WorldWideScience

Sample records for large urban academic

  1. Homeless Students and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Large Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Kerri J.

    2016-01-01

    Child homelessness has recently reached levels unprecedented in the United States since the Great Depression. Contemporary research has attempted to isolate the effects of homelessness on education, with mixed results. This study reports results from a study in one large urban area and finds that there is no meaningful difference in achievement…

  2. Impact of a Dedicated Emergency Medicine Teaching Resident Rotation at a Large Urban Academic Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, James; Golden, Andrew; Bryant, Alyssa; Babcock, Christine

    2016-03-01

    In the face of declining bedside teaching and increasing emergency department (ED) crowding, balancing education and patient care is a challenge. Dedicated shifts by teaching residents (TRs) in the ED represent an educational intervention to mitigate these difficulties. We aimed to measure the perceived learning and departmental impact created by having TR. TRs were present in the ED from 12 pm-10 pm daily, and their primary roles were to provide the following: assist in teaching procedures, give brief "chalk talks," instruct junior trainees on interesting cases, and answer clinical questions in an evidence-based manner. This observational study included a survey of fourth-year medical students (MSs), residents and faculty at an academic ED. Surveys measured the perceived effect of the TR on teaching, patient flow, ease of procedures, and clinical care. Survey response rates for medical students, residents, and faculty are 56%, 77%, and 75%, respectively. MSs perceived improved procedure performance with TR presence and the majority agreed that the TR was a valuable educational experience. Residents perceived increased patient flow, procedure performance, and MS learning with TR presence. The majority agreed that the TR improved patient care. Faculty agreed that the TR increased resident and MS learning, as well as improved patient care and procedure performance. The presence of a TR increased MS and resident learning, improved patient care and procedure performance as perceived by MSs, residents and faculty. A dedicated TR program can provide a valuable resource in achieving a balance of clinical education and high quality healthcare.

  3. Impact of a Dedicated Emergency Medicine Teaching Resident Rotation at a Large Urban Academic Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ahn, MD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the face of declining bedside teaching and increasing emergency department (ED crowding, balancing education and patient care is a challenge. Dedicated shifts by teaching residents (TRs in the ED represent an educational intervention to mitigate these difficulties. We aimed to measure the perceived learning and departmental impact created by having TR. Methods: TRs were present in the ED from 12pm-10pm daily, and their primary roles were to provide the following: assist in teaching procedures, give brief “chalk talks,” instruct junior trainees on interesting cases, and answer clinical questions in an evidence-based manner. This observational study included a survey of fourth-year medical students (MSs, residents and faculty at an academic ED. Surveys measured the perceived effect of the TR on teaching, patient flow, ease of procedures, and clinical care. Results: Survey response rates for medical students, residents, and faculty are 56%, 77%, and 75%, respectively. MSs perceived improved procedure performance with TR presence and the majority agreed that the TR was a valuable educational experience. Residents perceived increased patient flow, procedure performance, and MS learning with TR presence. The majority agreed that the TR improved patient care. Faculty agreed that the TR increased resident and MS learning, as well as improved patient care and procedure performance. Conclusion: The presence of a TR increased MS and resident learning, improved patient care and procedure performance as perceived by MSs, residents and faculty. A dedicated TR program can provide a valuable resource in achieving a balance of clinical education and high quality healthcare.

  4. Ten-Year Trends and Independent Risk Factors for Unplanned Readmission Following Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty at a Large Urban Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varacallo, Matthew A; Herzog, Leah; Toossi, Nader; Johanson, Norman A

    2017-06-01

    Total joint arthroplasty procedures continue to provide consistent, long-term success and high patient satisfaction scores. However, early unplanned readmission to the hospital imparts significant financial risks to individual institutions as we shift away from the traditional fee-for-service payment model. Using a combination of our hospital's administrative database and retrospective chart reviews, we report the 30-day and 90-day readmission rates and all causes of readmission following all unilateral, primary elective total hip and knee arthroplasty procedures at a large, urban, academic hospital from 2004 to 2013. In total, 1165 primary total hip (511) and knee (654) arthroplasty procedures were identified, and the 30-day and 90-day unplanned readmission rates were 4.6% and 7.3%, respectively. A multivariate regression model controlled for a variety of potential clinical and surgical confounders. Increasing body mass index levels, an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of ≥3, and discharge to an inpatient rehab facility each independently correlated with risk of both 30-day and 90-day unplanned readmission to our institution. Additionally, use of general anesthesia during the procedure independently correlated with risk of readmission at 30 days only, while congestive heart failure independently correlated with risk of 90-day unplanned readmission. Readmissions related directly to the surgical site accounted for 47% of the cases, and collectively totaled more than any single medical or clinical complication leading to unplanned readmission within the 90-day period. Increasing body mass index values, general anesthesia, an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of ≥3, and discharge to an inpatient rehab facility each were independent risk factors for early unplanned readmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of large urban fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.

    1984-11-01

    Fires in urban areas caused by a nuclear burst are analyzed as a first step towards determining their smoke-generation chacteristics, which may have grave implications for global-scale climatic consequences. A chain of events and their component processes which would follow a nuclear attack are described. A numerical code is currently being developed to calculate ultimately the smoke production rate for a given attack scenario. Available models for most of the processes are incorporated into the code. Sample calculations of urban fire-development history performed in the code for an idealized uniform city are presented. Preliminary results indicate the importance of the wind, thermal radiation transmission, fuel distributions, and ignition thresholds on the urban fire spread characteristics. Future plans are to improve the existing models and develop new ones to characterize smoke production from large urban fires. 21 references, 18 figures

  6. Academic Library Administration: A Case Examination of Faculty-Librarian Perceptions of Journal Cancellations and the Decision-Making Process in a Large, Urban Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, James Harmon

    As the academic library plays the roles of intermediary and adjudicator of collection purchases and cancellations, faculty involvement in library resource decisions is not only commonplace, but essential to making such decisions. Faculty involvement in cancellation projects is often enhanced by a thorough explanation of the depth of financial…

  7. Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…

  8. Adolescents' Motivation in the Context of an Academic Vocabulary Intervention in Urban Middle School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Harris, Julie Russ; Sloane, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    In a large urban district's ELA classrooms, an academic vocabulary intervention designed to improve linguistically diverse 6th-graders' reading and language skills was implemented and evaluated. These classrooms were characterized by high numbers of struggling readers, and linguistic diversity was the norm. As part of the evaluation, this study…

  9. Rural versus urban academic hospital mortality following stroke in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Richard; Bussières, Sylvain; Tounkara, Fatoumata Korika; Turcotte, Stéphane; Légaré, France; Plant, Jeff; Poitras, Julien; Archambault, Patrick M; Dupuis, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Canada. While stroke care has improved dramatically over the last decade, outcomes following stroke among patients treated in rural hospitals have not yet been reported in Canada. To describe variation in 30-day post-stroke in-hospital mortality rates between rural and urban academic hospitals in Canada. We also examined 24/7 in-hospital access to CT scanners and selected services in rural hospitals. We included Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) data on adjusted 30-day in-hospital mortality following stroke from 2007 to 2011 for all acute care hospitals in Canada excluding Quebec and the Territories. We categorized rural hospitals as those located in rural small towns providing 24/7 emergency physician coverage with inpatient beds. Urban hospitals were academic centres designated as Level 1 or 2 trauma centres. We computed descriptive data on local access to a CT scanner and other services and compared mean 30-day adjusted post-stroke mortality rates for rural and urban hospitals to the overall Canadian rate. A total of 286 rural hospitals (3.4 million emergency department (ED) visits/year) and 24 urban hospitals (1.5 million ED visits/year) met inclusion criteria. From 2007 to 2011, 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke were significantly higher in rural than in urban hospitals and higher than the Canadian average for every year except 2008 (rural average range = 18.26 to 21.04 and urban average range = 14.11 to 16.78). Only 11% of rural hospitals had a CT-scanner, 1% had MRI, 21% had in-hospital ICU, 94% had laboratory and 92% had basic x-ray facilities. Rural hospitals in Canada had higher 30-day in-hospital mortality rates following stroke than urban academic hospitals and the Canadian average. Rural hospitals also have very limited local access to CT scanners and ICUs. These rural/urban discrepancies are cause for concern in the context of Canada's universal health care system.

  10. Academic visibility for urban planning and the webometric future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez Thomas W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author focuses on the analysis problems of the main metrics of scientific productivity for the faculty in the USA universities specializing in the investigations and teaching in the field of urban planning. The increasing role of the Internet is highlighted in the process of communicating the ideas of planning scientists to the professionals and public, extending the reach of academic communications and possibilities of estimating the quality of the investigations and impact. Using case study the methods of applying webometrics for citation analysis in the Internet are investigated. The analysis focused on the main criteria: productivity, visibility, reputation, and impact. The article proposes an expanded approach for estimating general scientific popularity and impact of academics in the Internet, which includes publication analysis in frames of “gray literature”, teaching and outreach activity, which may also be a significant part of the scientific activity. The author stated the importance of academic visibility estimation both for promotion, improving competitiveness of a faculty member on the labor market in the sphere of educational services, and for urban planning schools’ development in general, raising their reputation, prestige and impact, getting the opportunities for financed researches, consolidating the positions on the global educational and science market.

  11. Academic Self-Concept and Academic Achievement of African American Students Transitioning from Urban to Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, La Shawn Catrice

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement in African American students who have experienced geographic mobility was the focus of this study. Specifically, this study used quantitative methods to assess African American students from counties in Iowa to obtain information about the students' relocation from urban to…

  12. At-Risk Student Mobility in an Urban Elementary School: Effects on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoho, Alan R.; Oleszewski, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of at-risk student mobility on academic achievement in an urban elementary school. Math and reading scores from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) of 172 third, fourth, and fifth grade students from an urban school district in South Central Texas were examined to determine whether…

  13. Intrinsic antecedents of academic research productivity of a large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is not clear from this literature, however, is the relative contribution of different dimensions of these factors to research output as a measure of individual job performance in the South African academic context. This research seeks to address this lack of knowledge. A large South African university was comprehensively ...

  14. Images of Academic Leadership in Large New Zealand Polytechnics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardno, Carol

    2013-01-01

    As accountability stakes continue to be raised in all education sectors, leadership as a factor that can have an impact on improved student outcomes is being studied with heightened interest. This study was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in New Zealand's large urban polytechnics with the aim of investigating the nature and expectations of academic…

  15. Improving Exclusive Breastfeeding in an Urban Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Laura P; Williamson, Susan; Burke, Stephanie; Crawford-Hemphill, Ruby; Thompson, Amy M

    2017-02-01

    Breastfeeding has many well-established health benefits for infants and mothers. There is greater risk reduction in health outcomes with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Our urban academic facility has had long-standing low EBF rates, serving a population with breastfeeding disparities. We sought to improve EBF rates through a Learning Collaborative model by participating in the Best Fed Beginnings project. Formal improvement science methods were used, including the development of a key driver diagram and plan-do-study-act cycles. Improvement activities followed the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. We demonstrated significant improvement in the median adherence to 2 process measures, rooming in and skin-to-skin after delivery. Subsequently, the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed at hospital discharge in our facility increased from 37% to 59%. We demonstrated an increase in sustained breastfeeding in a subset of patients at a postpartum follow-up visit. These improvements led to Baby-Friendly designation at our facility. This quality improvement initiative resulted in a higher number of infants exclusively breastfed in our patient population at "high risk not to breastfeed." Other hospitals can use these described methods and techniques to improve their EBF rates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Large urban fire environment: trends and model city predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.A.; Small, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The urban fire environment that would result from a megaton-yield nuclear weapon burst is considered. The dependence of temperatures and velocities on fire size, burning intensity, turbulence, and radiation is explored, and specific calculations for three model urban areas are presented. In all cases, high velocity fire winds are predicted. The model-city results show the influence of building density and urban sprawl on the fire environment. Additional calculations consider large-area fires with the burning intensity reduced in a blast-damaged urban center

  17. Review of Spatial Indexing Techniques for Large Urban Data Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azri, Suhaibah; Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François

    Pressure on land development in urban areas causes progressive efforts in spatial planning and management. The physical expansion of urban areas to accommodate rural migration implies a massive impact to social, economical and political situations of major cities. Most of the models used...... in managing urban areas are moving towards sustainable urban development in order to fulfill current necessities while preserving the resources for future generations. However, in order to manage large amounts of urban spatial data, an efficient spatial data constellation method is needed. With the ease...... of three dimensional (3D) spatial data usage in urban areas as a new source of data input, practical spatial data indexing is necessary to improve data retrieval and management. Current two dimensional (2D) spatial indexing approaches seem not applicable to the current and future spatial developments...

  18. Sociodemographic disparities in the utilization of proton therapy for prostate cancer at an urban academic center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina D. Woodhouse, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Sociodemographic disparities exist in PT use for prostate cancer at an urban academic institution. Further investigation of potential barriers to access is warranted to ensure equitable distribution across all demographic groups.

  19. Large Scale Asset Extraction for Urban Images

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed; Nan, Liangliang; Ghanem, Bernard; Wonka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Object proposals are currently used for increasing the computational efficiency of object detection. We propose a novel adaptive pipeline for interleaving object proposals with object classification and use it as a formulation for asset detection. We first preprocess the images using a novel and efficient rectification technique. We then employ a particle filter approach to keep track of three priors, which guide proposed samples and get updated using classifier output. Tests performed on over 1000 urban images demonstrate that our rectification method is faster than existing methods without loss in quality, and that our interleaved proposal method outperforms current state-of-the-art. We further demonstrate that other methods can be improved by incorporating our interleaved proposals. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  20. Large Scale Asset Extraction for Urban Images

    KAUST Repository

    Affara, Lama Ahmed

    2016-09-16

    Object proposals are currently used for increasing the computational efficiency of object detection. We propose a novel adaptive pipeline for interleaving object proposals with object classification and use it as a formulation for asset detection. We first preprocess the images using a novel and efficient rectification technique. We then employ a particle filter approach to keep track of three priors, which guide proposed samples and get updated using classifier output. Tests performed on over 1000 urban images demonstrate that our rectification method is faster than existing methods without loss in quality, and that our interleaved proposal method outperforms current state-of-the-art. We further demonstrate that other methods can be improved by incorporating our interleaved proposals. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016.

  1. An Exploratory Study of Value-Added and Academic Optimism of Urban Reading Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff-Franklin, Clairie L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between state-recorded value- added (VA) scores and academic optimism (AO) scores, which measure teacher self-efficacy, trust, and academic emphasis. The sample for this study is 87 third through eighth grade Reading teachers, from fifty-five schools, in an urban school district in Ohio who…

  2. Cultivating the Academic Integrity of Urban Adolescents with Ethical Philosophy Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Scott; Novick, Sarah; Gomez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study considered the effects of ethical philosophy programming at a high-performing, high-poverty urban high school upon the academic integrity of participating adolescents ("n" = 279). Analyses of pre-post survey data revealed that participating adolescents reported significantly higher levels of academic integrity…

  3. Academic Emphasis of Urban Elementary Schools and Student Achievement in Reading and Mathematics: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Roger D.; Sweetland, Scott R.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    2000-01-01

    Examines importance of a school climate characterized by high levels of academic emphasis. Drawing on effective-schools research and social-cognitive theory, uses hierarchical linear modeling to show that academic emphasis accounts for differences among urban elementary schools in student math and reading achievement. (Contains 48 references.)…

  4. Associations between Grades and Physical Activity and Food Choices: Results from YRBS from a Large Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Anastasia; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Beard, Jonathan; Young, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between television viewing time, physical activity level, food consumption patterns, and academic performance of adolescents in a large urban school district in the USA where health disparities are prevalent, particularly among minority residents. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  5. Urban Agriculture in Thessaloniki. An academic project meets reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Gavrilidou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all projects with Urban Agriculture (UA impact in Western Europe, in the USA, and in the Developing World are started and thought by single initiatives. In so-called “bottom-up” processes of small scale, they gain energy and power by a fast and none formalized implementation. A master studio project at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, “Red and Green”, presents in contrast a proposal for a huge inner city area with focus on UA as generator for a socio-economic transformation towards a green economy based on social community spirit, considering in particular the crisis situation in Greece. The approach which combines the idea of integrating both top-down and bottom-up forces, attempts an integration of permanent and temporarily elements, and by this, the master plan searches qualities as an innovative planning tool. After a phase of intensive dissemination and evaluation on international level with encouraging attentiveness and recognition, a strategy for a realization in steps was created by KIPOS3, a start-up initiative organized by a group of master students to bring in the city of Thessaloniki the concept a common garden manageable by the residents under also the Municipality stewardship. A widespread network of small fallow islands in the city of Thessaloniki was detected and in a process of “mapping the city” several lots were analyzed referring for good chances of implementation. The description of the long way of discussions with landowners, the municipality and potentially users, the difficulties and obstacles, documents once more the initiators strong will and immense energy, which is necessary for a successful start-up. With financial support of a Greek Fellowship a first garden was created in 2015. The history of KIPOS3 garden in Thessaloniki consists finally a useful lesson on the role of “foodscape” on the reactivation of inactive institutions and communities, a lesson of resilience in a city of deep

  6. Assessing gender equity in a large academic department of pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotbart, Harley A; McMillen, Deborah; Taussig, Heather; Daniels, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    To determine the extent of gender inequity in a large academic pediatrics department and to demonstrate an assessment methodology other departments can use. Using deidentified data, the authors evaluated all promotion track faculty in the University of Colorado School of Medicine's Department of Pediatrics in 2009 by five parameters: promotion, tenure, leadership roles, faculty retention, and salary. Outcome metrics included time to promotion and at rank; awards of tenure, time to tenure, and time tenured; departmental leadership positions in 2009; attrition rates from 2000 to 2009; and salary in academic year 2008-2009 compared with national benchmarks. Women constituted 54% (60/112) of assistant professors and 56% (39/70) of associate professors but only 23% (19/81) of professors. Average years to promotion at each rank and years at assistant and associate professor were identical for men and women; male professors held their rank six years longer. Only 18% (9/50) of tenured faculty were women. Men held 75% (18/24) of section head and 83% (6/7) of vice chair positions; women held 62% (13/21) of medical director positions. More women than men retired as associate professors and resigned/relocated as professors. Women's pay (98% of national median salary) was lower than men's (105% of median) across all ranks and specialties. These gender disparities were due in part to women's later start in academics and the resulting lag time in promotion. Differences in the awarding of tenure, assignment of leadership roles, faculty retention, and salary may also have played important roles.

  7. The future of large old trees in urban landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Darren S; Ikin, Karen; Lindenmayer, David B; Manning, Adrian D; Gibbons, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Large old trees are disproportionate providers of structural elements (e.g. hollows, coarse woody debris), which are crucial habitat resources for many species. The decline of large old trees in modified landscapes is of global conservation concern. Once large old trees are removed, they are difficult to replace in the short term due to typically prolonged time periods needed for trees to mature (i.e. centuries). Few studies have investigated the decline of large old trees in urban landscapes. Using a simulation model, we predicted the future availability of native hollow-bearing trees (a surrogate for large old trees) in an expanding city in southeastern Australia. In urban greenspace, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees is likely to decline by 87% over 300 years under existing management practices. Under a worst case scenario, hollow-bearing trees may be completely lost within 115 years. Conversely, we predicted that the number of hollow-bearing trees will likely remain stable in semi-natural nature reserves. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the number of hollow-bearing trees perpetuated in urban greenspace over the long term is most sensitive to the: (1) maximum standing life of trees; (2) number of regenerating seedlings ha(-1); and (3) rate of hollow formation. We tested the efficacy of alternative urban management strategies and found that the only way to arrest the decline of large old trees requires a collective management strategy that ensures: (1) trees remain standing for at least 40% longer than currently tolerated lifespans; (2) the number of seedlings established is increased by at least 60%; and (3) the formation of habitat structures provided by large old trees is accelerated by at least 30% (e.g. artificial structures) to compensate for short term deficits in habitat resources. Immediate implementation of these recommendations is needed to avert long term risk to urban biodiversity.

  8. Faculty Perceptions of Multicultural Teaching in a Large Urban University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigatti, Sylvia M.; Gibau, Gina Sanchez; Boys, Stephanie; Grove, Kathy; Ashburn-Nardo, Leslie; Khaja, Khadiji; Springer, Jennifer Thorington

    2012-01-01

    As college graduates face an increasingly globalized world, it is imperative to consider issues of multicultural instruction in higher education. This study presents qualitative and quantitative findings from a survey of faculty at a large, urban, midwestern university regarding perceptions of multicultural teaching. Faculty were asked how they…

  9. Rural–Urban Disparity in Students’ Academic Performance in Visual Arts Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Afia Amponsaa Opoku-Asare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural–urban disparity in economic and social development in Ghana has led to disparities in educational resources and variations in students’ achievement in different parts of the country. Nonetheless, senior high schools (SHSs in rural and urban schools follow the same curriculum, and their students write the same West Africa Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE, which qualifies them to access higher education in Ghana’s public universities. Urban SHSs are also recognized nationwide as good schools where students make it to university. Moreover, performance patterns with regard to admission of SHS graduates into university also vary between rural and urban schools; consequently, some parents do everything to get their children in urban SHSs, even consenting to placement in visual arts, a program deemed appropriate only for academically weak students. This study therefore adopted the qualitative-quantitative research approach with interview, observation, and questionnaire administration to investigate the critical factors that affect academic performance of SHS students, particularly those in visual arts as case study. Findings from six public SHSs in Kumasi—two each in rural, peri-urban, and urban areas—revealed that urban schools perform better than rural and peri-urban schools because they attract and admit junior high school graduates with excellent Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE grades, have better infrastructure, more qualified teachers, prestigious names, and character that motivate their students to do well. This suggests that bridging the rural–urban gap in educational resources could promote quality teaching and learning, and thereby raise academic achievement for SHS students in Ghana.

  10. ACADEMIC MOTIVATION AMONG URBAN & RURAL STUDENTS: A Study on Traditional Vs Open Education System in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi SINGH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education today is being viewed as a tool to achieve prosperity and high living standards. It is thus looked upon as a service to the society and a powerful weapon to change the society for its betterment. Motivation plays a crucial role in learning. Motivation energizes the behavior of the individual. It also directs the behavior towards specific goals. It helps in acquisition of knowledge, develops social qualities, increases initiation of persistence in activities, leads to improved performance and develops a sense of discipline in the individual. This paper aims to compare Open Education System and Traditional Education System with respect to Academic Motivation of students towards the two types of education systems. This paper also tries to compare the academic motivation of rural and urban based students. It has been found in this paper that there is significant different in Academic Motivation among students of the two types of education systems. The significant difference in academic motivation has also been found in urban and rural based students, compared between the two systems. The paper has also forwarded some suggestions which may be considered by the policy makers and administrators of OES to help increase the academic motivation of students of OES.Academic Motivation, Traditional Education System, Open Education System, Higher Education System, Rural based students, and Urban based students

  11. Creating a Successful Academic Climate for Urban Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Terri

    2009-01-01

    Teaching students in the inner city has been likened to hugging a porcupine--teachers nudge them toward success while getting pricked along the way. Many urban students perform below proficiency level and are difficult to manage. Their apathy toward completing class assignments, let alone homework, compounds the problem. As a whole, educators do…

  12. Powerful and large regional authorities are needed to preserve green open space for urban agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aalbers

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification and assessment of strategies for the conservation and multifunctional development of green open space in the urban fringe of European urban regions is a challenge to both the academic and the real life world. Within the EU funded research project PLUREL – Peri-urban land use relationships – ‘Strategies and sustainability assessment tools for urban rural linkages’, we developed a methodology for international comparison of regional strategies that considers the policy context at supra-regional level. This methodology helped to explain the reported impacts of strategies. For this we further elaborated the theoretical concept of policy arrangements and policy dimensions by Van Tatenhove et al. (2000 and Arts et al. (2006. Strategies and policy contexts referred to are from Montpellier Agglomeration, a formal coalition of now 31 municipalities, Leipzig-Halle region, a functional urban region (FUR with governance coalitions around green open space preservation strategies, and Hangzhou in China, a very large city with hierarchical formal government. Results showed how the means of influence from different government levels can complement and reinforce each other and raise the effectiveness of the strategies. A combination of hierarchical government with a horizontal coalition between local authorities covering the full FUR can be very effective for managing the land use developments in the urban fringe, even when private business, CSOs or other NGOs are not included in the coalition. Supra-regional authorities do not have to possess the land resources, but setting the Rules of the Game is a powerful means of influence to coerce local municipalities to preserve green open space in the urban fringe.

  13. Classroom Practices and Academic Outcomes in Urban Afterschool Programs: Alleviating Social-Behavioral Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Elise; Hwang, Sophia H. J.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Yates, Miranda

    2018-01-01

    Given the potential of afterschool programs to support youth in urban, low-income communities, we examined the role of afterschool classroom ecology in the academic outcomes of Latino and African American youth with and without social-behavioral risk. Using multireporter methods and multilevel analysis, we find that positive classroom ecology…

  14. Parent Involvement and Academic Outcomes among Urban Adolescents: Examining the Role of School Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Wehrspann, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which parent involvement in education was directly and indirectly (via school engagement) related to academic outcomes in an effort to more fully understand the school experiences of urban adolescents. Participants (80% racial/ethnic minority; n = 108) were in grades 6, 7 or 8. In the Fall and subsequent…

  15. The Relationship between Black Racial Identity and Academic Achievement in Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Brian E.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between Black racial identity and academic achievement in urban settings. Using Mary Shelley's Frankenstein (1918) as a comparative framework, the author describes current practices and suggests practical applications of empirical findings for practicing classroom teachers of African American students.…

  16. Demographic and Educational Influences on Academic Motivation, Competence, and Achievement in Minority Urban Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    Using the Scale of Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom (S. Harter, 1980) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children (S. Harter, 1985), this study of 222 urban early adolescents (median age=149 months) examined differences in motivation that might affect academic achievement and perceptions of competence. Socioeconomic status…

  17. Differences in Physical Activity and Academic Performance between Urban and Rural Schoolchildren in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedrana Sember

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In Slovenia, the existing studies of relations between physical activity (PA, academic performance (AP and urbanization grade have used subjective self-reporting tools for assessing physical activity, which usually led to an underestimation of true PA. We have attempted to overcome this and have investigated the link between PA in rural and urban Slovenian schoolchildren by an objective assessment of PA, using a multi-sensor SenseWear PRO armband. The analysis showed that urban children in Slovenia are more physically active than rural children are and achieve better AP (mathematics grade. Additionally, children who are active between 60 and 120 minutes of MVPA/day have higher AP than their peers who are active less than 60 or more than 120 minutes, whereas the latter groups did not differ in academic performance.

  18. A review of the physics of large urban fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brode, H.L.; Small, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    A review of historical urban fires can help to illustrate the nature of large fires and the devastation that they can cause. The observations and descriptions of those fires provide the basis for understanding the much larger fires that would result from a nuclear explosion. The focus of this paper is on the major physical factors that are relevant to the characterization of such fires. Atmospheric responses in the vicinity of a large smoke column are addressed, and the hazards expected to accompany nuclear fires are briefly discussed

  19. Intrinsic antecedents of academic research productivity of a large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    1South Africa faces a host of challenges in its pursuit of research productivity ( ... doctorates in South African higher education institutions, are examples of these ..... A specific tension exists in academic contexts: the tension between teaching.

  20. Patterns of retreatment with radiotherapy in a large academic centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khor, Richard; Ball, David; Duchesne, Gillian; Bressel, Mathias; Tai, Keen Hun; Tedesco, Jo; Gill, Suki; Fitzpatrick, Claire; Foroudi, Farshad; Rose, William

    2013-01-01

    To characterise retreatment rates with radiotherapy at a large multifacility academic radiotherapy centre and assess the effect of distance on retreatment rate. Electronic administrative records were reviewed for patients receiving radiotherapy between 1998 and 2010 at regional and metropolitan facilities. Course-level data were reconstructed from electronic administrative databases. Intent of therapy, treatment dates and diagnosis were available for analysis. Retreatment characteristics were derived, including proportion of patients receiving retreatment, proportion of total radiotherapy prescriptions dedicated to retreatment and retreatment per treating facility. Travel distance for each patient to their treatment centre was estimated, and retreatment rates were reported as a function of increasing distance. A total of 48,200 patients were treated with 66,277 treatment courses during the study period. Retreatment courses constituted 25.2% of all courses prescribed. During the study period, 20.4% of all patients received at least one treatment course. Of these, the average number of retreatment courses prescribed was 1.84. Patients treated with radical intent had a retreatment rate of 13% compared with 45% for those treated initially with palliative intent. Retreatment rates in individual tumour sites ranged from 1.3 to 44.4%. The retreatment rate for those living less than 100km from treatment facility was 24.8%, and 20.5% for those living more than 100km from treatment centre (P<0.001) Retreatment accounted for over one quarter of radiotherapy courses, with the rate influenced by casemix and follow-up duration. With increasing distance from treatment centre, a decrease in retreatment rate was observed.

  1. Urban sprawl and air quality in large US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-03-01

    This study presents the results of a paper of urban spatial structure and exceedances of the 8-h national ambient air quality standard for ozone in 45 large US metropolitan regions. Through the integration of a published index of sprawl with metropolitan level data on annual ozone exceedances, precursor emissions, and regional climate over a 13-year period, the association between the extent of urban decentralization and the average number of ozone exceedances per year, while controlling for precursor emissions and temperature, is measured. The results of this analysis support the hypothesis that large metropolitan regions ranking highly on a quantitative index of sprawl experience a greater number of ozone exceedances than more spatially compact metropolitan regions. Importantly, this relationship was found to hold when controlling for population size, average ozone season temperatures, and regional emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, suggesting that urban spatial structure may have effects on ozone formation that are independent of its effects on precursor emissions from transportation, industry, and power generation facilities.

  2. BigSUR: large-scale structured urban reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Tom; Femiani, John; Wonka, Peter; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2017-01-01

    The creation of high-quality semantically parsed 3D models for dense metropolitan areas is a fundamental urban modeling problem. Although recent advances in acquisition techniques and processing algorithms have resulted in large-scale imagery or 3D polygonal reconstructions, such data-sources are typically noisy, and incomplete, with no semantic structure. In this paper, we present an automatic data fusion technique that produces high-quality structured models of city blocks. From coarse polygonal meshes, street-level imagery, and GIS footprints, we formulate a binary integer program that globally balances sources of error to produce semantically parsed mass models with associated facade elements. We demonstrate our system on four city regions of varying complexity; our examples typically contain densely built urban blocks spanning hundreds of buildings. In our largest example, we produce a structured model of 37 city blocks spanning a total of 1,011 buildings at a scale and quality previously impossible to achieve automatically.

  3. BigSUR: large-scale structured urban reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Tom

    2017-11-22

    The creation of high-quality semantically parsed 3D models for dense metropolitan areas is a fundamental urban modeling problem. Although recent advances in acquisition techniques and processing algorithms have resulted in large-scale imagery or 3D polygonal reconstructions, such data-sources are typically noisy, and incomplete, with no semantic structure. In this paper, we present an automatic data fusion technique that produces high-quality structured models of city blocks. From coarse polygonal meshes, street-level imagery, and GIS footprints, we formulate a binary integer program that globally balances sources of error to produce semantically parsed mass models with associated facade elements. We demonstrate our system on four city regions of varying complexity; our examples typically contain densely built urban blocks spanning hundreds of buildings. In our largest example, we produce a structured model of 37 city blocks spanning a total of 1,011 buildings at a scale and quality previously impossible to achieve automatically.

  4. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student’s perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students’ self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children’s academic performance. PMID:21197388

  5. The impact of managed care and current governmental policies on an urban academic health care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J L; Peterson, D J; Muehlstedt, S G; Zera, R T; West, M A; Bubrick, M P

    2001-10-01

    Managed care and governmental policies have restructured hospital reimbursement. We examined reimbursement trends in trauma care to assess the impact of this market driven change on an urban academic health center. Patients injured between January 1997 and December 1999 were analyzed for Injury Severity Score (ISS), length of hospital stay, hospital cost, payer, and reimbursement. Between 1997 and 1999, the volume of patients with an ISS less than 9 increased and length of stay decreased. In addition, overall cost, payment, and profit margin increased. Commercially insured patients accounted for this margin increase, because the margins of managed care and government insured patients experienced double-digit decreases. Patients with ISS of 9 or greater also experienced a volume increase and a reduction in length of stay; however, costs within this group increased greater than payments, thereby reducing profit margin. Whereas commercially insured patients maintained their margin, managed care and government insured patients did not (double- and triple-digit decreases). Managed care and current governmental policies have a negative impact on urban academic health center reimbursement. Commercial insurers subsidize not only the uninsured but also the government insured and managed care patients as well. National awareness of this issue and policy action are paramount to urban academic health centers and may also benefit commercial insurers.

  6. National Implications for Urban School Systems: Strategic Planning in the Human Resource Management Department in a Large Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Clarence; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses several key ongoing issues in a large urban school district. Literature focuses on what make a large urban school district effective in Human Resource Management. The effectiveness is addressed through recruitment and retention practices. A comparison of the school district with current research is the main approach to the…

  7. The Relationship between Bible Literacy and Behavioral and Academic Outcomes in Urban Areas: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis is undertaken, including 11 studies, to determine whether there is a relationship between Bible knowledge on one hand and academic and behavioral outcomes on the other among those living in urban areas. The results indicate that increased Bible knowledge is associated with higher levels of student academic achievement and positive…

  8. An Evaluation of Training for Lay Providers in the Use of Motivational Interviewing to Promote Academic Achievement among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a motivational interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban, low-income minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of workshop training in MI. Additionally, two 2-hour…

  9. 3D exploitation of large urban photo archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Peter; Snavely, Noah; Anderson, Ross

    2010-04-01

    Recent work in computer vision has demonstrated the potential to automatically recover camera and scene geometry from large collections of uncooperatively-collected photos. At the same time, aerial ladar and Geographic Information System (GIS) data are becoming more readily accessible. In this paper, we present a system for fusing these data sources in order to transfer 3D and GIS information into outdoor urban imagery. Applying this system to 1000+ pictures shot of the lower Manhattan skyline and the Statue of Liberty, we present two proof-of-concept examples of geometry-based photo enhancement which are difficult to perform via conventional image processing: feature annotation and image-based querying. In these examples, high-level knowledge projects from 3D world-space into georegistered 2D image planes and/or propagates between different photos. Such automatic capabilities lay the groundwork for future real-time labeling of imagery shot in complex city environments by mobile smart phones.

  10. Urbanization and economic development: a bias toward large cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, R L; Shatter, A M

    1996-01-01

    "We find that a nation's urban population percentage increases with GDP per capita; industrialization; export orientation; and possibly, foreign assistance. It decreases with the importance of agriculture. Industrialization and agricultural importance have the same implications for the concentration of urban population in cities with 100,000+ population as for the urban percentage. Greater export orientation reduces such concentration. Finally, GDP per capita, population, and export orientation reduce primacy. Political factors, such as whether a country's largest city is also its capital, affect primacy. Our results do not seem to imply that developing-country urbanization today differs fundamentally from urbanization in the past." excerpt

  11. The evolution of urban mobility: The interplay of academic and policy perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban mobility in Western countries has evolved substantially over the past fifty years, from an early interest in catering for growing car ownership and use through major road expansion, to the current emphasis on reducing car use and cutting back on road provision, encouraging sustainable travel and promoting liveable cities with a high quality of life. This can be observed in the changing patterns of car use in many European cities over time (i.e. a rapid increase followed by stabilisation and now decline. This evolution can be related to changes in the transport policy paradigm, which has been heavily influenced by the involvement of an increasing range of academic disciplines, many of which have contributed to modifying the supporting data collection, modelling and appraisal methodologies. The paper explores the varying interplay over time between academic/applied research and policy practice, and the methodological legacy left by earlier perspectives on urban mobility. It highlights a recent reinterpretation of mobility provided through taking a 'socio-technical perspective', and speculates on how policy thinking on urban mobility might further evolve over the next forty years.

  12. Experiences of violence and deficits in academic achievement among urban primary school children in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Meeks-Gardner, Julie; Chang, Susan; Walker, Susan

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children's experiences of three different types of violence and academic achievement among primary school children in Kingston, Jamaica. A cross-sectional study of 1300 children in grade 5 [mean (S.D.) age: 11 (0.5) years] from 29 government primary schools in urban areas of Kingston and St. Andrew, Jamaica, was conducted. Academic achievement (mathematics, reading, and spelling) was assessed using the Wide Range Achievement Test. Children's experiences of three types of violence - exposure to aggression among peers at school, physical punishment at school, and exposure to community violence - were assessed by self-report using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Fifty-eight percent of the children experienced moderate or high levels of all three types of violence. Boys had poorer academic achievement and experienced higher levels of aggression among peers and physical punishment at school than girls. Children's experiences of the three types of violence were independently associated with all three indices of academic achievement. There was a dose-response relationship between children's experiences of violence and academic achievement with children experiencing higher levels of violence having the poorest academic achievement and children experiencing moderate levels having poorer achievement than those experiencing little or none. Exposure to three different types of violence was independently associated with poor school achievement among children attending government, urban schools in Jamaica. Programs are needed in schools to reduce the levels of aggression among students and the use of physical punishment by teachers and to provide support for children exposed to community violence. Children in Jamaica and the wider Caribbean experience significant amounts of violence in their homes, communities, and schools. In this study, we demonstrate a dose-response relationship between primary school

  13. Multiple victimization experiences of urban elementary school students: associations with psychosocial functioning and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    2007-05-01

    This study explored the victimization experiences of urban elementary school students to determine whether subsets of youth emerged with similar victimization profiles (e.g., no victimization, multiple types of victimization). It also evaluated whether multiple victimization was associated with greater psychological distress and lower academic performance. Participants were 689 fifth grade students from an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth completed self-report measures in school about bullying victimization, victimization in the home and community, and psychosocial functioning. Cluster analysis suggested the existence of three distinct youth profiles: those with minimal victimization, those victimized primarily by their peers, and those with multiple types of victimizations. As hypothesized, youth with multiple victimizations experienced more psychological distress and earned lower grades than their peers. Findings highlight the heterogeneity of youth victimization experiences and their relations to functioning, and have implications for treatment planning among practitioners working with youth.

  14. Large-scale urban point cloud labeling and reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Li, Zhuqiang; Li, Anjian; Liu, Fangyu

    2018-04-01

    The large number of object categories and many overlapping or closely neighboring objects in large-scale urban scenes pose great challenges in point cloud classification. In this paper, a novel framework is proposed for classification and reconstruction of airborne laser scanning point cloud data. To label point clouds, we present a rectified linear units neural network named ReLu-NN where the rectified linear units (ReLu) instead of the traditional sigmoid are taken as the activation function in order to speed up the convergence. Since the features of the point cloud are sparse, we reduce the number of neurons by the dropout to avoid over-fitting of the training process. The set of feature descriptors for each 3D point is encoded through self-taught learning, and forms a discriminative feature representation which is taken as the input of the ReLu-NN. The segmented building points are consolidated through an edge-aware point set resampling algorithm, and then they are reconstructed into 3D lightweight models using the 2.5D contouring method (Zhou and Neumann, 2010). Compared with deep learning approaches, the ReLu-NN introduced can easily classify unorganized point clouds without rasterizing the data, and it does not need a large number of training samples. Most of the parameters in the network are learned, and thus the intensive parameter tuning cost is significantly reduced. Experimental results on various datasets demonstrate that the proposed framework achieves better performance than other related algorithms in terms of classification accuracy and reconstruction quality.

  15. Nuclear EMP simulation for large-scale urban environments. FDTD for electrically large problems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilcox, Trevor [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Randall J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shao, Xuan-Min [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costigan, Keeley R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-13

    In case of a terrorist nuclear attack in a metropolitan area, EMP measurement could provide: (1) a prompt confirmation of the nature of the explosion (chemical or nuclear) for emergency response; and (2) and characterization parameters of the device (reaction history, yield) for technical forensics. However, urban environment could affect the fidelity of the prompt EMP measurement (as well as all other types of prompt measurement): (1) Nuclear EMP wavefront would no longer be coherent, due to incoherent production, attenuation, and propagation of gamma and electrons; and (2) EMP propagation from source region outward would undergo complicated transmission, reflection, and diffraction processes. EMP simulation for electrically-large urban environment: (1) Coupled MCNP/FDTD (Finite-difference time domain Maxwell solver) approach; and (2) FDTD tends to be limited to problems that are not 'too' large compared to the wavelengths of interest because of numerical dispersion and anisotropy. We use a higher-order low-dispersion, isotropic FDTD algorithm for EMP propagation.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Urbanization on Direct Runoff Using Improved Composite CN Method in a Large Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuanman; Shi, Tuo; Zong, Min; Walter, M Todd

    2018-04-17

    Urbanization is one of the most widespread anthropogenic activities, which brings a range of physical and biochemical changes to hydrological system and processes. Increasing direct runoff caused by land use change has become a major challenge for urban ecological security. Reliable prediction of the quantity and rate of surface runoff is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for large ungauged urban areas. In this study, we combined Geographic Information System and remote sensing technology with an improved Soil Conservation Service curve number model to evaluate the effects of land use change on direct runoff volume of the four-ring area in Shenyang, China, and analyzed trends of direct runoff at different scales. Through analyzing trends of direct runoff from 1984 to 2015 at different scales, we explored how urbanization and other potential factors affect direct runoff changes. Total direct runoff volume increased over time, and trends varied from the inner urban area to suburban area. Zones 1 and 2 had a tendency toward decreasing direct runoff volume and risks, while Zones 3 and 4 showed gradual increases at both regional and pixel scales. The most important influence on direct runoff change was urban surface change caused by urbanization. This study presents a framework for identifying hotspots of runoff increase, which can provide important guidance to urban managers in future green infrastructure planning, in the hopes of improving the security of urban water ecological patterns.

  17. Assessing the Impact of Urbanization on Direct Runoff Using Improved Composite CN Method in a Large Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuanman; Shi, Tuo; Zong, Min; Walter, M. Todd

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the most widespread anthropogenic activities, which brings a range of physical and biochemical changes to hydrological system and processes. Increasing direct runoff caused by land use change has become a major challenge for urban ecological security. Reliable prediction of the quantity and rate of surface runoff is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for large ungauged urban areas. In this study, we combined Geographic Information System and remote sensing technology with an improved Soil Conservation Service curve number model to evaluate the effects of land use change on direct runoff volume of the four-ring area in Shenyang, China, and analyzed trends of direct runoff at different scales. Through analyzing trends of direct runoff from 1984 to 2015 at different scales, we explored how urbanization and other potential factors affect direct runoff changes. Total direct runoff volume increased over time, and trends varied from the inner urban area to suburban area. Zones 1 and 2 had a tendency toward decreasing direct runoff volume and risks, while Zones 3 and 4 showed gradual increases at both regional and pixel scales. The most important influence on direct runoff change was urban surface change caused by urbanization. This study presents a framework for identifying hotspots of runoff increase, which can provide important guidance to urban managers in future green infrastructure planning, in the hopes of improving the security of urban water ecological patterns. PMID:29673182

  18. EDUCATION SYSTEMS AND ACADEMIC SATISFACTION: A Study on Rural and Urban Students of Traditional Vs Open Education System in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi SINGH,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A satisfaction and dissatisfaction level within an individual influences the motivation level and his/her performance throughout the life. When an individual is satisfied with his/her work, he/she gets pleasure and feels motivated. Obtaining satisfaction from their education system is very important for students as this will lead to better learning possibilities. This paper aims to compare the level of academic satisfaction among the students of Traditional Education System and Open Education System. This paper also investigates academic satisfaction of urban and rural based students and comparing them over traditional (Urban: 110; Rural: 90, and open (Urban: 80; Rural: 71 education system. Statistical tests demonstrate that there is significant difference in the level of academic satisfaction among the students of Open Education System (OES and Traditional Education System (TES.

  19. Large urban projects and social actors : Forces supporting and opposing the production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuenya, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    This research studies, by means of the analysis of a paradigmatic large urban project in Buenos Aires, the production process of a large urban project furthered by the State and directed to create a new centrality. The analysis is focused on the forces supporting and opposition the project that were

  20. Urban Knowledge and Large Housing Estates in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Dimitrova, Elena; Schmeidler, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Urban challenges have become increasingly important in policy making in Europe during recent decades and greater resources and research activities have been directed toward addressing these challenges. While cities during the 1970s and 1980s were mainly considered as problem containers, they have...

  1. Job Satisfaction of Elementary Principals in Large Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine job satisfaction levels of elementary principals in "major urban" districts in Texas and to identify strategies these principals used to cope with the demands of the position. Additionally, the project sought to find structures and supports needed to attract and retain principals in the…

  2. A Study of African American Male Students' Academic Achievement and School Attitude in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Roslyn J. F. Billy

    2013-01-01

    With the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, much emphasis has been placed on the accountability of schools and school districts to ensure higher academic achievement of all students. The achievement gap remains among African American male students in urban school districts. This purposed quantitative study explored the relationship…

  3. Recognizing Internet Addiction: Prevalence and Relationship to Academic Achievement in Adolescents Enrolled in Urban and Rural Greek High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Alexandraki, Kiriaki; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2013-01-01

    This study aims: a) to estimate the prevalence of internet addiction among adolescents of urban and rural areas in Greece, b) to examine whether the Internet Addiction Test cut-off point is applicable to them and c) to investigate the phenomenon's association with academic achievement. Participants were 2090 adolescents (mean age 16, 1036 males,…

  4. Do Intervention Impacts on Academic Achievement Vary by School Climate? Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Urban Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2015-01-01

    Given established links between social-emotional skills and academic achievement, there is growing support for implementing universal social/behavioral interventions in early schooling (Jones & Bouffard, 2012). Advocates have been particularly interested in implementing such programming in low income urban schools where students are likely to…

  5. Evaluation of a Worksite Diabetes Education Program at a Large Urban Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Susan; Baernholdt, Marianne; Becker, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that diabetes education can be delivered at the worksite to better support employees' diabetes self-management and improve productivity and health care costs. This study was conducted to address the feasibility of a diabetes worksite education program for employees at a large urban academic health care institution. The diabetes education program was delivered in the diabetes center at the institution, a resource that was previously underutilized by employees. Through collaboration with groups in the institution, 20 employees of diverse ethnicity participated in the worksite diabetes education program with positive outcomes: improved glycemic control measured (HbA1c), attainment of self-management goals, and satisfaction with the program. Work absences trended downward, but numbers of hospitalizations and emergency department visits were unchanged in the 3 months following education. Recommendations include replication of the study with more employee participation and program evaluation over a longer period of time to continue assessment of employees' educational needs. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF LARGE WOODY DEBRIS IN STREAM REHABILITATION PROJECTS IN URBAN BASINS. (R825284)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban stream rehabilitation projects commonly include log placement to establish the types of habitat features associated with large woody debris (LWD) in undisturbed streams. Six urban in-stream rehabilitation projects were examined in the Puget Sound Lowland of western Washi...

  7. Co-adapting societal and ecological interactions following large disturbances in urban park woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret Carreiro; Wayne Zipperer

    2011-01-01

    The responses of urban park woodlands to large disturbances provide the opportunity to identify and examine linkages in social-ecological systems in urban landscapes.We propose that the Panarchy model consisting of hierarchically nested adaptive cycles provides a useful framework to evaluate those linkages.We use two case studies as examples – Cherokee Park in...

  8. Examining gray matter structure associated with academic performance in a large sample of Chinese high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Song Wang; Ming Zhou; Taolin Chen; Xun Yang; Guangxiang Chen; Meiyun Wang; Qiyong Gong

    2017-01-01

    Achievement in school is crucial for students to be able to pursue successful careers and lead happy lives in the future. Although many psychological attributes have been found to be associated with academic performance, the neural substrates of academic performance remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between brain structure and academic performance in a large sample of high school students via structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI) using voxel-based morphome...

  9. The Feasibility of Small Hydro-Electric Generation in a Large Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Benson Y. Zhang; Adam Taylor

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities of generating electric power from relatively small hydro-electric sources in a large urban area is investigated. Two different aspects of hydro-electric sources have been studied: storm/waste water pipes in large multi-tenanted residential buildings and urban storm water discharge area (CSI area). The potential to generate from these sources has been investigated using a micro-turbine. The potential electric power which could be extracted from the sources was estimated using...

  10. Uncovering urban human mobility from large scale taxi GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinjun; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yinhai; Wang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Taxi GPS trajectories data contain massive spatial and temporal information of urban human activity and mobility. Taking taxi as mobile sensors, the information derived from taxi trips benefits the city and transportation planning. The original data used in study are collected from more than 1100 taxi drivers in Harbin city. We firstly divide the city area into 400 different transportation districts and analyze the origin and destination distribution in urban area on weekday and weekend. The Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm is used to cluster pick-up and drop-off locations. Furthermore, four spatial interaction models are calibrated and compared based on trajectories in shopping center of Harbin city to study the pick-up location searching behavior. By extracting taxi trips from GPS data, travel distance, time and average speed in occupied and non-occupied status are then used to investigate human mobility. Finally, we use observed OD matrix of center area in Harbin city to model the traffic distribution patterns based on entropy-maximizing method, and the estimation performance verify its effectiveness in case study.

  11. Attitudes and preferences toward the provision of medication abortion in an urban academic internal medicine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Cameron; Stumbar, Sarah; Gold, Marji

    2012-06-01

    Mifepristone offers internal medicine doctors the opportunity to greatly expand access to abortion for their patients. Almost 70% of pregnancy terminations, however, still occur in specialized clinics. No studies have examined the preferences of Internal Medicine patients specifically. Determine whether patient preference is a reason for the limited uptake of medication abortion among internal medicine physicians. Women aged 18-45 recruited from the waiting room in an urban academic internal medicine clinic. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to determine risk of unintended pregnancy and attitudes toward abortion. Support for provision of medication abortion in the internal medicine clinic was assessed with a yes/no question, followed by the open-ended question, "Why do you think this clinic should or should not offer medication abortion?" Subjects were asked whether it was very important, somewhat important, or not important for the internal medicine clinic to provide medication abortion. Of 102 women who met inclusion criteria, 90 completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 88%. Twenty-two percent were at risk of unintended pregnancy. 46.7% had had at least one lifetime abortion. Among those who would consider having an abortion, 67.7% responded yes to the question, "Do you think this clinic should offer medication abortions?" and 83.9% stated that it was "very important" or "somewhat important" to offer this service. Of women open to having an abortion, 87.1% stated that they would be interested in receiving a medication abortion from their primary care doctor. A clinically significant proportion of women in this urban internal medicine clinic were at risk of unintended pregnancy. Among those open to having an abortion, a wide majority would consider receiving it from their internal medicine doctor. The provision of medication abortion by internal medicine physicians has the potential to greatly expand abortion access for women.

  12. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Patient satisfaction with care in an urban tertiary referral academic glaucoma clinic in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson KM

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Kristen M Peterson, Carrie E Huisingh, Christopher Girkin, Cynthia Owsley, Lindsay A Rhodes Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with glaucoma patients’ satisfaction with their medical care by fellowship-trained glaucoma specialists in an urban tertiary referral clinic in the US.Methods: A total of 110 established patients aged ≥60 years with a diagnosis of either primary open angle glaucoma, glaucoma suspect, or ocular hypertension monitored by an ophthalmologist with fellowship training in glaucoma were enrolled at an academic, urban, tertiary referral eye clinic. Enrolled patients were administered a general demographics questionnaire along with a Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 (PSQ-18, a Likert scale validated tool. The seven dimensions of patient satisfaction from the PSQ-18 were summarized for the sample overall and by the patients’ age, race, employment status, education level, distance travelled from home address to clinic, and glaucoma therapy type. Two-sample t-tests were used to compare group means. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to correlate satisfaction scores with peripheral vision and visual acuity function.Results: Overall, the general satisfaction scores were high (mean 4.62. Patients ≥70 years of age had lower general satisfaction with their care (mean 4.5 vs 4.8, p=0.03, the interpersonal manner of their appointment (mean 4.7 vs 4.9, p=0.009, and with their time spent with their doctor (mean 4.4 vs 4.7, p=0.03 than patients aged 60–69 years. Non-European descent patients (47% African descent and 1% other of sample were more satisfied with the time they spent with the doctor (mean 4.7 vs 4.4, p=0.04 and with the communication during the appointment (mean 4.8 vs 4.6, p=0.04 than European descent patients (52% of sample. Patients with a higher level of

  14. Enhanced Methodologies to Enumerate Persons Experiencing Homelessness in a Large Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Catherine L; D'Andrea, Ritalinda; Grier, Gary; Williams, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Homelessness is a public health problem, and persons experiencing homelessness are a vulnerable population. Estimates of the number of persons experiencing homelessness inform funding allocations and services planning and directly determine the ability of a community to intervene effectively in homelessness. The point-in-time (PIT) count presents a logistical problem in large urban areas, particularly those covering a vast geographical area. Working together, academia, local government, and community organizations improved the methodology for the count. Specific enhancements include use of incident command system (ICS), increased number of staging areas/teams, specialized outreach and Special Weapons and Tactics teams, and day-after surveying to collect demographic information. This collaboration and enhanced methodology resulted in a more accurate estimate of the number of persons experiencing homelessness and allowed comparison of findings for 4 years. While initial results showed an increase due to improved counting, the number of persons experiencing homelessness counted for the subsequent years showed significant decrease during the same time period as a "housing first" campaign was implemented. The collaboration also built capacity in each sector: The health department used ICS as a training opportunity; the academics enhanced their community health efforts; the service sector was taught and implemented more rigorous quantitative methods; and the community was exposed to public health as a pragmatic and effective discipline. Improvements made to increase the reliability of the PIT count can be adapted for use in other jurisdictions, leading to improved counts and better evaluation of progress in ending homelessness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Photorealistic large-scale urban city model reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullis, Charalambos; You, Suya

    2009-01-01

    The rapid and efficient creation of virtual environments has become a crucial part of virtual reality applications. In particular, civil and defense applications often require and employ detailed models of operations areas for training, simulations of different scenarios, planning for natural or man-made events, monitoring, surveillance, games, and films. A realistic representation of the large-scale environments is therefore imperative for the success of such applications since it increases the immersive experience of its users and helps reduce the difference between physical and virtual reality. However, the task of creating such large-scale virtual environments still remains a time-consuming and manual work. In this work, we propose a novel method for the rapid reconstruction of photorealistic large-scale virtual environments. First, a novel, extendible, parameterized geometric primitive is presented for the automatic building identification and reconstruction of building structures. In addition, buildings with complex roofs containing complex linear and nonlinear surfaces are reconstructed interactively using a linear polygonal and a nonlinear primitive, respectively. Second, we present a rendering pipeline for the composition of photorealistic textures, which unlike existing techniques, can recover missing or occluded texture information by integrating multiple information captured from different optical sensors (ground, aerial, and satellite).

  16. Leveraging community-academic partnerships to improve healthy food access in an urban, Kansas City, Kansas, community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabachi, Natabhona M; Kimminau, Kim S

    2012-01-01

    Americans can combat overweight (OW) and obesity by eating unprocessed, fresh foods. However, all Americans do not have equal access to these recommended foods. Low-income, minority, urban neighborhoods in particular often have limited access to healthy resources, although they are vulnerable to higher levels of OW and obesity. This project used community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles to investigate the food needs of residents and develop a business plan to improve access to healthy food options in an urban, Kansas City, Kansas, neighborhood. Partner community organizations were mobilized to conduct a Community Food Assessment survey. The surveys were accompanied by flyers that were part of the communication engagement strategy. Statistical analysis of the surveys was conducted. We engaged low-income, minority population (40% Latino, 30% African American) urban communities at the household level. Survey results provided in-depth information about residents' food needs and thoughts on how to improve food access. Results were reported to community members at a town hall style meeting. Developing a strategic plan to engage a community and develop trust is crucial to sustaining a partnership particularly when working with underserved communities. This project demonstrates that, if well managed, the benefits of academic and community partnerships outweigh the challenges thus such relationships should be encouraged and supported by communities, academic institutions, local and national government, and funders. A CBPR approach to understanding an urban community's food needs and opinions is important for comprehensive food access planning.

  17. Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, Deon; Jalkanen, Liisa

    2013-04-01

    Megacities and Large Urban Complexes - WMO Role in Addressing Challenges and Opportunities Deon E. Terblanche and Liisa Jalkanen dterblanche@wmo.int ljalkanen@wmo.int World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland The 21st Century could amongst others, become known as the century in which our species has evolved from Homo sapiens to Homo urbanus. By now the urban population has surpassed the rural population and the rate of urbanization will continue at such a pace that by 2050 urban dwellers could outnumber their rural counterpart by more than two to one. Most of this growth in urban population will occur in developing countries and along coastal areas. Urbanization is to a large extent the outcome of humans seeking a better life through improved opportunities presented by high-density communities. Megacities and large urban complexes provide more job opportunities and social structures, better transport and communication links and a relative abundance of physical goods and services when compared to most rural areas. Unfortunately these urban complexes also present numerous social and environmental challenges. Urban areas differ from their surroundings by morphology, population density, and with high concentration of industrial activities, energy consumption and transport. They also pose unique challenges to atmospheric modelling and monitoring and create a multi-disciplinary spectrum of potential threats, including air pollution, which need to be addressed in an integrated way. These areas are also vulnerable to the changing climate and its implications to sea-level and extreme events, air quality and related health impacts. Many urban activities are significantly impacted by weather events that would not be considered to be of high impact in less densely populated areas. For instance, moderate precipitation events can cause flooding and landslides as modified urban catchments generally have higher run-off to rainfall ratios than their more pristine rural

  18. Large-Scale Academic Achievement Testing of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sen; Mitchell, Ross E.

    2012-01-01

    The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test (Stanford) for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in 1969. Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement. However, the…

  19. Authors’ perspectives on academic publishing: initial observations from a large-scale global survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil D’Souza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Authors are at the heart of academic publishing, but their voices are underrepresented in discussions about improving the academic publishing system. To understand the viewpoints of authors on various aspects of academic publishing and the challenges they face, we developed a large-scale survey entitled “Author perspectives on the academic publishing process” and made it available in December 2016. The survey has received 8,795 responses; this paper is based on the interim results drawn from 5,293 survey responses, and presents some interesting and thought-provoking trends that were observed in the authors’ responses, such as their interpretation of plagiarism and decisive factors in journal selection, as well as their thoughts on what needs to change in the publishing system for it to be more author-friendly. Some of the most important findings of the survey were: (1 the majority of the authors found manuscript preparation to be the most challenging task in the publication process, (2 the impact factor of a journal was reported to be the most important consideration for journal selection, (3 most authors found journal guidelines to be incomplete, (4 major gaps existed in author-journal communication, and (5 although awareness of ethics was high, awareness of good publication practice standards was low. Moreover, more than half of the participants indicated that among areas for improvement in the publishing system, they would like to see changes in the time it takes to publish a paper, the peer review process, and the fairness and objectivity of the publication process. These findings indicate the necessity of making the journal publication process more author-centered and smoothing the way for authors to get published.

  20. An Examination of the Influence of Self Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Perceptions of Parent Involvement on Academic Achievement of Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myree, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Current research indicates that there is an on-going concern for the graduation rate of African American students in urban settings. This particular study sought to investigate the impact of students' self-efficacy, locus of control, and parental involvement on academic achievement via a targeted sample of urban African American high school…

  1. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores Among Urban Youth in the United States*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must “strengthen schools as the heart of health.” To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement, and (2) examine cumulative effects of these assets on academic achievement. Methods Participants include 940 students (grades 5 and 6) from 12 schools randomly selected from an urban district. Data include physical assessments, fitness testing, surveys, and district records. Fourteen health indicators were gathered including physical health (eg, body mass index [BMI]), health behaviors (eg, meeting recommendations for fruit/vegetable consumption), family environment (eg, family meals), and psychological well-being (eg, sleep quality). Data were collected 3-6 months prior to standardized testing. Results On average, students reported 7.1 health assets out of 14. Those with more health assets were more likely to be at goal for standardized tests (reading/writing/mathematics), and students with the most health assets were 2.2 times more likely to achieve goal compared with students with the fewest health assets (both p student health may also improve academic achievement, closing equity gaps in both health and academic achievement. PMID:24320151

  2. Engaging Students in a Large-Enrollment Physics Class Using an Academically Focused Social Media Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, Andy; Lindell, Rebecca

    2017-03-01

    There are many reasons for an instructor to consider using social media, particularly in a large introductory course. Improved communications can lessen the sense of isolation some students feel in large classes, and students may be more likely to respond to faculty announce-ments in a form that is familiar and comfortable. Furthermore, many students currently establish social media sites for their classes, without the knowledge or participation of their instructors. Such "shadow" sites can be useful, but they can also become distributors of misinformation, or venues for inappropriate or disruptive discussions. CourseNetworking (CN) is a social media platform designed for the academic environment. It combines many features common among learning management systems (LMS's) with an interface that looks and feels more like Facebook than a typical academic system. We have recently begun using CN as a means to engage students in an introductory calculus-based mechanics class, with enrollments of 150-200 students per semester. This article presents basic features of CN, and details our initial experiences and observations.

  3. Parental involvement, adolescents' self-determined learning and academic achievement in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Cai, Tianji

    2017-02-01

    Self-determined learning is essential to academic success. The motivational resources development model argues that parents promote academic success in their children indirectly by nurturing self-determined learner. In this study, applying a structural equation modelling and using data collected from 8th graders in Zhuhai, China (n = 1009) in 2012, we aim to answer 2 research questions: (a) What forms of parental involvement are highly correlated with self-determined learning and (b) Can self-determined learning fully mediate the relationship between parental involvement and students' academic performance? We find that parental leisure involvement is positively and significantly associated with the development of self-determined learning, which in turn is significantly and positively correlated with academic achievement. Parental provision of structure or parental academic assistance is not significantly associated with students' self-regulation and students' academic achievement. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. The role of one large greenspace in mitigating London's nocturnal urban heat island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doick, Kieron J; Peace, Andrew; Hutchings, Tony R

    2014-09-15

    The term urban heat island (UHI) describes a phenomenon where cities are on average warmer than the surrounding rural area. Trees and greenspaces are recognised for their strong potential to regulate urban air temperatures and combat the UHI. Empirical data is required in the UK to inform predictions on cooling by urban greenspaces and guide planning to maximise cooling of urban populations. We describe a 5-month study to measure the temperature profile of one of central London's large greenspaces and also in an adjacent street to determine the extent to which the greenspace reduced night-time UHI intensity. Statistical modelling displayed an exponential decay in the extent of cooling with increased distance from the greenspace. The extent of cooling ranged from an estimated 20 m on some nights to 440 m on other nights. The mean temperature reduction over these distances was 1.1 °C in the summer months, with a maximum of 4 °C cooling observed on some nights. Results suggest that calculation of London's UHI using Met Stations close to urban greenspace can underestimate 'urban' heat island intensity due to the cooling effect of the greenspace and values could be in the region of 45% higher. Our results lend support to claims that urban greenspace is an important component of UHI mitigation strategies. Lack of certainty over the variables that govern the extent of the greenspace cooling influence indicates that the multifaceted roles of trees and greenspaces in the UK's urban environment merit further consideration. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating Infrastructure and Institutions for Water Security in Large Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, J.; Jawitz, J. W.; Carrera, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban growth has forced cities to procure more freshwater to meet demands; however the relationship between urban water security, water availability and water management is not well understood. This work quantifies the urban water security of 108 large cities in the United States (n=50) and Africa (n=58) based on their hydrologic, hydraulic and institutional settings. Using publicly available data, urban water availability was estimated as the volume of water available from local water resources and those captured via hydraulic infrastructure (e.g. reservoirs, wellfields, aqueducts) while urban water institutions were assessed according to their ability to deliver, supply and regulate water resources to cities. When assessing availability, cities relying on local water resources comprised a minority (37%) of those assessed. The majority of cities (55%) instead rely on captured water to meet urban demands, with African cities reaching farther and accessing a greater number and variety of sources for water supply than US cities. Cities using captured water generally had poorer access to local water resources and maintained significantly more complex strategies for water delivery, supply and regulatory management. Eight cities, all African, are identified in this work as having water insecurity issues. These cities lack sufficient infrastructure and institutional complexity to capture and deliver adequate amounts of water for urban use. Together, these findings highlight the important interconnection between infrastructure investments and management techniques for urban areas with a limited or dwindling natural abundance of water. Addressing water security challenges in the future will require that more attention be placed not only on increasing water availability, but on developing the institutional support to manage captured water supplies.

  6. Estuarine habitat quality reflects urbanization at large spatial scales in South Carolina's coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dolah, Robert F; Riekerk, George H M; Bergquist, Derk C; Felber, Jordan; Chestnut, David E; Holland, A Fredrick

    2008-02-01

    analyses support the hypotheses that estuarine habitat quality reflects upland development patterns at large spatial scales, and that upland urbanization can result in increased risk of biological degradation and reduced safe human use of South Carolina's coastal resources.

  7. Highlights of a recycling behaviour study in South Africa’s large urban areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available behaviour study in South Africa?s large urban areas WF STRYDOM CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001 Email: wstrydom@csir.co.za ? www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION The recently promulgated National Environmental Management... representative sample of 2 004 respondents in 11 of the larger South African urban areas, including all the metropolitan municipalities. The survey was conducted in November 2010, before the Waste Act was widely implemented. The objective of the study was...

  8. Examining gray matter structure associated with academic performance in a large sample of Chinese high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Xun; Chen, Guangxiang; Wang, Meiyun; Gong, Qiyong

    2017-04-18

    Achievement in school is crucial for students to be able to pursue successful careers and lead happy lives in the future. Although many psychological attributes have been found to be associated with academic performance, the neural substrates of academic performance remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between brain structure and academic performance in a large sample of high school students via structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach. The whole-brain regression analyses showed that higher academic performance was related to greater regional gray matter density (rGMD) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which is considered a neural center at the intersection of cognitive and non-cognitive functions. Furthermore, mediation analyses suggested that general intelligence partially mediated the impact of the left DLPFC density on academic performance. These results persisted even after adjusting for the effect of family socioeconomic status (SES). In short, our findings reveal a potential neuroanatomical marker for academic performance and highlight the role of general intelligence in explaining the relationship between brain structure and academic performance.

  9. Predictors of Radiation Therapy Noncompliance in an Urban Academic Cancer Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohri, Nitin; Rapkin, Bruce D.; Guha, Debayan; Haynes-Lewis, Hilda; Guha, Chandan; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the frequency of patient noncompliance in an urban radiation oncology department and identify predictors of noncompliance. Methods and Materials: We identified patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (RT) with curative intent in our department from 2007 to 2012 for 1 of 7 commonly treated malignancies. Patients who missed 2 or more scheduled RT appointments were deemed “noncompliant.” An institutional database was referenced to obtain clinical and demographic information for each patient, as well as a quantitative estimate of each patient's socioeconomic status. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with RT noncompliance. Results: A total of 2184 patients met eligibility criteria. Of these, 442 (20.2%) were deemed “noncompliant.” On multivariate analysis, statistically significant predictors of noncompliance included diagnosis of head-and-neck, cervical, or uterine cancer, treatment during winter months, low socioeconomic status, and use of a long treatment course (all P<.05). Conclusion: This is the first large effort examining patient noncompliance with daily RT. We have identified demographic, clinical, and treatment-related factors that can be used to identify patients at high risk for noncompliance. These findings may inform future strategies to improve adherence to prescribed therapy

  10. Predictors of Radiation Therapy Noncompliance in an Urban Academic Cancer Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nitin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Rapkin, Bruce D. [Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Debayan; Haynes-Lewis, Hilda; Guha, Chandan; Kalnicki, Shalom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Garg, Madhur, E-mail: mgarg@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the frequency of patient noncompliance in an urban radiation oncology department and identify predictors of noncompliance. Methods and Materials: We identified patients treated with external beam radiation therapy (RT) with curative intent in our department from 2007 to 2012 for 1 of 7 commonly treated malignancies. Patients who missed 2 or more scheduled RT appointments were deemed “noncompliant.” An institutional database was referenced to obtain clinical and demographic information for each patient, as well as a quantitative estimate of each patient's socioeconomic status. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with RT noncompliance. Results: A total of 2184 patients met eligibility criteria. Of these, 442 (20.2%) were deemed “noncompliant.” On multivariate analysis, statistically significant predictors of noncompliance included diagnosis of head-and-neck, cervical, or uterine cancer, treatment during winter months, low socioeconomic status, and use of a long treatment course (all P<.05). Conclusion: This is the first large effort examining patient noncompliance with daily RT. We have identified demographic, clinical, and treatment-related factors that can be used to identify patients at high risk for noncompliance. These findings may inform future strategies to improve adherence to prescribed therapy.

  11. An Analysis of Information Technology Adoption by IRBs of Large Academic Medical Centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Hurdle, John F

    2015-02-01

    The clinical research landscape has changed dramatically in recent years in terms of both volume and complexity. This poses new challenges for Institutional Review Boards' (IRBs) review efficiency and quality, especially at large academic medical centers. This article discusses the technical facets of IRB modernization. We analyzed the information technology used by IRBs in large academic institutions across the United States. We found that large academic medical centers have a high electronic IRB adoption rate; however, the capabilities of electronic IRB systems vary greatly. We discuss potential use-cases of a fully exploited electronic IRB system that promise to streamline the clinical research work flow. The key to that approach utilizes a structured and standardized information model for the IRB application. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie Keith; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2009-01-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier–Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were valida...

  13. Towards Rapid Generation and Visualisation of Large 3D Urban Landscapes for Mobile Device Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Brujic-Okretic, V.; Gatzidis, C.; Liarokapis, F.; Baker, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a procedural 3D modelling solution for mobile devices is presented based on scripting algorithms allowing for both the automatic and also semi-automatic creation of photorealistic quality virtual urban content. The combination of aerial images, GIS data, 2D ground maps and terrestrial photographs as input data coupled with a user-friendly customized interface permits the automatic and interactive generation of large-scale, accurate, georeferenced and fully-textured 3D virtual ci...

  14. The prevalence of two ‘commonly’ encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Ray; Burnett, Elisabeth; Luff, Natalie; Wagner, Craig; Stinga, Georgia; Carney, Clare; Sheridan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation.\\ud \\ud Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), ...

  15. Grading of Parameters for Urban Tree Inventories by City Officials, Arborists, and Academics Using the Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östberg, Johan; Delshammar, Tim; Wiström, Björn; Nielsen, Anders Busse

    2013-03-01

    Tree inventories are expensive to conduct and update, so every inventory carried out must be maximized. However, increasing the number of constituent parameters increases the cost of performing and updating the inventory, illustrating the need for careful parameter selection. This article reports the results of a systematic expert rating of tree inventories aiming to quantify the relative importance of each parameter. Using the Delphi method, panels comprising city officials, arborists, and academics rated a total of 148 parameters. The total mean score, the top ranking parameters, which can serve as a guide for decision-making at practical level and for standardization of tree inventories, were: Scientific name of the tree species and genera, Vitality, Coordinates, Hazard class, and Identification number. The study also examined whether the different responsibilities and usage of urban tree databases among organizations and people engaged in urban tree inventories affected their prioritization. The results revealed noticeable dissimilarities in the ranking of parameters between the panels, underlining the need for collaboration between the research community and those commissioning, administrating, and conducting inventories. Only by applying such a transdisciplinary approach to parameter selection can urban tree inventories be strengthened and made more relevant.

  16. Effectiveness of Acupuncture Therapy on Stress in a Large Urban College Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Stefanie; Burnis, James; Denton, Antony; Krasnow, Aaron; Raghu, T S; Mathis, Kimberly

    2017-06-01

    This study is a randomized controlled clinical trial to study the effectiveness of acupuncture on the perception of stress in patients who study or work on a large, urban college campus. The hypothesis was that verum acupuncture would demonstrate a significant positive impact on perceived stress as compared to sham acupuncture. This study included 111 participants with high self-reported stress levels who either studied or worked at a large, urban public university in the southwestern United States. However, only 62 participants completed the study. The participants were randomized into a verum acupuncture or sham acupuncture group. Both the groups received treatment once a week for 12 weeks. The Cohen's global measure of perceived stress scale (PSS-14) was completed by each participant prior to treatment, at 6 weeks, at 12 weeks, and 6 weeks and 12 weeks post-treatment completion. While participants of both the groups showed a substantial initial decrease in perceived stress scores, at 12 weeks post treatment, the verum acupuncture group showed a significantly greater treatment effect than the sham acupuncture group. This study indicates that acupuncture may be successful in decreasing the perception of stress in students and staff at a large urban university, and this effect persists for at least 3 months after the completion of treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Large Eddy Simulation of Unstably Stratified Turbulent Flow over Urban-Like Building Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal instability induced by solar radiation is the most common condition of urban atmosphere in daytime. Compared to researches under neutral conditions, only a few numerical works studied the unstable urban boundary layer and the effect of buoyancy force is unclear. In this paper, unstably stratified turbulent boundary layer flow over three-dimensional urban-like building arrays with ground heating is simulated. Large eddy simulation is applied to capture main turbulence structures and the effect of buoyancy force on turbulence can be investigated. Lagrangian dynamic subgrid scale model is used for complex flow together with a wall function, taking into account the large pressure gradient near buildings. The numerical model and method are verified with the results measured in wind tunnel experiment. The simulated results satisfy well with the experiment in mean velocity and temperature, as well as turbulent intensities. Mean flow structure inside canopy layer varies with thermal instability, while no large secondary vortex is observed. Turbulent intensities are enhanced, as buoyancy force contributes to the production of turbulent kinetic energy.

  18. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Urban Chinese Children: Grade Level Prevalence and Academic Burden Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihe Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (a to report grade level prevalence in physical activity and sedentary behaviors and (b to examine academic burden associations with these behaviors. School-aged children (n = 48,118 reported their physical activity, perception of physical activity sufficiency, factors for activity insufficiency, homework hours, and screen time in a typical week. Data were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression models of Complex Samples. Prevalence results showed that children had lower physical activity and lower screen viewing time, but higher homework time during transition grades (6th, 9th, and 12th and high school years. Academic burden was cited as the primary reason for not having sufficient physical activity (76.6%. Compared to those citing academic burden, students who did not report academic burden were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines (Odds Ratio (OR = 5.38, 95% CI = 4.74–6.11, but less likely to meet screen time guidelines (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72–0.84, controlling for body mass index, gender, and grade level. Additionally, children who reported academic burdens had significantly longer average daily homework time than those who did not (p<0.01. Policy makers should promote physical activity and help children find a balance between homework and physical activity time particularly among the educational transition grades.

  19. Why are large cities faster? Universal scaling and self-similarity in urban organization and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, L. M. A.; Lobo, J.; West, G. B.

    2008-06-01

    Cities have existed since the beginning of civilization and have always been intimately connected with humanity's cultural and technological development. Much about the human and social dynamics that takes place is cities is intuitively recognizable across time, space and culture; yet we still do not have a clear cut answer as to why cities exist or to what factors are critical to make them thrive or collapse. Here, we construct an extensive quantitative characterization of the variation of many urban indicators with city size, using large data sets for American, European and Chinese cities. We show that social and economic quantities, characterizing the creation of wealth and new ideas, show increasing returns to population scale, which appear quantitatively as a power law of city size with an exponent β≃ 1.15 > 1. Concurrently, quantities characterizing material infrastructure typically show economies of scale, namely β≃ 0.8 exponential growth, which inexorably lead to crises of urban organization. To avoid them we show that growth may proceed in cycles, separated by major urban adaptations, with the unintended consequence that the duration of such cycles decreases with larger urban population size and is now estimated to be shorter than a human lifetime.

  20. School environmental conditions and links to academic performance and absenteeism in urban, mid-Atlantic public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, J D; McCormack, M C; Koehler, K A; Connolly, F; Clemons-Erby, D; Davis, M F; Gummerson, C; Leaf, P J; Jones, T D; Curriero, F C

    2018-05-02

    School facility conditions, environment, and perceptions of safety and learning have been investigated for their impact on child development. However, it is important to consider how the environment separately influences academic performance and attendance after controlling for school and community factors. Using results from the Maryland School Assessment, we considered outcomes of school-level proficiency in reading and math plus attendance and chronic absences, defined as missing 20 or more days, for grades 3-5 and 6-8 at 158 urban schools. Characteristics of the environment included school facility conditions, density of nearby roads, and an index industrial air pollution. Perceptions of school safety, learning, and institutional environment were acquired from a School Climate Survey. Also considered were neighborhood factors at the community statistical area, including demographics, crime, and poverty based on school location. Poisson regression adjusted for over-dispersion was used to model academic achievement and multiple linear models were used for attendance. Each 10-unit change in facility condition index, denoting worse quality buildings, was associated with a decrease in reading (1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-1.9%) and math scores (0.21% (95% CI: 0.20-0.40), while chronic absences increased by 0.75% (95% CI: 0.30-1.39). Each log increase the EPA's Risk Screening Environmental Indicator (RSEI) value for industrial hazards, resulted in a marginally significant trend of increasing absenteeism (p < 0.06), but no association was observed with academic achievement. All results were robust to school-level measures of racial composition, free and reduced meals eligibility, and community poverty and crime. These findings provide empirical evidence for the importance of the community and school environment, including building conditions and neighborhood toxic substance risk, on academic achievement and attendance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatiotemporally enhancing time-series DMSP/OLS nighttime light imagery for assessing large-scale urban dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanhua; Weng, Qihao

    2017-06-01

    Accurate, up-to-date, and consistent information of urban extents is vital for numerous applications central to urban planning, ecosystem management, and environmental assessment and monitoring. However, current large-scale urban extent products are not uniform with respect to definition, spatial resolution, temporal frequency, and thematic representation. This study aimed to enhance, spatiotemporally, time-series DMSP/OLS nighttime light (NTL) data for detecting large-scale urban changes. The enhanced NTL time series from 1992 to 2013 were firstly generated by implementing global inter-calibration, vegetation-based spatial adjustment, and urban archetype-based temporal modification. The dataset was then used for updating and backdating urban changes for the contiguous U.S.A. (CONUS) and China by using the Object-based Urban Thresholding method (i.e., NTL-OUT method, Xie and Weng, 2016b). The results showed that the updated urban extents were reasonably accurate, with city-scale RMSE (root mean square error) of 27 km2 and Kappa of 0.65 for CONUS, and 55 km2 and 0.59 for China, respectively. The backdated urban extents yielded similar accuracy, with RMSE of 23 km2 and Kappa of 0.63 in CONUS, while 60 km2 and 0.60 in China. The accuracy assessment further revealed that the spatial enhancement greatly improved the accuracy of urban updating and backdating by significantly reducing RMSE and slightly increasing Kappa values. The temporal enhancement also reduced RMSE, and improved the spatial consistency between estimated and reference urban extents. Although the utilization of enhanced NTL data successfully detected urban size change, relatively low locational accuracy of the detected urban changes was observed. It is suggested that the proposed methodology would be more effective for updating and backdating global urban maps if further fusion of NTL data with higher spatial resolution imagery was implemented.

  2. Parameterization of a Hydrological Model for a Large, Ungauged Urban Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Krebs

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization leads to the replacement of natural areas by impervious surfaces and affects the catchment hydrological cycle with adverse environmental impacts. Low impact development tools (LID that mimic hydrological processes of natural areas have been developed and applied to mitigate these impacts. Hydrological simulations are one possibility to evaluate the LID performance but the associated small-scale processes require a highly spatially distributed and explicit modeling approach. However, detailed data for model development are often not available for large urban areas, hampering the model parameterization. In this paper we propose a methodology to parameterize a hydrological model to a large, ungauged urban area by maintaining at the same time a detailed surface discretization for direct parameter manipulation for LID simulation and a firm reliance on available data for model conceptualization. Catchment delineation was based on a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM and model parameterization relied on a novel model regionalization approach. The impact of automated delineation and model regionalization on simulation results was evaluated for three monitored study catchments (5.87–12.59 ha. The simulated runoff peak was most sensitive to accurate catchment discretization and calibration, while both the runoff volume and the fit of the hydrograph were less affected.

  3. Travel Times for Screening Mammography: Impact of Geographic Expansion by a Large Academic Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Liang, Yu; Duszak, Richard; Recht, Michael P

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of off-campus facility expansion by a large academic health system on patient travel times for screening mammography. Screening mammograms performed from 2013 to 2015 and associated patient demographics were identified using the NYU Langone Medical Center Enterprise Data Warehouse. During this time, the system's number of mammography facilities increased from 6 to 19, reflecting expansion beyond Manhattan throughout the New York metropolitan region. Geocoding software was used to estimate driving times from patients' homes to imaging facilities. For 147,566 screening mammograms, the mean estimated patient travel time was 19.9 ± 15.2 minutes. With facility expansion, travel times declined significantly (P travel times between such subgroups. However, travel times to pre-expansion facilities remained stable (initial: 26.8 ± 18.9 minutes, final: 26.7 ± 18.6 minutes). Among women undergoing mammography before and after expansion, travel times were shorter for the postexpansion mammogram in only 6.3%, but this rate varied significantly (all P travel burden and reduce travel time variation among sociodemographic populations. Nonetheless, existing patients strongly tend to return to established facilities despite potentially shorter travel time locations, suggesting strong site loyalty. Variation in travel times likely relates to various factors other than facility proximity. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing the Performance of Large Scale Green Roofs and Their Impact on the Urban Microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls-Mantey, L.; Foti, R.; Montalto, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    In ultra-urban environments green roofs offer a feasible solution to add green infrastructure (GI) in neighborhoods where space is limited. Green roofs offer the typical advantages of urban GI such as stormwater reduction and management while providing direct benefits to the buildings on which they are installed through thermal protection and mitigation of temperature fluctuations. At 6.8 acres, the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center (JJCC) in New York City, hosts the second largest green roof in the United States. Since its installation in August 2013, the Sustainable Water Resource (SWRE) Laboratory at Drexel University has monitored the climate on and around the green roof by means of four weather stations situated on various roof and ground locations. Using two years of fine scale climatic data collected at the JJCC, this study explores the energy balance of a large scale green roof system. Temperature, radiation, evapotranspiration and wind profiles pre- and post- installation of the JJCC green roof were analyzed and compared across monitored locations, with the goal of identifying the impact of the green roof on the building and urban micro-climate. Our findings indicate that the presence of the green roof, not only altered the climatic conditions above the JJCC, but also had a measurable impact on the climatic profile of the areas immediately surrounding it. Furthermore, as a result of the mitigation of roof temperature fluctuations and of the cooling provided during warmer months, an improvement of the building thermal efficiency was contextually observed. Such findings support the installation of GI as an effective practice in urban settings and important in the discussion of key issues including energy conservation measures, carbon emission reductions and the mitigation of urban heat islands.

  5. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  6. Academic Achievement and Transcendental Meditation: A Study with At-Risk Urban Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidich, Sanford; Mjasiri, Shujaa; Nidich, Randi; Rainforth, Maxwell; Grant, James; Valosek, Laurent; Chang, Walter; Zigler, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    The middle school level is of particular concern to educators because of poor standardized test performance. This study evaluated change in academic achievement in public middle school students practicing the Transcendental Meditation[R] program compared to controls. A total of 189 students who were below proficiency level at baseline in English…

  7. Improving Academic Outcomes in Poor Urban Schools through Nature-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camasso, Michael J.; Jagannathan, Radha

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents results from the evaluation of the Nurture thru Nature (NtN) programme, a natural science and environmental education intervention designed to help elementary school children from disadvantaged backgrounds increase their knowledge of science and strengthen overall academic performance. Using an experimental design the pilot NtN…

  8. Performing the Grade: Urban Latino Youth, Gender Performance, and Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foiles Sifuentes, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the intersection of race, gender, class, and academic success through an ethnographic case study in a Texas charter high school. The 98% working-class, Latino student population was exposed to an array of stigmas ascribed to their persons based on negative social stereotypes of race, ethnicity, gender, and class due to the…

  9. Large-Eddy Simulation of Chemically Reactive Pollutant Transport from a Point Source in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tangzheng; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Most air pollutants are chemically reactive so using inert scalar as the tracer in pollutant dispersion modelling would often overlook their impact on urban inhabitants. In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to examine the plume dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants in a hypothetical atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in neutral stratification. The irreversible chemistry mechanism of ozone (O3) titration is integrated into the LES model. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from an elevated point source in a rectangular spatial domain doped with O3. The LES results are compared well with the wind tunnel results available in literature. Afterwards, the LES model is applied to idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of unity aspect ratio to study the behaviours of chemically reactive plume over idealized urban roughness. The relation among various time scales of reaction/turbulence and dimensionless number are analysed.

  10. Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

    2013-02-01

    Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management.

  11. Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland-Urban Interface areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Sirio; Balzter, Heiko; Cole, Beth; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape elements with high forest fuels has increased the fire risk to people and property. These Wildland-Urban Interface areas (WUI) can be defined as landscapes where anthropogenic urban land use and forest fuel mass come into contact. Mapping their extent is needed to prioritize fire risk control and inform local forest fire risk management strategies. This study proposes a method to map the extent and spatial patterns of the European WUI areas at continental scale. Using the European map of WUI areas, the hypothesis is tested that the distance from the nearest WUI area is related to the forest fire probability. Statistical relationships between the distance from the nearest WUI area, and large forest fire incidents from satellite remote sensing were subsequently modelled by logistic regression analysis. The first European scale map of the WUI extent and locations is presented. Country-specific positive and negative relationships of large fires and the proximity to the nearest WUI area are found. A regional-scale analysis shows a strong influence of the WUI zones on large fires in parts of the Mediterranean regions. Results indicate that the probability of large burned surfaces increases with diminishing WUI distance in touristic regions like Sardinia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, or in regions with a strong peri-urban component as Catalunya, Comunidad de Madrid, Comunidad Valenciana. For the above regions, probability curves of large burned surfaces show statistical relationships (ROC value > 0.5) inside a 5000 m buffer of the nearest WUI. Wise land management can provide a valuable ecosystem service of fire risk reduction that is currently not explicitly included in ecosystem service valuations. The results re-emphasise the importance of including this ecosystem service

  12. The Agatston Urban Nutrition Initiative: Working to Reverse the Obesity Epidemic through Academically Based Community Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Francis E.

    2009-01-01

    The Agatston Urban Nutrition Initiative (AUNI) presents a fruitful partnership between faculty and students at a premier research university and members of the surrounding community aimed at addressing the problem of childhood obesity. AUNI uses a problem-solving approach to learning by focusing course activities, including service-learning, on…

  13. Academic Success of Urban African American Elementary Students in Title I Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The researcher investigated the achievement of third- and fifth-grade urban African American students who attended science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), Non-STEM, and Theme Title I schools in science and mathematics on the 2015 Georgia Milestones Assessment. The researcher used data from 29 Non-STEM, 14 STEM, and 10 Theme…

  14. A Study of At-Risk Students' Perceptions of an Online Academic Credit Recovery Program in an Urban North Texas Independent School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mychl K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to describe and analyze at-risk high school students' perceptions of their experiences with online academic credit recovery classes offered to them through an urban school district's dropout prevention department. The review of literature concerning curricula for online programs revealed that the variety of…

  15. Population Density and AIDS-Related Stigma in Large-Urban, Small-Urban, and Rural Communities of the Southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth; Katner, Harold; Banas, Ellen; Kalichman, Moira

    2017-07-01

    AIDS stigmas delay HIV diagnosis, interfere with health care, and contribute to mental health problems among people living with HIV. While there are few studies of the geographical distribution of AIDS stigma, research suggests that AIDS stigmas are differentially experienced in rural and urban areas. We conducted computerized interviews with 696 men and women living with HIV in 113 different zip code areas that were classified as large-urban, small-urban, and rural areas in a southeast US state with high-HIV prevalence. Analyses conducted at the individual level (N = 696) accounting for clustering at the zip code level showed that internalized AIDS-related stigma (e.g., the sense of being inferior to others because of HIV) was experienced with greater magnitude in less densely populated communities. Multilevel models indicated that after adjusting for potential confounding factors, rural communities reported greater internalized AIDS-related stigma compared to large-urban areas and that small-urban areas indicated greater experiences of enacted stigma (e.g., discrimination) than large-urban areas. The associations between anticipated AIDS-related stigma (e.g., expecting discrimination) and population density at the community-level were not significant. Results suggest that people living in rural and small-urban settings experience greater AIDS-related internalized and enacted stigma than their counterparts living in large-urban centers. Research is needed to determine whether low-density population areas contribute to or are sought out by people who experienced greater AIDS-related stigma. Regardless of causal directions, interventions are needed to address AIDS-related stigma, especially among people in sparsely populated areas with limited resources.

  16. Ventilation and Air Quality in City Blocks Using Large-Eddy Simulation—Urban Planning Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Kurppa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Buildings and vegetation alter the wind and pollutant transport in urban environments. This comparative study investigates the role of orientation and shape of perimeter blocks on the dispersion and ventilation of traffic-related air pollutants, and the street-level concentrations along a planned city boulevard. A large-eddy simulation (LES model PALM is employed over a highly detailed representation of the urban domain including street trees and forested areas. Air pollutants are represented by massless and passive particles (non-reactive gases, which are released with traffic-related emission rates. High-resolution simulations for four different city-block-structures are conducted over a 8.2 km 2 domain under two contrasting inflow conditions with neutral and stable atmospheric stratification corresponding the general and wintry meteorological conditions. Variation in building height together with multiple cross streets along the boulevard improves ventilation, resulting in 7–9% lower mean concentrations at pedestrian level. The impact of smaller scale variability in building shape was negligible. Street trees further complicate the flow and dispersion. Notwithstanding the surface roughness, atmospheric stability controls the concentration levels with higher values under stably stratified inflow. Little traffic emissions are transported to courtyards. The results provide urban planners direct information to reduce air pollution by proper structural layout of perimeter blocks.

  17. Radiological protection for pregnant women at a large academic medical Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Bae; Miodownik, Daniel; Williamson, Matthew J; Gao, Yiming; St Germain, Jean; Dauer, Lawrence T

    2017-11-01

    Most radiation protection programs, regulations and guidance apply specific restrictions to the occupational exposure of pregnant workers. The aim of this study was to compile data from the declared pregnant woman (DPW) radiation protection program over more than 5years at a large, high-volume, comprehensive oncology academic/medical institution and to evaluate for effectiveness against existing regulations and guidance. A retrospective review was performed of the data collected as part of the DPW radiation protection program from January 2010 through May 2016, including the number of declared pregnancies, worker category, personal and fetal dosimetry monitoring measurements, workplace modifications, as well as the monthly and total recorded badge results during the entire pregnancy. 245 pregnancies were declared. The mean monthly fetal radiation dosimetry result was 0.009mSv with a median of 0.005mSv and a maximum of 0.39mSv. The mean total dose over the entire pregnancy was estimated to be 0.08mSv with a median of 0.05mSv and a maximum of 0.89mSv. Only 8 (3.2%) of the 245 declared pregnancies required that workplace modifications be implemented for the worker. The implementation of a declared pregnancy and fetal assessment program, careful planning, an understanding of the risks, and minimization of radiation dose by employing appropriate radiation safety measures as needed, can allow medical staff to perform procedures and normal activities without incurring significant risks to the conceptus, or significant interruptions of job activities for most medical workers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Tree-crown-resolving large-eddy simulation for evaluating greenery effects on urban heat environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, K.; Onishi, R.; Takahashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Urban high temperatures due to the combined influence of global warming and urban heat islands increase the risk of heat stroke. Greenery is one of possible countermeasures for mitigating the heat environments since the transpiration and shading effect of trees can reduce the air temperature and the radiative heat flux. In order to formulate effective measures, it is important to estimate the influence of the greenery on the heat stroke risk. In this study, we have developed a tree-crown-resolving large-eddy simulation (LES) model that is coupled with three-dimensional radiative transfer (3DRT) model. The Multi-Scale Simulator for the Geoenvironment (MSSG) is used for performing building- and tree-crown-resolving LES. The 3DRT model is implemented in the MSSG so that the 3DRT is calculated repeatedly during the time integration of the LES. We have confirmed that the computational time for the 3DRT model is negligibly small compared with that for the LES and the accuracy of the 3DRT model is sufficiently high to evaluate the radiative heat flux at the pedestrian level. The present model is applied to the analysis of the heat environment in an actual urban area around the Tokyo Bay area, covering 8 km × 8 km with 5-m grid mesh, in order to confirm its feasibility. The results show that the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), which is an indicator of the heat stroke risk, is predicted in a sufficiently high accuracy to evaluate the influence of tree crowns on the heat environment. In addition, by comparing with a case without the greenery in the Tokyo Bay area, we have confirmed that the greenery increases the low WBGT areas in major pedestrian spaces by a factor of 3.4. This indicates that the present model can predict the greenery effect on the urban heat environment quantitatively.

  19. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoyang; Li, Shuting; Hu, Mingming; Dong, Dan; Tao, Sha

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred), psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development), and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14-20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive) and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  20. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoyang Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred, psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development, and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14–20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  1. Identification and Prediction of Large Pedestrian Flow in Urban Areas Based on a Hybrid Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisheng Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, population density has grown quickly with the increasing acceleration of urbanization. At the same time, overcrowded situations are more likely to occur in populous urban areas, increasing the risk of accidents. This paper proposes a synthetic approach to recognize and identify the large pedestrian flow. In particular, a hybrid pedestrian flow detection model was constructed by analyzing real data from major mobile phone operators in China, including information from smartphones and base stations (BS. With the hybrid model, the Log Distance Path Loss (LDPL model was used to estimate the pedestrian density from raw network data, and retrieve information with the Gaussian Progress (GP through supervised learning. Temporal-spatial prediction of the pedestrian data was carried out with Machine Learning (ML approaches. Finally, a case study of a real Central Business District (CBD scenario in Shanghai, China using records of millions of cell phone users was conducted. The results showed that the new approach significantly increases the utility and capacity of the mobile network. A more reasonable overcrowding detection and alert system can be developed to improve safety in subway lines and other hotspot landmark areas, such as the Bundle, People’s Square or Disneyland, where a large passenger flow generally exists.

  2. Dental Fear and Avoidance in Treatment Seekers at a Large, Urban Dental Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Richard E; Slep, Amy M Smith; White-Ajmani, Mandi; Bulling, Lisanne; Zickgraf, Hana F; Franklin, Martin E; Wolff, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and correlates of dental fear have been studied in representative population studies, but not in patients presenting for dental treatment. We hypothesized that dental fear among patients presenting at a large, urban college of dentistry would be similar to that of the population (e.g. 11% high dental fear, 17% to 35% moderate or higher fear) and that fear would be associated with avoidance of routine dental care, increased use of urgent dental care and poor oral health. Participants were 1070 consecutive patients at a large, urban dental care center. All patients completed a clinical interview, including demographics, medical history, dental history and presenting concerns, and behavioral health history. Patients were also asked to rate their dental anxiety/fear on a 1 (none) to 10 (high) scale. Over 20% of patients reported elevated anxiety/fear, of which 12.30% reported moderate and 8.75% high fear. Severity of dental anxiety/fear was strongly related to the likelihood of avoiding dental services in the past and related to myriad presenting problems. As hypothesized, the prevalence of moderate or higher fear in dental patients was considerable and closely matched that found in general population surveys. Thus, the 'dental home' is an ideal location to treat clinically significant dental anxiety/fear.

  3. Decreased losses of woody plant foliage to insects in large urban areas are explained by bird predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Mikhail V; Lanta, Vojtěch; Zverev, Vitali; Rainio, Kalle; Kunavin, Mikhail A; Zvereva, Elena L

    2017-10-01

    Despite the increasing rate of urbanization, the consequences of this process on biotic interactions remain insufficiently studied. Our aims were to identify the general pattern of urbanization impact on background insect herbivory, to explore variations in this impact related to characteristics of both urban areas and insect-plant systems, and to uncover the factors governing urbanization impacts on insect herbivory. We compared the foliar damage inflicted on the most common trees by defoliating, leafmining and gall-forming insects in rural and urban habitats associated with 16 European cities. In two of these cities, we explored quality of birch foliage for herbivorous insects, mortality of leafmining insects due to predators and parasitoids and bird predation on artificial plasticine larvae. On average, the foliage losses to insects were 16.5% lower in urban than in rural habitats. The magnitude of the overall adverse effect of urbanization on herbivory was independent of the latitude of the locality and was similar in all 11 studied tree species, but increased with an increase in the size of the urban area: it was significant in large cities (city population 1-5 million) but not significant in medium-sized and small towns. Quality of birch foliage for herbivorous insects was slightly higher in urban habitats than in rural habitats. At the same time, leafminer mortality due to ants and birds and the bird attack intensity on dummy larvae were higher in large cities than in rural habitats, which at least partially explained the decline in insect herbivory observed in response to urbanization. Our findings underscore the importance of top-down forces in mediating impacts of urbanization on plant-feeding insects: factors favouring predators may override the positive effects of temperature elevation on insects and thus reduce plant damage. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Class attendance, peer similarity, and academic performance in a large field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassarnig, Valentin; Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas; Mones, Enys

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the factors that determine academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Existing research indicates that class attendance is a useful predictor of subsequent course achievements. The majority of the literature is, however, based on surveys and self-reports, methods....... Based on measured attendance data of nearly 1,000 undergraduate students, we demonstrate that early and consistent class attendance strongly correlates with academic performance. In addition, our novel dataset allows us to determine that attendance among social peers was substantially correlated (>0...

