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Sample records for large underground cavern

  1. Underground physics without underground labs: large detectors in solution-mined salt caverns

    CERN Document Server

    Monreal, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A number of current physics topics, including long-baseline neutrino physics, proton decay searches, and supernova neutrino searches, hope to someday construct huge (50 kiloton to megaton) particle detectors in shielded, underground sites. With today's practices, this requires the costly excavation and stabilization of large rooms in mines. In this paper, we propose utilizing the caverns created by the solution mining of salt. The challenge is that such caverns must be filled with pressurized fluid and do not admit human access. We sketch some possible methods of installing familiar detector technologies in a salt cavern under these constraints. Some of the detectors discussed are also suitable for deep-sea experiments, discussed briefly. These sketches appear challenging but feasible, and appear to force few major compromises on detector capabilities. This scheme offers avenues for enormous cost savings on future detector megaprojects.

  2. Intelligent Stability Design of Large Underground Hydraulic Caverns: Chinese Method and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiating Feng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The global energy shortage has revived the interest in hydroelectric power, but extreme geological condition always pose challenges to the construction of hydroelectric power stations with large underground caverns. To solve the problem of safe design of large underground caverns, a Chinese-style intelligent stability design, representing recent developments in Chinese techniques for the construction of underground hydropower systems is presented. The basic aim of this method is to help designers improve the stability and design efficiency of large underground hydropower cavern groups. Its flowchart consists of two parts, one is initial design with an ordinal structure, and the other is dynamic design with a closed loop structure. In each part of the flowchart, analysis techniques, analysis content and design parameters for caverns’ stability are defined, respectively. Thus, the method provides designers with a bridge from the basic information of objective engineering to reasonable design parameters for managing the stability of hydraulic cavern groups. Application to two large underground caverns shows that it is a scientific and economical method for safely constructing underground hydraulic caverns.

  3. Seismic response and stability of underground rock caverns: a case study of Baihetan underground cavern complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Zhen; Sheng, Qian; Leng, Xianlun; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The seismic stability of the underground cavern complex, which houses the Baihetan hydropower plant in Yunnan Province, China, currently the world's 2nd largest underground rock cavern group, is studied in this article...

  4. Deep Fracturing of the Hard Rock Surrounding a Large Underground Cavern Subjected to High Geostress: In Situ Observation and Mechanism Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Pei, Shu-Feng; Jiang, Quan; Zhou, Yang-Yi; Li, Shao-Jun; Yao, Zhi-Bin

    2017-08-01

    Rocks that are far removed from caverns or tunnels peripheries and subjected to high geostress may undergo `deep fracturing'. Deep fracturing of hard rock can cause serious hazards that cause delays and increase the cost of construction of underground caverns with high sidewalls and large spans (especially when subjected to high geostress). To extensively investigate the mechanism responsible for deep fracturing, and the relationship between fracturing and the excavation & support of caverns, this paper presents a basic procedure for making in situ observations on the deep fracturing process in hard rock. The basic procedure involves predicting the stress concentration zones in the surrounding rocks of caverns induced by excavation using geomechanical techniques. Boreholes are then drilled through these stress concentration zones from pre-existing tunnels (such as auxiliary galleries) toward the caverns before its excavation. Continuous observations of the fracturing of the surrounding rocks are performed during excavation using a borehole camera in the boreholes in order to analyze the evolution of the fracturing process. The deep fracturing observed in a large underground cavern (high sidewalls and large span) in southwest China excavated in basalt under high geostress is also discussed. By continuously observing the hard rock surrounding the arch on the upstream side of the cavern during the excavation of the first three layers, it was observed that the fracturing developed into the surrounding rocks with downward excavation of the cavern. Fracturing was found at distances up to 8-9 m from the cavern periphery during the excavation of Layer III. Also, the cracks propagated along pre-existing joints or at the interfaces between quartz porphyry and the rock matrix. The relationship between deep fracturing of the surrounding rocks and the advance of the cavern working faces was analyzed during excavation of Layer Ib. The results indicate that the extent of the

  5. In Situ Observation of Failure Mechanisms Controlled by Rock Masses with Weak Interlayer Zones in Large Underground Cavern Excavations Under High Geostress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Shu-Qian; Feng, Xia-Ting; Jiang, Quan; Liu, Guo-Feng; Pei, Shu-Feng; Fan, Yi-Lin

    2017-09-01

    A weak interlayer zone (WIZ) is a poor rock mass system with loose structure, weak mechanical properties, variable thickness, random distribution, strong extension, and high risk due to the shear motion of rock masses under the action of tectonism, bringing many stability problems and geological hazards, especially representing a potential threat to the overall stability of rock masses with WIZs in large underground cavern excavations. Focusing on the deformation and failure problems encountered in the process of excavation unloading, this research proposes comprehensive in situ observation schemes for rock masses with WIZs in large underground cavern on the basis of the collection of geological, construction, monitoring, and testing data. The schemes have been fully applied in two valuable project cases of an underground cavern group under construction in the southwest of China, including the plastic squeezing-out tensile failure and the structural stress-induced collapse of rock masses with WIZs. In this way, the development of rock mass failure, affected by the step-by-step excavations along the cavern's axis and the subsequent excavation downward, could be observed thoroughly. Furthermore, this paper reveals the preliminary analyses of failure mechanism of rock masses with WIZs from several aspects, including rock mass structure, strength, high stress, ground water effects, and microfracture mechanisms. Finally, the failure particularities of rock masses with WIZs and rethink on prevention and control of failures are discussed. The research results could provide important guiding reference value for stability analysis, as well as for rethinking the excavation and support optimization of rock masses with WIZs in similar large underground cavern under high geostress.

  6. Measures for controlling large deformations of underground caverns under high in-situ stress condition-A case study of Jinping I hydropower station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengwu Song; Xuemin Feng; Chenggang Liao; Dewen Cai; Zhongxu Liu; Yunhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    The Jinping I hydropower station is a huge water conservancy project consisting of the highest concrete arch dam to date in the world and a highly complex and large underground powerhouse cavern. It is located on the right bank with extremely high in-situ stress and a few discontinuities observed in sur-rounding rock masses. The problems of rock mass deformation and failure result in considerable chal-lenges related to project design and construction and have raised a wide range of concerns in the fields of rock mechanics and engineering. During the excavation of underground caverns, high in-situ stress and relatively low rock mass strength in combination with large excavation dimensions lead to large deformation of the surrounding rock mass and support. Existing experiences in excavation and support cannot deal with the large deformation of rock mass effectively, and further studies are needed. In this paper, the geological conditions, layout of caverns, and design of excavation and support are first introduced, and then detailed analyses of deformation and failure characteristics of rocks are presented. Based on this, the mechanisms of deformation and failure are discussed, and the support adjustments for controlling rock large deformation and subsequent excavation procedures are proposed. Finally, the effectiveness of support and excavation adjustments to maintain the stability of the rock mass is verified. The measures for controlling the large deformation of surrounding rocks enrich the practical experiences related to the design and construction of large underground openings, and the construction of caverns in the Jinping I hydropower station provides a good case study of large-scale excavation in highly stressed ground with complex geological structures, as well as a reference case for research on rock mechanics. © 2016 Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article

  7. Numerical Analysis on the Stability of Large Scale Underground Caverns%大型地下洞室围岩稳定性数值模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿庆蕊; Andrea Perino; 赵凯; 陈士军; 刘慧群

    2015-01-01

    国内外水能资源的开发及大型地下古建筑群的保护往往需要布置地下厂房洞室群,而大型洞室的稳定性研究逐渐成为岩土工程学术界的研究热点。基于此,分别采用有限元软件Midas及离散元软件DEM对两大典型地下洞室的稳定性进行三维数值模拟分析:其一为位于意大利都灵省苏萨谷的Pont Ventoux水力发电站的Venaus洞室;其二为位于以色列的Tel Beer Sheva洞室。计算结果表明,根据围岩性状不同选取不同的计算工具均可较可靠的评价地下洞室的稳定性,且三维模型可更精确的描述洞室几何尺寸及围岩性状。%With the development of water resources utilization and the protection of ancient underground architecture ,it is necessary to construct relevant large scale underground projects .Recently great attention has been paid to the stability of large underground caverns in the research area of rock mechanics and rock engineering .In view of this ,the numerical simulation on the stability of two typical large underground caverns was carried out .Following a brief introduction of the main modeling approaches ,the analysis of the stability of cave Venaus by a continuous FEM model was firstly performed . The stability of cave Tel Beer Sheva was analyzed by constructing a discontinuous DEM model .The comparison of the re-sults obtained by numerical analysis with the values measured in-situ validated the reliability of these two different model-ing approaches of large scale underground structures excavated in rock mass ,and it also proves that 3D model is able to better capture the features of complex projects .

  8. Method of drilling a borehole through cavernous underground formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, R.J.; Stewart, R.B.

    1981-07-15

    To pass a cavern in an underground formation through which a borehole is being drilled, a cementing tube is lowered through the hole and into the cavern. A lightweight cement slurry (such as a foam cement slurry) is introduced into the cavern to build up a cement column extending between the floor and the ceiling of the cavity at a location where the borehole should pass the cavity. 6 claims.

  9. Transient electromagnetic detection method in water-sealed underground storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the water sensitivity of the transient electromagnetic method (TEM, this study assesses the effectiveness of the water curtain system for underground LPG storage caverns during the excavation period. It also detects fracture water flow during the excavation process in light of the practice of two pilot large underground LPG storage caverns in China. Comparative maps of apparent resistivity derived from TEM measurements before and after water-filling during the excavation process have been discussed to improve the quality of the water curtain system. This is the first case to apply TEM to detect the quality of the water curtain system during the construction of underground LPG storage cavern projects, and it is found to be practical, more visualized and worth popularizing.

  10. Control Effect of a Large Geological Discontinuity on the Seismic Response and Stability of Underground Rock Caverns: A Case Study of the Baihetan #1 Surge Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhen; Sheng, Qian; Leng, Xianlun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the seismic stability of the #1 surge chamber of the Baihetan hydropower plant, which is influenced by a large dominating geological discontinuity [the interlayer shear weakness zone (ISWZ) C2)], is studied. An advanced, nonlinear, continuously yielding (CY) model was adopted to describe the complex mechanical properties of ISWZ C2. This model considers a power function type, normal stress dependent behavior and the progressive damage that occurred during shear tests. The applicability of the CY model is proved via a comparison with field test results and the theoretical solution. Verification work was conducted in 3DEC code to show that the 3DEC software is suitable for implementing this model. Three ground motion waveforms were utilized to conduct a seismic analysis of the #1 surge chamber after a special response spectrum matching process. The seismic analysis confirmed the control effect of ISWZ C2 on the seismic stability of the cavern. The majority of the cavern's seismic displacement consists of elastic body movement, while the plastic deformation is relatively limited. Further, most of the deformations were caused by the contact deformation of C2. For the contact deformation of C2, the magnitude of permanent shear deformation is larger than that of the normal deformation. The magnitude of permanent shear deformation is more notable along the strike direction of C2, and the permanent normal displacement n of C2 mainly occurs along the dip direction of C2. Finally, the seismic stability of the cavern is assessed via the overload method. The seismic safety factor of the cavern is approximately 2-3.

  11. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered

  12. Underground hydrogen storage. Final report. [Salt caverns, excavated caverns, aquifers and depleted fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foh, S.; Novil, M.; Rockar, E.; Randolph, P.

    1979-12-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of storing hydrogen in underground storage reservoirs is evaluated. The past and present technology of storing gases, primarily natural gas is reviewed. Four types of reservoirs are examined: salt caverns, excavated caverns, aquifers, and depleted fields. A technical investigation of hydrogen properties reveals that only hydrogen embrittlement places a limit on the underground storage by hydrogen. This constraint will limit reservoir pressures to 1200 psi or less. A model was developed to determine economic feasibility. After making reasonable assumptions that a utility might make in determining whether to proceed with a new storage operation, the model was tested and verified on natural gas storage. A parameteric analysis was made on some of the input parameters of the model to determine the sensitivity of the cost of service to them. Once the model was verified it was used to compute the cost of service of storing hydrogen in the four reservoir types. The costs of service for hydrogen storage ranged from 26 to 150% of the cost of the gas stored. The study concludes that it is now both safe and economic to store hydrogen in underground reservoirs.

  13. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongkui Li; Baoqi Lu; Jing Zou; Bin Xu; Zhizeng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years’ experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters) underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of“filling joints with water”is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles for design and

  14. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongkui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years' experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of “filling joints with water” is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles

  15. First underground storage cavern to boost Singapore growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2007-03-15

    This article discussed the planning and development of the Jurong Rock Cavern (JRC), Singapore's first underground rock cavern for the storage of hydrocarbons. The JRC will be constructed beneath the seabed, and will be used to store up to 3 million cubic metres of liquid hydrocarbons such as crude oil, condensates, and diesel oil. The facility will enhance the safety and security of Jurong Island, and will allow lands to be used for higher-value manufacturing operations. Jurong Island is currently home to 3 major oil and gas companies. The JTC Corporation was formed to deliver infrastructure and services to the island. Two logisparks were created to provide integrated logistics and supply chain support for companies located on the island. It is expected that the JRC will bring significant benefits to Jurong Island companies. Space currently used to store hydrocarbons will be used to develop up to 10 specialty chemical manufacturing plants. Phase 1 of the JRC will include the development of a storage capacity of 1.47 million cubic metres, while phase 2 is expected to conclude with the addition of a further 1.3 million cubic metres. Singapore is currently the world's third largest refining centre. It was concluded that there are now approximately 80 companies operating on Jurong Island, and profits from chemical refining activities in 2006 exceeded $74 billion. 3 figs.

  16. 大型地下洞室群开挖支护弹塑性损伤优化研究%Study of support optimization of large underground cavern group excavation using elastoplastic damage finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳晓蕾; 王汉鹏; 郑学芬; 史向荣

    2011-01-01

    正在设计施工的某大型水电站地下洞室群地质条件复杂,其开挖支护方案对围岩稳定性非常重要,因此,对支护方案进行优化研究非常必要.为更真实地模拟岩体的力学特性,研究施工过程中岩体的损伤破坏,根据不可逆热力学理论建立了弹塑性损伤模型和损伤演化方程,并编制了三维弹塑性损伤有限元程序D-FEM,具有模拟开挖与支护、计算速度快、群组功能等特点.建立大型地下洞室群三维数值模型,将通过实测地应力反演的应力作为初始地应力.采用D-FEM模拟了不同支护方案洞室群的施工过程,通过分析洞室围岩的应力、位移和破损区,支护方案2的支护效果最好,建议采用此方案.考虑岩体损伤演化后与FLAC3D塑性区相比,洞室群边墙中部的破损区显著增加,因此,程序可应用于地下工程的稳定性分析.%The geological conditions of large underground cavem group are complicated, of which the support project affects stability of surrounding rock So it is important to study the support optimization of large underground cavem group excavation.In order to simulate rock mass veritably and analyze its damage in construction the elastoplastic damage model and damage evolution equation are presented on the basis of the irreversible thermodynamics theory.The 3D elastoplastic damage finite element code D-FEM is programmed by using Fortan language.which has the capabilities of simulating excavation and support.computing quickly and group function.3D numerical model of underground cavern group is established, input initial geostress is inversion of field stress measurement.The cavern group excavation by different support projects is simulated by D-FEM.The stress, displacement and damage of surrounding rock under three different cases are analyzed.The effect of No.2 support project is best and so is proposed Considering damage evolvement, damage zones compared to plastic zones of FLAC3D

  17. Prediction versus actual response of rocks in an excavation of underground cavern at the Lam Ta Khong pumped storage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lertsgoon, P.N. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Bangkruai Nonthaburi (Thailand)

    2003-07-01

    The Lam Ta Khong Pumped Storage Project represents the first underground power plant in Thailand, and involves the excavation of a large underground cavern. Its dimensions are a 25 span, 175 metres long and 49 metres high. It is excavated in sandstone and siltstone and houses 4 power generator units capable of producing a maximum of 1000 mega watts (MW). The work was completed in 2000. The feasibility study revealed questionable properties of the siltstone which governs the ceiling of the cavern, due to a slacking phenomenon. A comparison between prediction and actual ground responses during excavation was performed for construction safety. PHASES and PHASE2 software were used for the prediction, while the actual rock response was obtained using a monitoring system. The parameters on rock properties from back calculation used in the design were made obvious by the correspondence between the prediction and the actual responses. 2 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  18. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns; Comportement transitoire des cavites salines profondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi-Jafari, M

    2007-11-15

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  19. Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts: Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-09-30

    Over the past 40 years, cavern storage of LPG's, petrochemicals, such as ethylene and propylene, and other petroleum products has increased dramatically. In 1991, the Gas Processors Association (GPA) lists the total U.S. underground storage capacity for LPG's and related products of approximately 519 million barrels (82.5 million cubic meters) in 1,122 separate caverns. Of this total, 70 are hard rock caverns and the remaining 1,052 are caverns in salt deposits. However, along the eastern seaboard of the U.S. and the Pacific northwest, salt deposits are not available and therefore, storage in hard rocks is required. Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. Competing methods include LNG facilities and remote underground storage combined with pipeline transportation to the area. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. DOE has identified five regions, that have not had favorable geological conditions for underground storage development: New England, Mid-Atlantic (NY/NJ), South Atlantic (DL/MD/VA), South Atlantic (NC/SC/GA), and the Pacific Northwest (WA/OR). PB-KBB reviewed published literature and in-house databases of the geology of these regions to determine suitability of hard rock formations for siting

  20. METHOD OF LAYOUT DESIGN BASED ON RATIO OF ROCK STRENGTH TO IN-SITU STRESS FOR LARGE UNDERGROUND CAVERNS%基于岩石强度应力比的大型地下洞室群布置设计方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 肖平西; 程丽娟

    2014-01-01

    分析不同岩石强度应力比条件下典型水电站地下厂房洞室群围岩的破坏模式和变形特征,阐明岩石强度应力比与洞室围岩的承载能力、破坏模式、变形特征之间的关系,并根据洞室群效应及其对洞室群围岩稳定的影响、谷坡地应力场特征、地应力分级标准、大量已建水电站洞室群布置设计统计资料、数值分析成果、既有相关研究成果、工程经验,创建基于岩石强度应力比的大型地下洞室群布置设计方法,提出具体的量化指标和相关计算公式。该方法主要根据岩石强度应力比,结合场址地应力场特征、围岩结构面发育特征等进行地下洞室群的布置设计,较为全面地考虑了影响地下洞室群围岩稳定的主要因素,适用于各种地应力水平和复杂地质条件的地下洞室群布置设计。%The failure patterns and deformation characteristics of surrounding rock masses in underground powerhouse caverns with different ratios of rock strength to in-situ stress(RSS) were analyzed and summarized, and the relationships between the RSS and the bearing capacity,the failure patterns and the deformation characteristics of surrounding rock masses were expounded. Based on the large amount of the statistical design data concerning the layout of caverns in hydropower stations,an innovative design method for the layout of underground caverns was proposes. The specific quantitative indicators and the related calculation formulas were presented. This method emphasized the important influence of RSS on the layout of caverns and based on the past experiences,the numerical analysis results and the recent findings in this field. The proposed method also took account into the interactions of adjacent caverns,the characteristics of in-situ stress in canyon region where caverns located,the classification of in-situ stress according to its magnitude and the distribution of weak discontinuities

  1. Spectacular test of the fire extinguishing system in the underground cavern of the CMS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The enormous rumbling heard 100 m under the earth on Friday, 12 May, was not the start of a foam party at CMS. The Safety Team looked on from the second tier of the CMS underground cavern as it reechoed to the sound of water rushing through the two huge pipes overhead and the air was filled with a mixture of water and foam. A minute later it was a winter wonderland, as fluffy puffs of foam came shooting out of the twelve foam blowers lining the upper cavern walls on both sides. In less than two minutes 7 m3 of water mixed with a small percentage of foaming liquid, was transformed into 5600 m3 of foam and discharged into the cavern.

  2. Storage of Residual Fuel Oil in Underground Unlined Rock Caverns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Francaise des Petroles BP, Elf Union, Shell Francaise, and Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (Total). The company and its subsidiaries were formed with...DEC 80 D C BANKS UNCLASSIFIED WES/NP/S4.-8O-19 ti. LE VEL MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-80-19 31 STORAGE OF RESIDUAL FUEL OIL IN UNDERGROUND UNLINED ROCK...Ruimaia.~ indl a riiirI( le ol Air in1 wi r’ hve en coIit’Icted to enc1ouraige muiliriershnpl I[I the i 5kRM. 1) By Innf t-Ii .fi’ I ’I.]%- I "W

  3. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction.

  4. Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Fully Grouted Rock Bolts for Underground Caverns under Seismic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study establishes an analytical model for the interaction between the bolt and surrounding rock based on the bearing mechanism of fully grouted rock bolts. The corresponding controlled differential equation for load transfer is deduced. The stress distributions of the anchorage body are obtained by solving the equations. A dynamic algorithm for the bolt considering shear damage on the anchoring interface is proposed based on the dynamic finite element method. The rationality of the algorithm is verified by a pull-out test and excavation simulation of a rounded tunnel. Then, a case study on the mechanical characteristics of the bolts in underground caverns under seismic loads is conducted. The results indicate that the seismic load may lead to stress originating from the bolts and damage on the anchoring interface. The key positions of the antiseismic support can be determined using the numerical simulation. The calculated results can serve as a reference for the antiseismic optimal design of bolts in underground caverns.

  5. Cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma largely extending into the sella turcica and mimicking pituitary adenoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Satoshi; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Sato, Hikari; Hayashi, Tomohide; Nagai, Shoichi; Nishikata, Manabu; Endo, Shunro

    2010-01-01

    A 77-year-old female presented with a rare cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma with extension to the sella turcica, neuroradiologically mimicking nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma. The lesion was partially removed via transsphenoidal surgery, and the histological diagnosis was cavernous hemangioma. After stereotactic radiosurgery using a cyber knife, the lesion decreased in size. Stereotactic radiosurgery may be a good option for cavernous sinus cavernous hemangioma with high risk of surgical bleeding.

  6. Discovery Mondays: 'The civil engineering genius of the 100-metre deep underground caverns'

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN is first and foremost a place where physicists study particle collisions. But to be able to observe the infinitely small, they need huge pieces of equipment, the accelerators and detectors, whose construction, some 100 metres below the earth's surface calls on the services of other fascinating disciplines. Take civil engineering, for example. For the construction of the LHC some 420 000 cubic metres of rock have had to be excavated for the 6500 metres of tunnel, 6 new shafts and 32 underground chambers and caverns. To avoid disrupting other experiments in progress, the work on these exceptional structures has had to be done without creating vibrations. The ATLAS experiment hall, a huge cathedral-like structure 100 metres below ground, is another mind-blowing feat of civil engineering. Its construction involved the use of ground-breaking technology, such as the system for suspending the ceiling put in place during the excavation work. At the next Discovery Monday, the specialists responsible for...

  7. Stability and support issues in the construction of large span caverns for physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughton, C.; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    New physics experiments, proposed to study neutrinos and protons, call for the use of large underground particle detectors. In the United States, such detectors would be housed in the US Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), sited within the footprint of the defunct Homestake Mine, South Dakota. Although the experimental proposals differ in detail, all rely heavily upon the ability of the mined and reinforced rock mass to serve as a stable host for the detector facilities. Experimental proposals, based on the use of Water Cherenkov detector technology, specify rock caverns with excavated volumes in excess of half a million cubic meters, spans of at least 50 m, sited at depths of approximately one to 1.5 kilometers. Although perhaps sited at shallower depth, proposals based on the use of Liquid Argon (LAr) detector technology are no less challenging. LAr proposals not only call for the excavation of large span caverns, but have an additional need for the safe management of large quantities (kilo-tonnes) of cryogenic liquid, including critical provisions for the fail-safe egress of underground personnel and the reliable exhaust of Argon gas in the event of a catastrophic release. These multi-year, high value physics experiments will provide the key experimental data needed to support the research of a new generation of physicists as they probe the behavior of basic particles and the fundamental laws of nature. The rock engineer must deliver caverns that will reliably meet operational requirements and remain stable for periods conservatively estimated to be in excess of twenty years. This paper provides an overview of the DUSEL site conditions and discusses key end-user requirements and design criteria likely to dominate in determining the viability of experimental options. The paper stresses the paramount importance of collecting adequate site-specific data to inform early siting, dimensioning and layout decisions. Given the large-scale of the

  8. Ohya Large Holography Studio In A Huge Rock Cavern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K.; Hirosawa, A.; Morie, T.; Suzuki, M.; Yamashita, H.

    1988-01-01

    There is a great demand recently for a large size hologram, 2meters width for instance, in which a brand-new car, a life-size statue and sometimes a group of the them, or interior spaces could he taken. Especially, in the world of advertisement or art, there is a big demand for a large hologram. The larger hologram needs the larger space for its suitable holography. This is the report of a large underground studio built in Japan.

  9. Deformation and Failure Characteristics of the Rock Masses around Deep Underground Caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The deformation and failure characteristics of deep rock masses are the focus of this study on deep rock mass engineering. The study identifies the deformation and failure characteristics of a deep cavern under different ground stress conditions using model test and theoretical analysis methods. First, the similarity theory for model tests is introduced, and then the scale factors used in the present study are calculated according to the Froude criterion. Based on the study objectives, the details of the study methods (the similarity coefficient, the loading conditions, the test steps, etc. are introduced. Finally, the failure characteristics of the deep cavern and the strain distribution characteristics surrounding the caverns under different ground stress conditions are identified using the model test. It was found that compared with shallow rock masses the rock masses of the deep cavern have a much greater tensile range, which reaches 1.5 times the diameter of the cavern under the conditions established in the present study. Under different ground stress conditions, there are differences in failure characteristics and the reasons of the differences were analyzed. The implication of the test results on the design of support system for deep caverns was presented.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Blast Vibration and Crack Forming Effect of Rock-Anchored Beam Excavation in Deep Underground Caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinPing Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at surrounding rock damage induced by dynamic disturbance from blasting excavation of rock-anchored beam in rock mass at moderate or far distance in underground cavern, numerical model of different linear charging density and crustal stress in underground cavern is established by adopting dynamic finite element software based on borehole layout, charging, and rock parameter of the actual situation of a certain hydropower station. Through comparison in vibration velocity, contour surface of rock mass excavation, and the crushing extent of excavated rock mass between calculation result and field monitoring, optimum linear charging density of blast hole is determined. Studies are also conducted on rock mass vibration in moderate or far distance to blasting source, the damage of surrounding rock in near-field to blasting source, and crushing degree of excavated rock mass under various in situ stress conditions. Results indicate that, within certain range of in situ stress, the blasting vibration is independent of in situ stress, while when in situ stress is increasing above certain value, the blasting vibration velocity will be increasing and the damage of surrounding rock and the crushing degree of excavated rock mass will be decreasing.

  11. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

    2012-02-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be

  12. Giant particle detector magnet goes underground at CERN's Large Hadron Collider accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists of the US CMS collaboration joined colleagues around the world in announcing that the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid particle detector has begun the momentous journey into its experimental cavern 100 meters underground." (1 page)

  13. Digging a cavern for a titan

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    Civil engineers work 100 m underground near the France-Swiss border on the cavern that will soon house ATLAS, one of the experiments on CERN's new LHC accelerator. All personnel and equipment must be lowered by crane down the access shaft. When completed this cavern will have one of the largest spans constructed at 35 m, which required the roof to be supported by large steel anchors buried in concrete.

  14. End of construction of the CMS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    View of the CMS cavern with its impressive dimensions: 53 m long, 27 m wide and 24 m high. The construction of this underground complex has been a spectacular feat of engineering. This second of the new caverns for the LHC experiments is the result of six-and-a-half years of work, and its completion marks the end of the large-scale engineering work for the LHC.

  15. Risk management in large scale underground infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmholt, K.A.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Underground infrastructures can fail due to ground movements. Due to the underground nature this is difficult to detect above ground. In a collaboration of multiple research institutes a new approach has been developed to estimate the probability of failure using underground position sensors. A Proo

  16. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Camp, C; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A; Chiller, C; Clark, K; Classen, T; Coffey, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, E; Dazeley, S; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dragowsky, E; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M; Hall, C; Hanhardt, M; Holbrook, B; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Kyre, S; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Leonard, D S; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lyashenko, A; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; Marquez, Z; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D -M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morii, M; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Nikkel, J A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Rodionov, A; Roberts, P; Shei, A; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Skulski, W; Solovov, V N; Sofka, C J; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Stiegler, T; Stolp, D; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, D; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Wlasenko, M; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2012-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles(WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross section per nucleon of $2\\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^{2}$, equivalent to $\\sim$1 event/100 kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have $<$1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector.

  17. Recompletion of gas filled caverns at underground storage facilities of Verbundnetz Gas AG; Umruestungen gasgefuellter Kavernen auf Untergrundspeichern der Verbundnetz Gas AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pischner, M.; Rehmer, K.P. [Untergrundspeicher- und Geotechnologie-Systeme GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany); Arnold, C. [VNG Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    In 1991 the Verbundnetz Gas AG (VNG AG) has started to modernize outdated installations of the underground gas storage cavern near Bernburg and Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). On 33 caverns, which were mostly leached during the 70s and 80s of the last century, the old wellheads have been replaced by new ones. In some cases even the production string has been replaced or a new head housing was installed. The reasons and technical suppositions for these measures will be explained. Most of the modifications have been made above gas filled caverns and have been safe despite of the high pressures. The packer-system developed by Untergrundspeicher- und Geotechnologie-Systeme GmbH (UGS GmbH) and VNG AG will be presented. Furthermore the technical procedures are grouped and described. Experiences and development over the years will be outlined. Working above gas filled caverns instead of flooding them before, allowed to reduce the total costs to less than one third. (orig.)

  18. Large cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland: Laparoscopic treatment. Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Agrusa

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment in case of diagnosis of benign lesions. In this case report we discussed a large adrenal cavernous hemangioma treated with laparoscopic approach. Fundamental is the study of preoperative endocrine disorders and radiologic findings to exclude signs of malignancy.

  19. Effect of Single Fractured Zone on Water Inflow of Underground Unlined Cavern%单条裂隙破碎带对地下水封洞库涌水量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路文龙; 周志芳; 黄勇

    2014-01-01

    基于某地下水封储油洞库的地质条件,利用GeoStudio软件对其进行二维渗流分析,将裂隙岩体等效为连续介质,同时考虑渗透性较大的单条裂隙破碎带,探讨破碎带对洞室涌水量的影响。研究表明洞室上方裂隙破碎带的存在将增加洞室的涌水量,并随着破碎带宽度和裂隙倾角的增加而增加。对裂隙破碎带进行灌浆处理后,其渗透性降低,洞室的涌水量也明显减少。%Based on the basic geological conditions of an underground unlined cavern for oil storage,two-dimensional seepage analysis software (GeoStudio)was employed to analyze the effect of fractured zone on water inflow of underground unlined cavern. The fractured rock mass was trea-ted as equivalent continuum medium,and single fracture zone with large hydraulic conductivity was embedded into the medium. The results show that the fracture zone at the top of the cavern increases the water inflow owing to the increase of the width and dip angle of the fracture zone. After the fracture zone grouting,its hydraulic conductivity decreased and groundwater inflow of the fracture zone reduces considerably.

  20. Heat storage in underground caverns - measurements and simulations; Speicherung von Waerme in Grubenraeumen - Messung und Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaberg, A.; Krause, H.; Poetke, W. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik und Technische Thermodynamik

    1997-12-01

    Among the different discussed underground concepts for longterm storing of solar or waste heat old waterfilled mines can be an interesting solution. To examine the temperature behaviour of this storage type a testing store is built in a mine belonging to the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology in Saxonia. In a longterm project temperatures are measured inside the water volume and in the adjacent rock. The temperature behaviour depends on the operating conditions. Inside the water volume temperature stratification can be observed. During loading and standstill heat is transported into the rock surrounding. A certain part of this amount of heat can be discharged again. For designing and optimizing this storage type a numerical modell is developed. The modell is validated with experimental data from the testing plant. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter den verschiedenen, in der Diskussion stehenden Untegrund-Waermespeichern fuer Solarwaerme oder Abwaerme bieten sich auch geflutete Gruben als Waermespeicher an. Zur Untersuchung des Temperaturverhaltens dieses Speichertyps ist im Saechsischen Lehr- und Besucherbergwerk der TU Bergakademie Freiberg ein Versuchsspeicher errichtet worden. In einem Langzeitversuch wird das Temperaturfeld im Wasser und im angrenzenden Gestein aufgezeichnet. Das Temperaturverhalten ist von den Betriebsgroessen abhaengig. Im Grubenwasser stellt sich eine stabile Temperaturschichtung ein. Waehrend der Beladung und der Stillstandszeiten wird Waerme in die Gesteinsumgebung transportiert. Ein Teil dieser Waermemenge kann wider entspeichert werden. Zur Auslegung und Optimierung von Gruben-Waermespeichern ist ein numerisches Modell entwickelt worden. Das Modell ist anhand der Messergebnisse des Versuchsspeichers validiert worden. (orig.)

  1. Discovery Mondays - 'The civil engineering genius of the 100-metre deep underground caverns'

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN is first and foremost a place where physicists study particle collisions. But to be able to observe the infinitely small, they need huge pieces of equipment, the accelerators and detectors, whose construction, some 100 metres below the earth's surface, calls on the services of other fascinating disciplines. Take civil engineering, for example. At the next Discovery Monday, come and find out about the machines involved in the large-scale excavation and concreting work. Everyone is welcome at Microcosm, which will be specially transformed into a worksite for the occasion! Come along to Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site) on Monday 6 September from 7:30 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. Entrance Free http://www.cern.ch/microcosm

  2. Solving Wakulla Springs underwater mysteries. Using GPS to map Florida's underground caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am, Ende B.

    2002-01-01

    Located in the Woodville Karst Plain stretching south from Tallahassee to the Gulf of Mexico, Florida's Wakulla Springs is one of the largest and deepest freshwater Springs in the world. It is also a gateway into one of the longest underwater cave system in the United States, a system that remained largely unexplored until recently. Soon, however, thanks to one of the world's most extreme scientific and exploration-related diving projects ever undertaken, visitors to Wakulla Springs State Park will be able to take a virtual tour through the Spring's huge underwater labyrinth. Using such cutting-edge technology as a 3D Digital Wall Mapper (DWM) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Wakulla 2 Expedition - with 151 volunteer cave divers, scientists and engineers from all over the world - created the world's first three-dimensional digital map of an underwater cave. Underwater caves are priceless treasures, helping supply fresh water to the region as well as acting as 'time capsules' to the past. Home to creatures found in few other places, areas such as Wakulla face threats of pollution and over-development. Wakulla 2 hopes their 3D interactive 'swim through' will help increase the understanding and preservation of these important areas.

  3. Phase II Study to Assess the Efficacy of Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy in Patients With Large Cavernous Sinus Hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xin; Liu Xiaoxia; Mei Guanghai; Dai Jiazhong; Pan Li [Departments of Neurosurgery and CyberKnife, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Enmin, E-mail: wangem@fudan.edu.cn [Departments of Neurosurgery and CyberKnife, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Cavernous sinus hemangioma is a rare vascular tumor. The direct microsurgical approach usually results in massive hemorrhage. Although radiosurgery plays an important role in managing cavernous sinus hemangiomas as a treatment alternative to microsurgery, the potential for increased toxicity with single-session treatment of large tumors is a concern. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with large cavernous sinus hemangiomas. Methods: Fourteen patients with large (volume >20 cm{sup 3}) cavernous sinus hemangiomas were enrolled in a prospective Phase II study between December 2007 and December 2010. The hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy dose was 21 Gy delivered in 3 fractions. Results: After a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 6-36 months), the magnetic resonance images showed a mean of 77% tumor volume reduction (range, 44-99%). Among the 6 patients with cranial nerve impairments before hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, 1 achieved symptomatic complete resolution and 5 had improvement. No radiotherapy-related complications were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: Our current experience, though preliminary, substantiates the role of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for large cavernous sinus hemangiomas. Although a longer and more extensive follow-up is needed, hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of 21 Gy delivered in 3 fractions is effective in reducing the tumor volume without causing any new deficits and can be considered as a treatment modality for large cavernous sinus hemangiomas.

  4. Characterizing Excavation Damaged Zone and Stability of Pressurized Lined Rock Caverns for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeong, Ju-Hwan; Choi, Byung-Hee; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Song, Won-Kyong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) on the geomechanical performance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. We conducted a detailed characterization of the EDZ in rock caverns that have been excavated for a Korean pilot test program on CAES in (concrete) lined rock caverns at shallow depth. The EDZ was characterized by measurements of P- and S-wave velocities and permeability across the EDZ and into undisturbed host rock. Moreover, we constructed an in situ concrete lining model and conducted permeability measurements in boreholes penetrating the concrete, through the EDZ and into the undisturbed host rock. Using the site-specific conditions and the results of the EDZ characterization, we carried out a model simulation to investigate the influence of the EDZ on the CAES performance, in particular related to geomechanical responses and stability. We used a modeling approach including coupled thermodynamic multiphase flow and geomechanics, which was proven to be useful in previous generic CAES studies. Our modeling results showed that the potential for inducing tensile fractures and air leakage through the concrete lining could be substantially reduced if the EDZ around the cavern could be minimized. Moreover, the results showed that the most favorable design for reducing the potential for tensile failure in the lining would be a relatively compliant concrete lining with a tight inner seal, and a relatively stiff (uncompliant) host rock with a minimized EDZ. Because EDZ compliance depends on its compressibility (or modulus) and thickness, care should be taken during drill and blast operations to minimize the damage to the cavern walls.

  5. Excavating the CMS experimental cavern

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Diggers work 100 m underground to remove rock from the huge cavern that will soon be the site for the CMS experiment at CERN. Workers travel down the shaft into the cavern in an elevator maneuvered by a crane, equipment must also be lowered in this way. When the cavern is completed, the 12 500 tonne CMS experiment will then be lowered piece by piece, as no crane on Earth will be able to carry the experiment's full weight.

  6. Limestone Caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Richard L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the origin of limestone caverns, using Mammoth Cave as an example, with particular reference to the importance of groundwater information of caverns, the present condition of groundwater, and how caverns develop within fluctuating groundwater zones. (BR)

  7. Large cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland: Laparoscopic treatment. Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrusa, A; Romano, G; Salamone, G; Orlando, E; Di Buono, G; Chianetta, D; Sorce, V; Gulotta, L; Galia, M; Gulotta, G

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland is a rare benign tumor. The diagnosis is often postoperative on histological exam with the presence of blood-filled, dilated vascular spaces. We report the clinical case of a 49 years-old woman who came to our observation with aspecific abdominal pain. A computed tomography (CT) abdominal scan revealed a 11cm right adrenal mass. This lesion was well circumscribed, round, encapsulated. After iodinated-contrast we observed a progressive, inhomogeneous enhancement without evidence of active bleeding and with pre-operative diagnosis of adrenal hemangioma. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed by a transperitoneal flank approach. Pathological examination revealed a 11cm adrenal mass with extensive central necrotic areas mixed to sinusoidal dilation and fibrotic septa. Postoperative diagnosis was adrenal hemangioma. Adrenal hemangiomas occur infrequently. Generally these adrenal masses are non-functioning and there is no specific symptoms. Recent records demonstrate that laparoscopic adrenalectomy is technically safe and feasible for large adrenal tumors, but controversy exists in cases of suspected malignancy. We choose laparoscopic approach to adrenal gland on the basis of preoperative CT abdominal scan that excludes radiological signs of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) such as peri-adrenal infiltration and vascular invasion. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment in case of diagnosis of benign lesions. In this case report we discussed a large adrenal cavernous hemangioma treated with laparoscopic approach. Fundamental is the study of preoperative endocrine disorders and radiologic findings to exclude signs of malignancy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Surveying the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The cathedral-like cavern into which the ATLAS experiment will be lowered and installed forms a vital part of the engineering work at CERN in preparation for the new LHC accelerator. This cavern, being measured by surveyors in these images, will have one of the largest spans of any man-made underground structure. The massive 46X25X25 cubic metre detector will be the largest of its type in the world when it is completed for the LHC start-up in 2008.

  9. Civil engineering in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Work continues in the cathedral-like cavern that will soon contain ATLAS, the largest particle detector of its type in the world. For such a huge detector, an equally giant cavern must be excavated 100 m underground. The roof must be held without any normal rests at the base; instead it will be supported by huge anchors embedded in concrete that will stop the roof from caving in, located in galleries above the cavern.

  10. Large, Extra Dimensions at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Berryman, Jeffrey M; Kelly, Kevin J; Peres, O L G; Tabrizi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the potential of the long-baseline Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to study large-extra-dimension (LED) models originally proposed to explain the smallness of neutrino masses by postulating that right-handed neutrinos, unlike all standard model fermion fields, can propagate in the bulk. The massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of the right-handed neutrino fields modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities and can hence affect their propagation. We show that, as far as DUNE is concerned, the LED model is indistinguishable from a $(3 + 3N)$-neutrino framework for modest values of $N$; $N$ = 1 is usually a very good approximation. Nonetheless, there are no new sources of $CP$-invariance violation other than one $CP$-odd phase that can be easily mapped onto the $CP$-odd phase in the standard three-neutrino paradigm. We analyze the sensitivity of DUNE to the LED framework, and explore the capability of DUNE to differentiate the LED model from the three-neutrino scenario and from a generic $...

  11. Large extra dimensions at the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M.; de Gouvêa, André; Kelly, Kevin J.; Peres, O. L. G.; Tabrizi, Zahra

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the potential of the long-baseline Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) to study large-extra-dimension (LED) models originally proposed to explain the smallness of neutrino masses by postulating that right-handed neutrinos, unlike all standard model fermion fields, can propagate in the bulk. The massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes of the right-handed neutrino fields modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities and can hence affect their propagation. We show that, as far as DUNE is concerned, the LED model is indistinguishable from a (3 +3 N )-neutrino framework for modest values of N ; N =1 is usually a very good approximation. Nonetheless, there are no new sources of C P -invariance violation other than one C P -odd phase that can be easily mapped onto the C P -odd phase in the standard three-neutrino paradigm. We analyze the sensitivity of DUNE to the LED framework and explore the capability of DUNE to differentiate the LED model from the three-neutrino scenario and from a generic (3 +1 )-neutrino model.

  12. Digging the CMS experimental cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    The huge CMS experimental cavern is located 100 m underground and has two access shafts through which the experiment's components will be lowered. Initially assembled on the surface, each part of the 12 500 tonne machine must be lowered individually with very little clearance.

  13. from left to right : Mr Michel Della Negra (Last spokeperson of CMS), Prof. Tejinder ("Jim") Virdee (actual spokeperson of CMS), Mr Robert Aymar (CERN Director General) and Mr Sigurd Lettow (Chief Financial Officer of CERN) assist to the Lowering of the final element (YE-1) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector into its underground experimental cavern.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    from left to right : Mr Michel Della Negra (Last spokeperson of CMS), Prof. Tejinder ("Jim") Virdee (actual spokeperson of CMS), Mr Robert Aymar (CERN Director General) and Mr Sigurd Lettow (Chief Financial Officer of CERN) assist to the Lowering of the final element (YE-1) of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector into its underground experimental cavern.

  14. Hydrogeologic Conditions at the DUSEL Mid-level Campus and Implications for Large Cavern Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinig, W. T.; Popielak, R. S.; Stetler, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    In July 2007 the former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota was selected as the site of a new Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The mid-level campus, including several new, large excavations, is planned for development at the 4850 Level of the facility (1,489 meters below surface datum) near the former location of the neutrino experiment conducted by Dr. Ray Davis starting in about 1965. The mid-level campus will host a wide range of scientific research to be conducted in an environment that minimizes the influence of cosmic radiation. While operating, Homestake was the deepest underground mine in North America, with workings reaching over 2,439 meters deep. In June 2003, mining had ceased and the dewatering pumps were turned off. The resultant flooding reached a level approximately 98 meters above the planned mid-level campus before dewatering pumps were turned back on in June 2008. In May 2009, water levels fell below the 4850 Level of the DUSEL facility allowing commencement of development work for the mid-level campus. Data collected prior to the cessation of mining indicated long-term average groundwater inflows of 1900 liters/minute (L/min) to 2600 L/min. For a mine with over 480 kilometers of workings, this represents a relatively small groundwater flux, consistent with reported hydraulic conductivities of 10-5 centimeters per second (cm/sec) to 10-7 cm/sec. Recent calculations based on analysis of dewatering data indicate a bulk hydraulic conductivity of 10-6 to 10-7 cm/sec. Data collected during a geotechnical investigation in 2009 indicated discharges from new boreholes in the area of the planned mid-level campus of less than 0.25 liters per minute. Shut-in pressures measured over relatively brief periods during the investigation ranged from zero to 4.1 megaPascals (MPa). Data collected during drilling and subsequent borehole televiewer logs showed relatively distributed inflows throughout the length of the boreholes. A

  15. A research on the excavation, support, and environment control of large scale underground space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pil Chong; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Jeong, So Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    With the growing necessity of the underground space due to the deficiency of above-ground space, the size and shape of underground structures tend to be complex and diverse. This complexity and variety force the development of new techniques for rock mass classification, excavation and supporting of underground space, monitoring and control of underground environment. All these techniques should be applied together to make the underground space comfortable. To achieve this, efforts have been made on 5 different areas; research on the underground space design and stability analysis, research on the techniques for excavation of rock by controlled blasting, research on the development of monitoring system to forecast the rock behaviour of underground space, research on the environment inspection system in closed space, and research on dynamic analysis of the airflow and environmental control in the large geos-spaces. The 5 main achievements are improvement of the existing structure analysis program(EXCRACK) to consider the deformation and failure characteristics of rock joints, development of new blasting design (SK-cut), prediction of ground vibration through the newly proposed wave propagation equation, development and In-Situ application of rock mass deformation monitoring system and data acquisition software, and trial manufacture of the environment inspection system in closed space. Should these techniques be applied to the development of underground space, prevention of industrial disaster, cut down of construction cost, domestication of monitoring system, improvement of tunnel stability, curtailment of royalty, upgrade of domestic technologies will be brought forth. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Giant CMS magnet goes underground at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists of the US CMS collaboration joined colleagues around the world in announcing today (February 28) that the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid particle detector has begun the momentous journey into its experimental cavern 100 meters underground. A huge gantry crne is slowly lowering the CMS detector's preassembled central section into place in the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland." (1 page)

  17. Stability analysis and determination of rock pillar between two adjacent caverns in different regions of Asmari formation in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdollahipour Abolfazl a; ⇑; Ghannadshirazi Hossein b

    2014-01-01

    Large underground caverns are commonly used in variety of applications. In many cases, because of the geomechanical limitations of dimensions and requirement of high volume, several parallel caverns are used. Plastic zone integration requires a larger rock pillar distance of theses adjacent caverns while eco-nomic and access reasons require smaller distance. In Iran many underground projects are located in West and South West. Asmari formation covers a large part of these regions. The stability of underground spaces that are constructed or will be constructed in this formation has been investigated. A proper cross section based on plastic analysis and a stability criterion has been proposed for each region. Finally, in each case, allowable rock pillar between adjacent caverns with similar dimension was determined with two methods (numerical analysis and fire service law). Results show that Fire Service Law uses a very con-servative safety factor and it was proposed to use a correction factor for allowable distance based on application of underground space.

  18. 地下水封储油库围岩稳定性数值分析%Numerical analysis on the stability of surrounding rock for underground water-sealing oil storage in rock caverns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡谋鹏; 粱久正; 许杰

    2013-01-01

    An underground water-sealing oil storage in rock caverns in Liaoning Province follows a low level of ground stress in the low-stress area. After its excavation, surrounding rock deformation and fracture are controlled under the combination between single structure plane and multi-group structure plane. Therefore, it is required to first analyze whether the surrounding rock suffer stress problems or structure plane problems and equivalent to value selection of surrounding rock parameters on the importance. Geological strength index (GSI) proposed by Hoek and Brown are based on rock quality evaluation. It can reduce subjectivity in determining the shear strength indicator to define rock mass mechanics parameters by the empirical formula. The underground water-sealed oil storage in rock caverns in Liaoning Province is taken as the object of study. Using the surrounding rock parameter value selection method based on GSI system as well as FLAC3D software, numerical analysis on the surrounding rock stability is conducted and its results are interpreted based on displacement criteria and stress criterion to determine the surrounding rock stability, thus having a guiding significance in engineering practice.%辽宁某地下水封储油硐库地应力水平不高,属于低应力区,开挖后围岩变形破坏受单一结构面和多组结构面的组合控制,因此首先需要分析围岩属于应力型问题还是属于结构面型问题,其重要性等同于围岩参数取值的重要性.Hoek和Brown提出的地质强度指标(GSI)法基于岩体质量评价,应用经验公式确定岩体力学参数,可以一定程度上减少确定抗剪强度指标过程中的主观成分.以辽宁某地下水封储油库工程储油硐室为研究对象,采用基于GSI系统的围岩参数取值方法,借助FLAC3D软件对围岩稳定性进行数值分析,利用位移判据和应力判据对数值分析结果进行解释,进而判断围岩的稳定性,对工程实践具有一定的指导意义.

  19. Experience of cooperation between RAO Gazprom (Russia) and Geostock (France) in the project for underground storage of natural gas in salt caverns at Volgograd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bely, N.I.; Smirnov, V.I.; Parfenov, V.I. [RAO Gazprom (Russian Federation); Marchand, R. Le; Laguerie, P. de; Yoy, T. [Geostock (France)

    1997-11-01

    A new natural gas storage facility in salt is planned to meet daily and seasonal load fluctuations and provide regional security of supply of the Volgograd region. The design and field work for this new facility was carried out under a cooperation agreement between RAO Gazprom, Podzemgazprom, Volgograd Transgaz and Geostock. Mining the cavities will be made difficult by the complex geology where the salt formation consists of alternating beds of halite, anhydrite and the magnesium and potassium salts bischofite, carnalite and sylvinite which are more soluble and subject to high creep. The results of the laboratory testing and geotechnical modelling on alternative cavern models performed by Podzemgazprom and Geostock are described and compared. (au)

  20. 大连地下石油储备库洞室群围岩稳定性及渗流场分析%ANALYSES OF SURROUNDING ROCK STABILITY OF CAVERN GROUP AND SEEPAGE FIELD AT DALIAN UNDERGROUND OIL STORAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于崇; 李海波; 周庆生

    2012-01-01

    为分析水封式大连地下石油储备库洞室群围岩稳定性及渗流场特征,首先基于现场地应力实测结果的回归分析,利用Fish语言编写函数,反演初始地应力场.其次,采用三维离散元程序3DEC生成三维节理网络模型,反演库区初始渗流场的各向异性特征.最后,利用应力与渗流耦合模块实施开挖仿真计算,获取围岩应力场、位移场变化特征.考虑平行、垂直层理面不同材料特性,基于带有抗拉的Mohr-Coulomb强度储备型点安全系数,定量评价洞室群的稳定性.借鉴国外水封效果评价标准,分别从地下水位线和垂直水力坡降2个方面,分析渗流场变化特征.研究表明:在洞室周边平行层理面点安全系数为1.02~1.25,垂直层理面点安全系数为1.95~2.00.在补水隧道及注水孔组成的人工水幕系统作用下,建设期内地下水位下降3~5 m,地下水位距洞室顶55 m.开挖洞室附近平均垂直水力坡降大于1.0,满足设计规范及密封性要求.%Aiming at analyses of surrounding rock stability of cavern group and seepage field characteristics at Dalian water-tight underground oil storage, firstly, based on regression analysis of in-situ stress testing data, initial in-situ stress field inversion is conducted with functions defined with program language Fish. Secondly, after three-dimensional random joint networks with different sizes are generated with 3DEC. a new method of calculating the anisotropy permeability is proposed. Finally, stress field and displacement field of surrounding rocks are gained using coupled fluid and mechanical excavation calculations. Based on point safety factor, whose criterion is the Mohr-Coulomb one with the tensile strength, cavern group stability is quantitatively evaluated considering parallel and vertical bedding planes owing to different materials characteristics. Referring to ideas from abroad, seepage field is analyzed by groundwater table and vertical

  1. Failure Mechanisms and Evolution Assessment of the Excavation Damaged Zones in a Large-Scale and Deeply Buried Underground Powerhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-bo; Liu, Ming-chang; Xing, Wan-bo; Shao, Shuai; Zhou, Jia-wen

    2017-07-01

    The Jinping I underground powerhouse is deeply buried and is one of the largest underground powerhouses in China. As a result of high levels of in situ stress, complex geological conditions and the effects of excavation in adjacent caverns, the surrounding rock mass has been severely deformed and broken, and excavation damaged zones (EDZs) have become major obstacles to the design of cavern excavation and support. Field investigations and monitoring data indicated that there are two main modes of failure: high tangential stress induced failure and progressive failure, which have occurred on the mountain side and the river valley side of the Jinping I underground powerhouse. These two main modes of failure were due to strong secondary principal stress forces in the sub-parallel directions and sub-vertical directions, acting on the axes of the main powerhouse on the mountain side and on the river valley side, respectively. Deformations and EDZs on the river valley side were generally larger than those found along the mountain side, and the distribution of deformations was consistent with the distribution of EDZs. The evolution of the EDZ on the river valley side has clearly been time dependent, especially along the downstream arch abutment, and the EDZ was considerably enlarged with further excavation. Additionally, the deformation of the surrounding rock mass was first initiated from the edge of the excavation area and gradually extended to deeper areas away from the opening. However, the EDZ on the mountain side was enlarged only during the first two phases of excavation. The extension of pre-existing cracks and the creation of new fractures has mainly occurred in the oldest EDZ section, and the HDZ has been visibly enlarged, whereas the EDZ has shown little change in other excavation phases.

  2. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  3. Connectivity of Discontinuities of Deep Rock Mass in Water Sealed Underground Storage Cavern%地下水封洞库深部岩体结构面连通性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季惠彬; 宋琨; 吕坤

    2013-01-01

    Water sealed underground storage cavern is the key project of strategic petroleum storage which is ongoing in China. The connectivity of fractured rock mass is the critical issue of oil containment evaluation. Combination of rock mass characteristics of the underground storage cavern, the location and geological characteristics of discontinuities were analyzed by the Borehole Television (BHTV) image. The connective conditions among different boreholes were established. And the geometry connectivity of metamor-phic discontinuities was researched between borehole of ZK11 and ZK12, ZK12 and ZK14. After the relationship of groundwater dropped steeply in boreholes and construction tunnels excavation analyzed, the hydraulic contact of groundwater discharge in tunnels and decline in boreholes was established. And the hydraulic connectivity of the discontinuities was studied. By the comprehensive analysis of the geometry and hydraulic connectivity, the discontinuities connectivity of deep rock mass was determined. The results show that the excavation of construction tunnels caused the groundwater declining significantly, and the hydraulic connection was obvious. The metamorphic discontinuity, J, is satisfied the location, geological feature and hydraulic connectivity in borehole of ZK12, ZK11 and 0 + 379. 424 m of the construction tunnel of NO.1, which is the connective discontinuity. However, the discontinuity, J', is satisfied the location and geological feature, but not fit the hydraulic connectivity in borehole of ZK12 and ZK14. And that is non-connective discontinuity. It has reference value to discontinuities connectivity of deep rock mass in underground engineering projects.%地下水封洞库工程是我国正在大力实施的战略石油储备重点工程,研究建库裂隙岩体的连通性是评价水封效果的关键.结合地下水封洞库工程的岩体特征,以钻孔电视成像技术为手段,通过分析影像中结构面位置、地质特征等,建

  4. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  5. Practical experience with the gas lift method during the gas first fill in the Etzel cavern field and further possible applications; Praktische Erfahrungen mit dem Gasliftverfahren bei der Gaserstbefuellung im Kavernenfeld Etzel und weitere Einsatzmoeglichkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, H.; Boor, S. [KBB UT, Hannover (Germany); Reekers, C. [IVG Caverns GmbH, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The further development of the Etzel cavern field by IVG Caverns GmbH involves converting crude oil caverns to natural gas storage caverns. The planning and technical supervision of the conversion project is managed by KBB Underground Technologies GmbH. The large heights of the oil caverns meant that the brine-filled caverns could not be completely filled with natural gas in the conventional way i. e. injecting natural gas to displace the brine. This is because the maximum permissible gas injection pressure has to be exceeded when the gas / brine interface drops beyond a certain depth. The maximum permissible gas pressure is primarily determined by the depth of the last cemented casing shoe and limits the gas pressure that can be safely used during brine displacement. In the case presented here, the limit meant that the brine could not be removed from the lower part of the cavern using conventional means, which would have left valuable cavern volume unutilised. (orig.)

  6. Penile cavernous hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoughit ECHCHAOUI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are benign lesions that occur in any part of the body in newborns or in young patients, they are typically capillary or cavernous. Cavernous hemangioma of the penis is extremely rare; and its etiology is not completely understood. Treatment options (surgical excision, laser therapy or sclerotherapy… are controversial and are required if pain, cosmetic defect and/or bleeding during intercourse.                                                  We report a case of a 26 years old man presented with a five years history of a painless lesion on his penis. Physical examination showed an ovoid, solid, 1 x 2 mm in size on the dorsum of penis (Panel A and two elevated irregular lesions on the ventral side (Panel B. The lesions were compressive, nonpulsatile and bluish-red in color with strawberry like appearance. Biopsy and histopathological examination of the lesion revealed a gaping and communicating vessels proliferated in the superficial and medium dermis which is pathognomonic for cavernous hemangioma (Panel C and D. Given the small size, the large number of the lesions, the young age, and the ulceration risk during intercourse if skin graft after excision, Neodymium: YAG laser coagulation was recommended to get a good cosmetic results and sexual function satisfaction.

  7. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  8. Instability identification on large scale underground mined-out area in the metal mine based on the improved FRBFNN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zhouquan; Zuo Hongyan; Jia Nan; Wang Yiwei

    2013-01-01

    To identify the instability on large scale underground mined-out area in the metal mine effectively, the parameters of radial basis function were determined through clustering method and the improved fuzzy radial basis function neural network (FRBFNN) model of instability identification model about large scale underground mined-out area in the metal mine was built. The improved FRBFNN model was trained and tested. The results show that the improved FRBFNN model has high training accuracy and generalization ability. Parameters such as pillar area ratio, filling level and the value of rock quality designation have strong influence on instability of large scale underground mined-out area. Correctness of analysis about the improved FRBFNN model was proved by the practical application results about instability discrimi-nation of surrounding rock in large-scale underground mined-out area of a metal mine in south China.

  9. Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-05-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is

  10. ATLAS Cavern baseplate

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This video shows the incredible amounth of iron used for ATLAS cavern. Please look at the related links and also videos that are concerning the civil engineering where you can see even more detailed cavern excavation work.

  11. Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-04-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to

  12. Development and utilization of a mechanical barrier for large-calibre cavern necks. The ''Spider Plug''; Entwicklung und Einsatz einer mechanischen Absperrung fuer grosskalibrige Kavernenhaelse. Der ''Spider Plug''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, K.; Maut, D. [UGS GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    An hydraulic separation of a well and the cavern can be necessary for different workover applications, e.g. casing milling or underreaming. The separation is needed to ensure a mud circulation during such operations. In that case a barrier is set after flooding the cavern, which will then be used as a mechanical abutment for the cement bridge. If the diameter of the cavern neck has been enlarged due to e.g. unwanted leaching processes or unstabilized underreaming processes, it might get impossible to set a standard plug with the available technologies into those diameters. Therefore UGS GmbH has developed a mechanical plug, which is set hydraulically. The so called 'Spider Plug' is used as basis for a cement bridge and can be removed by drilling after the workover has been done. Depending on the dimension of the setting tool a cavern neck up to 50'' diameter can be plugged by the 'Spider Plug'. Up to now a number of successful operations on different locations has shown, that the 'Spider Plug' is a practicable and cost-efficient solution for a mechanical abutment of large cavern necks. (orig.)

  13. Construction experiences from underground works at Oskarshamn. Compilation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The main objective with this report is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Oskarshamn, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the cooling water tunnels of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units 1,2 and 3, from the underground excavations of Clab 1 and 2 (Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel), and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. In addition, an account is given of the operational experience of Clab 1 and 2 and of the Aespoe HRL on primarily scaling and rock support solutions. This report, as being a compilation report, is in its substance based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. Approximately 8,000 m of tunnels including three major rock caverns with a total volume of about 550,000 m3 have been excavated. The excavation works of the various tunnels and rock caverns were carried out during the period of 1966-2000. In addition, minor excavation works were carried out at the Aespoe HRL in 2003. The depth location of the underground structures varies from near surface down to 450 m. As an overall conclusion it may be said that the rock mass conditions in the area are well suited for underground construction. This conclusion is supported by the experiences from the rock excavation works in the Simpevarp and Aespoe area. These works have shown that no major problems occurred during the excavation works; nor have any stability or other rock engineering problems of significance been identified after the commissioning of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units O1, O2 and O3, BFA, Clab 1 and 2, and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The underground structures of these facilities were built according to plan, and since than been operated as planned. Thus, the quality of the rock mass within the construction area is such that it lends itself to excavation of large rock caverns with a minimum of rock support

  14. Seismic Response Analysis of Concrete Lining Structure in Large Underground Powerhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the dynamic damage constitutive model of concrete material and seismic rock-lining structure interaction analysis method, the seismic response of lining structure in large underground powerhouse is studied in this paper. In order to describe strain rate dependence and fatigue damage of concrete material under cyclic loading, a dynamic constitutive model for concrete lining considering tension and shear anisotropic damage is presented, and the evolution equations of damage variables are derived. The proposed model is of simple form and can be programmed into finite element procedure easily. In order to describe seismic interaction characteristics of the surrounding rock and lining, an explicit dynamic contact analysis method considering bond and damage characteristics of contact face between the surrounding rock and lining is proposed, and this method can integrate directly without iteration. The proposed method is applied to seismic stability calculation of Yingxiuwan Underground Powerhouse, results reveal that the amplitude and duration of input seismic wave determine the damage degree of lining structure, the damage zone of lining structure is mainly distributed in its arch, and the contact face damage has great influence on the stability of the lining structure.

  15. 三维渐变大断面洞室混凝土衬砌施工技术探讨%Discussion on concrete lining construction technology of large cavern with gradual cross-section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松

    2014-01-01

    The-expanding-section-of-tailrace-tunnel-of-underground-powerhouse-in-Laxiwa-Hydropower-Station-is-a-3D-structure-with-gradually-changed-cross--section,-and-the-cavern-section-is-large-with-complicated-curved-surface-,-resulting-in-high-techni-cal-requirement-for-formwork-design-and-planning-,-as-well-as-difficult-construction-of-concrete-lining-.In-view-of-the-concrete-lin-ing-construction-of-the-expanding-section-,-this-paper-briefly-introduces-some-construction-technologies-such-as-construction-proce--dure,-formwork-planning-,-bent-erection-and-concrete-lining-,-and-the-coring-test-result-reveals-that-the-internal-structural-strength-of-concrete-can-meet-the-relevant-requirements-.The-research-achievements-can-provide-reference-for-similar-projects-.%拉西瓦水电站地下厂房尾水扩散段为三维渐变结构,洞室断面大,曲面变化复杂,模板设计及配置技术含量高,混凝土衬砌施工难度大。以该水电站尾水扩散段混凝土衬砌施工为例,对施工程序、模板配置、排架搭设和混凝土衬砌等施工技术作了简要介绍,同时通过取芯检验显示,混凝土内部结构强度符合要求。相关成果可为以后同类工程施工提供经验借鉴。

  16. Root cause analysis of the fatigue failures of the pulsation dampers of a large underground gas storage (UGS) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lange, D. de; Maljaars, J.; Tenbrock-Ingenhorst, A.; Gottmer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Two large identical 6-cylinder Ariel JGB/6 reciprocating compressors each of 7.5 MW, are used for an underground gas storage system (UGS) plant of RWE Gasspeicher GmbH located in Epe, Germany. The system is in operation since 2005. In 2011 several internals parts (baffle plates and baffle choke tube

  17. Special people visit the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Muriel

    ATLAS has been host to many important visitors lately. Here are a selected few: Professor Stephen Hawking visits the ATLAS cavern On Tuesday 26 September 2006 the ATLAS Collaboration was honoured by a very special visit to the detector in the underground cavern. We were pleased to guide Professor Stephen Hawking, the famous cosmologist holding the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University (position held by Isaac Newton in the 17th century), on a tour of the ATLAS pit and the LHC tunnel. The visit was accompanied by a few colleagues from the CERN Theory group, and was only possible thanks to the professional assistance of Olga Beltramello and Bernard Lebegue, who had also taken care of all the necessary preparatory work in the cavern. Professor Hawking was very keen to check for himself the status of the detector installation, and he admired, in particular, the spectacular TGC big wheel on side C. (left) Stephen Hawking in the ATLAS cavern side-C (right) and in the LHC tunnel...

  18. Ionospheric observations of Underground Nuclear Explosions (UNE) using GPS and the Very Large Array

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jihye; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota A; von Frese, Ralph R B; Wilson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Observations from GPS receivers and the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope recorded traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID) from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs), detonated in September 1992. The slant TEC (STEC) data derived from GPS observations were processed for all ray paths to isolate TIDs. For the TIDs from the Hunters Trophy test on 18 September 1992 and the Divider test on 23 September 1992, the propagated mean velocities of the TIDs were about 573m/s and 740m/s with standard deviations of 85m/s and 135 m/s, respectively. For the VLA observations, the spectral analysis produced three-dimensional fluctuation spectral cubes for the Hunters Trophy event. The arrival time of the TID at the VLA implied a propagation speed of 570-710 m/s. This study suggests the global availability of GNSS tracking networks and new low-frequency (VHF) radio telescopes may offer a method of UNE detection and characterization, which could complement the International Monitoring System (IMS).

  19. Large eddy simulation of cooling flows in underground subway station according to different PSD operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yong Jun; Kim, Jin Ho; Park, Sung Huk; Koo, Dong Hoe [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Large eddy simulation (LES) method is applied to systematically investigate the cooling fluid flow and the temperature distribution under the operating of air conditioning in the deeply underground subway station. The Shin-Gum-Ho subway station in Seoul which is the 8{sup th} floor and 43.6 m deep is selected for this analysis. The entire station is covered for simulation. The ventilation mode for air conditioning is kept as ordinary state. Different operating conditions for Platform screen door (PSD) are applied. First one is PSD is completely close and second one is PSD is regularly open and close which imitate the actual circumstances in the platform. The ventilation diffusers are modeled as 95 square shapes in the lobby and 222 squares in the platform. The temperature variations and flow behaviors are numerically simulated after operating of air conditioning for the whole station and the calculated results are compared with experimental data. LES method solves the momentum and thermal equations. Werner-Wengle wall law is applied to viscous sub layers for near wall resolution. The total grid numbers are 7.5 million and the whole domain is divided to 22 blocks. Multi blocks are computed in parallel using MPI. The results show the temperature difference in the platform between PSD-close and PSD-regularly open and close cases is 3-4 .deg. C.

  20. Welcome to USA 15, the first large underground hall for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The first of the four huge underground halls for LHC is ready. USA 15 will be the service hall for ATLAS. It has taken three years to finish the first underground hall for LHC. It is 62 metres long and 20 metres diameter. USA 15 could be called the 'new world' for LHC construction. Although the acronym has nothing to do with the United States. In the terminology of the underground construction for the future accelerator, USA stands for Underground Service ATLAS. This is the first of the four big underground halls for LHC to be finished. Wednesday 8 August, it was officially handed over to the ST division by the collaboration of contractors and consultants who carried out the work. These are CCC (CERN civil contractors) composed of the companies Porr-Asdag (Austria), Baresel (Germany) and Zschokke-Locher (Switzerland) and the consultant EDF-KP composed of EDF (France) and Knight and Piésold (United Kingdom). For three years these firms excavated and concreted the undergro...

  1. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  2. First deep underground observation of rotational signals from an earthquake at teleseismic distance using a large ring laser gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreino Simonelli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in large ring laser gyroscopes (RLG technologies opened the possibility to observe rotations of the ground with sensitivities up to 10−11 rad/sec over the frequency band of seismological interest (0.01-1Hz, thus opening the way to a new geophysical discipline, i.e. rotational seismology. A measure of rotations in seismology is of fundamental interest for (a the determination of all the six degrees of freedom that characterize a rigid body’s motion, and (b the quantitative estimate of the rotational motions contaminating ground translation measurements obtained from standard seismometers. Within this framework, this paper presents and describes GINGERino, a new large observatory-class RLG located in Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS, one national laboratories of the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. We also report unprecedented observations and analyses of the roto-translational signals from a tele-seismic event observed in such a deep underground environment.

  3. First deep underground observation of rotational signals from an earthquake at teleseismic distance using a large ring laser gyroscope

    CERN Document Server

    Simonelli, Andreino; Beverini, Nicolò; Carelli, Giorgio; Di Virgilio, Angela; Maccioni, Enrico; De Luca, Gaetano; Saccorotti, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in large ring laser gyroscopes (RLG) technologies opened the possibility to observe rotations of the ground with sensitivities up to $10^{-11}$ $\\frac{rad}{s}$ over the frequency band of seismological interest (0.01-1Hz), thus opening the way to a new geophysical discipline, i.e. rotational seismology. A measure of rotations in seismology is of fundamental interest for (a) the determination of all the six degrees of freedom that characterize a rigid body motion, and (b) the quantitative estimate of the rotational motions contaminating ground translation measurements obtained from standard seismometers. Within this framework, this paper presents and describes GINGERino, a new large observatory-class RLG located in Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS), one national laboratories of the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). We also report unprecedented observations and analyses of the roto-translational signals from a tele-seismic event observed in such a deep underground environment.

  4. Brainstem Cavernous Angioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elmaci I, Lee RR, Breiter SN, Rigamonti D. Dynamic nature of cavernous malformations: a prospective magnetic resonance ... intended for medical diagnostic use of any kind. | Website by Teramark MENU

  5. CMS cavern inspection robot

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Robots which are immune to the CMS cavern environment, wirelessly controlled: -One actuated by smart materials (Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites and Macro Fiber Composites) -One regular brushed DC rover -One servo-driven rover -Stair-climbing robot

  6. Bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, P D; Char, D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral orbital lesions are rare. The differential diagnosis includes orbital pseudotumour, metastasis, leukaemia, lymphoma, Wegener's granulomatosis, and neurofibromatosis. We report what we believe to be the first case of bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

  7. CERN celebrating the Lowering of the final detector element for large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of the morning the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector began the descent into its underground experimental cavern in preparation for the start-up of CERNs Large Hadron Collider (LHC) this summer. This is a pivotal moment for the CMS collaboration.

  8. Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    underground explosions has led to significant progress in the development of geomechanics a science studying mechanical properties of rocks and rock...mining industry. One way to improve methods of fragmentation by explosives involves utilizing the geomechanical properties of the rock massif, in...Geomekhanika krupnomasshtabnykh vzryvov ( Geomechanics of large explosions), Nedra, Moscow, 319 pp. [This book in available in electronic format

  9. Estimation Source Parameters of Large-Scale Chemical Surface Explosions and Recent Underground Nuclear Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.; Kim, S.; Hofstetter, R.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale surface explosions were conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR), Negev desert: 82 tons of strong HE explosives in August 2009, and 10&100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. The main goal was to provide strong controlled sources in different wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations. Numerous dense observations of blast waves were provided by high-pressure, acoustic and seismic sensors at near-source ( 2000 tons) ANFO surface shots at White Sands Military Range (WSMR) were analyzed for SS time delay. The Secondary Shocks were revealed on the records in the range 1.5-60 km and showed consistency with the SMR data, thus extending the charge and distance range for the developed SS delay relationship. Obtained results suggest that measured SS delays can provide important information about an explosion source character, and can be used as a new simple cost-effective yield estimator for explosions with known type of explosives. The new results are compared with analogous available data of surface nuclear explosions. Special distinctions in air-blast waves are revealed and analyzed, resulting from the different source phenomenology (energy release). Two underground nuclear explosions conducted by North Korea in 2009 and 2013 were recorded by several stations of Israel Seismic Network. Pronounced minima (spectral nulls) at 1.2-1.3 Hz were revealed in the spectra of teleseismic P-waves. For a ground-truth explosion with a shallow source depth (relatively to an earthquake), this phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of the interference between the down-going P-wave energy and the pP phase reflected from the Earth's surface. A similar effect was observed before at ISN stations for the Pakistan explosion (28.05.98) at a different frequency 1.7 Hz indicating the source- and not site-effect. Based on the null frequency dependency on the near-surface acoustic velocity and the source depth, the depth of

  10. 某抽水蓄能电站地下洞室群围岩稳定参数敏感性分析%Parameter Sensitivity Analysis on Surrounding Rock for Underground Cavern Group in a Pumped-Storage Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于新华; 王丽新; 陈建胜; 杨科辉

    2014-01-01

    根据基本几何和物理条件建立某水电站地下洞室群三维弹塑性非线性有限元数值计算模型,分析不同取值的初始地应力场、岩体变形模量、抗剪强度参数变化对围岩稳定性的影响,分析锚杆支护轴力的分布规律;同时,分析了厂区分布的泥质粉砂岩层软弱夹层的分布和力学性质变化对围岩变形和锚杆支护的影响。计算结果可为类似工程提供洞室设计依据和基础分析数据。%Based on the basic geometric and physical conditions,a three-dimensional elastic-plastic numerical model which is nonlinear and finite,is built for analyzing underground cavern group of a hydropower station.The paper studies the impacts of initial stress field,rock mass deformation modulus and shear strength parameters on rock stability,as well as the distribution law of bolting axial force.This paper also explores the distribution of the soft inter-layers of mud siltstone layers,and studies the effect of changes in mechanical properties on rock deformation and bolting.The results can provide design basis and basic analytical data for cavern designs.

  11. Statistical analysis of in-situ stress field for underground water-sealed storage cavern in Chinese mainland%我国大陆地下水封洞库库址区地应力场分布规律统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王章琼; 晏鄂川; 鲁功达; 高连通; 张颀明; 唐睿旋

    2014-01-01

    Through collecting 76 groups of the in-situ stress data in underground water-sealed storage cavern in Chinese mainland, including Zhanjiang, Huangdao, Yantai, Huizhou, Jinzhou, Dalian, the distribution of the vertical stress,the largest horizontal principal stress( vs ), the minimum horizontal principal stress( Hs ) and the lateral pressure coefficient(k) varying with depth in Chinese mainland are established. Then the features of the in-situ stress are corresponding regression analysed refer to the analysis method of Hoek and Brown. The results indicate that: (1) The shallow in-situ stress in underground water-sealed storage cavern in Chinese mainland show increasing trend with the increase of depth, vs showed a good linear relationship with depth, and the stress gradient is a little less than 0.027, in Hoek-Brown relation. (2) Hs and hs are increased with depth, scattered points are mainly distributed in an inclined parallel belt. (3) Lateral pressure ratio k is dispersed when depth is less than 200 m, and centralized when depth is more than 200 m, and the envelope curve of lateral pressure ratio is distributed between the maximum and minimum envelopes of Hoek-Brown curve; it is approach the global distribution law. Through above research, the distribution law of in-situ stress field in underground water-sealed storage cavern in Chinese mainland is analyzed and summarized; it can provide references to the planning, constructing and developing of petroleum (gas) strategic reserve in Chinese mainland.%收集我国大陆地区湛江、黄岛、烟台、惠州、锦州、大连等在建和已建的地下水封洞库工程区76组地应力测试数据,建立了我国地下水封洞库库址区水平主应力 vs、垂直主应力 Hs及侧压比 k 随埋深的分布图,参照 Hoek-Brown 方法对地应力特征进行回归分析。结果表明,我国大陆地区地下水封洞库库址区浅部地应力总体上随埋深 H 增大而增大,垂直主应力 vs与 H

  12. Correction: Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2017-01-01

    Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479.......Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479....

  13. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  14. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  15. Optical coherence tomography of the rat cavernous nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Chuang, Ying; Burnett, Arthur L.; Su, Li-Ming

    2007-02-01

    Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during radical prostatectomy, which are responsible for erectile function, may improve nerve preservation and postoperative potency. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of real-time, high-resolution, cross-sectional, in vivo tissue imaging. The rat prostate serves as an excellent model for studying the use of OCT for imaging the cavernous nerves, as the rat cavernous nerve is a large, visible, and distinct bundle allowing for easy identification with OCT in addition to histologic confirmation. Imaging was performed with the Niris OCT system and a handheld 8 Fr probe, capable of acquiring real-time images with 11-μm axial and 25-μm lateral resolution in tissue. Open surgical exposure of the prostate was performed on a total of 6 male rats, and OCT images of the prostate, cavernous nerve, pelvic plexus ganglion, seminal vesicle, blood vessels, and periprostatic fat were acquired. Cavernous nerve electrical stimulation with simultaneous intracorporeal pressure measurements was performed to confirm proper identification of the cavernous nerves. The prostate and cavernous nerves were also processed for histologic analysis and further confirmation. Cross-sectional and longitudinal OCT images of the cavernous nerves were acquired and compared with histologic sections. The cavernous nerve and ganglion could be differentiated from the surrounding prostate gland, seminal vesicle, blood vessels, bladder, and fatty tissue. We report preliminary results of OCT images of the rat cavernous nerves with histologic correlation and erectile stimulation measurements, thus providing interpretation of prostate structures as they appear in OCT images.

  16. Evidence for remotely triggered microearthquakes during salt cavern collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Rohmer, Jérémy

    2016-04-01

    Microseismicity is a good indicator of spatio-temporal evolution of physical properties of rocks prior to catastrophic events like volcanic eruptions or landslides and may be triggered by a number of causes including dynamic characteristics of processes in play or/and external forces. We show evidence of triggered microseismicity observed in the vicinity of an underground salt cavern prone to collapse by a remote M ˜ 7.2 earthquake, which occurred ˜12 000 km away. High-dynamic range broad-band records reveal the strong time-correlation between a dramatic change in the rate of local high-frequency microseismicity and the passage of low-frequency seismic waves, including body, Love and Rayleigh surface waves. Pressure was lowered in the cavern by pumping operations of brine out of the cavern. We demonstrate the near critical state of the cavern before the collapse by means of 2-D axisymmetric elastic finite-element simulations. On this basis, we show that the increment of stress necessary for the failure of the Dolomite layer, which ensures the stability of the whole system, is of the same order of magnitude as the maximum dynamic stress magnitude observed during the passage of the earthquakes waves. This suggests that the stress oscillations due to the seismic waves correlated with the recorded microearthquakes induced damage of the overburden, which eventually led to the collapse of the salt cavern. We show that the contribution of Rayleigh waves is the most efficient to trigger microseismicity at periods close to the natural fundamental frequency of the cavern system found at about 10-20 s by investigating the impulse response of the cavern + overburden + brine system.

  17. Development of Analysis Methods for Groundwater Flow System Using Field Data under Construction of Large-scale Underground Storage Cavern (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hoon

    2009-08-15

    This research presents ground water system special quality of horizontally and axial by permeability thermal insulation (bamboo) because investigates tree screen zero and hydraulics special quality of wildcat, and confirmed ground water distribution special quality by special quality the repair chemistry enemy

  18. A Detailed Look at the First Results from the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Dark Matter Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Szydagis, M; Araujo, H M; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Coffey, T; Currie, A; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Flores, C; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C; Hertel, S A; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D -M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Ott, R A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; O'Sullivan, K; Taylor, D; Tennyson, B; Tiedt, D R; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J T; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2014-01-01

    LUX, the world's largest dual-phase xenon time-projection chamber, with a fiducial target mass of 118 kg and 10,091 kg-days of exposure thus far, is currently the most sensitive direct dark matter search experiment. The initial null-result limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross-section was released in October 2013, with a primary scintillation threshold of 2 phe, roughly 3 keVnr for LUX. The detector has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, and is the first experiment to achieve a limit on the WIMP cross-section lower than $10^{-45}$ cm$^{2}$. Here we present a more in-depth discussion of the novel energy scale employed to better understand the nuclear recoil light and charge yields, and of the calibration sources, including the new internal tritium source. We found the LUX data to be in conflict with low-mass WIMP signal interpretations of other results.

  19. Analysis of cavern and well stability at the West Hackberry SPR site using a full-dome model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressurization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 feet of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage

  20. A delegation from Singapore came to CERN on 18 October. The visitors are involved in planning a vast Underground Science City housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres.

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2010-01-01

    They came to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities. They visited the CMS site at Cessy, including the above-ground control room and the Underground Service Cavern.

  1. COMPAC: Optimization of the energy storage in salt caverns. COMPAC: Optimalisatie van energie-opslag in zoutholten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupping, A.W.

    1991-12-01

    The NOVEM (Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment) studied large-scale energy storage in the Netherlands in the mid-eighties. Two variants of the BOPAC-concept (a system with two salt caverns in an underground salt formation) are discussed. One variant is called COMPAC (COMbination of a Pump-Accumulator Centre). In this system the circulation of the brine is used next to the circulation of natural gas to store energy. When the brine circulation does not run via the ground level, but is flushed into the salt, then the pressure drop in the brine circulation is zero. This storage system is called SUCCESS. Both systems are compared for different depths of the salt caverns. Pump-accumulation systems in underground salt formations with constant pressure are preferred to systems with constant volume. SUCCESS appears to be the most interesting system when it is combined with temporary storage of natural gas. COMPAC is preferred when using surface brine reservoirs in thick salt formations right beneath the surface level. 7 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  2. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  3. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  4. 地下空区顶板改进梁模型的弹塑性分析%Elasto-plastic analysis of improved beam model for underground cavern's roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江学良; 曹平; 杨慧

    2012-01-01

    The rock was regarded as perfectly elasto-plastic material, the effect of rock's constitutive relation on the improved beam was analyzed with beam-column theory, the forced state of model was simplified as elastic state, tensile yield state, compressive yield and coexistence state of tensile and compressive yield. The relationships of moment-axial force-curvature were obtained. The deflection curve was assumed as the sine half wave and the equation of the generalized moment-axial force-lateral load of model was built. The relationship between equivalent modulus and initial modulus was gotten from crack tensor theory and damage theory. Taking the cavern roof of Wenfu phosphate mine for example, the curve of lateral load and axial force was obtained from calculation. The results show that the axial force increases with the decrease of the ratio of model span to thickness when the lateral load is a constant and the lateral load increases with the decrease of the ratio of model span to thickness when the axial force is a constant.%将岩石视为理想弹塑性介质,采用梁柱理论分析岩石本构关系对改进梁模型的影响,将模型的受力状态简化为弹性状态、拉伸屈服或压缩屈服状态、拉压屈服并存状态,并分别得到不同受力状态下的广义弯矩-轴力-曲率关系.假设模型的挠曲线为正弦半波函数,得到了模型最大承载力的弯矩-轴力-横向荷载相关方程(m0-n-(q));采用裂隙张量与损伤理论,得到了等效弹性模量与初始弹性模量之间的关系.以瓮福磷矿穿岩矿段地下空区顶板为例计算得到不同跨厚比(L/h=3,5,8)条件下横向荷载与轴力的相关曲线.研究结果表明:在横向荷载(q)一定的情况下,随着顶板跨度与厚度的比值(L/h)的减小,轴向力(n=N/Ny)增加;在轴向力一定的情况下,随着顶板跨度与厚度比值(L/h)的减小,横向荷载((q)=q/qy)增大.

  5. Cavernous hemangioma of the right atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contrafouris, Constantinos; Kanakis, Meletios; Milonakis, Michael; Azariadis, Prodromos; Chatzis, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    A 42-year-old woman was diagnosed during the 3rd month of pregnancy with a large right atrial tumor. Three weeks after successful completion of a full-term pregnancy, she was admitted and underwent surgical removal of the tumor. Postoperative course was uneventful and pathology showed cavernous hemangioma. These neoplasms should be removed in order to prevent severe arrhythmias as also potential malignant transformation.

  6. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  7. Large excavations and multi-disciplinary studies in deep underground laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Joseph S.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, we have gathered some information on excavations recently completed, renovated, or planned in Asia, Europe, North and South America. In this review, we presented what we learned on both the large excavations and on multi-disciplinary studies. Large excavations in physics laboratories are driven by the needs associated with designing next generation of experiments to detect rare events. Some existing physics laboratories are interested to use available spaces for geo-sciences studies, including microbiological research for deep life. Summary of recent progress will be discussed.

  8. Ceremony for ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Wednesday 4 June will be a special day for CERN. The President of the Swiss Confederation, Pascal Couchepin, will officially inaugurate the huge ATLAS cavern now that the civil engineering works have ended. The inauguration ceremony will be held in the ATLAS surface building, with speeches by Pascal Couchepin and CERN, ATLAS and civil engineering personalities. This ceremony will be Webcast live. To access the Webcast on 4 June at 18h00 go to CERN Intranet home page or the following address : http://webcast.cern.ch/live.php

  9. Valuation of gas stored in salt cavern facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Michael A. [St. Mary' s University, TX (United States); Grant, Floyd H. [Purdue University, IN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Since natural gas production is relatively inelastic towards demand in the short term, underground storage is used as a buffer against periods of high demand. Of the three most common storage facility types, depleted reservoirs, aquifers and manmade salt caverns, the latter is the most costly to develop. The challenge then is to maximize profits through efficient operation, well-timed injection and withdrawal of gas. The valuation of a commodity in storage is a challenging problem and has been the subject of study for decades. We investigate selected existing valuation approaches and look for ways to leverage salt-cavern-specific physical characteristics for financial advantage. The basis for our valuation is the Black-Scholes model for pricing options. Then, applying Monte-Carlo methods and simulation, we model combinations of characteristics in multi-cavern facilities and their impact on profitability. We describe the theory behind our work and our analytical framework and provide numerical results of our analysis. Our approach offers increased efficiency in salt-cavern gas storage facility operations. (author)

  10. Sensitivity analysis of influencing parameters in cavern stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl Abdollahipour; Reza Rahmannejad

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the stability of the underground rock structures,knowing the sensitivity of geomechanical parameters is important.To investigate the priority of these geomechanical properties in the stability of cavern,a sensitivity analysis has been performed on a single cavern in various rock mass qualities according to RMR using Phase 2.The stability of cavern has been studied by investigating the side wall deformation.Results showed that most sensitive properties are coefficient of lateral stress and modulus of deformation.Also parameters of Hoek-Brown criterion and σc have no sensitivity when cavern is in a perfect elastic state.But in an elasto-plastic state,parameters of Hoek-Brown criterion and σc affect the deformability; such effect becomes more remarkable with increasing plastic area.Other parameters have different sensitivities concerning rock mass quality (RMR).Results have been used to propose the best set of parameters for study on prediction of sidewall displacement.

  11. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  12. Assembly of the gantry crane for lowering CMS into the cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The gantry crane (dark red in the image) that will be used for lowering the enormous pieces of CMS into its cavern, 100m underground, is being assembled. Recently the horizontal cross-beam was delivered and installed, and can be seen on top of the SX5 construction hall at Cessy, France.

  13. Progress on CMS detector lowering: the YE+2 section arriving in the cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 12 December, a further section of the detector (YE+2) containing the cathode strip chamber made the 10-hour journey underground. This piece is 16 m high and weighs 880 tonnes. There are now four sections of the detector in the experimental cavern, with a further 11 to follow.

  14. Underground low flux neutron background measurements in LSM using a large volume (1m3) spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidis, I.; Giomataris, I.; Bougamont, E.; Irastorza, I.; Aune, S.; Chapelier, M.; Charvin, P. H.; Colas, P.; Derre, J.; Ferrer, E.; Gerbier, G.; Gros, M.; Mangier, P.; Navick, X. F.; Salin, P.; Vergados, J. D.; Zampalo, M.

    2010-01-01

    A large volume (1m3) spherical proportional counter has been developed at CEA/Saclay, for low flux neutron measurements. The high voltage is applied to a small sphere 15mm in diameter, located in the center of the counter and the wall of the counter is grounded. Neutrons can be measured successfully, with high sensitivity, using 3He gas in the detector. The proton and tritium energy deposition in the drift gaseous volume, from the reaction 3He(n,p)3H, can provide the neutron spectra from thermal neutrons up to several MeV. The detector has been installed in the underground laboratory in Modane (LSM) to measure the neutron background. The sphere has been has been filled with gas mixture of Ar + 2% CH4 +3gr He-3, at 275 mbar. The thermal neutron peak is well separated from the cosmic ray and gamma background, permitting of neutron flux calculation. Other potential applications requiring large volume of about 10 m in radius are described in detail in reference

  15. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  16. Configuration Optimization of Underground Cables inside a Large Magnetic Steel Casing for Best Ampacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutassem, Wael

    This thesis presents a method for optimizing cable configuration inside a large magnetic cylindrical steel casing, from the total ampacity point of view. The method is comprised of two main parts, namely: 1) analytically calculating the electromagnetic losses in the steel casing and sheathed cables, for an arbitrary cables configuration, and 2) implementing an algorithm for determining the optimal cables configuration to obtain the best total ampacity. The first part involves approximating the eddy current and hysteresis losses in the casing and cables. The calculation is based on the theory of images, which this thesis expands to apply to casings having both high magnetic permeability and high electric conductivity at the same time. The method of images, in combination with approximating the cable conductors and sheaths as multiple physical filaments, is used to compute the final current distributions in the cables and pipe and thus the associated losses. The accuracy of this computation is assessed against numerical solutions obtained using the Maxwell finite element program by Ansoft. Next, the optimal cable configuration is determined by applying a proposed two-level optimization algorithm. At the outer level, a combinatorial optimization based on a genetic algorithm explores the different possible configurations. The performance of every configuration is evaluated according to its total ampacity, which is calculated using a convex optimization algorithm. The convex optimization algorithm, which forms the inner level of the overall optimization procedure, is based on the barrier method. This proposed optimization procedure is tested for a duct bank installation containing twelve cables and fifteen ducts, comprising two circuits and two cables per phase, and compared with a brute force method of considering all possible configurations. The optimization process is also applied to an installation consisting of a single circuit inside a large magnetic steel casing.

  17. Vascular plug for ICA occlusion in cavernous carotid aneurysms: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, David A.; Keston, Peter; White, Philip; Sellar, Robin [Western General Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-15

    Large, symptomatic aneurysms of the cavernous internal carotid artery (ICA) can be successfully treated by a combination of aneurysm coiling and occlusion of the parent vessel. We describe the use of an Amplatzer (AGA medical corporation, Plymouth, MA, USA) detachable nitinol vascular plug to occlude the ICA in four patients with symptomatic cavernous ICA aneurysms. (orig.)

  18. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation and Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... moderately, but avoid strenuous activities such as heavy weightlifting that can cause acute spikes in blood pressure ... angioma story See More Videos » Cavernous Angioma and Children Dr. Issam Awad at the Angioma Alliance Family ...

  19. Slowly does it as giant magnet goes underground at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Ormrod, Gill

    2007-01-01

    "At 5:00 am GMT this morning (28th February 2007) the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) particle detector began a momentous journey into its experimental cavern, 100 metres underground at CERN, Geneva." (1,5 page)

  20. Geomechanical effects on CO2 leakage through fault zones during large-scale underground injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Antonio P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappa, Frédéric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice (France). Cote d' Azur Observatory. GeoAzur

    2013-12-01

    The importance of geomechanics—including the potential for faults to reactivate during large-scale geologic carbon sequestration operations—has recently become more widely recognized. However, notwithstanding the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events, the potential for buoyancy-driven CO2 to reach potable groundwater and the ground surface is actually more important from public safety and storage-efficiency perspectives. In this context, this paper extends the previous studies on the geomechanical modeling of fault responses during underground carbon dioxide injection, focusing on the short-term integrity of the sealing caprock, and hence on the potential for leakage of either brine or CO2 to reach the shallow groundwater aquifers during active injection. We consider stress/strain-dependent permeability and study the leakage through the fault zone as its permeability changes during a reactivation, also causing seismicity. We analyze several scenarios related to the volume of CO2 injected (and hence as a function of the overpressure), involving both minor and major faults, and analyze the profile risks of leakage for different stress/strain-permeability coupling functions. We conclude that whereas it is very difficult to predict how much fault permeability could change upon reactivation, this process can have a significant impact on the leakage rate. