately surrounding it. Furthermore, as a result of the mitigation of roof temperature fluctuations and of the cooling provided during warmer months, an improvement of the building thermal efficiency was contextually observed. Such findings support the installation of GI as an effective practice in urban settings and important in the discussion of key issues including energy conservation measures, carbon emission reductions and the mitigation of urban heat islands.

  6. Large-Eddy Simulation of Chemically Reactive Pollutant Transport from a Point Source in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tangzheng; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Most air pollutants are chemically reactive so using inert scalar as the tracer in pollutant dispersion modelling would often overlook their impact on urban inhabitants. In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to examine the plume dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants in a hypothetical atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in neutral stratification. The irreversible chemistry mechanism of ozone (O3) titration is integrated into the LES model. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from an elevated point source in a rectangular spatial domain doped with O3. The LES results are compared well with the wind tunnel results available in literature. Afterwards, the LES model is applied to idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of unity aspect ratio to study the behaviours of chemically reactive plume over idealized urban roughness. The relation among various time scales of reaction/turbulence and dimensionless number are analysed.

  7. Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

    2013-02-01

    Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management.

  8. Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland-Urban Interface areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Sirio; Balzter, Heiko; Cole, Beth; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape elements with high forest fuels has increased the fire risk to people and property. These Wildland-Urban Interface areas (WUI) can be defined as landscapes where anthropogenic urban land use and forest fuel mass come into contact. Mapping their extent is needed to prioritize fire risk control and inform local forest fire risk management strategies. This study proposes a method to map the extent and spatial patterns of the European WUI areas at continental scale. Using the European map of WUI areas, the hypothesis is tested that the distance from the nearest WUI area is related to the forest fire probability. Statistical relationships between the distance from the nearest WUI area, and large forest fire incidents from satellite remote sensing were subsequently modelled by logistic regression analysis. The first European scale map of the WUI extent and locations is presented. Country-specific positive and negative relationships of large fires and the proximity to the nearest WUI area are found. A regional-scale analysis shows a strong influence of the WUI zones on large fires in parts of the Mediterranean regions. Results indicate that the probability of large burned surfaces increases with diminishing WUI distance in touristic regions like Sardinia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, or in regions with a strong peri-urban component as Catalunya, Comunidad de Madrid, Comunidad Valenciana. For the above regions, probability curves of large burned surfaces show statistical relationships (ROC value > 0.5) inside a 5000 m buffer of the nearest WUI. Wise land management can provide a valuable ecosystem service of fire risk reduction that is currently not explicitly included in ecosystem service valuations. The results re-emphasise the importance of including this ecosystem service

  9. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D.; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S.; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students’ exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Results Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Conclusion Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement. PMID:27978408

  10. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Caitlin L; Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-12-15

    Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students' exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement.

  11. Population Density and AIDS-Related Stigma in Large-Urban, Small-Urban, and Rural Communities of the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth; Katner, Harold; Banas, Ellen; Kalichman, Moira

    2017-07-01

    AIDS stigmas delay HIV diagnosis, interfere with health care, and contribute to mental health problems among people living with HIV. While there are few studies of the geographical distribution of AIDS stigma, research suggests that AIDS stigmas are differentially experienced in rural and urban areas. We conducted computerized interviews with 696 men and women living with HIV in 113 different zip code areas that were classified as large-urban, small-urban, and rural areas in a southeast US state with high-HIV prevalence. Analyses conducted at the individual level (N = 696) accounting for clustering at the zip code level showed that internalized AIDS-related stigma (e.g., the sense of being inferior to others because of HIV) was experienced with greater magnitude in less densely populated communities. Multilevel models indicated that after adjusting for potential confounding factors, rural communities reported greater internalized AIDS-related stigma compared to large-urban areas and that small-urban areas indicated greater experiences of enacted stigma (e.g., discrimination) than large-urban areas. The associations between anticipated AIDS-related stigma (e.g., expecting discrimination) and population density at the community-level were not significant. Results suggest that people living in rural and small-urban settings experience greater AIDS-related internalized and enacted stigma than their counterparts living in large-urban centers. Research is needed to determine whether low-density population areas contribute to or are sought out by people who experienced greater AIDS-related stigma. Regardless of causal directions, interventions are needed to address AIDS-related stigma, especially among people in sparsely populated areas with limited resources.

  12. Effects of urban sprawl on arthropod communities in peri-urban farmed landscape in Shenbei New District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhen-Xing; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qiu-Bing; Yu, Miao; Qian, Feng-Kui

    2018-01-08

    Peri-urban farmland provides a diversity of ecological services. However, it is experiencing increasing pressures from urban sprawl. While the effects of land use associated with farming on arthropod assemblages has received increasing attention, most of this research has been conducted by comparing conventional and organic cropping systems. The present study identifies the effects of urban sprawl and the role of non-cropped habitat in defining arthropod diversity in peri-urban farmed landscapes. Multi-scale arthropod data from 30 sampling plots were used with linear-mixed models to elucidate the effects of distance from urban areas (0-13 km; 13-25 km and >25 km, zones I, II, and III, respectively) on arthropods. Results showed that urban sprawl, disturbed farm landscapes, and disturbance in non-cropped habitats had negative effects on arthropods, the latter requiring arthropods to re-establish annually from surrounding landscapes via dispersal. While arthropod species richness showed no obvious changes, arthropod abundance was lowest in zone II. Generally, patch density (PD), Shannon diversity index (SHDI), and aggregate index (AI) of non-cropped habitat were major drivers of changes in arthropod populations. This study contributes to identifying the effects of urban sprawl on arthropod diversity and documenting the multiple functions of farm landscapes in peri-urban regions.

  13. Ventilation and Air Quality in City Blocks Using Large-Eddy Simulation—Urban Planning Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Kurppa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Buildings and vegetation alter the wind and pollutant transport in urban environments. This comparative study investigates the role of orientation and shape of perimeter blocks on the dispersion and ventilation of traffic-related air pollutants, and the street-level concentrations along a planned city boulevard. A large-eddy simulation (LES model PALM is employed over a highly detailed representation of the urban domain including street trees and forested areas. Air pollutants are represented by massless and passive particles (non-reactive gases, which are released with traffic-related emission rates. High-resolution simulations for four different city-block-structures are conducted over a 8.2 km 2 domain under two contrasting inflow conditions with neutral and stable atmospheric stratification corresponding the general and wintry meteorological conditions. Variation in building height together with multiple cross streets along the boulevard improves ventilation, resulting in 7–9% lower mean concentrations at pedestrian level. The impact of smaller scale variability in building shape was negligible. Street trees further complicate the flow and dispersion. Notwithstanding the surface roughness, atmospheric stability controls the concentration levels with higher values under stably stratified inflow. Little traffic emissions are transported to courtyards. The results provide urban planners direct information to reduce air pollution by proper structural layout of perimeter blocks.

  14. Tree-crown-resolving large-eddy simulation for evaluating greenery effects on urban heat environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, K.; Onishi, R.; Takahashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Urban high temperatures due to the combined influence of global warming and urban heat islands increase the risk of heat stroke. Greenery is one of possible countermeasures for mitigating the heat environments since the transpiration and shading effect of trees can reduce the air temperature and the radiative heat flux. In order to formulate effective measures, it is important to estimate the influence of the greenery on the heat stroke risk. In this study, we have developed a tree-crown-resolving large-eddy simulation (LES) model that is coupled with three-dimensional radiative transfer (3DRT) model. The Multi-Scale Simulator for the Geoenvironment (MSSG) is used for performing building- and tree-crown-resolving LES. The 3DRT model is implemented in the MSSG so that the 3DRT is calculated repeatedly during the time integration of the LES. We have confirmed that the computational time for the 3DRT model is negligibly small compared with that for the LES and the accuracy of the 3DRT model is sufficiently high to evaluate the radiative heat flux at the pedestrian level. The present model is applied to the analysis of the heat environment in an actual urban area around the Tokyo Bay area, covering 8 km × 8 km with 5-m grid mesh, in order to confirm its feasibility. The results show that the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), which is an indicator of the heat stroke risk, is predicted in a sufficiently high accuracy to evaluate the influence of tree crowns on the heat environment. In addition, by comparing with a case without the greenery in the Tokyo Bay area, we have confirmed that the greenery increases the low WBGT areas in major pedestrian spaces by a factor of 3.4. This indicates that the present model can predict the greenery effect on the urban heat environment quantitatively.

  15. A large-scale investigation of the quality of groundwater in six major districts of Central India during the 2010-2011 sampling campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Peeyush

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the groundwater quality in six major districts of Madhya Pradesh in central India, namely, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Dhar, Jhabua, Mandla, and Seoni during the 2010-2011 sampling campaign, and discusses improvements made in the supplied water quality between the years 2011 and 2017. Groundwater is the main source of water for a combined rural population of over 7 million in these districts. Its contamination could have a huge impact on public health. We analyzed the data collected from a large-scale water sampling campaign carried out by the Public Health Engineering Department (PHED), Government of Madhya Pradesh between 2010 and 2011 during which all rural tube wells and dug wells were sampled in these six districts. Eight hundred thirty-one dug wells and 47,606 tube wells were sampled in total and were analyzed for turbidity, hardness, iron, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, and sulfate ion concentrations. Our study found water in 21 out of the 228 dug wells in Chhindwara district unfit for drinking due to fluoride contamination while all dug wells in Balaghat had fluoride within the permissible limit. Twenty-six of the 56 dug wells and 4825 of the 9390 tube wells in Dhar district exceeded the permissible limit for nitrate while 100% dug wells in Balaghat, Seoni, and Chhindwara had low levels of nitrate. Twenty-four of the 228 dug wells and 1669 of 6790 tube wells in Chhindwara had high iron concentration. The median pH value in both dug wells and tube wells varied between 6 and 8 in all six districts. Still, a significant number of tube wells exceeded a pH of 8.5 especially in Mandla and Seoni districts. In conclusion, this study shows that parts of inhabited rural Madhya Pradesh were potentially exposed to contaminated subsurface water during 2010-2011. The analysis has been correlated with rural health survey results wherever available to estimate the visible impact. We next highlight that the quality of drinking water has enormously improved

  16. Going places, staying home : rural-urban connections and the significance of land in Buhera district, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersson, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This book consists of four articles containing detailed ethnographic studies of people who are commonly known as migrant workers.Conventional studies on rural-urban migration and urbanisation have often examined such people in either rural or urban social situations,analysing respectively the

  17. The Healthy Class of 2010: Utilization of the School Health Index to Build Collaboration Between a University and an Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Craig S.; Reed, Ernestine A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Insufficient attention has been paid to the process of conducting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s School Health Index (SHI) to promote collaboration between universities and urban school districts when developing adolescent health promotion initiatives. This article provides an overview of the real world contextual challenges and opportunities this type of collaboration can pose. METHODS The SHI and selected collaboration principles were used to facilitate partnership and increase stakeholder buy-in, which led to developing and implementing an eight year health promotion campaign, The Healthy Class of 2010 (HC 2010). RESULTS The focus on planning brought together key stakeholders and allowed for HC 2010 programming to take place despite the competing demands on the schools. The SHI allowed for input from stakeholders to develop campaign activities and inform school- and district-wide policy. Universities and school districts desiring to develop and implement school-based, adolescent health promotion programs should: 1) identify the hierarchical structure of the school district; 2) establish credibility for the program and the university staff; 3) emphasize the benefits to all partners; 4) maintain a cooperative partnership with teachers and administrators; 5) appreciate the need for planning; and, 6) provide as many resources as possible to on an already overburdened school system. CONCLUSIONS Promoting healthy behaviors among students is an important part of the fundamental mission of schools. HC 2010 underscored the significance of collaboration using the SHI in the development and implementation of this health promotion campaign with input from students, teachers, administrators and university partners. PMID:22070509

  18. Building, Maintaining, and Ending Relationships: An Urban School District and a Technical Assistance Team. Documentation and Technical Assistance in Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Manford L.

    This paper describes the nature of the relationships developed between the technical assistance team of the Documentation and Technical Assistance (DTA) Project and members of a Chicago (Illinois) school district staff with whom the DTA worked. First, the methodology with which the technical assistance work was studied is described, as is the…

  19. Dental Fear and Avoidance in Treatment Seekers at a Large, Urban Dental Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Richard E; Slep, Amy M Smith; White-Ajmani, Mandi; Bulling, Lisanne; Zickgraf, Hana F; Franklin, Martin E; Wolff, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and correlates of dental fear have been studied in representative population studies, but not in patients presenting for dental treatment. We hypothesized that dental fear among patients presenting at a large, urban college of dentistry would be similar to that of the population (e.g. 11% high dental fear, 17% to 35% moderate or higher fear) and that fear would be associated with avoidance of routine dental care, increased use of urgent dental care and poor oral health. Participants were 1070 consecutive patients at a large, urban dental care center. All patients completed a clinical interview, including demographics, medical history, dental history and presenting concerns, and behavioral health history. Patients were also asked to rate their dental anxiety/fear on a 1 (none) to 10 (high) scale. Over 20% of patients reported elevated anxiety/fear, of which 12.30% reported moderate and 8.75% high fear. Severity of dental anxiety/fear was strongly related to the likelihood of avoiding dental services in the past and related to myriad presenting problems. As hypothesized, the prevalence of moderate or higher fear in dental patients was considerable and closely matched that found in general population surveys. Thus, the 'dental home' is an ideal location to treat clinically significant dental anxiety/fear.

  20. Decreased losses of woody plant foliage to insects in large urban areas are explained by bird predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Lanta, Vojtěch; Zverev, Vitali; Rainio, Kalle; Kunavin, Mikhail A; Zvereva, Elena L

    2017-10-01

    Despite the increasing rate of urbanization, the consequences of this process on biotic interactions remain insufficiently studied. Our aims were to identify the general pattern of urbanization impact on background insect herbivory, to explore variations in this impact related to characteristics of both urban areas and insect-plant systems, and to uncover the factors governing urbanization impacts on insect herbivory. We compared the foliar damage inflicted on the most common trees by defoliating, leafmining and gall-forming insects in rural and urban habitats associated with 16 European cities. In two of these cities, we explored quality of birch foliage for herbivorous insects, mortality of leafmining insects due to predators and parasitoids and bird predation on artificial plasticine larvae. On average, the foliage losses to insects were 16.5% lower in urban than in rural habitats. The magnitude of the overall adverse effect of urbanization on herbivory was independent of the latitude of the locality and was similar in all 11 studied tree species, but increased with an increase in the size of the urban area: it was significant in large cities (city population 1-5 million) but not significant in medium-sized and small towns. Quality of birch foliage for herbivorous insects was slightly higher in urban habitats than in rural habitats. At the same time, leafminer mortality due to ants and birds and the bird attack intensity on dummy larvae were higher in large cities than in rural habitats, which at least partially explained the decline in insect herbivory observed in response to urbanization. Our findings underscore the importance of top-down forces in mediating impacts of urbanization on plant-feeding insects: factors favouring predators may override the positive effects of temperature elevation on insects and thus reduce plant damage. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Exploring the condom gap: is supply or demand the limiting factor - condom access and use in an urban and a rural setting in Kilifi district, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papo, Jacqueline K; Bauni, Evasius K; Sanders, Eduard J; Brocklehurst, Peter; Jaffe, Harold W

    2011-01-14

    to explore the extent of the condom gap, investigating the relative roles of supply-side and demand-side factors in determining condom use. GPS mapping of condom outlets, and population-based survey. an urban and a rural site were selected within the Epidemiological and Demographic Surveillance Site in Kilifi district, Kenya. Potential condom outlets (n = 281) were mapped and surveyed, and questionnaires on condom access and use (n = 630) were administered to a random sample of men and women aged 15-49. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the relative roles of supply-side and demand-side barriers on condom use. the median straight-line distance to free condoms was 18-fold higher in the rural versus urban site. Among sexually active respondents, 42% had ever used a condom, and 23% had used a condom over the past 12 months, with lower levels among rural versus urban respondents (P supply-side or demand-side barriers, compared with individuals experiencing both types of barriers. Despite low levels of usage and the presence of supply-side and demand-side barriers, reported unmet need for condoms was low. there is an urgent need for renewed condom promotion efforts aimed at building demand, in addition to improving physical access, in resource-limited settings with generalized HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  2. Assessing the potential of rural and urban private facilities in implementing child health interventions in Mukono district, central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Buregyeya, Esther; Lal, Sham

    2016-01-01

    keeping, essential drugs for the treatment of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea; the sex, level of education, professional and in-service training of the persons found attending to patients in these facilities. A comparison was made between urban and rural facilities. Univariate and bivariate analysis...... was done. RESULTS: A total of 241 private facilities were assessed with only 47 (19.5 %) being in rural areas. Compared to urban areas, rural private facilities were more likely to be drug shops (OR 2.80; 95 % CI 1.23-7.11), less likely to be registered (OR 0.31; 95 % CI 0.16-0.60), not have trained...... attended to at least one sick child in the week prior to the interview. CONCLUSION: There were big gaps between rural and urban private facilities with rural ones having less trained personnel and less zinc tablets' availability. In both rural and urban areas, record keeping was low. Child health...

  3. ‘Slow’ Urban Development, the History and the Future of Poblenou, 22. District of Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorján Anna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban renewal projects are based on long-term strategies and huge economical resources. It takes a lot of time to successfully regenerate an abandoned area, create a new centre, infrastructure, businesses, communities. It also needs the kind of systematic and conscious focus that we see in Germany and Scandinavia. While Spain was one of the most touched countries of the economical crisis, it still succeeded at presenting interesting urban development initiatives.

  4. How Integration Matters: An Alternative Vision for Urban Education in an Era of the Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Joseph B.

    2016-01-01

    The widespread assumption in the United States today is that traditional urban public schools are failing. Market-based solutions, particularly charter schools, are seen as the way to improve urban education. How then can we understand a large urban district where educational actors have furthered a locally popular alternative vision? This article…

  5. Fiscal Policy in Urban Education. A Volume in Research in Education Fiscal Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellke, Christopher, Ed.; Rice, Jennifer King, Ed.

    This volume focuses on school finance challenges in large urban school districts, fiscal accountability in these schools, and the fiscal dimensions of urban school reform. The 12 papers are (1) "School Finance and Urban Education Reform" (Christopher Roellke and Jennifer King Rice); (2) "Can Whole-School Reform Improve the…

  6. Assessing the potential of rural and urban private facilities in implementing child health interventions in Mukono district, central Uganda-a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Buregyeya, Esther; Lal, Sham; Clarke, Sîan E; Hansen, Kristian S; Magnussen, Pascal; LaRussa, Philip; Mbonye, Anthony K

    2016-07-15

    Private facilities are the first place of care seeking for many sick children. Involving these facilities in child health interventions may provide opportunities to improve child welfare. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of rural and urban private facilities in diagnostic capabilities, operations and human resource in the management of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea. A survey was conducted in pharmacies, private clinics and drug shops in Mukono district in October 2014. An assessment was done on availability of diagnostic equipment for malaria, record keeping, essential drugs for the treatment of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea; the sex, level of education, professional and in-service training of the persons found attending to patients in these facilities. A comparison was made between urban and rural facilities. Univariate and bivariate analysis was done. A total of 241 private facilities were assessed with only 47 (19.5 %) being in rural areas. Compared to urban areas, rural private facilities were more likely to be drug shops (OR 2.80; 95 % CI 1.23-7.11), less likely to be registered (OR 0.31; 95 % CI 0.16-0.60), not have trained clinicians, less likely to have people with tertiary education (OR 0.34; 95 % CI 0.17-0.66) and less likely to have zinc tablets (OR 0.38; 95 % CI 0.19-0.78). In both urban and rural areas, there was low usage of stock cards and patient registers. About half of the facilities in both rural and urban areas attended to at least one sick child in the week prior to the interview. There were big gaps between rural and urban private facilities with rural ones having less trained personnel and less zinc tablets' availability. In both rural and urban areas, record keeping was low. Child health interventions need to build capacity of private facilities with special focus on rural areas where child mortality is higher and capacity of facilities lower.

  7. Public issues associated with planning a large diameter pipeline in a multi-use urban corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M. [SENES Consultants Ltd., Richmond Hill, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The demand for natural gas in a downtown area of Toronto is expected to increase significantly due to the proposed construction of two new generation stations. However, there are few opportunities to locate the pipelines in large urban centers because of the lack of foresight by municipalities and others in preserving corridors for utilities. Enbridge Gas conducted a system planning study to determine the best methods for overcoming public issues that were encountered while planning the route for a NPS 36 inch diameter natural gas pipeline in this urban region. In Ontario, distribution pipelines are regulated by the Ontario Energy Board, whose environmental guidelines for the location, construction and operation of hydrocarbon pipelines require the identification of indirectly affected landowners and detailed analysis of public issues and how they can be resolved. Issues include noise, vibration, dust and traffic. Secondary use of the electric transmission rights-of-way resulted in the identification of several other issues, including aesthetics of the right-of-way and loss of privacy for adjacent residential properties. It was determined that the optimal solution was to parallel a section of existing NPS 30 pipeline running in a north-south right-of-way located east of the Don Valley Parkway. The techniques used to address public issues identified 180 directly affected and 3,200 indirectly affected landowners. The Enbridge study revealed that it is possible to plan a right-of-way through an urban corridor in a manner that is compatible with existing development and that satisfies the general public. 6 figs.

  8. Analysis of Groundwater Resources Vulnerability from Agricultural Activities in the Large Irrigation District along the Yellow River

    OpenAIRE

    He, Bin; Oki, Taikan; Kanae, Shinjiro; Runkle, Benjamin; Liang, Xu; Zeng, Ayan; Hao, Fanghua

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater forms an important source of water supply in arid and semi-arid region. Optimum conjunctive utilization of surface and groundwater resources has become extremely important to fill the gap between water demand and supply. Hetao Irrigation District (HID) is the largest irrigation district along the Yellow River and its groundwater table is shallow. The project of Water Saving Reconstruction (WSR) has been conducted for the purpose of keeping the Yellow River free from drying up. The...

  9. Socio-economic drivers of large urban biomass cogeneration: Sustainable energy supply for Austria's capital Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Bachhiesl, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed case study on Austria's by far largest biomass cogeneration plant. The plant is located in the city of Vienna and scheduled to be put into operation by mid-2006. Given the urban location of the plant and its significant biomass fuel input requirements, fuel delivery logistics play an important role-not only from an economic point of view, but also in relation to supply security and environmental impact. We describe and analyse the history of the project, putting particular emphasis on the main driving forces and actors behind the entire project development process. From this analysis we deduce the following main socio-economic drivers and success factors for the realisation of large bioenergy projects in urban settings: (1) a critical mass of actors; (2) a priori political consensus; (3) the existence of a problem (and problem awareness) that calls for decisive steps to be taken; (4) institutional innovation and changes in the mindset of the main decision makers; (5) favourable economic conditions; (6) change agents that are actively engaged from an early stage of development; (7) intra-firm supporters at different hierarchical levels and from different departments; and (8) targeted study tours that help to reduce uncertainty, to enable leapfrogging in project planning and design, and to build up confidence in the project's feasibility and chance of success

  10. The Relationship of Policymaking and Networking Characteristics among Leaders of Large Urban Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P; Castrucci, Brian C; Harris, Jenine K; Hearne, Shelley

    2015-08-06

    The relationship between policy networks and policy development among local health departments (LHDs) is a growing area of interest to public health practitioners and researchers alike. In this study, we examine policy activity and ties between public health leadership across large urban health departments. This study uses data from a national profile of local health departments as well as responses from a survey sent to three staff members (local health official, chief of policy, chief science officer) in each of 16 urban health departments in the United States. Network questions related to frequency of contact with health department personnel in other cities. Using exponential random graph models, network density and centrality were examined, as were patterns of communication among those working on several policy areas using exponential random graph models. All 16 LHDs were active in communicating about chronic disease as well as about use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Connectedness was highest among local health officials (density = .55), and slightly lower for chief science officers (d = .33) and chiefs of policy (d = .29). After accounting for organizational characteristics, policy homophily (i.e., when two network members match on a single characteristic) and tenure were the most significant predictors of formation of network ties. Networking across health departments has the potential for accelerating the adoption of public health policies. This study suggests similar policy interests and formation of connections among senior leadership can potentially drive greater connectedness among other staff.

  11. The Relationship of Policymaking and Networking Characteristics among Leaders of Large Urban Health Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon P. Leider

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between policy networks and policy development among local health departments (LHDs is a growing area of interest to public health practitioners and researchers alike. In this study, we examine policy activity and ties between public health leadership across large urban health departments. Methods: This study uses data from a national profile of local health departments as well as responses from a survey sent to three staff members (local health official, chief of policy, chief science officer in each of 16 urban health departments in the United States. Network questions related to frequency of contact with health department personnel in other cities. Using exponential random graph models, network density and centrality were examined, as were patterns of communication among those working on several policy areas using exponential random graph models. Results: All 16 LHDs were active in communicating about chronic disease as well as about use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD. Connectedness was highest among local health officials (density = .55, and slightly lower for chief science officers (d = .33 and chiefs of policy (d = .29. After accounting for organizational characteristics, policy homophily (i.e., when two network members match on a single characteristic and tenure were the most significant predictors of formation of network ties. Conclusion: Networking across health departments has the potential for accelerating the adoption of public health policies. This study suggests similar policy interests and formation of connections among senior leadership can potentially drive greater connectedness among other staff.

  12. Lymphatic filariasis patient identification in a large urban area of Tanzania: An application of a community-led mHealth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwingira, Upendo; Chikawe, Maria; Mandara, Wilfred Lazarus; Mableson, Hayley E; Uisso, Cecilia; Mremi, Irene; Malishee, Alpha; Malecela, Mwele; Mackenzie, Charles D; Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Stanton, Michelle C

    2017-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is best known for the disabling and disfiguring clinical conditions that infected patients can develop; providing care for these individuals is a major goal of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF. Methods of locating these patients, knowing their true number and thus providing care for them, remains a challenge for national medical systems, particularly when the endemic zone is a large urban area. A health community-led door-to-door survey approach using the SMS reporting tool MeasureSMS-Morbidity was used to rapidly collate and monitor data on LF patients in real-time (location, sex, age, clinical condition) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Each stage of the phased study carried out in the three urban districts of city consisted of a training period, a patient identification and reporting period, and a data verification period, with refinements to the system being made after each phase. A total of 6889 patients were reported (133.6 per 100,000 population), of which 4169 were reported to have hydrocoele (80.9 per 100,000), 2251 lymphoedema-elephantiasis (LE) (43.7 per 100,000) and 469 with both conditions (9.1 per 100,000). Kinondoni had the highest number of reported patients in absolute terms (2846, 138.9 per 100,000), followed by Temeke (2550, 157.3 per 100,000) and Ilala (1493, 100.5 per 100,000). The number of hydrocoele patients was almost twice that of LE in all three districts. Severe LE patients accounted for approximately a quarter (26.9%) of those reported, with the number of acute attacks increasing with reported LE severity (1.34 in mild cases, 1.78 in moderate cases, 2.52 in severe). Verification checks supported these findings. This system of identifying, recording and mapping patients affected by LF greatly assists in planning, locating and prioritising, as well as initiating, appropriate morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) activities. The approach is a feasible framework that could be used in other large

  13. Lymphatic filariasis patient identification in a large urban area of Tanzania: An application of a community-led mHealth system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendo Mwingira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is best known for the disabling and disfiguring clinical conditions that infected patients can develop; providing care for these individuals is a major goal of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF. Methods of locating these patients, knowing their true number and thus providing care for them, remains a challenge for national medical systems, particularly when the endemic zone is a large urban area.A health community-led door-to-door survey approach using the SMS reporting tool MeasureSMS-Morbidity was used to rapidly collate and monitor data on LF patients in real-time (location, sex, age, clinical condition in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Each stage of the phased study carried out in the three urban districts of city consisted of a training period, a patient identification and reporting period, and a data verification period, with refinements to the system being made after each phase. A total of 6889 patients were reported (133.6 per 100,000 population, of which 4169 were reported to have hydrocoele (80.9 per 100,000, 2251 lymphoedema-elephantiasis (LE (43.7 per 100,000 and 469 with both conditions (9.1 per 100,000. Kinondoni had the highest number of reported patients in absolute terms (2846, 138.9 per 100,000, followed by Temeke (2550, 157.3 per 100,000 and Ilala (1493, 100.5 per 100,000. The number of hydrocoele patients was almost twice that of LE in all three districts. Severe LE patients accounted for approximately a quarter (26.9% of those reported, with the number of acute attacks increasing with reported LE severity (1.34 in mild cases, 1.78 in moderate cases, 2.52 in severe. Verification checks supported these findings.This system of identifying, recording and mapping patients affected by LF greatly assists in planning, locating and prioritising, as well as initiating, appropriate morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP activities. The approach is a feasible framework that could be used in other large

  14. Analysis of Survival Rates Following Primary Surgery of 178 Consecutive Patients with Oral Cancer in a Large District General Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Panagiotis; Smith, William P

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to present the survival rates in patients treated for oral cancer with primary surgery in a large district general hospital. We discuss the influence of the most significant prognostic factors on survival and compare our results with larger centres specializing in the management of oral cancer. All patients diagnosed with oral cancer from 1995 to 2006 and were treated in the Department had their details entered prospectively onto a computerized database. Demographic details of patients, type of treatment, pathological stage of tumor (TNM), local and regional recurrence rate, overall survival, disease specific survival and incidence of involved margins were recorded and calculated. Of the 178 patients, 96 (54 %) were alive and free of oral cancer 5 years after surgery. Forty-four patients died of oral cancer (24.7 %) but 38 (21.3 %) died of other causes. The overall survival rate after primary surgery in relation to stage was: I 84 %, II 71 %, III 36 % and IV 28 %. As almost half of our patients presented with advanced cancer and had discouraging survival rates, we emphasize the need for early recognition of the disease. Advanced disease signifies difficulty in obtaining clear margins which actually indicates a higher recurrence rate. 25 % of our patients died of oral cancer within 5 years of surgery which highlights the poor prognosis that recurrence carries after treatment. Effective educational campaign with purpose to raise oral cancer awareness and earlier referral may result in improvement of survival.

  15. Indicators to examine quality of large scale survey data: an example through district level household and facility survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakoli Borkotoky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large scale surveys are the main source of data pertaining to all the social and demographic indicators, hence its quality is also of great concern. In this paper, we discuss the indicators used to examine the quality of data. We focus on age misreporting, incompleteness and inconsistency of information; and skipping of questions on reproductive and sexual health related issues. In order to observe the practical consequences of errors in a survey; the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3 is used as an example dataset. METHODS: Whipple's and Myer's indices are used to identify age misreporting. Age displacements are identified by estimating downward and upward transfers for women from bordering age groups of the eligible age range. Skipping pattern is examined by recording the responses to the questions which precede the sections on birth history, immunization, and reproductive and sexual health. RESULTS: The study observed errors in age reporting, in all the states, but the extent of misreporting differs by state and individual characteristics. Illiteracy, rural residence and poor economic condition are the major factors that lead to age misreporting. Female were excluded from the eligible age group, to reduce the duration of interview. The study further observed that respondents tend to skip questions on HIV/RTI and other questions which follow a set of questions. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that age misreporting, inconsistency and incomplete response are three sources of error that need to be considered carefully before drawing conclusions from any survey. DLHS-3 also suffers from age misreporting, particularly for female in the reproductive ages. In view of the coverage of the survey, it may not be possible to control age misreporting completely, but some extra effort to probe a better answer may help in improving the quality of data in the survey.

  16. Organizing for Improvement in an Urban School District: Shifting From a Culture of Compliance to a Culture of Collective Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacic, Kelly Anne

    2015-01-01

    There is high demand for understanding the ways in which a central office can best support school improvement and student growth. This Capstone examines how a cross-functional senior leadership team collaborated to design a district-wide school improvement planning process with the goal of improving the quality of teaching and learning for all students. In particular, the analysis focuses on the functions of teaming and strategic improvement planning as drivers to help an organization achieve...

  17. Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables in Middle School Students Following the Implementation of a School District Wellness Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kathleen D.; Snelling, Anastasia; Maroto, Maya; Young, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: In 2010, a large urban school district implemented a district-wide school wellness policy that addressed childhood obesity by requiring schools to increase health and physical education contact hours for students and to improve the nutritional standards of school meals. Schools were required to serve a different fruit and…

  18. Landsat sattelite multi-spectral image classification of land cover and land use changes for GIS-based urbanization analysis in irrigation districts of lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley in the south of Texas is experiencing rapid increase of population to bring up urban growth that continues influencing on the irrigation districts in the region. This study evaluated the Landsat satellite multi-spectral imagery to provide information for GIS-based urbaniz...

  19. Turbulence and pollutant transport in urban street canyons under stable stratification: a large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal stratification of the atmospheric surface layer has strong impact on the land-atmosphere exchange of turbulent, heat, and pollutant fluxes. Few studies have been carried out for the interaction of the weakly to moderately stable stratified atmosphere and the urban canopy. This study performs a large-eddy simulation of a modeled street canyon within a weakly to moderately stable atmosphere boundary layer. To better resolve the smaller eddy size resulted from the stable stratification, a higher spatial and temporal resolution is used. The detailed flow structure and turbulence inside the street canyon are analyzed. The relationship of pollutant dispersion and Richardson number of the atmosphere is investigated. Differences between these characteristics and those under neutral and unstable atmosphere boundary layer are emphasized.

  20. Decision support for large-scale remediation strategies by fused urban metabolism and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohms, Pernille; Andersen, Camilla; Landgren, Mathilde

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to identify the most environmental friendly way of conducting a refurbishment of Broendby Strand, with focus on PCB remediation. The actual identification is conducted by comparing four remediation techniques using urban metabolism fused with life cycle assessment (UM......-LCA) in combination with information relating to cost and efficiency of the compared techniques. The methodological goal of our paper is to test UM-LCA as a decision support tool and discuss application of the method in relation to large refurbishment projects. Methods: To assess the environmental performance of PCB......-remediation techniques, the UM-LCA method was applied. By combining UM and LCA methodologies, the total environmental impact potentials of the remediation techniques were calculated. To build an inventory for each technique, we contacted and interviewed experts and studied existing literature, cases, and projects...

  1. Prediction of the demographic situation in urban districts as a factor of sustainable social and economic development of the transport infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, Tatyana; Zhutaeva, Evgeniya; Dubrovskaya, Tatyana

    2017-10-01

    Article considers the significance of the demographic forecast for the effective operation of the providing system of social and economic development of the urban transport infrastructure. Analysis of the factors which influence on the population of the city of Voronezh was performed and the population forecast for the year 2020 is presented on the basis of the classification by year of birth. Calculation was performed in three variants (with consideration of the use of classification by year of birth) in connection with an impact of modern social and economic situation on the negative tendencies formed in demographic processes. In the basis of variants were grounded different approaches to the dynamics of demographic processes. The main demographic indicators are the number of permanent residents, birth rates, death rates, migration rates. According to the results of the study, population of the urban district of the city of Voronezh is expected to increase in the specified period and migration inflow of the population has a dominant role in the formation in the formation of the number of the city population.

  2. The Breathmobile Program: structure, implementation, and evolution of a large-scale, urban, pediatric asthma disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Craig A; Clement, Loran T; Hanley-Lopez, Jean; Morphew, Tricia; Kwong, Kenny Yat Choi; Lifson, Francene; Opas, Lawrence; Guterman, Jeffrey J

    2005-08-01

    Despite more than a decade of education and research-oriented intervention programs, inner city children with asthma continue to engage in episodic "rescue" patterns of healthcare and experience a disproportionate level of morbidity. The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a sustainable community-wide pediatric asthma disease management program designed to shift inner city children in Los Angeles from acute episodic care to regular preventive care in accordance with national standards. In 1995 the Southern California Chapter of the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA), the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LAC DHS), and the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) established an agreement to initiate and sustain the Breathmobile Program. This program includes automated case identification, mobile school-based clinics, and highly structured clinical encounters supported by an advanced information technology solution. Interdisciplinary teams of asthma care specialists provide regular and ongoing care to children at school and county clinic sites over a wide geographic area of urban Los Angeles. Each team operates in a specially equipped mobile clinic (Breathmobile), efficiently moving a structured healthcare process to school and county clinic sites with large numbers of children. Demographic, clinical, and participation data is tracked carefully in an electronic medical record system. Program operations, clinical oversight, and patient tracking are centralized at a care coordination center. Clinical operations and methods have been replicated in fixed specialty clinic sites at the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center. Clinical and process measures are regularly evaluated to assure quality, plan iterative improvement, and support evidence-based care. Four Breathmobiles deliver ongoing care at more than 90 school sites. The program has engaged over five thousand patients and their families in a

  3. Intelligent Pressure Management to Reduce Leakage in Urban Water Supply Networks, A Case Study of Sarafrazan District, Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Soltani Asl; Mahmoud Faghfour Maghrebi

    2009-01-01

    Water losses are inevitable in urban water distribution systems. The two approaches adopted nowadays to combat this problem include management of hydraulic parameters such as pressure and leakage detection in the network. Intellitgent pressure management is a suitable technique for controlling leakage and reducing damages due to high operating pressures in a network. This paper aims to investigate the effects of pressure reduction on leakage. The EPANET 2.10 software is used to simulate the w...

  4. Decentralization in Zambia: resource allocation and district performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, Thomas; Chitah, Mukosha Bona; Bowser, Diana

    2003-12-01

    Zambia implemented an ambitious process of health sector decentralization in the mid 1990s. This article presents an assessment of the degree of decentralization, called 'decision space', that was allowed to districts in Zambia, and an analysis of data on districts available at the national level to assess allocation choices made by local authorities and some indicators of the performance of the health systems under decentralization. The Zambian officials in health districts had a moderate range of choice over expenditures, user fees, contracting, targeting and governance. Their choices were quite limited over salaries and allowances and they did not have control over additional major sources of revenue, like local taxes. The study found that the formula for allocation of government funding which was based on population size and hospital beds resulted in relatively equal per capita expenditures among districts. Decentralization allowed the districts to make decisions on internal allocation of resources and on user fee levels and expenditures. General guidelines for the allocation of resources established a maximum and minimum percentage to be allocated to district offices, hospitals, health centres and communities. Districts tended to exceed the maximum for district offices, but the large urban districts and those without public district hospitals were not even reaching the minimum for hospital allocations. Wealthier and urban districts were more successful in raising revenue through user fees, although the proportion of total expenditures that came from user fees was low. An analysis of available indicators of performance, such as the utilization of health services, immunization coverage and family planning activities, found little variation during the period 1995-98 except for a decline in immunization coverage, which may have also been affected by changes in donor funding. These findings suggest that decentralization may not have had either a positive or

  5. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    /148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study......Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...... within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites...

  6. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...... within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites....... The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12...

  7. Understanding Loan Use and Debt Burden among Low-Income and Minority Students at a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Torres, Maria; McKinney, Lyle; Horn, Catherine; Jones, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This study examined a sample of community college students from a diverse, large urban community college system in Texas. To gain a deeper understanding about the effects of background characteristics on student borrowing behaviors and enrollment outcomes, the study employed descriptive statistics and regression techniques to examine two separate…

  8. Orientation Use of Houses in Rural - Urban (A Case Study in the Eastern District of Kartasura, Sukoharjo 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choirul Amin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Kartasura, seen formspace point of view, has special position because it is located in the corridor intersection between Semarang – Surakarta – Yogyakarta. Which becomes three central developing cities in central part of Java. This study is carried out in border town area in east part of Kartasura, which consist of four village – Pabelan, Gonilan, Gumpang, and Makamhaji. That are growing fast due to the effect of urban characteristic from Surakarta. The orientation phenomena of the use of house (OPR, the urban population that led to the commercial use is an interesting fact dealing with the influence of urban activities in those areas. The goal of this study is to know the kindsand the spread of the space of OPR population in east part of Kartasura and the factors, which is studied, is the houses in the research areas and the respondents are the owner of the houses. The sampling uses systematic proportional random sampling. The location of house sample (UMS, UNS, Islamic Boarding Shcool of Assalam, health services (RSIS and RSO, and commercial services (ALFA, UMS stores. All of them are located in Pabelan and Makamhaji. While industrial center consist of PT Tyfountex and small industries around it in Gumpang. Every central activities is divided into two cluster based on the relative distance from central activities (far and near, so as a whole there are four clusters which made up of two clusters in service center and the other in industrial center. Sample at every cluster is taken proportional about 2,5% based on homogenity consideration, whether the selecction of house sampling is taken randomly. The numbers of samples as a whole 175 respondents. The collected data are prensented in the form of frequency and cross table. Qualitative data analysis uses logical thought, deductive induccctive, analogy and comparison, while quantitative data analysis is done using frequency table analysis and cross table. The use of both analysis is sadapted

  9. Research on the Design of Visually Impaired Interactive Accessibility in Large Urban Public Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiru

    2017-12-01

    In medieval times, due to people’s reliance on belief, public space of Christianity came into being. With the rise of secularization, religion gradually turned into private belief, and accordingly public space returned to private space. In the 21st century, due to people’s reliance on intelligent devices, information-interactive public space emerges, and as information interaction is constantly constraining the visually impaired, public space regressed to the exclusive space of limited people[1]. Modernity is marked by technical rationality, but an ensuing basic problem lies in the separation between human action, ethics and public space. When technology fails to overcome obstacles for a particular group, the gap between the burgeoning intelligent phenomena and the increasing ratio of visually impaired is also expanding, ultimately resulting in a growing number of “blind spots” in information-interactive space. Technological innovation not only promotes the development of the information industry, but also promotes the rapid development of the transportation industry. Traffic patterns are diversifying and diverging nowadays, but it’s a fatal blow for people with visually disabilities, Because they still can only experience the most traditional mode of transportation, sometimes even not go out. How to guarantee their interactive accessibility in large urban public transport system right, currently, is a very important research direction.

  10. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie K.; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2010-11-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier-Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were validated against experimental data obtained in wind-tunnel studies before the model was applied to study the detailed turbulence, temperature, and pollutant dispersion characteristics in the street canyon of aspect ratio 1. The effects of different Richardson numbers ( Ri) were investigated. The ground heating significantly enhanced mean flow, turbulence, and pollutant flux inside the street canyon, but weakened the shear at the roof level. The mean flow was observed to be no longer isolated from the free stream and fresh air could be entrained into the street canyon at the roof-level leeward corner. Weighed against higher temperature, the ground heating facilitated pollutant removal from the street canyon.

  11. Effect of stable stratification on dispersion within urban street canyons: A large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex; Norford, Leslie K.

    2016-11-01

    This study employs a validated large-eddy simulation (LES) code with high tempo-spatial resolution to investigate the effect of a stably stratified roughness sublayer (RSL) on scalar transport within an urban street canyon. The major effect of stable stratification on the flow and turbulence inside the street canyon is that the flow slows down in both streamwise and vertical directions, a stagnant area near the street level emerges, and the vertical transport of momentum is weakened. Consequently, the transfer of heat between the street canyon and overlying atmosphere also gets weaker. The pollutant emitted from the street level 'pools' within the lower street canyon, and more pollutant accumulates within the street canyon with increasing stability. Under stable stratification, the dominant mechanism for pollutant transport within the street canyon has changed from ejections (flow carries high-concentration pollutant upward) to unorganized motions (flow carries high-concentration pollutant downward), which is responsible for the much lower dispersion efficiency under stable stratifications.

  12. Evaluation of a Worksite Diabetes Education Program at a Large Urban Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Susan; Baernholdt, Marianne; Becker, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that diabetes education can be delivered at the worksite to better support employees' diabetes self-management and improve productivity and health care costs. This study was conducted to address the feasibility of a diabetes worksite education program for employees at a large urban academic health care institution. The diabetes education program was delivered in the diabetes center at the institution, a resource that was previously underutilized by employees. Through collaboration with groups in the institution, 20 employees of diverse ethnicity participated in the worksite diabetes education program with positive outcomes: improved glycemic control measured (HbA1c), attainment of self-management goals, and satisfaction with the program. Work absences trended downward, but numbers of hospitalizations and emergency department visits were unchanged in the 3 months following education. Recommendations include replication of the study with more employee participation and program evaluation over a longer period of time to continue assessment of employees' educational needs. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. The prevalence of two 'commonly' encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R; Burnett, E; Luff, N; Wagner, C; Stinga, G; Carney, C; Sheridan, K

    2015-03-01

    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation. Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), pub seats (54) and cinema seats (53). Using low power stereomicroscopy, a total of 114 and 68 fibres, superficially similar to the respective black acrylic and blue polyester target fibres, were recovered from these tapings. The full range of comparative microscopical and instrumental analysis used in operational forensic laboratories was performed on the recovered fibres. No matches were found with either of the target fibres. These findings are in accordance with similar studies which show that the probability of an 'adventitious' match with a particular fibre type/colour combination is extremely low. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the current techniques and instrumentation employed by operational forensic laboratories are fit for purpose. Importantly, the findings demonstrate that databases and surveys (e.g. fibre population studies) which do not consider the analytical/comparison processes, must not be used in isolation when evaluating fibre evidence at source level. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing a pediatric palliative care service in a large urban hospital: challenges, lessons, and successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlynn, Emily S; Derrington, Sabrina; Morgan, Helene; Murray, Jennifer; Ornelas, Beatriz; Cucchiaro, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    We report the process of creating a new palliative care service at a large, urban children's hospital. Our aim was to provide a detailed guide to developing an inpatient consultation service, along with reporting on the challenges, lessons, and evaluation. We examined the hiring process of personnel and marketing strategies, a clinical database facilitated ongoing quality review and identified trends, and a survey project assessed provider satisfaction and how referring physicians used the palliative care service. The pilot phase of service delivery laid the groundwork for a more effective service by creating documentation templates and identifying relevant data to track growth and outcomes. It also allowed time to establish a clear delineation of team members and distinction of roles. The survey of referring physicians proved a useful evaluation starting point, but conclusions could not be generalized because of the low response rate. It may be necessary to reconsider the survey technique and to expand the sample to include patients and families. Future research is needed to measure the financial benefits of a well-staffed inpatient pediatric palliative care service.

  15. Organizing and Managing Transition to Sustainable Urban Districts and Housing Structures. A Comparative Study of Swedish and Danish Cases of Current Urban Planning Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    through analysis of documents, field observation, interviews and focus group seminars. Results showed that despite many similarities between the Swedish and Danish welfare state models, the organization of the social housing sector differs significantly between the two countries. This brings about very......In Scandinavia baby boomers coming of age in 1960s, in combination with a massive migration from rural to urban areas, caused a massive demand for new housing. Public authority responded by soliciting to social housing associations to construct a huge number of dwellings within a short time span...... different conditions for finance and consequently for organization of sustainable regeneration of 1960-70s’ suburban housing estates. On the Swedish side housing estates are either privately owned or organized as part of a municipal organization, whereas on the Danish side social housing estates are owned...

  16. Examining a math-science professional development program for teachers in grades 7-12 in an urban school district in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszczak, Lesia

    With the adoption of the Common Core State Standards in New York State and the Next Generation Science Standards, it is more important than ever for school districts to develop professional development programs to provide teachers with the resources that will assist them in incorporating the new standards into their classroom instruction. This study focused on a mathematics and science professional development program known as STEMtastic STEM. The two purposes of the study were: to determine if there is an increase in STEM content knowledge of the participants involved in year two of a three year professional development program and to examine the teachers' perceptions of the impact of the professional development program on classroom instruction. The sample included teachers of grades 7-12 from an urban school district in New York State. The scores of a content knowledge pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a paired sample t-test to determine any significant differences in scores. In order to determine mathematics and science teachers' perceptions of the impact of the professional development program, responses from a 22 item Likert-style survey were analyzed to establish patterns of responses and to determine positive and negative perceptions of participants of the professional development program. A single sample t-test was used to determine if the responses were significantly positive. The results of this study indicated that there was no significant increase in content knowledge as a result of participation in the STEMtastic STEM professional development program. Both mathematics and science teachers exhibited significant positive perceptions of items dealing with hands-on participation during the professional development; support provided by STEMtastic STEM specialists; and the support provided by the administration. It was concluded that both mathematics and science teachers responded positively to the training they received during the professional

  17. How species traits and affinity to urban land use control large-scale species frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, Sonja; Kuehn, Ingolf; Bakker, Jan P.; Kleyer, Michael; Klotz, Stefan; Ozinga, Wim A.; Poschlod, Peter; Thompson, Ken; Thuiller, Wilfried; Roemermann, Christine

    Although urban areas only occupy c. 2.8% of the earth's land surface, urbanization threatens biodiversity as areas of high human population density often coincide with high biodiversity. Therefore, nature conservation should concentrate on both remote areas and densely populated regions. Protecting

  18. How species traits and affinity to urban land use control large-scale species frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, S.; Kuhn, I.; Bakker, J.P.; Kleyer, M.; Klotz, S.; Ozinga, W.A.; Poschlod, P.; Thompson, K.; Thuiller, W.; Romermann, C.

    2009-01-01

    Although urban areas only occupy c. 2.8% of the earth's land surface, urbanization threatens biodiversity as areas of high human population density often coincide with high biodiversity. Therefore, nature conservation should concentrate on both remote areas and densely populated regions. Protecting

  19. Characterization of Dairy Production Systems and Analysis of Milk Promotion Strategies in Rural and Urban Areas in Niger: Case of the Urban Community of Niamey and Rural District of Filingue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Boukari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Livestock breeding and particularly milk production play a major role in poverty alleviation and economic growth. The present study aimed at characterizing the production systems and opening avenues for milk production in a (suburban [urban community of Niamey (UCN] and in a rural environment [rural district of Filingue (RDF] in Niger. In UCN, surveys were carried out in 35 dairy sites randomly selected among the 150 already indexed within a radius of 50 km from the capital. Out of these, 12 sites were selected allowing the questionnaire to be administered to 169 heads of household. In RDF, 49 heads of household, located in five villages within 75 km of Filingue, were surveyed. Results showed that in UCN, breeders owned few dairy cows (five on average, i.e. 28% of the bovine herd, which produced in all seasons 7 to 10 L/household/day; they marketed fresh milk more often than in RDF because they had access to dairy transformation units. In RDF, they owned more cows (ten on average, i.e. 52% of the bovine herd, which produced only during the rainy season and the cold dry season (between 0 to 10 and 10 to 20 L/household/ day according to 66 and 20% of the persons surveyed, respectively; dairy products were transformed more often before sale (melted butter, curdled milk, cheese. The innovations observed in the surveyed breeders were related to changes in herd management. The constraints to dairy production development in the urban area concerned in particular production and preservation of good-quality fresh milk all the way to transforming units or consumers, while in the rural area, it concerned the lack of avenues. In urban areas, it is essential to organize the supply of food inputs, evening collection of milk and to popularize technical topics and innovating practices.

  20. Application of GIS in Urban Traffic Noise Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Manouchehr Omidvari; Ali Asghar Alesheikh

    2010-01-01

    Large urban areas are facing growing problems of noise pollutions. Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) can conveniently be adapted to gather, analyze and present noise information. GIS can also be extended to answer to user specific problems through deterministic and statistics models. The objectives of this research were to measure urban traffic noise levels, analyze temporal and spatial dynamics of urban traffic-induced noise pollution in the first districted of Tehran estimate the noise f...

  1. Combined prevalence of impaired glucose level or diabetes and its correlates in Lusaka urban district, Zambia: a population based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsakashalo-Senkwe Mutale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition, from Communicable or Infectious to 'Non-Communicable' diseases (NCDs, such that cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes were responsible for 60% of all deaths globally in 2005, with more than 75% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. A survey was conducted to determine among other objectives the prevalence of diabetes and its association with physical fitness and biological factors. Methods A cross sectional study utilizing a modified World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance of NCDs was conducted in Lusaka district, Zambia. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants of age 25 years or older. All eligible members of a household that was selected were invited to participate in the study. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR, and adjusted odds ratios (AOR together with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were obtained using Complex samples logistic regression Results A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About half of the participants were of age 25-34 years (53.2%, and about a third of the respondents had attained secondary level of education (35.8%. The combined prevalence for impaired glucose level or diabetes was 4.0%. Age and mild hypertension were significantly associated with impaired levels of glucose or diabetes. Compared to participants in the age group 25-34 years, older participants were more likely to have impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.49 (95%CI [1.35, 2.92] for 35-44 years age group, and AOR = 3.80 (95%CI [2.00, 7.23] for 45 + years age group. Mild hypertension was associated with impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.57 (95%CI [1.44, 4.57]. Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes in Lusaka district has not reached an alarming level and it is now that interventions targeting the younger age

  2. Optimizing Spatial Resolution of Imagery for Urban Form Detection—The Cases of France and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Weber

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The multitude of satellite data products available offers a large choice for urban studies. Urban space is known for its high heterogeneity in structure, shape and materials. To approach this heterogeneity, finding the optimal spatial resolution (OSR is needed for urban form detection from remote sensing imagery. By applying the local variance method to our datasets (pan-sharpened images, we can identify OSR at two levels of observation: individual urban elements and urban districts in two agglomerations in West Europe (Strasbourg, France and in Southeast Asia (Da Nang, Vietnam. The OSR corresponds to the minimal variance of largest number of spectral bands. We carry out three categories of interval values of spatial resolutions for identifying OSR: from 0.8 m to 3 m for isolated objects, from 6 m to 8 m for vegetation area and equal or higher than 20 m for urban district. At the urban district level, according to spatial patterns, form, size and material of elements, we propose the range of OSR between 30 m and 40 m for detecting administrative districts, new residential districts and residential discontinuous districts. The detection of industrial districts refers to a coarser OSR from 50 m to 60 m. The residential continuous dense districts effectively need a finer OSR of between 20 m and 30 m for their optimal identification. We also use fractal dimensions to identify the threshold of homogeneity/heterogeneity of urban structure at urban district level. It seems therefore that our approaches are robust and transferable to different urban contexts.

  3. Respiratory Morbidity among Rice Mill Workers in an Urban Area of Burdwan District, West Bengal: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madhab Ch; Naskar, Somnath; Roy, Ramaprasad; Das, Dilip Kr; Das, Soumya

    2018-01-01

    Rice mill workers constitute a special group from the perspective of occupational health. Unprotected dust exposure among them adversely affects their respiratory health, which needs to be evaluated. Adequate evidence is still lacking in many parts of India including West Bengal. Burdwan is one of the main rice-producing districts in the state with abundant rice mills. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence and pattern of respiratory morbidity and associated background characteristics of rice mill workers. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Burdwan municipality area during July-December 2016. Considering 44.2% prevalence, 95% confidence interval, 15% allowable error, 10% non-response, a sample of 252 directly engaged rice mill workers were selected through multistage random sampling. With prior consent, the subjects were interviewed, clinically examined, and underwent spirometry; relevant records were also reviewed using a pre-designed schedule. Any abnormal spirometry finding was considered as respiratory morbidity. Ethical approval was obtained from institutional ethics committee. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. Prevalence of respiratory morbidity was 40.73% with obstructive and restrictive respiratory morbidity being 24.60% and 16.13%, respectively. Non-use of any protective measure, duration (years) of working in rice mill and average daily working hours were significant predictors of respiratory morbidity. Respiratory morbidity is quite high in the area. Proper health education and provision of personal protective equipments need to be provided.

  4. Nitrate in drinking water and vegetables: intake and risk assessment in rural and urban areas of Nagpur and Bhandara districts of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Pinky; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Nagarnaik, Pranav

    2017-06-06

    The study focuses on the estimation of health risk from nitrate present in the drinking water and vegetables in Nagpur and Bhandara districts in the state of Maharashtra, India. Drinking water samples from 77 locations from the rural as well as urban areas and 22 varieties of vegetable were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrate for a period of 1 year (two seasons). The daily intake of nitrate from these water and vegetable samples was then computed and compared with standard acceptable intake levels to assess the associated health risk. The mean nitrate concentration of 59 drinking water samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards limit of 45 mg/L in drinking water. The rural and urban areas were found to have mean nitrate concentration in drinking water as 45.69 ± 2.08 and 22.53 ± 1.97 mg/L, respectively. The estimated daily intake of drinking water samples from 55 study sites had nitrate concentration far below the safety margin indicating serious health risk. The sanitation survey conducted in 12 households reported contaminated source with positive E. coli count in 20 samples as the major factor of health risk. The average nitrate concentration was maximum in beetroot (1349.38 mg/kg) followed by spinach (1288.75 mg/kg) and amaranthus (1007.64 mg/kg). Among the samples, four varieties of the vegetables exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) with an assumption of 0.5 kg consumption of vegetables for an average of a 60-kg individual. Therefore, irrigation of these locally grown vegetables should be monitored periodically for nitrogen accumulation by the crop above the ADI limit. The application of nitrogenous fertilizers should also be minimized in the rural areas to help protect the nitrate contamination in groundwater sources.

  5. Large-Scale Urban Decontamination; Developments, Historical Examples and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer

    2007-02-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actual events have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the real potential for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or “dirty bomb”) residues. In response the U. S. Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD contamination and novel decontamination methodologies. Interest in chemical and biological (CB) cleanup has also peaked with the threat of terrorist action like the anthrax attack at the Hart Senate Office Building and with catastrophic natural events such as Hurricane Katrina. The efficiency of cleanup response will be improved with these new developments and a better understanding of the “old reliable” methodologies. Perhaps the most interesting area of investigation for large area decontamination is that of the RDD. While primarily an economic and psychological weapon, the need to cleanup and return valuable or culturally significant resources to the public is nonetheless valid. Several private companies, universities and National Laboratories are currently developing novel RDD cleanup technologies. Because of its longstanding association with radioactive facilities, the U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories are at the forefront in developing and testing new RDD decontamination methods. However, such cleanup technologies are likely to be fairly task specific; while many different contamination mechanisms, substrate and environmental conditions will make actual application more complicated. Some major efforts have also been made to model potential contamination, to evaluate both old and new decontamination techniques and to assess their readiness for use. Non-radioactive, CB threats each have unique decontamination challenges and recent events have provided some examples. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as lead agency for these emergency

  6. Mandatory Community-Based Learning in U.S. Urban High Schools: Fair Equality of Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.; Alsbury, Thomas L.; Fan, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    This study explores participant experiences at two contrasting high schools in a large, urban school district in crisis who implemented mandatory community-based learning (CBL) (e.g. community service, work-based internships) as a policy of reform. Rawls' theory of justice as fairness is used to examine capacity of the district formal policy to…

  7. An Intensification Approach to Double-Block Algebra: A Pilot Implementation of Intensified Algebra in A Large Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidd, Simon T.; Stoelinga, Timothy M.; Bush-Richards, Angela M.; De Sena, Donna L.; Dwyer, Theodore J.

    2018-01-01

    Double-block instruction has become a popular strategy for supporting struggling mathematics students in algebra I. Despite its widespread adoption, little consistent evidence supports the attributes of a successful double-block design or the effectiveness of this instructional strategy. In this study, the authors examine a pilot implementation of…

  8. Change at a Large Urban District: Developing and Operationalizing an Ed Tech Standards and Support System at Chicago Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Sayeed, Dilara Alim

    2015-01-01

    Chicago Public Schools (CPS) aims to effectively and efficiently leverage Education Technology (referred to as Ed Tech) to serve as a powerful resource for strong instruction. The term Ed Tech at CPS refers to digital instructional products and programs, used by students or educators, for teaching and learning. Examples of Ed Tech include literacy programs such as Achieve3000, websites or platforms such as Khan Academy or eSpark, along with a myriad other technological inventions that are rap...

  9. Monitoring sensible heat flux over urban areas in a high-altitude city using Large Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junping; Timmermans, Wim J.; Ma, Yaoming; Su, Bob; Pema, Tsering

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization leads to modifications of surface energy balance which governs the momentum, heat and mass transfer between urban canopy layer and the atmosphere, thus impacts dynamic processes in the urban ABL and ultimately influence the local, regional and even global climate. It is essential to obtain accurate urban ABL observations to enhance our understanding of land-atmosphere interaction process over the urban area and help to improve the prediction ability of numerical model. However, up to now, there are rarely observations in high latitude cities. In one of the highest cities in the world, Lhasa, Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements have been ongoing since 10 August 2016 and a Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) started to work on 12 November 2016, in addition to a UHI network which has been running since 2012. Taking advantage of these observations, this poster will estimate and analyze the surface energy balance in the winter of 2016 in Lhasa, with an emphasis on sensible heat flux. An analytical footprint model and the radiative surface temperature retrieved from Landsat 8 will be employed to compare EC and LAS measurements.

  10. Enhanced Methodologies to Enumerate Persons Experiencing Homelessness in a Large Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Catherine L; D'Andrea, Ritalinda; Grier, Gary; Williams, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Homelessness is a public health problem, and persons experiencing homelessness are a vulnerable population. Estimates of the number of persons experiencing homelessness inform funding allocations and services planning and directly determine the ability of a community to intervene effectively in homelessness. The point-in-time (PIT) count presents a logistical problem in large urban areas, particularly those covering a vast geographical area. Working together, academia, local government, and community organizations improved the methodology for the count. Specific enhancements include use of incident command system (ICS), increased number of staging areas/teams, specialized outreach and Special Weapons and Tactics teams, and day-after surveying to collect demographic information. This collaboration and enhanced methodology resulted in a more accurate estimate of the number of persons experiencing homelessness and allowed comparison of findings for 4 years. While initial results showed an increase due to improved counting, the number of persons experiencing homelessness counted for the subsequent years showed significant decrease during the same time period as a "housing first" campaign was implemented. The collaboration also built capacity in each sector: The health department used ICS as a training opportunity; the academics enhanced their community health efforts; the service sector was taught and implemented more rigorous quantitative methods; and the community was exposed to public health as a pragmatic and effective discipline. Improvements made to increase the reliability of the PIT count can be adapted for use in other jurisdictions, leading to improved counts and better evaluation of progress in ending homelessness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Flood management: prediction of microbial contamination in large-scale floods in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathon; Lai, Ka Man; Davies, Mike; Clifton, David; Ridley, Ian; Biddulph, Phillip

    2011-07-01

    , insurance companies and residents to better understand, prepare for and manage a large-scale flood in urban environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors influencing the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers in a peri-urban district of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Kofi Akohene; Acheampong, Enoch; Anokye, Francis Owusu; Okyere, Paul; Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Adjei, Rose Odotei

    2017-09-07

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is one of the optimal infant and young child feeding practices. Globally, district. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted using structured questionnaires. A convenience sampling technique was employed to select 380 nursing mothers who attended postnatal care at the postnatal clinic in all the 13 health facilities with child welfare clinics (both public and private) and were available on the day of data collection. Data were analysed using frequency and CHISQ tables. There was a significant association between socio-demographic characteristics of mothers such as age (p = 0.129), religion (p = 0.035) type of employment (p = 0.005) and the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. Again, there was significant relationship between mothers' knowledge on EBF in terms of sources of information about EBF (p = 0.000), steps taken by mothers who perceived not to have breast milk (p = 0.000), some medical conditions of nursing mothers (p = 0.000) and the practice of EBF. Most nursing mothers use infant formula feeds as either supplement or substitute for breast milk based on their perception that breast milk may not be sufficient for the babies despite the high cost of these artificial milk. This puts the babies at a higher risk of compromised health and malnutrition which has the potential of increasing infant mortality. Most mothers are not practicing exclusive breastfeeding because their spouses and family members do not allow them.

  13. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  14. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal

  15. Study on the Prevalence of Leptospirosis among Fever Cases Reported from Private Clinics in the Urban areas of Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basker, Parasuraman; Kannan, Pichai; Kolandaswamy, Karumana Gounder

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To know the prevalence of leptospirosis cases reported in private clinics among fever cases in Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India to know its real magnitude of the problem and to diagnose Leptospirosis among fever cases from differential diagnosis. Methods 1502 Blood serum samples collected from three urban towns namely Kallakurichi (Latitude: 11° 73′ N; Longitude: 78° 97′ E), Villupuram (Latitude: 11° 75′ N; Longitude: 79° 92′ E) and Thindivanam (Latitude: 12° 25′ N; Longitude: 79° 65′ E) in fifteen clinics based on case definition of leptospirosis delineated by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Government of India. Samples were tested in the laboratory of the Zonal Entomological Team (ZET), Cuddalore with Macroscopic Slide Agglutination Test (MSAT) and Ig-M ELISA. Result There were 65 positive cases detected from 1502 blood serum samples in both MSAT and Ig-M ELISA. It could be known that there was 4% cases contributed from private clinics among fever cases. From this study, further it was known that all age groups of people affected irrespective of sexes based on their living condition associated with the environment prevailed of the disease. Conclusion From this study, it was quantified that 4% of cases reported in private clinics among fever cases and its findings ascertained both the importance of differential diagnosis as well as reports that should be included to the Government for knowing its real magnitude for planning. PMID:24955313

  16. Comparison of frequency of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in pregnant women in urban and rural area of district Swat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.T.; Marwat, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective analytical study was carried out to observe the frequency of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C among the pregnant women of Swat. The study was carried out from January 2008 to December 2008. It was a retrospective study based on review of records of pregnant women admitted to Labour Room of Obstetrics/Gynaecology Unit, Saidu Teaching Hospital, Swat. Patients were screened for Hepatitis B and C by Immuno Chromatographic Technique (ICT) device. The findings were recorded on proforma and analysed. Those found positive on screening test were confirmed by ELISA. Total number of patients screened was 5607. The frequency of Hepatitis B and C (Combined) was 223 (3.98%), out of which 77 (1.37%) were HBsAg positive, 141 (2.52%) were anti HCV positive and 5 (0.09%) were both HBsAg and anti HCV positive. The frequency of Hepatitis B amongst age groups 14-19 , 20-29, 30-39 and 40-49 years were 2/77, 33/77, 40/77, and 2/77) respectively. The frequency of Hepatitis C amongst age groups 14-19, 20-29,30-39 and 40-49 years was 4/141, 59/141, 67/141 and 11/141 respectively. The frequency of Hepatitis B and C in multigravida was 41/77, 67/141, in grand multigravida it was 20/77, 43/141 and in primigravida it was 16/77, 31/141 respectively. The frequency of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C amongst urban and rural population was 32 (39.02%) and 50 (60.98%); and 40 (27.40%) and 106 (72.60%) respectively. The frequency of Hepatitis B and C (Combined) in urban, rural population were 72 (31.58 %) and 156 (68.15 %) respectively. HBsAg and HCV was common infections in pregnant women of Swat. Therefore, every pregnant woman undergoing delivery and/or any other surgical procedure must be screened for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. (author)

  17. Population Densities of Birds Breeding in Urbanized Habitats in the Grabiszyn District in the City of Wrocław

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha, gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%, in/on buildings (30.2% and in trees/shrubs (25.6%. Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.

  18. Teacher Responses to Pay-for-Performance Policies: Survey Results from Four High-Poverty, Urban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John

    2011-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly adopting "pay-for-performance" policies in which teachers are compensated based on their performance as measured by classroom evaluations and/or student achievement test results. Prior research has produced largely inconclusive findings concerning support among teachers for these policies and their effects…

  19. Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratios with Ground Heating: Large-Eddy Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Britter, Rex E; Norford, Leslie Keith; Entekhabi, Dara

    2010-01-01

    A validated large-eddy simulation model was employed to study the effect of the aspect ratio and ground heating on the flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons. Three ground-heating intensities (neutral, weak and strong) were imposed in street canyons of aspect ratio 1, 2, and 0.5. The detailed patterns of flow, turbulence, temperature and pollutant transport were analyzed and compared. Significant changes of flow and scalar patterns were caused by ground heating in the street ca...

  20. Biodiversity of bacteriophages: morphological and biological properties of a large group of phages isolated from urban sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Jurczak-Kurek; Tomasz Gąsior; Bożena Nejman-Faleńczyk; Sylwia Bloch; Aleksandra Dydecka; Gracja Topka; Agnieszka Necel; Magdalena Jakubowska-Deredas; Magdalena Narajczyk; Malwina Richert; Agata Mieszkowska; Borys Wróbel; Grzegorz Węgrzyn; Alicja Węgrzyn

    2016-01-01

    A large scale analysis presented in this article focuses on biological and physiological variety of bacteriophages. A collection of 83 bacteriophages, isolated from urban sewage and able to propagate in cells of different bacterial hosts, has been obtained (60 infecting Escherichia coli, 10 infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 infecting Salmonella enterica, 3 infecting Staphylococcus sciuri, and 6 infecting Enterococcus faecalis). High biological diversity of the collection is indicated by its...

  1. Modelling the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: Using large-eddy simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of 2 under neutral meteorological conditions using large-eddy simulation. The spatial variation of pollutants is significant due to the existence of two unsteady vortices. The deviation of species abundance from chemical equilibrium for the upper vortex is greater than that for the lower vortex. The interplay of dynamics and chemistry is investigated using two metrics: the photostationary state defect, and the inferred ozone production rate. The latter is found to be negative at all locations within the canyon, pointing to a systematic negative offset to ozone production rates inferred by analogous approaches in environments with incomplete mixing of emissions. This study demonstrates an approach to quantify parameters for a simplified two-box model, which could support traffic management and urban planning strategies and personal exposure assessment. - Highlights: • Large-eddy simulation reproduces two unsteady vortices seen in a lab experiment. • Reactive pollutants in an urban street canyon exhibit significant spatial variation. • O 3 production rate inferred by the NO x -O 3 -steady-state-defect approach is discussed. • Ground level sourced pollutants are largely trapped within the lower vortex. • A method of quantifying parameters of a two-box model is developed. - Reactive pollutants in a deep street canyon exhibit significant spatial variation driven by two unsteady vortices. A method of quantifying parameters of a two-box model is developed

  2. Promoting Children's and Adolescents' Social and Emotional Development: District Adaptations of a Theory of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziora, Kimberly; Osher, David

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the broader discussion of promotion, prevention, and intervention in child and adolescent mental health by describing implementation and early outcomes of an 8-school district demonstration project aimed at making the promotion of social and emotional learning a systemic part of school districts' practice. Eight districts are 2-3 years in to their participation in the 6-year project. The districts are large, are predominantly urban, and serve many students who are at disadvantage. The evaluation involved collection of qualitative data to measure the degree to which the districts realized the goals established in the initiative's theory of action, as well as school climate data, extant student records, and surveys of students' social and emotional competence. To date, results show that districts have followed highly individual pathways toward integrating social and emotional learning systemically, and all have made progress over time. Although school-level implementation remains at moderate levels, 2 districts in which we could examine school climate showed gains from preinitiative years. Four of 6 measured districts showed improvement in social and emotional competence for students in Grade 3, and achievement and discipline showed overall improvements across all districts. Overall findings show that implementation of the initiative's theory of action by school districts is feasible, even in times of budgetary stress and leadership turnover. This establishes the potential for school districts to serve as a lever of change in the promotion of students' social and emotional development and mental wellness.

  3. Allergic rhinitis in northern vietnam: increased risk of urban living according to a large population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lâm Hoàng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms among adults in Vietnam. We aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factor patterns and co-morbidities of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms in one urban and one rural area in northern Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from August 2007 to January 2008 in urban Hoankiem and rural Bavi in Hanoi among adults aged 21-70 years. Of 7008 randomly selected subjects, 91.7% participated in Bavi and 70.3% in Hoankiem. Results Allergic rhinitis ever or chronic nasal symptoms were reported by 50.2%. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis ever was considerably higher in Hoankiem compared to Bavi, 29.6% vs 10.0% (p Conclusions Allergic rhinitis ever was considerably more common in the urban area. Nasal blocking and runny nose was each reported by about one third of the studied sample with no major urban-rural difference. Further, exposure to air pollution at work was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis ever, nasal blocking and runny nose.

  4. P-wave anisotropic velocity tomography beneath the Japan islands: Large-scale images and details in the Kanto district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishise, M.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Oda, H.

    2006-12-01

    The Japan islands arc is located in the convergence zone of the North American (NA), Amurian (AM), Pacific (PAC) and Philippine Sea (PHS) plates, and its parts are exposed to various tectonic settings. For example, at the Kanto district in its central part, these four plates directly interact with each, so that disastrous future earthquakes are expected along the plate boundaries and within the inland areas. In order to understand this sort of complex tectonic setting, it is necessary to know the seismological structure in various perspectives. We investigate the seismic velocity structure beneath the Japan islands in view of P-wave anisotropy. We improved a hitherto-known P-wave tomography technique so that the 3-D structure of isotropic and anisotropic velocities and earthquake hypocenter locations are determined from P-wave arrival times of local earthquakes [Ishise and Oda, 2005]. In the tomography technique, P-wave anisotropy is assumed to hold hexagonal symmetry with horizontal symmetry axis. The P-wave arrival times used in this study are complied in the Japan University Network Earthquake Catalog. The results obtained are summarized as follows; (1) the upper crust anisotropy is governed by the present-day stress field arising from the interaction between the plates surrounding the Japan islands arc, (2) the mantle anisotropy is caused by the present-day mantle flow induced by slab subduction and continental plate motion, (3) the old PAC slab keeps its original slab anisotropy which was captured when the plate was formed, while the youngest part of the PHS slab has lost the original anisotropy during its subduction and has gained new anisotropy which is controlled by the present-day stress field. We also carried out a further study on high-resolution seismic tomography for understanding the specific characteristics of the Kanto district. We mostly focused on the elucidation of the dual subduction formed by the PHS and PAC slabs using seismological data

  5. [The behavioral determinants for health centers in health districts of urban Africa: results of a survey of households in Kinshasa, Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzambi, J K; Tellier, V; Bertrand, F; Albert, A; Reginster, J Y; Van Balen, E H

    2000-08-01

    This study analyses the choice determinants of the population for health centres through a survey of the behaviour of families in a representative sample of 1,000 households in the health districts of Kinshasa, Congo in 1997. For the most recent episode of illness, the respondents turned to seven types of care: the health centre (37%), private dispensaries (26.5%), self-medication through a pharmacy (23.9%), traditional practitioner (21%), traditional self-medication (16.9%), private outpatients' clinic (16.7%) and a reference hospital (10.4%). Past logistics have shown that patients resort to a health centre rather than another type of care structure (P = 0.05) when looking for quality care, reasonable prices and the availability of varied services. On the other hand, concern about the geographical proximity in relation to the family's residence calls for using the private dispensary. When looking for a doctor or the existence of a 'convention', families are more inclined to choose a private officially recognized outpatients' clinic. Those who had been looking for a solution to a special type of illness opted primarily for a traditional practitioner. In conclusion, the results of this study show that if people choose the care offered by health centres, it is because they judge it to be of good quality. The integrated care offered by the same technician, with a required training, is a major asset in the acceptability of the first line of primary health care in Kinshasa. This study suggests that it would no doubt be beneficial to integrate non-official private care structures into the primary health care system, as far as it is possible for them to achieve a level of quality comparable to that of the health centres. In order that the traditional practitioner might play an important complementary role in the realization of primary health care, even in urban areas, the possibility of promoting sites of communication should be studied. Moreover, considering the weak

  6. Studies on Development Strategies of Jilin Province’ s Urban Commercial District%吉林省城市商圈发展策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竞; 董洪印

    2016-01-01

    Urban commercial district construction is an important part of regional economic development, and plays an important role in the economic development of Jilin Province. Under the background of“new normal” e-conomy,Jilin province promotes to consumption upgrading,through the city business circle market circulation and the effect of industrial cluster,perfect the market resources allocation mode,and the task of increase the consump-tion demand s very urgent. Based on the research of nine prefecture-level cities in Jilin province, we used the cluster analysis method to divide the nine cities into three echelons. We analyzed the current problems of urban commercial district in Jilin province,such as unreasonable structure,fuzzy Positioning,weakening link between cities,and lack of intelligent business and basic facilities. Basing on spatial distribution and industrial cluster the-ory,we put forward the idea of Jilin province’ s city business circle construction and development strategies from macro,medium and micro aspects. The macro strategies focus on city business circle layout coordination,the me-dium strategies pay attention to the city business circle size scale adjustment,and micro level strengthen the con-struction of an intelligent business circle and improve operational efficiency.%城市商圈建设是区域经济发展的重要环节,在吉林省经济发展中起到重要作用。吉林省经济发展进入以消费促升级的“新常态”,通过城市商圈的产业集聚和市场流通效应,完善市场配置资源模式,增内需求发展的任务非常紧迫。目前,吉林省所辖的九个地级市的城市商圈根据销售能力可以划分为三个层级,吉林省地级市的城市商圈存在结构不合理,定位不清晰,城市间联系弱化,智慧型商圈建设落后,基础配套设施不完善等问题。吉林省规划城市商圈的布局及发展路径应根据“生态文明”建设的要求,基于空

  7. Conflict Management in Declining School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William Lowe; Wheaton, Dennis R.

    1983-01-01

    Professional literature about managing conflicts associated with declining enrollments indicates the existing tension in this area. A research study shows that, while upper-middle class districts may succeed using a rational approach to decision making, lower class districts, for various reasons, may not. Special problems of urban districts are…

  8. Evaluation of inter-arm difference in blood pressure as predictor of vascular diseases among urban adults in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopalakrishnan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An “Inter-Arm Difference” (IAD in blood pressure (BP is defined as a variation in systolic BP of >10 mmHg. Various studies conducted in different population show that there are wide variations in the prevalence of IAD, which ranges from 5% to 46%. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of IAD in BP among adults and its association with risk factors. Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among urban adults in Kancheepuram district. The study sample size of 1634 was calculated, and simple random sampling method was used. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software version 16. Prevalence of IAD in BP was calculated using percentages, and statistical significance was tested to look for an association. Results: This study shows that 26.2% were at moderate risk for vascular events with IAD in systolic BP of 10–15 mmHg and 17.3% were at high risk with IAD >15 mmHg. About 14.2% had diastolic BP difference of 10–15 mmHg indicative of moderate risk and 6.1% had a difference of >15 mmHg indicative of high risk for vascular events. The statistical significant association was found between IAD in systolic BP and risk factors such as hypertension, smoking, alcoholism, and between IAD in diastolic BP with overweight/obesity (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study outcome shows that the prevalence of IAD in BP is on the higher side. Hence, specific guidelines should be brought in to practice for measuring BP in both arms to detect IAD in every health-care settings.

  9. Stochastic backscatter modelling for the prediction of pollutant removal from an urban street canyon: A large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J. J.; Cai, X.-M.; Kinnersley, R.

    2016-10-01

    The large-eddy simulation (LES) approach has recently exhibited its appealing capability of capturing turbulent processes inside street canyons and the urban boundary layer aloft, and its potential for deriving the bulk parameters adopted in low-cost operational urban dispersion models. However, the thin roof-level shear layer may be under-resolved in most LES set-ups and thus sophisticated subgrid-scale (SGS) parameterisations may be required. In this paper, we consider the important case of pollutant removal from an urban street canyon of unit aspect ratio (i.e. building height equal to street width) with the external flow perpendicular to the street. We show that by employing a stochastic SGS model that explicitly accounts for backscatter (energy transfer from unresolved to resolved scales), the pollutant removal process is better simulated compared with the use of a simpler (fully dissipative) but widely-used SGS model. The backscatter induces additional mixing within the shear layer which acts to increase the rate of pollutant removal from the street canyon, giving better agreement with a recent wind-tunnel experiment. The exchange velocity, an important parameter in many operational models that determines the mass transfer between the urban canopy and the external flow, is predicted to be around 15% larger with the backscatter SGS model; consequently, the steady-state mean pollutant concentration within the street canyon is around 15% lower. A database of exchange velocities for various other urban configurations could be generated and used as improved input for operational street canyon models.

  10. Districts Neglecting Programs for ELLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on state and independent reviews that cite shortcomings in four urban systems. According to the reviews of those school systems over the past two years, four urban districts--in Boston, Massachusetts; Buffalo, New York; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle, Washington--did not provide special help to learn English to all students…

  11. Modelling the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: using large-eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of 2 under neutral meteorological conditions using large-eddy simulation. The spatial variation of pollutants is significant due to the existence of two unsteady vortices. The deviation of species abundance from chemical equilibrium for the upper vortex is greater than that for the lower vortex. The interplay of dynamics and chemistry is investigated using two metrics: the photostationary state defect, and the inferred ozone production rate. The latter is found to be negative at all locations within the canyon, pointing to a systematic negative offset to ozone production rates inferred by analogous approaches in environments with incomplete mixing of emissions. This study demonstrates an approach to quantify parameters for a simplified two-box model, which could support traffic management and urban planning strategies and personal exposure assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decentralized State-Observer-Based Traffic Density Estimation of Large-Scale Urban Freeway Network by Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate traffic densities in a large-scale urban freeway network in an accurate and timely fashion when traffic sensors do not cover the freeway network completely and thus only local measurement data can be utilized, this paper proposes a decentralized state observer approach based on a macroscopic traffic flow model. Firstly, by using the well-known cell transmission model (CTM, the urban freeway network is modeled in the way of distributed systems. Secondly, based on the model, a decentralized observer is designed. With the help of the Lyapunov function and S-procedure theory, the observer gains are computed by using linear matrix inequality (LMI technique. So, the traffic densities of the whole road network can be estimated by the designed observer. Finally, this method is applied to the outer ring of the Beijing’s second ring road and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach.

  13. Modelling of a large-scale urban contamination situation and remediation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Arkhipov, A.; Batandjieva, B.; Charnock, T.W.; Gaschak, S.; Golikov, V.; Hwang, W.T.; Tomas, J.; Zlobenko, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes the first of two modelling exercises, which was based on Chernobyl fallout data in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Modelling endpoints for the exercise included radionuclide concentrations and external dose rates at specified locations, contributions to the dose rates from individual surfaces and radionuclides, and annual and cumulative external doses to specified reference individuals. Model predictions were performed for a 'no action' situation (with no remedial measures) and for selected countermeasures. The exercise provided a valuable opportunity to compare modelling approaches and parameter values, as well as to compare the predicted effectiveness of various countermeasures with respect to short-term and long-term reduction of predicted doses to people.

  14. Epidemic Wave Dynamics Attributable to Urban Community Structure: A Theoretical Characterization of Disease Transmission in a Large Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggo, Rosalind M; Lenczner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple waves of transmission during infectious disease epidemics represent a major public health challenge, but the ecological and behavioral drivers of epidemic resurgence are poorly understood. In theory, community structure—aggregation into highly intraconnected and loosely interconnected social groups—within human populations may lead to punctuated outbreaks as diseases progress from one community to the next. However, this explanation has been largely overlooked in favor of temporal shifts in environmental conditions and human behavior and because of the difficulties associated with estimating large-scale contact patterns. Objective The aim was to characterize naturally arising patterns of human contact that are capable of producing simulated epidemics with multiple wave structures. Methods We used an extensive dataset of proximal physical contacts between users of a public Wi-Fi Internet system to evaluate the epidemiological implications of an empirical urban contact network. We characterized the modularity (community structure) of the network and then estimated epidemic dynamics under a percolation-based model of infectious disease spread on the network. We classified simulated epidemics as multiwave using a novel metric and we identified network structures that were critical to the network’s ability to produce multiwave epidemics. Results We identified robust community structure in a large, empirical urban contact network from which multiwave epidemics may emerge naturally. This pattern was fueled by a special kind of insularity in which locally popular individuals were not the ones forging contacts with more distant social groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that ordinary contact patterns can produce multiwave epidemics at the scale of a single urban area without the temporal shifts that are usually assumed to be responsible. Understanding the role of community structure in epidemic dynamics allows officials to anticipate epidemic

  15. Towards large-scale mapping of urban three-dimensional structure using Landsat imagery and global elevation datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Huang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structure of buildings and infrastructures is fundamental to understanding and modelling of the impacts and challenges of urbanization in terms of energy use, carbon emissions, and earthquake vulnerabilities. However, spatially detailed maps of urban 3D structure have been scarce, particularly in fast-changing developing countries. We present here a novel methodology to map the volume of buildings and infrastructures at 30 meter resolution using a synergy of Landsat imagery and openly available global digital surface models (DSMs), including the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map (GDEM), ALOS World 3D - 30m (AW3D30), and the recently released global DSM from the TanDEM-X mission. Our method builds on the concept of object-based height profile to extract height metrics from the DSMs and use a machine learning algorithm to predict height and volume from the height metrics. We have tested this algorithm in the entire England and assessed our result using Lidar measurements in 25 England cities. Our initial assessments achieved a RMSE of 1.4 m (R2 = 0.72) for building height and a RMSE of 1208.7 m3 (R2 = 0.69) for building volume, demonstrating the potential of large-scale applications and fully automated mapping of urban structure.

  16. Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratios with Ground Heating: Large-Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Norford, Leslie K.; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Entekhabi, Dara

    2012-02-01

    A validated large-eddy simulation model was employed to study the effect of the aspect ratio and ground heating on the flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons. Three ground-heating intensities (neutral, weak and strong) were imposed in street canyons of aspect ratio 1, 2, and 0.5. The detailed patterns of flow, turbulence, temperature and pollutant transport were analyzed and compared. Significant changes of flow and scalar patterns were caused by ground heating in the street canyon of aspect ratio 2 and 0.5, while only the street canyon of aspect ratio 0.5 showed a change in flow regime (from wake interference flow to skimming flow). The street canyon of aspect ratio 1 does not show any significant change in the flow field. Ground heating generated strong mixing of heat and pollutant; the normalized temperature inside street canyons was approximately spatially uniform and somewhat insensitive to the aspect ratio and heating intensity. This study helps elucidate the combined effects of urban geometry and thermal stratification on the urban canyon flow and pollutant dispersion.

  17. Hydropower, social priorities and the rural–urban development divide: The case of large dams in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, Giuseppina; Urban, Frauke; Kim, Sour; Dara Lonn, Pich

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower investment is a priority in many developing countries, as a means to increase electrification rates and promote national development. However, neglect of dam-affected people's needs, can make them vulnerable to the multifaceted impacts of such projects. Using the case of Cambodia's first large dam, the Kamchay dam, this paper reveals social priorities of affected communities and institutional actors linked to environmental and social implications of large hydropower projects using a preference ranking method. Qualitative research revealed concerns among dam-affected communities which included energy access, livelihood changes, environmental impacts, access to natural resources and compensation. Results also reveal divergence between national and local priorities, which in turn brings about an unequal distribution of costs and benefits of the Kamchay Dam between urban and rural areas. The paper provides recommendations to policy-makers, NGOs and international organizations regarding governance issues, consultation processes and mitigation measures. - Highlights: • We assess social priorities linked to the impacts of a large dam in Cambodia. • We examine differences between local actors in the prioritization of the impacts. • Findings show divergences between national and local priorities of dam construction. • Distribution of cost and benefit is spatially unequal between rural and urban areas.

  18. Scaling of the Urban Water Footprint: An Analysis of 65 Mid- to Large-Sized U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjabin, T.; Garcia, S.; Grady, C.; Mejia, A.

    2017-12-01

    Scaling laws have been shown to be relevant to a range of disciplines including biology, ecology, hydrology, and physics, among others. Recently, scaling was shown to be important for understanding and characterizing cities. For instance, it was found that urban infrastructure (water supply pipes and electrical wires) tends to scale sublinearly with city population, implying that large cities are more efficient. In this study, we explore the scaling of the water footprint of cities. The water footprint is a measure of water appropriation that considers both the direct and indirect (virtual) water use of a consumer or producer. Here we compute the water footprint of 65 mid- to large-sized U.S. metropolitan areas, accounting for direct and indirect water uses associated with agricultural and industrial commodities, and residential and commercial water uses. We find that the urban water footprint, computed as the sum of the water footprint of consumption and production, exhibits sublinear scaling with an exponent of 0.89. This suggests the possibility of large cities being more water-efficient than small ones. To further assess this result, we conduct additional analysis by accounting for international flows, and the effects of green water and city boundary definition on the scaling. The analysis confirms the scaling and provides additional insight about its interpretation.

  19. Personal networks and locus of control in large urban centers of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo De Grande

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between locus of control and interpersonal relations structures in Argentina. After a representative sample (n = 1500 of households in seven major urban centers (>200,000 inhabitants, it examines the relationship between the externality of locus of control and different aspects of personal networks of each respondent. The results show that people having more relations experiment lower levels of externality of locus of control. Likewise, lower levels of externality are informed when personal ties outside the neighborhood are available, as well as ties high educational level. In this regard, significant associations are verified between control and personal relations structures.

  20. CFD analysis of flow in engine compartment of large urban bus; Ogata bus no engine room nai nagare kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, H; Otake, M; Iioka, K [Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Sato, K [Subaru Research Center Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A CFD simulation was performed to analyze the air flow in the engine compartment of a large urban bus. The conventional simulation technique takes a long time to perform the parameter study of a complex engine compartment shape. In this study, the use of orthogonal grids made modeling the engine compartment easy, so parameter study on modification of the engine compartment structure could be conducted in a short time. Thus this simulation enables engineers to more clearly understand the air flow patterns in the engine compartment, and to get guidlines for modifying the compartment structure to improve the cooling performance. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  1. A microcomputer-based model for identifying urban and suburban roadways with critical large truck accident rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogan, J.D.; Cashwell, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of techniques for merging highway accident record and roadway inventory files and employing the combined data set to identify spots or sections on highway facilities in urban and suburban areas with unusually high large truck accident rates. A statistical technique, the rate/quality control method, is used to calculate a critical rate for each location of interest. This critical rate may then be compared to the location's actual accident rate to identify locations for further study. Model enhancements and modifications are described to enable the technique to be employed in the evaluation of routing alternatives for the transport of radioactive material

  2. Urbanization, Migration, Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world urbanization becomes a large-scale process. Huge flows of people migrate from poorer districts to the cities with a higher level of consumption. It takes migrants about 15-25 years to give up their traditional ascetic way of life. In this period the ‘new citizens’ try to arrange compact settlements with an archaic way of life, insanitary conditions, high criminogenity and an authoritative local self-government. The processes of formation and decay of the ascetic enclave are viewed through the example of the ‘Shanghai’ trading neighborhood in Irkutsk.

  3. Developments in the relationship between large cities - the suburban zone and the rural/urban hinterland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder

    2006-01-01

    reason for this. The commute question is relatively simple and unambiguous and can therefore easily be included in a census – or the information can be extracted from public registers as in the Scandinavian countries. In recent years, commute data has become available with more geographical details...... interdependency between areas – and despite the rising importance of other transport purposes than commuting – commute data continues to be widely used as the prime indicator of functional integration between areas: The lack of other suitable geographically representative O-D data is probably the most important...... (small zones) and the ability to treat this data in new ways has been greatly improved through the availability of geographical information systems (GIS). This paper aims to take advantage of the availability of comparable data on commuting in European urban regions and to take a broader look...

  4. Generation of large scale urban environments to support advanced sensor and seeker simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Joseph; Hershey, Daniel; McKeown, David, Jr.; Willis, Carla; Van, Tan

    2009-05-01

    One of the key aspects for the design of a next generation weapon system is the need to operate in cluttered and complex urban environments. Simulation systems rely on accurate representation of these environments and require automated software tools to construct the underlying 3D geometry and associated spectral and material properties that are then formatted for various objective seeker simulation systems. Under an Air Force Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract, we have developed an automated process to generate 3D urban environments with user defined properties. These environments can be composed from a wide variety of source materials, including vector source data, pre-existing 3D models, and digital elevation models, and rapidly organized into a geo-specific visual simulation database. This intermediate representation can be easily inspected in the visible spectrum for content and organization and interactively queried for accuracy. Once the database contains the required contents, it can then be exported into specific synthetic scene generation runtime formats, preserving the relationship between geometry and material properties. To date an exporter for the Irma simulation system developed and maintained by AFRL/Eglin has been created and a second exporter to Real Time Composite Hardbody and Missile Plume (CHAMP) simulation system for real-time use is currently being developed. This process supports significantly more complex target environments than previous approaches to database generation. In this paper we describe the capabilities for content creation for advanced seeker processing algorithms simulation and sensor stimulation, including the overall database compilation process and sample databases produced and exported for the Irma runtime system. We also discuss the addition of object dynamics and viewer dynamics within the visual simulation into the Irma runtime environment.

  5. Urban Freight Management with Stochastic Time-Dependent Travel Times and Application to Large-Scale Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the vehicle routing problem (VRP in large-scale urban transportation networks with stochastic time-dependent (STD travel times. The subproblem which is how to find the optimal path connecting any pair of customer nodes in a STD network was solved through a robust approach without requiring the probability distributions of link travel times. Based on that, the proposed STD-VRP model can be converted into solving a normal time-dependent VRP (TD-VRP, and algorithms for such TD-VRPs can also be introduced to obtain the solution. Numerical experiments were conducted to address STD-VRPTW of practical sizes on a real world urban network, demonstrated here on the road network of Shenzhen, China. The stochastic time-dependent link travel times of the network were calibrated by historical floating car data. A route construction algorithm was applied to solve the STD problem in 4 delivery scenarios efficiently. The computational results showed that the proposed STD-VRPTW model can improve the level of customer service by satisfying the time-window constraint under any circumstances. The improvement can be very significant especially for large-scale network delivery tasks with no more increase in cost and environmental impacts.

  6. Building-Based Analysis of the Spatial Provision of Urban Parks in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiu Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban parks provide important environmental, social, and economic benefits to people and urban areas. The literature demonstrates that proximity to urban parks is one of the key factors influencing people’s willingness to use them. Therefore, the provision of urban parks near residential areas and workplaces is one of the key factors influencing quality of life. This study designed a solution based on the spatial association between urban parks and buildings where people live or work to identify whether people in different buildings have nearby urban parks available for their daily lives. A building density map based on building floor area (BFA was used to illustrate the spatial distribution of urban parks and five indices were designed to measure the scales, service coverage and potential service loads of urban parks and reveal areas lacking urban park services in an acceptable walking distance. With such solution, we investigated the provision of urban parks in ten districts of Shenzhen in China, which has grown from several small villages to a megacity in only 30 years. The results indicate that the spatial provision of urban parks in Shenzhen is not sufficient since people in about 65% of the buildings cannot access urban parks by walking 10-min. The distribution and service coverage of the existing urban parks is not balanced at the district level. In some districts, the existing urban parks have good numbers of potential users and even have large service loads, while in some districts, the building densities surrounding the existing parks are quite low and at the same time there is no urban parks nearby some high-density areas.

  7. Building-Based Analysis of the Spatial Provision of Urban Parks in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenxiu; Lyu, Qiang; Fan, Xiang; Yang, Xiaochun; Liu, Jiangtao; Zhang, Xirui

    2017-12-06

    Urban parks provide important environmental, social, and economic benefits to people and urban areas. The literature demonstrates that proximity to urban parks is one of the key factors influencing people's willingness to use them. Therefore, the provision of urban parks near residential areas and workplaces is one of the key factors influencing quality of life. This study designed a solution based on the spatial association between urban parks and buildings where people live or work to identify whether people in different buildings have nearby urban parks available for their daily lives. A building density map based on building floor area (BFA) was used to illustrate the spatial distribution of urban parks and five indices were designed to measure the scales, service coverage and potential service loads of urban parks and reveal areas lacking urban park services in an acceptable walking distance. With such solution, we investigated the provision of urban parks in ten districts of Shenzhen in China, which has grown from several small villages to a megacity in only 30 years. The results indicate that the spatial provision of urban parks in Shenzhen is not sufficient since people in about 65% of the buildings cannot access urban parks by walking 10-min. The distribution and service coverage of the existing urban parks is not balanced at the district level. In some districts, the existing urban parks have good numbers of potential users and even have large service loads, while in some districts, the building densities surrounding the existing parks are quite low and at the same time there is no urban parks nearby some high-density areas.

  8. Local business models for district heat production; Kaukolaemmoen paikalliset liiketoimintamallit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, L.; Pesola, A.; Vanhanen, J.

    2012-12-15

    Local district heating business, outside large urban centers, is a profitable business in Finland, which can be practiced with several different business models. In addition to the traditional, local district heating business, local district heat production can be also based on franchising business model, on integrated service model or on different types of cooperation models, either between a local district heat producer and industrial site providing surplus heat or between a local district heat producer and a larger district heating company. Locally available wood energy is currently utilized effectively in the traditional district heating business model, in which a local entrepreneur produces heat to consumers in the local area. The franchising model is a more advanced version of the traditional district heating entrepreneurship. In this model, franchisor funds part of the investments, as well as offers centralized maintenance and fuel supply, for example. In the integrated service model, the local district heat producer offers also energy efficiency services and other value-added services, which are based on either the local district heat suppliers or his partner's expertise. In the cooperation model with industrial site, the local district heating business is based on the utilization of the surplus heat from the industrial site. In some cases, profitable operating model approach may be a district heating company outsourcing operations of one or more heating plants to a local entrepreneur. It can be concluded that all business models for district heat production (traditional district heat business model, franchising, integrated service model, cooperative model) discussed in this report can be profitable in Finnish conditions, as well for the local heat producer as for the municipality - and, above all, they produce cost-competitive heat for the end-user. All the models were seen as viable and interesting and having possibilities for expansion Finland

  9. A model-based eco-routing strategy for electric vehicles in large urban networks

    OpenAIRE

    De Nunzio , Giovanni; Thibault , Laurent; Sciarretta , Antonio

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A novel eco-routing navigation strategy and energy consumption modeling approach for electric vehicles are presented in this work. Speed fluctuations and road network infrastructure have a large impact on vehicular energy consumption. Neglecting these effects may lead to large errors in eco-routing navigation, which could trivially select the route with the lowest average speed. We propose an energy consumption model that considers both accelerations and impact of the ...

  10. Local Governance, Urban Poverty and Service Delivery in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Geisler, Gisela; Nangulah, Selma; Nygaard, Knut; Pomuti, Akiser; Shifotoka, Albertina; Van Rooy, Gert

    2005-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty is one of the most dramatic developments on the African continent, yielding contrasting images of affluent residential and business districts and utter misery in sprawling shantytowns or slums. Namibia has one of Africa’s highest urban growth rates, taking thousands of women, men and children to towns in search of a better life. The large majority of these end up in poverty-stricken informal settlements in urban areas. The current service delivery approach of the g...

  11. The influence of environmental factors and dredging on chironomid larval diversity in urban drainage systems in polders strongly influenced by seepage from large rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Jacobsen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    , in urban waters strongly influenced by seepage of large rivers. Chironomid assemblages were studied in urban surface-water systems (man-made drainage ditches) in polder areas along lowland reaches of the rivers Rhine-Meuse in The Netherlands. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the key environmental...... factors. Taxon richness, Shannon index (H'), rareness of species, and life-history strategies at urban locations were compared with available data from similar man-made water bodies in rural areas, and the effectiveness of dredging for restoring chironomid diversity in urban waters was tested. Three...... diversity of chironomid communities in urban waters affected by nutrient-rich seepage or inlet of river water...

  12. Hospitals Participating In ACOs Tend To Be Large And Urban, Allowing Access To Capital And Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Carrie H; Lewis, Valerie A; Tierney, Emily; Muhlestein, David B

    2016-03-01

    Relationships between physicians and hospitals have changed considerably over the past decade, as hospitals and physician groups have integrated and new public and private payment policies have created financial interdependence. The extent to which accountable care organizations (ACOs) involve hospitals in their operations may prove to be vitally important, because managing hospital care is a key part of improving health care quality and lowering cost growth. Using primary data on ACO composition and capabilities paired with hospital characteristics, we found that 20 percent of US hospitals were part of an ACO in 2014. Hospitals that were in urban areas, were nonprofit, or had a smaller share of Medicare patients were more likely to participate in ACOs, compared to hospitals that were in more rural areas, were for-profit or government owned, or had a larger share of Medicare patients, respectively. Qualitative data identified the following advantages of including a hospital in an ACO: the availability of start-up capital, advanced data sharing, and engagement of providers across the care continuum. Although the 63 percent of ACOs that included hospitals offered more comprehensive services compared to ACOs without hospitals, we found no differences between the two groups in their ability to manage hospital-related aspects of patient care. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. District Results for the 2013 Mathematics and Reading Assessments. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2013

    2013-01-01

    NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) results in mathematics and reading are based on representative samples of 1,100 to 2,300 public school students at grade 4 and 900 to 2,100 public school students at grade 8 in each participating urban district in 2013. Twenty-one urban districts participated in the 2013 assessments. The assessments…

  14. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  15. Honey bees are the dominant diurnal pollinator of native milkweed in a large urban park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, James Scott; Roberto, Adriano N; Sodhi, Darwin S; Onuferko, Thomas M; Cadotte, Marc W

    2017-10-01

    In eastern North America, the field milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae), is used in planting schemes to promote biodiversity conservation for numerous insects including the endangered monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus) (Nymphalidae). Less is known about its pollinators, and especially in urban habitats where it is planted often despite being under increasing pressure from invasive plant species, such as the related milkweed, the dog-strangling vine (DSV), Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. (Asclepiadaceae). During the A. syriaca flowering period in July 2016, we surveyed bees in open habitats along a DSV invasion gradient and inspected 433 individuals of 25 bee species in 12 genera for pollinia: these were affixed to bees that visited A. syriaca for nectar and contain pollen packets that are vectored (e.g., transferred) between flowers. Of all bees sampled, pollinia were found only on the nonindigenous honeybee, Apis mellifera (43% of all bees identified), as well as one individual bumblebee, Bombus impatiens Cresson. Pollinia were recorded from 45.2% of all honeybees collected. We found no relationship between biomass of DSV and biomass of A. syriaca per site. There was a significant positive correlation between A. syriaca biomass and the number of pollinia, and the proportion vectored. No relationship with DSV biomass was detected for the number of pollinia collected by bees but the proportion of vectored pollinia declined with increasing DSV biomass. Although we find no evidence of DSV flowers attracting potential pollinators away from A. syriaca and other flowering plants, the impacts on native plant-pollinator mutualisms relate to its ability to outcompete native plants. As wild bees do not appear to visit DSV flowers, it could be altering the landscape to one which honeybees are more tolerant than native wild bees.

  16. Influence of wind direction and urban surroundings on natural ventilation of a large football stadium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, van T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, CFD simulations of the natural ventilation of a large semi-enclosed stadium in the Netherlands during summer conditions are described. The simulations are performed to assess the air exchange rate for eight wind directions. The CFD model consists of both the complex stadium geometry

  17. Water-quality assessment of the largely urban blue river basin, Metropolitan Kansas City, USA, 1998 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, D.H.; Armstrong, D.J.; Hampton, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    From 1998 through 2007, over 750 surface-water or bed-sediment samples in the Blue River Basin - a largely urban basin in metropolitan Kansas City - were analyzed for more than 100 anthropogenic compounds. Compounds analyzed included nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, suspended sediment, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Non-point source runoff, hydrologic alterations, and numerous waste-water discharge points resulted in the routine detection of complex mixtures of anthropogenic compounds in samples from basin stream sites. Temporal and spatial variations in concentrations and loads of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and organic wastewater compounds were observed, primarily related to a site's proximity to point-source discharges and stream-flow dynamics. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  18. Large reductions in urban black carbon concentrations in the United States between 1965 and 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Preble, Chelsea V.; Hadley, Odelle L.; Bond, Tami C.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2017-02-01

    Long-term pollutant concentration trends can be useful for evaluating air quality effects of emission controls and historical transitions in energy sources. We employed archival records of coefficient of haze (COH), a now-retired measure of light-absorbing particulate matter, to re-construct historical black carbon (BC) concentrations at urban locations in the United States (U.S.). The following relationship between COH and BC was determined by reinstating into service COH monitors beside aethalometers for two years in Vallejo and one year in San Jose, California: BC (μg m-3) = 6.7COH + 0.1, R2 = 0.9. Estimated BC concentrations in ten states stretching from the East to West Coast decreased markedly between 1965 and 1980: 5-fold in Illinois, Ohio, and Virginia, 4-fold in Missouri, and 2.5-fold in Pennsylvania. Over the period from the mid-1960s to the early 2000s, annual average BC concentrations in New Jersey and California decreased from 13 to 2 μg m-3 and 4 to 1 μg m-3, respectively, despite concurrent increases in fossil fuel consumption from 1.6 to 2.1 EJ (EJ = 1018 J) in New Jersey and 4.2 to 6.4 EJ in California. New Jersey's greater reliance on BC-producing heavy fuel oils and coal in the 1960s and early 1970s and subsequent transition to cleaner fuels explains why the decrease was larger in New Jersey than California. Patterns in seasonal and weekly BC concentrations and energy consumption trends together indicate that reducing wintertime emissions - namely substituting natural gas and electricity for heavy fuel oil in the residential sector - and decreasing emissions from diesel vehicles contributed to lower ambient BC concentrations. Over the period of study, declining concentrations of BC, a potent and short-lived climate warming pollutant, contrast increasing fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the U.S. Declining BC emissions may have had the benefit of mitigating some atmospheric warming driven by increased CO2 emissions with

  19. Large eddy simulation of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume dispersion in an urban street canyon under perpendicular wind flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, L.H., E-mail: hlh@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huo, R.; Yang, D. [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons-a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.

  20. Large eddy simulation of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume dispersion in an urban street canyon under perpendicular wind flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L H; Huo, R; Yang, D

    2009-07-15

    The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons--a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.

  1. Large eddy simulation of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume dispersion in an urban street canyon under perpendicular wind flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, L.H.; Huo, R.; Yang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons-a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.

  2. Comparing Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Among Large Teaching and Urban Hospitals in China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhe; Zhang, Heng; Yuan, Xin; Rao, Chenfei; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yun; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Krumholz, Harlan M; Hu, Shengshou

    2017-06-01

    Coronary artery disease is prevalent in China, with concomitant increases in the volume of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The present study aims to compare CABG-related outcomes between China and the United States among large teaching and urban hospitals. Observational analysis of patients aged ≥18 years, discharged from acute-care, large teaching and urban hospitals in China and the United States after hospitalization for an isolated CABG surgery. Data were obtained from the Chinese Cardiac Surgery Registry in China and the National Inpatient Sample in the United States. Analysis was stratified by 2 periods: 2007, 2008, and 2010; and 2011 to 2013 periods. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, and the secondary outcome was length of stay. The sample included 51 408 patients: 32 040 from 77 hospitals in the China-CABG group and 19 368 from 303 hospitals in the US-CABG group. In the 2007 to 2008, 2010 period and for all-age and aged ≥65 years, the China-CABG group had higher mortality than the US-CABG group (1.91% versus 1.58%, P =0.059; and 3.12% versus 2.20%, P =0.004) and significantly higher age-, sex-, and comorbidity-adjusted odds of death (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidential interval, 1.22-2.04; and odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidential interval, 1.24-2.40). There were no significant mortality differences in the 2011 to 2013 period. For preoperative, postoperative, and total hospital stay, respectively, the median (interquartile range) length of stay across the entire study period between China-CABG and US-CABG groups were 9 (8) versus 1 (3), 9 (6) versus 6 (3), and 20 (12) versus 7 (5) days (all P China and the United States. The longer length of stay in China may represent an opportunity for improvement. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Influence of a large urban park on temperature and convective precipitation in a tropical city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui, E. (Center for Atmospheric Studies, National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    Large green areas have a cooling influence on their surrounding built-up area, thus reducing the stress produced by the heat island. The largest thermal contrast occurs at the end of the cooling period. For a recent period of four years, mean monthly minimum temperature differences between a climatological station located in the park and the Tacubaya Observatory reach 4.0deg C at the end of the dry season in April, whereas during the wet months they are only 1deg C cooler (in July). The increased roughness of the generally high trees in the park reduces the low-level wind speed increasing the intensity of turbulence. Both these effects are likely to favour the initiation of small-scale convection over the vegetated area. (orig./BWI).

  4. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  5. Engineering design for a large scale renewable energy network installation in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Spencer, L.; Brown, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Humanity's current avid consumption of resources cannot be maintained and the use of renewable energy is a significant approach towards sustainable energy future. Alberta is the largest greenhouse gas-producing province in Canada (per capita) and Climate change is expected to impact Alberta with warmer temperatures, intense floods, and earlier snow melting. However, as one of the sunniest and windiest places in Canada, Alberta is poised to become one of Canada's leader provinces in utilizing renewable energies. This research has four main objectives. First, to determine the feasibility of implementing solar and wind energy systems at the University of Lethbridge campus. Second, to quantify rooftop and parking lot solar photovoltaic potential for the city of Lethbridge. Third, to determine the available rooftop area for PV deployment in a large scale region (Province of Alberta). Forth, to investigate different strategies for correlating solar PV array production with electricity demand in the province of Alberta. The proposed work addresses the need for Alberta reductions to fossil fuel pollution that drives climate change, and degrades our air, water and land resources.

  6. Implementation and Evaluation of Linked Parenting Models in a Large Urban Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sara Wolf; Wulczyn, Fred; Saldana, Lisa; Forgatch, Marion

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, there have been increased efforts to implement evidence-based practices into child welfare systems to improve outcomes for children in foster care and their families. In this paper, the implementation and evaluation of a policy-driven large system-initiated reform is described. Over 250 caseworkers and supervisors were trained and supported to implement two evidence-based parent focused interventions in five private agencies serving over 2,000 children and families. At the request of child welfare system leaders, a third intervention was developed and implemented to train the social work workforce to use evidence-based principles in everyday interactions with caregivers (including foster, relative, adoptive, and biological parents). In this paper, we describe the policy context and the targeted outcomes of the reform. We discuss the theory of the interventions and the logistics of how they were linked to create consistency and synergy. Training and ongoing consultation strategies used are described as are some of the barriers and opportunities that arose during the implementation. The strategy for creating a path to sustainability is also discussed. The reform effort was evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative methods; the evaluation design, research questions and preliminary results are provided. PMID:26602831

  7. Performance and treatment outcome of tuberculosis among patients on Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Urban and Tribal areas of a district in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivshakti Dattatray Pawar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP was introduced in the country as a pilot project since 1993 in a phased manner and expanded throughout the country by the year 2005. Although studies have shown the success of RNTCP, data pertaining to the indicators of programme performance in urban and tribal set up are rare. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess and compare the RNTCP in urban and tribal areas of Maharashtra through the indicators of performance and outcome of the patients. Patients and Methods: A retrospective comparative record-based study was conducted in selected urban and tribal areas' tuberculosis (TB units. Records of patients enrolled newly for TB treatment and those already undergoing treatment under RNTCP from April 2015 to September 2015 (6 months were considered for analysis. Chi-square test and Z-test (test of significance are applied where required by using Epi Info 7 and Microsoft Excel 2010.Results: Sputum smear collection was significantly higher in urban areas (P = 0.001. In urban areas, new TB case detection was 35%, while in tribal areas, it was 42% as per the RNTCP norms. Sputum positivity was marginally more in tribal (5.87% than urban (3.28% areas. Cure rate was more in urban areas than tribal (P = 0.001 areas. There were statistically significantly high default cases in tribal areas. Conclusions: Sputum collection and sputum positivity rate were low in urban and tribal areas, but TB screening, especially in tribal areas, was significantly low. Sputum positivity was significantly higher in tribal areas. Significantly low cure rate and high default rate in tribal area warrant the need for strengthening of RNTCP activities in tribal areas.

  8. Adjustment of Turbulent Boundary-Layer Flow to Idealized Urban Surfaces: A Large-Eddy Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wai-Chi; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) are performed to simulate the atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) flow through idealized urban canopies represented by uniform arrays of cubes in order to better understand atmospheric flow over rural-to-urban surface transitions. The LES framework is first validated with wind-tunnel experimental data. Good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data are found for the vertical and spanwise profiles of the mean velocities and velocity standard deviations at different streamwise locations. Next, the model is used to simulate ABL flows over surface transitions from a flat homogeneous terrain to aligned and staggered arrays of cubes with height . For both configurations, five different frontal area densities , equal to 0.028, 0.063, 0.111, 0.174 and 0.250, are considered. Within the arrays, the flow is found to adjust quickly and shows similar structure to the wake of the cubes after the second row of cubes. An internal boundary layer is identified above the cube arrays and found to have a similar depth in all different cases. At a downstream location where the flow immediately above the cube array is already adjusted to the surface, the spatially-averaged velocity is found to have a logarithmic profile in the vertical. The values of the displacement height are found to be quite insensitive to the canopy layout (aligned vs. staggered) and increase roughly from to as increases from 0.028 to 0.25. Relatively larger values of the aerodynamic roughness length are obtained for the staggered arrays, compared with the aligned cases, and a maximum value of is found at for both configurations. By explicitly calculating the drag exerted by the cubes on the flow and the drag coefficients of the cubes using our LES results, and comparing the results with existing theoretical expressions, we show that the larger values of for the staggered arrays are related to the relatively larger drag coefficients of the cubes for that

  9. Impacts of large-scale circulation on urban ambient concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of large-scale circulation on urban gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was investigated through analysis of 2008–2015 measurement data from an urban site in New York City (NYC, New York, USA. Distinct annual cycles were observed in 2009–2010 with mixing ratios in warm seasons (i.e., spring–summer 10–20 ppqv ( ∼  10–25 % higher than in cool seasons (i.e., fall–winter. This annual cycle was disrupted in 2011 by an anomalously strong influence of the US East Coast trough in that warm season and was reproduced in 2014 associated with a particularly strong Bermuda High. The US East Coast trough axis index (TAI and intensity index (TII were used to characterize the effect of the US East Coast trough on NYC GEM, especially in winter and summer. The intensity and position of the Bermuda High appeared to have a significant impact on GEM in warm seasons. Regional influence on NYC GEM was supported by the GEM–carbon monoxide (CO correlation with r of 0.17–0.69 (p ∼  0 in most seasons. Simulated regional and local anthropogenic contributions to wintertime NYC anthropogenically induced GEM concentrations were averaged at  ∼  75 % and 25 %, with interannual variation ranging over 67 %–83 % and 17 %–33 %, respectively. Results from this study suggest the possibility that the increasingly strong Bermuda High over the past decades could dominate over anthropogenic mercury emission control in affecting ambient concentrations of mercury via regional buildup and possibly enhancing natural and legacy emissions.

  10. Large eddy simulation of pollutant gas dispersion with buoyancy ejected from building into an urban street canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L H; Xu, Y; Zhu, W; Wu, L; Tang, F; Lu, K H

    2011-09-15

    The dispersion of buoyancy driven smoke soot and carbon monoxide (CO) gas, which was ejected out from side building into an urban street canyon with aspect ratio of 1 was investigated by large eddy simulation (LES) under a perpendicular wind flow. Strong buoyancy effect, which has not been revealed before, on such pollution dispersion in the street canyon was studied. The buoyancy release rate was 5 MW. The wind speed concerned ranged from 1 to 7.5m/s. The characteristics of flow pattern, distribution of smoke soot and temperature, CO concentration were revealed by the LES simulation. Dimensionless Froude number (Fr) was firstly introduced here to characterize the pollutant dispersion with buoyancy effect counteracting the wind. It was found that the flow pattern can be well categorized into three regimes. A regular characteristic large vortex was shown for the CO concentration contour when the wind velocity was higher than the critical re-entrainment value. A new formula was theoretically developed to show quantitatively that the critical re-entrainment wind velocities, u(c), for buoyancy source at different floors, were proportional to -1/3 power of the characteristic height. LES simulation results agreed well with theoretical analysis. The critical Froude number was found to be constant of 0.7. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in passenger car and large truck involved crash frequencies at urban signalized intersections: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunjiao; Clarke, David B; Richards, Stephen H; Huang, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of intersection features on safety has been examined extensively because intersections experience a relatively large proportion of motor vehicle conflicts and crashes. Although there are distinct differences between passenger cars and large trucks-size, operating characteristics, dimensions, and weight-modeling crash counts across vehicle types is rarely addressed. This paper develops and presents a multivariate regression model of crash frequencies by collision vehicle type using crash data for urban signalized intersections in Tennessee. In addition, the performance of univariate Poisson-lognormal (UVPLN), multivariate Poisson (MVP), and multivariate Poisson-lognormal (MVPLN) regression models in establishing the relationship between crashes, traffic factors, and geometric design of roadway intersections is investigated. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the unknown parameters of these models. The evaluation results suggest that the MVPLN model possesses most of the desirable statistical properties in developing the relationships. Compared to the UVPLN and MVP models, the MVPLN model better identifies significant factors and predicts crash frequencies. The findings suggest that traffic volume, truck percentage, lighting condition, and intersection angle significantly affect intersection safety. Important differences in car, car-truck, and truck crash frequencies with respect to various risk factors were found to exist between models. The paper provides some new or more comprehensive observations that have not been covered in previous studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A direct observation method for auditing large urban centers using stratified sampling, mobile GIS technology and virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Sean J V; Sawada, M; Kristjansson, Elizabeth

    2017-02-16

    With the expansion and growth of research on neighbourhood characteristics, there is an increased need for direct observational field audits. Herein, we introduce a novel direct observational audit method and systematic social observation instrument (SSOI) for efficiently assessing neighbourhood aesthetics over large urban areas. Our audit method uses spatial random sampling stratified by residential zoning and incorporates both mobile geographic information systems technology and virtual environments. The reliability of our method was tested in two ways: first, in 15 Ottawa neighbourhoods, we compared results at audited locations over two subsequent years, and second; we audited every residential block (167 blocks) in one neighbourhood and compared the distribution of SSOI aesthetics index scores with results from the randomly audited locations. Finally, we present interrater reliability and consistency results on all observed items. The observed neighbourhood average aesthetics index score estimated from four or five stratified random audit locations is sufficient to characterize the average neighbourhood aesthetics. The SSOI was internally consistent and demonstrated good to excellent interrater reliability. At the neighbourhood level, aesthetics is positively related to SES and physical activity and negatively correlated with BMI. The proposed approach to direct neighbourhood auditing performs sufficiently and has the advantage of financial and temporal efficiency when auditing a large city.

  13. Large forest patches promote breeding success of a terrestrial mammal in urban landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    Full Text Available Despite a marked increase in the focus toward biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes, studies that confirm species breeding success are scarce and limited. In this paper, we asked whether local (area of forest patches and landscape (amount of suitable habitat surrounding of focal patches factors affect the breeding success of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Tokyo, Central Japan. The breeding success of raccoon dogs is easy to judge as adults travel with pups during the breeding season. We selected 21 forest patches (3.3-797.8 ha as study sites. In each forest patch, we used infra-red-triggered cameras for a total of 60 camera days per site. We inspected each photo to determine whether it was of an adult or a pup. Although we found adult raccoon dogs in all 21 forest patches, pups were found only in 13 patches. To estimate probability of occurrence and detection for raccoon in 21 forest fragments, we used single season site occupancy models in PRESENCE program. Model selection based on AIC and model averaging showed that the occupancy probability of pups was positively affected by patch area. This result suggests that large forests improve breeding success of raccoon dogs. A major reason for the low habitat value of small, isolated patches may be the low availability of food sources and the high risk of being killed on the roads in such areas. Understanding the effects of local and landscape parameters on species breeding success may help us to devise and implement effective long-term conservation and management plans.

  14. Evaluation of Electronic Medical Record (EMR at large urban primary care sexual health centre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher K Fairley

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite substantial investment in Electronic Medical Record (EMR systems there has been little research to evaluate them. Our aim was to evaluate changes in efficiency and quality of services after the introduction of a purpose built EMR system, and to assess its acceptability by the doctors, nurses and patients using it. METHODS: We compared a nine month period before and after the introduction of an EMR system in a large sexual health service, audited a sample of records in both periods and undertook anonymous surveys of both staff and patients. RESULTS: There were 9,752 doctor consultations (in 5,512 consulting hours in the Paper Medical Record (PMR period and 9,145 doctor consultations (in 5,176 consulting hours in the EMR period eligible for inclusion in the analysis. There were 5% more consultations per hour seen by doctors in the EMR period compared to the PMR period (rate ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.02, 1.08 after adjusting for type of consultation. The qualitative evaluation of 300 records for each period showed no difference in quality (P>0.17. A survey of clinicians demonstrated that doctors and nurses preferred the EMR system (P<0.01 and a patient survey in each period showed no difference in satisfaction of their care (97% for PMR, 95% for EMR, P = 0.61. CONCLUSION: The introduction of an integrated EMR improved efficiency while maintaining the quality of the patient record. The EMR was popular with staff and was not associated with a decline in patient satisfaction in the clinical care provided.

  15. Modelling and multi-scenario analysis for electric heat tracing system combined with low temperature district heating for domestic hot water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature district heating (LTDH) is a cost-efficient way of supplying space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) for buildings in urban areas. However, there is concern that the potential hygiene problems (Legionella) might occur if LTDH is implemented, especially for large buildings...... performance on heat loss saving, and it also gave benefits to district heating network by sharing part of the heating load....

  16. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  17. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  18. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  19. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  20. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  1. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  2. Air pollutant dispersion from a large semi-enclosed stadium in an urban area: high-resolution CFD modeling versus full-scale measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, van T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Seppelt, R.; Voinov, A.A.; Lange, S.; Bankamp, D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: High-resolution CFD simulations and full-scale measurements have been performed to assess the dispersion of air pollutants (CO2) from the large semi-enclosed Amsterdam ArenA football stadium. The dispersion process is driven by natural ventilation by the urban wind flow and by buoyancy,

  3. Integration of HIV and TB Services Results in Improved TB Treatment Outcomes and Earlier Prioritized ART Initiation in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Sabine M.; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Katabira, Catherine; Mbidde, Peter; Lange, Joep M. A.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Coutinho, Alex; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization recommends that treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected patients should be integrated with HIV care. In December 2008, a separate outdoor-integrated TB/HIV clinic was instituted for attendees of a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. We sought to

  4. The Implementation of Clay Modeling and Rat Dissection into the Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum of a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K.; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty…

  5. Utilization of Workflow Process Maps to Analyze Gaps in Critical Event Notification at a Large, Urban Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Meredith; Prater, Adam; Safdar, Nabile M; Dehkharghani, Seena; Fountain, Jack A

    2016-08-01

    Stroke care is a time-sensitive workflow involving multiple specialties acting in unison, often relying on one-way paging systems to alert care providers. The goal of this study was to map and quantitatively evaluate such a system and address communication gaps with system improvements. A workflow process map of the stroke notification system at a large, urban hospital was created via observation and interviews with hospital staff. We recorded pager communication regarding 45 patients in the emergency department (ED), neuroradiology reading room (NRR), and a clinician residence (CR), categorizing transmissions as successful or unsuccessful (dropped or unintelligible). Data analysis and consultation with information technology staff and the vendor informed a quality intervention-replacing one paging antenna and adding another. Data from a 1-month post-intervention period was collected. Error rates before and after were compared using a chi-squared test. Seventy-five pages regarding 45 patients were recorded pre-intervention; 88 pages regarding 86 patients were recorded post-intervention. Initial transmission error rates in the ED, NRR, and CR were 40.0, 22.7, and 12.0 %. Post-intervention, error rates were 5.1, 18.8, and 1.1 %, a statistically significant improvement in the ED (p workflow process maps. The workflow process map effectively defined communication failure parameters, allowing for systematic testing and intervention to improve communication in essential clinical locations.

  6. STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT, URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE IN BULGARIA IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY (AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE MARKET ECONOMY AND THE UPCOMING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS. PART 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities. Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities. The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.

  7. Self-reported health problems, health care utilisation and unmet health care needs of elderly men and women in an urban municipality and a rural area of Bhaktapur District of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, Dan B B; Smith, William C S

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to identify the felt common health problems, utilisation of health services and unmet needs of urban and rural elderly people of Bhaktapur district, Nepal. It was a cross sectional population study of people aged 60 years or more where 204 respondents were interviewed in 2009. The common felt problems were pain and swelling of joints (65.7%), indigestion (63.7%), excessive tiredness (38.2%) and hypertension (35.8%). Pain and swelling of joints (72.5%) and back pain (40.4%) were higher in rural elderly population whereas indigestion (67.6%) and hypertension (37.85%) were higher in urban population. Pain and swelling of joints (66.7%) and indigestion (69.6%) were higher in males, and hypertension (50.0%), back pain (38.2%) and chronic bronchitis/asthma (39.2%) were higher in females. The unmet needs varied between different health problems. In general women had more unmet needs than men, where 80 unmet needs were identified for the 102 men compared with 105 for the 102 women, and these unmet needs increased dramatically with age. This approach yields new insights into the health care needs of the elderly and will be helpful to health care planners.

  8. Application of large underground seasonal thermal energy storage in district heating system : a model-based energy performance assessment of a pilot system in Chifeng, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Torrens Galdiz, J.I.; Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) technology is a proven solution to resolve the seasonal discrepancy between heating energy generation from renewables and building heating demands. This research focuses on the performance assessment of district heating (DH) systems powered by low-grade energy

  9. Estimating the potential for industrial waste heat reutilization in urban district energy systems: method development and implementation in two Chinese provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Kangkang; Fang, Andrew; Yu, Huajun; Li, Yang; Shi, Lei; Wang, Yangjun; Wang, Shuxiao; Ramaswami, Anu

    2017-12-01

    Utilizing low-grade waste heat from industries to heat and cool homes and businesses through fourth generation district energy systems (DES) is a novel strategy to reduce energy use. This paper develops a generalizable methodology to estimate the energy saving potential for heating/cooling in 20 cities in two Chinese provinces, representing cold winter and hot summer regions respectively. We also conduct a life-cycle analysis of the new infrastructure required for energy exchange in DES. Results show that heating and cooling energy use reduction from this waste heat exchange strategy varies widely based on the mix of industrial, residential and commercial activities, and climate conditions in cities. Low-grade heat is found to be the dominant component of waste heat released by industries, which can be reused for both district heating and cooling in fourth generation DES, yielding energy use reductions from 12%-91% (average of 58%) for heating and 24%-100% (average of 73%) for cooling energy use in the different cities based on annual exchange potential. Incorporating seasonality and multiple energy exchange pathways resulted in energy savings reductions from 0%-87%. The life-cycle impact of added infrastructure was small (<3% for heating) and 1.9% ~ 6.5% (cooling) of the carbon emissions from fuel use in current heating or cooling systems, indicating net carbon savings. This generalizable approach to delineate waste heat potential can help determine suitable cities for the widespread application of industrial waste heat re-utilization.

  10. PALM-USM v1.0: A new urban surface model integrated into the PALM large-eddy simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Resler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are an important part of the climate system and many aspects of urban climate have direct effects on human health and living conditions. This implies that reliable tools for local urban climate studies supporting sustainable urban planning are needed. However, a realistic implementation of urban canopy processes still poses a serious challenge for weather and climate modelling for the current generation of numerical models. To address this demand, a new urban surface model (USM, describing the surface energy processes for urban environments, was developed and integrated as a module into the PALM large-eddy simulation model. The development of the presented first version of the USM originated from modelling the urban heat island during summer heat wave episodes and thus implements primarily processes important in such conditions. The USM contains a multi-reflection radiation model for shortwave and longwave radiation with an integrated model of absorption of radiation by resolved plant canopy (i.e. trees, shrubs. Furthermore, it consists of an energy balance solver for horizontal and vertical impervious surfaces, and thermal diffusion in ground, wall, and roof materials, and it includes a simple model for the consideration of anthropogenic heat sources. The USM was parallelized using the standard Message Passing Interface and performance testing demonstrates that the computational costs of the USM are reasonable on typical clusters for the tested configurations. The module was fully integrated into PALM and is available via its online repository under the GNU General Public License (GPL. The USM was tested on a summer heat-wave episode for a selected Prague crossroads. The general representation of the urban boundary layer and patterns of surface temperatures of various surface types (walls, pavement are in good agreement with in situ observations made in Prague. Additional simulations were performed in order to assess the

  11. Hypertension and diabetes in Africa: design and implementation of a large population-based study of burden and risk factors in rural and urban Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Catharine Crampin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emerging burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa threatens the gains made in health by the major international effort to combat infectious diseases. There are few data on distribution of risk factors and outcomes in the region to inform an effective public health response. A comprehensive research programme is being developed aimed at accurately documenting the burden and drivers of NCDs in urban and rural Malawi; to design and test intervention strategies. The programme includes population surveys of all people aged 18 years and above, linking individuals with newly diagnosed hypertension and diabetes to healthcare and supporting clinical services. The successes, challenges and lessons learnt from the programme to date are discussed. Results Over 20,000 adults have been recruited in rural Karonga and urban Lilongwe. The urban population is significantly younger and wealthier than the rural population. Employed urban individuals, particularly males, give particular recruitment challenges; male participation rates were 80.3 % in the rural population and 43.6 % in urban, whilst female rates were 93.6 and 75.6 %, respectively. The study is generating high quality data on hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and risk factors. Conclusions It is feasible to develop large scale studies that can reliably inform the public health approach to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other NCDs in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is essential for studies to capture both rural and urban populations to address disparities in risk factors, including age structure. Innovative approaches are needed to address the specific challenge of recruiting employed urban males.

  12. Large-Scale Transit Signal Priority Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kevin S.; Lozner, Bailey

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, the District Department of Transportation (DDOT) deployed Transit Signal Priority (TSP) at 195 intersections in highly urbanized areas of Washington, DC. In collaboration with a broader regional implementation, and in partnership with the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), DDOT set out to apply a systems engineering–driven process to identify, design, test, and accept a large-scale TSP system. This presentation will highlight project successes and lessons learned.

  13. A New Scheme for the Simulation of Microscale Flow and Dispersion in Urban Areas by Coupling Large-Eddy Simulation with Mesoscale Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haifeng; Cui, Guixiang; Zhang, Zhaoshun

    2018-04-01

    A coupling scheme is proposed for the simulation of microscale flow and dispersion in which both the mesoscale field and small-scale turbulence are specified at the boundary of a microscale model. The small-scale turbulence is obtained individually in the inner and outer layers by the transformation of pre-computed databases, and then combined in a weighted sum. Validation of the results of a flow over a cluster of model buildings shows that the inner- and outer-layer transition height should be located in the roughness sublayer. Both the new scheme and the previous scheme are applied in the simulation of the flow over the central business district of Oklahoma City (a point source during intensive observation period 3 of the Joint Urban 2003 experimental campaign), with results showing that the wind speed is well predicted in the canopy layer. Compared with the previous scheme, the new scheme improves the prediction of the wind direction and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the canopy layer. The flow field influences the scalar plume in two ways, i.e. the averaged flow field determines the advective flux and the TKE field determines the turbulent flux. Thus, the mean, root-mean-square and maximum of the concentration agree better with the observations with the new scheme. These results indicate that the new scheme is an effective means of simulating the complex flow and dispersion in urban canopies.

  14. Risk Factors Associated with Very Low Birth Weight in a Large Urban Area, Stratified by Adequacy of Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaverius, Pamela; Alman, Cameron; Holtz, Lori; Yarber, Laura

    2016-03-01

    This study examined risk and protective factors associated with very low birth weight (VLBW) for babies born to women receiving adequate or inadequate prenatal care. Birth records from St. Louis City and County from 2000 to 2009 were used (n = 152,590). Data was categorized across risk factors and stratified by adequacy of prenatal care (PNC). Multivariate logistic regression and population attributable risk (PAR) was used to explore risk factors for VLBW infants. Women receiving inadequate prenatal care had a higher prevalence of delivering a VLBW infant than those receiving adequate PNC (4.11 vs. 1.44 %, p < .0001). The distribution of risk factors differed between adequate and inadequate PNC regarding Black race (36.4 vs. 79.0 %, p < .0001), age under 20 (13.0 vs. 33.6 %, p < .0001), <13 years of education (35.9 vs. 77.9 %, p < .0001), Medicaid status (35.7 vs. 74.9, p < .0001), primiparity (41.6 vs. 31.4 %, p < .0001), smoking (9.7 vs. 24.5 %, p < .0001), and diabetes (4.0 vs. 2.4 %, p < .0001), respectively. Black race, advanced maternal age, primiparity and gestational hypertension were significant predictors of VLBW, regardless of adequate or inadequate PNC. Among women with inadequate PNC, Medicaid was protective against (aOR 0.671, 95 % CI 0.563-0.803; PAR -32.6 %) and smoking a risk factor for (aOR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.49; PAR 40.1 %) VLBW. When prematurity was added to the adjusted models, the largest PAR shifts to education (44.3 %) among women with inadequate PNC. Community actions around broader issues of racism and social determinants of health are needed to prevent VLBW in a large urban area.

  15. Utilization of Yard for Vegetable Hydroponics in Serut Village, Panti Sub-District, Jember District

    OpenAIRE

    dewanti, parawita

    2018-01-01

    Vegetables as a horticultural product is a food source that is always consumed by humans daily, including in urban areas. Assorted Vegetables can be eaten raw or processed and it takes as a decoration on the food. Needs vegetables including lettuce, green pakcoy and other vegetables from day to day continues to increase. Therefore, it needs supply of vegetables from the area around the town of Jember including Serut Village, District Panti Sub-District, Jember District. Serut village has the ...

  16. Cross-sectional study of malnutrition and associated factors among school aged children in rural and urban settings of Fogera and Libo Kemkem districts, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrador, Zaida; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Moreno, Javier; Nieto, Javier; Benito, Agustín; Aseffa, Abraham; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefania

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on malnutrition-related factors among school-aged children ≥5 years in Ethiopia. This study describes the prevalence of stunting and thinness and their related factors in Libo Kemkem and Fogera, Amhara Regional State and assesses differences between urban and rural areas. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometrics and individual and household characteristics data were collected from 886 children. Height-for-age z-score for stunting and body-mass-index-for-age z-score for thinness were computed. Dietary data were collected through a 24-hour recall. Bivariate and backward stepwise multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess malnutrition-associated factors in rural and urban communities. The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 42.7% in rural areas and 29.2% in urban areas, while the corresponding figures for thinness were 21.6% and 20.8%. Age differences were significant in both strata. In the rural setting, fever in the previous 2 weeks (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.23-2.32), consumption of food from animal sources (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.29-0.91) and consumption of the family's own cattle products (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.27-0.93), among others factors were significantly associated with stunting, while in the urban setting, only age (OR: 4.62; 95% CI: 2.09-10.21) and years of schooling of the person in charge of food preparation were significant (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79-0.97). Thinness was statistically associated with number of children living in the house (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03-1.60) and family rice cultivation (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41-0.99) in the rural setting, and with consumption of food from animal sources (OR: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10-0.67) and literacy of head of household (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09-0.65) in the urban setting. The prevalence of stunting was significantly higher in rural areas, whereas no significant differences were observed for thinness. Various factors were associated with one or both types of

  17. Promoting Retention among Urban Educators: The Relationship of Grit, Job Satisfaction, and Cultural Competence on The Length of Service of Regular and Special Education Teachers in an Urban District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvecchio, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers are leaving the field of education at a rate of over 50% in the first five years of teaching; the rate of departure is up to one third higher in an urban setting. This pattern has increased steadily over the last thirty years. This study explored this situation in the hope of identifying strategies to decrease attrition and promote…

  18. Placement and Achievement of Urban Hispanic Middle Schoolers with Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrocas, Lisa; Cramer, Elizabeth D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined achievement gains in reading and math for Hispanic middle school students with specific learning disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings in a large urban school district. The authors report learning gains for students with and without disabilities in inclusive versus segregated settings. Results indicate no…

  19. Understanding and Managing Staff Development in an Urban School System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip; And Others

    A study is reported that examined the way staff development functions in schools, the effects of staff development, and the interaction between staff development and other activities and conditions in school systems. The study took place in a large urban school district (in the Southeast) that is heavily committed to and involved in staff…

  20. Adolescents' Motivation in the Context of an Academic Vocabulary Intervention in Urban Middle School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Harris, Julie Russ; Sloane, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    In a large urban district's ELA classrooms, an academic vocabulary intervention designed to improve linguistically diverse 6th-graders' reading and language skills was implemented and evaluated. These classrooms were characterized by high numbers of struggling readers, and linguistic diversity was the norm. As part of the evaluation, this study…

  1. Some notions on urbanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Bo

    According to International Federation of Housing and Planning the majority of the population of the planet will be urban in 2007. That definition of the urban, however, is based on zombie categories, to speak as Ulrich Beck. Urbanization and urban areas as we normally understand them are concepts...... of 'the first modernity'. Nowadays, in 'the second modernity', we have instead to aks: where in the city do you really find urbanity? A large part of what statistically is called urban areas lack urban quality and visible urban life. In the space syntax community urbanity is basically understood...

  2. The Effects of the Urban Built Environment on Mental Health: A Cohort Study in a Large Northern Italian City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Giulia; Gelormino, Elena; Marra, Giulia; Ferracin, Elisa; Costa, Giuseppe

    2015-11-20

    Mental health (MH) has a relevant burden on the health of populations. Common MH disorders (anxiety and non-psychotic depression) are well associated to socioeconomic individual and neighborhood characteristics, but little is known about the influence of urban structure. We analyzed among a Turin (Northwest Italy) urban population the association at area level of different urban structure characteristics (density, accessibility by public transport, accessibility to services, green and public spaces) and consumption of antidepressants. Estimates were adjusted by individual socio-demographic variables (education, housing tenure, employment) and contextual social environment (SE) variables (social and physical disorder, crime rates). Data was extracted from the Turin Longitudinal Study (TLS)-a census-based cohort study following up prospectively the mortality and morbidity of the population. As expected, individual characteristics show the strongest association with antidepressant drug consumption, while among built environment (BE) indicators accessibility by public transport and urban density only are associated to MH, being slightly protective factors. Results from this study, in agreement with previous literature, suggest that BE has a stronger effect on MH for people who spend more time in the neighborhood. Therefore, this research suggests that good accessibility to public transport, as well as a dense urban structure (versus sprawl), could contribute to reduced risk of depression, especially for women and elderly, by increasing opportunities to move around and have an active social life.

  3. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D

    2016-01-01

    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot.

  4. The Effects of the Urban Built Environment on Mental Health: A Cohort Study in a Large Northern Italian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Melis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mental health (MH has a relevant burden on the health of populations. Common MH disorders (anxiety and non-psychotic depression are well associated to socioeconomic individual and neighborhood characteristics, but little is known about the influence of urban structure. We analyzed among a Turin (Northwest Italy urban population the association at area level of different urban structure characteristics (density, accessibility by public transport, accessibility to services, green and public spaces and consumption of antidepressants. Estimates were adjusted by individual socio-demographic variables (education, housing tenure, employment and contextual social environment (SE variables (social and physical disorder, crime rates. Data was extracted from the Turin Longitudinal Study (TLS—a census-based cohort study following up prospectively the mortality and morbidity of the population. As expected, individual characteristics show the strongest association with antidepressant drug consumption, while among built environment (BE indicators accessibility by public transport and urban density only are associated to MH, being slightly protective factors. Results from this study, in agreement with previous literature, suggest that BE has a stronger effect on MH for people who spend more time in the neighborhood. Therefore, this research suggests that good accessibility to public transport, as well as a dense urban structure (versus sprawl, could contribute to reduced risk of depression, especially for women and elderly, by increasing opportunities to move around and have an active social life.

  5. Equity for Rural School Districts: The Final Report of the Countryside Council's School Finance Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Steve

    Soaring values of agricultural land have created inequities in funding between urban and rural school districts in Minnesota. The state's Foundation Aid to school districts is formulated so that districts of high property valuation receive less Foundation Aid than those districts with low property valuation. In recent years inflation has had…

  6. Assessment of long-term and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan effects on urban air quality and its implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Qin, Dahe; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    To solve traffic congestion and to improve urban air quality, long-lasting and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan was implemented by local government during 20 November to 26 December 2016 in urban Lanzhou, a semi-arid valley city of northwest China. The traffic control measures provided an invaluable opportunity to evaluate its effects on urban air quality in less developed cities of northwest China. Based on measured simultaneously air pollutants and meteorological parameters, the abatement of traffic-related pollutants induced by the implemented control measures such as CO, PM2.5 and PM10 (the particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm) concentrations were firstly quantified by comparing the air quality data in urban areas with those in rural areas (uncontrolled zones). The concentrations of CO, NO2 from motor vehicles and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were shown to have significant decreases of 15%-23% during traffic control period from those measured before control period with hourly maximum CO, PM2.5, and NO2/SO2 reduction of 43%, 35% and 141.4%, respectively. The influence of the control measures on AQI (air quality index) and ozone was less as compared to its effect on other air pollutants. Therefore, to alleviate serious winter haze pollution in China and to protect human health, the stringent long-term and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan should be implemented aperiodically in urban areas, especially for the periods with poor diffusion conditions.

  7. 24 CFR 597.502 - Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nominations by economic development corporations or the District of Columbia. 597.502 Section 597.502 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... development corporations or the District of Columbia. Any urban area nominated by an Economic Development...

  8. ASSESSMENT OF URBAN BUILT ENVIRONMENT QUALITY ON THE URBANIZED TERRITORIES: INTERREGIONAL COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovsiannikova T. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The urbanization and growth of a cities role, formation of cities as reference points of regions economic development are modern global tendencies. Cities concentrate human and investment resources on their territory, so in large part cities cause competitiveness of the regions in the global market. For preservation of competitive advantages regions need to form on the urbanized territories not only the favorable environment for business, but also for the population life. This paper deals with the problem of an assessment of urban built environment quality, due to urban built environment is a space-material basis of life quality of the population on the urbanized territories. The role of the cities in social and economic development of regions and their considerable influence on competitiveness of territories in the global competition for economic resources are proved. The method of assessment of urban built environment quality on the basis of calculation of an integrated index is proposed. Interregional comparisons on the example of regions of the Siberian and Ural Federal districts are completed. The offered method of assessment of urban built environment quality allows to range the urbanized territories on usefulness for living, to reveal most and the least developed spheres of city infrastructure.

  9. Report on survey for environment harmonizing type energy community project for Chubu International Airport. District heat supply facilities using large-scale cogeneration systems; Chubu kokusai kuko kankyo chowagata energy community jigyo chosa hokokusho. Daikibo cogeneration chiiki netsu kyokyu shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The Chubu International Airport is positioned as a hub airport scheduled to start its use in the early part of the 21st century, to which introduction of large-scale cogeneration systems was discussed. Structuring an energy supply system conscious of the 21st century is intended, that is friendly to the environment, is attached with importance on the economy, and has high reliability and safety. The systems have cogeneration capacity from 4,500 to 6,000 kW, and utilize high-pressure waste heat from the cogeneration system as the heat source. The system uses the high pressure waste heat, stored heat, and gas at the same time to achieve high economic performance brought about by heat storage and the best energy source mix, while attempting cascade utilization of the heat. Considerations were given to suppress the environmental and energy load on the district as low as possible for the coexistence with the district, and to build framework and coordination to return the merits to the district. Subsidy introduction also has a great effect to assure the economic performance. The optimal specific construction of the system was found in combining the utilization of energy generated from temperature difference in sea water as a heat source system, the topping system utilizing the high pressure waste heat available in the system, high-efficiency heat pumps, and the heat storing system utilizing electric power available at late night. (NEDO)

  10. Studying the urban thermal environment under a human-biometeorological point of view: The case of a large coastal metropolitan city, Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavoutas, George; Georgiou, Giorgos K.; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment in modern cities has become potentially unfavorable and harmful for its residents, as a result of urbanization and industrialization. Exposure to these extreme thermal conditions increases the heat stress of people in cities considerably. In this context, the present study aims to investigate the urban thermal environment of the large coastal metropolitan city of Athens, in a human-biometeorologically significant way, utilizing the thermo-physiological assessment index PET. The analysis was based on three hour measurements derived from three-year datasets (2006-2009), at 12 monitoring sites located in the urban complex of Athens, on its boundaries and beyond them. The differences of PET values have been investigated in order to attribute urban and exurban thermal characteristics to the considered sites. The frequency and spatial distribution of PET as well as the urban/rural differences of PET have also been analyzed. Finally, a trend analysis has been applied in order to detect possible PET trends by employing long-term recording data (1985-2008). In terms of thermal human-biometeorological conditions, the analysis reveals that among the considered stations, those located inside the urban complex and the industrialized area present urban thermal characteristics, regardless the fact that they are installed either in a park and on a hill or at an open field. The spatial distribution of PET, at 0200 LST, shows a difference of about 3 to 4 °C, on the main axis of the city (SSW-NNE) in the summer period, while the difference exceeds 2.5 °C in the winter period. In general, cooler (less warm) thermal perception is observed at the north/northeast sites of the city as well as at the areas beyond the eastern boundaries of it. The PET differences between urban and rural sites hold a positive sign, except of those at 0500 LST and at 0800 LST. The highest differences are noted at 1400 LST and the most intense of them is noticed in the summer period

  11. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus: prevalence and risk factors among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in an Urban District of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Mahmud, Sadia; Nanan, Debra J; Jabbar, Abdul; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the prevalence of, and factors associated with, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (UDM) in a community setting in Pakistan. A single-center, cross-sectional study, conducted in a community-based specialized care center (SCC) for diabetes in District Central Karachi, in 2003, registered 452 type 2 DM participants, tested for HbA1c and interviewed face-to-face for other information. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with UDM. Prevalence of UDM among diabetes patients was found to be 38.9% (95% CI: 34.4-43.4%). Multivariable logistic regression model analysis indicated that age diabetes information from a doctor or nurse only (vs. multiple sources) (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9), higher monthly treatment cost (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6; for every extra 500 PKR), and higher consumption of tea (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.2; for every 2 extra cups) were independently associated with UDM. The prevalence of UDM was approximately 39% among persons with type 2 diabetes visiting a community based SCC for diabetes. Modifiable risk factors such as sources of diabetes information and black tea consumption can be considered as potential targets of interventions in Karachi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of urbanization coupled with drought situations on groundwater quality in shallow (basalt) and deeper (granite) aquifers with special reference to fluoride in Nanded-Waghala Municipal Corporation, Nanded District, Maharashtra (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Madhnure; Kaplay, R D; Potdar, S S; Sangnor, H; Rao, A D

    2017-09-01

    Rapid expansion in urbanization and industrialization coupled with recent drought conditions has triggered unplanned groundwater development leading to severe stress on groundwater resources in many urban cities of India, particularly cities like Nanded, Maharashtra. In the quest of tapping drinking water requirement, due to recent drought conditions, people from the city are piercing through entire thickness of shallow basalt aquifers to reach productive deeper granite aquifers. Earlier reports from Nanded and surrounding districts suggest that deeper granite aquifer is contaminated with fluoride (geogenic). The study aimed to find out variations in fluoride concentration in shallow basalt (10-167 m) and deeper granite aquifers (below 167 m) and to find out the relationship between fluoride and other ions. Study suggests that concentration of fluoride in shallow basalt aquifer is within maximum permissible limits of Bureau of Indian Standards and deeper granite aquifer contains as high as 4.9 mg/l of fluoride and all samples from granite aquifers are unfit for human consumption. The groundwater from basalt aquifer is mainly Ca-HCO 3- Cl type, and from granite aquifer, it is Ca-Na-Cl type. The correlation plot between F - vs. pH, Na + and HCO 3 - shows a positive correlation and an inverse relationship with Ca 2+ in both aquifers. As recommendations, it is suggested that granite aquifers should not be tapped for drinking purposes; however, in drought situations, water from this aquifer should be blended with treated surface water before supplying for drinking purposes. Efforts may be made to utilize 1.35 MCM of rainwater from available rooftop, which is sufficient to cater for the needs of ~40,800 people annually. Most effective defluoridation techniques like electrolytic de-fluoridation (EDF), ion exchange and reverse osmosis may be adopted along with integrated fluorosis mitigation measures.

  13. On the Pollutant Plume Dispersion in the Urban Canopy Layer over 2D Idealized Street Canyons: A Large-Eddy Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colman C. C.; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2010-05-01

    Anthropogenic emissions are the major sources of air pollutants in urban areas. To improve the air quality in dense and mega cities, a simple but reliable prediction method is necessary. In the last five decades, the Gaussian pollutant plume model has been widely used for the estimation of air pollutant distribution in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in an operational manner. Whereas, it was originally designed for rural areas with rather open and flat terrain. The recirculating flows below the urban canopy layer substantially modify the near-ground urban wind environment and so does the pollutant distribution. Though the plume height and dispersion are often adjusted empirically, the accuracy of applying the Gaussian pollutant plume model in urban areas, of which the bottom of the flow domain consists of numerous inhomogeneous buildings, is unclear. To elucidate the flow and pollutant transport, as well as to demystify the uncertainty of employing the Gaussian pollutant plume model over urban roughness, this study was performed to examine how the Gaussian-shape pollutant plume in the urban canopy layer is modified by the idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons at the bottom of the ABL. The specific objective is to develop a parameterization so that the geometric effects of urban morphology on the operational pollutant plume dispersion models could be taken into account. Because atmospheric turbulence is the major means of pollutant removal from street canyons to the ABL, the large-eddy simulation (LES) was adopted to calculate explicitly the flows and pollutant transport in the urban canopy layer. The subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) conservation was used to model the SGS processes in the incompressible, isothermal conditions. The computational domain consists of 12 identical idealized street canyons of unity aspect ratio which were placed evenly in the streamwise direction. Periodic boundary conditions (BCs) for the flow were applied

  14. The Influence of Parental Engagement on Most Restrictive Special Education Placements for African American Students in a Major Urban Texas School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Dianne Kendrick

    2017-01-01

    African American students receive placements in special education in numbers disproportionate to their representation in the population at large. They are also placed in most restrictive settings in large numbers. The current quantitative study was designed to examine the influence of participation in ARD/IEP meetings by African American parents…

  15. Seasonal Differences in Determinants of Time Location Patterns in an Urban Population: A Large Population-Based Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sewon; Lee, Kiyoung

    2017-06-22

    Time location patterns are a significant factor for exposure assessment models of air pollutants. Factors associated with time location patterns in urban populations are typically due to high air pollution levels in urban areas. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal differences in time location patterns in two urban cities. A Time Use Survey of Korean Statistics (KOSTAT) was conducted in the summer, fall, and winter of 2014. Time location data from Seoul and Busan were collected, together with demographic information obtained by diaries and questionnaires. Determinants of the time spent at each location were analyzed by multiple linear regression and the stepwise method. Seoul and Busan participants had similar time location profiles over the three seasons. The time spent at own home, other locations, workplace/school and during walk were similar over the three seasons in both the Seoul and Busan participants. The most significant time location pattern factors were employment status, age, gender, monthly income, and spouse. Season affected the time spent at the workplace/school and other locations in the Seoul participants, but not in the Busan participants. The seasons affected each time location pattern of the urban population slightly differently, but overall there were few differences.

  16. Extrinsic Motivation for Large-Scale Assessments: A Case Study of a Student Achievement Program at One Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Joshua; McGee, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to discover the critical attributes of a student achievement program, known as "Think Gold," implemented at one urban comprehensive high school as part of the improvement process. Student achievement on state assessments improved during the period under study. The study draws upon perspectives on…

  17. Seasonal Differences in Determinants of Time Location Patterns in an Urban Population: A Large Population-Based Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewon Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Time location patterns are a significant factor for exposure assessment models of air pollutants. Factors associated with time location patterns in urban populations are typically due to high air pollution levels in urban areas. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal differences in time location patterns in two urban cities. A Time Use Survey of Korean Statistics (KOSTAT was conducted in the summer, fall, and winter of 2014. Time location data from Seoul and Busan were collected, together with demographic information obtained by diaries and questionnaires. Determinants of the time spent at each location were analyzed by multiple linear regression and the stepwise method. Seoul and Busan participants had similar time location profiles over the three seasons. The time spent at own home, other locations, workplace/school and during walk were similar over the three seasons in both the Seoul and Busan participants. The most significant time location pattern factors were employment status, age, gender, monthly income, and spouse. Season affected the time spent at the workplace/school and other locations in the Seoul participants, but not in the Busan participants. The seasons affected each time location pattern of the urban population slightly differently, but overall there were few differences.

  18. Is the Current Management of Patients Presenting With Spinal Trauma to District General Hospitals Fit for Purpose? Our Experience of Delivering a Spinal Service Using an Electronic Referral Platform in a Large District General Teaching Hospital Without Onsite Spinal Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Daniel S; Marynissen, Hans

    2018-04-12

    A retrospective cross-sectional analysis. To describe the provision of a spinal service using an electronic platform to direct management from an external spinal unit, and quantify time taken to obtain definitive management plans whilst under prescribed spinal immobilization. Most attending district general hospitals following spinal trauma will have stable injuries and normal neurology, with only a small proportion requiring urgent transfer to a specialist centre. A retrospective review of 104 patients admitted following vertebral during a 12-month period. The British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma consensus that "spinal immobilisation is not recommended for more than 48 hours" was the standard of care measured against. 100 patients occupied a total of 975 hospital inpatient bed days. 117 radiological investigations were requested after the point of external referral (47 CT-scans, 37 MRI-scans, and 33 weight bearing radiographs). The period between initial referral to the regional spinal service and then receiving a definitive final management had a median value of 72 hours and a range of 0 - 33 days. Patients will have been under some form of prescribed spinal immobilisation until the definitive management plan was communicated. 34 patients (34% of the overall cohort) had a definitive management plan in place within 48 hours. 80 patients had vertebral injuries (73 stable, 6 unstable), 3 patients had prolapsed intervertebral disks, 1 had metastatic disease, and 17 had not evidence of an acute injury following evaluation. Patients are being placed under prescribed immobilisation for longer than is recommended. Delays in obtaining radiological imaging were an important factor, together with the time taken to receive a definitive management plan. Limitations in social care provision and delays in arranging this were additional barriers to hospital discharge following the final management plan. 4.

  19. Test programme `Solgaarden`, Kolding. 1. Solar cell system located in an urban renewal district. 2. Prefabricated, built-in elevators for an older, occupied block of flats; Forsoegsprogram Solgaarden, Kolding. 1. Solcelleanlaeg i et byfornyelsesomraade. 2. Praefabrikerede elevatorer til indbygning i en beboet aeldre etageejendom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The aim was to promote the use of photovoltaic power systems in Denmark by setting up such a system for preliminary performance testing in a district undergoing urban renewal in the Danish town of Kolding in Jutland. This area, and the renewal initiatives taken, are described in addition to the photovoltaic units positioned on the roof and on the balconies of an older apartment building in the area. The brief descriptive texts are illustrated with a considerable number of diagrams and photographs. (AB)

  20. A central solar-industrial waste heat heating system with large scale borehole thermal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Xu, L.; Torrens, I.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new research of seasonal thermal storage is introduced. This study aims to maximize the utilization of renewable energy source and industrial waste heat (IWH) for urban district heating systems in both heating and non-heating seasons through the use of large-scale seasonal thermal

  1. Interim district energy implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, R.; Susak, W. [City of Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johnstone, I. [BCG Services Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The concept of district energy was introduced in the City of North Vancouver, a city of 45,000, in 1997. A preliminary study was completed in 1997, followed by a tour of some district energy facilities in Finland in the same year. In 1999 a large district energy study was completed by a consultant. The study indicated the need for an investment of $15 million to implement district heating in the City. Lack of sufficient financial resources and immediately connectable heat load, the project was considered a non-starter. Some of the other factors leading to shelving the project included no current significant pricing advantages over competing energy sources and no current opportunity for cogeneration, given the low price that BC Hydro is willing to pay for independently produced power. The project, although shelved for the moment, has not been discarded. Planning and exploration are continuing, aided by the City's commitment to energy efficiency and conservation, its long term planning horizon and its significant influence over the development of some prime real estate.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of major depressive disorder in HIV/AIDS as seen in semi-urban Entebbe district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinyanda Eugene

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Not much is known about the risk factors of major depressive disorder (MDD in HIV/AIDS in the African socio-cultural context. Therefore a study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and risk factors of MDD in HIV/AIDS in semi-urban Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 618 respondents attending two HIV clinics in Uganda. Results Prevalence of MDD was 8.1%. Factors associated with MDD at univariate analysis only were female gender, family history of mental illness, negative coping style, alcohol dependency disorder, food insecurity and stress; not associated with MDD were social support, neurocognitive impairment, CD4 counts and BMI. Factors independently associated with MDD were psychosocial impairment, adverse life events, post traumatic stress disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and life-time attempted suicide. Conclusion Psychological and social factors were the main risk factors of MDD among ambulatory HIV positive persons with no evidence for the role of the neurotoxic effects of HIV. Treatment approaches for MDD in this patient group should be modeled on those used among non-HIV groups.

  3. Monuments devoted to artists in public spaces around museums: A nineteenth-century strategy to enhance the urban space of art districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente, J. Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monuments to kings or military heroes have always been positioned in main squares and avenues, whilst those erected to famous cultural figures were a novelty introduced in the Enlightenment and Romanticism, placing busts or sitting monuments to writers or musicians in secluded gardens and in the surroundings of libraries, theatres, etc. During the nineteenth century, monuments to artists became also a common feature in many cities, where a most likely emplacement for them was in front of some art museum. In a way, they were a complement to the ornaments of such building, usually decorated with portraits and inscriptions glorifying great artists; but the monument to Murillo erected in 1863 by public subscription in Seville's Plaza del Museo was also an urban milestone, catching the attention of promenading public passing along a lateral street. Later, the monuments erected in the piazzas around the Prado Museum in Madrid, or in gardens outside the Louvre, became a popular prototype, emulated in many other cities up to the early 20th century. Their role as interfaces between public spaces and museum sites would thereafter be taken over by other kinds of artistic landmarks: not monuments to artists, but monumental artworks, often owned by the museum itself, thus bringing part of its collection outside, as a welcome starter to prospective cultural consumers.

  4. Recent Trends in Atmospheric Lead Levels at an Urban-Industrial District of Metropolitan Lisbon, Portugal, through PIXE Analysis of Air-Particulate Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M. Carmo; Reis, Miguel A.; Pacheco, Adriano M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a steep decline in primary, traffic-related loads, lead in the environment is still much of an issue. Current atmospheric levels may be unmistakably reflecting the widespread use of cleaner fuels, yet decades of uncontrolled emissions from mobile sources have made lead to pervade every terrestrial (and aquatic) ecosystem, from where it keeps re-entering the lower troposphere, at least in terms of local circulation. The continuing surveillance of airborne-lead levels is thus necessary, not just for ensuring a strict compliance with regulatory decisions, but also for assisting in the implementation of remediation and/or rehabilitation policies. In Portugal, unleaded gasoline was made generally available in 1990, yet both leaded and lead-free varieties were commercialised until 1998. After that, all vehicles were compelled to use unleaded gasoline. Even though it is certainly too early for a full trend analysis of airborne levels and their response to the ban on lead, concentrations in ambient air over an important urban-industrial corridor within the Lisbon metropolitan area show a steady, sharp decrease through the last decade. Since 2000, airborne-lead data seems somewhat stabilised and, as far as busy conurbations are concerned, roughly within the values that were usually observed in the rural hinterland back in the mid 1990s

  5. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2009-07-01

    The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides.

  7. Interaction between turbulent flow and sea breeze front over urban-like coast in large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ping; Wen, Zhiping; Sha, Weiming; Chen, Guixing

    2017-05-01

    Turbulent flow and its interaction with a sea breeze front (SBF) over an urban-like coast with a regular block array were investigated using a building-resolving computational fluid dynamics model. It was found that during daytime with an offshore ambient flow, streaky turbulent structures tended to grow within the convective boundary layer (CBL) over a warm urban surface ahead of the SBF. The structures were organized as streamwise streaks at an interval of a few hundred meters, which initiated at the rooftop level with strong wind shear and strengthens in the CBL with moderate buoyancy. The streaks then interacted with the onshore-propagating SBF as it made landfall. The SBF, which was initially characterized as a shallow and quasi-linear feature over the sea, developed three-dimensional structures with intensified updrafts at an elevated frontal head after landfall. Frontal updrafts were locally enhanced at intersections where the streaks merged with the SBF, which greatly increased turbulent fluxes at the front. The frontal line was irregular because of merging, tilting, and transformation effects of vorticity associated with streaky structures. Inland penetration of the SBF was slowed by the frictional effect of urban-like surfaces and turbulent flow on land. The overall SBF intensity weakened after the interaction with turbulent flow. These findings aid understanding of local weather over coastal cities during typical sea breeze conditions.

  8. Indoor air quality due to secondhand smoke: Signals from selected hospitality locations in rural and urban areas of Bangalore and Dharwad districts in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Mark J; Nayak, Nayanatara S; Annigeri, Vinod B; Billava, N Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke has compounds that are known as human carcinogens. With every breath of secondhand smoke we inhale thousands of chemicals. The Government of India in the interest of public health has enacted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), 2003, which bans smoking in all the public places including hotels and restaurants. The purpose of this study was to observe and record air pollution in smoke free and smoke observed locations and thereby find out whether the owners/managers of hotels, restaurants, and bars comply with rules of COTPA. The objectives of the study were to measure and compare the level of particulate air pollution from secondhand smoke (PM2.5) in smoking and nonsmoking venues. The study was conducted from September 2009 to March 2010 in Karnataka, India following a nonrandom sample of 79 locations, which included restaurants, bars, cafes, hotels, and tea stalls in two districts. The concentration of PM2.5 was measured using a TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. In Karnataka out of the 79 hospitality locations, smoking was observed in 58% places and only 28% had displayed the required "No Smoking" signage. Places where indoor smoking was observed had high levels of air pollution with average 135 PM2.5, which were 3.1 times higher than the average 43 PM2.5 in smoke-free locations and 14 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) target air quality guideline for PM2.5. The average PM2.5 levels in different locations ranged from 11 to 417 μg/m(3) and was lower in the case of apparently compliant designated smoking area (DSR). The patrons and the workers in the hospitality sector continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke despite the enactment of COTPA, which bans smoking in public places. This situation demands stringent measures for effective implementation of the Smoke Free Act and negative response to smoking among civil society.

  9. District heating as the infrastructure for competition among fuels and technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram

    2016-01-01

    for increased energy efficiency. Additional technologies suitable for small-scale networks are heat pumps, solar panels and local biomass in the form of straw or biogas. For large-scale urban networks, incineration of urban waste and geothermal heat are key technologies. With heat storages district heating...... infrastructure can contribute significantly to balancing the intermittency of wind power. This paper is an update of the authors' article published in Energy Policy in 2003 focusing on the European directives focusing on competition in the electricity and gas network industries and promotion of renewables...... and cogeneration but limited support for the development and expansion of the district heating infrastructure. It was partly based on a contribution to the Shared Analysis Project for the European Commission Directorate-General for Energy, concerning the penetration of combined heat and power (CHP), energy saving...

  10. Numerical modeling of flows and pollutant dispersion within and above urban street canyons under unstable thermal stratification by large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ming-Chung; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Recently, with the ever increasing urban areas in developing countries, the problem of air pollution due to vehicular exhaust arouses the concern of different groups of people. Understanding how different factors, such as urban morphology, meteorological conditions and human activities, affect the characteristics of street canyon ventilation, pollutant dispersion above urban areas and pollutant re-entrainment from the shear layer can help us improve air pollution control strategies. Among the factors mentioned above, thermal stratification is a significant one determining the pollutant transport behaviors in certain situation, e.g. when the urban surface is heated by strong solar radiation, which, however, is still not widely explored. The objective of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the effects of unstable thermal stratification on the flows and pollutant dispersion within and above urban street canyons through numerical modeling using large-eddy simulation (LES). In this study, LES equipped with one-equation subgrid-scale (SGS) model is employed to model the flows and pollutant dispersion within and above two-dimensional (2D) urban street canyons (flanked by idealized buildings, which are square solid bars in these models) under different intensities of unstable thermal stratifications. Three building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios, 0.5, 1 and 2, are included in this study as a representation of different building densities. The prevailing wind flow above the urban canopy is driven by background pressure gradient, which is perpendicular to the street axis, while the condition of unstable thermal stratification is induced by applying a higher uniform temperature on the no-slip urban surface. The relative importance between stratification and background wind is characterized by the Richardson number, with zero value as a neutral case and negative value as an unstable case. The buoyancy force is modeled by Boussinesq approximation and the

  11. State and district policy influences on district-wide elementary and middle school physical education practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eyler, Amy; Carnoske, Cheryl; Slater, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    To examine the influence of state laws and district policies on district-wide elementary school and middle school practices related to physical education (PE) time and the percentage of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time during PE. Multivariate, cross-sectional analysis of state laws, district wellness and PE policies, and district PE practices for school year 2010-2011 controlling for district-level urbanicity, region, size, race/ethnicity of students, and socioeconomic status and clustered on state. One hundred ninety-five public school districts located in 42 states. District-level PE coordinators for the included districts who responded to an online survey. Minutes and days of PE per week and percent time spent in MVPA during PE time. District PE coordinators reported significantly less PE time than national standards-82.9 and 189.6 minutes at the elementary school and middle school levels, respectively. Physical education was provided an average of 2.5 and 3.7 days per week, respectively; and the percentage of MVPA time in PE was 64.4% and 65.7%, respectively. At the elementary school level, districts in either states with laws governing PE time or in a state and district with a law/policy reported significantly more days of PE (0.63 and 0.67 additional days, respectively), and districts in states with PE time laws reported 18 more minutes of PE per week. At the middle school level, state laws were associated with 0.73 more days of PE per week. Neither state laws nor district policies were positively associated with percent MVPA time in PE. State laws and district policies can influence district-level PE practices-particularly those governing the frequency and duration of PE-although opportunities exist to strengthen PE-related laws, policies, and practices.

  12. Energy Assessment of Automated Mobility Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Automated vehicles (AVs) are increasingly being discussed as the basis for on-demand mobility services, introducing a new paradigm in which a fleet of AVs displace private automobiles for day-to-day travel in dense activity districts. This project examines such a concept to displace privately owned automobiles within a region containing dense activity generators (jobs, retail, entertainment, etc.), referred to as an automated mobility district (AMDs). The project reviews several such districts including airport, college campuses, business parks, downtown urban cores, and military bases, with examples of previous attempts to meet the mobility needs apart from private automobiles, some with automated technology and others with more traditional transit based solutions. The issues and benefits of AMDs are framed within the perspective of intra-district, inter-district, and border issues, and the requirements for a modeling framework are identified to adequately reflect the breadth of mobility, energy, and emissions impact anticipated with AMDs.

  13. Promoting Effective Parenting Practices and Preventing Child Behavior Problems in School among Ethnically Diverse Families from Underserved, Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kingston, Sharon; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Schwab, Amihai; Petkova, Eva

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the efficacy of "ParentCorps" among 4-year-old children (N = 171) enrolled in prekindergarten in schools in a large urban school district. "ParentCorps" includes a series of 13 group sessions for parents and children held at the school during early evening hours and facilitated by teachers and mental health…

  14. Improvement in mortality and retention among adult HIV-infected patients in the first 12 months of antiretroviral therapy in Dodoma urban district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweve, Escor N; Kayabu, David; Nassari, Nahum O; Todd, Jim

    2015-06-01

    To determine mortality and retention in ART programmes in Tanzania, between 2010 and 2013. Retrospective routinely collected data were analysed from people starting ART in the period 2010-2013. Mortality and retention over the first 12 months on ART were compared across the 4 years, and adjustment was made for individual level potential confounders. Data from 3844 people (70.6% female) starting ART were analysed. Mortality in the first year declined from 11.4% in 2010 to 4.9% in 2013, and retention after 12 months increased from 77.8% in 2010 to 98.1% in 2013. Mortality was inversely associated with CD4 count, lowest among those with CD4 350+ cells/μl [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.03], associated with male sex (AOR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.39-2.31), but not age. Lost to follow-up (LTFU) was lowest among those with CD4 = 350+ cells/μl AOR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.10-0.30), but not associated with age or sex, and higher in urban health facilities (AOR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.15-3.09). After adjustment for individual level characteristics, there was a statistically significant yearly improvement in mortality (AOR = 0.31, 95% CI (0.21-0.44) and LTFU (AOR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.04-0.10). Mortality and retention in the first 12 months on ART have significantly improved over the 4 years from 2010 to 2013. These improvements may indicate better services, earlier initiation on ART, and strengthened systems to provide ART in Tanzania. These results refute the worries that earlier initiation on ART might lead to lower retention in the ART programme. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Large-eddy simulation of pollutant dispersion from a ground-level area source over urban street canyons with irreversible chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T. Z.; Liu, C.-H.; Zhao, Y. B.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants is calculated by large-eddy simulation (LES) in a neutrally stratified urban canopy layer (UCL) over urban areas. As a pilot attempt, idealized street canyons of unity building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio are used. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from the ground surface of the first street canyon into the domain doped with ozone (O3). In the absence of ultraviolet radiation, this irreversible chemistry produces nitrogen dioxide (NO2), developing a reactive plume over the rough urban surface. A range of timescales of turbulence and chemistry are utilized to examine the mechanism of turbulent mixing and chemical reactions in the UCL. The Damköhler number (Da) and the reaction rate (r) are analyzed along the vertical direction on the plane normal to the prevailing flow at 10 m after the source. The maximum reaction rate peaks at an elevation where Damköhler number Da is equal or close to unity. Hence, comparable timescales of turbulence and reaction could enhance the chemical reactions in the plume.

  16. Impacts of large-scale introduction of hydrogen in the road transport sector on urban air pollution and human exposure in Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, S.S.; Ketzel, M.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L.M.; Winther, M.; Nielsen, O.K. (Aarhus Univ.. National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark)); Joergensen, K.; Karlsson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Dept. of System Analysis, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-07-15

    The aim of the project 'Environmental and Health Impact Assessment of Scenarios for Renewable Energy Systems with Hydrogen' (HYSCENE) is to improve modelling of the environmental impacts and related socio-cultural and welfare economic impacts of a proposed hydrogen/renewable energy system with focus on large-scale introduction of hydrogen as energy carrier in the road transport sector (http://hyscene.dmu.dk). This extended abstract will focus on the impacts on urban air pollution and human exposure. (Author)

  17. An Assessment of the Relationship between Urban Air Quality and Environmental Urban Factors in Urban Regeneration Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Egercioglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution has been increasing due to ever increasing population, rapid urbanization, industrialization, energy usage, traffic density. The purpose of the study is to examine the relation between urban air quality and urban environmental factors in urban regeneration areas. Two common air polluters (SO2 and PM10 are considered in the study. The data are collected for Cigli district, including the level of air pollutants, the local natural gas service lines and planning decisions for the years between 2007 and 2011. According to the examinations, urban environmental factors and planning decisions affect the urban air quality in urban regeneration areas.

  18. The framework of urban exposome: Application of the exposome concept in urban health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianou, Xanthi D; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2018-05-02

    Horizontal challenges, such as climate change or the growing populations, and their manifestations require the development of multidisciplinary research synergies in urban health that could benefit from concepts, such as the human exposome. Cities are composed of interconnected systems which are influenced, by global trends, national policies and local complexities. In this context, the exposome concept could be expanded having the city setting in its core, providing the conceptual framework for the new generation of urban studies. The objectives of this work were to define the urban exposome and outline its utility. The urban exposome can be defined as the continuous spatiotemporal surveillance/monitoring of quantitative and qualitative indicators associated with the urban external and internal domains that shape up the quality of life and the health of urban populations, using small city areas, i.e. neighborhoods, quarters, or smaller administrative districts, as the point of reference. Research should focus on the urban exposome's measurable units at different levels, i.e. the individuals, small, within-city areas and the populations. The urban exposome framework applied in the city of Limassol, Cyprus combines three elements: (i) a mixed-methods study on stakeholders' opinions about quality of life in the city; (ii) a systematic assessment of secondary data from the cancer and death registries, including city infrastructure data; and (iii) a population health and biomonitoring survey. Continuous assessment of environmental and health indicators that are routinely collected, and the incorporation of primary data from population studies, will allow for the timely identification of within-city health and environmental disparities to inform policy making and public health interventions. The urban exposome could facilitate evidence-based public health response, offering researchers, policy-makers, and citizens effective tools to address the societal needs of large

  19. The risks to miners, mines, and the public posed by large seismic events in the gold mining districts of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Durrheim, RJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available are incorporating the risks of seismicity in their disaster management plans, and Johannesburg is urged to do likewise. Some buildings are considered vulnerable to damage by large seismic events, posing safety and financial risks....

  20. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school…

  1. Cross-District Collaboration: Curriculum and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Deborah J.; Cloud, Nancy; Morris, Patricia; Motta, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Secondary English as a second language (ESL) curricula that address four levels of ESL proficiency and prepare students for the English language arts (ELA) curricula and state-mandated ELA tests are not common. A curriculum jointly developed by two districts is even rarer. Yet two urban districts in Rhode Island undertook such a curriculum…

  2. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  3. Comparative evaluation of energy-related aspects in urban and in rural districts - Case study in the Canton of Neuchatel, Switzerland; Analyse comparative des aspects energetiques de quartiers urbains et ruraux. Etude de cas dans le canton de Neuchatel. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, L.; Vuilleumier, R.; Bonhote, P. [Planair SA, La Sagne (Switzerland); Rey, E. [Bauart Architectes et Urbanistes SA, Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The project aims at identifying the energy impact of various current ways of regional planning through a case study of eight districts in the canton of Neuchatel. The districts reveal the trends of planning in an urban centre, and in incorporated (suburb) or unincorporated territory. Thus, the influence of the distance to the centre of the agglomeration named 'centrality' has been studied. The energy expenditure for the buildings' construction phase (buildings, roads, networks) and utilization phase (heating, electricity, water, waste, networks) has been taken into account as well as the mobility. The energy investments have been evaluated by the method SNARC. The energy expenditure for operation and mobility has been evaluated based on questionnaires addressed to the inhabitants. As a result, the variable 'centrality' has only a weak role on the life cycle analysis (LCA) per inhabitant. In our case, the LCA for incorporated districts (suburb) and unincorporated districts are similar. With a LCA per square meter, the impact is completely similar and no correlation with the variable 'centrality' has been noticed. As the households are larger per inhabitants when the district is located in a suburban zone, the LCA per square meter remains stable. On the contrary, if the LCA is determined per household, the LCA is perfectly correlated with the variable 'centrality'. Thus, a household in the centre of Neuchatel consumes twice less energy resources than a household in Val-of-Ruz (rural area). The study highlights also the critical impacts of a LCA on a district scale. Finally, this study gives recommendations based on the energy and demographic prospects in order to respond to the objective of a 2000 watts society. (author)

  4. Business district streetscapes, trees, and consumer response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf

    2005-01-01

    A multistudy research program has investigated how consumers respond to the urban forest in central business districts of cities of various sizes. Trees positively affect judgments of visual quality but, more significantly, may influence other consumer responses and behaviors. Survey respondents from all regions of the United States...

  5. The Jiaodong gold district, northeastern China, in the context of the Late Paleozoic and Late Mesozoic large igneous provinces, orogeny and metallogeny in Eurasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, Hugo

    The Permo-Triassic continental large igneous provinces (LIPs) of Eurasia linked in to orogenic systems in decay. Their bulk appearance varies from the massive flood-basalts and (ultra)mafic intrusives to the groups of coeval, widely spread, diverse intrusions and extrusions of the Scattered Igneous

  6. Urban structure and air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, T. J.; Kenworthy, J. R.; Newman, P. W. G.

    Representative driving cycles across the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan region illustrate a direct relationship to urban land use. Movement away from the central business district results in fewer traffic events, higher speeds, longer cruise periods and shorter stops. The consequent reduction in root mean square acceleration leads to a corresponding reduction in vehicle emission factors. Urban planning implications are pursued and highlight the importance of public transport as an option in reducing urban air pollution.

  7. Large eddy simulation of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: Coupling dynamics with O3-NOx-VOC chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2017-05-01

    A large eddy simulation (LES) model coupled with O 3 -NO x -VOC chemistry is implemented to simulate the coupled effects of emissions, mixing and chemical pre-processing within an idealised deep (aspect ratio = 2) urban street canyon under a weak wind condition. Reactive pollutants exhibit significant spatial variations in the presence of two vertically aligned unsteady vortices formed in the canyon. Comparison of the LES results from two chemical schemes (simple NO x -O 3 chemistry and a more comprehensive Reduced Chemical Scheme (RCS) chemical mechanism) shows that the concentrations of NO 2 and O x inside the street canyon are enhanced by approximately 30-40% via OH/HO 2 chemistry. NO, NO x , O 3 , OH and HO 2 are chemically consumed, while NO 2 and O x (total oxidant) are chemically produced within the canyon environment. Within-canyon pre-processing increases oxidant fluxes from the canyon to the overlying boundary layer, and this effect is greater for deeper street canyons (as found in many traditional European urban centres) than shallower (lower aspect ratio) streets. There is clear evidence of distinct behaviours for emitted chemical species and entrained chemical species, and positive (or negative) values of intensities of segregations are found between pairs of species with similar (or opposite) behaviour. The simplified two-box model underestimated NO and O 3 levels, but overestimated NO 2 levels for both the lower and upper canyon compared with the more realistic LES-chemistry model. This suggests that the segregation effect due to incomplete mixing reduces the chemical conversion rate of NO to NO 2 . This study reveals the impacts of nonlinear O 3 -NO x -VOC photochemical processes in the incomplete mixing environment and provides a better understanding of the pre-processing of emissions within canyons, prior to their release to the urban boundary layer, through the coupling of street canyon dynamics and chemistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Extreme value analysis of air pollution data and their comparison between two large urban regions of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Droprinchinski Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen years of hourly atmospheric pollutant data (1996–2011 in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP, and seven years (2005–2011 of data measured in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ, were analyzed in order to study the extreme pollution events and their return period. In addition, the objective was to compare the air quality between the two largest Brazilian urban areas and provide information for decision makers, government agencies and civil society. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD were applied to investigate the behavior of pollutants in these two regions. Although GEV and GPD are different approaches, they presented similar results. The probability of higher concentrations for CO, NO, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 was more frequent during the winter, and O3 episodes occur most frequently during summer in the MASP. On the other hand, there is no seasonally defined behavior in MARJ for pollutants, with O3 presenting the shortest return period for high concentrations. In general, Ibirapuera and Campos Elísios stations present the highest probabilities of extreme events with high concentrations in MASP and MARJ, respectively. When the regions are compared, MASP presented higher probabilities of extreme events for all analyzed pollutants, except for NO; while O3 and PM2.5 are those with most frequent probabilities of presenting extreme episodes, in comparison other pollutants. Keywords: Air pollutants, Extreme events, Megacities, Ozone, Particulate matter

  9. Performance assessment of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for modeling dispersion in an urban street canyon with tree planting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Gromke, C.B.; Dorer, V.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model to reliably predict near-field pollutant dispersion is assessed. To that extent, detailed time-resolved numerical simulations of coupled flow and dispersion are conducted for a street canyon with tree planting. Different crown porosities are

  10. Hybrid Lecture-Online Format Increases Student Grades in an Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Course at a Large Urban University

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid courses allow students additional exposure to course content that is not possible in a traditional classroom environment. This exposure may lead to an improvement in academic performance. In this report, I describe the transition of a large undergraduate exercise physiology course from a traditional lecture format to a hybrid…

  11. Urban CO2 emissions in China: Spatial boundary and performance comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Bofeng; Zhang, Lixiao

    2014-01-01

    Different names/concepts and therefore different spatial boundaries for cities in China are responsible for the conflicting and confusing results associated with urban CO 2 emissions accounting. In this study, four types of urban boundaries, i.e., city administrative boundary (UB 1 ), city district boundary (UB 2 ), city built-up area (UB 3 ) and urban proper (UB 4 ), were identified and defined. Tianjin was subsequently selected as the case city to illustrate the different performances of CO 2 emissions with respect to these four boundaries using a 1-km grid dataset built bottom-up by point-emission sources. Different urban boundaries can induce a difference in CO 2 emissions as large as 654%. UB 1 and UB 2 are not the appropriate proxies for urban boundaries in the analysis of urban CO 2 emissions, although UB 1 is a widely adopted boundary. UB 3 is a good representative of city clusters and urban sprawl in a certain region, whereas UB 4 is the appropriate system boundary for such issues as urban CO 2 emissions in light of landscape characteristics and pertinent human activities, as well as the comparability to counterparts in developed countries. These results provide sound policy implications for the improvement of urban energy management and carbon emission abatement in China. - highlights: • Four types of urban boundaries in China were clarified and defined. • Different urban boundaries will induce deviation in CO 2 emissions as large as 654%. • The UB 4 stands for appropriate urban boundary for urban CO 2 emissions analysis. • Gridded data proves to be supplementary tools for urban CO 2 emissions accounting

  12. Prevalence of AmpC and other beta-lactamases in enterobacteria at a large urban university hospital in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Rubens Clayton da Silva; Borges-Neto, Armando Alves; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini D’Almeida; de-Oliveira, Márcia P.; Riley, Lee W.; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2007-01-01

    Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) has been reported in virtually all species of Enterobacteriaceae, which greatly complicates the therapy of infections caused by these organisms. However, the frequency of isolates producing AmpC β-lactamases, especially plasmid mediated AmpC (pAmpC), is largely unknown. These β-lactamases confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam, a multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile. The aim of the present study was to determine the...

  13. Foules, espaces publics urbains et apprentissage de la co-présence chez les adolescents des quartiers populaires d’Ile de France Crowds, urban public spaces and learning co-presence: the Case of the Adolescents residing in the popular districts of the Ile-de-France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oppenchaim

    2010-09-01

    teenagers to the urban crowd. This issue will be addressed in three stages. First and foremost, we shall outline - after the work of Isaac Joseph - the reasons why the transition from the crowd to the public is one of the main features of contemporary societies. This transition refers both to the metaphorical space of collective mobilizations as well as to the urban space. Characteristically, large crowds overwhelmed by emotions do not define large cities. Public spaces do, for they are places of co-presence organized around civil inattention. These spaces thus offer opportunities to meet other city-dwellers while guaranteeing a right to privacy. However, we shall then demonstrate that this quiet perception of large gatherings in the city is not self-evident, and so during adolescence, notably. It will therefore be necessary to introduce the problem of learning in our reflections upon urban public spaces. Thus, some of the teenagers residing in the popular districts of the Ile-de-France express a fear of urban crowds very much akin to that developed in the speeches of the 18th and 19th centuries. Broadly speaking, teenagers from popular districts differ in their speeches through four ideal-typical perceptions of the crowd: ‘the potentially entertaining crowd’, ‘the indifferent crowd’, ‘the threatening crowd’ or ‘the public space crowd.’ We shall eventually see that these different perceptions of teenagers are to be related to their relationships to their neighbourhoods and their own learning of mobility.

  14. The Streltsovskoye uranium district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischukova, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km 2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs

  15. Physics teachers' perspectives on factors that affect urban physics participation and accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2013-06-01

    The accessibility of secondary physics in U.S. urban school districts is a complex issue. Many schools do not offer a physics option, and for those that do, access is often restricted by various school policies and priorities that do not promote physics participation for all. To analyze this problem in greater depth, I adopted a qualitative phenomenological methodology to explore urban physics teachers’ views on school- and district-based conditions that may marginalize traditionally underrepresented students. Teachers from three large urban districts shared concerns and suggestions regarding administrative commitment, student preparedness for physics, reform initiatives and testing mandates, promoting physics enrollments, and implementing high quality instruction. Data from interviews and focus groups provided contextual insights into ways in which physics study may be improved and encouraged for urban youth. Teachers believed expanding access could be facilitated with differentiated levels of physics, incorporating mathematical applications with multiple representations, educating students and counselors on the ramifications of choosing or not choosing elective sciences, well-designed grant-funded initiatives, and flexibility with prerequisites and science course sequencing. Teachers experienced frustration with standardized testing, lack of curricular autonomy, shifting administrative directives, and top-down reforms that did not incorporate their feedback in the decision-making processes. Data from this study revealed that physics teacher networks, often housed at local universities, have been a key resource for establishing supportive professional communities to share best practices that may influence school-based reforms that promote physics participation in urban schools.

  16. Framework for integration of urban planning, strategic environmental assessment and ecological planning for urban sustainability within the context of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jia; Bao Cunkuan; Shu Tingfei; Yun Xiaoxue; Jiang Dahe; Brwon, Lex

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable development or sustainability has been highlighted as an essential principle in urban master planning, with increasing recognition that uncontrollable urbanization may well give rise to various issues such as overexploitation of natural resources, ecosystem destruction, environmental pollution and large-scale climate change. Thus, it is deemed necessary to modify the existing urban and regional administrative system so as to cope with the challenges urban planning is being confronted with and realize the purpose of urban sustainability. This paper contributed to proposing a mechanism which helps to make urban planning with full consideration of issues with respect to sustainable development. We suggested that the integration of urban planning, SEA and ecological planning be a multi-win strategy to offset deficiency of each mentioned political tool being individually applied. We also proposed a framework where SEA and ecological planning are fully incorporated into urban planning, which forms a two-way constraint mechanism to ascertain environmental quality of urban planning, although in practice, planning and SEA processes may conditionally be unified. Moreover, as shown in the case study, the integration of the three political tools may be constrained due to slow changes in the contextual factors, in particular the political and cultural dimensions. Currently within the context of China, there may be three major elements which facilitate integration of the three political tools, which are (1) regulatory requirement of PEIA on urban planning, (2) the promotion or strong administrative support from government on eco-district building, and (3) the willingness of urban planners to collaborate with SEA experts or ecologists.

  17. A large outbreak of typhoid fever associated with a high rate of intestinal perforation in Kasese District, Uganda, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Karen P; Sodha, Samir V; Lukwago, Luswa; O-Tipo, Shikanga; Mikoleit, Matthew; Simington, Sherricka D; Mukobi, Peter; Balinandi, Stephen; Majalija, Samuel; Ayers, Joseph; Kagirita, Atek; Wefula, Edward; Asiimwe, Frank; Kweyamba, Vianney; Talkington, Deborah; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Adem, Patricia; Batten, Brigid C; Zaki, Sherif R; Mintz, Eric

    2012-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) causes an estimated 22 million typhoid fever cases and 216 000 deaths annually worldwide. In Africa, the lack of laboratory diagnostic capacity limits the ability to recognize endemic typhoid fever and to detect outbreaks. We report a large laboratory-confirmed outbreak of typhoid fever in Uganda with a high proportion of intestinal perforations (IPs). A suspected case of typhoid fever was defined as fever and abdominal pain in a person with either vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, headache, weakness, arthralgia, poor response to antimalarial medications, or IP. From March 4, 2009 to April 17, 2009, specimens for blood and stool cultures and serology were collected from suspected cases. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on Salmonella Typhi isolates. Surgical specimens from patients with IP were examined. A community survey was conducted to characterize the extent of the outbreak. From December 27, 2007 to July 30, 2009, 577 cases, 289 hospitalizations, 249 IPs, and 47 deaths from typhoid fever occurred; Salmonella Typhi was isolated from 27 (33%) of 81 patients. Isolates demonstrated multiple PFGE patterns and uniform susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Surgical specimens from 30 patients were consistent with typhoid fever. Estimated typhoid fever incidence in the community survey was 8092 cases per 100 000 persons. This typhoid fever outbreak was detected because of an elevated number of IPs. Underreporting of milder illnesses and delayed and inadequate antimicrobial treatment contributed to the high perforation rate. Enhancing laboratory capacity for detection is critical to improving typhoid fever control.

  18. Prevalence of AmpC and other beta-lactamases in enterobacteria at a large urban university hospital in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Rubens Clayton da Silva; Borges-Neto, Armando Alves; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini D’Almeida; de-Oliveira, Márcia P.; Riley, Lee W.; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2010-01-01

    Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) has been reported in virtually all species of Enterobacteriaceae, which greatly complicates the therapy of infections caused by these organisms. However, the frequency of isolates producing AmpC β-lactamases, especially plasmid mediated AmpC (pAmpC), is largely unknown. These β-lactamases confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam, a multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of ESBL and pAmpC β-lactamases in a hospital where MDR enterobacterial isolates recently emerged. A total of 123 consecutive enterobacterial isolates obtained from 112 patients at a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil during March-June 2001 were included in the study. ESBL was detected by the addition of clavulanate to cephalosporin containing disks and by double diffusion. AmpC production was evaluated by a modified tridimensional test and a modified Hodge test. The presence of plasmid-mediated ampC β-lactamase genes was evaluated by multiplex-PCR. Sixty-five (53%) of 123 enterobacterial isolates were MDR, obtained from 56 patients. ESBL production was detected in 35 isolates; 5 clonal E. coli isolates exhibited high levels of chromosomal AmpC and ESBL production. However, no isolates contained pAmpC genes. Infection or colonization by MDR enterobacteria was not associated with any predominant resistant clones. A large proportion of hospital infections caused by ESBL-producing enterobacteria identified during the study period were due to sporadic infections rather than undetected outbreaks. This observation emphasizes the need to improve our detection methods for ESBL- and AmpC-producing organisms in hospitals where extended-spectrum cephalosporins are in wide use. PMID:17900845

  19. Increasing Poverty: How Do Leaders in One Suburban District Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer Dawn

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how suburban school district leaders in one large Midwestern school district respond to increasing student poverty. The purpose of this study was to determine how suburban school district leaders respond to increasing student poverty in their decision making and actions. Data for this study came from one…

  20. SECURE nuclear district heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson; Hannus, M.

    1978-01-01

    The role foreseen for the SECURE (Safe Environmentally Clean Urban REactor) nuclear district heating plant is to provide the baseload heating needs of primarily the larger and medium size urban centers that are outside the range of waste heat supply from conventional nuclear power stations. The rationale of the SECURE concept is that the simplicity in design and the inherent safety advantages due to the use of low temperatures and pressures should make such reactors economically feasible in much smaller unit sizes than nuclear power reactors and should make their urban location possible. It is felt that the present design should be safe enough to make urban underground location possible without restriction according to any criteria based on actual risk evaluation. From the environmental point of view, this is a municipal heat supply plant with negligible pollution. Waste heat is negligible, gaseous radioactivity release is negligible, and there is no liquid radwaste release. Economic comparisons show that the SECURE plant is competitive with current fossil-fueled alternatives. Expected future increase in energy raw material prices will lead to additional energy cost advantages to the SECURE plant

  1. Performance assessment of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for modeling dispersion in an urban street canyon with tree planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, P.; Gromke, C.; Dorer, V.

    2013-08-01

    The potential of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model to reliably predict near-field pollutant dispersion is assessed. To that extent, detailed time-resolved numerical simulations of coupled flow and dispersion are conducted for a street canyon with tree planting. Different crown porosities are considered. The model performance is assessed in several steps, ranging from a qualitative comparison to measured concentrations, over statistical data analysis by means of scatter plots and box plots, up to the calculation of objective validation metrics. The extensive validation effort highlights and quantifies notable features and shortcomings of the model, which would otherwise remain unnoticed. The model performance is found to be spatially non-uniform. Closer agreement with measurement data is achieved near the canyon ends than for the central part of the canyon, and typical model acceptance criteria are satisfied more easily for the leeward than for the windward canyon wall. This demonstrates the need for rigorous model evaluation. Only quality-assured models can be used with confidence to support assessment, planning and implementation of pollutant mitigation strategies.

  2. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  3. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  4. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.

    1991-01-01

    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  5. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  6. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  7. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  8. Zero Energy Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Benjamin J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-04

    This presentation shows how NREL is approaching Zero Energy Districts, including key opportunities, design strategies, and master planning concepts. The presentation also covers URBANopt, an advanced analytical platform for district that is being developed by NREL.

  9. District nurse training

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  10. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the

  11. Fostering and Planning Urban Regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Christina; Nuccio, Massimiliano; Bille, Trine

    2018-01-01

    Policy-makers and urban planners struggle to find the right formula to implement urban regeneration processes based on cultural assets, often focusing on the desired outcomes, but rarely questioning how the policy process can shape them. This paper examines different governance models...... cultural districts in the city centre. The paper contributes to the literature on cultural districts by matching specificities and contingencies attached to a particular urban area with the governance model adopted for its development. The paper claims that temporal experimentation has to be included...... for the implementation and organization of cultural districts, and evaluates how they can affect their actual realization by investigating three cases in Copenhagen, Denmark. The deindustrialization of Copenhagen left many of the city’s harbour areas disused and in turn provided the opportunity to develop three new...

  12. Quantifying Tree and Soil Carbon Stocks in a Temperate Urban Forest in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailiang Lv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Society has placed greater focus on the ecological service of urban forests; however, more information is required on the variation of carbon (C in trees and soils in different functional forest types, administrative districts, and urban-rural gradients. To address this issue, we measured various tree and soil parameters by sampling 219 plots in the urban forest of the Harbin city region. Averaged tree and soil C stock density (C stocks per unit tree cover for Harbin city were 7.71 (±7.69 kg C·m−2 and 5.48 (±2.86 kg C·m−2, respectively. They were higher than those of other Chinese cities (Shenyang and Changchun, but were much lower than local natural forests. The tree C stock densities varied 2.3- to 3.2-fold among forest types, administrative districts, and ring road-based urban-rural gradients. In comparison, soil organic C (SOC densities varied by much less (1.4–1.5-fold. We found these to be urbanization-dependent processes, which were closely related to the urban-rural gradient data based on ring-roads and settlement history patterns. We estimated that SOC accumulation during the 100-year urbanization of Harbin was very large (5 to 14 thousand tons, accounting for over one quarter of the stored C in trees. Our results provide new insights into the dynamics of above- and below-ground C (especially in soil during the urbanization process, and that a city’s ability to provide C-related ecosystem services increases as it ages. Our findings highlight that urbanization effects should be incorporated into calculations of soil C budgets in regions subject to rapid urban expansion, such as China.

  13. Comparison of Health Risk Assessments of Heavy Metals and As in Sewage Sludge from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs for Adults and Children in the Urban District of Taiyuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoling Duan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: To compare the human health risk of heavy metals and As in sewage sludge between adults and children, samples were collected from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs located in the urban district of Taiyuan, the capital of Shanxi. Heavy metals and As in sewage sludge can be ranked according to the mean concentration in the following order: Cu > Cr > Zn > Pb > As > Hg > Cd. Compared with the concentration limit set by different countries, the heavy metals contents in sewage sludge were all within the standard limits, except for the content of As, which was higher than the threshold limit established by Canada. A health risk assessment recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to compare the non-cancer risk and cancer risk between adults and children. Based on the mean and 95% upper confidence limit (UCL of the average daily dose (ADD, heavy metals and As can be ranked in the order of Cu > Cr > Zn > Pb > As > Hg > Cd for adults, and Cu > Cr > Zn > Pb > Hg > As > Cd for children. Moreover, results of ADDingest and ADDinhale indicated that ingestion was the main pathway for heavy metals and As exposure for both adults and children, and the sum of ADD implied that the exposure to all heavy metals and As for children was 8.65 and 9.93 times higher, respectively, than that for adults according to the mean and 95% UCL. For the non-carcinogenic risk, according to the hazard quotient (HQ, the risk of Cu, Hg and Cr was higher than the risk of Zn and Pb. The hazard index (HI for adults was 0.144 and 0.208 for the mean and 95% UCL, which was less than the limit value of 1; for children, the HI was 1.26 and 2.25, which is higher than the limit value of 1. This result indicated that children had non-carcinogenic risk, but adults did not. Furthermore, ingestion was the main pathway for non-carcinogenic risk exposure by the HQingest and HQinhale. For the carcinogenic risk, Cd and As were classified as

  14. Comparison of Health Risk Assessments of Heavy Metals and As in Sewage Sludge from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) for Adults and Children in the Urban District of Taiyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Baoling; Zhang, Wuping; Zheng, Haixia; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Qiang; Bu, Yushan

    2017-10-08

    Abstract : To compare the human health risk of heavy metals and As in sewage sludge between adults and children, samples were collected from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in the urban district of Taiyuan, the capital of Shanxi. Heavy metals and As in sewage sludge can be ranked according to the mean concentration in the following order: Cu > Cr > Zn > Pb > As > Hg > Cd. Compared with the concentration limit set by different countries, the heavy metals contents in sewage sludge were all within the standard limits, except for the content of As, which was higher than the threshold limit established by Canada. A health risk assessment recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was used to compare the non-cancer risk and cancer risk between adults and children. Based on the mean and 95% upper confidence limit (UCL) of the average daily dose (ADD), heavy metals and As can be ranked in the order of Cu > Cr > Zn > Pb > As > Hg > Cd for adults, and Cu > Cr > Zn > Pb > Hg > As > Cd for children. Moreover, results of ADD ingest and ADD inhale indicated that ingestion was the main pathway for heavy metals and As exposure for both adults and children, and the sum of ADD implied that the exposure to all heavy metals and As for children was 8.65 and 9.93 times higher, respectively, than that for adults according to the mean and 95% UCL. For the non-carcinogenic risk, according to the hazard quotient (HQ), the risk of Cu, Hg and Cr was higher than the risk of Zn and Pb. The hazard index (HI) for adults was 0.144 and 0.208 for the mean and 95% UCL, which was less than the limit value of 1; for children, the HI was 1.26 and 2.25, which is higher than the limit value of 1. This result indicated that children had non-carcinogenic risk, but adults did not. Furthermore, ingestion was the main pathway for non-carcinogenic risk exposure by the HQ ingest and HQ inhale . For the carcinogenic risk, Cd and As were classified as carcinogenic

  15. Nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricateau, P.

    1976-01-01

    An economic study of nuclear district heating is concerned with: heat production, its transmission towards the area to be served and the distribution management towards the consumers. Foreign and French assessments show that the high cost of now existing techniques of hot water transport defines the competing limit distance between the site and township to be below some fifty kilometers for the most important townships (provided that the fuel price remain stationary). All studies converge towards the choice of a high transport temperature as soon as the distance is of some twenty kilometers. As for fossile energy saving, some new possibilities appear with process heat reactors; either PWR of about 1000MWth for large townships, or pool-type reactors of about 100MWth when a combination with an industrial steam supply occurs [fr

  16. Teacher Incentive Pay Programs in the United States: Union Influence and District Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Liang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the characteristics of teacher incentive pay programs in the United States. Using the 2007–08 SASS data set, it found an inverse relationship between union influence and districts’ incentive pay offerings. Large and ethnically diverse districts in urban areas that did not meet the requirements for Adequate Yearly Progress as defined under the No Child Left Behind Act are more likely to offer a larger number of economic incentives. Although rural districts are likely to reward teachers in hard-to-staff schools, they are not more likely to reward teachers who are certified by the National Board or who teach in the subject areas of shortage, nor are they more likely to offer multiple financial incentives.

  17. Developing a semi/automated protocol to post-process large volume, High-resolution airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for urban waste heat mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mir Mustafizur

    In collaboration with The City of Calgary 2011 Sustainability Direction and as part of the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) project, the focus of this research is to develop a semi/automated 'protocol' to post-process large volumes of high-resolution (H-res) airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to enable accurate urban waste heat mapping. HEAT is a free GeoWeb service, designed to help Calgary residents improve their home energy efficiency by visualizing the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities, as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT metrics are derived from 43 flight lines of TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) data acquired on May 13--14, 2012 at night (11:00 pm--5:00 am) over The City of Calgary, Alberta (˜825 km 2) at a 50 cm spatial resolution and 0.05°C thermal resolution. At present, the only way to generate a large area, high-spatial resolution TIR scene is to acquire separate airborne flight lines and mosaic them together. However, the ambient sensed temperature within, and between flight lines naturally changes during acquisition (due to varying atmospheric and local micro-climate conditions), resulting in mosaicked images with different temperatures for the same scene components (e.g. roads, buildings), and mosaic join-lines arbitrarily bisect many thousands of homes. In combination these effects result in reduced utility and classification accuracy including, poorly defined HEAT Metrics, inaccurate hotspot detection and raw imagery that are difficult to interpret. In an effort to minimize these effects, three new semi/automated post-processing algorithms (the protocol) are described, which are then used to generate a 43 flight line mosaic of TABI-1800 data from which accurate Calgary waste heat maps and HEAT metrics can be generated. These algorithms (presented as four peer-reviewed papers)---are: (a) Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN)---used to mitigate the microclimatic

  18. A numerical study of air pollutant dispersion with bimolecular chemical reactions in an urban street canyon using large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikumoto, Hideki; Ooka, Ryozo

    2012-07-01

    A large-eddy simulation is performed on a turbulent dispersion of chemically reactive air pollutants in a two-dimensional urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of 1.0. Nitrogen monoxide emitted from a line-source set on the bottom of the street canyon disperses and reacts with Ozone included in a free stream. The reactions have significant influences on the concentrations of pollutants in the canyon space, and they increase the concentrations of the reaction products relative to of the concentrations of the reactants. The transport of air pollutants through a free shear layer above the canyon is closely related to the structure of the turbulence. Gases in the canyon are mainly exhausted when low-speed regions appear above the canyon. In contrast, pollutants in the free stream flow into the canyon with high-speed fluid bodies. Consequently, the correlation between the time fluctuations of the reactants' concentrations strongly affects the reaction rates in the region near the free shear layer. In this calculation, the correlation term reaches to a value of 20% of the mean reaction rate at a maximum there.

  19. Improved Large-Eddy Simulation Using a Stochastic Backscatter Model: Application to the Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Urban Street Canyon Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J. J.; Cai, X.; Kinnersley, R.

    2015-12-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) provides a powerful tool for developing our understanding of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics, which in turn can be used to improve the parameterisations of simpler operational models. However, LES modelling is not without its own limitations - most notably, the need to parameterise the effects of all subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence. Here, we employ a stochastic backscatter SGS model, which explicitly handles the effects of both forward and reverse energy transfer to/from the subgrid scales, to simulate the neutrally stratified ABL as well as flow within an idealised urban street canyon. In both cases, a clear improvement in LES output statistics is observed when compared with the performance of a SGS model that handles forward energy transfer only. In the neutral ABL case, the near-surface velocity profile is brought significantly closer towards its expected logarithmic form. In the street canyon case, the strength of the primary vortex that forms within the canyon is more accurately reproduced when compared to wind tunnel measurements. Our results indicate that grid-scale backscatter plays an important role in both these modelled situations.

  20. Integration of HIV and TB services results in improved TB treatment outcomes and earlier prioritized ART initiation in a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Sabine M; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Katabira, Catherine; Mbidde, Peter; Lange, Joep M A; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Coutinho, Alex; Manabe, Yukari C

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected patients should be integrated with HIV care. In December 2008, a separate outdoor-integrated TB/HIV clinic was instituted for attendees of a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. We sought to evaluate associated TB and HIV treatment outcomes. Routinely collected clinical, pharmacy, and laboratory data were merged with TB clinic data for patients initiating TB treatment in 2009 and with TB register data for patients in 2007. TB treatment outcomes and (timing of) antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in ART-naive patients [overall and stratified by CD4+ T cell (CD4) count] in 2007 and 2009 were compared. Nosocomial transmission rates could not be assessed. Three hundred forty-six patients were initiated on TB treatment in 2007 and 366 in 2009. Median CD4 counts at TB diagnosis did not differ. TB treatment cure or completion increased from 62% to 68%, death or default decreased from 33% to 25% (P ART-naive TB patients were initiated on ART in 2009 versus 2007 (57% and 66%, P = 0.031), but this decrease was only in patients with CD4 counts >250 cells per cubic millimeter (19% vs. 48%, P = 0.003). More patients were started on ART during TB treatment (94% vs. 78%, P ART initiation. This supports rollout of a fully integrated TB/HIV service delivery model throughout high-prevalence TB and HIV settings.

  1. The implementation of clay modeling and rat dissection into the human anatomy and physiology curriculum of a large urban community college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty overcame and the techniques used to solve them. Methods involved were: developing a laboratory manual in conjunction with the publisher, holding training sessions for faculty and staff, the development of instructional outlines for students and lesson plans for faculty, the installation of storage facilities to hold mannequins instead of cat specimens, and designing mannequin clean-up techniques that could be used by more than one thousand students each semester. The effectiveness of these curricular changes was assessed by examining student muscle practical examination grades and the responses of faculty and students to questionnaires. The results demonstrated that the majority of faculty felt prepared to teach using clay modeling and believed the activity was effective in presenting lesson content. Students undertaking clay modeling had significantly higher muscle practical examination grades than students undertaking cat dissection, and the majority of students believed that clay modeling was an effective technique to learn human skeletal, respiratory, and cardiovascular anatomy, which included the names and locations of blood vessels. Furthermore, the majority of students felt that rat dissection helped them learn nervous, digestive, urinary, and reproductive system anatomy. Faculty experience at LAGCC may serve as a resource to other academic institutions developing new curricula for large, on-going courses. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Effect of real-time boundary wind conditions on the air flow and pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon—Large eddy simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Gu, Zhao-Lin; Cheng, Yan; Lee, Shun-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Air flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics in an urban street canyon are studied under the real-time boundary conditions. A new scheme for realizing real-time boundary conditions in simulations is proposed, to keep the upper boundary wind conditions consistent with the measured time series of wind data. The air flow structure and its evolution under real-time boundary wind conditions are simulated by using this new scheme. The induced effect of time series of ambient wind conditions on the flow structures inside and above the street canyon is investigated. The flow shows an obvious intermittent feature in the street canyon and the flapping of the shear layer forms near the roof layer under real-time wind conditions, resulting in the expansion or compression of the air mass in the canyon. The simulations of pollutant dispersion show that the pollutants inside and above the street canyon are transported by different dispersion mechanisms, relying on the time series of air flow structures. Large scale air movements in the processes of the air mass expansion or compression in the canyon exhibit obvious effects on pollutant dispersion. The simulations of pollutant dispersion also show that the transport of pollutants from the canyon to the upper air flow is dominated by the shear layer turbulence near the roof level and the expansion or compression of the air mass in street canyon under real-time boundary wind conditions. Especially, the expansion of the air mass, which features the large scale air movement of the air mass, makes more contribution to the pollutant dispersion in this study. Comparisons of simulated results under different boundary wind conditions indicate that real-time boundary wind conditions produces better condition for pollutant dispersion than the artificially-designed steady boundary wind conditions.

  3. Visions of sustainable urban energy systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzsch, Ursula [HFT Stuttgart (Germany). zafh.net - Centre of Applied Research - Sustainable Energy Technology; Mikosch, Milena [Steinbeis-Zentrum, Stuttgart (Germany). Europaeischer Technologietransfer; Liesner, Lisa (eds.)

    2010-09-15

    Within the polycity final conference from 15th to 17th September, 2010, in Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Visions of sustainable urban energy system (Ursula Eicker); (2) Words of welcome (Tanja Goenner); (3) Zero-energy Europe - We are on our way (Jean-Marie Bemtgen); (4) Polycity - Energy networks in sustainable cities An introduction (Ursula Pietzsch); (5) Energy efficient city - Successful examples in the European concerto initiative (Brigitte Bach); (6) Sustainable building and urban concepts in the Catalonian polycity project contributions to the polycity final conference 2010 (Nuria Pedrals); (7) Energy efficient buildings and renewable supply within the German polycity project (Ursula Eicker); (8) Energy efficient buildings and cities in the US (Thomas Spiegehalter); (9) Energy efficient communities - First results from an IEA collaboration project (Reinhard Jank); (10) The European energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD) - Lessons learned (Eduardo Maldonado); (11) Passive house standard in Europe - State-of-the-art and challenges (Wolfgang Feist); (12) High efficiency non-residential buildings: Concepts, implementations and experiences from the UK (Levin Lomas); (13) This is how we can save our world (Franz Alt); (14) Green buildings and renewable heating and cooling concepts in China (Yanjun Dai); (15) Sustainable urban energy solutions for Asia (Brahmanand Mohanty); (16) Description of ''Parc de l'Alba'' polygeneration system: A large-scale trigeneration system with district heating within the Spanish polycity project (Francesc Figueras Bellot); (17) Improved building automation and control systems with hardware-in-the loop solutions (Martin Becker); (18) The Italian polycity project area: Arquata (Luigi Fazari); (19) Photovoltaic system integration: In rehabilitated urban structures: Experiences and performance results from the Italian polycity project in Turin (Franco

  4. Programme coverage, condom use and STI treatment among FSWs in a large-scale HIV prevention programme: results from cross-sectional surveys in 22 districts in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Lakshmi; Gautam, Abhishek; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Kallam, Srinivasan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar K; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Morineau, Guy; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2010-02-01

    This paper evaluates Avahan programme's coverage of female sex workers (FSWs), focus on high-risk FSWs and intermediate outcomes. First round of cross-sectional survey data, Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessments (IBBA), conducted in 22 districts, were aggregated into district categories: Solo, where Avahan was the sole service provider covering all FSWs and Major or Minor where Avahan was not the sole provider, but intended coverage was >50% or or=15 clients in the past week had a higher chance of being exposed to core services (AOR=1.56; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.35). Exposure to the three services in Solo Avahan districts was significantly associated with correct knowledge on condom use (AOR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.78), consistent condom use with occasional clients (AOR=3.17; 95% CI 2.17 to 4.63) and regular clients (AOR=2.47; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.28) and STI treatment-seeking behaviour (AOR=3.00; 95% CI 1.94 to 4.65). Higher coverage of FSWs was achieved in districts where Avahan was the only intervention compared with districts having multiple and longstanding non-Avahan programmes. Exposure in Solo districts was associated with intermediate outcomes; this need to be further evaluated in comparison with non Avahan areas and substantiated through data from next IBBA.

  5. Commercial facilities in future cities and urban redevelopment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    The future trends of commercial facilities were clarified by interviewing the people concerned in the commercial facilities with large floor area and relatively large energy consumption per unit area such as office building, hospital, hotel, department store, restaurant, educational facilities, sports facilities and urban redevelopment. Since an intelligent building will basically employ the office automation, it is estimated that most of the commercial buildings constructed for the future redevelopment will be intelligent buildings. Hospitals will require the system maintaining the quality of life of individual patient. It is expected that high quality hotels focusing on a touch of high class will be constructed. Department stores will aim at the daily living industry. Future restaurants will need a definite concept. Universities will have to increase new sections according to new students and change in social conditions. It is expected that high quality businesses districts and living quarters in business-centered cities will be planned for urban redevelopment. (4 figs. 3 tabs.)

  6. A Systems Theory Approach to the District Central Office's Role in School-Level Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mania-Singer, Jackie

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study used General Systems Theory and social network analysis to explore the relationships between the members of a district central office and principals of elementary schools within an urban school district in the Midwest. Findings revealed sparse relationships between members of the district central office and principals,…

  7. Urban farming model in South Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, E.

    2018-01-01

    The development of infrastructure rapidly, large of population and large of urbanization. Meanwhile, agricultural land is decreasing and agricultural production continues to decline. The productive crops is needed for consumption and it is also to improve the environment from oxygen provisioning, antidote to air pollution and to improve soil conditions. The use of yard land for horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits and ornamental plants), spices, medicines, herbs etc. can benefit for the owners of the yard particularly and the general public. The purpose of this research is to identify the model of home yard utilization, mosque yard, office, school, urban park and main road and sub main road, which can improve environmental quality in Pesanggrahan district. The method of analysis used descriptive analysis method by observation. Then analyzed the percentage of the use of yard with productive crops as urban farming. The results showed that the most productive crops were planted in Kelurahan Pesanggrahan 67% which compared with in Kelurahan Ulujami 47%, and in Kelurahan Petukangan Utara 27%. The most types of productive crops were grown as fruit trees and vegetable crops.

  8. Large scale integration of photovoltaics in cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalka, Aneta; Alam, Nazmul; Duminil, Eric; Coors, Volker; Eicker, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We implement the photovoltaics on a large scale. ► We use three-dimensional modelling for accurate photovoltaic simulations. ► We consider the shadowing effect in the photovoltaic simulation. ► We validate the simulated results using detailed hourly measured data. - Abstract: For a large scale implementation of photovoltaics (PV) in the urban environment, building integration is a major issue. This includes installations on roof or facade surfaces with orientations that are not ideal for maximum energy production. To evaluate the performance of PV systems in urban settings and compare it with the building user’s electricity consumption, three-dimensional geometry modelling was combined with photovoltaic system simulations. As an example, the modern residential district of Scharnhauser Park (SHP) near Stuttgart/Germany was used to calculate the potential of photovoltaic energy and to evaluate the local own consumption of the energy produced. For most buildings of the district only annual electrical consumption data was available and only selected buildings have electronic metering equipment. The available roof area for one of these multi-family case study buildings was used for a detailed hourly simulation of the PV power production, which was then compared to the hourly measured electricity consumption. The results were extrapolated to all buildings of the analyzed area by normalizing them to the annual consumption data. The PV systems can produce 35% of the quarter’s total electricity consumption and half of this generated electricity is directly used within the buildings.

  9. Traffic Noise as a Factor Influencing Apartment Prices in Large Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepańska Agnieszka; Senetra Adam; Wasilewicz Monika

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors are among the key determinants of real estate prices. They include landscape attractiveness, land relief, exposure to sunlight and proximity to natural features. In large urban centers, traffic noise emissions significantly affect decision-making on the real estate market. Weakly developed road networks and the absence of ring roads that shift road traffic outside residential districts are a widespread problem in the cities of Central-Eastern Europe. The prevention of tr...

  10. Finding Urban Identity through Culture-led Urban Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Hong Hwang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A city experiencing a cycle from growth to decline cannot maintain sustainable development without the type of urban identity that could be consolidated by culture-led urban regeneration. A plan for urban regeneration in a declining urban area should be practiced partially or on the whole according to the characteristics of the community. By transforming a low-value and deteriorated area into a highly valued district, the local community can simultaneously restore its social pride, revive the local economy, and realize an urban identity.Firstly, this paper examines urban decline in order to better understand urban regeneration and the need for multidisciplinary management, and also, by considering the necessity for and universal types of urban regeneration, investigates the characteristics of culture-led urban regeneration as a tool for realizing socio-economic revival and urban identity. In particular, this study suggests the action techniques and benchmarking points for urban regeneration by analyzing cases of culture-led urban regeneration in Korea. Three subjects were considered as case studies in this paper: 1 Hanok village in Jeonju city, which changed from a twilight zone to a tourist attraction; 2 Changdong district in Changwon city, which recovered from an area of declining and dark alleyways that had been the hub for arts and culture in the 1970s to become a new artist village; and 3 Cheongju city, which is being transformed from an idle industrial facility into a cultural space. This thesis suggests the implementation process of culture-led urban regeneration to find an urban identity through analysis of the causes of urban decline, the methods of regeneration, and the results of urban regeneration in the three aforementioned cases. In the conclusion section of this paper, the implementation process for culture-led urban regeneration is summarized as consisting of 5 phases: Phase 1, the diagnosis of decline; Phase 2

  11. District heating in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1998-01-01

    The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives [it

  12. REVIEW ARTICLE: A comparison of site response techniques using earthquake data and ambient seismic noise analysis in the large urban areas of Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Leyton, Felipe; Campos, Jaime; Zschau, Jochen

    2009-08-01

    Situated in an active tectonic region, Santiago de Chile, the country's capital with more than six million inhabitants, faces tremendous earthquake risk. Macroseismic data for the 1985 Valparaiso event show large variations in the distribution of damage to buildings within short distances, indicating strong effects of local sediments on ground motion. Therefore, a temporary seismic network was installed in the urban area for recording earthquake activity and a study was carried out aiming to estimate site amplification derived from horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios from earthquake data (EHV) and ambient noise (NHV), as well as using the standard spectral ratio (SSR) technique with a nearby reference station located on igneous rock. The results lead to the following conclusions: (1) The analysis of earthquake data shows significant dependence on the local geological structure with respect to amplitude and duration. (2) An amplification of ground motion at frequencies higher than the fundamental one can be found. This amplification would not be found when looking at NHV ratios alone. (3) The analysis of NHV spectral ratios shows that they can only provide a lower bound in amplitude for site amplification. (4) P-wave site responses always show lower amplitudes than those derived by S waves, and sometimes even fail to provide some frequencies of amplification. (5) No variability in terms of time and amplitude is observed in the analysis of the H/V ratio of noise. (6) Due to the geological conditions in some parts of the investigated area, the fundamental resonance frequency of a site is difficult to estimate following standard criteria proposed by the SESAME consortium, suggesting that these are too restrictive under certain circumstances.

  13. An exploratory, descriptive study of consumer opinions and behaviors regarding health products sales at 4 chiropractic practices in a large, western Canadian urban center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stacey A; Mbadiwe, Chinyere; McMorland, D Gordon; Grod, Jaroslaw P

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the opinions and behaviors of chiropractic patients in a large, western Canadian urban center regarding the sale of health products by doctors of chiropractic. A brief, descriptive survey consisting of both fixed-choice and open-ended questions was distributed by clinic reception staff at 4 chiropractic offices in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Each practice sold a range of health products, including those relating to musculoskeletal care and nutrition, and served between 275 and 320 clients per week. After a 10-week recruitment interval between January and March 2013, a convenience sample of 103 chiropractic patients was obtained. Most patients supported the sale of health products by doctors of chiropractic (n = 101; 98.1%), and most had made health product purchases from a doctor of chiropractic at some point (n = 73; 70.9%). Products relating to muscular care, exercise/rehabilitation products, and pillows were purchased most often (>40%). Consumers were most supportive of doctors of chiropractic selling products they perceived to be directly related to musculoskeletal care. Some participants believed that there should be limits placed on the range of products sold including the products had to be consistent with the practitioner's area of expertise and had to have some demonstrated level of effectiveness. Primary reasons for health product purchase included the doctor's recommendations, convenience, and perception that the product would improve well-being (>50%). This study found that chiropractic patients were supportive of health product sales by doctors of chiropractic, assuming certain conditions were met. Consumers believed that product sales should be undertaken with integrity and should be consistent with the doctor's area of expertise. Consumer beliefs appeared to impact their purchasing behaviors. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ten-Year Trends and Independent Risk Factors for Unplanned Readmission Following Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty at a Large Urban Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varacallo, Matthew A; Herzog, Leah; Toossi, Nader; Johanson, Norman A

    2017-06-01

    Total joint arthroplasty procedures continue to provide consistent, long-term success and high patient satisfaction scores. However, early unplanned readmission to the hospital imparts significant financial risks to individual institutions as we shift away from the traditional fee-for-service payment model. Using a combination of our hospital's administrative database and retrospective chart reviews, we report the 30-day and 90-day readmission rates and all causes of readmission following all unilateral, primary elective total hip and knee arthroplasty procedures at a large, urban, academic hospital from 2004 to 2013. In total, 1165 primary total hip (511) and knee (654) arthroplasty procedures were identified, and the 30-day and 90-day unplanned readmission rates were 4.6% and 7.3%, respectively. A multivariate regression model controlled for a variety of potential clinical and surgical confounders. Increasing body mass index levels, an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of ≥3, and discharge to an inpatient rehab facility each independently correlated with risk of both 30-day and 90-day unplanned readmission to our institution. Additionally, use of general anesthesia during the procedure independently correlated with risk of readmission at 30 days only, while congestive heart failure independently correlated with risk of 90-day unplanned readmission. Readmissions related directly to the surgical site accounted for 47% of the cases, and collectively totaled more than any single medical or clinical complication leading to unplanned readmission within the 90-day period. Increasing body mass index values, general anesthesia, an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of ≥3, and discharge to an inpatient rehab facility each were independent risk factors for early unplanned readmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Urban Stage 2014: Navigating Relationships during a Collaboration between Local Businesses, Nonprofits, a Large University, and a Mid-Sized City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Driskill

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Stage was constructed as a temporary urbanism project to demonstrate environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability in an urban environment. One block of Avenue J in downtown Lubbock, Texas was constructed and activated between October 30 and November 7, 2014. This paper will focus on the collaboration and decision making processes between the City of Lubbock, Texas Tech University, and community organizations that enabled this project to take place. The collaborative process between these diverse entities was inherently complex by virtue of the existing organizational structures and complicated further by bureaucratic inertia, the bureaucratic avoidance of responsibility. Leadership actions at various levels of organizational structure were required in order to overcome this bureaucratic inertia and install the Urban Stage.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boateng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson’s Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson's Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation) that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas. PMID:27807453

  18. Influence of urban pattern on inundation flow in floodplains of lowland rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwier, M; Mustafa, A; Aliaga, D G; Archambeau, P; Erpicum, S; Nishida, G; Zhang, X; Pirotton, M; Teller, J; Dewals, B

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the respective influence of various urban pattern characteristics on inundation flow. A set of 2000 synthetic urban patterns were generated using an urban procedural model providing locations and shapes of streets and buildings over a square domain of 1×1km 2 . Steady two-dimensional hydraulic computations were performed over the 2000 urban patterns with identical hydraulic boundary conditions. To run such a large amount of simulations, the computational efficiency of the hydraulic model was improved by using an anisotropic porosity model. This model computes on relatively coarse computational cells, but preserves information from the detailed topographic data through porosity parameters. Relationships between urban characteristics and the computed inundation water depths have been based on multiple linear regressions. Finally, a simple mechanistic model based on two district-scale porosity parameters, combining several urban characteristics, is shown to capture satisfactorily the influence of urban characteristics on inundation water depths. The findings of this study give guidelines for more flood-resilient urban planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Simon; Amoako, Prince; Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson's Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation) that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas.

  20. District Policies and Practices Vary in Their Association With Adolescents' Consumption of Milk and 100% Fruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Sarah A; Miller, Gabrielle F; Brener, Nancy D; Park, Sohyun; Merlo, Caitlin L

    2017-05-01

    Researchers previously examined the relationship between school beverage policies and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. This study addressed a research gap by examining cross-sectional associations between district-level policies and practices and U.S. high school students' consumption of milk and 100% fruit juice. Data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study and 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System were linked for 12 large urban school districts. Outcome variables were daily milk consumption (≥1 glass/day) and 100% fruit juice consumption (≥1 time/day). Exposure variables were five district policies (i.e., restrict SSB sales, maintain closed campuses, offer/sell healthful alternatives, restrict promotional products, and require nutrition education). Logistic regression models estimated the odds of consuming milk or 100% fruit juice daily, conditional on the policies and adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, grade level, weight status, and district free/reduced-price lunch eligibility (n = 23,173). Students in districts that required/recommended restricting the times of SSB sales had 55% higher (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.87) odds of consuming ≥1 glass/day of milk than students in districts without this policy. Closed campus policies were associated with lower odds of consuming milk (AOR, .72; 95% CI, .63-.82) and higher odds of consuming juice (AOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.50). Policies requiring/recommending that districts offer/sell healthful alternatives were associated with lower odds of consuming 100% fruit juice daily. Results suggest that restricting SSB sales may support adolescents' milk consumption. Future studies should assess whether the implementation of federal standards that further restrict SSB sales in school leads to increased milk consumption. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of traffic-related air pollution in a large urban area: Implications of a multi-canyon air pollution dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangwen; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Zhang, Jiachen; Huang, Xin; Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Olalekan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with highly even or highly uneven building heights on each side of the street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Further, increasing street widths tends to lead to lower pollutant concentrations by reducing emissions and enhancing ventilation simultaneously. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry while considering traffic demand as well as local weather patterns may significantly reduce inhalation of unhealthy air by urban residents.

  2. Nuclear power for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.; Sochaski, R.O.

    1975-09-01

    Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. This report concerns the evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply - the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of primary energy, with a consequent reduction in installed capacity, and load flattening due to inherent energy storage capacity and transport delays. Disadvantages include the low load factors for district heating, the high cost of the distribution systems and the necessity for large-scale operation for economic viability. This requirement for large-scale operation from the beginning could cause difficulty in the implementation of the first system. Various approaches have been analysed and costed for a specific application - the supply of energy to a district heating load centre in Toronto from the location of the Pickering reactor station about 40 km away. (author)

  3. Urban structure and sustainable transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane

    travel behaviour in a comprehensive analysis. Moreover, the phenomenon of compensatory leisure travel is addressed. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey was carried out in an urban district (Østerbro) of central Copenhagen and in a small town (Borup) in the commuter belt of Greater Copenhagen...

  4. Reactor waste heat utilization and district heating reactors. Nuclear district heating in Sweden - Regional reject heat utilization schemes and small heat-only reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, K.; Larsson, Y.; Margen, P.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of the current status of district heating in Sweden. In future, district heating schemes will become increasingly interesting as a means of utilizing heat from nuclear reactors. Present recommendations in Sweden are that large reactors should not be located closer than about 20 km from large population centres. Reject heat from such reactors is cheap at source. To minimize the cost of long distance hot water transmission large heat rates must be transmitted. Only areas with large populations can meet this requirement. The three areas of main interest are Malmoe/Lund/Helsingborg housing close to 0.5 million; Greater Stockholm housing 1 to 1.5 million and Greater Gothenburg housing about 0.5 million people. There is an active proposal that the Malmoe/Lund/Helsingborg region would be served by a third nuclear unit at Barsebaeck, located about 20 km from Malmoe/Lund and supplying 950 MW of base load heat. Preliminary proposals for Stockholm involve a 2000 MW heat supply; proposals for Gothenburg are more tentative. The paper describes progress on these proposals and their technology. It also outlines technology under development to increase the economic range of large scale heat transport and to make distribution economic even for low heat-density family housing estates. Regions apart from the few major urban areas mentioned above require the adoption of a different approach. To this end the development of a small, simple low-temperature reactor for heat-only production suitable for urban location has been started in Sweden in close contact with Finland. Some results of the work in progress are presented, with emphasis on the safety requirements. An outline is given in the paper as to how problems of regional heat planning and institutional and legislative issues are being approached

  5. Quantifying air pollution attenuation within urban parks: An experimental approach in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shan; Shen Zhemin; Zhou Pisheng; Zou Xiaodong; Che Shengquan; Wang Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    Parks with various types of vegetations played an important role in ameliorating air quality in urban areas. However, the attenuation effect of urban vegetation on levels of air pollution was rarely been experimentally estimated. This study, using seasonal monitoring data of total suspended particles (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) from six parks in Pudong District, Shanghai, China, demonstrated vegetations in parks can remove large amount of airborne pollutants. In addition, crown volume coverage (CVC) was introduced to characterize vegetation conditions in parks and a mixed-effects model indicated that CVC and the pollution diffusion distance were key predictors influencing pollutants removal rate. Therefore, it could be estimated by regression analysis that in summer, urban vegetations in Pudong District could contribute to 9.1% of TSP removal, 5.3% of SO 2 and 2.6% of NO 2 . The results could be considered for a better park planning and improving air quality. - Highlights: → We examined markedly air pollution decline in urban vegetation patches by field experiments. → Crown volume coverage (CVC) served to characterize vegetation condition among different species. → CVC and pollutants diffusion distance were key predictors affecting air pollution attenuation within parks. - Crown volume coverage (CVC) and pollutants diffusion distance had been proved as key predictors influencing attenuation effect on levels of air pollutants in urban parks.

  6. MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION OF THE EXPANSION OF NATURAL GAS DISTRIBUTION NETWORK BY THE URBAN DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. Massara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the expansion of the infrastructure of natural gas distribution, identifying priorities from large metropolis using the energy planning based on urban design tools like urban dynamics and techniques like AHP (analytic hierarchy process. The methodology proposed uses matrices considering the relations between the concept of urban dynamics, quality of life and the possibilities of natural gas displacing other energy forms. The matrices are made up of information about social and urban development, costs of establishing the infrastructure and projections of the consumption potential in various sectors. Relating the consumption to urban development parameters and the real estate future of the areas in study, the methodology allows indicating for each district, the viability of implementing a gas network. As conclusion, the model presents the integration between the cities profile and the natural gas use, by means of a growth natural gas on districts of São Paulo City as a specific case study.

  7. Quantifying air pollution attenuation within urban parks: An experimental approach in Shanghai, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Shan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, 316 Wurster Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shen Zhemin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhou Pisheng [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zou Xiaodong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Che Shengquan [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang Wenhua, E-mail: whwang@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Parks with various types of vegetations played an important role in ameliorating air quality in urban areas. However, the attenuation effect of urban vegetation on levels of air pollution was rarely been experimentally estimated. This study, using seasonal monitoring data of total suspended particles (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) from six parks in Pudong District, Shanghai, China, demonstrated vegetations in parks can remove large amount of airborne pollutants. In addition, crown volume coverage (CVC) was introduced to characterize vegetation conditions in parks and a mixed-effects model indicated that CVC and the pollution diffusion distance were key predictors influencing pollutants removal rate. Therefore, it could be estimated by regression analysis that in summer, urban vegetations in Pudong District could contribute to 9.1% of TSP removal, 5.3% of SO{sub 2} and 2.6% of NO{sub 2}. The results could be considered for a better park planning and improving air quality. - Highlights: > We examined markedly air pollution decline in urban vegetation patches by field experiments. > Crown volume coverage (CVC) served to characterize vegetation condition among different species. > CVC and pollutants diffusion distance were key predictors affecting air pollution attenuation within parks. - Crown volume coverage (CVC) and pollutants diffusion distance had been proved as key predictors influencing attenuation effect on levels of air pollutants in urban parks.

  8. Towards urban mobility designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    for the wayfarers who use the site. The data for our work concerns a transit site in the 1970s urban district of Aalborg Øst, Denmark. - We set out by introducing our approach to the site. - Second, we examine the functional layout of the transit site in Aalborg Øst and outline the design challenge which we......Functionalist traffic design aims at a rational organisation of movement from A to B in a segregated and uniform physical environment. Such urban areas have been criticized for being exclusively functional and lacking sensuous and social qualities. Recent research on mobilities challenges the more...... insights on functional urban planning, on embodied practices and experiences of wayfaring, and on concrete small scale design concerns. We emphasise an integrated design agenda for those ordinary transit sites which is concerned with functional issues as well as the quality of life on the ground...

  9. Nankana West District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Local governments in Ghana play very important roles with actors in the ... Metropolitan, Municipal and District Chief Executives (MMDCEs), the .... District Budget Officer, District Finance Officer, Presiding Member, members of the Works Sub-.

  10. Productive Urban Landscape In Developing Home Garden In Yogyakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, S. N. R.; Sarwadi, A.

    2017-10-01

    Home garden is one type of agroecosystem that supports ecosystem services even in the urban settlement. The studies involved literature references and field survey along with a framework of the productive urban landscape that support ecosystem services in home garden. Productive urban landscape provided environmentally, socially and economically benefits that contained in ecosystem services. Problems on limited space in the urban settlement have to be managed by modified home garden system in order to work for ecosystem service in developing productive landscape. This study aimed to assess home garden (Pekarangan) system in a cluster of high density settlement in Yogyakarta City. Structured interview and vegetation identification of home garden have been conducted on 80 samples in Rejowinangun Kotagede District, Yogyakarta City. People showed enthusiasm in ecosystem services provided by home garden “Pekarangan Produktif” through developing productive urban landscape. Some benefits on ecosystem services of home garden were revealed on this study consisted of food production for sale (4.7%), home industry (7.69%), aesthetics (22.65%), food (14.10%), biodiversity (10.68%), ecosystem (12.82%), education (2.56), social interaction (11.54%), recreation (4.70%), and others (8.55%). Nevertheless, vegetation and other elements of home gardens have been managed irregularly and in particularly, the planned home gardens were only 17.07%. Actually, home gardens provided a large set of ecosystem services including being cultural services those are the category most valued. The urban people almost hided the understanding of the cultural benefit of ecosystem services of home garden, even though Yogyakarta has known the cultural city. Thus, urban home garden, as way as “Pekarangan Produktif” in the limited space that managed and planned sustainably, provide many benefits of ecosystem services in a productive urban landscape.

  11. Characterization and spatial modeling of urban sprawl in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Stein, Alfred; Jiao, Limin

    2015-02-01

    Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in China. In this study, we monitor and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial statistics. We use time-series data to explore the potential socio-economic driving forces behind urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions. The methodology is applied to the city of Wuhan, China, for the period from 1990 to 2013. The results reveal that the built-up land has expanded and has dispersed in urban clusters. Population growth, and economic and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl; however, when they have developed to certain levels, the area affected by construction in urban areas (Jian Cheng Qu (JCQ)) and the area of cultivated land (ACL) tend to be stable. Spatial regression models are shown to be superior to the traditional models. The interaction among districts with the same administrative status is stronger than if one of those neighbors is in the city center and the other in the suburban area. The expansion of urban built-up land is driven by the socio-economic development at the same period, and greatly influenced by its spatio-temporal neighbors. We conclude that the integration of remote sensing, a geographical information system, and spatial statistics offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and interactions among the districts in the sprawling metropolitan areas. Relevant regulations to control the urban sprawl process are suggested accordingly.

  12. Estimation of local and external contributions of biomass burning to PM2.5 in an industrial zone included in a large urban settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetello, Francesca; Squizzato, Stefania; Hofer, Angelika; Masiol, Mauro; Khan, Md Badiuzzaman; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Fermo, Paola; Formenton, Gian Maria; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    A total of 85 PM 2.5 samples were collected at a site located in a large industrial zone (Porto Marghera, Venice, Italy) during a 1-year-long sampling campaign. Samples were analyzed to determine water-soluble inorganic ions, elemental and organic carbon, and levoglucosan, and results were processed to investigate the seasonal patterns, the relationship between the analyzed species, and the most probable sources by using a set of tools, including (i) conditional probability function (CPF), (ii) conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF), (iii) concentration weighted trajectory (CWT), and (iv) potential source contribution function (PSCF) analyses. Furthermore, the importance of biomass combustions to PM 2.5 was also estimated. Average PM 2.5 concentrations ranged between 54 and 16 μg m -3 in the cold and warm period, respectively. The mean value of total ions was 11 μg m -3 (range 1-46 μg m -3 ): The most abundant ion was nitrate with a share of 44 % followed by sulfate (29 %), ammonium (14 %), potassium (4 %), and chloride (4 %). Levoglucosan accounted for 1.2 % of the PM 2.5 mass, and its concentration ranged from few ng m -3 in warm periods to 2.66 μg m -3 during winter. Average concentrations of levoglucosan during the cold period were higher than those found in other European urban sites. This result may indicate a great influence of biomass combustions on particulate matter pollution. Elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) showed similar behavior, with the highest contributions during cold periods and lower during summer. The ratios between biomass burning indicators (K + , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , levoglucosan, EC, and OC) were used as proxy for the biomass burning estimation, and the contribution to the OC and PM 2.5 was also calculated by using the levoglucosan (LG)/OC and LG/PM 2.5 ratios and was estimated to be 29 and 18 %, respectively.

  13. Future urban transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Jacobsen, Lars; Möller, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The urban environment is usually associated with a variety of activities, which involve matching the demand for goods, commerce, services, rules and laws, culture and intellectual exchange. Proximity and congregation are essential factors when it comes to the economic efficiency of urban society....... However, the attractiveness of urban environments has caused cites to expand without control in many areas, causing congestion, and environmental and social problems. This session deals with the complexity of urban settings, including the impact of large infrastructure projects relating to safety, noise...

  14. Perceptions of Relationships between District and School Level Administrators on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookins, Tyrone

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the extent to which perceived Using a case study of an urban school district, serving 40,000 students in the Midwest region of the United States, this study investigated district and school administrative leaders' perceptions of how their interactions influenced the achievement of black students.…

  15. Current situation of midwives in indonesia: Evidence from 3 districts in West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The village midwife is a central element of Indonesia's strategy to improve maternal and child health and family planning services. Recently there has been concern that the midwives were not present in the villages to which they had been assigned. To determine the extent to which this was the case we conducted a field-based census and survey of village midwives in three districts in West Java Province, Indonesia. Findings In June 2009 we interviewed a random sample of village midwives from three districts - Ciamis, Garut and Sukabumi - in West Java Province. Trained interviewers visited all villages represented in the sample to interview the midwives. We also obtained information about the midwives and their professional activities in the last year. Thirty percent of village midwives had moved to another location in the 12 months between the end of 2008, when the sampling frame was constructed, and December 2009 when the survey was conducted; most had moved to a government health center or another village. Of those who were present, there was considerable variation between districts in age distribution and qualifications. The total number of services provided was modest, also with considerable variation between districts. The median number of deliveries assisted in the last year was 64; the amount and mix of family planning services provided varied between districts and were dominated by temporary methods. Conclusions Compared to an earlier survey in an adjacent province, the village midwives in these three districts were younger, had spent less time in the village and a higher proportion were permanent civil servants. A high proportion had moved in the previous year with most moving to a health center or another village. The decision to move, as well as the mix of services offered, seems to be largely driven by opportunities to increase their private practice income. These opportunities are greater in urban areas. As urbanization procedes the forces

  16. Equity and vaccine uptake: a cross-sectional study of measles vaccination in Lasbela District, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soberanis José

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving equity means increased uptake of health services for those who need it most. But the poorest families continue to have the poorest service. In Pakistan, large numbers of children do not access vaccination against measles despite the national government's effort to achieve universal coverage. Methods A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 23 rural and 9 urban communities in the Lasbela district of south Pakistan, explored knowledge, attitudes and discussion around measles vaccination. Several socioeconomic variables allowed examination of the role of inequities in vaccination uptake; 2479 mothers provided information about 4007 children aged 10 to 59 months. A Mantel-Haenszel stratification analysis, with and without adjustment for clustering, clarified determinants of measles vaccination in urban and rural areas. Results A high proportion of mothers had appropriate knowledge of and positive attitudes to vaccination; many discussed vaccination, but only one half of children aged 10-59 months accessed vaccination. In urban areas, having an educated mother, discussing vaccinations, having correct knowledge about vaccinations, living in a community with a government vaccination facility within 5 km, and living in houses with better roofs were associated with vaccination uptake after adjusting for the effect of each of these variables and for clustering; maternal education was an equity factor even among those with good access. In rural areas, the combination of roof quality and access (vaccination post within 5 km along with discussion about vaccines and knowledge about vaccines had an effect on uptake. Conclusion Stagnating rates of vaccination coverage may be related to increasing inequities. A hopeful finding is that discussion about vaccines and knowledge about vaccines had a positive effect that was independent of the negative effect of inequity - in both urban and rural areas. At least as a short term

  17. Informal Urban Development in Cairo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Petersen, Mads Dines

    2017-01-01

    The city of Cairo, Egypt, currently experiences rapid urban growth. Large parts of the city expand without formal urban planning. This results in large-scale informal and unplanned development. In addition, the resulting urban fabric and individual buildings feature severe deficiencies when...... it comes to the basic quality of urban space, ventilation and daylight. While retrofitting already built-up areas would be a huge challenge, some minor improvements might be possible in future development even within the current mode of production of these spaces. In recent years, parametric design tools...... have opened up new possibilities for modelling in urban design. By way of a parametric design approach, different urban design parameters can be modified and new urban space scenarios can be rendered three dimensionally in almost real time. In short, this is parametric urban design. It opens up...

  18. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  19. District nursing is vital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2016-08-03

    Queen's Nursing Institute chief executive Crystal Oldman has welcomed the RCN congress resolution urging RCN council to lobby for all district nurses to have a specialist practice qualification. This provides the ideal route for future talent and must be supported.

  20. Floodplain District Permit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  1. 115th Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...

  2. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  3. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  4. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  5. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  6. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  7. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  8. The Settlements Growth in Mijen District, Suburb of Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigawati, B.; Yuliastuti, N.; Mardiansjah, F. H.

    2018-02-01

    Semarang is one of metropolitan cities in Indonesia. As common in metropolitan cities, Semarang has problems regarding the availability of urban space, especially for settlements. This is related to the increase of population in Semarang. The selection of settlements should consider the suitability of space usage. This study aimed to analyze the growth of Semarang settlements in 2006-2015, distribution patterns, characteristics, directions and factors affecting growth. The location of the research is Mijen District located in Suburb of Semarang. This research used a quantitative descriptive spatial approach by using remote sensing technique and Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed that some of the growth sites of settlements in Mijen District, the suburb of Semarang are located in areas which not suitable for settlements. There are several types of settlement patterns in Mijen District. Accessibility is the major factor driving the growth of settlements. An integrated development policy is needed to maintain a sustainable balance of urban settlement development.

  9. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Werner, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  10. Renewal strategies and neighborhood participation on urban blight

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Hosseini; Ahmad Pourahmad; Ali Taeeb; Milad Amini; Sara Behvandi

    2017-01-01

    Urban blight had its own rational and hierarchical function in the past. Nowadays it is featured with structural and functional shortage. Therefore, it has lost the capacity to meet the residents’ needs. Along with intensification of urban blight problems in cities, and downtowns in particular, which affects different aspects of urban life, many urban planners have shown special attention to such districts. Laleh-Zar neighborhood is an example of these neighborhoods, which on the one hand due...

  11. PALM-USM v1.0: A New Urban Surface Model Integrated into the PALM Large-eddy Simulation Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Resler, Jaroslav; Krč, Pavel; Belda, Michal; Juruš, Pavel; Benešová, N.; Lopata, J.; Vlček, O.; Damašková, D.; Eben, Kryštof; Derbek, P.; Maronga, P.; Kanani-Sühring, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 10 (2017), s. 3635-3659 ISSN 1991-959X Grant - others:UrbanAdapt(XE) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-036-2015; Ga MŠk(CZ) LM2015070 Program:CZ02 Biodiverzita a ekosystémové služby / Monitorování a integrované plánování a kontrola v životním prostředí/ Adaptace na změnu klimatu Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : urban modelling * PALM * LES * surface energy balance * radiative transfer * model evaluation * infrared camera Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.458, year: 2016

  12. School District Size and the Deployment of Personnel Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, Richard L.; Becker, Selwyn W.

    1978-01-01

    The administrative component was found to receive a smaller proportion of salaries in large districts, while clerical and maintenance service proportions increased, producing a net effect of larger overhead costs in this study of high school districts in the midwestern U.S. (KR)

  13. A survey of urban noise annoyance in a large Brazilian city: the importance of a subjective analysis in conjunction with an objective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannin, Paulo H.T.; Calixto, Alfredo; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Ferreira, Jose A.C.

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the reaction to environmental noise of the population of Curitiba (∼1.6 million inhabitants). Out of 1000 distributed forms, 860 were returned. The main isolated noise sources revealed by the survey as disturbing were traffic (73%) and neighbors (38%). As a class, neighborhood noise was pointed out as the most disturbing type of noise as 100% of the surveyed people indicated at least one of the items belonging to this class: neighbors, animals, sirens, civil construction, religion temples, night clubs, toys and domestic electric appliances. The main outcomes of exposure to noise were: irritability (58%), difficulty to concentrate (42%), sleeping disorders (20%) and headaches (20%). In this survey, the importance of the realization of objective surveys, in other words, noise emission measurements in conjunction with the subjective evaluation of the reaction of the urban population to the environmental noise, is also discussed. The present survey shows that in the subjective evaluation performed in the city of Curitiba, the perception of the population is that the urban noise has increased. On the other hand, another study conducted in the same city, where only the noise emission levels were evaluated, has showed a decrease on the urban noise

  14. Will urban commuting time affect housing prices and vehicle emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The transportation cost is an essential factor that impacts land and house values in urban areas. In a classical monocentric city model, residents who work in the Central Business District (CBD) are facing a tradeoff between rent and commuting dis...

  15. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  16. The Vulnerability of Urban Elementary School Arts Programs: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2018-01-01

    With the intent of improving understanding of cuts to elementary arts programs, the purpose of this research was to investigate how one urban school district (Lansing School District in Lansing, Michigan) eliminated its elementary arts specialists. Research questions were (1) What policy conditions enabled the Lansing School District's decision to…

  17. Urban and rural implementation of pre-hospital diagnosis and direct referral for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde

    2011-01-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred treatment for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The distance to primary PCI centres and the inherent time delay in delivering primary PCI, however, limit widespread use of this treatment. This study aimed to evaluate...... the impact of pre-hospital diagnosis on time from emergency medical services contact to balloon inflation (system delay) in an unselected cohort of patients with STEMI recruited from a large geographical area comprising both urban and rural districts....

  18. 24 CFR 598.510 - Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nominations by Economic Development... ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Special Rules § 598.510 Nominations by Economic Development Corporations or the District of Columbia. Any urban area nominated by an Economic Development Corporation...

  19. Introducing Urban Cultural Heritage Management into Urban Planning Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    properties existing in human settlements such as historic cities, districts, town, villages, relics, buildings and structures, as well as landscapes, which could demonstrate the history of an area and the people who live there from generation to generation. Regarding that the spatial layout and the land-use arrangement of these urban cultural heritages are included in urban plan-ning management, the management of these urban cultural heritages should also be a part of urban planning management. Therefore, based on the comparison of the concepts, urban cultural heritage management could be regarded as a kind of integrated management that combines cultural heritage management and urban planning management. 2. Relationship between two kinds of managementAs the contents of urban cultural heritage expanding, especially being more rela-tive to the historic buildings in cities, the object of urban cultural heritage manage-ment has been increased, among which the overlapped part with that of urban planning management is becoming bigger and big-ger, resulting in the even closer relationship between the two kinds of management.

  20. District Energy Windsor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of how District Energy Windsor operates. It includes a system site map and reasons why it is advantageous to get connected to a district heating system. District Energy Windsor is a division of the Windsor Utilities Commission. It was developed in 1996 and was the first in North America to supply both heating and cooling requirements. It supplies nearly 2 million square feet of heating and cooling for Windsor's city centre. The district energy system produces hot water or chilled water at a central plant. Energy is then piped out to buildings in the area, including the Art Gallery of Windsor, the Royal Bank Business Centre, the Windsor Justice Facility, the Windsor Casino, and Northwind Windsor. The energy, which is transferred through heat exchangers, is used for space heating, domestic hot water heating, and air conditioning. The 8 reasons for getting connected are: (1) less management costs, (2) lower energy costs, (3) lower level of risk management, (4) stable energy rates, (5) better use of building space, (6) reliable service, (7) reduced expansion costs, and (8) a cleaner environment. District heating improves air quality through reduced carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, fuel delivery and storage are eliminated. figs.