  5. Variation in Patients' Travel Times among Imaging Examination Types at a Large Academic Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Liang, Yu; Duszak, Richard; Recht, Michael P

    2017-08-01

    Patients' willingness to travel farther distances for certain imaging services may reflect their perceptions of the degree of differentiation of such services. We compare patients' travel times for a range of imaging examinations performed across a large academic health system. We searched the NYU Langone Medical Center Enterprise Data Warehouse to identify 442,990 adult outpatient imaging examinations performed over a recent 3.5-year period. Geocoding software was used to estimate typical driving times from patients' residences to imaging facilities. Variation in travel times was assessed among examination types. The mean expected travel time was 29.2 ± 20.6 minutes, but this varied significantly (p travel times were shortest for ultrasound (26.8 ± 18.9) and longest for positron emission tomography-computed tomography (31.9 ± 21.5). For magnetic resonance imaging, travel times were shortest for musculoskeletal extremity (26.4 ± 19.2) and spine (28.6 ± 21.0) examinations and longest for prostate (35.9 ± 25.6) and breast (32.4 ± 22.3) examinations. For computed tomography, travel times were shortest for a range of screening examinations [colonography (25.5 ± 20.8), coronary artery calcium scoring (26.1 ± 19.2), and lung cancer screening (26.4 ± 14.9)] and longest for angiography (32.0 ± 22.6). For ultrasound, travel times were shortest for aortic aneurysm screening (22.3 ± 18.4) and longest for breast (30.1 ± 19.2) examinations. Overall, men (29.9 ± 21.6) had longer (p travel times than women (27.8 ± 20.3); this difference persisted for each modality individually (p ≤ 0.006). Patients' willingness to travel longer times for certain imaging examination types (particularly breast and prostate imaging) supports the role of specialized services in combating potential commoditization of imaging services. Disparities in travel times by gender warrant further investigation. Copyright

  6. Public issues associated with planning a large diameter pipeline in a multi-use urban corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M. [SENES Consultants Ltd., Richmond Hill, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The demand for natural gas in a downtown area of Toronto is expected to increase significantly due to the proposed construction of two new generation stations. However, there are few opportunities to locate the pipelines in large urban centers because of the lack of foresight by municipalities and others in preserving corridors for utilities. Enbridge Gas conducted a system planning study to determine the best methods for overcoming public issues that were encountered while planning the route for a NPS 36 inch diameter natural gas pipeline in this urban region. In Ontario, distribution pipelines are regulated by the Ontario Energy Board, whose environmental guidelines for the location, construction and operation of hydrocarbon pipelines require the identification of indirectly affected landowners and detailed analysis of public issues and how they can be resolved. Issues include noise, vibration, dust and traffic. Secondary use of the electric transmission rights-of-way resulted in the identification of several other issues, including aesthetics of the right-of-way and loss of privacy for adjacent residential properties. It was determined that the optimal solution was to parallel a section of existing NPS 30 pipeline running in a north-south right-of-way located east of the Don Valley Parkway. The techniques used to address public issues identified 180 directly affected and 3,200 indirectly affected landowners. The Enbridge study revealed that it is possible to plan a right-of-way through an urban corridor in a manner that is compatible with existing development and that satisfies the general public. 6 figs.

  7. Socio-economic drivers of large urban biomass cogeneration: Sustainable energy supply for Austria's capital Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Bachhiesl, Mario

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed case study on Austria's by far largest biomass cogeneration plant. The plant is located in the city of Vienna and scheduled to be put into operation by mid-2006. Given the urban location of the plant and its significant biomass fuel input requirements, fuel delivery logistics play an important role-not only from an economic point of view, but also in relation to supply security and environmental impact. We describe and analyse the history of the project, putting particular emphasis on the main driving forces and actors behind the entire project development process. From this analysis we deduce the following main socio-economic drivers and success factors for the realisation of large bioenergy projects in urban settings: (1) a critical mass of actors; (2) a priori political consensus; (3) the existence of a problem (and problem awareness) that calls for decisive steps to be taken; (4) institutional innovation and changes in the mindset of the main decision makers; (5) favourable economic conditions; (6) change agents that are actively engaged from an early stage of development; (7) intra-firm supporters at different hierarchical levels and from different departments; and (8) targeted study tours that help to reduce uncertainty, to enable leapfrogging in project planning and design, and to build up confidence in the project's feasibility and chance of success

  8. The Relationship of Policymaking and Networking Characteristics among Leaders of Large Urban Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P; Castrucci, Brian C; Harris, Jenine K; Hearne, Shelley

    2015-08-06

    The relationship between policy networks and policy development among local health departments (LHDs) is a growing area of interest to public health practitioners and researchers alike. In this study, we examine policy activity and ties between public health leadership across large urban health departments. This study uses data from a national profile of local health departments as well as responses from a survey sent to three staff members (local health official, chief of policy, chief science officer) in each of 16 urban health departments in the United States. Network questions related to frequency of contact with health department personnel in other cities. Using exponential random graph models, network density and centrality were examined, as were patterns of communication among those working on several policy areas using exponential random graph models. All 16 LHDs were active in communicating about chronic disease as well as about use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Connectedness was highest among local health officials (density = .55), and slightly lower for chief science officers (d = .33) and chiefs of policy (d = .29). After accounting for organizational characteristics, policy homophily (i.e., when two network members match on a single characteristic) and tenure were the most significant predictors of formation of network ties. Networking across health departments has the potential for accelerating the adoption of public health policies. This study suggests similar policy interests and formation of connections among senior leadership can potentially drive greater connectedness among other staff.

  9. The Relationship of Policymaking and Networking Characteristics among Leaders of Large Urban Health Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon P. Leider

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between policy networks and policy development among local health departments (LHDs is a growing area of interest to public health practitioners and researchers alike. In this study, we examine policy activity and ties between public health leadership across large urban health departments. Methods: This study uses data from a national profile of local health departments as well as responses from a survey sent to three staff members (local health official, chief of policy, chief science officer in each of 16 urban health departments in the United States. Network questions related to frequency of contact with health department personnel in other cities. Using exponential random graph models, network density and centrality were examined, as were patterns of communication among those working on several policy areas using exponential random graph models. Results: All 16 LHDs were active in communicating about chronic disease as well as about use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD. Connectedness was highest among local health officials (density = .55, and slightly lower for chief science officers (d = .33 and chiefs of policy (d = .29. After accounting for organizational characteristics, policy homophily (i.e., when two network members match on a single characteristic and tenure were the most significant predictors of formation of network ties. Conclusion: Networking across health departments has the potential for accelerating the adoption of public health policies. This study suggests similar policy interests and formation of connections among senior leadership can potentially drive greater connectedness among other staff.

  10. Turbulence and pollutant transport in urban street canyons under stable stratification: a large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal stratification of the atmospheric surface layer has strong impact on the land-atmosphere exchange of turbulent, heat, and pollutant fluxes. Few studies have been carried out for the interaction of the weakly to moderately stable stratified atmosphere and the urban canopy. This study performs a large-eddy simulation of a modeled street canyon within a weakly to moderately stable atmosphere boundary layer. To better resolve the smaller eddy size resulted from the stable stratification, a higher spatial and temporal resolution is used. The detailed flow structure and turbulence inside the street canyon are analyzed. The relationship of pollutant dispersion and Richardson number of the atmosphere is investigated. Differences between these characteristics and those under neutral and unstable atmosphere boundary layer are emphasized.

  11. Decision support for large-scale remediation strategies by fused urban metabolism and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohms, Pernille; Andersen, Camilla; Landgren, Mathilde

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to identify the most environmental friendly way of conducting a refurbishment of Broendby Strand, with focus on PCB remediation. The actual identification is conducted by comparing four remediation techniques using urban metabolism fused with life cycle assessment (UM......-LCA) in combination with information relating to cost and efficiency of the compared techniques. The methodological goal of our paper is to test UM-LCA as a decision support tool and discuss application of the method in relation to large refurbishment projects. Methods: To assess the environmental performance of PCB......-remediation techniques, the UM-LCA method was applied. By combining UM and LCA methodologies, the total environmental impact potentials of the remediation techniques were calculated. To build an inventory for each technique, we contacted and interviewed experts and studied existing literature, cases, and projects...

  12. Class attendance, peer similarity, and academic performance in a large field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerre-Nielsen, Andreas; Mones, Enys; Lehmann, Sune; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the factors that determine academic performance is an essential part of educational research. Existing research indicates that class attendance is a useful predictor of subsequent course achievements. The majority of the literature is, however, based on surveys and self-reports, methods which have well-known systematic biases that lead to limitations on conclusions and generalizability as well as being costly to implement. Here we propose a novel method for measuring class attendance that overcomes these limitations by using location and bluetooth data collected from smartphone sensors. Based on measured attendance data of nearly 1,000 undergraduate students, we demonstrate that early and consistent class attendance strongly correlates with academic performance. In addition, our novel dataset allows us to determine that attendance among social peers was substantially correlated (>0.5), suggesting either an important peer effect or homophily with respect to attendance. PMID:29117190

  13. Using Social Media to Measure Student Wellbeing: A Large-Scale Study of Emotional Response in Academic Discourse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, Svitlana; Han, Kyungsik; Corley, Courtney D.

    2016-11-15

    Student resilience and emotional well-being are essential for both academic and social development. Earlier studies on tracking students' happiness in academia showed that many of them struggle with mental health issues. For example, a 2015 study at the University of California Berkeley found that 47% of graduate students suffer from depression, following a 2005 study that showed 10% had considered suicide. This is the first large-scale study that uses signals from social media to evaluate students' emotional well-being in academia. This work presents fine-grained emotion and opinion analysis of 79,329 tweets produced by students from 44 universities. The goal of this study is to qualitatively evaluate and compare emotions and sentiments emanating from students' communications across different academic discourse types and across universities in the U.S. We first build novel predictive models to categorize academic discourse types generated by students into personal, social, and general categories. We then apply emotion and sentiment classification models to annotate each tweet with six Ekman's emotions -- joy, fear, sadness, disgust, anger, and surprise and three opinion types -- positive, negative, and neutral. We found that emotions and opinions expressed by students vary across discourse types and universities, and correlate with survey-based data on student satisfaction, happiness and stress. Moreover, our results provide novel insights on how students use social media to share academic information, emotions, and opinions that would pertain to students academic performance and emotional well-being.

  14. Large-scale academic achievement testing of deaf and hard-of-hearing students: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sen; Mitchell, Ross E

    2012-01-01

    The first large-scale, nationwide academic achievement testing program using Stanford Achievement Test (Stanford) for deaf and hard-of-hearing children in the United States started in 1969. Over the past three decades, the Stanford has served as a benchmark in the field of deaf education for assessing student academic achievement. However, the validity and reliability of using the Stanford for this special student population still require extensive scrutiny. Recent shifts in educational policy environment, which require that schools enable all children to achieve proficiency through accountability testing, warrants a close examination of the adequacy and relevance of the current large-scale testing of deaf and hard-of-hearing students. This study has three objectives: (a) it will summarize the historical data over the last three decades to indicate trends in academic achievement for this special population, (b) it will analyze the current federal laws and regulations related to educational testing and special education, thereby identifying gaps between policy and practice in the field, especially identifying the limitations of current testing programs in assessing what deaf and hard-of-hearing students know, and (c) it will offer some insights and suggestions for future testing programs for deaf and hard-of-hearing students.

  15. "Academic drug-detailing": from project to practice in a Swedish urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, C S; Hensjö, L O; Gustafsson, L L

    1997-01-01

    To develop and test the long-term feasibility of an interdisciplinary independent drug information service providing both written and oral drug information to physicians in an urban area of Sweden (> 400,000 inhabitants). A drug information service was developed encouraging a cooperative approach between a department of clinical pharmacology, general practitioners (GPs), pharmacists, and Drug and Therapeutic Committees. Scientifically-based drug information was condensed and interpreted by a team and presented in both written and oral form. In one part of the area, both oral and written information was provided, while in another part of the area, only written information was distributed. Questionnaires and one prescription survey were performed to elucidate the knowledge and attitudes of the GPs regarding drug treatment of one condition (urinary tract infection, UTI, and norfloxacin were used as examples), as well as their opinion of our services. Over a period of 10 years, 75 issues of a drug bulletin (2000 copies) were distributed. Oral producer-independent drug information, provided jointly by a GP and a pharmacist, was given on 16 occasions in each of 30 health centres (150 GPs). Around 80% of the GPs participated in the meetings. Of these GPs, 75% found the service important for their daily work. A majority of the GPs had prescribed the test drug, norfloxacin, not a first-line drug according to local recommendations, 1 year after approval. A significantly lower proportion of prescribers were observed in the area where the GPs had been provided with both written and oral information regarding recommended treatment (including first-line drugs) for uncomplicated cystitis. The approximate cost for this service in 1995 was SEK 0.685 million (USD 0.1 million); the prescribing costs of the 150 GPs were estimated at SEK 255 million per year. This means that the cost of the service per GP is only around 0.3% of normal prescribing costs. Over a period of 10 years the

  16. "My Library Was Dukedom Large Enough": Academic Libraries Mediating the Shakespeare Authorship Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Quinn Dudley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The "Shakespeare Authorship Question" regarding the identity of the poet-playwright has been debated for over 150 years. Now, with the growing list of signatories to the "Declaration of Reasonable Doubt", the creation of a Master's Degree program in Authorship Studies at Brunel University in London, the opening of the Shakespeare Authorship Research Studies Center at the Library of Concordia University in Portland, and the release of two competing high profile books both entitled Shakespeare Beyond Doubt, academic libraries are being presented with a unique and timely opportunity to participate in and encourage this debate, which has long been considered a taboo subject in the academy.

  17. Quality Control Practices for Chemistry and Immunochemistry in a Cohort of 21 Large Academic Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Matthew W; Flood, James G; Melanson, Stacy E F; Baumann, Nikola A; Marzinke, Mark A; Rai, Alex J; Hayden, Joshua; Wu, Alan H B; Ladror, Megan; Lifshitz, Mark S; Scott, Mitchell G; Peck-Palmer, Octavia M; Bowen, Raffick; Babic, Nikolina; Sobhani, Kimia; Giacherio, Donald; Bocsi, Gregary T; Herman, Daniel S; Wang, Ping; Toffaletti, John; Handel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Kathleen A; Albeiroti, Sami; Wang, Sihe; Zimmer, Melissa; Driver, Brandon; Yi, Xin; Wilburn, Clayton; Lewandrowski, Kent B

    2018-05-29

    In the United States, minimum standards for quality control (QC) are specified in federal law under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment and its revisions. Beyond meeting this required standard, laboratories have flexibility to determine their overall QC program. We surveyed chemistry and immunochemistry QC procedures at 21 clinical laboratories within leading academic medical centers to assess if standardized QC practices exist for chemistry and immunochemistry testing. We observed significant variation and unexpected similarities in practice across laboratories, including QC frequency, cutoffs, number of levels analyzed, and other features. This variation in practice indicates an opportunity exists to establish an evidence-based approach to QC that can be generalized across institutions.

  18. Needs Assessment for Research Use of High-Throughput Sequencing at a Large Academic Medical Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Geskin

    Full Text Available Next Generation Sequencing (NGS methods are driving profound changes in biomedical research, with a growing impact on patient care. Many academic medical centers are evaluating potential models to prepare for the rapid increase in NGS information needs. This study sought to investigate (1 how and where sequencing data is generated and analyzed, (2 research objectives and goals for NGS, (3 workforce capacity and unmet needs, (4 storage capacity and unmet needs, (5 available and anticipated funding resources, and (6 future challenges. As a precursor to informed decision making at our institution, we undertook a systematic needs assessment of investigators using survey methods. We recruited 331 investigators from over 60 departments and divisions at the University of Pittsburgh Schools of Health Sciences and had 140 respondents, or a 42% response rate. Results suggest that both sequencing and analysis bottlenecks currently exist. Significant educational needs were identified, including both investigator-focused needs, such as selection of NGS methods suitable for specific research objectives, and program-focused needs, such as support for training an analytic workforce. The absence of centralized infrastructure was identified as an important institutional gap. Key principles for organizations managing this change were formulated based on the survey responses. This needs assessment provides an in-depth case study which may be useful to other academic medical centers as they identify and plan for future needs.

  19. Group Peer Mentoring: An Answer to the Faculty Mentoring Problem? A Successful Program at a Large Academic Department of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pololi, Linda H; Evans, Arthur T

    2015-01-01

    To address a dearth of mentoring and to avoid the pitfalls of dyadic mentoring, the authors implemented and evaluated a novel collaborative group peer mentoring program in a large academic department of medicine. The mentoring program aimed to facilitate faculty in their career planning, and targeted either early-career or midcareer faculty in 5 cohorts over 4 years, from 2010 to 2014. Each cohort of 9-12 faculty participated in a yearlong program with foundations in adult learning, relationship formation, mindfulness, and culture change. Participants convened for an entire day, once a month. Sessions incorporated facilitated stepwise and values-based career planning, skill development, and reflective practice. Early-career faculty participated in an integrated writing program and midcareer faculty in leadership development. Overall attendance of the 51 participants was 96%, and only 3 of 51 faculty who completed the program left the medical school during the 4 years. All faculty completed a written detailed structured academic development plan. Participants experienced an enhanced, inclusive, and appreciative culture; clarified their own career goals, values, strengths and priorities; enhanced their enthusiasm for collaboration; and developed skills. The program results highlight the need for faculty to personally experience the power of forming deep relationships with their peers for fostering successful career development and vitality. The outcomes of faculty humanity, vitality, professionalism, relationships, appreciation of diversity, and creativity are essential to the multiple missions of academic medicine. © 2015 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  20. Hybrid Lecture-Online Format Increases Student Grades in an Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Course at a Large Urban University

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlin, Brian K.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid courses allow students additional exposure to course content that is not possible in a traditional classroom environment. This exposure may lead to an improvement in academic performance. In this report, I describe the transition of a large undergraduate exercise physiology course from a traditional lecture format to a hybrid…

  1. Nurses' perception of ethical climate at a large academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmenes, Donna; Valentine, Pamela; Gwizdalski, Patricia; Vincent, Catherine; Liao, Chuanhong

    2016-09-07

    Nurses are confronted daily with ethical issues while providing patient care. Hospital ethical climates can affect nurses' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, retention, and physician collaboration. At a metropolitan academic medical center, we examined nurses' perceptions of the ethical climate and relationships among ethical climate factors and nurse characteristics. We used a descriptive correlational design and nurses (N = 475) completed Olson's Hospital Ethical Climate Survey. Data were analyzed using STATA. Approvals by the Nursing Research Council and Institutional Review Board were obtained; participants' rights were protected. Nurses reported an ethical climate total mean score of 3.22 ± 0.65 that varied across factors; significant differences were found for ethical climate scores by nurses' age, race, and specialty area. These findings contribute to what is known about ethical climate and nurses' characteristics and provides the foundation to develop strategies to improve the ethical climate in work settings. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Development of a pharmacy student research program at a large academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Milena M; Skoglund, Erik; Bergman, Scott; Scheetz, Marc H

    2015-11-01

    A program to promote research by pharmacy students created through the collaboration of an academic medical center and a college of pharmacy is described. In 2009, Midwestern University Chicago College of Pharmacy and Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) expanded their existing partnership by establishing a program to increase opportunities for pharmacy students to conduct clinical-translational research. All professional year 1, 2, or 3 students at the college, as well as professional year 4 students on rotation at NMH, can participate in the program. Central to the program's infrastructure is the mentorship of student leads by faculty- and hospital-based pharmacists. The mentors oversee the student research projects and guide development of poster presentations; student leads mentor junior students and assist with orientation and training activities. Publication of research findings in the peer-reviewed literature is a key program goal. In the first four years after program implementation, participation in a summer research program grew nearly 10-fold (mainly among incoming professional year 2 or 3 students, and student poster presentations at national pharmacy meetings increased nearly 20-fold; the number of published research articles involving student authors increased from zero in 2009 to three in 2012 and two in 2013. A collaborative program between an academic medical center and a college of pharmacy has enabled pharmacy students to conduct research at the medical center and has been associated with increases in the numbers of poster presentations and publications involving students. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Engaging Students in a Large-Enrollment Physics Class Using an Academically Focused Social Media Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrin, Andy; Lindell, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    There are many reasons for an instructor to consider using social media, particularly in a large introductory course. Improved communications can lessen the sense of isolation some students feel in large classes, and students may be more likely to respond to faculty announcements in a form that is familiar and comfortable. Furthermore, many…

  4. Understanding Loan Use and Debt Burden among Low-Income and Minority Students at a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Torres, Maria; McKinney, Lyle; Horn, Catherine; Jones, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This study examined a sample of community college students from a diverse, large urban community college system in Texas. To gain a deeper understanding about the effects of background characteristics on student borrowing behaviors and enrollment outcomes, the study employed descriptive statistics and regression techniques to examine two separate…

  5. Research on the Design of Visually Impaired Interactive Accessibility in Large Urban Public Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiru

    2017-12-01

    In medieval times, due to people’s reliance on belief, public space of Christianity came into being. With the rise of secularization, religion gradually turned into private belief, and accordingly public space returned to private space. In the 21st century, due to people’s reliance on intelligent devices, information-interactive public space emerges, and as information interaction is constantly constraining the visually impaired, public space regressed to the exclusive space of limited people[1]. Modernity is marked by technical rationality, but an ensuing basic problem lies in the separation between human action, ethics and public space. When technology fails to overcome obstacles for a particular group, the gap between the burgeoning intelligent phenomena and the increasing ratio of visually impaired is also expanding, ultimately resulting in a growing number of “blind spots” in information-interactive space. Technological innovation not only promotes the development of the information industry, but also promotes the rapid development of the transportation industry. Traffic patterns are diversifying and diverging nowadays, but it’s a fatal blow for people with visually disabilities, Because they still can only experience the most traditional mode of transportation, sometimes even not go out. How to guarantee their interactive accessibility in large urban public transport system right, currently, is a very important research direction.

  6. Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons with Ground Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Koh, Tieh Yong; Norford, Leslie K.; Liu, Chun-Ho; Entekhabi, Dara; Leung, Dennis Y. C.

    2010-11-01

    Our study employed large-eddy simulation (LES) based on a one-equation subgrid-scale model to investigate the flow field and pollutant dispersion characteristics inside urban street canyons. Unstable thermal stratification was produced by heating the ground of the street canyon. Using the Boussinesq approximation, thermal buoyancy forces were taken into account in both the Navier-Stokes equations and the transport equation for subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The LESs were validated against experimental data obtained in wind-tunnel studies before the model was applied to study the detailed turbulence, temperature, and pollutant dispersion characteristics in the street canyon of aspect ratio 1. The effects of different Richardson numbers ( Ri) were investigated. The ground heating significantly enhanced mean flow, turbulence, and pollutant flux inside the street canyon, but weakened the shear at the roof level. The mean flow was observed to be no longer isolated from the free stream and fresh air could be entrained into the street canyon at the roof-level leeward corner. Weighed against higher temperature, the ground heating facilitated pollutant removal from the street canyon.

  7. Effect of stable stratification on dispersion within urban street canyons: A large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex; Norford, Leslie K.

    2016-11-01

    This study employs a validated large-eddy simulation (LES) code with high tempo-spatial resolution to investigate the effect of a stably stratified roughness sublayer (RSL) on scalar transport within an urban street canyon. The major effect of stable stratification on the flow and turbulence inside the street canyon is that the flow slows down in both streamwise and vertical directions, a stagnant area near the street level emerges, and the vertical transport of momentum is weakened. Consequently, the transfer of heat between the street canyon and overlying atmosphere also gets weaker. The pollutant emitted from the street level 'pools' within the lower street canyon, and more pollutant accumulates within the street canyon with increasing stability. Under stable stratification, the dominant mechanism for pollutant transport within the street canyon has changed from ejections (flow carries high-concentration pollutant upward) to unorganized motions (flow carries high-concentration pollutant downward), which is responsible for the much lower dispersion efficiency under stable stratifications.

  8. The prevalence of two 'commonly' encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R; Burnett, E; Luff, N; Wagner, C; Stinga, G; Carney, C; Sheridan, K

    2015-03-01

    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation. Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), pub seats (54) and cinema seats (53). Using low power stereomicroscopy, a total of 114 and 68 fibres, superficially similar to the respective black acrylic and blue polyester target fibres, were recovered from these tapings. The full range of comparative microscopical and instrumental analysis used in operational forensic laboratories was performed on the recovered fibres. No matches were found with either of the target fibres. These findings are in accordance with similar studies which show that the probability of an 'adventitious' match with a particular fibre type/colour combination is extremely low. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the current techniques and instrumentation employed by operational forensic laboratories are fit for purpose. Importantly, the findings demonstrate that databases and surveys (e.g. fibre population studies) which do not consider the analytical/comparison processes, must not be used in isolation when evaluating fibre evidence at source level. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing a pediatric palliative care service in a large urban hospital: challenges, lessons, and successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlynn, Emily S; Derrington, Sabrina; Morgan, Helene; Murray, Jennifer; Ornelas, Beatriz; Cucchiaro, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    We report the process of creating a new palliative care service at a large, urban children's hospital. Our aim was to provide a detailed guide to developing an inpatient consultation service, along with reporting on the challenges, lessons, and evaluation. We examined the hiring process of personnel and marketing strategies, a clinical database facilitated ongoing quality review and identified trends, and a survey project assessed provider satisfaction and how referring physicians used the palliative care service. The pilot phase of service delivery laid the groundwork for a more effective service by creating documentation templates and identifying relevant data to track growth and outcomes. It also allowed time to establish a clear delineation of team members and distinction of roles. The survey of referring physicians proved a useful evaluation starting point, but conclusions could not be generalized because of the low response rate. It may be necessary to reconsider the survey technique and to expand the sample to include patients and families. Future research is needed to measure the financial benefits of a well-staffed inpatient pediatric palliative care service.

  10. How species traits and affinity to urban land use control large-scale species frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, Sonja; Kuehn, Ingolf; Bakker, Jan P.; Kleyer, Michael; Klotz, Stefan; Ozinga, Wim A.; Poschlod, Peter; Thompson, Ken; Thuiller, Wilfried; Roemermann, Christine

    Although urban areas only occupy c. 2.8% of the earth's land surface, urbanization threatens biodiversity as areas of high human population density often coincide with high biodiversity. Therefore, nature conservation should concentrate on both remote areas and densely populated regions. Protecting

  11. How species traits and affinity to urban land use control large-scale species frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, S.; Kuhn, I.; Bakker, J.P.; Kleyer, M.; Klotz, S.; Ozinga, W.A.; Poschlod, P.; Thompson, K.; Thuiller, W.; Romermann, C.

    2009-01-01

    Although urban areas only occupy c. 2.8% of the earth's land surface, urbanization threatens biodiversity as areas of high human population density often coincide with high biodiversity. Therefore, nature conservation should concentrate on both remote areas and densely populated regions. Protecting

  12. Assessment of inpatient multimodal cardiac imaging appropriateness at large academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remfry, Andrew; Abrams, Howard; Dudzinski, David M; Weiner, Rory B; Bhatia, R Sacha

    2015-11-14

    Responding to concerns regarding the growth of cardiac testing, the American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) published Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for various cardiac imaging modalities. Single modality cardiac imaging appropriateness has been reported but there have been no studies assessing the appropriateness of multiple imaging modalities in an inpatient environment. A retrospective study of the appropriateness of cardiac tests ordered by the inpatient General Internal Medicine (GIM) and Cardiology services at three Canadian academic hospitals was conducted over two one-month periods. Cardiac tests characterized were transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), single-photon emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT), and diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Overall, 553 tests were assessed, of which 99.8% were classifiable by AUC. 91% of all studies were categorized as appropriate, 4% may be appropriate and 5% were rarely appropriate. There were high rates of appropriate use of all modalities by GIM and Cardiology throughout. Significantly more appropriate diagnostic catheterizations were ordered by Cardiology than GIM (93% vs. 82%, p = imaging modalities in this multi-centered study on Cardiology and GIM inpatients in the acute care setting. The rate of appropriate ordering was high across all imaging modalities. We recommend further work towards improving appropriate utilization of cardiac imaging resources focus on the out-patient setting.

  13. Patterns of Care Among Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Bone Metastases at a Large Academic Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth, Susannah G. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Alcorn, Sara R., E-mail: salcorn2@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hales, Russell K.; McNutt, Todd R.; DeWeese, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Smith, Thomas J. [Department of Medical Oncology and Harry J. Duffey Family Program in Palliative Care, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates outcomes and patterns of care among patients receiving radiation therapy (RT) for bone metastases at a high-volume academic institution. Methods and Materials: Records of all patients whose final RT course was for bone metastases from April 2007 to July 2012 were identified from electronic medical records. Chart review yielded demographic and clinical data. Rates of complicated versus uncomplicated bone metastases were not analyzed. Results: We identified 339 patients whose final RT course was for bone metastases. Of these, 52.2% were male; median age was 65 years old. The most common primary was non-small-cell lung cancer (29%). Most patients (83%) were prescribed ≤10 fractions; 8% received single-fraction RT. Most patients (52%) had a documented goals of care (GOC) discussion with their radiation oncologist; hospice referral rates were higher when patients had such discussions (66% with vs 50% without GOC discussion, P=.004). Median life expectancy after RT was 96 days. Median survival after RT was shorter based on inpatient as opposed to outpatient status at the time of consultation (35 vs 136 days, respectively, P<.001). Hospice referrals occurred for 56% of patients, with a median interval between completion of RT and hospice referral of 29 days and a median hospice stay of 22 days. Conclusions: These data document excellent adherence to American Society for Radiation Oncolology Choosing Wisely recommendation to avoid routinely using >10 fractions of palliative RT for bone metastasis. Nonetheless, single-fraction RT remains relatively uncommon. Participating in GOC discussions with a radiation oncologist is associated with higher rates of hospice referral. Inpatient status at consultation is associated with short survival.

  14. Large-Scale Urban Decontamination; Developments, Historical Examples and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer

    2007-02-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actual events have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the real potential for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or “dirty bomb”) residues. In response the U. S. Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD contamination and novel decontamination methodologies. Interest in chemical and biological (CB) cleanup has also peaked with the threat of terrorist action like the anthrax attack at the Hart Senate Office Building and with catastrophic natural events such as Hurricane Katrina. The efficiency of cleanup response will be improved with these new developments and a better understanding of the “old reliable” methodologies. Perhaps the most interesting area of investigation for large area decontamination is that of the RDD. While primarily an economic and psychological weapon, the need to cleanup and return valuable or culturally significant resources to the public is nonetheless valid. Several private companies, universities and National Laboratories are currently developing novel RDD cleanup technologies. Because of its longstanding association with radioactive facilities, the U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories are at the forefront in developing and testing new RDD decontamination methods. However, such cleanup technologies are likely to be fairly task specific; while many different contamination mechanisms, substrate and environmental conditions will make actual application more complicated. Some major efforts have also been made to model potential contamination, to evaluate both old and new decontamination techniques and to assess their readiness for use. Non-radioactive, CB threats each have unique decontamination challenges and recent events have provided some examples. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as lead agency for these emergency

  15. Boarding School, Academic Motivation and Engagement, and Psychological Well-Being: A Large-Scale Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2014-01-01

    Boarding school has been a feature of education systems for centuries. Minimal large-scale quantitative data have been collected to examine its association with important educational and other outcomes. The present study represents one of the largest studies into boarding school conducted to date. It investigates boarding school and students'…

  16. Monitoring sensible heat flux over urban areas in a high-altitude city using Large Aperture Scintillometer and Eddy Covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junping; Timmermans, Wim J.; Ma, Yaoming; Su, Bob; Pema, Tsering

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization leads to modifications of surface energy balance which governs the momentum, heat and mass transfer between urban canopy layer and the atmosphere, thus impacts dynamic processes in the urban ABL and ultimately influence the local, regional and even global climate. It is essential to obtain accurate urban ABL observations to enhance our understanding of land-atmosphere interaction process over the urban area and help to improve the prediction ability of numerical model. However, up to now, there are rarely observations in high latitude cities. In one of the highest cities in the world, Lhasa, Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements have been ongoing since 10 August 2016 and a Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS) started to work on 12 November 2016, in addition to a UHI network which has been running since 2012. Taking advantage of these observations, this poster will estimate and analyze the surface energy balance in the winter of 2016 in Lhasa, with an emphasis on sensible heat flux. An analytical footprint model and the radiative surface temperature retrieved from Landsat 8 will be employed to compare EC and LAS measurements.

  17. Flood management: prediction of microbial contamination in large-scale floods in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathon; Lai, Ka Man; Davies, Mike; Clifton, David; Ridley, Ian; Biddulph, Phillip

    2011-07-01

    , insurance companies and residents to better understand, prepare for and manage a large-scale flood in urban environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-dependent Characteristics in Women with Breast Cancer: Mastectomy and Reconstructive Trends at an Urban Academic Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodby, Katherine A; Robinson, Emilie; Danielson, Kirstie K; Quinn, Karina P; Antony, Anuja K

    2016-03-01

    Breast reconstruction is an important aspect of treatment after breast cancer. Postmastectomy reconstruction bears a significant impact on a woman's postsurgical confidence, sexuality, and overall well-being. Previous studies have inferred that women under age 40 years have unique characteristics that distinguish them from an older cohort. Identifying age-dependent trends will assist with counseling women on mastectomy and reconstruction. To identify age-dependent trends, 100 consecutive women were sampled from a prospectively maintained breast reconstruction database at an urban academic institution from June 2010 through June 2013. Women were placed into two cohorts mastectomy, reconstructive and symmetry procedures were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS software. In 100 patients of the sample study cohort, 151 reconstructions were performed. Increasing age was associated with one or more comorbidities [odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, P = 0.005], whereas younger age was associated with metastatic disease (OR = 0.88, P = 0.006), chemotherapy (OR = 0.94, P = 0.01), and radiation (OR = 0.94, P = 0.006); split cohorts demonstrated similar trends (P Mastectomy and reconstructive characteristics associated with younger age included bilateral mastectomy (OR = 0.94, P = 0.004), tissue expander (versus autologous flap) (OR = 0.94, P = 0.009), extra high implant type (OR = 0.94, P = 0.049), whereas increasing use of autologous flaps and contralateral mastopexy symmetry procedures (OR = 1.09, P = 0.02) were associated with an aging cohort. Increasing age was not associated with an increasing likelihood of complications (P = 0.75). Age-related factors play a role in the treatment of patients with breast cancer. Younger women typically present with more aggressive features requiring oncologic treatment including chemotherapy and radiation. Mastectomy and reconstructive choices also demonstrate age-dependent characteristics. Women in younger age groups are more

  19. The Urban Heat Island Behavior of a Large Northern Latitude Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.; Mykleby, P.

    2012-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. Temperatures in the urban center can be 2-5°C warmer during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. Urban warming is responsible for excessive energy consumption, heat-related health effects, an increase in urban pollution, degradation of urban ecosystems, changes in the local meteorology, and an increase in thermal pollution into urban water bodies. One mitigation strategy involves manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. As part of this project, we have been characterizing the UHI of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA), a 16,000 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, and evaluating mitigation strategies for reducing urban warming. Annually, the TCMA has a modest 2-3°C UHI that is especially apparent in winter when the urban core can be up to 5-6°C warmer than the surrounding countryside. We present an analysis of regional temperature variations from a dense network of sensors located throughout the TCMA. We focus on the diurnal and seasonal

  20. Health and Academic Achievement: Cumulative Effects of Health Assets on Standardized Test Scores among Urban Youth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M.; Schwartz, Marlene; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; McCaslin, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine (2012) concluded that we must "strengthen schools as the heart of health." To intervene for better outcomes in both health and academic achievement, identifying factors that impact children is essential. Study objectives are to (1) document associations between health assets and academic achievement,…

  1. Examining Cognitive Predictors of Academic Cheating among Urban Middle School Students: The Role of Home-School Dissonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Academic cheating within the middle grades has become a prevalent schooling dilemma for teachers and administrators. Among the various contextual and cognitive factors that promote academic cheating is home-school dissonance, which has been shown to predict the phenomenon among high school students. The current study extends this line of research…

  2. Yoga Improves Academic Performance in Urban High School Students Compared to Physical Education: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagins, Marshall; Rundle, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Yoga programs within schools have become more widespread but research regarding the potential effect on academic achievement remains limited. This study cluster-randomized 112 students within a single New York City public high school to participate in either school-based yoga or physical education (PE) for an entire academic year. The primary…

  3. Academic Dishonesty of Undergraduates: Methods of Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Michelle; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of engagement in academic dishonesty among undergraduate students at a large urban college and also explored the use of traditional cheating methods and contemporary cheating methods to determine various forms of cheating, the number of times students cheat, and the number of ways students cheat. The sample was…

  4. Building an Undergraduate Book Approval Plan for a Large Academic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The University of Alberta Libraries (UAL, working with two book vendors, created large-scale undergraduate book approval plans to deliver new publications. Detailed selections profiles were created for many subject areas, designed to deliver books that would have been obvious choices by subject selectors. More than 5800 monographs were received through the book approval plans during the pilot period. These volumes proved to be highly relevant to users, showing twice as much circulation as other monographs acquired during the same time period. Goals achieved through this project include: release of selectors’ time from routine work, systematic acquisition of a broadly based high-demand undergraduate collection and faster delivery of undergraduate materials. This successful program will be expanded and incorporated into UAL’s normal acquisitions processes for undergraduate materials.

  5. Building an Undergraduate Book Approval Plan for a Large Academic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The University of Alberta Libraries (UAL, working with two book vendors,created large-scale undergraduate book approval plans to deliver newpublications. Detailed selections profiles were created for many subject areas,designed to deliver books that would have been obvious choices by subjectselectors. More than 5800 monographs were received through the book approvalplans during the pilot period. These volumes proved to be highly relevant tousers, showing twice as much circulation as other monographs acquired duringthe same time period. Goals achieved through this project include: release ofselectors’ time from routine work, systematic acquisition of a broadly based highdemandundergraduate collection and faster delivery of undergraduate materials.This successful program will be expanded and incorporated into UAL’s normalacquisitions processes for undergraduate materials.

  6. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Core Academic Strategic Designs: 3. University Park Campus School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

    2008-01-01

    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  7. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Core Academic Strategic Designs: 1. Academy of the Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

    2008-01-01

    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  8. Case Studies of Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools. Core Academic Strategic Designs: 2. Noble Street Charter High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Regis Anne; Ireland, Nicole; City, Elizabeth; Derderian, Julie; Miles, Karen Hawley

    2008-01-01

    This report is one of nine detailed case studies of small urban high schools that served as the foundation for the Education Resource Strategies (ERS) report "Strategic Designs: Lessons from Leading Edge Small Urban High Schools." These nine schools were dubbed "Leading Edge Schools" because they stand apart from other high…

  9. Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratios with Ground Heating: Large-Eddy Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Britter, Rex E; Norford, Leslie Keith; Entekhabi, Dara

    2010-01-01

    A validated large-eddy simulation model was employed to study the effect of the aspect ratio and ground heating on the flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons. Three ground-heating intensities (neutral, weak and strong) were imposed in street canyons of aspect ratio 1, 2, and 0.5. The detailed patterns of flow, turbulence, temperature and pollutant transport were analyzed and compared. Significant changes of flow and scalar patterns were caused by ground heating in the street ca...

  10. Biodiversity of bacteriophages: morphological and biological properties of a large group of phages isolated from urban sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Jurczak-Kurek; Tomasz Gąsior; Bożena Nejman-Faleńczyk; Sylwia Bloch; Aleksandra Dydecka; Gracja Topka; Agnieszka Necel; Magdalena Jakubowska-Deredas; Magdalena Narajczyk; Malwina Richert; Agata Mieszkowska; Borys Wróbel; Grzegorz Węgrzyn; Alicja Węgrzyn

    2016-01-01

    A large scale analysis presented in this article focuses on biological and physiological variety of bacteriophages. A collection of 83 bacteriophages, isolated from urban sewage and able to propagate in cells of different bacterial hosts, has been obtained (60 infecting Escherichia coli, 10 infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4 infecting Salmonella enterica, 3 infecting Staphylococcus sciuri, and 6 infecting Enterococcus faecalis). High biological diversity of the collection is indicated by its...

  11. Lessons Learned from Surveillance of Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a Large Academic Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett H. Heintz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research report assessed the differences in resistance rates and antimicrobial usage-versus-susceptibility relationships of Pseudomonas aeruginosa found in various hospital patient care areas. A simplified case control study was also performed to identify patient-specific risk factors associated with cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates. Last, we determined the consequence of combining mucoid and non-mucoid derived antimicrobial susceptibilities of P. aeruginosa into hospital antibiograms. Overall, susceptibility rates remained lower in the intensive care units (ICUs compared to the non-ICU patient care areas, except for cefepime over the last time period. Cefepime utilization and antimicrobial-resistance rates among P. aeruginosa isolates had a significant relationship. Decreased meropenem exposure was associated with lower resistance rates relative to cefepime. Risk factors independently associated with cefepime-resistant P. aeruginosa were structural lung disease, ICU admission, recent third generation cephalosporin use, frequent hospital admission and non-urine isolates. Large and statistically significant differences were observed between non-mucoid and combined percent susceptibility data for aminoglycosides. To control antimicrobial resistance and optimize initial empiric antimicrobial therapy, antimicrobial susceptibility and utilization patterns in specific patient care areas should be monitored and risk factors for antimicrobial resistance should be assessed. Mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa should not be included into antimicrobial susceptibility data as this may underestimate activity of most antipseudomonal agents.

  12. Data-driven CT protocol review and management—experience from a large academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Savage, Cristy A; Li, Xinhua; Liu, Bob

    2015-03-01

    Protocol review plays a critical role in CT quality assurance, but large numbers of protocols and inconsistent protocol names on scanners and in exam records make thorough protocol review formidable. In this investigation, we report on a data-driven cataloging process that can be used to assist in the reviewing and management of CT protocols. We collected lists of scanner protocols, as well as 18 months of recent exam records, for 10 clinical scanners. We developed computer algorithms to automatically deconstruct the protocol names on the scanner and in the exam records into core names and descriptive components. Based on the core names, we were able to group the scanner protocols into a much smaller set of "core protocols," and to easily link exam records with the scanner protocols. We calculated the percentage of usage for each core protocol, from which the most heavily used protocols were identified. From the percentage-of-usage data, we found that, on average, 18, 33, and 49 core protocols per scanner covered 80%, 90%, and 95%, respectively, of all exams. These numbers are one order of magnitude smaller than the typical numbers of protocols that are loaded on a scanner (200-300, as reported in the literature). Duplicated, outdated, and rarely used protocols on the scanners were easily pinpointed in the cataloging process. The data-driven cataloging process can facilitate the task of protocol review. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: Using large-eddy simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of 2 under neutral meteorological conditions using large-eddy simulation. The spatial variation of pollutants is significant due to the existence of two unsteady vortices. The deviation of species abundance from chemical equilibrium for the upper vortex is greater than that for the lower vortex. The interplay of dynamics and chemistry is investigated using two metrics: the photostationary state defect, and the inferred ozone production rate. The latter is found to be negative at all locations within the canyon, pointing to a systematic negative offset to ozone production rates inferred by analogous approaches in environments with incomplete mixing of emissions. This study demonstrates an approach to quantify parameters for a simplified two-box model, which could support traffic management and urban planning strategies and personal exposure assessment. - Highlights: • Large-eddy simulation reproduces two unsteady vortices seen in a lab experiment. • Reactive pollutants in an urban street canyon exhibit significant spatial variation. • O 3 production rate inferred by the NO x -O 3 -steady-state-defect approach is discussed. • Ground level sourced pollutants are largely trapped within the lower vortex. • A method of quantifying parameters of a two-box model is developed. - Reactive pollutants in a deep street canyon exhibit significant spatial variation driven by two unsteady vortices. A method of quantifying parameters of a two-box model is developed

  14. Analysis of Nursing Clinical Decision Support Requests and Strategic Plan in a Large Academic Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kimberly; Bavuso, Karen; Bouyer-Ferullo, Sharon; Goldsmith, Denise; Fairbanks, Amanda; Gesner, Emily; Lagor, Charles; Collins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    To understand requests for nursing Clinical Decision Support (CDS) interventions at a large integrated health system undergoing vendor-based EHR implementation. In addition, to establish a process to guide both short-term implementation and long-term strategic goals to meet nursing CDS needs. We conducted an environmental scan to understand current state of nursing CDS over three months. The environmental scan consisted of a literature review and an analysis of CDS requests received from across our health system. We identified existing high priority CDS and paper-based tools used in nursing practice at our health system that guide decision-making. A total of 46 nursing CDS requests were received. Fifty-six percent (n=26) were specific to a clinical specialty; 22 percent (n=10) were focused on facilitating clinical consults in the inpatient setting. "Risk Assessments/Risk Reduction/Promotion of Healthy Habits" (n=23) was the most requested High Priority Category received for nursing CDS. A continuum of types of nursing CDS needs emerged using the Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom Conceptual Framework: 1) facilitating data capture, 2) meeting information needs, 3) guiding knowledge-based decision making, and 4) exposing analytics for wisdom-based clinical interpretation by the nurse. Identifying and prioritizing paper-based tools that can be modified into electronic CDS is a challenge. CDS strategy is an evolving process that relies on close collaboration and engagement with clinical sites for short-term implementation and should be incorporated into a long-term strategic plan that can be optimized and achieved overtime. The Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom Conceptual Framework in conjunction with the High Priority Categories established may be a useful tool to guide a strategic approach for meeting short-term nursing CDS needs and aligning with the organizational strategic plan.

  15. Trainee Knowledge of Imaging Appropriateness and Safety: Results of a Series of Surveys From a Large Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Thaddeus D; Duszak, Richard; Vijayasarathi, Arvind; Gelbard, Rondi B; Mullins, Mark E

    2017-10-31

    In order to provide high quality care to their patients and utilize imaging most judiciously, physician trainees should possess a working knowledge of appropriate use, radiation dose, and safety. Prior work has suggested knowledge gaps in similar areas. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge of imaging appropriateness, radiation dose, and MRI and contrast safety of physician trainees across a variety of specialties. Between May 2016 and January 2017, three online surveys were distributed to all interns, residents, and fellows in ACGME accredited training programs at a large academic institution over two academic years. Response rates to three surveys ranged from 17.2% (218 of 1266) for MRI and contrast material safety, 19.1% (242 of 1266) for imaging appropriateness, to19.9% (246 of 1238) for radiation dose. Overall 72% (509 of 706) of survey respondents reported regularly ordering diagnostic imaging examinations, but fewer than half (47.8%; 470 of 984) could correctly estimate radiation dose across four commonly performed imaging studies. Only one third (34%; 167 of 488) of trainees chose appropriate imaging in scenarios involving pregnant patients. Trainee post-graduate year was not significantly correlated with overall radiation safety scores, and no significant difference was found between radiation safety or appropriate imaging scores of those who participated in a medical school radiology elective vs. those who did not. A total of 84% (57 of 68) of radiology trainees and 43% (269 of 630) of non-radiology trainees considered their knowledge adequate but that correlated only weakly correlated to actual knowledge scores (pimaging safety exist among many trainees. In order to enhance the value of imaging at the population level, further work is needed to assess the most appropriate method and stage of training to address these knowledge gaps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Allergic rhinitis in northern vietnam: increased risk of urban living according to a large population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lâm Hoàng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms among adults in Vietnam. We aimed to estimate the prevalence, risk factor patterns and co-morbidities of allergic rhinitis and chronic nasal symptoms in one urban and one rural area in northern Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted from August 2007 to January 2008 in urban Hoankiem and rural Bavi in Hanoi among adults aged 21-70 years. Of 7008 randomly selected subjects, 91.7% participated in Bavi and 70.3% in Hoankiem. Results Allergic rhinitis ever or chronic nasal symptoms were reported by 50.2%. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis ever was considerably higher in Hoankiem compared to Bavi, 29.6% vs 10.0% (p Conclusions Allergic rhinitis ever was considerably more common in the urban area. Nasal blocking and runny nose was each reported by about one third of the studied sample with no major urban-rural difference. Further, exposure to air pollution at work was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis ever, nasal blocking and runny nose.

  17. Characterizing the adequacy, effectiveness, and barriers related to research mentorship among junior pediatric hospitalists and general pediatricians at a large academic institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Judith R; Vaughn, Lisa M; Klein, Melissa

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to characterize the adequacy, effectiveness, and barriers related to research mentorship among junior pediatric hospitalists and general pediatricians at a large academic institution. Junior faculty and staff physicians in hospital medicine and general pediatrics at a large academic institution were invited to participate in this qualitative study. In-depth interviews were conducted. Experienced mentors were invited to be interviewed for theoretical sampling. Interviews were conducted and analyzed by using grounded theory methodology. Twenty-six (75%) of the eligible physicians, pediatric hospitalists representing 65% of this sample, agreed to be interviewed about their mentoring experiences. Satisfied and dissatisfied participants expressed similar mentoring themes: acquisition of research skills, academic productivity, and career development. Four experienced mentors were interviewed and provided rationale for mentoring clinicians in research. Both groups of participants agreed that institutional support is vital for promoting mentorship. Junior pediatric hospitalists and general pediatricians indicated considerable interest in being mentored to learn to do clinical research. Developing faculty and staff physicians to their utmost potential is critical for advancement in academic medicine. Mentoring clinical physicians seeking to add research skills and academic productivity to their practice merits study as an innovative path to develop clinical investigators. Hospital medicine, as a rapidly developing pediatric specialty, is well-positioned to implement the necessary infrastructure to mentor junior faculty in their academic pursuits, thereby optimizing the potential impact for individuals, families, learners, and institutions.

  18. Virtual Urbanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirc, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers how visual literacy implies a poetics of technology, one rooted in basic human passion. Notes that most academic forms sanctioned for students to inhabit are as monumentally dull as the urban forms in which they pass an extra-academic portion of their lives. Concludes that technology is most useful when it allows the poetic spirit to…

  19. Large-Scale Urban Projects, Production of Space and Neo-liberal Hegemony: A Comparative Study of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet PENPECİOĞLU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of neo-liberalism, large-scale urban projects (LDPs have become a powerful mechanism of urban policy. Creating spaces of neo-liberal urbanization such as central business districts, tourism centers, gated residences and shopping malls, LDPs play a role not only in the reproduction of capital accumulation relations but also in the shift of urban political priorities towards the construction of neo-liberal hegemony. The construction of neo-liberal hegemony and the role played by LDPs in this process could not only be investigated by the analysis of capital accumulation. For such an investigation; the role of state and civil society actors in LDPs, their collaborative and conflictual relationships should be researched and their functions in hegemony should be revealed. In the case of Izmir’s two LDPs, namely the New City Center (NCC and Inciraltı Tourism Center (ITC projects, this study analyzes the relationship between the production of space and neo-liberal hegemony. In the NCC project, local governments, investors, local capital organizations and professional chambers collaborated and disseminated hegemonic discourse, which provided social support for the project. Through these relationships and discourses, the NCC project has become a hegemonic project for producing space and constructed neo-liberal hegemony over urban political priorities. In contrast to the NCC project, the ITC project saw no collaboration between state and organized civil society actors. The social opposition against the ITC project, initiated by professional chambers, has brought legal action against the ITC development plans in order to prevent their implementation. As a result, the ITC project did not acquire the consent of organized social groups and failed to become a hegemonic project for producing space.

  20. Stochastic backscatter modelling for the prediction of pollutant removal from an urban street canyon: A large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J. J.; Cai, X.-M.; Kinnersley, R.

    2016-10-01

    The large-eddy simulation (LES) approach has recently exhibited its appealing capability of capturing turbulent processes inside street canyons and the urban boundary layer aloft, and its potential for deriving the bulk parameters adopted in low-cost operational urban dispersion models. However, the thin roof-level shear layer may be under-resolved in most LES set-ups and thus sophisticated subgrid-scale (SGS) parameterisations may be required. In this paper, we consider the important case of pollutant removal from an urban street canyon of unit aspect ratio (i.e. building height equal to street width) with the external flow perpendicular to the street. We show that by employing a stochastic SGS model that explicitly accounts for backscatter (energy transfer from unresolved to resolved scales), the pollutant removal process is better simulated compared with the use of a simpler (fully dissipative) but widely-used SGS model. The backscatter induces additional mixing within the shear layer which acts to increase the rate of pollutant removal from the street canyon, giving better agreement with a recent wind-tunnel experiment. The exchange velocity, an important parameter in many operational models that determines the mass transfer between the urban canopy and the external flow, is predicted to be around 15% larger with the backscatter SGS model; consequently, the steady-state mean pollutant concentration within the street canyon is around 15% lower. A database of exchange velocities for various other urban configurations could be generated and used as improved input for operational street canyon models.

  1. Modelling the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: using large-eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of 2 under neutral meteorological conditions using large-eddy simulation. The spatial variation of pollutants is significant due to the existence of two unsteady vortices. The deviation of species abundance from chemical equilibrium for the upper vortex is greater than that for the lower vortex. The interplay of dynamics and chemistry is investigated using two metrics: the photostationary state defect, and the inferred ozone production rate. The latter is found to be negative at all locations within the canyon, pointing to a systematic negative offset to ozone production rates inferred by analogous approaches in environments with incomplete mixing of emissions. This study demonstrates an approach to quantify parameters for a simplified two-box model, which could support traffic management and urban planning strategies and personal exposure assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Decentralized State-Observer-Based Traffic Density Estimation of Large-Scale Urban Freeway Network by Dynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate traffic densities in a large-scale urban freeway network in an accurate and timely fashion when traffic sensors do not cover the freeway network completely and thus only local measurement data can be utilized, this paper proposes a decentralized state observer approach based on a macroscopic traffic flow model. Firstly, by using the well-known cell transmission model (CTM, the urban freeway network is modeled in the way of distributed systems. Secondly, based on the model, a decentralized observer is designed. With the help of the Lyapunov function and S-procedure theory, the observer gains are computed by using linear matrix inequality (LMI technique. So, the traffic densities of the whole road network can be estimated by the designed observer. Finally, this method is applied to the outer ring of the Beijing’s second ring road and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach.

  3. Modelling of a large-scale urban contamination situation and remediation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Arkhipov, A.; Batandjieva, B.; Charnock, T.W.; Gaschak, S.; Golikov, V.; Hwang, W.T.; Tomas, J.; Zlobenko, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes the first of two modelling exercises, which was based on Chernobyl fallout data in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Modelling endpoints for the exercise included radionuclide concentrations and external dose rates at specified locations, contributions to the dose rates from individual surfaces and radionuclides, and annual and cumulative external doses to specified reference individuals. Model predictions were performed for a 'no action' situation (with no remedial measures) and for selected countermeasures. The exercise provided a valuable opportunity to compare modelling approaches and parameter values, as well as to compare the predicted effectiveness of various countermeasures with respect to short-term and long-term reduction of predicted doses to people.

  4. Characterization of anthropogenic impacts in a large urban center by examining the spatial distribution of halogenated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Chen-Chou; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-08-01

    Anthropogenic impacts have continuously intensified in mega urban centers with increasing urbanization and growing population. The spatial distribution pattern of such impacts can be assessed with soil halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) as HFRs are mostly derived from the production and use of various consumer products. In the present study, soil samples were collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD), a large urbanized region in southern China, and its surrounding areas and analyzed for a group of HFRs, i.e., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane, bis(hexachlorocyclopentadieno)cyclooctane (DP) and hexabromobenzene. The sum concentrations of HFRs and PBDEs were in the ranges of 0.66-6500 and 0.37-5700 (mean: 290 and 250) ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively, around the middle level of the global range. BDE-209 was the predominant compound likely due to the huge amounts of usage and its persistence. The concentrations of HFRs were greater in the land-use types of residency, industry and landfill than in agriculture, forestry and drinking water source, and were also greater in the central PRD than in its surrounding areas. The concentrations of HFRs were moderately significantly (r(2) = 0.32-0.57; p urbanization levels, population densities and gross domestic productions in fifteen administrative districts. The spatial distribution of DP isomers appeared to be stereoselective as indicated by the similarity in the spatial patterns for the ratio of anti-DP versus the sum of DP isomers (fanti-DP) and DP concentrations. Finally, the concentrations of HFRs sharply decreased with increasing distance from an e-waste recycling site, indicating that e-waste derived HFRs largely remained in local soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation among academic performance, recurrent abdominal pain and other factors in Year-6 urban primary-school children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, C C M; Omar, A; Arul Phillips, J

    2003-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which recurrent abdominal pain and other factors were associated with academic achievement among Year-6 (12 years of age) schoolchildren. The present study was a cross-sectional survey conducted from September to November 2001. Schoolchildren were recruited from primary schools that were selected randomly from a list of all primary schools in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, using random sampling numbers. Information concerning recurrent abdominal pain, socio-economic status, life events, demographic and other details was obtained using a combination of questionnaires and interviews. Academic achievement was assessed using a score based on the Malaysian Primary School Achievement Examination. An overall score at or above the mean was taken to indicate high academic achievement while a score below the mean indicated poor academic achievement. A total of 1971 children were studied (958 boys and 1013 girls: 1047 Malays, 513 Chinese and 411 Indians). Of these children, 456 (23.1%) fulfilled the criteria for recurrent abdominal pain. Using the method of binary logistic regression analysis, the following factors were found to be independently associated with poor academic performance: a low socio-economic status (odds ratio (OR) 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.35); male sex (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.26-2.05); the death of a close relative (OR 2.22; 95% CI 1.73-2.85); the divorce or separation of parents (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.73-5.40); the commencement of work by the mother (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.02-1.76); hospitalization of the child in the 12 months prior to the study (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.12-3.01); lack of health-care consultation (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.36-2.36); missing breakfast (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.07-2.02); and lack of kindergarten education (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.04-1.75). Many factors, such as socio-economic status and recent life events, were associated with poor academic performance. Recurrent abdominal pain did not correlate

  6. Design and implementation of a near-miss reporting system at a large, academic pediatric anesthesia department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, Patrick; Szolnoki, Judit; Caldwell, James; Polaner, David

    2011-07-01

    Current incident reporting systems encourage retrospective reporting of morbidity and mortality and have low participation rates. A near miss is an event that did not cause patient harm, but had the potential to. By tracking and analyzing near misses, systems improvements can be targeted appropriately, and future errors may be prevented. An electronic, web based, secure, anonymous reporting system for anesthesiologists was designed and instituted at The Children's Hospital, Denver. This portal was compared to an existing hospital incident reporting system. A total of 150 incidents were reported in the first 3 months of operation, compared to four entered in the same time period 1 year ago. An anesthesia-specific anonymous near-miss reporting system, which eases and facilitates data entry and can prospectively identify processes and practices that place patients at risk, was implemented at a large, academic, freestanding children's hospital. This resulted in a dramatic increase in reported events and provided data to target and drive quality and process improvement. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Advancing LGBT Health Care Policies and Clinical Care Within a Large Academic Health Care System: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Shipherd, Jillian C; Topor, David; AhnAllen, Christopher G; Sloan, Colleen A; Walton, Heather M; Matza, Alexis R; Trezza, Glenn R

    2017-01-01

    Culturally competent health care is especially important among sexual and gender minority patients because poor cultural competence contributes to health disparities. There is a need to understand how to improve health care quality and delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans in particular, because they have unique physical and mental health needs as both LGBT individuals and veterans. The following article is a case study that focuses on the policy and clinical care practices related to LGBT clinical competency, professional training, and ethical provision of care for veteran patients in the VA Boston Healthcare System. We apply Betancourt et al.'s (2003) cultural competence framework to outline the steps that VA Boston Healthcare System took to increase cultural competency at the organizational, structural, and clinical level. By sharing our experiences, we aim to provide a model and steps for other health care systems and programs, including other VA health care systems, large academic health care systems, community health care systems, and mental health care systems, interested in developing LGBT health initiatives.

  8. Epidemic Wave Dynamics Attributable to Urban Community Structure: A Theoretical Characterization of Disease Transmission in a Large Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggo, Rosalind M; Lenczner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple waves of transmission during infectious disease epidemics represent a major public health challenge, but the ecological and behavioral drivers of epidemic resurgence are poorly understood. In theory, community structure—aggregation into highly intraconnected and loosely interconnected social groups—within human populations may lead to punctuated outbreaks as diseases progress from one community to the next. However, this explanation has been largely overlooked in favor of temporal shifts in environmental conditions and human behavior and because of the difficulties associated with estimating large-scale contact patterns. Objective The aim was to characterize naturally arising patterns of human contact that are capable of producing simulated epidemics with multiple wave structures. Methods We used an extensive dataset of proximal physical contacts between users of a public Wi-Fi Internet system to evaluate the epidemiological implications of an empirical urban contact network. We characterized the modularity (community structure) of the network and then estimated epidemic dynamics under a percolation-based model of infectious disease spread on the network. We classified simulated epidemics as multiwave using a novel metric and we identified network structures that were critical to the network’s ability to produce multiwave epidemics. Results We identified robust community structure in a large, empirical urban contact network from which multiwave epidemics may emerge naturally. This pattern was fueled by a special kind of insularity in which locally popular individuals were not the ones forging contacts with more distant social groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that ordinary contact patterns can produce multiwave epidemics at the scale of a single urban area without the temporal shifts that are usually assumed to be responsible. Understanding the role of community structure in epidemic dynamics allows officials to anticipate epidemic

  9. Implementation as a Focus of Consultation to Evaluate Academic Tutoring Services in an Urban School District: A Case Study Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Julie Q.; English, Sarah Baker

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a multiagency initiative to evaluate academic tutoring services by focusing on the processes that contribute to effective program implementation. Community-based tutoring service providers serving students in the Cincinnati Public Schools (OH) partnered to initiate a "Seal of Approval" process for promoting…

  10. Academic Attitudes and Achievement in Students of Urban Public Single-Sex and Mixed-Sex High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Peterca, Oana

    2015-01-01

    Publicly funded single-sex schooling (SSS) has proliferated in recent years and is touted as a remedy to gaps in academic attitudes and achievement, particularly for low-income students of color. Research on SSS is rife with limitations, stemming from selective admissions processes, selection effects related to socioeconomic status, a lack of…

  11. Urban Middle School Instructional Special Education: Tenured versus Non-Tenured Teachers and the Impact on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sheryl Marie

    2010-01-01

    The Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) is used in the Cahokia Unit School District No. 187 to give insight on student academic skill level in terms of years and months. Teacher strategies and expertise in the area of education are an integral part of the educational process. Tenure status, or the years of teaching experience, is plagued with the…

  12. Towards large-scale mapping of urban three-dimensional structure using Landsat imagery and global elevation datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Huang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) structure of buildings and infrastructures is fundamental to understanding and modelling of the impacts and challenges of urbanization in terms of energy use, carbon emissions, and earthquake vulnerabilities. However, spatially detailed maps of urban 3D structure have been scarce, particularly in fast-changing developing countries. We present here a novel methodology to map the volume of buildings and infrastructures at 30 meter resolution using a synergy of Landsat imagery and openly available global digital surface models (DSMs), including the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map (GDEM), ALOS World 3D - 30m (AW3D30), and the recently released global DSM from the TanDEM-X mission. Our method builds on the concept of object-based height profile to extract height metrics from the DSMs and use a machine learning algorithm to predict height and volume from the height metrics. We have tested this algorithm in the entire England and assessed our result using Lidar measurements in 25 England cities. Our initial assessments achieved a RMSE of 1.4 m (R2 = 0.72) for building height and a RMSE of 1208.7 m3 (R2 = 0.69) for building volume, demonstrating the potential of large-scale applications and fully automated mapping of urban structure.

  13. Flow and Pollutant Transport in Urban Street Canyons of Different Aspect Ratios with Ground Heating: Large-Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex E.; Norford, Leslie K.; Koh, Tieh-Yong; Entekhabi, Dara

    2012-02-01

    A validated large-eddy simulation model was employed to study the effect of the aspect ratio and ground heating on the flow and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons. Three ground-heating intensities (neutral, weak and strong) were imposed in street canyons of aspect ratio 1, 2, and 0.5. The detailed patterns of flow, turbulence, temperature and pollutant transport were analyzed and compared. Significant changes of flow and scalar patterns were caused by ground heating in the street canyon of aspect ratio 2 and 0.5, while only the street canyon of aspect ratio 0.5 showed a change in flow regime (from wake interference flow to skimming flow). The street canyon of aspect ratio 1 does not show any significant change in the flow field. Ground heating generated strong mixing of heat and pollutant; the normalized temperature inside street canyons was approximately spatially uniform and somewhat insensitive to the aspect ratio and heating intensity. This study helps elucidate the combined effects of urban geometry and thermal stratification on the urban canyon flow and pollutant dispersion.

  14. Hydropower, social priorities and the rural–urban development divide: The case of large dams in Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, Giuseppina; Urban, Frauke; Kim, Sour; Dara Lonn, Pich

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower investment is a priority in many developing countries, as a means to increase electrification rates and promote national development. However, neglect of dam-affected people's needs, can make them vulnerable to the multifaceted impacts of such projects. Using the case of Cambodia's first large dam, the Kamchay dam, this paper reveals social priorities of affected communities and institutional actors linked to environmental and social implications of large hydropower projects using a preference ranking method. Qualitative research revealed concerns among dam-affected communities which included energy access, livelihood changes, environmental impacts, access to natural resources and compensation. Results also reveal divergence between national and local priorities, which in turn brings about an unequal distribution of costs and benefits of the Kamchay Dam between urban and rural areas. The paper provides recommendations to policy-makers, NGOs and international organizations regarding governance issues, consultation processes and mitigation measures. - Highlights: • We assess social priorities linked to the impacts of a large dam in Cambodia. • We examine differences between local actors in the prioritization of the impacts. • Findings show divergences between national and local priorities of dam construction. • Distribution of cost and benefit is spatially unequal between rural and urban areas.

  15. Scaling of the Urban Water Footprint: An Analysis of 65 Mid- to Large-Sized U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjabin, T.; Garcia, S.; Grady, C.; Mejia, A.

    2017-12-01

    Scaling laws have been shown to be relevant to a range of disciplines including biology, ecology, hydrology, and physics, among others. Recently, scaling was shown to be important for understanding and characterizing cities. For instance, it was found that urban infrastructure (water supply pipes and electrical wires) tends to scale sublinearly with city population, implying that large cities are more efficient. In this study, we explore the scaling of the water footprint of cities. The water footprint is a measure of water appropriation that considers both the direct and indirect (virtual) water use of a consumer or producer. Here we compute the water footprint of 65 mid- to large-sized U.S. metropolitan areas, accounting for direct and indirect water uses associated with agricultural and industrial commodities, and residential and commercial water uses. We find that the urban water footprint, computed as the sum of the water footprint of consumption and production, exhibits sublinear scaling with an exponent of 0.89. This suggests the possibility of large cities being more water-efficient than small ones. To further assess this result, we conduct additional analysis by accounting for international flows, and the effects of green water and city boundary definition on the scaling. The analysis confirms the scaling and provides additional insight about its interpretation.

  16. DHC in Helsinki - The Ultimate Heating and Cooling Solution for a Large Urban Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirgentius, Niko; Riipinen, Marko

    2010-09-15

    Since the 1950s there has been successful district energy business in Helsinki. It has been the main factor for superior energy efficiency and low CO2 emissions both in heating and cooling as well as providing clean air for the metropolitan area. The system has been grown by commercial basis based on customers' own willingness to select district energy solution. It also provided a profitable energy business to local energy company, Helsinki Energy. Helsinki DHC system is a good example of ultimate urban energy solution that provides benefits for the customer, energy company, metropolitan area and for the whole society as well.

  17. Personal networks and locus of control in large urban centers of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo De Grande

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between locus of control and interpersonal relations structures in Argentina. After a representative sample (n = 1500 of households in seven major urban centers (>200,000 inhabitants, it examines the relationship between the externality of locus of control and different aspects of personal networks of each respondent. The results show that people having more relations experiment lower levels of externality of locus of control. Likewise, lower levels of externality are informed when personal ties outside the neighborhood are available, as well as ties high educational level. In this regard, significant associations are verified between control and personal relations structures.

  18. CFD analysis of flow in engine compartment of large urban bus; Ogata bus no engine room nai nagare kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, H; Otake, M; Iioka, K [Nissan Diesel Motor Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan); Sato, K [Subaru Research Center Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A CFD simulation was performed to analyze the air flow in the engine compartment of a large urban bus. The conventional simulation technique takes a long time to perform the parameter study of a complex engine compartment shape. In this study, the use of orthogonal grids made modeling the engine compartment easy, so parameter study on modification of the engine compartment structure could be conducted in a short time. Thus this simulation enables engineers to more clearly understand the air flow patterns in the engine compartment, and to get guidlines for modifying the compartment structure to improve the cooling performance. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  19. A microcomputer-based model for identifying urban and suburban roadways with critical large truck accident rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogan, J.D.; Cashwell, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of techniques for merging highway accident record and roadway inventory files and employing the combined data set to identify spots or sections on highway facilities in urban and suburban areas with unusually high large truck accident rates. A statistical technique, the rate/quality control method, is used to calculate a critical rate for each location of interest. This critical rate may then be compared to the location's actual accident rate to identify locations for further study. Model enhancements and modifications are described to enable the technique to be employed in the evaluation of routing alternatives for the transport of radioactive material

  20. An Analysis of the Academic Achievement of Urban and Rural Low-Socioeconomic Status Tennessee Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Johnny

    2010-01-01

    Comparing a small, rural school with sometimes less than 100 students to a massive inner-city school with greater than 2,500 students is crude and untenable. There are simply too many variables. Nonetheless, the No Child Left Behind Act treats these two very different schools the same. When urban and rural schools cannot meet AYP or highly…

  1. : Urban design, urban project, urban art, urban composition ... a question of vocabulary?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinson , Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Actes à paraître; International audience; The term "urbanism" of Pierre Clerget (1910) put the mess in the practice and the formations in France. Urban planning is thus, on the academic level, a coexistence of disciplinary approaches, which does not help to a multidisciplinary urban training. Thinking about "urban design", after beautifull city, urban composition, or alongside the urban project and other territorial approaches can help to see more clearly in town planning.; Le terme « urbanis...

  2. The implementation of clay modeling and rat dissection into the human anatomy and physiology curriculum of a large urban community college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty overcame and the techniques used to solve them. Methods involved were: developing a laboratory manual in conjunction with the publisher, holding training sessions for faculty and staff, the development of instructional outlines for students and lesson plans for faculty, the installation of storage facilities to hold mannequins instead of cat specimens, and designing mannequin clean-up techniques that could be used by more than one thousand students each semester. The effectiveness of these curricular changes was assessed by examining student muscle practical examination grades and the responses of faculty and students to questionnaires. The results demonstrated that the majority of faculty felt prepared to teach using clay modeling and believed the activity was effective in presenting lesson content. Students undertaking clay modeling had significantly higher muscle practical examination grades than students undertaking cat dissection, and the majority of students believed that clay modeling was an effective technique to learn human skeletal, respiratory, and cardiovascular anatomy, which included the names and locations of blood vessels. Furthermore, the majority of students felt that rat dissection helped them learn nervous, digestive, urinary, and reproductive system anatomy. Faculty experience at LAGCC may serve as a resource to other academic institutions developing new curricula for large, on-going courses. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Development of Cities Mentor Project: An Intervention to Improve Academic Outcomes for Low-Income Urban Youth through Instruction in Effective Coping Supported by Mentoring Relationships and Protective Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathryn E.; Farahmand, Farahnaz; Meyerson, David A.; Dubois, David L.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Barnett, Alexandra; Horwath, Jordan; Doxie, Jackie; Tyler, Donald; Harrison, Aubrey; Johnson, Sarah; Duffy, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes an iterative process used to develop a new intervention for low-income urban youth at risk for negative academic outcomes (e.g., disengagement, failure, drop-out). A series of seven steps, building incrementally one upon the other, are described: 1) identify targets of the intervention; 2) develop logic model; 3)…

  4. Approaches to learning as predictors of academic achievement: Results from a large scale, multi-level analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Kim Jesper; McCune, Velda; Bager-Elsborg, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between university students’ academic achievement and their approaches to learning and studying continuously attract scholarly attention. We report the results of an analysis in which multilevel linear modelling was used to analyse data from 3,626 Danish university students....... Controlling for the effects of age, gender, and progression, we found that the students’ end-of-semester grade point averages were related negatively to a surface approach and positively to organised effort. Interestingly, the effect of the surface approach on academic achievement varied across programmes....... While there has been considerable interest in the ways in which academic programmes shape learning and teaching, the effects of these contexts on the relationship between approaches to learning and academic outcomes is under-researched. The results are discussed in relation to findings from recent meta...

  5. Treatment of patients with a history of penicillin allergy in a large tertiary-care academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Matthieu; Bégin, Philippe; Bouchard, Hugues; Cloutier, Jonathan; Lacombe-Barrios, Jonathan; Paradis, Jean; Des Roches, Anne; Laufer, Brian; Paradis, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Prescribing antibiotics to patients with a history of penicillin allergy is common in clinical practice. Opting for non-beta-lactam antibiotics has its inconveniences and is often unnecessary, because most of these patients are in fact not allergic. This study aimed to determine how physicians in a large Canadian tertiary-care academic hospital without allergists on staff treat patients with a history of penicillin allergy. A retrospective study was conducted during a 1-year period among all patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit, coronary care unit, and internal medicine wards. Files of patients with a record of penicillin allergy were reviewed to assess the need for antibiotics during their hospitalization and the decision-making process underlying the choice of antibiotic. The additional costs of alternative antibiotics were calculated. The files of 1738 patients admitted over a 1-year period were hand reviewed. A history of penicillin allergy was found in 172 patients (9.9%). The allergic reaction was described in only 30% of cases and left unmentioned in 20.7%. Beta-lactam antibiotics were used on 56 occasions despite a history of penicillin allergy. The use of alternative antibiotics in place of the beta-lactam standard of care carried an additional cost of $15,672 Canadian. Alleged penicillin allergy is common among hospitalized patients and leads to substantial additional costs. Poor documentation of penicillin allergy likely reflects a lack of knowledge on this issue in the medical community, which impairs optimal treatment of these patients. Increased education on this matter is needed, and allergists on staff could be part of the solution. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-Perceived End-of-Life Care Competencies of Health-Care Providers at a Large Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Marcos; Smith, Heather M; Price, Deborah M; Ghosh, Bidisha; Strodtman, Linda

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, most deaths occur in hospitals, with approximately 25% of hospitalized patients having palliative care needs. Therefore, the provision of good end-of-life (EOL) care to these patients is a priority. However, research assessing staff preparedness for the provision of EOL care to hospitalized patients is lacking. To assess health-care professionals' self-perceived competencies regarding the provision of EOL care in hospitalized patients. Descriptive study of self-perceived EOL care competencies among health-care professionals. The study instrument (End-of-Life Questionnaire) contains 28 questions assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to the provision of EOL care. Health-care professionals (nursing, medicine, social work, psychology, physical, occupational and respiratory therapist, and spiritual care) at a large academic medical center participated in the study. Means were calculated for each item, and comparisons of mean scores were conducted via t tests. Analysis of variance was used to identify differences among groups. A total of 1197 questionnaires was completed. The greatest self-perceived competency was in providing emotional support for patients/families, and the least self-perceived competency was in providing continuity of care. When compared to nurses, physicians had higher scores on EOL care attitudes, behaviors, and communication. Physicians and nurses had higher scores on most subscales than other health-care providers. Differences in self-perceived EOL care competencies were identified among disciplines, particularly between physicians and nurses. The results provide evidence for assessing health-care providers to identify their specific training needs before implementing educational programs on EOL care.

  7. Knowledge of the Costs of Diagnostic Imaging: A Survey of Physician Trainees at a Large Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasarathi, Arvind; Duszak, Richard; Gelbard, Rondi B; Mullins, Mark E

    2016-11-01

    To study the awareness of postgraduate physician trainees across a variety of specialties regarding the costs of common imaging examinations. During early 2016, we conducted an online survey of all 1,238 physicians enrolled in internships, residencies, and fellowships at a large academic medical center. Respondents were asked to estimate Medicare national average total allowable fees for five commonly performed examinations: two-view chest radiograph, contrast-enhanced CT abdomen and pelvis, unenhanced MRI lumbar spine, complete abdominal ultrasound, and unenhanced CT brain. Responses within ±25% of published amounts were deemed correct. Respondents were also asked about specialty, postgraduate year of training, previous radiology education, and estimated number of imaging examinations ordered per week. A total of 381 of 1,238 trainees returned complete surveys (30.8%). Across all five examinations, only 5.7% (109/1,905) of responses were within the correct ±25% range. A total of 76.4% (291/381) of all respondents incorrectly estimated every examination's cost. Estimation accuracy was not associated with number of imaging examinations ordered per week or year of training. There was no significant difference in cost estimation accuracy between those who participated in medical school radiology electives and those who did not (P = .14). Only 17.5% of trainees considered their imaging cost knowledge adequate. Overall, 75.3% desire integration of cost data into clinical decision support and/or computerized physician order entry systems. Postgraduate physician trainees across all disciplines demonstrate limited awareness of the costs of commonly ordered imaging examinations. Targeted medical school education and integration of imaging cost information into clinical decision support / computerized physician order entry systems seems indicated. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Developments in the relationship between large cities - the suburban zone and the rural/urban hinterland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder

    2006-01-01

    reason for this. The commute question is relatively simple and unambiguous and can therefore easily be included in a census – or the information can be extracted from public registers as in the Scandinavian countries. In recent years, commute data has become available with more geographical details...... interdependency between areas – and despite the rising importance of other transport purposes than commuting – commute data continues to be widely used as the prime indicator of functional integration between areas: The lack of other suitable geographically representative O-D data is probably the most important...... (small zones) and the ability to treat this data in new ways has been greatly improved through the availability of geographical information systems (GIS). This paper aims to take advantage of the availability of comparable data on commuting in European urban regions and to take a broader look...

  9. Generation of large scale urban environments to support advanced sensor and seeker simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Joseph; Hershey, Daniel; McKeown, David, Jr.; Willis, Carla; Van, Tan

    2009-05-01

    One of the key aspects for the design of a next generation weapon system is the need to operate in cluttered and complex urban environments. Simulation systems rely on accurate representation of these environments and require automated software tools to construct the underlying 3D geometry and associated spectral and material properties that are then formatted for various objective seeker simulation systems. Under an Air Force Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract, we have developed an automated process to generate 3D urban environments with user defined properties. These environments can be composed from a wide variety of source materials, including vector source data, pre-existing 3D models, and digital elevation models, and rapidly organized into a geo-specific visual simulation database. This intermediate representation can be easily inspected in the visible spectrum for content and organization and interactively queried for accuracy. Once the database contains the required contents, it can then be exported into specific synthetic scene generation runtime formats, preserving the relationship between geometry and material properties. To date an exporter for the Irma simulation system developed and maintained by AFRL/Eglin has been created and a second exporter to Real Time Composite Hardbody and Missile Plume (CHAMP) simulation system for real-time use is currently being developed. This process supports significantly more complex target environments than previous approaches to database generation. In this paper we describe the capabilities for content creation for advanced seeker processing algorithms simulation and sensor stimulation, including the overall database compilation process and sample databases produced and exported for the Irma runtime system. We also discuss the addition of object dynamics and viewer dynamics within the visual simulation into the Irma runtime environment.

  10. Urban Freight Management with Stochastic Time-Dependent Travel Times and Application to Large-Scale Transportation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed the vehicle routing problem (VRP in large-scale urban transportation networks with stochastic time-dependent (STD travel times. The subproblem which is how to find the optimal path connecting any pair of customer nodes in a STD network was solved through a robust approach without requiring the probability distributions of link travel times. Based on that, the proposed STD-VRP model can be converted into solving a normal time-dependent VRP (TD-VRP, and algorithms for such TD-VRPs can also be introduced to obtain the solution. Numerical experiments were conducted to address STD-VRPTW of practical sizes on a real world urban network, demonstrated here on the road network of Shenzhen, China. The stochastic time-dependent link travel times of the network were calibrated by historical floating car data. A route construction algorithm was applied to solve the STD problem in 4 delivery scenarios efficiently. The computational results showed that the proposed STD-VRPTW model can improve the level of customer service by satisfying the time-window constraint under any circumstances. The improvement can be very significant especially for large-scale network delivery tasks with no more increase in cost and environmental impacts.

  11. A model-based eco-routing strategy for electric vehicles in large urban networks

    OpenAIRE

    De Nunzio , Giovanni; Thibault , Laurent; Sciarretta , Antonio

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A novel eco-routing navigation strategy and energy consumption modeling approach for electric vehicles are presented in this work. Speed fluctuations and road network infrastructure have a large impact on vehicular energy consumption. Neglecting these effects may lead to large errors in eco-routing navigation, which could trivially select the route with the lowest average speed. We propose an energy consumption model that considers both accelerations and impact of the ...

  12. Data-Driven Identification of Risk Factors of Patient Satisfaction at a Large Urban Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lee, Nathan J; Glicksberg, Benjamin S; Radbill, Brian D; Dudley, Joel T

    2016-01-01

    The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey is the first publicly reported nationwide survey to evaluate and compare hospitals. Increasing patient satisfaction is an important goal as it aims to achieve a more effective and efficient healthcare delivery system. In this study, we develop and apply an integrative, data-driven approach to identify clinical risk factors that associate with patient satisfaction outcomes. We included 1,771 unique adult patients who completed the HCAHPS survey and were discharged from the inpatient Medicine service from 2010 to 2012. We collected 266 clinical features including patient demographics, lab measurements, medications, disease categories, and procedures. We developed and applied a data-driven approach to identify risk factors that associate with patient satisfaction outcomes. We identify 102 significant risk factors associating with 18 surveyed questions. The most significantly recurrent clinical risk factors were: self-evaluation of health, education level, Asian, White, treatment in BMT oncology division, being prescribed a new medication. Patients who were prescribed pregabalin were less satisfied particularly in relation to communication with nurses and pain management. Explanation of medication usage was associated with communication with nurses (q = 0.001); however, explanation of medication side effects was associated with communication with doctors (q = 0.003). Overall hospital rating was associated with hospital environment, communication with doctors, and communication about medicines. However, patient likelihood to recommend hospital was associated with hospital environment, communication about medicines, pain management, and communication with nurse. Our study identified a number of putatively novel clinical risk factors for patient satisfaction that suggest new opportunities to better understand and manage patient satisfaction. Hospitals can use a data-driven approach to identify clinical risk factors for poor patient satisfaction to support development of specific interventions to improve patients' experience of care.

  13. Analysis of Daily Laboratory Orders at a Large Urban Academic Center: A Multifaceted Approach to Changing Test Ordering Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Joseph W; Dighe, Anand S; Coley, Christopher M; Kamis, Irina K; Wertheim, Bradley M; Wright, Douglas E; Lewandrowski, Kent B; Baron, Jason M

    2017-08-01

    We sought to address concerns regarding recurring inpatient laboratory test order practices (daily laboratory tests) through a multifaceted approach to changing ordering patterns. We engaged in an interdepartmental collaboration to foster mindful test ordering through clinical policy creation, electronic clinical decision support, and continuous auditing and feedback. Annualized daily order volumes decreased from approximately 25,000 to 10,000 during a 33-month postintervention review. This represented a significant change from preintervention order volumes (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.64; P < 10-16). Total inpatient test volumes were not affected. Durable changes to inpatient order practices can be achieved through a collaborative approach to utilization management that includes shared responsibility for establishing clinical guidelines and electronic decision support. Our experience suggests auditing and continued feedback are additional crucial components to changing ordering behavior. Curtailing daily orders alone may not be a sufficient strategy to reduce in-laboratory costs. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. The influence of environmental factors and dredging on chironomid larval diversity in urban drainage systems in polders strongly influenced by seepage from large rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermonden, K.; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Jacobsen, Dean

    2011-01-01

    , in urban waters strongly influenced by seepage of large rivers. Chironomid assemblages were studied in urban surface-water systems (man-made drainage ditches) in polder areas along lowland reaches of the rivers Rhine-Meuse in The Netherlands. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the key environmental...... factors. Taxon richness, Shannon index (H'), rareness of species, and life-history strategies at urban locations were compared with available data from similar man-made water bodies in rural areas, and the effectiveness of dredging for restoring chironomid diversity in urban waters was tested. Three...... diversity of chironomid communities in urban waters affected by nutrient-rich seepage or inlet of river water...

  15. Hospitals Participating In ACOs Tend To Be Large And Urban, Allowing Access To Capital And Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Carrie H; Lewis, Valerie A; Tierney, Emily; Muhlestein, David B

    2016-03-01

    Relationships between physicians and hospitals have changed considerably over the past decade, as hospitals and physician groups have integrated and new public and private payment policies have created financial interdependence. The extent to which accountable care organizations (ACOs) involve hospitals in their operations may prove to be vitally important, because managing hospital care is a key part of improving health care quality and lowering cost growth. Using primary data on ACO composition and capabilities paired with hospital characteristics, we found that 20 percent of US hospitals were part of an ACO in 2014. Hospitals that were in urban areas, were nonprofit, or had a smaller share of Medicare patients were more likely to participate in ACOs, compared to hospitals that were in more rural areas, were for-profit or government owned, or had a larger share of Medicare patients, respectively. Qualitative data identified the following advantages of including a hospital in an ACO: the availability of start-up capital, advanced data sharing, and engagement of providers across the care continuum. Although the 63 percent of ACOs that included hospitals offered more comprehensive services compared to ACOs without hospitals, we found no differences between the two groups in their ability to manage hospital-related aspects of patient care. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  16. Design of a model to predict surge capacity bottlenecks for burn mass casualties at a large academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abir, Mahshid; Davis, Matthew M; Sankar, Pratap; Wong, Andrew C; Wang, Stewart C

    2013-02-01

    To design and test a model to predict surge capacity bottlenecks at a large academic medical center in response to a mass-casualty incident (MCI) involving multiple burn victims. Using the simulation software ProModel, a model of patient flow and anticipated resource use, according to principles of disaster management, was developed based upon historical data from the University Hospital of the University of Michigan Health System. Model inputs included: (a) age and weight distribution for casualties, and distribution of size and depth of burns; (b) rate of arrival of casualties to the hospital, and triage to ward or critical care settings; (c) eligibility for early discharge of non-MCI inpatients at time of MCI; (d) baseline occupancy of intensive care unit (ICU), surgical step-down, and ward; (e) staff availability-number of physicians, nurses, and respiratory therapists, and the expected ratio of each group to patients; (f) floor and operating room resources-anticipating the need for mechanical ventilators, burn care and surgical resources, blood products, and intravenous fluids; (g) average hospital length of stay and mortality rate for patients with inhalation injury and different size burns; and (h) average number of times that different size burns undergo surgery. Key model outputs include time to bottleneck for each limiting resource and average waiting time to hospital bed availability. Given base-case model assumptions (including 100 mass casualties with an inter-arrival rate to the hospital of one patient every three minutes), hospital utilization is constrained within the first 120 minutes to 21 casualties, due to the limited number of beds. The first bottleneck is attributable to exhausting critical care beds, followed by floor beds. Given this limitation in number of patients, the temporal order of the ensuing bottlenecks is as follows: Lactated Ringer's solution (4 h), silver sulfadiazine/Silvadene (6 h), albumin (48 h), thrombin topical (72 h), type

  17. Honey bees are the dominant diurnal pollinator of native milkweed in a large urban park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, James Scott; Roberto, Adriano N; Sodhi, Darwin S; Onuferko, Thomas M; Cadotte, Marc W

    2017-10-01

    In eastern North America, the field milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae), is used in planting schemes to promote biodiversity conservation for numerous insects including the endangered monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus) (Nymphalidae). Less is known about its pollinators, and especially in urban habitats where it is planted often despite being under increasing pressure from invasive plant species, such as the related milkweed, the dog-strangling vine (DSV), Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. (Asclepiadaceae). During the A. syriaca flowering period in July 2016, we surveyed bees in open habitats along a DSV invasion gradient and inspected 433 individuals of 25 bee species in 12 genera for pollinia: these were affixed to bees that visited A. syriaca for nectar and contain pollen packets that are vectored (e.g., transferred) between flowers. Of all bees sampled, pollinia were found only on the nonindigenous honeybee, Apis mellifera (43% of all bees identified), as well as one individual bumblebee, Bombus impatiens Cresson. Pollinia were recorded from 45.2% of all honeybees collected. We found no relationship between biomass of DSV and biomass of A. syriaca per site. There was a significant positive correlation between A. syriaca biomass and the number of pollinia, and the proportion vectored. No relationship with DSV biomass was detected for the number of pollinia collected by bees but the proportion of vectored pollinia declined with increasing DSV biomass. Although we find no evidence of DSV flowers attracting potential pollinators away from A. syriaca and other flowering plants, the impacts on native plant-pollinator mutualisms relate to its ability to outcompete native plants. As wild bees do not appear to visit DSV flowers, it could be altering the landscape to one which honeybees are more tolerant than native wild bees.

  18. Influence of wind direction and urban surroundings on natural ventilation of a large football stadium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, van T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, CFD simulations of the natural ventilation of a large semi-enclosed stadium in the Netherlands during summer conditions are described. The simulations are performed to assess the air exchange rate for eight wind directions. The CFD model consists of both the complex stadium geometry

  19. Academic Uses of Video Games: A Qualitative Assessment of Research and Teaching Needs at a Large Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Shannon L.; Neeser, Amy E.; Bishoff, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Academic libraries develop collections and services for scholars who use video games in teaching and research. However, there are no assessments of related information and technology needs. The authors conducted 30 semi-structured interviews to gather data about these needs and understand how the University of Minnesota Libraries can facilitate…

  20. Sinking or Swimming in the Deep End? Developing Professional Academic Identities as Doctoral Students Chairing Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereznicki, Hannah; Sutherland-Smith, Wendy; Horwood, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Much of the burden of undergraduate teaching in Australian higher education institutions falls to sessional staff and postgraduate students. These members of staff assume high teaching loads and administrative management responsibilities. This paper explores the perspectives of two female academics in the unique position of being the subject…

  1. Water-quality assessment of the largely urban blue river basin, Metropolitan Kansas City, USA, 1998 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkison, D.H.; Armstrong, D.J.; Hampton, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    From 1998 through 2007, over 750 surface-water or bed-sediment samples in the Blue River Basin - a largely urban basin in metropolitan Kansas City - were analyzed for more than 100 anthropogenic compounds. Compounds analyzed included nutrients, fecal-indicator bacteria, suspended sediment, pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Non-point source runoff, hydrologic alterations, and numerous waste-water discharge points resulted in the routine detection of complex mixtures of anthropogenic compounds in samples from basin stream sites. Temporal and spatial variations in concentrations and loads of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and organic wastewater compounds were observed, primarily related to a site's proximity to point-source discharges and stream-flow dynamics. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  2. Large reductions in urban black carbon concentrations in the United States between 1965 and 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Preble, Chelsea V.; Hadley, Odelle L.; Bond, Tami C.; Apte, Joshua S.

    2017-02-01

    Long-term pollutant concentration trends can be useful for evaluating air quality effects of emission controls and historical transitions in energy sources. We employed archival records of coefficient of haze (COH), a now-retired measure of light-absorbing particulate matter, to re-construct historical black carbon (BC) concentrations at urban locations in the United States (U.S.). The following relationship between COH and BC was determined by reinstating into service COH monitors beside aethalometers for two years in Vallejo and one year in San Jose, California: BC (μg m-3) = 6.7COH + 0.1, R2 = 0.9. Estimated BC concentrations in ten states stretching from the East to West Coast decreased markedly between 1965 and 1980: 5-fold in Illinois, Ohio, and Virginia, 4-fold in Missouri, and 2.5-fold in Pennsylvania. Over the period from the mid-1960s to the early 2000s, annual average BC concentrations in New Jersey and California decreased from 13 to 2 μg m-3 and 4 to 1 μg m-3, respectively, despite concurrent increases in fossil fuel consumption from 1.6 to 2.1 EJ (EJ = 1018 J) in New Jersey and 4.2 to 6.4 EJ in California. New Jersey's greater reliance on BC-producing heavy fuel oils and coal in the 1960s and early 1970s and subsequent transition to cleaner fuels explains why the decrease was larger in New Jersey than California. Patterns in seasonal and weekly BC concentrations and energy consumption trends together indicate that reducing wintertime emissions - namely substituting natural gas and electricity for heavy fuel oil in the residential sector - and decreasing emissions from diesel vehicles contributed to lower ambient BC concentrations. Over the period of study, declining concentrations of BC, a potent and short-lived climate warming pollutant, contrast increasing fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the U.S. Declining BC emissions may have had the benefit of mitigating some atmospheric warming driven by increased CO2 emissions with

  3. Large eddy simulation of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume dispersion in an urban street canyon under perpendicular wind flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, L.H., E-mail: hlh@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huo, R.; Yang, D. [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons-a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.

  4. Large eddy simulation of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume dispersion in an urban street canyon under perpendicular wind flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L H; Huo, R; Yang, D

    2009-07-15

    The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons--a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.

  5. Large eddy simulation of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume dispersion in an urban street canyon under perpendicular wind flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, L.H.; Huo, R.; Yang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The dispersion of fire-induced buoyancy driven plume in and above an idealized street canyon of 18 m (width) x 18 m (height) x 40 m (length) with a wind flow perpendicular to its axis was investigated by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS), Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Former studies, such as that by Oka [T.R. Oke, Street design and urban canopy layer climate, Energy Build. 11 (1988) 103-113], Gayev and Savory [Y.A. Gayev, E. Savory, Influence of street obstructions on flow processes within street canyons. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 82 (1999) 89-103], Xie et al. [S. Xie, Y. Zhang, L. Qi, X. Tang, Spatial distribution of traffic-related pollutant concentrations in street canyons. Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 3213-3224], Baker et al. [J. Baker, H. L. Walker, X. M. Cai, A study of the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in and above street canyons-a large eddy simulation, Atmos. Environ. 38 (2004) 6883-6892] and Baik et al. [J.-J. Baik, Y.-S. Kang, J.-J. Kim, Modeling reactive pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon, Atmos. Environ. 41 (2007) 934-949], focus on the flow pattern and pollutant dispersion in the street canyon with no buoyancy effect. Results showed that with the increase of the wind flow velocity, the dispersion pattern of a buoyant plume fell into four regimes. When the wind flow velocity increased up to a certain critical level, the buoyancy driven upward rising plume was re-entrained back into the street canyon. This is a dangerous situation as the harmful fire smoke will accumulate to pollute the environment and thus threaten the safety of the people in the street canyon. This critical re-entrainment wind velocity, as an important parameter to be concerned, was further revealed to increase asymptotically with the heat/buoyancy release rate of the fire.

  6. Comparing Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Among Large Teaching and Urban Hospitals in China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhe; Zhang, Heng; Yuan, Xin; Rao, Chenfei; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yun; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Krumholz, Harlan M; Hu, Shengshou

    2017-06-01

    Coronary artery disease is prevalent in China, with concomitant increases in the volume of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The present study aims to compare CABG-related outcomes between China and the United States among large teaching and urban hospitals. Observational analysis of patients aged ≥18 years, discharged from acute-care, large teaching and urban hospitals in China and the United States after hospitalization for an isolated CABG surgery. Data were obtained from the Chinese Cardiac Surgery Registry in China and the National Inpatient Sample in the United States. Analysis was stratified by 2 periods: 2007, 2008, and 2010; and 2011 to 2013 periods. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, and the secondary outcome was length of stay. The sample included 51 408 patients: 32 040 from 77 hospitals in the China-CABG group and 19 368 from 303 hospitals in the US-CABG group. In the 2007 to 2008, 2010 period and for all-age and aged ≥65 years, the China-CABG group had higher mortality than the US-CABG group (1.91% versus 1.58%, P =0.059; and 3.12% versus 2.20%, P =0.004) and significantly higher age-, sex-, and comorbidity-adjusted odds of death (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidential interval, 1.22-2.04; and odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidential interval, 1.24-2.40). There were no significant mortality differences in the 2011 to 2013 period. For preoperative, postoperative, and total hospital stay, respectively, the median (interquartile range) length of stay across the entire study period between China-CABG and US-CABG groups were 9 (8) versus 1 (3), 9 (6) versus 6 (3), and 20 (12) versus 7 (5) days (all P China and the United States. The longer length of stay in China may represent an opportunity for improvement. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. Influence of a large urban park on temperature and convective precipitation in a tropical city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauregui, E. (Center for Atmospheric Studies, National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    Large green areas have a cooling influence on their surrounding built-up area, thus reducing the stress produced by the heat island. The largest thermal contrast occurs at the end of the cooling period. For a recent period of four years, mean monthly minimum temperature differences between a climatological station located in the park and the Tacubaya Observatory reach 4.0deg C at the end of the dry season in April, whereas during the wet months they are only 1deg C cooler (in July). The increased roughness of the generally high trees in the park reduces the low-level wind speed increasing the intensity of turbulence. Both these effects are likely to favour the initiation of small-scale convection over the vegetated area. (orig./BWI).

  8. Engineering design for a large scale renewable energy network installation in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Spencer, L.; Brown, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Humanity's current avid consumption of resources cannot be maintained and the use of renewable energy is a significant approach towards sustainable energy future. Alberta is the largest greenhouse gas-producing province in Canada (per capita) and Climate change is expected to impact Alberta with warmer temperatures, intense floods, and earlier snow melting. However, as one of the sunniest and windiest places in Canada, Alberta is poised to become one of Canada's leader provinces in utilizing renewable energies. This research has four main objectives. First, to determine the feasibility of implementing solar and wind energy systems at the University of Lethbridge campus. Second, to quantify rooftop and parking lot solar photovoltaic potential for the city of Lethbridge. Third, to determine the available rooftop area for PV deployment in a large scale region (Province of Alberta). Forth, to investigate different strategies for correlating solar PV array production with electricity demand in the province of Alberta. The proposed work addresses the need for Alberta reductions to fossil fuel pollution that drives climate change, and degrades our air, water and land resources.

  9. Implementation and Evaluation of Linked Parenting Models in a Large Urban Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sara Wolf; Wulczyn, Fred; Saldana, Lisa; Forgatch, Marion

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, there have been increased efforts to implement evidence-based practices into child welfare systems to improve outcomes for children in foster care and their families. In this paper, the implementation and evaluation of a policy-driven large system-initiated reform is described. Over 250 caseworkers and supervisors were trained and supported to implement two evidence-based parent focused interventions in five private agencies serving over 2,000 children and families. At the request of child welfare system leaders, a third intervention was developed and implemented to train the social work workforce to use evidence-based principles in everyday interactions with caregivers (including foster, relative, adoptive, and biological parents). In this paper, we describe the policy context and the targeted outcomes of the reform. We discuss the theory of the interventions and the logistics of how they were linked to create consistency and synergy. Training and ongoing consultation strategies used are described as are some of the barriers and opportunities that arose during the implementation. The strategy for creating a path to sustainability is also discussed. The reform effort was evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative methods; the evaluation design, research questions and preliminary results are provided. PMID:26602831

  10. Adjustment of Turbulent Boundary-Layer Flow to Idealized Urban Surfaces: A Large-Eddy Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wai-Chi; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) are performed to simulate the atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) flow through idealized urban canopies represented by uniform arrays of cubes in order to better understand atmospheric flow over rural-to-urban surface transitions. The LES framework is first validated with wind-tunnel experimental data. Good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data are found for the vertical and spanwise profiles of the mean velocities and velocity standard deviations at different streamwise locations. Next, the model is used to simulate ABL flows over surface transitions from a flat homogeneous terrain to aligned and staggered arrays of cubes with height . For both configurations, five different frontal area densities , equal to 0.028, 0.063, 0.111, 0.174 and 0.250, are considered. Within the arrays, the flow is found to adjust quickly and shows similar structure to the wake of the cubes after the second row of cubes. An internal boundary layer is identified above the cube arrays and found to have a similar depth in all different cases. At a downstream location where the flow immediately above the cube array is already adjusted to the surface, the spatially-averaged velocity is found to have a logarithmic profile in the vertical. The values of the displacement height are found to be quite insensitive to the canopy layout (aligned vs. staggered) and increase roughly from to as increases from 0.028 to 0.25. Relatively larger values of the aerodynamic roughness length are obtained for the staggered arrays, compared with the aligned cases, and a maximum value of is found at for both configurations. By explicitly calculating the drag exerted by the cubes on the flow and the drag coefficients of the cubes using our LES results, and comparing the results with existing theoretical expressions, we show that the larger values of for the staggered arrays are related to the relatively larger drag coefficients of the cubes for that

  11. Impacts of large-scale circulation on urban ambient concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of large-scale circulation on urban gaseous elemental mercury (GEM was investigated through analysis of 2008–2015 measurement data from an urban site in New York City (NYC, New York, USA. Distinct annual cycles were observed in 2009–2010 with mixing ratios in warm seasons (i.e., spring–summer 10–20 ppqv ( ∼  10–25 % higher than in cool seasons (i.e., fall–winter. This annual cycle was disrupted in 2011 by an anomalously strong influence of the US East Coast trough in that warm season and was reproduced in 2014 associated with a particularly strong Bermuda High. The US East Coast trough axis index (TAI and intensity index (TII were used to characterize the effect of the US East Coast trough on NYC GEM, especially in winter and summer. The intensity and position of the Bermuda High appeared to have a significant impact on GEM in warm seasons. Regional influence on NYC GEM was supported by the GEM–carbon monoxide (CO correlation with r of 0.17–0.69 (p ∼  0 in most seasons. Simulated regional and local anthropogenic contributions to wintertime NYC anthropogenically induced GEM concentrations were averaged at  ∼  75 % and 25 %, with interannual variation ranging over 67 %–83 % and 17 %–33 %, respectively. Results from this study suggest the possibility that the increasingly strong Bermuda High over the past decades could dominate over anthropogenic mercury emission control in affecting ambient concentrations of mercury via regional buildup and possibly enhancing natural and legacy emissions.

  12. Large eddy simulation of pollutant gas dispersion with buoyancy ejected from building into an urban street canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L H; Xu, Y; Zhu, W; Wu, L; Tang, F; Lu, K H

    2011-09-15

    The dispersion of buoyancy driven smoke soot and carbon monoxide (CO) gas, which was ejected out from side building into an urban street canyon with aspect ratio of 1 was investigated by large eddy simulation (LES) under a perpendicular wind flow. Strong buoyancy effect, which has not been revealed before, on such pollution dispersion in the street canyon was studied. The buoyancy release rate was 5 MW. The wind speed concerned ranged from 1 to 7.5m/s. The characteristics of flow pattern, distribution of smoke soot and temperature, CO concentration were revealed by the LES simulation. Dimensionless Froude number (Fr) was firstly introduced here to characterize the pollutant dispersion with buoyancy effect counteracting the wind. It was found that the flow pattern can be well categorized into three regimes. A regular characteristic large vortex was shown for the CO concentration contour when the wind velocity was higher than the critical re-entrainment value. A new formula was theoretically developed to show quantitatively that the critical re-entrainment wind velocities, u(c), for buoyancy source at different floors, were proportional to -1/3 power of the characteristic height. LES simulation results agreed well with theoretical analysis. The critical Froude number was found to be constant of 0.7. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in passenger car and large truck involved crash frequencies at urban signalized intersections: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunjiao; Clarke, David B; Richards, Stephen H; Huang, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of intersection features on safety has been examined extensively because intersections experience a relatively large proportion of motor vehicle conflicts and crashes. Although there are distinct differences between passenger cars and large trucks-size, operating characteristics, dimensions, and weight-modeling crash counts across vehicle types is rarely addressed. This paper develops and presents a multivariate regression model of crash frequencies by collision vehicle type using crash data for urban signalized intersections in Tennessee. In addition, the performance of univariate Poisson-lognormal (UVPLN), multivariate Poisson (MVP), and multivariate Poisson-lognormal (MVPLN) regression models in establishing the relationship between crashes, traffic factors, and geometric design of roadway intersections is investigated. Bayesian methods are used to estimate the unknown parameters of these models. The evaluation results suggest that the MVPLN model possesses most of the desirable statistical properties in developing the relationships. Compared to the UVPLN and MVP models, the MVPLN model better identifies significant factors and predicts crash frequencies. The findings suggest that traffic volume, truck percentage, lighting condition, and intersection angle significantly affect intersection safety. Important differences in car, car-truck, and truck crash frequencies with respect to various risk factors were found to exist between models. The paper provides some new or more comprehensive observations that have not been covered in previous studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A direct observation method for auditing large urban centers using stratified sampling, mobile GIS technology and virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Sean J V; Sawada, M; Kristjansson, Elizabeth

    2017-02-16

    With the expansion and growth of research on neighbourhood characteristics, there is an increased need for direct observational field audits. Herein, we introduce a novel direct observational audit method and systematic social observation instrument (SSOI) for efficiently assessing neighbourhood aesthetics over large urban areas. Our audit method uses spatial random sampling stratified by residential zoning and incorporates both mobile geographic information systems technology and virtual environments. The reliability of our method was tested in two ways: first, in 15 Ottawa neighbourhoods, we compared results at audited locations over two subsequent years, and second; we audited every residential block (167 blocks) in one neighbourhood and compared the distribution of SSOI aesthetics index scores with results from the randomly audited locations. Finally, we present interrater reliability and consistency results on all observed items. The observed neighbourhood average aesthetics index score estimated from four or five stratified random audit locations is sufficient to characterize the average neighbourhood aesthetics. The SSOI was internally consistent and demonstrated good to excellent interrater reliability. At the neighbourhood level, aesthetics is positively related to SES and physical activity and negatively correlated with BMI. The proposed approach to direct neighbourhood auditing performs sufficiently and has the advantage of financial and temporal efficiency when auditing a large city.

  15. Large forest patches promote breeding success of a terrestrial mammal in urban landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    Full Text Available Despite a marked increase in the focus toward biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes, studies that confirm species breeding success are scarce and limited. In this paper, we asked whether local (area of forest patches and landscape (amount of suitable habitat surrounding of focal patches factors affect the breeding success of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Tokyo, Central Japan. The breeding success of raccoon dogs is easy to judge as adults travel with pups during the breeding season. We selected 21 forest patches (3.3-797.8 ha as study sites. In each forest patch, we used infra-red-triggered cameras for a total of 60 camera days per site. We inspected each photo to determine whether it was of an adult or a pup. Although we found adult raccoon dogs in all 21 forest patches, pups were found only in 13 patches. To estimate probability of occurrence and detection for raccoon in 21 forest fragments, we used single season site occupancy models in PRESENCE program. Model selection based on AIC and model averaging showed that the occupancy probability of pups was positively affected by patch area. This result suggests that large forests improve breeding success of raccoon dogs. A major reason for the low habitat value of small, isolated patches may be the low availability of food sources and the high risk of being killed on the roads in such areas. Understanding the effects of local and landscape parameters on species breeding success may help us to devise and implement effective long-term conservation and management plans.

  16. Evaluation of Electronic Medical Record (EMR at large urban primary care sexual health centre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher K Fairley

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite substantial investment in Electronic Medical Record (EMR systems there has been little research to evaluate them. Our aim was to evaluate changes in efficiency and quality of services after the introduction of a purpose built EMR system, and to assess its acceptability by the doctors, nurses and patients using it. METHODS: We compared a nine month period before and after the introduction of an EMR system in a large sexual health service, audited a sample of records in both periods and undertook anonymous surveys of both staff and patients. RESULTS: There were 9,752 doctor consultations (in 5,512 consulting hours in the Paper Medical Record (PMR period and 9,145 doctor consultations (in 5,176 consulting hours in the EMR period eligible for inclusion in the analysis. There were 5% more consultations per hour seen by doctors in the EMR period compared to the PMR period (rate ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.02, 1.08 after adjusting for type of consultation. The qualitative evaluation of 300 records for each period showed no difference in quality (P>0.17. A survey of clinicians demonstrated that doctors and nurses preferred the EMR system (P<0.01 and a patient survey in each period showed no difference in satisfaction of their care (97% for PMR, 95% for EMR, P = 0.61. CONCLUSION: The introduction of an integrated EMR improved efficiency while maintaining the quality of the patient record. The EMR was popular with staff and was not associated with a decline in patient satisfaction in the clinical care provided.

  17. The effect of the flipped classroom on urban high school students' motivation and academic achievement in a high school science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Keshia L.

    This study investigated the effect of the flipped classroom on urban high school students' motivation and academic achievement in a high school science course. In this quantitative study, the sample population was comprised of North Star High School 12th grade students enrolled in human anatomy and physiology. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest non-equivalent group design was conducted. After receipt of Liberty University Institutional Review Board approval and the school district's Department of Research and Evaluation for School Improvement, students completed a pretest comprised of the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II) and the Human Anatomy and Physiology Unit Test. Participants in the experimental group engaged in the treatment, the flipped classroom, using instructional materials on the educational website, Edmodo(TM), and applied content material taught using hands-on activities inclusive of assigned laboratory experiments. Participants in the control group received instruction using traditional face-to-face lecture-homework format while also engaging in assigned laboratory experiments. After the completion of the treatment all participants completed a posttest. Data from both the pretest and posttest was statistically analyzed individually using two separate one-way ANOVA/ANCOVA analyses; and researcher reported the results of the statistical analyses. After completion of the analyses, and interpretation of the results, recommendations for future research were given.

  18. Prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in healthy personnel from an academic institution of an urban area in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamboa-Gamboa T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tatiana Gamboa-Gamboa,1 Gabriel Abarca-Soto,2 José G Jiménez-Montero3,4 1Department of Research and Nutrition, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas, San José, Costa Rica; 2Department of Research, School of Medicine, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas, San José, Costa Rica; 3Department of Postgraduate Studies, Universidad de Ciencias Médicas, San José, Costa Rica; 4Department of Endocrinology, Hospital CIMA, San José, Costa Rica Objective: The aim of this study was to determine 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in healthy employees of the Universidad de Ciencias Médicas, Costa Rica. Methods: Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, and creatinine were measured in 80 people. Solar ultraviolet radiation exposure and 25-hydroxyvitamin D intake were estimated using a previously designed questionnaire. Participants were 52 women aged (mean ± standard deviation 35.8±10.0 years old, body mass index of 27.1±5.9 kg/m2, and 26 men aged 36.4±10.8 years old, body mass index of 27.5±5.0 kg/m2. Results: All participants were normocalcemic, eight females were postmenopausal, three were hypertensive; none had renal, gastrointestinal, or thyroid disease. The level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 23.9±7.0 ng/dL and iPTH 40.1±17.5 pg/dL. A level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D $30 ng/dL was seen in 17% of the population. The eight participants with iPTH higher than 67 ng/dL, had 25-hydroxyvitamin D of 18.9±4.8 ng/dL. Two participants who received 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium supplements were excluded. Conclusion: The 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency and deficiency found in healthy employees from an academic center in Costa Rica may be due to working long hours in-doors and solar ultraviolet radiation exposure. It is unknown whether secondary hyperparathyroidism seen in nearly 10% of this population, may have long-term effects on bone health. Keywords: vitamin D deficiency, osteoporosis, secondary hyperparathyroidism

  19. Air pollutant dispersion from a large semi-enclosed stadium in an urban area: high-resolution CFD modeling versus full-scale measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, van T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Seppelt, R.; Voinov, A.A.; Lange, S.; Bankamp, D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: High-resolution CFD simulations and full-scale measurements have been performed to assess the dispersion of air pollutants (CO2) from the large semi-enclosed Amsterdam ArenA football stadium. The dispersion process is driven by natural ventilation by the urban wind flow and by buoyancy,

  20. Integration of HIV and TB Services Results in Improved TB Treatment Outcomes and Earlier Prioritized ART Initiation in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Sabine M.; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Katabira, Catherine; Mbidde, Peter; Lange, Joep M. A.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Coutinho, Alex; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization recommends that treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected patients should be integrated with HIV care. In December 2008, a separate outdoor-integrated TB/HIV clinic was instituted for attendees of a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. We sought to

  1. The Implementation of Clay Modeling and Rat Dissection into the Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum of a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K.; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty…

  2. Comparison of the enrollment percentages of magnet and non-magnet schools in a large urban school district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Arcia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Are magnet schools in a position to meet diversity ideals? As districts are declared unitary and released from court ordered desegregation, many are framing their commitments to fairness and equity in terms of diversity˜i.e., comparable rates of participation and comparable educational outcomes in all segments the student population. In this study, the enrollment statistics for magnet and contiguous non-magnet public schools in Miami-Dade County Public Schools, a large, urban district that had been released from court ordered desegregation, were compared to each other and to district enrollment averages at two time points: the year the district was declared unitary and four years hence. Findings indicated that within four years of being declared unitary, the gains that the magnet schools had made with regards to Black/non-Black desegregation had eroded substantially. Also, in the four year span, magnet schools had not made significant strides in meeting the diversity ideals adopted by the district at being released from supervision by the court. These findings highlight the difficulty of attaining diversity in student enrollment characteristics when quotas are not used and suggest that recruitment and enrollment policies must be crafted with care if districts are to achieve diversity goals.

  3. Utilization of Workflow Process Maps to Analyze Gaps in Critical Event Notification at a Large, Urban Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Meredith; Prater, Adam; Safdar, Nabile M; Dehkharghani, Seena; Fountain, Jack A

    2016-08-01

    Stroke care is a time-sensitive workflow involving multiple specialties acting in unison, often relying on one-way paging systems to alert care providers. The goal of this study was to map and quantitatively evaluate such a system and address communication gaps with system improvements. A workflow process map of the stroke notification system at a large, urban hospital was created via observation and interviews with hospital staff. We recorded pager communication regarding 45 patients in the emergency department (ED), neuroradiology reading room (NRR), and a clinician residence (CR), categorizing transmissions as successful or unsuccessful (dropped or unintelligible). Data analysis and consultation with information technology staff and the vendor informed a quality intervention-replacing one paging antenna and adding another. Data from a 1-month post-intervention period was collected. Error rates before and after were compared using a chi-squared test. Seventy-five pages regarding 45 patients were recorded pre-intervention; 88 pages regarding 86 patients were recorded post-intervention. Initial transmission error rates in the ED, NRR, and CR were 40.0, 22.7, and 12.0 %. Post-intervention, error rates were 5.1, 18.8, and 1.1 %, a statistically significant improvement in the ED (p workflow process maps. The workflow process map effectively defined communication failure parameters, allowing for systematic testing and intervention to improve communication in essential clinical locations.

  4. Differences in STEM doctoral publication by ethnicity, gender and academic field at a large public research university.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Mendoza-Denton

    Full Text Available Two independent surveys of PhD students in STEM fields at the University of California, Berkeley, indicate that underrepresented minorities (URMs publish at significantly lower rates than non-URM males, placing the former at a significant disadvantage as they compete for postdoctoral and faculty positions. Differences as a function of gender reveal a similar, though less consistent, pattern. A conspicuous exception is Berkeley's College of Chemistry, where publication rates are tightly clustered as a function of ethnicity and gender, and where PhD students experience a highly structured program that includes early and systematic involvement in research, as well as clear expectations for publishing. Social science research supports the hypothesis that this more structured environment hastens the successful induction of diverse groups into the high-performance STEM academic track.

  5. PALM-USM v1.0: A new urban surface model integrated into the PALM large-eddy simulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Resler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are an important part of the climate system and many aspects of urban climate have direct effects on human health and living conditions. This implies that reliable tools for local urban climate studies supporting sustainable urban planning are needed. However, a realistic implementation of urban canopy processes still poses a serious challenge for weather and climate modelling for the current generation of numerical models. To address this demand, a new urban surface model (USM, describing the surface energy processes for urban environments, was developed and integrated as a module into the PALM large-eddy simulation model. The development of the presented first version of the USM originated from modelling the urban heat island during summer heat wave episodes and thus implements primarily processes important in such conditions. The USM contains a multi-reflection radiation model for shortwave and longwave radiation with an integrated model of absorption of radiation by resolved plant canopy (i.e. trees, shrubs. Furthermore, it consists of an energy balance solver for horizontal and vertical impervious surfaces, and thermal diffusion in ground, wall, and roof materials, and it includes a simple model for the consideration of anthropogenic heat sources. The USM was parallelized using the standard Message Passing Interface and performance testing demonstrates that the computational costs of the USM are reasonable on typical clusters for the tested configurations. The module was fully integrated into PALM and is available via its online repository under the GNU General Public License (GPL. The USM was tested on a summer heat-wave episode for a selected Prague crossroads. The general representation of the urban boundary layer and patterns of surface temperatures of various surface types (walls, pavement are in good agreement with in situ observations made in Prague. Additional simulations were performed in order to assess the

  6. Hypertension and diabetes in Africa: design and implementation of a large population-based study of burden and risk factors in rural and urban Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Catharine Crampin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emerging burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa threatens the gains made in health by the major international effort to combat infectious diseases. There are few data on distribution of risk factors and outcomes in the region to inform an effective public health response. A comprehensive research programme is being developed aimed at accurately documenting the burden and drivers of NCDs in urban and rural Malawi; to design and test intervention strategies. The programme includes population surveys of all people aged 18 years and above, linking individuals with newly diagnosed hypertension and diabetes to healthcare and supporting clinical services. The successes, challenges and lessons learnt from the programme to date are discussed. Results Over 20,000 adults have been recruited in rural Karonga and urban Lilongwe. The urban population is significantly younger and wealthier than the rural population. Employed urban individuals, particularly males, give particular recruitment challenges; male participation rates were 80.3 % in the rural population and 43.6 % in urban, whilst female rates were 93.6 and 75.6 %, respectively. The study is generating high quality data on hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and risk factors. Conclusions It is feasible to develop large scale studies that can reliably inform the public health approach to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other NCDs in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is essential for studies to capture both rural and urban populations to address disparities in risk factors, including age structure. Innovative approaches are needed to address the specific challenge of recruiting employed urban males.

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Very Low Birth Weight in a Large Urban Area, Stratified by Adequacy of Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaverius, Pamela; Alman, Cameron; Holtz, Lori; Yarber, Laura

    2016-03-01

    This study examined risk and protective factors associated with very low birth weight (VLBW) for babies born to women receiving adequate or inadequate prenatal care. Birth records from St. Louis City and County from 2000 to 2009 were used (n = 152,590). Data was categorized across risk factors and stratified by adequacy of prenatal care (PNC). Multivariate logistic regression and population attributable risk (PAR) was used to explore risk factors for VLBW infants. Women receiving inadequate prenatal care had a higher prevalence of delivering a VLBW infant than those receiving adequate PNC (4.11 vs. 1.44 %, p < .0001). The distribution of risk factors differed between adequate and inadequate PNC regarding Black race (36.4 vs. 79.0 %, p < .0001), age under 20 (13.0 vs. 33.6 %, p < .0001), <13 years of education (35.9 vs. 77.9 %, p < .0001), Medicaid status (35.7 vs. 74.9, p < .0001), primiparity (41.6 vs. 31.4 %, p < .0001), smoking (9.7 vs. 24.5 %, p < .0001), and diabetes (4.0 vs. 2.4 %, p < .0001), respectively. Black race, advanced maternal age, primiparity and gestational hypertension were significant predictors of VLBW, regardless of adequate or inadequate PNC. Among women with inadequate PNC, Medicaid was protective against (aOR 0.671, 95 % CI 0.563-0.803; PAR -32.6 %) and smoking a risk factor for (aOR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.49; PAR 40.1 %) VLBW. When prematurity was added to the adjusted models, the largest PAR shifts to education (44.3 %) among women with inadequate PNC. Community actions around broader issues of racism and social determinants of health are needed to prevent VLBW in a large urban area.

  8. Trends in Early Childhood Obesity in a Large Urban School District in the Southwestern United States, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, Andrea; Myers, Orrin; Scharmen, Thomas; Kinyua, Peter; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes

    2016-06-02

    Although recent studies indicate that rates of childhood obesity and severe obesity may be declining, few studies have reported prevalence trends in early childhood or differences in trends across sociodemographic groups. The primary aim of this study was to report trends in prevalence of early childhood obesity and severe obesity 2007 through 2014 in a diverse, metropolitan school district in the southwestern United States and determine whether these trends vary by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and disability status. We analyzed height, weight and demographic data from 43,113 kindergarteners enrolled in a large, urban school district in the southwestern United States for 7 school years. Adjusted odds of obesity and severe obesity were calculated to assess changes in prevalence for non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and American Indian students; free or reduced-price lunch participants and nonparticipants; and students with and without disabilities. To test for differences in obesity trends, interaction terms were added to the logistic regressions between school year and sex, race/ethnicity, free or reduced-price lunch participation, and disability status. The adjusted prevalence of both obesity (from 13.1% in 2007-2008 to 12.0% in 2013-20014) and severe obesity (from 2.4% in 2007-2008 to 1.2% in 2013-2014) declined overall. We found no significant interactions between the adjusted prevalence of obesity over time and any of the sociodemographic subgroups. Obesity prevalence declined more among American Indian students than among Hispanic or non-Hispanic white students. In this district, from 2007 through 2014, severe obesity decreased and obesity did not increase, overall and across all sociodemographic subpopulations for kindergarten students.

  9. Urban interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2008-01-01

    Challenging perspectives on the urban question have arisen in recent years from beyond academic realms through the work of artists and cultural practitioners. Often in dialogue with urban theory and political activism, and employing a range of tactical practices, they have engaged critically......, relationships and situations. Such interventionist practices may rarely be seen as part of the traditional purview of urban studies. Yet in asserting their significance here, this essay argues that growing dialogues across and between urban and spatial theory, and artistic and cultural practice, have...... considerable potential for inspiring and developing critical approaches to cities. The essay highlights a number of specific challenges thrown up by such interconnections that are of political and pedagogical significance and in need of further debate....

  10. Leadership Diversity: A Study of Urban Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Mark; Li, Haipeng

    2007-01-01

    Diversity has been identified as a priority in library and information services for some time. The limited published research on diversity programs in libraries, though, has focused on academic libraries. This article represents the results of a study of leadership diversity in large, urban public libraries. In the study of members of the Urban…

  11. The trials, tribulations, and relative success of the ongoing clinical merger of two large academic hospital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J R; Dowling, M; Gallagher, J S

    2001-07-01

    The North Shore Health System and the Long Island Jewish Medical Center merged in 1997 and now form the third largest not-for-profit academic health care system in the United States. The authors analyze the specific factors responsible for the relative success of the clinical merger, review their merger's initial failures and how they crafted a more pragmatic and appropriate set of guiding principles to continue the merger, and discuss the future of their institution's clinical integration strategy. In 2000, clinical integration of the 19 clinical departments at the two merged institutions was surveyed across five broad areas: conferences, residency programs, common faculty and support staff, finances, and research. Extents of clinical integration ranged from 20% to 72%. Six departments had more than 50% clinical integration, and overall clinical integration was 42%. Not surprisingly, clinical integration had occurred most frequently with conferences (50%) and least with finances (25%). The single-chairperson model for department leadership has been most successful in achieving significant clinical integration of the formerly separate departments. The relative success of the clinical merger has been guided by the principle that no clinical service should be integrated simply for the sake of merging, but rather that integration should be encouraged where and when it makes sense to achieve specific program goals. In addition, the merger would not have proceeded without constant communication among the leadership and staff, flexibility in building leadership models, patience in having events progress over a time course that developed trust among the senior leaders, and the presence of a senior executive structure whose authority to make decisions is accepted. The most important factor for achieving a reasonable level of clinical integration is the ability of the clinical leaders to collaborate and lead the change process.

  12. Schools as Radical Sanctuaries: Decolonizing Urban Education through the Eyes of Youth of Color. Issues in the Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice of Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Large, comprehensive urban high schools were designed and constructed with the belief that they could meet the needs of all its students, academic and otherwise. By and large, however, these schools have only done a good job of sorting students for specific jobs in a society based on capitalism and White supremacy. Consequently, students schooled…

  13. Some notions on urbanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Bo

    According to International Federation of Housing and Planning the majority of the population of the planet will be urban in 2007. That definition of the urban, however, is based on zombie categories, to speak as Ulrich Beck. Urbanization and urban areas as we normally understand them are concepts...... of 'the first modernity'. Nowadays, in 'the second modernity', we have instead to aks: where in the city do you really find urbanity? A large part of what statistically is called urban areas lack urban quality and visible urban life. In the space syntax community urbanity is basically understood...

  14. The Effects of the Urban Built Environment on Mental Health: A Cohort Study in a Large Northern Italian City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Giulia; Gelormino, Elena; Marra, Giulia; Ferracin, Elisa; Costa, Giuseppe

    2015-11-20

    Mental health (MH) has a relevant burden on the health of populations. Common MH disorders (anxiety and non-psychotic depression) are well associated to socioeconomic individual and neighborhood characteristics, but little is known about the influence of urban structure. We analyzed among a Turin (Northwest Italy) urban population the association at area level of different urban structure characteristics (density, accessibility by public transport, accessibility to services, green and public spaces) and consumption of antidepressants. Estimates were adjusted by individual socio-demographic variables (education, housing tenure, employment) and contextual social environment (SE) variables (social and physical disorder, crime rates). Data was extracted from the Turin Longitudinal Study (TLS)-a census-based cohort study following up prospectively the mortality and morbidity of the population. As expected, individual characteristics show the strongest association with antidepressant drug consumption, while among built environment (BE) indicators accessibility by public transport and urban density only are associated to MH, being slightly protective factors. Results from this study, in agreement with previous literature, suggest that BE has a stronger effect on MH for people who spend more time in the neighborhood. Therefore, this research suggests that good accessibility to public transport, as well as a dense urban structure (versus sprawl), could contribute to reduced risk of depression, especially for women and elderly, by increasing opportunities to move around and have an active social life.

  15. Modeling and evaluation of urban pollution events of atmospheric heavy metals from a large Cu-smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F; Castell, Nuria; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Sanchez de la Campa, A M; de la Rosa, J D

    2016-01-01

    Metal smelting and processing are highly polluting activities that have a strong influence on the levels of heavy metals in air, soil, and crops. We employ an atmospheric transport and dispersion model to predict the pollution levels originated from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe. The model predicts that the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in an urban area close to the Cu-smelter can reach 170, 70, and 30 ng m−3, respectively. The model captures all the observed urban pollution events, but the magnitude of the elemental concentrations is predicted to be lower than that of the observed values; ~300, ~500, and ~100 ng m−3 for Cu, Zn, and As, respectively. The comparison between model and observations showed an average correlation coefficient of 0.62 ± 0.13. The simulation shows that the transport of heavy metals reaches a peak in the afternoon over the urban area. The under-prediction in the peak is explained by the simulated stronger winds compared with monitoring data. The stronger simulated winds enhance the transport and dispersion of heavy metals to the regional area, diminishing the impact of pollution events in the urban area. This model, driven by high resolution meteorology (2 km in horizontal), predicts the hourly-interval evolutions of atmospheric heavy metal pollutions in the close by urban area of industrial hotspot.

  16. The Effects of the Urban Built Environment on Mental Health: A Cohort Study in a Large Northern Italian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Melis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mental health (MH has a relevant burden on the health of populations. Common MH disorders (anxiety and non-psychotic depression are well associated to socioeconomic individual and neighborhood characteristics, but little is known about the influence of urban structure. We analyzed among a Turin (Northwest Italy urban population the association at area level of different urban structure characteristics (density, accessibility by public transport, accessibility to services, green and public spaces and consumption of antidepressants. Estimates were adjusted by individual socio-demographic variables (education, housing tenure, employment and contextual social environment (SE variables (social and physical disorder, crime rates. Data was extracted from the Turin Longitudinal Study (TLS—a census-based cohort study following up prospectively the mortality and morbidity of the population. As expected, individual characteristics show the strongest association with antidepressant drug consumption, while among built environment (BE indicators accessibility by public transport and urban density only are associated to MH, being slightly protective factors. Results from this study, in agreement with previous literature, suggest that BE has a stronger effect on MH for people who spend more time in the neighborhood. Therefore, this research suggests that good accessibility to public transport, as well as a dense urban structure (versus sprawl, could contribute to reduced risk of depression, especially for women and elderly, by increasing opportunities to move around and have an active social life.

  17. Academic Self-Perception and Its Relationship to Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Ronald W.; Heath, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-five students (average age, 10 years 7 months) were initially tested on reading, arithmetic, and academic self-perception. One year later they were tested again. Initial academic scores accounted for a large proportion of the variance in later academic scores. The children's self-perceptions of academic competence accounted…

  18. Assessment of long-term and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan effects on urban air quality and its implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Qin, Dahe; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    To solve traffic congestion and to improve urban air quality, long-lasting and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan was implemented by local government during 20 November to 26 December 2016 in urban Lanzhou, a semi-arid valley city of northwest China. The traffic control measures provided an invaluable opportunity to evaluate its effects on urban air quality in less developed cities of northwest China. Based on measured simultaneously air pollutants and meteorological parameters, the abatement of traffic-related pollutants induced by the implemented control measures such as CO, PM2.5 and PM10 (the particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm) concentrations were firstly quantified by comparing the air quality data in urban areas with those in rural areas (uncontrolled zones). The concentrations of CO, NO2 from motor vehicles and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were shown to have significant decreases of 15%-23% during traffic control period from those measured before control period with hourly maximum CO, PM2.5, and NO2/SO2 reduction of 43%, 35% and 141.4%, respectively. The influence of the control measures on AQI (air quality index) and ozone was less as compared to its effect on other air pollutants. Therefore, to alleviate serious winter haze pollution in China and to protect human health, the stringent long-term and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan should be implemented aperiodically in urban areas, especially for the periods with poor diffusion conditions.

  19. The Breathmobile Program: structure, implementation, and evolution of a large-scale, urban, pediatric asthma disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Craig A; Clement, Loran T; Hanley-Lopez, Jean; Morphew, Tricia; Kwong, Kenny Yat Choi; Lifson, Francene; Opas, Lawrence; Guterman, Jeffrey J

    2005-08-01

    Despite more than a decade of education and research-oriented intervention programs, inner city children with asthma continue to engage in episodic "rescue" patterns of healthcare and experience a disproportionate level of morbidity. The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a sustainable community-wide pediatric asthma disease management program designed to shift inner city children in Los Angeles from acute episodic care to regular preventive care in accordance with national standards. In 1995 the Southern California Chapter of the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA), the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LAC DHS), and the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) established an agreement to initiate and sustain the Breathmobile Program. This program includes automated case identification, mobile school-based clinics, and highly structured clinical encounters supported by an advanced information technology solution. Interdisciplinary teams of asthma care specialists provide regular and ongoing care to children at school and county clinic sites over a wide geographic area of urban Los Angeles. Each team operates in a specially equipped mobile clinic (Breathmobile), efficiently moving a structured healthcare process to school and county clinic sites with large numbers of children. Demographic, clinical, and participation data is tracked carefully in an electronic medical record system. Program operations, clinical oversight, and patient tracking are centralized at a care coordination center. Clinical operations and methods have been replicated in fixed specialty clinic sites at the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center. Clinical and process measures are regularly evaluated to assure quality, plan iterative improvement, and support evidence-based care. Four Breathmobiles deliver ongoing care at more than 90 school sites. The program has engaged over five thousand patients and their families in a

  20. Experiences of Latina/o Students in "Large Schools in Drag": A Critical Analysis of an Urban Alternative High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, William; Antrop-González, René

    2007-01-01

    This study uses mixed methods to identify the factors linked to varying levels of academic performance among Latina/o students enrolled in an alternative high school. Results from the quantitative analyses suggest students who had highly educated fathers and who reported high levels of English literacy are very likely to be classified as academic…

  1. Studying the urban thermal environment under a human-biometeorological point of view: The case of a large coastal metropolitan city, Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavoutas, George; Georgiou, Giorgos K.; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N.

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment in modern cities has become potentially unfavorable and harmful for its residents, as a result of urbanization and industrialization. Exposure to these extreme thermal conditions increases the heat stress of people in cities considerably. In this context, the present study aims to investigate the urban thermal environment of the large coastal metropolitan city of Athens, in a human-biometeorologically significant way, utilizing the thermo-physiological assessment index PET. The analysis was based on three hour measurements derived from three-year datasets (2006-2009), at 12 monitoring sites located in the urban complex of Athens, on its boundaries and beyond them. The differences of PET values have been investigated in order to attribute urban and exurban thermal characteristics to the considered sites. The frequency and spatial distribution of PET as well as the urban/rural differences of PET have also been analyzed. Finally, a trend analysis has been applied in order to detect possible PET trends by employing long-term recording data (1985-2008). In terms of thermal human-biometeorological conditions, the analysis reveals that among the considered stations, those located inside the urban complex and the industrialized area present urban thermal characteristics, regardless the fact that they are installed either in a park and on a hill or at an open field. The spatial distribution of PET, at 0200 LST, shows a difference of about 3 to 4 °C, on the main axis of the city (SSW-NNE) in the summer period, while the difference exceeds 2.5 °C in the winter period. In general, cooler (less warm) thermal perception is observed at the north/northeast sites of the city as well as at the areas beyond the eastern boundaries of it. The PET differences between urban and rural sites hold a positive sign, except of those at 0500 LST and at 0800 LST. The highest differences are noted at 1400 LST and the most intense of them is noticed in the summer period

  2. Motivation, Self-Regulated Learning Efficacy, and Academic Achievement among International and Domestic Students at an Urban Community College: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiang-Ann; Ferdenzi, Anita Cuttita; Edlin, Margot

    2012-01-01

    This study is designed to examine how intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and self-regulated learning efficacy influence academic achievement of international and domestic community college students. Results show that for both international and domestic students, motivation did not directly affect academic achievement. Self-regulated…

  3. A Comparison of the Academic Achievement and Perceptions of Leadership Skills and Citizenship Traits of JROTC, Student Athletes, and Other Students in an Urban High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Bonds, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three groups: JROTC students, student athletes, and other students, to determine if there were differences in academic achievement. Gaining an understanding of the necessary skills required to become academically successful and make healthy life choices, could provide educators working within an urban…

  4. On the Pollutant Plume Dispersion in the Urban Canopy Layer over 2D Idealized Street Canyons: A Large-Eddy Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colman C. C.; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2010-05-01

    Anthropogenic emissions are the major sources of air pollutants in urban areas. To improve the air quality in dense and mega cities, a simple but reliable prediction method is necessary. In the last five decades, the Gaussian pollutant plume model has been widely used for the estimation of air pollutant distribution in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in an operational manner. Whereas, it was originally designed for rural areas with rather open and flat terrain. The recirculating flows below the urban canopy layer substantially modify the near-ground urban wind environment and so does the pollutant distribution. Though the plume height and dispersion are often adjusted empirically, the accuracy of applying the Gaussian pollutant plume model in urban areas, of which the bottom of the flow domain consists of numerous inhomogeneous buildings, is unclear. To elucidate the flow and pollutant transport, as well as to demystify the uncertainty of employing the Gaussian pollutant plume model over urban roughness, this study was performed to examine how the Gaussian-shape pollutant plume in the urban canopy layer is modified by the idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyons at the bottom of the ABL. The specific objective is to develop a parameterization so that the geometric effects of urban morphology on the operational pollutant plume dispersion models could be taken into account. Because atmospheric turbulence is the major means of pollutant removal from street canyons to the ABL, the large-eddy simulation (LES) was adopted to calculate explicitly the flows and pollutant transport in the urban canopy layer. The subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) conservation was used to model the SGS processes in the incompressible, isothermal conditions. The computational domain consists of 12 identical idealized street canyons of unity aspect ratio which were placed evenly in the streamwise direction. Periodic boundary conditions (BCs) for the flow were applied

  5. Accelerating Best Care in Pennsylvania: adapting a large academic system's quality improvement process to rural community hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydar, Ziad; Gunderson, Julie; Ballard, David J; Skoufalos, Alexis; Berman, Bettina; Nash, David B

    2008-01-01

    Industrial quality improvement (QI) methods such as continuous quality improvement (CQI) may help bridge the gap between evidence-based "best care" and the quality of care provided. In 2006, Baylor Health Care System collaborated with Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University to conduct a QI demonstration project in select Pennsylvania hospitals using CQI techniques developed by Baylor. The training was provided over a 6-month period and focused on methods for rapid-cycle improvement; data system design; data management; tools to improve patient outcomes, processes of care, and cost-effectiveness; use of clinical guidelines and protocols; leadership skills; and customer service skills. Participants successfully implemented a variety of QI projects. QI education programs developed and pioneered within large health care systems can be adapted and applied successfully to other settings, providing needed tools to smaller rural and community hospitals that lack the necessary resources to establish such programs independently.

  6. Seasonal Differences in Determinants of Time Location Patterns in an Urban Population: A Large Population-Based Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sewon; Lee, Kiyoung

    2017-06-22

    Time location patterns are a significant factor for exposure assessment models of air pollutants. Factors associated with time location patterns in urban populations are typically due to high air pollution levels in urban areas. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal differences in time location patterns in two urban cities. A Time Use Survey of Korean Statistics (KOSTAT) was conducted in the summer, fall, and winter of 2014. Time location data from Seoul and Busan were collected, together with demographic information obtained by diaries and questionnaires. Determinants of the time spent at each location were analyzed by multiple linear regression and the stepwise method. Seoul and Busan participants had similar time location profiles over the three seasons. The time spent at own home, other locations, workplace/school and during walk were similar over the three seasons in both the Seoul and Busan participants. The most significant time location pattern factors were employment status, age, gender, monthly income, and spouse. Season affected the time spent at the workplace/school and other locations in the Seoul participants, but not in the Busan participants. The seasons affected each time location pattern of the urban population slightly differently, but overall there were few differences.

  7. Extrinsic Motivation for Large-Scale Assessments: A Case Study of a Student Achievement Program at One Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Joshua; McGee, Dean

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to discover the critical attributes of a student achievement program, known as "Think Gold," implemented at one urban comprehensive high school as part of the improvement process. Student achievement on state assessments improved during the period under study. The study draws upon perspectives on…

  8. Seasonal Differences in Determinants of Time Location Patterns in an Urban Population: A Large Population-Based Study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewon Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Time location patterns are a significant factor for exposure assessment models of air pollutants. Factors associated with time location patterns in urban populations are typically due to high air pollution levels in urban areas. The objective of this study was to determine the seasonal differences in time location patterns in two urban cities. A Time Use Survey of Korean Statistics (KOSTAT was conducted in the summer, fall, and winter of 2014. Time location data from Seoul and Busan were collected, together with demographic information obtained by diaries and questionnaires. Determinants of the time spent at each location were analyzed by multiple linear regression and the stepwise method. Seoul and Busan participants had similar time location profiles over the three seasons. The time spent at own home, other locations, workplace/school and during walk were similar over the three seasons in both the Seoul and Busan participants. The most significant time location pattern factors were employment status, age, gender, monthly income, and spouse. Season affected the time spent at the workplace/school and other locations in the Seoul participants, but not in the Busan participants. The seasons affected each time location pattern of the urban population slightly differently, but overall there were few differences.

  9. Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme: How Large-Scale Civil Engineering Projects Realise the Potential of a City

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    How Large-Scale Civil Engineering Projects Realise the Potential of a City (1/3), by Bill Hanway (Excecutive Director of Operations, AECOM Europe).   Wednesday, June 6, 2012 from 11:00 to 12:00 (Europe/Zurich) at CERN ( 80-1-001 - Globe 1st Floor ) In this series of three special lectures, leading experts from AECOM would explore the impact of a trio of major projects on a single city. In common with every metropolis, London has run-down districts and infrastructure in need of upgrading. The lectures propose to cover three of the biggest challenges: regenerating run-down areas; reducing congestion and transporting people more efficiently; and improving water and wastewater systems. Each project contributes to a collective public aim - to realise the potential of a growing city, and ensure its healthy, sustainable and competitive future. Lecture 1: Into the lecture series and The London 2012 Olympic Games Most cities share a group of common complex challenges – growing populations, agei...

  10. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2009-07-01

    The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides.

  12. Interaction between turbulent flow and sea breeze front over urban-like coast in large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ping; Wen, Zhiping; Sha, Weiming; Chen, Guixing

    2017-05-01

    Turbulent flow and its interaction with a sea breeze front (SBF) over an urban-like coast with a regular block array were investigated using a building-resolving computational fluid dynamics model. It was found that during daytime with an offshore ambient flow, streaky turbulent structures tended to grow within the convective boundary layer (CBL) over a warm urban surface ahead of the SBF. The structures were organized as streamwise streaks at an interval of a few hundred meters, which initiated at the rooftop level with strong wind shear and strengthens in the CBL with moderate buoyancy. The streaks then interacted with the onshore-propagating SBF as it made landfall. The SBF, which was initially characterized as a shallow and quasi-linear feature over the sea, developed three-dimensional structures with intensified updrafts at an elevated frontal head after landfall. Frontal updrafts were locally enhanced at intersections where the streaks merged with the SBF, which greatly increased turbulent fluxes at the front. The frontal line was irregular because of merging, tilting, and transformation effects of vorticity associated with streaky structures. Inland penetration of the SBF was slowed by the frictional effect of urban-like surfaces and turbulent flow on land. The overall SBF intensity weakened after the interaction with turbulent flow. These findings aid understanding of local weather over coastal cities during typical sea breeze conditions.

  13. Numerical modeling of flows and pollutant dispersion within and above urban street canyons under unstable thermal stratification by large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ming-Chung; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Recently, with the ever increasing urban areas in developing countries, the problem of air pollution due to vehicular exhaust arouses the concern of different groups of people. Understanding how different factors, such as urban morphology, meteorological conditions and human activities, affect the characteristics of street canyon ventilation, pollutant dispersion above urban areas and pollutant re-entrainment from the shear layer can help us improve air pollution control strategies. Among the factors mentioned above, thermal stratification is a significant one determining the pollutant transport behaviors in certain situation, e.g. when the urban surface is heated by strong solar radiation, which, however, is still not widely explored. The objective of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the effects of unstable thermal stratification on the flows and pollutant dispersion within and above urban street canyons through numerical modeling using large-eddy simulation (LES). In this study, LES equipped with one-equation subgrid-scale (SGS) model is employed to model the flows and pollutant dispersion within and above two-dimensional (2D) urban street canyons (flanked by idealized buildings, which are square solid bars in these models) under different intensities of unstable thermal stratifications. Three building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios, 0.5, 1 and 2, are included in this study as a representation of different building densities. The prevailing wind flow above the urban canopy is driven by background pressure gradient, which is perpendicular to the street axis, while the condition of unstable thermal stratification is induced by applying a higher uniform temperature on the no-slip urban surface. The relative importance between stratification and background wind is characterized by the Richardson number, with zero value as a neutral case and negative value as an unstable case. The buoyancy force is modeled by Boussinesq approximation and the

  14. Large-eddy simulation of pollutant dispersion from a ground-level area source over urban street canyons with irreversible chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, T. Z.; Liu, C.-H.; Zhao, Y. B.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion of chemically reactive pollutants is calculated by large-eddy simulation (LES) in a neutrally stratified urban canopy layer (UCL) over urban areas. As a pilot attempt, idealized street canyons of unity building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio are used. Nitric oxide (NO) is emitted from the ground surface of the first street canyon into the domain doped with ozone (O3). In the absence of ultraviolet radiation, this irreversible chemistry produces nitrogen dioxide (NO2), developing a reactive plume over the rough urban surface. A range of timescales of turbulence and chemistry are utilized to examine the mechanism of turbulent mixing and chemical reactions in the UCL. The Damköhler number (Da) and the reaction rate (r) are analyzed along the vertical direction on the plane normal to the prevailing flow at 10 m after the source. The maximum reaction rate peaks at an elevation where Damköhler number Da is equal or close to unity. Hence, comparable timescales of turbulence and reaction could enhance the chemical reactions in the plume.

  15. Impacts of large-scale introduction of hydrogen in the road transport sector on urban air pollution and human exposure in Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, S.S.; Ketzel, M.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L.M.; Winther, M.; Nielsen, O.K. (Aarhus Univ.. National Environmental Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark)); Joergensen, K.; Karlsson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Dept. of System Analysis, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-07-15

    The aim of the project 'Environmental and Health Impact Assessment of Scenarios for Renewable Energy Systems with Hydrogen' (HYSCENE) is to improve modelling of the environmental impacts and related socio-cultural and welfare economic impacts of a proposed hydrogen/renewable energy system with focus on large-scale introduction of hydrogen as energy carrier in the road transport sector (http://hyscene.dmu.dk). This extended abstract will focus on the impacts on urban air pollution and human exposure. (Author)

  16. Using an evidence-based approach for system selection at a large academic medical center: lessons learned in selecting an ambulatory EMR at Mount Sinai Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannry, Joseph; Mukani, Sonia; Myers, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    The experience of Mount Sinai Hospital is representative of the challenges and problems facing large academic medical centers in selecting an ambulatory EMR. The facility successfully revived a stalled process in a challenging financial climate, using a framework of science and rigorous investigation. The process incorporated several innovations: 1) There was a thorough review of medical informatics literature to develop a mission statement, determine practical objectives and guide the demonstration process; 2) The process involved rigorous investigation of vendor statements, industry statements and other institution's views of vendors; 3) The initiative focused on user-centric selection, and the survey instrument was scientifically and specifically designed to assess user feedback; 4) There was scientific analysis of validated findings and survey results at all steering meetings; 5) The process included an assessment of vendors' ability to support research by identifying funded and published research; 6) Selection involved meticulous total cost of ownership analysis to assess and compare real costs of implementing a vendor solution; and finally, 7) There were iterative meetings with stakeholders, executives and users to understand needs, address concerns and communicate the vision.

  17. Urban transportation: Perspectives on mobility and choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor); Arnold, G. R.; Bird, J. W.; Brooks, C. M. (Editor); Cobb, W. E.; Cross, J. E.; Darby, L. F.; Erb, N. H.; Ficht, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A study of urban transportation systems are presented characterized by intensive scrutiny of many ideas, philosophies, and academic perspectives. This report is intended to communicate some dimensions of the urban transportation problem to the general public.

  18. Academic Hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  19. Evaluating the Impact of Conflict Resolution on Urban Children's Violence-Related Attitudes and Behaviors in New Haven, Connecticut, through a Community-Academic Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Kerem; Pillsbury, Charles A.; Cavanaugh, Brenda; McGruder, La'rie; McKinney, Christy M.; Massey, Zohar; Groce, Nora E.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous schools are implementing youth violence prevention interventions aimed at enhancing conflict resolution skills without evaluating their effectiveness. Consequently, we formed a community-academic partnership between a New Haven community-based organization and Yale's School of Public Health and Prevention Research Center to examine the…

  20. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  1. The Electrical and Technology Curriculum of an Urban Charter High School and Its Impact for the Female in Academic and Trades Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Thomas Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the impact of the electrical and technology curriculum of an urban charter high school in Philadelphia for the alumnae of the school. The study found a positive impact that empowered the alumnae to face gender and racial discrimination in their apprenticeship program. It also found a positive impact for alumnae that are not…

  2. Evaluation as a Tool for Developing the Quality of Academic Libraries. Case Study at a Large and Traditional Research Oriented Scandinavian University

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisa Sinikara

    2006-01-01

    The leaders of our universities will ask today if we offer those services that a top university requires and whether the proposed resources for the libraries are worth investing. Establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) requires the establishing of quality systems. Quality assurance systems will be introduced throughout the entire European academic sector and will certainly have significant impact on the development of academic organizations. The collaborative effort to evaluate...

  3. Large eddy simulation of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: Coupling dynamics with O3-NOx-VOC chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2017-05-01

    A large eddy simulation (LES) model coupled with O 3 -NO x -VOC chemistry is implemented to simulate the coupled effects of emissions, mixing and chemical pre-processing within an idealised deep (aspect ratio = 2) urban street canyon under a weak wind condition. Reactive pollutants exhibit significant spatial variations in the presence of two vertically aligned unsteady vortices formed in the canyon. Comparison of the LES results from two chemical schemes (simple NO x -O 3 chemistry and a more comprehensive Reduced Chemical Scheme (RCS) chemical mechanism) shows that the concentrations of NO 2 and O x inside the street canyon are enhanced by approximately 30-40% via OH/HO 2 chemistry. NO, NO x , O 3 , OH and HO 2 are chemically consumed, while NO 2 and O x (total oxidant) are chemically produced within the canyon environment. Within-canyon pre-processing increases oxidant fluxes from the canyon to the overlying boundary layer, and this effect is greater for deeper street canyons (as found in many traditional European urban centres) than shallower (lower aspect ratio) streets. There is clear evidence of distinct behaviours for emitted chemical species and entrained chemical species, and positive (or negative) values of intensities of segregations are found between pairs of species with similar (or opposite) behaviour. The simplified two-box model underestimated NO and O 3 levels, but overestimated NO 2 levels for both the lower and upper canyon compared with the more realistic LES-chemistry model. This suggests that the segregation effect due to incomplete mixing reduces the chemical conversion rate of NO to NO 2 . This study reveals the impacts of nonlinear O 3 -NO x -VOC photochemical processes in the incomplete mixing environment and provides a better understanding of the pre-processing of emissions within canyons, prior to their release to the urban boundary layer, through the coupling of street canyon dynamics and chemistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  4. Urban Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gil

    2016-02-01

    that despite being planned following the same policy objectives, the neighbourhoods have different types of ‘urban modality’, thus present different levels of sustainable mobility potential. Neighbourhoods identified as underperformers within their context can be targeted for soft measures related to transport services, technology and individual attitudes to travel, to fulfil the potential of their ‘urban modality’ type. However, if this potential is not deemed satisfactory or if they already overachieve, only by retrofitting a set of infrastructure and land use characteristics will lead to a different ‘urban modality’ type, and a change in potential. Such a change can be lengthy, costly and sometimes impossible to implement ex-post. The thesis is based on a collection of published articles in peer-reviewed academic publications, with the first and last chapters providing an overview of the research and of its findings, and defining the main narrative thread.

  5. Extreme value analysis of air pollution data and their comparison between two large urban regions of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Droprinchinski Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen years of hourly atmospheric pollutant data (1996–2011 in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP, and seven years (2005–2011 of data measured in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ, were analyzed in order to study the extreme pollution events and their return period. In addition, the objective was to compare the air quality between the two largest Brazilian urban areas and provide information for decision makers, government agencies and civil society. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD were applied to investigate the behavior of pollutants in these two regions. Although GEV and GPD are different approaches, they presented similar results. The probability of higher concentrations for CO, NO, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 was more frequent during the winter, and O3 episodes occur most frequently during summer in the MASP. On the other hand, there is no seasonally defined behavior in MARJ for pollutants, with O3 presenting the shortest return period for high concentrations. In general, Ibirapuera and Campos Elísios stations present the highest probabilities of extreme events with high concentrations in MASP and MARJ, respectively. When the regions are compared, MASP presented higher probabilities of extreme events for all analyzed pollutants, except for NO; while O3 and PM2.5 are those with most frequent probabilities of presenting extreme episodes, in comparison other pollutants. Keywords: Air pollutants, Extreme events, Megacities, Ozone, Particulate matter

  6. The Effects of the Great Recession on Educational Attainment: Evidence from a Large Urban High School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordechay, Kfir

    2017-01-01

    Economic crises are a recurrent phenomenon in American society, yet there is little knowledge of the impacts on educational opportunity. Using data from a large high school district as a case study, this research explores the impact of the Great Recession (2007-2009) on high school senior graduation rates in an area at the epicenter of the…

  7. Performance assessment of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for modeling dispersion in an urban street canyon with tree planting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.; Gromke, C.B.; Dorer, V.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model to reliably predict near-field pollutant dispersion is assessed. To that extent, detailed time-resolved numerical simulations of coupled flow and dispersion are conducted for a street canyon with tree planting. Different crown porosities are

  8. Prevalence of AmpC and other beta-lactamases in enterobacteria at a large urban university hospital in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Rubens Clayton da Silva; Borges-Neto, Armando Alves; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini D’Almeida; de-Oliveira, Márcia P.; Riley, Lee W.; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2007-01-01

    Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) has been reported in virtually all species of Enterobacteriaceae, which greatly complicates the therapy of infections caused by these organisms. However, the frequency of isolates producing AmpC β-lactamases, especially plasmid mediated AmpC (pAmpC), is largely unknown. These β-lactamases confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam, a multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile. The aim of the present study was to determine the...

  9. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  10. Lymphatic filariasis patient identification in a large urban area of Tanzania: An application of a community-led mHealth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwingira, Upendo; Chikawe, Maria; Mandara, Wilfred Lazarus; Mableson, Hayley E; Uisso, Cecilia; Mremi, Irene; Malishee, Alpha; Malecela, Mwele; Mackenzie, Charles D; Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Stanton, Michelle C

    2017-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is best known for the disabling and disfiguring clinical conditions that infected patients can develop; providing care for these individuals is a major goal of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF. Methods of locating these patients, knowing their true number and thus providing care for them, remains a challenge for national medical systems, particularly when the endemic zone is a large urban area. A health community-led door-to-door survey approach using the SMS reporting tool MeasureSMS-Morbidity was used to rapidly collate and monitor data on LF patients in real-time (location, sex, age, clinical condition) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Each stage of the phased study carried out in the three urban districts of city consisted of a training period, a patient identification and reporting period, and a data verification period, with refinements to the system being made after each phase. A total of 6889 patients were reported (133.6 per 100,000 population), of which 4169 were reported to have hydrocoele (80.9 per 100,000), 2251 lymphoedema-elephantiasis (LE) (43.7 per 100,000) and 469 with both conditions (9.1 per 100,000). Kinondoni had the highest number of reported patients in absolute terms (2846, 138.9 per 100,000), followed by Temeke (2550, 157.3 per 100,000) and Ilala (1493, 100.5 per 100,000). The number of hydrocoele patients was almost twice that of LE in all three districts. Severe LE patients accounted for approximately a quarter (26.9%) of those reported, with the number of acute attacks increasing with reported LE severity (1.34 in mild cases, 1.78 in moderate cases, 2.52 in severe). Verification checks supported these findings. This system of identifying, recording and mapping patients affected by LF greatly assists in planning, locating and prioritising, as well as initiating, appropriate morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) activities. The approach is a feasible framework that could be used in other large

  11. Lymphatic filariasis patient identification in a large urban area of Tanzania: An application of a community-led mHealth system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendo Mwingira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis (LF is best known for the disabling and disfiguring clinical conditions that infected patients can develop; providing care for these individuals is a major goal of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF. Methods of locating these patients, knowing their true number and thus providing care for them, remains a challenge for national medical systems, particularly when the endemic zone is a large urban area.A health community-led door-to-door survey approach using the SMS reporting tool MeasureSMS-Morbidity was used to rapidly collate and monitor data on LF patients in real-time (location, sex, age, clinical condition in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Each stage of the phased study carried out in the three urban districts of city consisted of a training period, a patient identification and reporting period, and a data verification period, with refinements to the system being made after each phase. A total of 6889 patients were reported (133.6 per 100,000 population, of which 4169 were reported to have hydrocoele (80.9 per 100,000, 2251 lymphoedema-elephantiasis (LE (43.7 per 100,000 and 469 with both conditions (9.1 per 100,000. Kinondoni had the highest number of reported patients in absolute terms (2846, 138.9 per 100,000, followed by Temeke (2550, 157.3 per 100,000 and Ilala (1493, 100.5 per 100,000. The number of hydrocoele patients was almost twice that of LE in all three districts. Severe LE patients accounted for approximately a quarter (26.9% of those reported, with the number of acute attacks increasing with reported LE severity (1.34 in mild cases, 1.78 in moderate cases, 2.52 in severe. Verification checks supported these findings.This system of identifying, recording and mapping patients affected by LF greatly assists in planning, locating and prioritising, as well as initiating, appropriate morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP activities. The approach is a feasible framework that could be used in other large

  12. Academic writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  13. Risk of Social Media for Teens in an Urban Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Knowles MD; Sara Hirschfeld Lee MD; MaryAnn O’Riordan PhD; Rina Lazebnik MD

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the self-reported risky behaviors associated with adolescent social media use. Methods. Adolescents ages 13 to 21 years were recruited from a large, urban academic center to complete a written survey regarding social media use. Results are presented as frequencies and percentage; nominal variables were compared using ?2 analysis. Results. Almost all participants (93%) reported belonging to a social media site. The majority of adolescents (72%) access the Internet with a p...

  14. Prevalence of AmpC and other beta-lactamases in enterobacteria at a large urban university hospital in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Rubens Clayton da Silva; Borges-Neto, Armando Alves; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini D’Almeida; de-Oliveira, Márcia P.; Riley, Lee W.; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2010-01-01

    Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) has been reported in virtually all species of Enterobacteriaceae, which greatly complicates the therapy of infections caused by these organisms. However, the frequency of isolates producing AmpC β-lactamases, especially plasmid mediated AmpC (pAmpC), is largely unknown. These β-lactamases confer resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam, a multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of ESBL and pAmpC β-lactamases in a hospital where MDR enterobacterial isolates recently emerged. A total of 123 consecutive enterobacterial isolates obtained from 112 patients at a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil during March-June 2001 were included in the study. ESBL was detected by the addition of clavulanate to cephalosporin containing disks and by double diffusion. AmpC production was evaluated by a modified tridimensional test and a modified Hodge test. The presence of plasmid-mediated ampC β-lactamase genes was evaluated by multiplex-PCR. Sixty-five (53%) of 123 enterobacterial isolates were MDR, obtained from 56 patients. ESBL production was detected in 35 isolates; 5 clonal E. coli isolates exhibited high levels of chromosomal AmpC and ESBL production. However, no isolates contained pAmpC genes. Infection or colonization by MDR enterobacteria was not associated with any predominant resistant clones. A large proportion of hospital infections caused by ESBL-producing enterobacteria identified during the study period were due to sporadic infections rather than undetected outbreaks. This observation emphasizes the need to improve our detection methods for ESBL- and AmpC-producing organisms in hospitals where extended-spectrum cephalosporins are in wide use. PMID:17900845

  15. Performance assessment of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for modeling dispersion in an urban street canyon with tree planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, P.; Gromke, C.; Dorer, V.

    2013-08-01

    The potential of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model to reliably predict near-field pollutant dispersion is assessed. To that extent, detailed time-resolved numerical simulations of coupled flow and dispersion are conducted for a street canyon with tree planting. Different crown porosities are considered. The model performance is assessed in several steps, ranging from a qualitative comparison to measured concentrations, over statistical data analysis by means of scatter plots and box plots, up to the calculation of objective validation metrics. The extensive validation effort highlights and quantifies notable features and shortcomings of the model, which would otherwise remain unnoticed. The model performance is found to be spatially non-uniform. Closer agreement with measurement data is achieved near the canyon ends than for the central part of the canyon, and typical model acceptance criteria are satisfied more easily for the leeward than for the windward canyon wall. This demonstrates the need for rigorous model evaluation. Only quality-assured models can be used with confidence to support assessment, planning and implementation of pollutant mitigation strategies.

  16. Maritime Tactile Education for Urban Secondary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzer, Arthur Henry, IV

    2012-01-01

    Urban high-school students' low average level of academic achievement is a national problem. A lack of academic progress is a factor that contributes to students failing to graduate. In response to these urban high school student problems, a growing number of urban charter high schools have opened as an alternative to the traditional public high…

  17. Evaluation as a Tool for Developing the Quality of Academic Libraries. Case Study at a Large and Traditional Research Oriented Scandinavian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisa Sinikara

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The leaders of our universities will ask today if we offer those services that a top university requires and whether the proposed resources for the libraries are worth investing. Establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA requires the establishing of quality systems. Quality assurance systems will be introduced throughout the entire European academic sector and will certainly have significant impact on the development of academic organizations. The collaborative effort to evaluate European universities is coordinated by ENQA, the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher education (Standards, 2005. Most European countries have developed a national quality assurance system. The solutions of different countries can be divided into three different classes: 1 Auditing countries[1] (institutional audit, quality audit, evaluation of quality assurance systems, enhancement-led institutional review: England, Scotland, Ireland, France, Finland, 2 Accreditation[2]: Holland, Germany and 3 Combination or another system: Norway, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden (Audits, 2006.

  18. Academic Success of Adolescents in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar-Lever, Joaquina; Victorio-Estrada, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    This study identified significant predictors of important academic results such as academic performance and school desertion by adolescent students living in poverty in both urban and rural settings. The results indicate the relative importance of individual, family, educational and social variables reported by the young people, and the…

  19. Urbanization and Third World stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienen, H

    1984-07-01

    This essay reviews images of urbanization that have been held by academics and activists, including revolutionary leaders. It examines the methodology and findings of case studies in Nigeria, Mexico, Peru, Brazil, Kenya, Turkey, Malaysia and other countries with the aim of determining how well suited are the data and theories for assessing the relationship between urbanization and political stability. The review examines the following topics: migration; political participaton and the urban poor; radical parties and urban violence; the over-urbanization thesis; class and ethnicity. It especially evaluates the role of so-called urban marginals in urban political life and concludes that the evidence is overwhelming that there is no widespread culture of poverty or culture of apathy among the urban poor in developing countries. 119 references.

  20. Impact of School Sense of Community within a Faith-Based University: Administrative and Academic Staff Perceptions on Institutional Mission and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Cowman, Shaun E.; Milner, Lauren A.; Gutierrez, Robert E.; Drake, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Academic staff (n = 305) and administrative staff (n = 595) at a large urban, Catholic, and religious order teaching university completed on-line school sense of community, social desirability, and mission-identity plus mission-driven activity measures. Partial correlates (controlling for social desirability) indicated that for both faculty and…

  1. Developing a semi/automated protocol to post-process large volume, High-resolution airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery for urban waste heat mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mir Mustafizur

    In collaboration with The City of Calgary 2011 Sustainability Direction and as part of the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) project, the focus of this research is to develop a semi/automated 'protocol' to post-process large volumes of high-resolution (H-res) airborne thermal infrared (TIR) imagery to enable accurate urban waste heat mapping. HEAT is a free GeoWeb service, designed to help Calgary residents improve their home energy efficiency by visualizing the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities, as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT metrics are derived from 43 flight lines of TABI-1800 (Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager) data acquired on May 13--14, 2012 at night (11:00 pm--5:00 am) over The City of Calgary, Alberta (˜825 km 2) at a 50 cm spatial resolution and 0.05°C thermal resolution. At present, the only way to generate a large area, high-spatial resolution TIR scene is to acquire separate airborne flight lines and mosaic them together. However, the ambient sensed temperature within, and between flight lines naturally changes during acquisition (due to varying atmospheric and local micro-climate conditions), resulting in mosaicked images with different temperatures for the same scene components (e.g. roads, buildings), and mosaic join-lines arbitrarily bisect many thousands of homes. In combination these effects result in reduced utility and classification accuracy including, poorly defined HEAT Metrics, inaccurate hotspot detection and raw imagery that are difficult to interpret. In an effort to minimize these effects, three new semi/automated post-processing algorithms (the protocol) are described, which are then used to generate a 43 flight line mosaic of TABI-1800 data from which accurate Calgary waste heat maps and HEAT metrics can be generated. These algorithms (presented as four peer-reviewed papers)---are: (a) Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN)---used to mitigate the microclimatic

  2. A numerical study of air pollutant dispersion with bimolecular chemical reactions in an urban street canyon using large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikumoto, Hideki; Ooka, Ryozo

    2012-07-01

    A large-eddy simulation is performed on a turbulent dispersion of chemically reactive air pollutants in a two-dimensional urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of 1.0. Nitrogen monoxide emitted from a line-source set on the bottom of the street canyon disperses and reacts with Ozone included in a free stream. The reactions have significant influences on the concentrations of pollutants in the canyon space, and they increase the concentrations of the reaction products relative to of the concentrations of the reactants. The transport of air pollutants through a free shear layer above the canyon is closely related to the structure of the turbulence. Gases in the canyon are mainly exhausted when low-speed regions appear above the canyon. In contrast, pollutants in the free stream flow into the canyon with high-speed fluid bodies. Consequently, the correlation between the time fluctuations of the reactants' concentrations strongly affects the reaction rates in the region near the free shear layer. In this calculation, the correlation term reaches to a value of 20% of the mean reaction rate at a maximum there.

  3. Improved Large-Eddy Simulation Using a Stochastic Backscatter Model: Application to the Neutral Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Urban Street Canyon Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J. J.; Cai, X.; Kinnersley, R.

    2015-12-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) provides a powerful tool for developing our understanding of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics, which in turn can be used to improve the parameterisations of simpler operational models. However, LES modelling is not without its own limitations - most notably, the need to parameterise the effects of all subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence. Here, we employ a stochastic backscatter SGS model, which explicitly handles the effects of both forward and reverse energy transfer to/from the subgrid scales, to simulate the neutrally stratified ABL as well as flow within an idealised urban street canyon. In both cases, a clear improvement in LES output statistics is observed when compared with the performance of a SGS model that handles forward energy transfer only. In the neutral ABL case, the near-surface velocity profile is brought significantly closer towards its expected logarithmic form. In the street canyon case, the strength of the primary vortex that forms within the canyon is more accurately reproduced when compared to wind tunnel measurements. Our results indicate that grid-scale backscatter plays an important role in both these modelled situations.

  4. Integration of HIV and TB services results in improved TB treatment outcomes and earlier prioritized ART initiation in a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Sabine M; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Katabira, Catherine; Mbidde, Peter; Lange, Joep M A; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Coutinho, Alex; Manabe, Yukari C

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization recommends that treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected patients should be integrated with HIV care. In December 2008, a separate outdoor-integrated TB/HIV clinic was instituted for attendees of a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. We sought to evaluate associated TB and HIV treatment outcomes. Routinely collected clinical, pharmacy, and laboratory data were merged with TB clinic data for patients initiating TB treatment in 2009 and with TB register data for patients in 2007. TB treatment outcomes and (timing of) antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in ART-naive patients [overall and stratified by CD4+ T cell (CD4) count] in 2007 and 2009 were compared. Nosocomial transmission rates could not be assessed. Three hundred forty-six patients were initiated on TB treatment in 2007 and 366 in 2009. Median CD4 counts at TB diagnosis did not differ. TB treatment cure or completion increased from 62% to 68%, death or default decreased from 33% to 25% (P ART-naive TB patients were initiated on ART in 2009 versus 2007 (57% and 66%, P = 0.031), but this decrease was only in patients with CD4 counts >250 cells per cubic millimeter (19% vs. 48%, P = 0.003). More patients were started on ART during TB treatment (94% vs. 78%, P ART initiation. This supports rollout of a fully integrated TB/HIV service delivery model throughout high-prevalence TB and HIV settings.

  5. Effect of real-time boundary wind conditions on the air flow and pollutant dispersion in an urban street canyon—Large eddy simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Gu, Zhao-Lin; Cheng, Yan; Lee, Shun-Cheng

    2011-07-01

    Air flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics in an urban street canyon are studied under the real-time boundary conditions. A new scheme for realizing real-time boundary conditions in simulations is proposed, to keep the upper boundary wind conditions consistent with the measured time series of wind data. The air flow structure and its evolution under real-time boundary wind conditions are simulated by using this new scheme. The induced effect of time series of ambient wind conditions on the flow structures inside and above the street canyon is investigated. The flow shows an obvious intermittent feature in the street canyon and the flapping of the shear layer forms near the roof layer under real-time wind conditions, resulting in the expansion or compression of the air mass in the canyon. The simulations of pollutant dispersion show that the pollutants inside and above the street canyon are transported by different dispersion mechanisms, relying on the time series of air flow structures. Large scale air movements in the processes of the air mass expansion or compression in the canyon exhibit obvious effects on pollutant dispersion. The simulations of pollutant dispersion also show that the transport of pollutants from the canyon to the upper air flow is dominated by the shear layer turbulence near the roof level and the expansion or compression of the air mass in street canyon under real-time boundary wind conditions. Especially, the expansion of the air mass, which features the large scale air movement of the air mass, makes more contribution to the pollutant dispersion in this study. Comparisons of simulated results under different boundary wind conditions indicate that real-time boundary wind conditions produces better condition for pollutant dispersion than the artificially-designed steady boundary wind conditions.

  6. Academic dishonsty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This study attempted to investigate students' self reported academic dishonesty in Ethiopian ... university programs can play a key role in ... serious problem in establishing academic ... and Rocha 2006); Asian-Pacific, ... and self-adjustment mediates the ..... In my suggestion, it is better that ..... Comparative and International.

  7. Are You an Academic Stock or an Academic Bond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Academic scholarship is a business, and just like any other business, it is driven largely by the incentive for profit. Those profits may or may not be financial in nature, but the potential for reward, whether it is measured in terms of a promotion or of intellectual property, underlies whatever people do in higher education. Academics don't…

  8. REVIEW ARTICLE: A comparison of site response techniques using earthquake data and ambient seismic noise analysis in the large urban areas of Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Leyton, Felipe; Campos, Jaime; Zschau, Jochen

    2009-08-01

    Situated in an active tectonic region, Santiago de Chile, the country's capital with more than six million inhabitants, faces tremendous earthquake risk. Macroseismic data for the 1985 Valparaiso event show large variations in the distribution of damage to buildings within short distances, indicating strong effects of local sediments on ground motion. Therefore, a temporary seismic network was installed in the urban area for recording earthquake activity and a study was carried out aiming to estimate site amplification derived from horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios from earthquake data (EHV) and ambient noise (NHV), as well as using the standard spectral ratio (SSR) technique with a nearby reference station located on igneous rock. The results lead to the following conclusions: (1) The analysis of earthquake data shows significant dependence on the local geological structure with respect to amplitude and duration. (2) An amplification of ground motion at frequencies higher than the fundamental one can be found. This amplification would not be found when looking at NHV ratios alone. (3) The analysis of NHV spectral ratios shows that they can only provide a lower bound in amplitude for site amplification. (4) P-wave site responses always show lower amplitudes than those derived by S waves, and sometimes even fail to provide some frequencies of amplification. (5) No variability in terms of time and amplitude is observed in the analysis of the H/V ratio of noise. (6) Due to the geological conditions in some parts of the investigated area, the fundamental resonance frequency of a site is difficult to estimate following standard criteria proposed by the SESAME consortium, suggesting that these are too restrictive under certain circumstances.

  9. An exploratory, descriptive study of consumer opinions and behaviors regarding health products sales at 4 chiropractic practices in a large, western Canadian urban center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stacey A; Mbadiwe, Chinyere; McMorland, D Gordon; Grod, Jaroslaw P

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the opinions and behaviors of chiropractic patients in a large, western Canadian urban center regarding the sale of health products by doctors of chiropractic. A brief, descriptive survey consisting of both fixed-choice and open-ended questions was distributed by clinic reception staff at 4 chiropractic offices in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Each practice sold a range of health products, including those relating to musculoskeletal care and nutrition, and served between 275 and 320 clients per week. After a 10-week recruitment interval between January and March 2013, a convenience sample of 103 chiropractic patients was obtained. Most patients supported the sale of health products by doctors of chiropractic (n = 101; 98.1%), and most had made health product purchases from a doctor of chiropractic at some point (n = 73; 70.9%). Products relating to muscular care, exercise/rehabilitation products, and pillows were purchased most often (>40%). Consumers were most supportive of doctors of chiropractic selling products they perceived to be directly related to musculoskeletal care. Some participants believed that there should be limits placed on the range of products sold including the products had to be consistent with the practitioner's area of expertise and had to have some demonstrated level of effectiveness. Primary reasons for health product purchase included the doctor's recommendations, convenience, and perception that the product would improve well-being (>50%). This study found that chiropractic patients were supportive of health product sales by doctors of chiropractic, assuming certain conditions were met. Consumers believed that product sales should be undertaken with integrity and should be consistent with the doctor's area of expertise. Consumer beliefs appeared to impact their purchasing behaviors. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Urban Stage 2014: Navigating Relationships during a Collaboration between Local Businesses, Nonprofits, a Large University, and a Mid-Sized City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Driskill

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Stage was constructed as a temporary urbanism project to demonstrate environmental, cultural, economic and social sustainability in an urban environment. One block of Avenue J in downtown Lubbock, Texas was constructed and activated between October 30 and November 7, 2014. This paper will focus on the collaboration and decision making processes between the City of Lubbock, Texas Tech University, and community organizations that enabled this project to take place. The collaborative process between these diverse entities was inherently complex by virtue of the existing organizational structures and complicated further by bureaucratic inertia, the bureaucratic avoidance of responsibility. Leadership actions at various levels of organizational structure were required in order to overcome this bureaucratic inertia and install the Urban Stage.

  11. academic libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... Key words: academic libraries, open access, research, researchers, technology ... European commission (2012) reports that affordable and easy access to the results ...

  12. Effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of traffic-related air pollution in a large urban area: Implications of a multi-canyon air pollution dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangwen; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Zhang, Jiachen; Huang, Xin; Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Olalekan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with highly even or highly uneven building heights on each side of the street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Further, increasing street widths tends to lead to lower pollutant concentrations by reducing emissions and enhancing ventilation simultaneously. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry while considering traffic demand as well as local weather patterns may significantly reduce inhalation of unhealthy air by urban residents.

  13. Academic Publications

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco H C Felix

    2017-01-01

    Alternative modes of academic publication. What it is: Page for the dissemination of academic papers in alternative formats. Aimed at the diffusion of the idea of open publication, or open access publication, a branch of open science, a multidisciplinary movement that seeks to modify the paradigm of knowledge production that centralizes it and prevents its spreading. Historically, Western tradition has become firmly rooted in the free dissemination of knowledge among peers. However, the c...

  14. Academic Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela ZECA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Academic Marketing is an investment in a future dominated by The Forth Industrial Revolution and Globalization and not an expense. This aspect will basically alter our way to teach and to learn. In its dimensions, arguably changes will be like anything we has seen before. We try to assess how will be all unfold but, anyway, academic field response at this challenge should be integrated and comprehensive, involving all stakeholders both public and private sectors, because these changes herald upheaval of whole organizations. The educational service is a special one, delivered today but with effects in the future, the future of the individual, the future of generation, the future of nations. The educational service policy adapted to the requirements of time, brings to the front the opportunity of academic marketing. To analyze demand in a professional way, to measure trends and correlated university programs with the forecast demand for jobs, it is the subject. In the case of academic education, we are talking also about cost, distribution and promotion policies, but being a special service we also discuss about ethic boundaries. This work is an open chapter focusing studies on academic megamarketing, the work keeping up with the pace of change, students enrolment mobility, overtakes job market, and an imposed win-win-win formula, applied for students, local community and academic field.

  15. Initial experience with the unrestricted introduction of sugammadex at a large academic medical center: a retrospective observational study examining postoperative mechanical ventilation and efficiency outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly-Shah, Vikas N O'; Lynde, Grant C; Mitchell, Matthew L; Maffeo, Carla L; Jabaley, Craig S; Wolf, Francis A

    2018-05-30

    Sugammadex can rapidly reverse deep neuromuscular blockade, but due to cost questions remain as to its optimal utilization. After introduction for unrestricted use at an academic medical center, we hypothesized that reductions would be demonstrated in the primary outcome of post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) mechanical ventilation (MV) and secondary outcomes of PACU length of stay (LOS), and emergence time (surgery end to anesthesia end time in PACU). We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients undergoing general anesthesia over a 12-month period. Using multiple variable penalized logistic regression in a one group before-and-after design, we compared categorized rates of PACU MV to examine the effect of sugammadex introduction following a post-hoc chart review to ascertain the reason for postoperative MV. Additionally, multiple variable linear regression was used to assess for differences in PACU LOS and emergence time within a propensity matched set of patients receiving neostigmine or sugammadex. 7,217 cases met inclusion criteria: 3,798 before and 3,419 after the introduction of sugammadex. The incidence of PACU MV was 2.3% before and 1.8% after (p=0.118). PACU MV due to residual neuromuscular blockade (rNMB) decreased from 0.63% to 0.20% (p=0.005). Ventilation due to other causes was unchanged. PACU LOS and emergence time were unchanged in a propensity matched set of 1,444 cases. We identified rNMB as an important contributor to PACU MV utilization and observed a significant decrease after sugammadex was introduced. The selected efficiency measures may not have been sufficiently granular to identify improvements following introduction.

  16. Performance of a Machine Learning Classifier of Knee MRI Reports in Two Large Academic Radiology Practices: A Tool to Estimate Diagnostic Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; Langlotz, Curtis P; Amrhein, Timothy J; Befera, Nicholas T; Lungren, Matthew P

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of a natural language processing (NLP) system in classifying a database of free-text knee MRI reports at two separate academic radiology practices. An NLP system that uses terms and patterns in manually classified narrative knee MRI reports was constructed. The NLP system was trained and tested on expert-classified knee MRI reports from two major health care organizations. Radiology reports were modeled in the training set as vectors, and a support vector machine framework was used to train the classifier. A separate test set from each organization was used to evaluate the performance of the system. We evaluated the performance of the system both within and across organizations. Standard evaluation metrics, such as accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score (i.e., the weighted average of the precision and recall), and their respective 95% CIs were used to measure the efficacy of our classification system. The accuracy for radiology reports that belonged to the model's clinically significant concept classes after training data from the same institution was good, yielding an F1 score greater than 90% (95% CI, 84.6-97.3%). Performance of the classifier on cross-institutional application without institution-specific training data yielded F1 scores of 77.6% (95% CI, 69.5-85.7%) and 90.2% (95% CI, 84.5-95.9%) at the two organizations studied. The results show excellent accuracy by the NLP machine learning classifier in classifying free-text knee MRI reports, supporting the institution-independent reproducibility of knee MRI report classification. Furthermore, the machine learning classifier performed well on free-text knee MRI reports from another institution. These data support the feasibility of multiinstitutional classification of radiologic imaging text reports with a single machine learning classifier without requiring institution-specific training data.

  17. Estimation of local and external contributions of biomass burning to PM2.5 in an industrial zone included in a large urban settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetello, Francesca; Squizzato, Stefania; Hofer, Angelika; Masiol, Mauro; Khan, Md Badiuzzaman; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Fermo, Paola; Formenton, Gian Maria; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    A total of 85 PM 2.5 samples were collected at a site located in a large industrial zone (Porto Marghera, Venice, Italy) during a 1-year-long sampling campaign. Samples were analyzed to determine water-soluble inorganic ions, elemental and organic carbon, and levoglucosan, and results were processed to investigate the seasonal patterns, the relationship between the analyzed species, and the most probable sources by using a set of tools, including (i) conditional probability function (CPF), (ii) conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF), (iii) concentration weighted trajectory (CWT), and (iv) potential source contribution function (PSCF) analyses. Furthermore, the importance of biomass combustions to PM 2.5 was also estimated. Average PM 2.5 concentrations ranged between 54 and 16 μg m -3 in the cold and warm period, respectively. The mean value of total ions was 11 μg m -3 (range 1-46 μg m -3 ): The most abundant ion was nitrate with a share of 44 % followed by sulfate (29 %), ammonium (14 %), potassium (4 %), and chloride (4 %). Levoglucosan accounted for 1.2 % of the PM 2.5 mass, and its concentration ranged from few ng m -3 in warm periods to 2.66 μg m -3 during winter. Average concentrations of levoglucosan during the cold period were higher than those found in other European urban sites. This result may indicate a great influence of biomass combustions on particulate matter pollution. Elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) showed similar behavior, with the highest contributions during cold periods and lower during summer. The ratios between biomass burning indicators (K + , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , levoglucosan, EC, and OC) were used as proxy for the biomass burning estimation, and the contribution to the OC and PM 2.5 was also calculated by using the levoglucosan (LG)/OC and LG/PM 2.5 ratios and was estimated to be 29 and 18 %, respectively.

  18. Expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The literature on business expatriates has been increasing rapidly, but research on expatriate academics has remained scant, despite the apparent increasing globalisation of the academic world. Therefore, more research is needed on the latter group of expatriates. This paper aims to fill...... some of the gaps. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was directed electronically towards expatriate academics occupying regular positions in science faculty departments in universities in northern Europe. Findings – Results showed that job clarity was the dominating job factor with strong...... relationships with all of the five investigated work outcome variables, work adjustment, work performance, work effectiveness, job satisfaction, and time to proficiency. Job conflict and job freedom had an association with some of the work outcome variables but not with all of them. Neither workload nor job...

  19. Academic Allies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Rebekka Birkebo

    the national associations of European law: Fédération Internationale pour le Droit Européen, the European law journal Common Market Law Review, and the ITL project, carried out at the European University Institute.It carefully documents an alliance between academics and community actors with the aim...... of providing academic support to the constitutional claim, and it argues that the academic discipline of European law was built and developed through a circular attribution of legal ideas, legitimacy, and self-image between the European Court of Justice, the Commission, and academia –most particularly so......This doctoral thesis explores the key transnational institutions of European law academia and their role in the creation of a constitutional legal practice in the European Community from 1961 to 1993. Consisting of three case studies, it investigates the transnational federation gathering...

  20. Examination of Nondesignated Preliminary Surgery Residents Recruited Since the Inception of Supplementary Offer and Acceptance Program: Lessons Learned From a Large Academic Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuja-Cruz, Maria; Travis, Claire; Benge, Michael; Caufield, Barbara; Nehler, Mark

    academically than the unmatched general surgery group, often have career interests that do not always align with scheduled rotations, and may not feel compelled to complete the year if they match. They place minimally better when accounting for those unmatched general surgery NDP R1s continuing as NDP R2s. Ultimately the success in a non-designated preliminary R1 surgery program is alignment of clinical educational opportunities with the needs of the trainee. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Future urban transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn; Jacobsen, Lars; Möller, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The urban environment is usually associated with a variety of activities, which involve matching the demand for goods, commerce, services, rules and laws, culture and intellectual exchange. Proximity and congregation are essential factors when it comes to the economic efficiency of urban society....... However, the attractiveness of urban environments has caused cites to expand without control in many areas, causing congestion, and environmental and social problems. This session deals with the complexity of urban settings, including the impact of large infrastructure projects relating to safety, noise...

  2. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    12, 13, 14, March LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 POSTPONED! - Modern Project Management Methods - POSTPONED! By G. Vallet / Ed. Highware, Paris, F. Academic Training Françoise Benz Secretariat Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  3. Academic Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  4. Academic Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Linda

    2013-01-01

    As colleges and universities become even more complex organizations, advancement professionals need to have the skills, experience, and academic credentials to succeed in this ever-changing environment. Advancement leaders need competencies that extend beyond fundraising, alumni relations, and communications and marketing. The author encourages…

  5. Urban mining systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the fundamental concept of and current endeavors in “urban mining” among those who are interested in both metal resources and ecology. Systems for recycling and reusing precious metals and rare-earth minerals contained in used and discarded electronics are introduced in this book. The target audience is not academic researchers in the resource management and ecology fields but, rather, citizens who are concerned about our future environment and want to do something for the future.

  6. Academic Words and Academic Capitalism Academic Words and Academic Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Billig

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo sugiere que esta época es la mejor y peor para la labor académica. La mejor en cuanto hay más publicaciones académicas que nunca. Y la peor porque sobra mucho de estas publicaciones. Trabajando en las condiciones competitivas del capitalismo académico, los académicos se sienten en la necesidad de continuar publicando, independientemente de que tengan algo que decir. Las presiones de publicar continuamente y promover la propia perspectiva se reflejan en la manera en la que los científicos sociales están escribiendo. Y es que los académicos utilizan un lenguaje técnico basado en sustantivos, con una precisión menor a la del lenguaje ordinario. Los estudiantes de postgrado han sido educados en esta manera de escribir como una condición previa a iniciarse en las ciencias sociales. Así, la naturaleza misma del capitalismo académico no sólo determina las condiciones en las que los académicos trabajan, sino que también afecta su manera de escribir.


    This paper suggests that it is the best and worst of times for academic work. It is the best of times because there are more academics publishing than ever before. It is the worst of times because there is much unnecessary publication. Working in the competitive conditions of academic capitalism, academics feel impelled to keep publishing, whether or not they have anything to say. The pressures to publish continually and to promote one’s own approach are reflected in the way that social scientists are writing. Academics use a noun-based technical language, which is less precise than ordinary language. Postgraduates are taught this way of writing as a precondition for entering the social sciences. In this way, the nature of academic capitalism not only determines the conditions under which academics are working but it affects the way that they are writing.

  7. Informal Urban Development in Cairo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Petersen, Mads Dines

    2017-01-01

    The city of Cairo, Egypt, currently experiences rapid urban growth. Large parts of the city expand without formal urban planning. This results in large-scale informal and unplanned development. In addition, the resulting urban fabric and individual buildings feature severe deficiencies when...... it comes to the basic quality of urban space, ventilation and daylight. While retrofitting already built-up areas would be a huge challenge, some minor improvements might be possible in future development even within the current mode of production of these spaces. In recent years, parametric design tools...... have opened up new possibilities for modelling in urban design. By way of a parametric design approach, different urban design parameters can be modified and new urban space scenarios can be rendered three dimensionally in almost real time. In short, this is parametric urban design. It opens up...

  8. Academic Vocational Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren; Keller, Hanne Dauer; Stegeager, Nikolaj

    2010-01-01

    Danish society puts a high value on education which is traditionally seen as a crucial vehicle for development in all spheres of social and economic life. Large sums are spent on work-related adult learning, an important example being academically based masters programs. Yet, the actual effects o......, with examples, a framework for designing educational programs which can help make academic teaching relevant to production-oriented life in organizations. The paper may be read as a statement from which criteria for evaluating the said masters programs can be generated.......Danish society puts a high value on education which is traditionally seen as a crucial vehicle for development in all spheres of social and economic life. Large sums are spent on work-related adult learning, an important example being academically based masters programs. Yet, the actual effects...... of such educational investment in terms of improved workplace efficiency remain obscure both with respect to the organization and the individual. Academically acquired knowledge is generally admitted not to affect work-related outcomes to any significant extent. The three authors of this paper are all involved...

  9. PALM-USM v1.0: A New Urban Surface Model Integrated into the PALM Large-eddy Simulation Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Resler, Jaroslav; Krč, Pavel; Belda, Michal; Juruš, Pavel; Benešová, N.; Lopata, J.; Vlček, O.; Damašková, D.; Eben, Kryštof; Derbek, P.; Maronga, P.; Kanani-Sühring, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 10 (2017), s. 3635-3659 ISSN 1991-959X Grant - others:UrbanAdapt(XE) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-036-2015; Ga MŠk(CZ) LM2015070 Program:CZ02 Biodiverzita a ekosystémové služby / Monitorování a integrované plánování a kontrola v životním prostředí/ Adaptace na změnu klimatu Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : urban modelling * PALM * LES * surface energy balance * radiative transfer * model evaluation * infrared camera Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 3.458, year: 2016

  10. A survey of urban noise annoyance in a large Brazilian city: the importance of a subjective analysis in conjunction with an objective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zannin, Paulo H.T.; Calixto, Alfredo; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Ferreira, Jose A.C.

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the reaction to environmental noise of the population of Curitiba (∼1.6 million inhabitants). Out of 1000 distributed forms, 860 were returned. The main isolated noise sources revealed by the survey as disturbing were traffic (73%) and neighbors (38%). As a class, neighborhood noise was pointed out as the most disturbing type of noise as 100% of the surveyed people indicated at least one of the items belonging to this class: neighbors, animals, sirens, civil construction, religion temples, night clubs, toys and domestic electric appliances. The main outcomes of exposure to noise were: irritability (58%), difficulty to concentrate (42%), sleeping disorders (20%) and headaches (20%). In this survey, the importance of the realization of objective surveys, in other words, noise emission measurements in conjunction with the subjective evaluation of the reaction of the urban population to the environmental noise, is also discussed. The present survey shows that in the subjective evaluation performed in the city of Curitiba, the perception of the population is that the urban noise has increased. On the other hand, another study conducted in the same city, where only the noise emission levels were evaluated, has showed a decrease on the urban noise

  11. Academic Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Heine, Carmen

    Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt, og når det er nødvendigt, og at man har en korrekt udformet fortegnelse over referencer. Vejledningen indeholder konkrete eksempler på korrekt kildeangive......Vejledning i at undgå plagiering ved at følge de normer, der gælder for good academic practice. Dette indebærer at man angiver kilder korrekt, og når det er nødvendigt, og at man har en korrekt udformet fortegnelse over referencer. Vejledningen indeholder konkrete eksempler på korrekt...

  12. Understanding spatial differentiation in urban decline levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekveld, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The economic and demographic changes currently manifest in many Western cities—referred to as urban decline or urban shrinkage—are receiving increased attention in public and academic debates. Although the general processes driving these changes have been identified, such processes cannot explain

  13. How often are patients harmed when they visit the computed tomography suite? A multi-year experience, in incident reporting, in a large academic medical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Aran, Shima; Shaqdan, Khalid W.; Abujudeh, Hani H.

    2016-01-01

    Our goal is to present our multi-year experience in incident reporting in CT in a large medical centre. This is an IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study. Informed consent was waived for this study. The electronic safety incident reporting system of our hospital was searched for the variables from April 2006 to September 2012. Incident classifications were diagnostic test orders, ID/documentation, safety/security/conduct, service coordination, surgery/procedure, line/tube, fall, medication/IV safety, employee general incident, environment/equipment, adverse drug reaction, skin/tissue and diagnosis/treatment. A total of 1918 incident reports occurred in the study period and 843,902 CT examinations were performed. The rate of safety incident was 0.22 % (1918/843,902). The highest incident rates were due to adverse drug reactions (652/843,902 = 0.077 %) followed by medication/IV safety (573/843,902 = 0.068 %) and diagnostic test orders (206/843,902 = 0.024 %). Overall 45 % of incidents (869/1918) caused no harm and did not affect the patient, 33 % (637/1918) caused no harm but affected the patient, 22 % (420/1918) caused temporary or minor harm/damage and less than 1 % (10/1918) caused permanent or major harm/damage or death. Our study shows a total safety incident report rate of 0.22 % in CT. The most common incidents are adverse drug reaction, medication/IV safety and diagnostic test orders. (orig.)

  14. An automated electronic system for managing radiation treatment plan peer review reduces missed reviews at a large, high-volume academic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Peter E; Woodhouse, Kristina D; Lin, Alexander; Finlay, Jarod C; Young, Richard B; Volz, Edna; Hahn, Stephen M; Metz, James M; Maity, Amit

    Assuring quality in cancer care through peer review has become increasingly important in radiation oncology. In 2012, our department implemented an automated electronic system for managing radiation treatment plan peer review. The purpose of this study was to compare the overall impact of this electronic system to our previous manual, paper-based system. In an effort to improve management, an automated electronic system for case finding and documentation of review was developed and implemented. The rates of missed initial reviews, late reviews, and missed re-reviews were compared for the pre- versus postelectronic system cohorts using Pearson χ 2 test and relative risk. Major and minor changes or recommendations were documented and shared with the assigned clinical provider. The overall rate of missed reviews was 7.6% (38/500) before system implementation versus 0.4% (28/6985) under the electronic system (P automated system. Missed re-reviews occurred in 23.1% (3/13) of courses in the preelectronic system cohort and 6.6% (10/152) of courses in the postelectronic system cohort (P = .034). Late reviews were more frequent during high travel or major holiday periods. Major changes were recommended in 2.2% and 2.8% in the pre- versus postelectronic systems, respectively. Minor changes were recommended in 5.3% of all postelectronic cases. The implementation of an automated electronic system for managing peer review in a large, complex department was effective in significantly reducing the number of missed reviews and missed re-reviews when compared to our previous manual system. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New threats to academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    6, 7 May LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Decoding the Human Genome, Scientific basis and ethic and social aspects by S.E. Antonarakis and A. Mauron / Univ. of Geneva Decoding the Human genome is a very up-to-date topic, raising several questions besides purely scientific, in view of the two competing teams (public and private), the ethics of using the results, and the fact that the project went apparently faster and easier than expected. The lecture series will address the following chapters: Scientific basis and challenges, Ethical and social aspects of genomics. Academic Training Françoise Benz Tel. 73127

  17. Academic Careers and the Valuation of Academics. A Discursive Perspective on Status Categories and Academic Salaries in France as Compared to the U.S., Germany and Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermuller, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Academic careers are social processes which involve many members of large populations over long periods of time. This paper outlines a discursive perspective which looks into how academics are categorized in academic systems. From a discursive view, academic careers are organized by categories which can define who academics are (subjectivation)…

  18. A New Scheme for the Simulation of Microscale Flow and Dispersion in Urban Areas by Coupling Large-Eddy Simulation with Mesoscale Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haifeng; Cui, Guixiang; Zhang, Zhaoshun

    2018-04-01

    A coupling scheme is proposed for the simulation of microscale flow and dispersion in which both the mesoscale field and small-scale turbulence are specified at the boundary of a microscale model. The small-scale turbulence is obtained individually in the inner and outer layers by the transformation of pre-computed databases, and then combined in a weighted sum. Validation of the results of a flow over a cluster of model buildings shows that the inner- and outer-layer transition height should be located in the roughness sublayer. Both the new scheme and the previous scheme are applied in the simulation of the flow over the central business district of Oklahoma City (a point source during intensive observation period 3 of the Joint Urban 2003 experimental campaign), with results showing that the wind speed is well predicted in the canopy layer. Compared with the previous scheme, the new scheme improves the prediction of the wind direction and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the canopy layer. The flow field influences the scalar plume in two ways, i.e. the averaged flow field determines the advective flux and the TKE field determines the turbulent flux. Thus, the mean, root-mean-square and maximum of the concentration agree better with the observations with the new scheme. These results indicate that the new scheme is an effective means of simulating the complex flow and dispersion in urban canopies.

  19. Urban acupuncture

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    During his three terms as mayor of Curitiba, Brazil in the 1970s and ‘80s, architect and urbanist Jaime Lerner transformed his city into a global model of the sustainable and livable community. Through his pioneering work, Lerner has learned that changes to a community don’t need to be large-scale and expensive to have a transformative impact—in fact, one block, park or a single person can have an outsized effect on life in the surrounding city. In Urban Acupuncture, his first work published in English, Lerner celebrates these “pinpricks” of urbanism—projects, people and initiatives from around the world that ripple through their communities to uplift city life. With meditative and descriptive prose, Lerner brings readers around the world to streets and neighborhoods where urban acupuncture has been practiced best, from the bustling La Boqueria market in Barcelona to the revitalization of the Cheonggyecheon River in Seoul, South Korea. Through this journey, Lerner invites us to re-examine the true...

  20. Urban bioclimatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, H

    1993-11-15

    This article deals with the part of urban climatology which is of particular relevance to human beings. Presented first is a summary of all human biometerologically effective complexes, as well as other factors which are relevant to urban planning and which depend on atmospheric conditions in urban structures in a direct or indirect manner. Later, methods for human biometerologically significant assessment of thermal and air pollution components of the urban climate are discussed in detail, because these components can be strongly influenced by urban planning. The application of these methods is illustrated by some results of appropriate investigations in urban areas.

  1. Participatory urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2016-01-01

    cannot directly influence their structures, they can influence their contours through such leisure practices. In this chapter focus will be on how citizens’ engagement in locative leisure activities may allow them to co-create urban space. This participatory urbanism is a form of everyday democracy......Urban areas are planned structures that cannot easily be changed. Urban areas do however still afford physical spaces for various types of leisure expression and participation, from street art to parkour and from urban gaming to artistic happenings. Thus, while citizens who inhabit the urban areas...

  2. Technological Attitude and Academic Achievement of Physics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was aimed at investigating the effect of technological attitude of students on academic achievement in Physics. Four co-education schools were randomly drawn from urban centers of Uyo and Abak Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This gave sample size of 110 senior secondary two ...

  3. Urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.

    2007-01-01

    This report is concerned with the relations between lifestyles of urban populations on one hand and protection of biodiversity in urban areas on the other. Urban areas are of importance for the general protection of biodiversity. In the surroundings of cities and within urban sprawls there can...... biodiversity, recreational, educational and other needs. However, uncovered and unsealed space is constantly under pressure for building and infrastructure development in the urban landscape, and the design and usages of urban green structure is a matter of differing interests and expectations. Integrating...... the green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...

  4. Organic carbon, and major and trace element dynamic and fate in a large river subjected to poorly-regulated urban and industrial pressures (Sebou River, Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayzoun, H. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); LIMOM, Faculté des Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Dhar El Mehraz B.P. 1796 Atlas, Fès 30000 (Morocco); Garnier, C., E-mail: cgarnier@univ-tln.fr [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); Durrieu, G.; Lenoble, V.; Le Poupon, C. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); Angeletti, B. [Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement de Géosciences de l' Environnement UMR 6635 CNRS — Aix-Marseille Université, FR ECCOREV, Europôle Méditerranéen de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Ouammou, A. [LIMOM, Faculté des Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Dhar El Mehraz B.P. 1796 Atlas, Fès 30000 (Morocco); Mounier, S. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France)

    2015-01-01

    An annual-basis study of the impacts of the anthropogenic inputs from Fez urban area on the water geochemistry of the Sebou and Fez Rivers was conducted mostly focusing on base flow conditions, in addition to the sampling of industrial wastewater characteristic of the various pressures in the studied environment. The measured trace metals dissolved/particulate partitioning was compared to the ones predicted using the WHAM-VII chemical speciation code. The Sebou River, upstream from Fez city, showed a weakly polluted status. Contrarily, high levels of major ions, organic carbon and trace metals were encountered in the Fez River and the Sebou River downstream the Fez inputs, due to the discharge of urban and industrial untreated and hugely polluted wastewaters. Trace metals were especially enriched in particles with levels even exceeding those recorded in surface sediments. The first group of elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, U and V) showed strong inter-relationships, impoverishment in Fez particles/sediments and stable partition coefficient (Kd), linked to their lithogenic origin from Sebou watershed erosion. Conversely, most of the studied trace metals/metalloids, originated from anthropogenic sources, underwent significant changes of Kd and behaved non-conservatively in the Sebou/Fez water mixing. Dissolved/particulate partitioning was correctly assessed by WHAM-VII modeling for Cu, Pb and Zn, depicting significant differences in chemical speciation in the Fez River when compared to that in the Sebou River. The results of this study demonstrated that a lack of compliance in environmental regulations certainly explained this poor status. - Highlights: • Pristine status of the Sebou River, Morrocco's main river, upstream Fez (1 M inhabitants) • The Fez River collecting Fez's urban/industrial wastewaters is heavily polluted. • The Fez discharge into the Sebou induces an increase of contaminant levels. • Change in partitioning and chemical speciation of

  5. Organic carbon, and major and trace element dynamic and fate in a large river subjected to poorly-regulated urban and industrial pressures (Sebou River, Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayzoun, H.; Garnier, C.; Durrieu, G.; Lenoble, V.; Le Poupon, C.; Angeletti, B.; Ouammou, A.; Mounier, S.

    2015-01-01

    An annual-basis study of the impacts of the anthropogenic inputs from Fez urban area on the water geochemistry of the Sebou and Fez Rivers was conducted mostly focusing on base flow conditions, in addition to the sampling of industrial wastewater characteristic of the various pressures in the studied environment. The measured trace metals dissolved/particulate partitioning was compared to the ones predicted using the WHAM-VII chemical speciation code. The Sebou River, upstream from Fez city, showed a weakly polluted status. Contrarily, high levels of major ions, organic carbon and trace metals were encountered in the Fez River and the Sebou River downstream the Fez inputs, due to the discharge of urban and industrial untreated and hugely polluted wastewaters. Trace metals were especially enriched in particles with levels even exceeding those recorded in surface sediments. The first group of elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, U and V) showed strong inter-relationships, impoverishment in Fez particles/sediments and stable partition coefficient (Kd), linked to their lithogenic origin from Sebou watershed erosion. Conversely, most of the studied trace metals/metalloids, originated from anthropogenic sources, underwent significant changes of Kd and behaved non-conservatively in the Sebou/Fez water mixing. Dissolved/particulate partitioning was correctly assessed by WHAM-VII modeling for Cu, Pb and Zn, depicting significant differences in chemical speciation in the Fez River when compared to that in the Sebou River. The results of this study demonstrated that a lack of compliance in environmental regulations certainly explained this poor status. - Highlights: • Pristine status of the Sebou River, Morrocco's main river, upstream Fez (1 M inhabitants) • The Fez River collecting Fez's urban/industrial wastewaters is heavily polluted. • The Fez discharge into the Sebou induces an increase of contaminant levels. • Change in partitioning and chemical speciation of

  6. Correlation among academic stress, academic burnout, and academic performance in nursing and paramedic students of Qom University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Asayesh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Learning is a stressful experience of human life; reduced adaption to stressors causes academic burnout which is a reason for academic failure among students. This study investigated the correlation among academic stress, academic burnout, and academic performance in nursing and paramedic students of Qom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 264 nursing and paramedic students were randomly selected. Demographic characteristics checklist, academic burnout questionnaire, and academic stress scale were used to gather data, and grade point average was considered to be the indicator of academic performance. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The level of significance was considered to be p<0.05. Results: The mean score for students' academic burnout was 28.52±15.84. Univariate regression analysis showed that the students' employment, years of education, academic performance, and all academic stress subscales had a significant correlation with academic burnout. According to multivariate regression analysis, having a field of study-related occupation was a protective factor and academic stress a risk factor for academic burnout. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that a large proportion of students experienced academic burnout, and students with higher levels of stress experienced more severe academic burnout and had poorer performance. Therefore, training ways to cope with stress can cause reduction in academic burnout and improvement of performance.

  7. Picturing Urban Green Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Meilvang, Marie Leth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the cultural-political tensions and ambiguities of urban ecology, by way of following how activists move and translate between ‘familiar’ and ‘public’ engagements in the green city. Empirically, we locate our exploration in and around Nordhavnen (The North Harbor......), a large-scale sustainable urban development project in Copenhagen. Invoking Laurent Thévenot’s pragmatic sociology of ‘regimes of engagement’, we sketch a culturally sensitive approach to urban ecological activism, highlighting the critical moral capacities involved in building new forms of ‘commonality...

  8. Urban physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blocken, B.J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Physics is the multiscale and interdisciplinary research area dealing with physical processes in urban environments that influence our everyday health, comfort and productivity. It involves disciplines ranging from mesoscale meteorology to human thermophysiology. The introductory lecture

  9. Urban Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me.......This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me....

  10. Population, migration and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    in rural areas. According to UN data, at the global level the trend in longterm and permanent migration is towards stabilization or decline in the rate of movement into developed countries like the US, Canada, the UK, and Australia from developing countries. Migrants in the Asian and Pacific region mostly tend to be in the 15-25 year age group. Most migrants streams are male dominant. The rural urban migration stream includes a large proportion of people who are better educated than their rural counterparts but generally less educated than the urban natives. Reasons for migrating in the Asian and Pacific region are economic, educational, sociocultural and political. A negative factor in rural migration is that it deprives villages of the ablest people.

  11. Using tradeable permits to achieve sustainability in the world`s large cities. Policy design issues and efficiency conditions for controlling vehicle emissions, congestion and urban decentralization with an application to Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, H.C. [Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    Many large cities in the world have serious ground level ozone problems, largely the product of vehicular emissions and thus the argued unsustainability of current urban growth patterns is frequently blamed on unrestricted private vehicle use. This article reviews Mexico City`s experience with vehicle use restrictions as an emissions control program and develops the conditions for optimal quantitative restrictions on vehicle use and for complementary abatement technologies. The stochastic nature of air pollution outcomes is modelled explicitly in both the static and dynamic formulations of the control problem, in which for the first time in the literature the use of tradeable vehicle use permits is proposed as a cost-effective complement to technological abatement for mobile emissions control. This control regime gives the authorities a broader and more flexible set of instruments with which to deal more effectively with vehicle emissions, and with seasonal and stochastic variation of air quality outcomes. The market in tradeable vehicle use permits would be very competitive with low transactions costs. This control policy would have very favorable impacts on air quality, vehicle congestion and on urban form and development. Given the general political resistance to environmental taxes, this program could constitute a workable and politically palatable set of policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. 7 figs., 1 appendix, 23 refs.

  12. Using tradeable permits to achieve sustainability in the world's large cities. Policy design issues and efficiency conditions for controlling vehicle emissions, congestion and urban decentralization with an application to Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Many large cities in the world have serious ground level ozone problems, largely the product of vehicular emissions and thus the argued unsustainability of current urban growth patterns is frequently blamed on unrestricted private vehicle use. This article reviews Mexico City's experience with vehicle use restrictions as an emissions control program and develops the conditions for optimal quantitative restrictions on vehicle use and for complementary abatement technologies. The stochastic nature of air pollution outcomes is modelled explicitly in both the static and dynamic formulations of the control problem, in which for the first time in the literature the use of tradeable vehicle use permits is proposed as a cost-effective complement to technological abatement for mobile emissions control. This control regime gives the authorities a broader and more flexible set of instruments with which to deal more effectively with vehicle emissions, and with seasonal and stochastic variation of air quality outcomes. The market in tradeable vehicle use permits would be very competitive with low transactions costs. This control policy would have very favorable impacts on air quality, vehicle congestion and on urban form and development. Given the general political resistance to environmental taxes, this program could constitute a workable and politically palatable set of policies for controlling greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. 7 figs., 1 appendix, 23 refs

  13. Urbanization and Slum Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Kai Hong

    2007-01-01

    The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618

  14. Urban streets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating

  15. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    25, 26, 27, 28 February and 1st March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 LECTURE SERIES Neutrino masses and oscillations by A. de Rujula / CERN-TH This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos. Academic Training Françoise Benz Secretariat Tel. 73127 francoise.benz@cern.ch

  16. Urban architecture in urban renewal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Svensson, Ole

    2001-01-01

    and without obvious architectural value. These issues raise pertinent questions: what urban architectural problems and qualities exist in the complex, inner suburbs? What differences exist between professionals' and residents' perceptions and assessments of urban architecture? How can a shared language...

  17. The effects of incubation on academic and non-academic high-tech start-ups: evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Piva, Evila; Rentocchini, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at empirically investigating whether technology incubators help academic high-tech start-ups to establish collaborations with other organizations, thus increasing the competitiveness of these firms. In doing so, we take into account the specificities of academic high-tech start-ups with respect to their non-academic counterparts. We compare the effects of incubation on academic and non-academic high-tech start-ups through econometric estimates using a large sample of Italian f...

  18. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  19. A large-scale measurement, analysis and modelling of electromagnetic radiation levels in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base stations in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Teoman; Yüceer, Mehmet; Abbasov, Teymuraz

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyses the electric field radiating from the GSM/UMTS base stations located in central Malatya, a densely populated urban area in Turkey. The authors have conducted both instant and continuous measurements of high-frequency electromagnetic fields throughout their research by using non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks. Over 15,000 instant and 13,000,000 continuous measurements were taken throughout the process. The authors have found that the normal electric field radiation can increase ∼25% during daytime, depending on mobile communication traffic. The authors' research work has also demonstrated the fact that the electric field intensity values can be modelled for each hour, day or week with the results obtained from continuous measurements. The authors have developed an estimation model based on these values, including mobile communication traffic (Erlang) values obtained from mobile phone base stations and the temperature and humidity values in the environment. The authors believe that their proposed artificial neural network model and multivariable least-squares regression analysis will help predict the electric field intensity in an environment in advance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A large-scale measurement, analysis and modelling of electromagnetic radiation levels in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base stations in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadag, Teoman; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Yuceer, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyses the electric field radiating from the GSM/UMTS base stations located in central Malatya, a densely populated urban area in Turkey. The authors have conducted both instant and continuous measurements of high-frequency electromagnetic fields throughout their research by using non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks. Over 15 000 instant and 13 000 000 continuous measurements were taken throughout the process. The authors have found that the normal electric field radiation can increase ∼25 % during daytime, depending on mobile communication traffic. The authors' research work has also demonstrated the fact that the electric field intensity values can be modelled for each hour, day or week with the results obtained from continuous measurements. The authors have developed an estimation model based on these values, including mobile communication traffic (Erlang) values obtained from mobile phone base stations and the temperature and humidity values in the environment. The authors believe that their proposed artificial neural network model and multivariable least-squares regression analysis will help predict the electric field intensity in an environment in advance. (authors)

  1. Emotional Intelligence, Academic Procrastination and Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Itwas therefore recommended that efforts should be made to look into other pressing factors like self-esteem, teacher's attitude, student's attitude, parental background among others which may be influencing student's poor academic achievement. Key words: Emotional Intelligence, Academic Procrastination, Academic ...

  2. Academic detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  3. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  4. Making the invisible, visible: a cross-sectional study of late presentation to HIV/AIDS services among men who have sex with men from a large urban center of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Brignol, Sandra; Reddy, Manasa; Nunn, Amy; Dourado, Ines

    2014-12-22

    Late presentation to testing, treatment and continued care has detrimental impacts on the health of HIV-positive individuals as well as their sexual partners' health. Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience disproportionately high rates of HIV both globally and in Brazil. However, the factors that inhibit linkage to care among MSM remain unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive MSM (n = 740) enrolled in HIV/AIDS services in a large urban center of Brazil from August 2010 to June 2011. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistics were conducted using STATA 12 to examine the relationship between a range of variables and late presentation, defined as having a first CD4 count make currently invisible people, visible.

  5. Corporation-led urban development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, B.; Heurkens, E.W.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Since a couple of years a remarkable phenomenon is witnessed in the field of urban development which entails that large multinationals corporations, such as IKEA and Siemens, start to engage in urban development projects. As their motivation to do so is unclear, it is difficult to estimate whether

  6. Urban small wind turbine applications for reducing GHC emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullis, S.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' There are advantages to power generation at or near the points of consumption and this is still true for low carbon sustainable power sources, including wind. Consequently, there is interest in wind power generation in cities and suburbs. The potential now exists for realistic power small-scale generation in building mounted turbines. This presentation provides the benefits and obstacles to their use, as well as details of such turbines and the design and operations requirements for them. The main issues associated with locating turbines in cities and suburbs are: the highly turbulent, unsteady wind in the urban/suburban environment produces lower power outputs; vibration is a large concern on mounting turbines on buildings, and safety (turbine failure or even just ice shedding) with pedestrians below. Past and current thinking has just been straightforward in that it is not worth it, and the previous attempts at simply mounting small-scale turbines on rooftops has done more harm than good to the reputation of the small wind, and wind in general, industries. Recently there has been a reconsideration of urban small wind led by reputable companies such as Quiet Revolution (UK), Turby (NL) and Cleanfield (Canada) combined with academic research. A common feature of all of these companies is the use of vertical axis turbines (VAWTs) to help deal with the highly turbulent, unsteady urban winds. Large-scale VAWTs enjoyed a brief flurry of interest in the 1970s and 80s with large amounts of research done at Sandia and NRC in Canada. Vibration and fatigue in the large-scale turbines were among the issues that led to their decline. These, particularly vibration, remain issues for small-scale turbines, but there are some mitigating strategies available. These are now leading to the development of reputable, practical and reliable turbines that can become part of the urban/suburban environment. (author)

  7. Are Australasian academic physicians an endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A

    2007-11-01

    It has been stated that academic medicine is in a worldwide crisis. Is this decline in hospital academic practice a predictable consequence of modern clinical practice with its emphasis on community and outpatient-based services as well as a corporate health-care ethos or does it relate to innate problems in the training process and career structure for academic clinicians? A better understanding of the barriers to involvement in academic practice, including the effect of gender, the role and effect of overseas training, expectation of further research degrees and issues pertaining to the Australian academic workplace will facilitate recruitment and retention of the next generation of academic clinicians. Physician-scientists remain highly relevant as medical practice and education evolves in the 21st century. Hospital-based academics carry out a critical role in the ongoing mentoring of trainees and junior colleagues, whose training is still largely hospital based in most specialty programmes. Academic clinicians are uniquely placed to translate the rapid advances in medical biology into the clinical sphere, by guiding and carrying out translational research as well as leading clinical studies. Academic physicians also play key leadership in relations with government and industry, in professional groups and medical colleges. Thus, there is a strong case to assess the problems facing recruitment and retention of physician-scientists in academic practice and to develop workable solutions.

  8. Urban blight and urban redesign

    OpenAIRE

    Zsilincsar, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban blight dates back to the 19th century when industrialisation starting in Europe and North America initiated an uncontrolled urban growth in combination with strong demand in cheap an quickly constructed housing. Ghettoisation of mainly the working-class population and other “marginal groups” were the consequence together with a constant decay of single buildings, whole blocks and quarters. These general aspects of urban blight with its additional facettes or aspects re...

  9. Environmental sustainability assessment of urban systems applying coupled urban metabolism and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Goldstein, Benjamin Paul

    2013-01-01

    environmental sustainability of large urban systems by relating the environmental sustainability performance of urban systems with global environmental burden boundaries quantifying pollution thresholds beyond which performance of global ecosystems services may be detrimentally affected....

  10. A Multi-Level Examination of Stakeholder Perspectives of Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in a Large Urban Publicly-Funded Mental Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S; Stewart, Rebecca E; Adams, Danielle R; Fernandez, Tara; Lustbader, Susanna; Powell, Byron J; Aarons, Gregory A; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Rubin, Ronnie; Hadley, Trevor; Mandell, David S; Barg, Frances K

    2016-11-01

    Our goal was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based practices from the perspectives of multiple stakeholders in a large publicly funded mental health system. We completed 56 interviews with three stakeholder groups: treatment developers (n = 7), agency administrators (n = 33), and system leadership (n = 16). The three stakeholder groups converged on the importance of inner (e.g., agency competing resources and demands, therapist educational background) and outer context (e.g., funding) factors as barriers to implementation. Potential threats to implementation and sustainability included the fiscal landscape of community mental health clinics and an evolving workforce. Intervention characteristics were rarely endorsed as barriers. Inner context, outer context, and intervention characteristics were all seen as important facilitators. All stakeholders endorsed the importance of coordinated collaboration across stakeholder groups within the system to successfully implement evidence-based practices.

  11. The effects on safety, time consumption and environment of large scale use of roundabouts in an urban area: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydén, C; Várhelyi, A

    2000-01-01

    An experiment with small roundabouts-as speed reducing measures-was carried out in a Swedish city. The purpose of the study was to test the large scale and long term effects of the roundabouts. The results showed that the roundabouts reduced the speed considerably at the junctions and on links between roundabouts. The lateral displacement the roundabout forces the driver to has a great importance for the speed of approaching cars to a roundabout. The speed-reducing effect is large already at a 2 m deflection. A larger deflection does not result in a larger effect. Conflict studies indicated an overall decrease in accident risk by 44%. Vulnerable road-users' risk was reduced significantly, while there was no reduction for car occupants. There is a relation between the reduction of approach speed and the reduction of injury accident risk. The time consumption at a time operated signal was reduced heavily by the instalment of a roundabout at a signalised intersection. On average, emissions (CO and NOx) at roundabouts replacing non-signalised junctions increased by between 4 and 6%, while a roundabout replacing a signalised intersection led to a reduction by between 20 and 29%. The noise level was reduced at junctions that were provided with roundabout. Car drivers were less positive to the roundabouts than bicyclists. In the long term, the unchanged roundabouts worked almost as good as they did shortly after the rebuilding. The study showed that details in the design are of decisive importance for road-users' safety. Special attention has to be paid to the situation of bicyclists. The transition between the cycle path/lane and the junction has to be designed with care-the bicyclists should be integrated with motorised traffic before they enter the roundabout. There should be only one car lane both on the approach, in the circulating area and on the exit. The size of the roundabout shall be as small as possible.

  12. Incidence and Risk Factors for Incident Syphilis among HIV-1-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Tokyo, 2008−2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Teruya, Katsuji; Shibata, Satoshi; Yanagawa, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Mizushima, Daisuke; Aoki, Takahiro; Kinai, Ei; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Genka, Ikumi; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of incident syphilis infection among HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) largely remains unknown. Methods The incidence and risk factors for incident syphilis (positive TPHA and RPR> = 1:8) among HIV-1-infected MSM who visited a large HIV clinic in Tokyo for the first time between 2008 and 2013 were determined, using clinical data and stored blood samples taken every three months for screening and determination of the date of incident syphilis. Poisson regression compared the incidence of syphilis at different observation periods. Results Of 885 HIV-1-infected MSM with baseline data, 34% either presented with active syphilis at baseline (21%) or became infected with syphilis during follow-up (13%). After excluding 214 patients (MSM with syphilis at baseline (n = 190) and no follow-up syphilis test (n = 24)), of 671 men, 112 (17%) developed incident syphilis with an incidence of 43.7/1,000 person-years [95% CI, 36.5–52.3]. The incidence decreased slightly during observation period although the trend was not significant (2008–2009: 48.2/1,000 person-years, 2010–2011: 51.1/1,000 person-years, 2012–2013: 42.6/1,000 person-years, 2014 to 2015: 37.9/1,000 person-years, p = 0.315). Multivariable analysis identified young age (40, HR 4.0, 95%CI 2.22–7.18, psyphilis at baseline (HR 3.0, 95%CI 2.03–4.47, psyphilis. Incidence of syphilis was particularly high among young patients (age syphilis were asymptomatic. Conclusions Although incidence of syphilis did not increase during the observation period, it was high among HIV-1-infected MSM, especially among young HIV-1-infected MSM and those with history of syphilis, in Tokyo. Regular screening for syphilis needs to be strictly applied to this population. PMID:27992604

  13. Urban Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different...

  14. Urban Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different ...

  15. Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  16. Modelling urban travel times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, F.

    2011-01-01

    Urban travel times are intrinsically uncertain due to a lot of stochastic characteristics of traffic, especially at signalized intersections. A single travel time does not have much meaning and is not informative to drivers or traffic managers. The range of travel times is large such that certain

  17. Urbane Projekter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Juel

    2013-01-01

    of Chapter 1 ’problem and research questions’, Chapter 2 ’place, discourse and planning as a theoretical framework’ and Chapter 3 ’research design’. Part 2 ’urban practice locally, nationally and globally’ consisting of Chapter 4 ’background and context, urban trans- formations in Aalborg from 1950 to 2013...... of Chapter 9 with the same name. The analysis results and thus the conclusions are at 3 levels of knowledge: Historically specific development in terms of urban planning practices respectively in Aalborg and natio- nally/internationally The tools here have been a focus on different rationales or urban...... projects as a strategic tool in urban policy, development of place perceptions, the use of narratives in the planning processes, the functions of representations as discursive devised imagined realities, power structures and planning approaches - knowledge that can be used in the future practice of other...

  18. Urban performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Through three different urban performances, the paper investigates how, when and under which circumstances urban space is transformed and distorted from its every day use and power relations. Distortion is an annual street festival in Copenhagen with the objective to distort the functional city...... creates an intensive space for the empowerment and liberation of the body. Occupy Wall street and its action in the autumn 2001 is the ultimate example of how urban political performances intensifies and transform every day spaces. Through examples of how OWS tactically appropriates and transforms urban...... space, I seek to show how representational space, for instance the public square, is transformed and distorted by heterogeneous and unforeseen modes of operating. Despite differing in their goal and outset, I wish to unfold an alternative to urban transformation practices in planning and architecture...

  19. Success in One High-Poverty, Urban Elementary School: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Shavonna Leigh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the efforts implemented in a high-poverty, urban elementary school in order to increase academic achievement. The central research question was: (1) How do teachers and administrators in a high-poverty, urban school describe the strategies they use to achieve academic success? The sub-questions…

  20. Senge's Learning Organization and Teachers' Perceptions of Leadership at an Elementary School in Urban Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Urban public schools in the United States face the problem of failure to reach academic goals of performance mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act. It was hypothesized that use of Senge's leadership model might result in academic performance in one urban elementary school. Based on Senge's shared vision leadership model as the theoretical…

  1. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  2. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    18, 19, 20, 21, 22 February LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs , Auditorium, Bldg 500 POSTPONED! - Particle Identification at the LHC - POSTPONED! by P. Eerola / Lund University, SE The LHC experiments will explore new frontiers of particle physics. To maximize the physics potential of LHC, we need identification of leptons, hadrons, photons and 'invisible' particles. This is realized through reconstruction of electrons and muons, charged particle tracking and identification, b- and tau-tagging, and jet reconstruction. In addition, missing energy has to be measured in order to look for signatures of invisible particles. The experimental conditions posed by the collider, which will be operating at higher energy and luminosity than the present ones, are demanding. A large dynamical range is required in order to measure energies and momenta ranging from below one GeV to several TeVs. The detectors should be able to cope with the 40 MHz collision rate, with a large number of overlapping events. Limited availa...

  3. Exploring the Role of Agriculture Teachers in Core Academic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Sorenson, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Core academic skills are essential for success in our society. However, an abundance of research has identified a large proportion of secondary school students are under performing in core academic areas such as literacy and math. Researchers have suggested integrating core academic content throughout all secondary coursework as a potential…

  4. Advanced DInSAR analysis for building damage assessment in large urban areas: an application to the city of Roma, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aranno, Peppe J. V.; Marsella, Maria; Scifoni, Silvia; Scutti, Marianna; Sonnessa, Alberico; Bonano, Manuela

    2015-10-01

    Remote sensing data play an important role for the environmental monitoring because they allow to provide systematic information on very large areas and for a long period of time. Such information must be analyzed, validated and incorporated into proper modeling tools in order to become useful for performing risk assessment analysis. These approaches has been already applied in the field of natural hazard evaluation (i.e. for monitoring seismic, volcanic areas and landslides). However, not enough attention has been devoted to the development of validated methods for implementing quantitative analysis on civil structures. This work is dedicated to the comprehensive utilization of ERS / ENVISAT data store ESA SAR used to detect deformation trends and perform back-analysis of the investigated structures useful to calibrate the damage assessment models. After this preliminary analysis, SAR data of the new satellite mission (ie Cosmo SkyMed) were adopted to monitor the evolution of existent surface deformation processes and to detect new occurrence. The specific objective was to set up a data processing and data analysis chain tailored on a service that sustains the safe maintenance of the built-up environment, including critical construction such as public (schools, hospital, etc), strategic (dam, highways, etc) and also the cultural heritage sites. The analysis of the test area, in the southeastern sector of Roma, has provided three different levels and sub-levels of products from metropolitan area scale (territorial analysis), settlement scale (aggregated analysis) to single structure scale (damage degree associated to the structure).

  5. Urbanization in Africa since independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, J D

    1994-01-01

    Over 185 million inhabitants were added to the urban areas of Africa between 1950 and 1990. Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland is the most highly urbanized, with 55% in 1990; while less than a quarter of Eastern Africa's population is living in urban centers. By the year 2015 more than half of Africa's population will be living in urban areas. Many parts of Africa have suffered prolonged droughts, overgrazing, locust infestations, and desertification. Millions have become refugees from natural disasters, political oppression, and rural poverty. The large exodus from Africa's rural areas has gone to cities but the large cities have attracted disproportionately large numbers of destitute migrants. Alexandria (1 million), Cairo (2.4 million) and the Witwatersrand in South Africa were the only African urban agglomerations with at least one million inhabitants in 1950. By 1990 the two Egyptian cities together had 12.7 million inhabitants and the Witwatersrand some 5 million, whereas the other 25 urban agglomerations with a million inhabitants each in 1990 had a total population of about 51 million. Lagos, Kinshasa, and Algiers ranged from 3 to 7.7 million. The capitals are the largest cities in at least 54 of the 59 countries and territories. Lagos, Nairobi, and Dar es Salaam are disproportionately larger than the next most populous cities in their countries. The 28 urban agglomerations with at least one million inhabitants had a total population of 70 million in 1990, and are projected to reach 100 million in the year 2000. Overall, Africa's urban population is projected to increase by approximately 135 million in the 1990-2000 decade (from 217 million to 352 million). About 105 million of the growth probably will occur in the smaller urban centers. The total African urban population is likely to reach one billion inhabitants within the next 50 years. It stood at 32 million in 1950. Presently, the United Nations projects 912 million urban residents

  6. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  7. Methodology for Automatic Generation of Models for Large Urban Spaces Based on GIS Data/Metodología para la generación automática de modelos de grandes espacios urbanos desde información SIG/

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Arturo Ordóñez Medina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the planning and evaluation stages of infrastructure projects, it is necessary to manage huge quantities of information. Cities are very complex systems, which need to be modeled when an intervention is required. Suchmodels allow us to measure the impact of infrastructure changes, simulating hypothetic scenarios and evaluating results. This paper describes a methodology for the automatic generation of urban space models from GIS sources. A Voronoi diagram is used to partition large urban regions and subsequently define zones of interest. Finally, some examples of application models are presented, one used for microsimulation of traffic and another for air pollution simulation.En las etapas de planeación y evaluación de proyectos de infraestructura es necesario manejar grandes cantidades de información. Las ciudades son sistemas complejos que deben ser modeladas para ser intervenidas. Estos modelos permitirón medir el impacto de los cambios de infraestructura, simular escenarios hipotéticos y evaluar resultados. Este artículo describe una metodología para generar automáticamente modelos espaciales urbanos desde fuentes SIG: Un diagrama de Voronoi es usado para dividir grandes regiones urbanas, y a continuación serán definidas las zonas de interés. Finalmente, algunos ejemplos de modelos de aplicación serán presentados, uno usado para microsimulación de tráfico y el otro para simular contaminación atmosférica.

  8. Trends in chlamydia and gonorrhea positivity among heterosexual men and men who have sex with men attending a large urban sexual health service in Australia, 2002-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To determine whether chlamydia positivity among heterosexual men (MSW) and chlamydia and gonorrhea positivity among men who have sex with men (MSM), are changing. Methods Computerized records for men attending a large sexual health clinic between 2002 and 2009 were analyzed. Chlamydia and gonorrhea positivity were calculated and logistic regression used to assess changes over time. Results 17769 MSW and 8328 MSM tested for chlamydia and 7133 MSM tested for gonorrhea. In MSW, 7.37% (95% CI: 6.99-7.77) were chlamydia positive; the odds of chlamydia positivity increased by 4% per year (OR = 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01-1.07; p = 0.02) after main risk factors were adjusted for. In MSM, 3.70% (95% CI: 3.30-4.14) were urethral chlamydia positive and 5.36% (95% CI: 4.82-5.96) were anal chlamydia positive; positivity could not be shown to have changed over time. In MSM, 3.05% (95% CI: 2.63-3.53) tested anal gonorrhea positive and 1.83% (95% CI: 1.53-2.18) tested pharyngeal gonorrhea positive. Univariate analysis found the odds of anal gonorrhea positivity had decreased (OR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87-1.00; p = 0.05), but adjusting for main risk factors resulted in no change. Urethral gonorrhea cases in MSM as a percentage of all MSM tested for gonorrhea also fell (p gonorrhea prevalence among MSM is stable or declining. High STI testing rates among MSM in Australia may explain differences in STI trends between MSM and MSW. PMID:21639943

  9. The Relationships among Academic Attitudes, Psychological Attitudes, and the First-Semester Academic Achievement of First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Weigand, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among academic and psychological attitudes and academic achievement of first-year students. The College Resilience Scale, the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Self-Efficacy Inventory, and the University Environment Scale were administered to 164 first-year undergraduate students enrolled at a large RU/VH…

  10. Investigating the Effect of Academic Procrastination on the Frequency and Variety of Academic Misconduct: A Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrzek, Justine; Sattler, Sebastian; van Veen, Floris; Grunschel, Carola; Fries, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In prior studies, academic procrastination has been discussed as an influencing factor of academic misconduct. However, empirical studies were conducted solely cross-sectionally and investigated only a few forms of academic misconduct. This large scale web-based study examined the responses of between 1359 and 2207 participants from different…

  11. Urban Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    . Kracauer’s essay may even provide a conceptual basis for critical studies of modern urbanity. Yet one has to establish a clear distinction between culture industry (e.g. the Tiller Girls) and urban culture. In everyday life as well as in Kracauer’s writings about it, the sphere of city culture may...... transcend capitalist Ratio and enter the domain of utopian fantasy. Far from automatically reproducing the logic of capital, the ornaments of the city provide occasions for cultural and social change. This is what Kracauer is hinting at when he makes improvisation the prime criterion of urban quality....

  12. ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    4, 5, 6, 7, 8 February LECTURE SERIES from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Council room on 4 February, Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 5, 6, 7, 8 February Reliability issues at the LHC by P. Kafka / RelConsult, Grunwald, D The Lectures on reliability issues at the LHC will be focused on five main Modules on five days. Module 1: Basic Elements in Reliability Engineering Some basic terms, definitions and methods, from components up to the system and the plant, common cause failures and human factor issues. Module 2: Interrelations of Reliability & Safety (R&S) Reliability and risk informed approach, living models, risk monitoring. Module 3: The ideal R&S Process for Large Scale Systems From R&S goals via the implementation into the system to the proof of the compliance. Module 4: Some Applications of R&S on LHC Master logic, anatomy of risk, cause - consequence diagram, decomposition and aggregation of the system. Module 5: Lessons learned from R&S Application in various Technologi...

  13. Rural-urban migration and urban unemployment in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigbokhan, B E

    1988-01-01

    This paper argues that urban unemployment in Nigeria has been due largely to a failure on the part of the government to pursue policies that reflect commitment on its part to its stated objectives, particularly with regard to employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration has been taking place in the country since the 1960s and at an increasing rate since the 1970s. Economic policies have contributed to this, notably the rural-urban imbalance resulting from the pattern of allocation of public investment expenditures and the wages determination process which tends to concentrate more on the urban sector. These have contributed to the widening urban-rural income differentials. In the face of such migration, the urban industrial sector has been able to absorb only a negligible proportion of migrants. A major factor that has contributed to this is the increased capital-intensity of the sector. Some laudable measures have been introduced this year, notably the establishment of the Directorate of Employment and the Directorate of Food, Road, and Rural infrastructure. The latter, if effectively implemented, should enhance rural income and thereby reduce the rural-urban income gap. The former should reduce the problem of open unemployment. While it is too early to assess the effects of these 2 measures on urban unemployment, they may not improve urban unemployment significantly. There is still the need to design policies to increase labor absorption in general.

  14. Closing the Achievement Gap: Urban Schools. CSR Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathleen; Soper, Stephanie

    This report reviews efforts to reform urban schools, focusing on initiatives in Tennessee and California as examples from which distric leaders may draw useful lessons. The report suggests that comprehensive school reform (CSR) offers promise to struggling urban schools by focusing on transforming the academic climate, school culture, and…

  15. Diagnosing academic language ability : An analysis of the Test of Academic Literacy for Postgraduate Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Anna; Weideman, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Following the observation that a large number of postgraduate students may not possess an adequate level of academic language ability to complete their studies successfully, this study investigates postgraduate students' strengths and weaknesses in academic literacy, with a specific focus on

  16. Informational Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang G. Stock

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary and future cities are often labeled as "smart cities," "ubiquitous cities," "knowledge cities" and "creative cities." Informational urbanism includes all aspects of information and knowledge with regard to urban regions. "Informational city" is an umbrella term uniting the divergent trends of information-related city research. Informational urbanism is an interdisciplinary endeavor incorporating on the one side computer science and information science and on the other side urbanism, architecture, (city economics, and (city sociology. In our research project on informational cities, we visited more than 40 metropolises and smaller towns all over the world. In this paper, we sketch the theoretical background on a journey from Max Weber to the Internet of Things, introduce our research methods, and describe main results on characteristics of informational cities as prototypical cities of the emerging knowledge society.

  17. Urban hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage will be held in Goteborg, Sweden, June 4-8, 1984. Contact A. Sjoborg, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden, for more information. The Fourth Conference will be in late August 1987 in Lausanne, Switzerland, and the Fifth Conference is planned for Tokyo in 1990. The proceedings of the First International Conference, held in Southampton, England, in April 1978, are available from Wiley-Interscience under the title “Urban Storm Drainage.”The proceedings of the Second International Conference, held in Urbana, Illinois, in June 1981, are available from Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colo., under the title, “Urban Stormwater Hydraulics and Hydrology” and “Urban Stormwater Quality, Management, and Planning.”

  18. Assembling urban riskscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2016-01-01

    model of climate resilience, within unequal local–global assemblages of urban planning and power. This work of resilience-building is shown to revolve around Surat-based economic and political elites, who deploy mobile consultancy knowledges to render particular urban ‘riskscapes’ (in)visible, in ways...... knowledge practices, I suggest, link into and enable different visions and commitments to competing ‘scales of change’ for the city. By thus allowing us to grasp the situated tools, practices and knowledges through which ‘large-scale’ processes of urban change—development, climate resilience, justice...... conducive to specific forms of middle-class development. In turn, the article shows how this ‘official’ work of resilience-building is challenged and contested by fragmented civic–professional publics, mobilizing their own versions of counter-expertise towards alternative riskscapes. These heterogeneous...

  19. Urban Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The catalogue is one of the results of a small taught course at teh Aarhus School of Architecture. The course was offered to bachelor students and was specific focused on harvesting materials in an urban context and on building with waste.......The catalogue is one of the results of a small taught course at teh Aarhus School of Architecture. The course was offered to bachelor students and was specific focused on harvesting materials in an urban context and on building with waste....

  20. Academic Entitlement and Academic Performance in Graduating Pharmacy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.

  1. Scale-Adjusted Metrics for Predicting the Evolution of Urban Indicators and Quantifying the Performance of Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz G A Alves

    Full Text Available More than a half of world population is now living in cities and this number is expected to be two-thirds by 2050. Fostered by the relevancy of a scientific characterization of cities and for the availability of an unprecedented amount of data, academics have recently immersed in this topic and one of the most striking and universal finding was the discovery of robust allometric scaling laws between several urban indicators and the population size. Despite that, most governmental reports and several academic works still ignore these nonlinearities by often analyzing the raw or the per capita value of urban indicators, a practice that actually makes the urban metrics biased towards small or large cities depending on whether we have super or sublinear allometries. By following the ideas of Bettencourt et al. [PLoS ONE 5 (2010 e13541], we account for this bias by evaluating the difference between the actual value of an urban indicator and the value expected by the allometry with the population size. We show that this scale-adjusted metric provides a more appropriate/informative summary of the evolution of urban indicators and reveals patterns that do not appear in the evolution of per capita values of indicators obtained from Brazilian cities. We also show that these scale-adjusted metrics are strongly correlated with their past values by a linear correspondence and that they also display crosscorrelations among themselves. Simple linear models account for 31%-97% of the observed variance in data and correctly reproduce the average of the scale-adjusted metric when grouping the cities in above and below the allometric laws. We further employ these models to forecast future values of urban indicators and, by visualizing the predicted changes, we verify the emergence of spatial clusters characterized by regions of the Brazilian territory where we expect an increase or a decrease in the values of urban indicators.

  2. Commercializing Academic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    the importance of academic patenting. Our findings suggest that academic involvement in patenting results in a citation premium, as academic patents appear to generate more forward citations. We also find that in the European context of changing research objectives and funding sources since the mid-1990s...

  3. The Academic Adviser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the idea that "academic" advisers are "academics" who play a major role in connecting the general education curriculum to the students' experience as well as connecting the faculty to the students' holistic experience of the curriculum. The National Academic Advising Association Concept of Academic…

  4. Cluster (school) RCT of ParentCorps: impact on kindergarten academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther J; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Palamar, Joseph J; Petkova, Eva

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of an early childhood, family-centered, school-based intervention on children's kindergarten academic achievement. This was a cluster (school) randomized controlled trial with assessments from pre-kindergarten (pre-k) entry through the end of kindergarten. The setting was 10 public elementary schools with 26 pre-k classes in 2 school districts in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods serving a largely black, low-income population. Participants were 1050 black and Latino, low-income children (age 4; 88% of pre-k population) enrolled in 10 schools over 4 years. Universal intervention aimed to promote self-regulation and early learning by strengthening positive behavior support and effective behavior management at home and school, and increasing parent involvement in education. Intervention included after-school group sessions for families of pre-k students (13 2-hour sessions; co-led by pre-k teachers) and professional development for pre-k and kindergarten teachers. The outcome measures were standardized test scores of kindergarten reading, writing, and math achievement by independent evaluators masked to intervention condition (primary outcome); developmental trajectories of teacher-rated academic performance from pre-k through kindergarten (secondary outcome). Relative to children in control schools, children in intervention schools had higher kindergarten achievement test scores (Cohen's d = 0.18, mean difference = 2.64, SE = 0.90, P = .03) and higher teacher-rated academic performance (Cohen's d = 0.25, mean difference = 5.65, SE = 2.34, P = .01). Early childhood population-level intervention that enhances both home and school environments shows promise to advance academic achievement among minority children from disadvantaged, urban neighborhoods.

  5. Timing of avian breeding in an urbanized world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.; Van den Eertwegh, L.; Beskers, R.; De Vries, P.P.; Spoelstra, K.; Visser, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    A large part of the world is urbanized, and the process of urbanization is ongoing. Species differ in the extent to which they are impacted by urbanization, depending on adaption capacity, and on the fitness consequences when adaptation lags behind. One prominent effect of urbanization is the

  6. Studying the impact of academic events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Trøst; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2018-01-01

    of scholarly work, to increase collaboration with non-academic partners and to achieve a broad range of socio-economic benefits. Impact assessment frameworks are occupied with documenting the effects of science on a large number of variables. However, the participation and hosting of academic events have......Demands that publicly funded scientific research should demonstrate its academic and societal impact have been commonplace for some time. Research communities, university administrators and policy-makers are looking to impact assessments and impact toolkits to better communicate the value...... not been included in most frameworks. In this scoping review, we demonstrate that academic events are an important vehicle for academic and societal value-creation that should be integrated in future impact studies. The review presents the main trends in the literature by categorizing the impact...

  7. Removal of Ozone by Urban and Peri-Urban Forests: Evidence from Laboratory, Field, and Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Calfapietra; Arianna Morani; Gregorio Sgrigna; Sara Di Giovanni; Valerio Muzzini; Emanuele Pallozzi; Gabriele Guidolotti; David Nowak; Silvano Fares

    2016-01-01

    A crucial issue in urban environments is the interaction between urban trees and atmospheric pollution, particularly ozone (O3). Ozone represents one of the most harmful pollutants in urban and peri-urban environments, especially in warm climates. Besides the large interest in reducing anthropogenic and biogenic precursors of O3...

  8. Urban agriculture in Africa : a bibliographical survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obudho, R.A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This bibliography is a listing of all materials that have ever been published or written on the subject of urban agriculture in Africa up to 1998. It records all books, chapters in books, discussion and conference papers, periodical literature and all types of academic theses, dissertations and

  9. School Uniforms in Urban Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draa, Virginia Ann Bendel

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the implementation of a mandatory uniform policy in urban public high schools improved school performance measures at the building level for rates of attendance, graduation, academic proficiency, and student conduct as measured by rates of suspensions and expulsions. Sixty-four secondary…

  10. Brain size and urbanization in birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders; Pape; M?ller; Johannes; Erritz?e

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain size may affect the probability of invasion of urban habitats if a relatively larger brain entails superior ability to adapt to novel environments. However, once urbanized urban environments may provide poor quality food that has negative consequences for normal brain development resulting in an excess of individuals with small brains.Methods: Here we analyze the independent effects of mean, standard deviation and skewness in brain mass for invasion of urban habitats by 108 species of birds using phylogenetic multiple regression analyses weighted by sample size.Results: There was no significant difference in mean brain mass between urbanized and non-urbanized species or between urban and rural populations of the same species, and mean brain mass was not significantly correlated with time since urbanization. Bird species that became urbanized had a greater standard deviation in brain mass than non-urbanized species, and the standard deviation in brain mass increased with time since urbanization. Brain mass was significantly left skewed in species that remained rural, while there was no significant skew in urbanized species. The degree of left skew was greater in urban than in rural populations of the same species, and successfully urbanized species decreased the degree of left skew with time since urbanization. This is consistent with the hypothesis that sub-optimal brain development was more common in rural habitats resulting in disproportionately many individuals with very smal brains.Conclusions: These findings do not support the hypothesis that large brains promote urbanization, but suggest that skewness has played a role in the initial invasion of urban habitats, and that variance and skew in brain mass have increased as species have become urbanized.

  11. Brain size and urbanization in birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders Pape Mller; Johannes Erritze

    2015-01-01

    Background:Brain size may affect the probability of invasion of urban habitats if a relatively larger brain entails superior ability to adapt to novel environments. However, once urbanized urban environments may provide poor quality food that has negative consequences for normal brain development resulting in an excess of individuals with small brains. Methods:Here we analyze the independent effects of mean, standard deviation and skewness in brain mass for invasion of urban habitats by 108 species of birds using phylogenetic multiple regression analyses weighted by sample size. Results:There was no significant difference in mean brain mass between urbanized and non-urbanized species or between urban and rural populations of the same species, and mean brain mass was not significantly correlated with time since urbanization. Bird species that became urbanized had a greater standard deviation in brain mass than non-urbanized species, and the standard deviation in brain mass increased with time since urbanization. Brain mass was significantly left skewed in species that remained rural, while there was no significant skew in urbanized species. The degree of left skew was greater in urban than in rural populations of the same species, and successfully urbanized species decreased the degree of left skew with time since urbanization. This is consistent with the hypothesis that sub-optimal brain development was more common in rural habitats resulting in disproportionately many individuals with very smal brains. Conclusions:These findings do not support the hypothesis that large brains promote urbanization, but suggest that skewness has played a role in the initial invasion of urban habitats, and that variance and skew in brain mass have increased as species have become urbanized.

  12. Academic Training: Academic Training Lectures-Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 academic.training@cern.ch SUGGEST AND WIN! Its time to plan the 2004-2005 lecture series. From today until March 19 you have the chance to give your contribution to planning for next year's Academic Training Lecture Series. At the web site: http://cern.ch/Academic.Training/questionnaire you will find questionnaires proposing topics in high energy physics, applied physics and science and society. Answering the questionnaire will help ensure that the selected topics are as close as possible to your interests. In particular requests and comments from students will be much appreciated. To encourage your contribution, the AT Committee will reward one lucky winner with a small prize, a 50 CHF coupon for a book purchase at the CERN bookshop.

  13. Influences on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheak Song

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Employing education production function approach, this article investigates the influences of school and pupil background factors on academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia. Based on achievement data of 1,080 Grade 6 pupils from one rural and one semi-urban area, the study reveals that school and teacher quality exerts a considerable effect on pupils’ performance. Teachers’ experience and teacher guides are positively correlated with academic achievement, while instructional time loss is significantly associated with poor performance. In light of these results, policies to boost academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia are discussed.

  14. Use of Social Emotional Learning Skills to Predict Future Academic Success and Progress toward Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan; Solberg, V. Scott; de Baca, Christine; Gore, Taryn Hargrove

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which a range of social emotional learning skills--academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, social connections, importance of school, and managing psychological and emotional distress and academic stress--could be used as an indicator of future academic outcomes. Using a sample of 4,797 from a large urban…

  15. Academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement : mediating and additive effects

    OpenAIRE

    Guay, Frédéric; Ratelle, Catherine; Roy, Amélie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between autonomous academic motivation and achievement, or 3) both motivational constructs have an additive effect on academic achievement. A total of 925 hig...

  16. Urban atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.

  17. Urbane spil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssing, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    PhD afhandling: 1: Urbane spil 2: [brand TILST] - den nye forstad. 3: 6400:Kollision - udstilling på Sønderborg Slot 2001 4: 4: [0.2:Kollision] - Charlottenborgs Forårsudstilling 2002 5: Havnen på spil - debatten om de bynære havnearealer i Århus 2002-2004 Manual - uddybet guide til PhD-projektet......PhD afhandling: 1: Urbane spil 2: [brand TILST] - den nye forstad. 3: 6400:Kollision - udstilling på Sønderborg Slot 2001 4: 4: [0.2:Kollision] - Charlottenborgs Forårsudstilling 2002 5: Havnen på spil - debatten om de bynære havnearealer i Århus 2002-2004 Manual - uddybet guide til Ph......D-projektet Urbane spil Se også www.urbanespil.dk...

  18. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  19. EVALUATION OF URBANIZATION INFLUENCES ON URBAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-07-27

    Jul 27, 2012 ... climate over the cities that affect human comfort and his environment. Proper urban ... Key Words: Urbanization, Comfort, Pollution, Modification, Albedo, Urban Heat Island ... effects of land surface change on the climate of a.

  20. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies.

  1. Alternative fuelds in urban fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, T.

    1994-01-01

    In this presentation the author addresses four main objectives. They are to: discuss programs that are driving the introduction of alternative fuels into fleet operations in urban areas around the country; define alternative fuels; quantify the present use and future projections on alternative fuel vehicles (AVFs) in the Chicago metropolitan statistical area; and discuss benefits of increased use of alternative fuels in urban areas. Factors which touch on these points include: present domestic dependence on petroleum for autos, with usage exceeding production; the large populations in urban areas which do not meet Clean Air Standards; recent legislative initiatives which give guidance and aid in the adoption of such strategies

  2. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban

  3. The financialisation of urban capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Guironnet, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Myriads of urban objects and spaces located in city-regions have turned into financial assets. Office buildings, shopping malls, student dwellings, and large utilities are purchased by investment funds and listed property companies, which seek to capitalise on the future income streams based on their use by firms and people. Urban redevelopment and financial markets are thus intertwined through the financing circuits of property markets. By analysing the interactions between the financial str...

  4. An assessment of transit ridership: increased suburban to urban public transportation options in Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Suburban development is occurring near urban areas across America. Often these communities are : separated by large masses of land with no linkage to the urban core. Referred to as urban sprawl, this type : of development causes a challenge for trans...

  5. Urban Poverty in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of important urban poverty questions. What defines urban poverty and how is urban poverty being measured? What other factors beyond consumption poverty need to be tackled? Who are the urban poor? What relations exist between urban poverty and city size? What linkages exist between urbanization, income, and urban poverty? What policy responses to urban poverty are implemented in selected Asian countries? The report served as a background study for the Internati...

  6. Contested Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pløger, John

    2010-01-01

    Iconic architecture plays a crucial role in cities' interurban competition. This is also the case with Copenhagen which has used iconic architecture as part of its boosterism to gain investment, to increase tourism and to attract the creative class. This battle over the symbolic representation of...... intertwined through symbolic, visual and virtual representations of the wrongs of current urban planning...

  7. Financial Aid Tipping Points: An Analysis of Aid and Academic Achievement at a California Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, Elizabeth; Hoffman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between financial aid awards and measures of student academic achievement. Financial aid and academic records for 11,956 students attending an urban California community college were examined and analyzed using simultaneous linear regression and two-way factorial ANOVAs. Findings revealed a…

  8. Improved Attitude and Achievement: A Case Study of an Elementary School Academic Advisement Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrath, Barry; Brooker, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    School counselors are often called upon to develop and implement academic interventions. In this case study of one urban elementary school, a school counselor conducted a small group academic advisement intervention. The results suggest that integrating the activities into the elementary school counseling program can be an effective Response to…

  9. Academic Performance and Personality Traits of Chinese Children: "Onlies" versus Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Dudley L., Jr.; Falbo, Toni

    1990-01-01

    Using data from a 1987 survey of 1,460 schoolchildren, their parents and teachers, in urban and rural areas of Changchun, China, examines academic and personality outcomes in only children. Finds results similar to Western surveys: only children are more likely to be academically talented. Reveals, however, Chinese rural only children do not score…

  10. Time Perspective and School Membership as Correlates to Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelabu, Detris Honora

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of academic achievement to time perspective (future, present) and school membership (belonging, acceptance, rejection) among 232 low-income, urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated positive, significant relationships among academic achievement, future time perspective, school belonging, and…

  11. Investigating the Link between Home-School Dissonance and Academic Cheating among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Thomas, Deneia; Mulder, Shambra; Hughes, Travonia; Stevens-Morgan, Ruby; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Gadson, Nadia; Smith, La Toya

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the association between home-school dissonance and academic cheating among 344 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Analyses revealed that home-school…

  12. Risk of Social Media for Teens in an Urban Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Knowles MD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the self-reported risky behaviors associated with adolescent social media use. Methods. Adolescents ages 13 to 21 years were recruited from a large, urban academic center to complete a written survey regarding social media use. Results are presented as frequencies and percentage; nominal variables were compared using χ2 analysis. Results. Almost all participants (93% reported belonging to a social media site. The majority of adolescents (72% access the Internet with a phone. Nearly half (49% of participants accept friend requests from strangers, 42% send friend requests to strangers, and 55% of participants report meeting people from social media sites in person. Conclusion. Adolescents self-report engaging in a number of risky behaviors when they use social media. Teenagers’ use of social media is an additional behavior that requires attention and monitoring.

  13. Risk of Social Media for Teens in an Urban Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Megan; Lee, Sara Hirschfeld; O'Riordan, MaryAnn; Lazebnik, Rina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the self-reported risky behaviors associated with adolescent social media use. Methods. Adolescents ages 13 to 21 years were recruited from a large, urban academic center to complete a written survey regarding social media use. Results are presented as frequencies and percentage; nominal variables were compared using χ(2) analysis. Results. Almost all participants (93%) reported belonging to a social media site. The majority of adolescents (72%) access the Internet with a phone. Nearly half (49%) of participants accept friend requests from strangers, 42% send friend requests to strangers, and 55% of participants report meeting people from social media sites in person. Conclusion. Adolescents self-report engaging in a number of risky behaviors when they use social media. Teenagers' use of social media is an additional behavior that requires attention and monitoring.

  14. Two ecological models of academic achievement among diverse students with and without disabilities in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T; McMahon, Susan D; Keys, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    School experiences can have positive effects on student academic achievement, yet less is known about intermediary processes that contribute to these positive effects. We examined pathways between school experiences and academic achievement among 117 low-income urban students of color, many with disabilities, who transitioned to other schools following a school closure. Using structural equation modeling, we tested two ecological models that examined the relationships among self-reported school experiences, school support, academic self-efficacy, and school-reported academic achievement. The model in which the relationship between school experiences and academic achievement is mediated by both school support and academic self-efficacy, and that takes previous academic achievement into account, was an excellent fit with the data. The roles of contextual and individual factors as they relate to academic achievement, and the implications of these findings, are discussed.

  15. Factors of academic procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    Kranjec, Eva; Košir, Katja; Komidar, Luka

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated dimensions of perfectionism, anxiety, and depression as factors of academic procrastination. Our main research interest was to examine the role of specific dimensions of perfectionism as moderators in the relationship between anxiety and depression and academic procrastination. Four scales were administered on the sample of 403 students: perfectionism scale FMPS, academic procrastination scale APS-SI, depression scale CESD and anxiety scale STAI-X2. The results showed ...

  16. School Climate and Academic Achievement in Suburban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Tracey N.

    2016-01-01

    School climate research has indicated a relationship between the climate of a school and academic achievement. The majority of explanatory models have been developed in urban schools with less attention given to suburban schools. Due to the process of formation of suburban schools, there is a likelihood these campuses differ from the traditional…

  17. School Mobility and Students' Academic and Behavioral Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seunghee

    2014-01-01

    The study examined estimated effects of school mobility on students' academic and behaviouiral outcomes. Based on data for 2,560 public schools from the School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) 2007-2008, the findings indicate that high schools, urban schools, and schools serving a total student population of more than 50 percent minority…

  18. Bullying Experiences and Compromised Academic Performance across Middle School Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether bullying experiences are associated with lower academic performance across middle school among urban students.The ethnically diverse sample was drawn from a longitudinal study of 2,300 sixth graders (44% Latino, 26% African American, 10% Asian, 10% White, and 10% mixed) from 11 public middle schools.…

  19. A Study of Secondary School Students' Academic Performance at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed and investigated the academic performance of secondary school students in two principal subjects (English Language and. Mathematics) at the Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) in ten secondary schools typical of urban and rural locations in five randomised. Local Government Areas of ...

  20. Active Versus Passive Academic Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goel, Rajeev K.; Grimpe, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of networking by academics. Using information from a unique large survey of German researchers, the key contribution focuses on the active versus passive networking distinction. Is active networking by researchers a substitute or a complement to passive networking......? Other contributions include examining the role of geographic factors in networking and whether research bottlenecks affect a researcher's propensity to network. Are the determinants of European conference participation by German researchers different from conferences in rest of the world? Results show...... that some types of passive academic networking are complementary to active networking, while others are substitute. Further, we find differences in factors promoting participation in European conferences versus conferences in rest of the world. Finally, publishing bottlenecks as a group generally do...

  1. Procedural modeling of urban layout: population, land use, and road network

    OpenAIRE

    Lyu, X.; Han, Q.; de Vries, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces an urban simulation system generating urban layouts with population, road network and land use layers. The desired urban spatial structure is obtained by generating a population map based on population density models. The road network is generated at two spatial levels corresponding to the road hierarchy. The land use allocation is based on the What If? allocation model. The expected results are urban layouts suitable for academic scenario analysis.

  2. From Academic to Post-Academic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Ghaneirad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the cultural change in science from academic science to post-academic science by the use of documentary studying and analytical reasoning. The aim of this study is determining the direction of cultural change in science and comparing it with cultural change in society.The knowledge production which surrounds academy has little relationship with the values of society and epistemological norms regulate scientists' behavior from within the scientific system. But in post-academic science the relationship between science and society operates in the same line with market and government and science produce within the social context and scientists' behavior controlled by the norms out of the scientific system. So the culture of science has changed because science applied to meet the requirements of market and industry. The result is that contrary to cultural change in society that goes from materialism to post-materialism, cultural change in science moves from post-materialism to materialism.

  3. Aquaponics in Urban Agriculture: Social Acceptance and Urban Food Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Pollard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is emerging as a novel technology with particular potential for urban agriculture (UA. The social acceptance of aquaponics and its place in urban food planning has not previously been studied. This study used focus groups, key informant interviews, and scenario analyses to investigate the reactions of Adelaide’s urban food opinion leaders and local government area (LGA officials to aquaponics. Most of the focus group participants were unfamiliar with aquaponics. The perceived negatives of the technology received greater attention than the perceived benefits. Aquaponics was thought to be most competitive in either niche or wholesale markets, with a need for scaled guidelines from backyard to large-scale commercial production. For aquaponics in urban settings the influence of urban planning and policy is an important, but to date unstudied, consideration. The urban growers’ opinions of the overcomplicated nature of urban food planning corresponded with the mixed policy responses of the LGAs towards UA. This further supports the participants’ desire for a supportive State Government stance on UA to encourage consistency in LGAs.

  4. A atuação do nutricionista na Atenção Básica à Saúde em um grande centro urbano The participation of the nutritionist in Primary Health Care in a large urban center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Cervato-Mancuso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O nutricionista é um profissional importante na implementação de ações de promoção, tratamento e reabilitação da saúde. Porém, sua participação na Atenção Básica (AB é reduzida. A cidade de São Paulo vem passando por um processo desigual de urbanização, produzindo novas situações de insegurança alimentar e nutricional. Este trabalho analisará a atuação do nutricionista na AB em um grande centro urbano. Trata-se de estudo de abordagem quantitativa no qual foram utilizados dados populacionais da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde e um questionário semiestruturado aplicado em entrevistas individuais. Encontraram-se 123 nutricionistas atuando na rede Básica de Saúde e 51 em Núcleos de Apoio à Saúde da Família (NASF. Todas as regiões do município apresentaram-se com menor número de nutricionistas quando comparada à recomendação do Conselho Federal de Nutricionistas. Em 57,3% dos NASF do município identificou-se a presença deste profissional. Cada nutricionista de NASF acompanha, em média, 7,1 equipes de saúde da família. As faixas etárias que correspondem à infância são as atendidas com menor frequência pelos nutricionistas das UBS e dos NASF. Comparando-se as atividades desenvolvidas, observa-se a transição de um modelo de assistência primária centrado no atendimento individual para um que prioriza o atendimento em grupo.Nutritionists are important professionals for ensuring the implementation of health promotion, treatment and rehabilitation. However, their participation in primary healthcare from a quantitative standpoint is limited. The city of São Paulo has experienced an uneven urbanization process triggering new problems of insecurity in terms of food and nutrition. This article analyzes the performance of the primary healthcare nutritionist in a large urban center. It is a quantitative study that used data from the Municipal Health Department, population data of São Paulo and a semi

  5. Floating Collection in an Academic Library: An Audacious Experiment That Succeeded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopey, Barbara; Eshbach, Barbara; Notartomas, Trish

    2016-01-01

    Can a floating collection thrive in a large multicampus academic research library? Floating collections have been successful in public libraries for some time, but it is uncommon for academic libraries and unheard of for a large academic library system. This article will discuss the investigation into the feasibility of a floating collection at…

  6. Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening Variable ... This study was designed to seek explanations for differences in academic performance among junior ...

  7. Thinking Academic Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Lis

    2016-01-01

    This lecture argues that the politicisation and instrumentalisation of the university caused by neoliberal frames has as a result the depoliticisation of knowledge and of the academic as individual. This depoliticisation has turned academic freedom into a right to disengage not only from the political fight around these issues but also from the…

  8. Academic Work and Performativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, John

    2017-01-01

    Neoliberal reforms in higher education have resulted in corporate managerial practices in universities and a drive for efficiency and productivity in teaching and research. As a result, there has been an intensification of academic work, increased stress for academics and an emphasis on accountability and performativity in universities. This paper…

  9. Patterns of Academic Procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Victor; Mensink, David; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Uses the Academic Procrastination Questionnaire to measure procrastination and six possible patterns underlying it among undergraduate students. Finds that the most common patterns for clients involved Evaluation Anxiety or being Discouraged/Depressed, or Dependent. Supports individualized assessment and solutions for academic procrastination. (SC)

  10. Marketing Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  11. The academic library network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wojciechowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of libraries, academic libraries in particular, necessitates organizational changes facilitating or even imposing co-operation. Any structure of any university has to have an integrated network of libraries, with an appropriate division of work, and one that is consolidated as much as it is possible into medium-size or large libraries. Within thus created network, a chance arises to centralize the main library processes based on appropriate procedures in the main library, highly specialized, more effective and therefore cheaper in operation, including a co-ordination of all more important endeavours and tasks. Hierarchically subordinated libraries can be thus more focused on performing their routine service, more and more frequently providing for the whole of the university, and being able to adjust to changeable requirements and demands of patrons and of new tasks resulting from the new model of the university operation. Another necessary change seems to be a universal implementation of an ov rall programme framework that would include all services in the university’s library networks.

  12. Expatriate academics and perceptions of organisational support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trembath, Jodie-Lee; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2017-01-01

    retention of its expatriate academics. By analysing qualitative responses to a written questionnaire, this paper explores the perceptions of organisational support held by 163 expatriate academics employed at a large international Danish university, and compares these perceptions to the support......Research on Perceived Organisational Support (POS) rarely focuses on the potential gap between employee perceptions versus the support the organisation purports to offer. An understanding of this may provide greater insight into the interventions a university should be making if it hopes to improve...... the university claims to offer. Our study reveals that, in the case of expatriate academics, even extensive offerings of organisational support can be insufficient if the existence and specific benefits of the support are not adequately communicated, and if the academics do not trust the source of the support...

  13. Expatriate academics and perceptions of organisational support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trembath, Jodie-Lee; Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee

    2017-01-01

    Research on Perceived Organisational Support (POS) rarely focuses on the potential gap between employee perceptions versus the support the organisation purports to offer. An understanding of this may provide greater insight into the interventions a university should be making if it hopes to improve...... retention of its expatriate academics. By analysing qualitative responses to a written questionnaire, this paper explores the perceptions of organisational support held by 163 expatriate academics employed at a large international Danish university, and compares these perceptions to the support...... the university claims to offer. Our study reveals that, in the case of expatriate academics, even extensive offerings of organisational support can be insufficient if the existence and specific benefits of the support are not adequately communicated, and if the academics do not trust the source of the support...

  14. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  15. Urbanism & urban qualities New data and methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The interest in urban spaces and their qualities has become stronger in recent years. A substantial volume of projects aims to create attractive urban spaces reasons of Sustainability, Quality of Life and urban vitality. But who actually uses the urban spaces, which urban spaces are used? How do...... they use them? What characterizes the good urban space? And how and by who is it evaluated? How is a better co-operation between urban space researchers, decision makers and users established? Is it the right urban spaces which receive investments? How can research optimize the basis for decisions......?   Proceedings from the conference "Urbanism & urban qualities - new data & methodologies" held 24th of June 2009 at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen....

  16. Relocalising academic literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana; Holm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to the continuing discussion about academic literacy in international higher education. Approaching international study programmes as temporary educational contact zones, marked by a broad diversity in students’ educational and discursive experiences, we examine the negot......This article contributes to the continuing discussion about academic literacy in international higher education. Approaching international study programmes as temporary educational contact zones, marked by a broad diversity in students’ educational and discursive experiences, we examine...... the negotiation and relocalisation of academic literacy among students of the international master’s programme, Anthropology of Education and Globalisation (AEG), University of Aarhus, Denmark. The article draws on an understanding of academic literacy as a local practice situated in the social and institutional...... contexts in which it appears. Based on qualitative interviews with eleven AEG-students, we analyse students’ individual experiences of, and perspectives on, the academic literacy practices of this study programme. Our findings reveal contradictory understandings of internationalism and indicate a learning...

  17. Is Urban Economic Growth Inclusive in India?

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Sabyasachi

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures the overall inclusive growth of a city by considering changing trends in the key economic variables based on ‘Borda ranking’ and establishes a relationship between city economic growth and overall city inclusive growth. By using data of 52 large cities in India, this paper finds that higher urban economic growth is associated with an increase in urban inequality, a reduction in urban poverty, and a lower level of overall inclusive growth of a city.

  18. Shape-Up and Eat Right Families Pilot Program: Feasibility of a Weight Management Shared Medical Appointment Model in African-Americans With Obesity at an Urban Academic Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Srivastava

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesDisparities in obesity care exist among African-American children and adults. We sought to test the feasibility of a pilot program, a 1-year family-based intervention for African-American families with obesity [shape up and eat right (SUPER], adopting the shared medical appointment model (SMA at an urban safety net hospital.OutcomesPrimary outcomes: (1 family attendance rate and (2 program satisfaction. Secondary outcomes: change in body mass index (BMI, eating behaviors, and sedentary activity.MethodsAdult parents (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 ≥18 years and their child(ren (BMI ≥ 85th percentile ages 6–12 years from adult or pediatric weight management clinics were recruited. One group visit per month (n = 12 consisting of a nutrition and exercise component was led by a nurse practitioner and registered dietitian. Height and weight were recorded during each visit. Participants were queried on program satisfaction, food logs and exercise journals, Food Stamp Program’s Food Behavior, and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program food checklists.ResultsThirteen participants from lower socioeconomic zip codes consented [n = 5 mothers mean age 33 years, BMI of 47.4 kg/m2 (31.4–73.6 kg/m2; n = 8 children; mean age 9 years, BMI of 97.6th percentile (94–99th percentile; 60% enrolled in state Medicaid]. Average individual attendance was 23.4% (14–43%; n = 13; monthly session attendance rates declined from 100 to 40% by program completion; two families completed the program in entirety. Program was rated (n = 5 adults very satisfactory (40% and extremely satisfactory (60%. Pre-intervention, families rated their eating habits as fair and reported consuming sugar-sweetened beverages or sports drinks, more so than watching more than 1 h of television (p < 0.002 or video game/computer activity (p < 0.006 and consuming carbonated sodas (p < 0.004. Post-intervention, reducing salt

  19. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  20. Student self-esteem and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nikoleta M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for high academic achievement. In contrast, academic achievement and other experiences related to teaching and learning are considered to exert significant influence on self-esteem and a student should be successful at school first so as to develop a positive self-image and his academic abilities. The debate on what comes first - self-esteem or academic achievement - is in its character more academic than practical. This claim is supported by an increasing number of studies indicating the dynamism and reciprocity of correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The paper gives recommendations for educational practice to promote self-esteem and development of personal and social responsibility, which contributes to better student academic achievement. It is pointed out that teacher education in the field is necessary and that self-esteem and responsibility must become essential segments of curricula. Teacher is expected to become sensitive to the needs of students who are at risk to be unsuccessful and to largely apply cooperative learning methods. Findings demonstrate that cooperative learning either sustain or increase student self-esteem, whereas traditional teaching methods, in general, lead to its decline. Cooperative relations improve student self-image in respect of academic abilities and social interactions. Positive feedback, peer support, more frequent experience of learning achievement leads mainly to general increase in self-esteem and

  1. The academic prince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Maurice

    2002-12-01

    The author presents advice to deans and chairs of academia by imagining what Machiavelli might recommend were he to write a modern version of The Prince for academics. "Machiavelli" cautions that since modern academic "princes" have little power (except, perhaps, over teaching and laboratory space), the success of their rule depends upon respect. Regarding the choice of an academic prince, find someone who can be a good role model, set standards, and reward academic excellence, and who will, above all, be respected. Avoid choosing a prince who is a nice, nonthreatening candidate with "good human relations" and "good executive skills." Choose candidates who are already successful and fulfilled and who will see the new post not as a promotion or a balm for their insecurity, but as an intrusion into their academic lives. Fill empty positions as quickly as possible-better a weak prince than no prince at all. Seek short terms for princes, both because respected academics will want to return to their normal lives as soon as possible, and because with short mandates, greater chances can be taken with young, unproved, but promising candidates. At the same time, the appointment of aging administrators who have lost their academic skills is to be avoided. Above all, respect the throne-i.e., the position of chair or dean-even if the person holding the position may not deserve the respect, since when the prince retires with honor, the position becomes more attractive to future good candidates.

  2. Urban freight transportation : Challenges, failure, and successes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Goos; Quak, H.; Peeters, Rene; Woensel van, T.; Zijm, H.; Klumpp, M.; Clausen, U.; Ten Hompel, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the challenges, failures and successes on urban freight transportation. We first identify the various involved stakeholders with their interests. Then we evaluate a large number of urban freight transport initiatives and identify lessons learned, which are distinguished in

  3. Urban freight transportation : challenges, failures and successes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, G.; Quak, H.; Peeters, R.; van Woensel, T.; Zijm, H.; Klumpp, M.; Clausen, U.; ten Hompel, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the challenges, failures and successes on urban freight transportation. We first identify the various involved stakeholders with their interests. Then we evaluate a large number of urban freight transport initiatives and identify lessons learned, which are distinguished in

  4. Seoul's greenbelt: an experiment in urban containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Youn Yeo-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Urban containment policies are considered by some to be a promising approach to growth management. The greenbelt-based urban containment policy of Seoul, Republic of Korea is examined as a case study. Seoul's greenbelt has generated both significant social costs and benefits. Korea's greenbelt policy is currently being revised, largely due to pressure from...

  5. Examining patterns in medication documentation of trade and generic names in an academic family practice training centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Alexander; Ruderman, Carly; Leung, Fok-Han; Slater, Morgan

    2017-09-22

    Studies in the United States have shown that physicians commonly use brand names when documenting medications in an outpatient setting. However, the prevalence of prescribing and documenting brand name medication has not been assessed in a clinical teaching environment. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of generic versus brand names for a select number of pharmaceutical products in clinical documentation in a large, urban academic family practice centre. A retrospective chart review of the electronic medical records of the St. Michael's Hospital Academic Family Health Team (SMHAFHT). Data for twenty commonly prescribed medications were collected from the Cumulative Patient Profile as of August 1, 2014. Each medication name was classified as generic or trade. Associations between documentation patterns and physician characteristics were assessed. Among 9763 patients prescribed any of the twenty medications of interest, 45% of patient charts contained trade nomenclature exclusively. 32% of charts contained only generic nomenclature, and 23% contained a mix of generic and trade nomenclature. There was large variation in use of generic nomenclature amongst physicians, ranging from 19% to 93%. Trade names in clinical documentation, which likely reflect prescribing habits, continue to be used abundantly in the academic setting. This may become part of the informal curriculum, potentially facilitating undue bias in trainees. Further study is needed to determine characteristics which influence use of generic or trade nomenclature and the impact of this trend on trainees' clinical knowledge and decision-making.

  6. Academic Training: 2004 - 2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    1st Term - 01 October to 17 December 2004 REGULAR LECTURE PROGRAMME New Trends in Fusion Research by A. Fasoli, EPFL, Lausanne, CH 11, 12, 13 October Physics at e+e- linear collider by K. Desch, DESY, Hamburg, D 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 November LECTURE SERIES FOR POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS Standard Model by R. Barbieri, CERN-PH-TH 6, 7, 8, 9 10 December The lectures are open to all those interested, without application. The abstract of the lectures, as well as any change to the above information (title, dates, time, place etc) will be published in the CERN Bulletin, the WWW, and by notices before each term and for each series of lectures. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  7. Global assessment of urban and peri-urban agriculture: irrigated and rainfed croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebo, A. L.; Drechsel, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2014-11-01

    The role of urban agriculture in global food security is a topic of increasing discussion. Existing research on urban and peri-urban agriculture consists largely of case studies that frequently use disparate definitions of urban and peri-urban agriculture depending on the local context and study objectives. This lack of consistency makes quantification of the extent of this practice at the global scale difficult. This study instead integrates global data on croplands and urban extents using spatial overlay analysis to estimate the global area of urban and peri-urban irrigated and rainfed croplands. The global area of urban irrigated croplands was estimated at about 24 Mha (11.0 percent of all irrigated croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.48. The global area of urban rainfed croplands found was approximately 44 Mha (4.7 percent of all rainfed croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.03. These values were derived from the MIRCA2000 Maximum Monthly Cropped Area Grids for irrigated and rainfed crops and therefore their sum does not necessarily represent the total urban cropland area when the maximum extent of irrigated and rainfed croplands occurs in different months. Further analysis of croplands within 20 km of urban extents show that 60 and 35 percent of, respectively, all irrigated and rainfed croplands fall within this distance range.

  8. Global assessment of urban and peri-urban agriculture: irrigated and rainfed croplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebo, A L; Drechsel, P; Lambin, E F

    2014-01-01

    The role of urban agriculture in global food security is a topic of increasing discussion. Existing research on urban and peri-urban agriculture consists largely of case studies that frequently use disparate definitions of urban and peri-urban agriculture depending on the local context and study objectives. This lack of consistency makes quantification of the extent of this practice at the global scale difficult. This study instead integrates global data on croplands and urban extents using spatial overlay analysis to estimate the global area of urban and peri-urban irrigated and rainfed croplands. The global area of urban irrigated croplands was estimated at about 24 Mha (11.0 percent of all irrigated croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.48. The global area of urban rainfed croplands found was approximately 44 Mha (4.7 percent of all rainfed croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.03. These values were derived from the MIRCA2000 Maximum Monthly Cropped Area Grids for irrigated and rainfed crops and therefore their sum does not necessarily represent the total urban cropland area when the maximum extent of irrigated and rainfed croplands occurs in different months. Further analysis of croplands within 20 km of urban extents show that 60 and 35 percent of, respectively, all irrigated and rainfed croplands fall within this distance range. (letter)

  9. Academic information on Twitter: A user survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mohammadi

    Full Text Available Although counts of tweets citing academic papers are used as an informal indicator of interest, little is known about who tweets academic papers and who uses Twitter to find scholarly information. Without knowing this, it is difficult to draw useful conclusions from a publication being frequently tweeted. This study surveyed 1,912 users that have tweeted journal articles to ask about their scholarly-related Twitter uses. Almost half of the respondents (45% did not work in academia, despite the sample probably being biased towards academics. Twitter was used most by people with a social science or humanities background. People tend to leverage social ties on Twitter to find information rather than searching for relevant tweets. Twitter is used in academia to acquire and share real-time information and to develop connections with others. Motivations for using Twitter vary by discipline, occupation, and employment sector, but not much by gender. These factors also influence the sharing of different types of academic information. This study provides evidence that Twitter plays a significant role in the discovery of scholarly information and cross-disciplinary knowledge spreading. Most importantly, the large numbers of non-academic users support the claims of those using tweet counts as evidence for the non-academic impacts of scholarly research.

  10. Academic information on Twitter: A user survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ehsan; Thelwall, Mike; Kwasny, Mary; Holmes, Kristi L

    2018-01-01

    Although counts of tweets citing academic papers are used as an informal indicator of interest, little is known about who tweets academic papers and who uses Twitter to find scholarly information. Without knowing this, it is difficult to draw useful conclusions from a publication being frequently tweeted. This study surveyed 1,912 users that have tweeted journal articles to ask about their scholarly-related Twitter uses. Almost half of the respondents (45%) did not work in academia, despite the sample probably being biased towards academics. Twitter was used most by people with a social science or humanities background. People tend to leverage social ties on Twitter to find information rather than searching for relevant tweets. Twitter is used in academia to acquire and share real-time information and to develop connections with others. Motivations for using Twitter vary by discipline, occupation, and employment sector, but not much by gender. These factors also influence the sharing of different types of academic information. This study provides evidence that Twitter plays a significant role in the discovery of scholarly information and cross-disciplinary knowledge spreading. Most importantly, the large numbers of non-academic users support the claims of those using tweet counts as evidence for the non-academic impacts of scholarly research.

  11. Academic Capitalism and Academic Culture: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar; Berger, Joseph B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study investigated the impact of academic capitalism on academic culture by examining the perspectives of faculty members in an American academic department with significant industrial funding. The results of this study indicate that faculty members believe that the broad integrity of the academic culture remains unaffected in this…

  12. Academic librarianship today

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Intended for use by both librarians and students in LIS programs, Academic Librarianship Today is the most current, comprehensive overview of the field available today. Key features include: Each chapter was commissioned specifically for this new book, and the authors are highly regarded academic librarians or library school faculty— or both Cutting-edge topics such as open access, copyright, digital curation and preservation, emerging technologies, new roles for academic librarians, cooperative collection development and resource sharing, and patron-driven acquisitions are explored in depth Each chapter ends with thought-provoking questions for discussion and carefully constructed assignments that faculty can assign or adapt for their courses The book begins with Gilman’s introduction, an overview that briefly synthesizes the contents of the contributors’ chapters by highlighting major themes. The main part of the book is organized into three parts: The Academic Library Landscape Today, ...

  13. Declaration of Academic Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÇETİNSAYA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Universities are the institutions where all the opinions, various truth claims as well as social and political problems are discussed in a liberal and civilized way and the complicated problems are expressed clearly without any oppression and prevention. 2. Academic freedom includes first and foremost the right of freedom of research and thus freedom of using the essential knowledge methods, the right of possessing the necessary tools and conditions required for the research and the rights of scientific production, informing, learning and dissemination. 3. Academics possess the rights to benefit from the academic freedom without any limitation, to research and investigate according to their own preferences and interests, and to teach these without being exposed to any oppression and prevention. 4. This freedom of teaching that the academics have should not be used in a manner restricting students' freedom of learning; academics should avoid from being dogmatic in the research and education processes and respect students' rights of thinking differently and expressing themselves. 5. Academics accordingly should lead the students to evaluate and understand the new thoughts as a whole and to be tolerant to the thoughts they do not agree and to think in various ways. Also, academics should encourage the students to create their own opinions based on evidences and enable them to express these opinions freely and respect their freedom of expression. 6. Campuses should be safe environments where the students can express their own opinions freely. Suppressing the intellectual diversity and the plurality of viewpoints will decrease the productivity of teaching and learning process, restrict students' freedom of learning, and constrain the chance of formation of critical and in-depth thinking. 7. Critical thinking develops only in the campuses where various thoughts are expressed in a liberal way. Students should feel that they would not be prevented

  14. Googilum academic gaveshana librarikalum

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayakumar, J. K.

    2006-01-01

    Describes about two projects of Google such as "Google Scholar" and "Google Print".It also describes how the traditional library based academic research information search can be affected by these two projects.

  15. Academic goals in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, Joshua I S; Kann, Brian

    2013-12-01

    The development of an academic surgical career can be an overwhelming prospect, and one that is not intuitive. Establishing a structured plan and support structure is critical to success. Starting a successful academic surgical career begins with defining one's academic goals within several broad categories: personal goals, academic goals, research goals, educational goals, and financial goals. Learning the art of self-promotion is the means by which many of these goals are achieved. It is important to realize that achieving these goals requires a delicate personal balance between work and home life, and the key ways in which to achieve success require establishment of well thought-out goals, a reliable support structure, realistic and clear expectations, and frequent re-evaluation.

  16. Administering an Academic Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Donald W.; Sperry, John B.

    1986-01-01

    Clarifies the possible forms of leadership taken by the administrator of an academic department. Discusses such elements as authoritarian leadership, faculty consensus, power and responsibility, input factors, types of decision making, faculty recruiting, and authoritarian versus democratic approach. (CT)

  17. The academic quilting bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Anita P; Files, Julia A; Ko, Marcia G; Blair, Janis E

    2009-03-01

    In medicine, the challenges faced by female faculty members who are attempting to achieve academic advancement have been well described. Various strategies have been proposed to increase academic productivity to aid the promotion of women in medicine. We propose an innovative collaboration strategy that encourages completion of an academic writing project. This strategy acknowledges the challenges inherent in achieving work-life balance and utilizes a collaborative work style with a group of peer physicians. The model is designed to encourage the completion and collation of independently prepared sections of an academic paper within a setting that emphasizes social networking and collaboration. This approach has many similarities to the construction of a quilt during a "quilting bee."

  18. Assessing the Academic Medical Center as a Supportive Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Sam C.

    2011-01-01

    Academic medical centers are well-known for their emphasis on teaching, research and public service; however, like most large, bureaucratic organizations, they oftentimes suffer from an inability to learn as an organization. The role of the research administrator in the academic medical center has grown over time as the profession itself has…

  19. Do Men and Women Perform Academic Work Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ramos, Ana M.; Fernández Palacín, Fernando; Muñoz Márquez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Why is the gender gap so large in researchers' career progression? Do men and women have different priorities in their academic careers? This study explores men's and women's academic work to shed light on the strategies of male and female researchers. The online survey collected data on Andalusian researchers to determine possible differences in…

  20. The Why's and How's of Integrating Downloadable Academic Ebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew J.; Johnson, Melissa Maria

    2013-01-01

    There has been a noticeable divide the past few years within the library world regarding electronic books. Many academic libraries have been purchasing or leasing web-based academic ebooks for years. Most public libraries on the other hand (thanks in large part to services such as OverDrive) have directed their attention toward downloadable…

  1. Personality Type and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Arul A. S.; Lawrence, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality is the man. The successful living of an individual, as a man, depends to a large extent on the academic achievement of that individual, as a student. This article attempts to find out personality type, academic achievement of secondary school students and relationship between them by selecting a sample of 300 secondary school students…

  2. Security Risks Management in Selected Academic Libraries in Osun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survival of a library depends to a large extent on how secured its collections are. Security of collections constitutes a critical challenge facing academic libraries in Nigeria. It is against this background that this study investigated the security risks management in selected academic libraries in Osun State, Nigeria.

  3. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  4. Academic Engagement and Commercialisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Tartari, Valentina; McKelvey, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    A considerable body of work highlights the relevance of collaborative research, contract research, consulting and informal relationships for university–industry knowledge transfer. We present a systematic review of research on academic scientists’ involvement in these activities to which we refer......, and pursued by academics to access resources supporting their research agendas. We conclude by identifying future research needs, opportunities for methodological improvement and policy interventions....

  5. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization in a Developed Region of Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a practical methodology to monitor the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban expansion in response to rapid urbanization at the provincial scale by integrating remote sensing, urban built-up area boundaries, spatial metrics and spatial regression. Sixty-seven cities were investigated to examine the differences of urbanization intensity, urbanization patterns and urban land use efficiency in conjunction with the identification of socio-economic indicators and planning strategies. Planning proposals to allocate the urbanization intensity among different-sized cities by considering sustainable urban development were also explored. The results showed that the urban area of Zhejiang Province expanded from 31,380 ha in 1980 to 415,184 ha in 2010, indicating that the area of the urban region expanded to more than 13-times the initial urban area. The urban built-up area boundaries became more complex and irregular in shape as the urban area expanded throughout the entire study period. Rapid urban population growth and economic development were identified as significant in stimulating the urban expansion process. However, different-sized cities exhibited marked differences in urban development. Small cities experienced the rapidest urbanization before 2000. Large cities, which are estimated to have the highest urban land use efficiency, had the most dramatic sprawl in urban area at the beginning of the 21st century. Promoting the development of large cities to mega-cities is recommended in Zhejiang Province to ensure sustainable urban development with consideration of land resource preservation.

  6. Urbanization, Migration, Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world urbanization becomes a large-scale process. Huge flows of people migrate from poorer districts to the cities with a higher level of consumption. It takes migrants about 15-25 years to give up their traditional ascetic way of life. In this period the ‘new citizens’ try to arrange compact settlements with an archaic way of life, insanitary conditions, high criminogenity and an authoritative local self-government. The processes of formation and decay of the ascetic enclave are viewed through the example of the ‘Shanghai’ trading neighborhood in Irkutsk.

  7. Parent-school relationships and children's academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R

    2010-08-01

    Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that parental school involvement positively predicted children's social skills (d=.55) and mathematics skills (d=.36), and negatively predicted problem behaviors (d=.47). Perceived teacher responsiveness to child/parent was positively related to children's early reading (d=.43), and social skills (d=.43), and negatively to problem behaviors (d=.61). All analyses controlled for quality of teacher interaction with children in the classroom, parental home involvement, parental education level, and child race/ethnicity. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Whistleblowing in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, R; Strain, J J

    2004-02-01

    Although medical centres have established boards, special committees, and offices for the review and redress of breaches in ethical behaviour, these mechanisms repeatedly prove themselves ineffective in addressing research misconduct within the institutions of academic medicine. As the authors see it, institutional design: (1) systematically ignores serious ethical problems, (2) makes whistleblowers into institutional enemies and punishes them, and (3) thereby fails to provide an ethical environment. The authors present and discuss cases of academic medicine failing to address unethical behaviour in academic science and, thereby, illustrate the scope and seriousness of the problem. The Olivieri/Apotex affair is just another instance of academic medicine's dereliction in a case of scientific fraud and misconduct. Instead of vigorously supporting their faculty member in her efforts to honestly communicate her findings and to protect patients from the risks associated with the use of the study drug, the University of Toronto collaborated with the Apotex company's "stalling tactics," closed down Dr Olivieri's laboratory, harassed her, and ultimately dismissed her. The authors argue that the incentives for addressing problematic behaviour have to be revised in order to effect a change in the current pattern of response that occurs in academic medicine. An externally imposed realignment of incentives could convert the perception of the whistleblower, from their present caste as the enemy within, into a new position, as valued friend of the institution. The authors explain how such a correction could encourage appropriate reactions to scientific misconduct from academic medicine.

  9. Quality Investing – Industry versus Academic Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Kyosev (Georgi); M.X. Hanauer (Matthias); J.J. Huij (Joop); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this study we provide an overview of common quality definitions that are currently used in the industry and those used in academic studies, and we outline the differences between these definitions. We show that there is a large dispersion in the definitions that are used for the

  10. Academic knowledge to release the world !!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Swartz

    2016-04-01

    in “papers” of academic research journals, may be available for millions of scientists and entrepreneurs from around the world will give collective use, and thus put science and technology to serve the peopleand not large multinationals.

  11. RESOURCES OF CANADIAN ACADEMIC AND RESEARCH LIBRARIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOWNS, ROBERT B.

    ALTHOUGH IT EMPHASIZES ACADEMIC LIBRARIES, THIS STUDY ALSO INCLUDES THE NATIONAL AND PROVINCIAL LIBRARIES, LARGE PUBLIC LIBRARIES, AND SPECIAL LIBRARIES THAT SERVE CANADIAN SCHOLARS, STUDENTS, AND RESEARCH WORKERS. WITH THE DATA OBTAINED FROM A QUESTIONNAIRE ON LIBRARY STATISTICS AND HOLDINGS, VISITS TO THE LIBRARIES, INTERVIEWS WITH LIBRARIANS…

  12. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  13. People, places and infrastructure: Countering urban violence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    People, Places, and Infrastructure: Countering Urban Violence and Promoting Justice in Mumbai, Rio, and Durban. In today's rapidly urbanizing world, cities offer economic opportunity and social mobility, yet they are also places of violence for increasingly large numbers of residents. As urbanization spreads, new sites are ...

  14. Urban metabolism: A review of research methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Urban metabolism analysis has become an important tool for the study of urban ecosystems. The problems of large metabolic throughput, low metabolic efficiency, and disordered metabolic processes are a major cause of unhealthy urban systems. In this paper, I summarize the international research on urban metabolism, and describe the progress that has been made in terms of research methodologies. I also review the methods used in accounting for and evaluating material and energy flows in urban metabolic processes, simulation of these flows using a network model, and practical applications of these methods. Based on this review of the literature, I propose directions for future research, and particularly the need to study the urban carbon metabolism because of the modern context of global climate change. Moreover, I recommend more research on the optimal regulation of urban metabolic systems. Highlights: •Urban metabolic processes can be analyzed by regarding cities as superorganisms. •Urban metabolism methods include accounting, assessment, modeling, and regulation. •Research methodologies have improved greatly since this field began in 1965. •Future research should focus on carbon metabolism and optimal regulation. -- The author reviews research progress in the field of urban metabolism, and based on her literature review, proposes directions for future research

  15. Large floating structures technological advances

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, BT

    2015-01-01

    This book surveys key projects that have seen the construction of large floating structures or have attained detailed conceptual designs. This compilation of key floating structures in a single volume captures the innovative features that mark the technological advances made in this field of engineering, and will provide a useful reference for ideas, analysis, design, and construction of these unique and emerging urban projects to offshore and marine engineers, urban planners, architects and students.

  16. Academic Motivations and Academic Self-Efficacy of Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Gamze Sarikoc

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Academic motivation and academic self-efficacy play important roles in the learning process. They increase academic achievement and the attainment of educational goals, thus providing opportunities in the training of qualified nurses. This study was conducted to determine nursing students%u2019 academic motivation and academic self-efficacy levels. Material and Method: This is a descriptive study. A total of 346 students who are attending a nursing school as either a first, second, third...

  17. Regeneration Through Hidden Historical Landscape of Lecco. Urban Course Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2017-12-01

    The first part of paper presents the general learning process characterizing Urban Design course and the methodological process for the Urban Master Plan development in the studio modules. The second part presents the LeccoLAB didactical path developed in the Lecco Campus focusing on the urban design issues and presenting selected results and design proposals developed by students focusing on the Lecco Historical Urban Heritage issues. During the Academic Year 2016/2017 students’ work teams (27 applied the concepts, methods and techniques presented in Urban Design course to the Lecco waterfront urban systems developing proposal for Urban Master Plan aiming the regeneration of urban complex systems through principles of Nature Based Solutions and  Urban Resilience.

  18. The Interplay Among Academic Self-Concept, Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement of Higher Education L2 Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan KIRMIZI

    2015-01-01

    Self-concept, self efficacy, and self-regulation are three important factors that predict the success of L2 learners to a large extent. Therefore, the present study was designed to measure the academic self-concept, self efficacy, self-regulation level of higher education students in relation to academic achievement and self-evaluation and secondarily to investigate the correlation between academic self-concept, selfefficacy, and self-regulation. In the present study, academic self-concept wa...

  19. EVALUATION OF URBANIZATION INFLUENCES ON URBAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-07-27

    Jul 27, 2012 ... direction greatly affects dispersion of pollutants in the city and distribution of heat which affect human comfort. ... The urbanization is evidenced by the reducing urban land surface reflectivity and the ..... Government Print Press.

  20. Fluid Mechanics of Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Harindra J.

    2008-11-01

    The rapid urbanization of the Earth has led to highly populated cities that act as concentrated centers of anthropogenic stressors on the natural environment. The degradation of environmental quality due to such stressors, in turn, greatly impacts human behavior. Anthropogenic stressors largely originate as a result of coupling between man-made urban elements (i.e., networks of engineering and socio-economic infrastructures) and the environment, for which surrounding fluid motions play a key role. In recent years, research efforts have been directed at the understanding and modeling of fluid motions in urban areas, infrastructure dynamics and interactions thereof, with the hope of identifying environmental impacts of urbanization and complex outcomes (or ``emergent properties'') of nominally simple interactions between infrastructures and environment. Such consequences play an important role in determining the ``resilience'' of cities under anthropogenic stressors, defined as maintaining the structure and essential functions of an urbanity without regime shifts. Holistic integrated models that meld the dynamics of infrastructures and environment as well as ``quality of life'' attributes are becoming powerful decision-making tools with regard to sustainability of urban areas (continuance or even enhancement of socio-economic activities in harmony with the environment). The rudimentary forms of integrated models are beginning to take shape, augmented by comprehensive field studies and advanced measurement platforms to validate them. This presentation deals with the challenges of modeling urban atmosphere, subject to anthropogenic forcing. An important emergent property, the Urban Heat Island, and its role in determining resilience and sustainability of cities will be discussed based on the prediction of a coupled model.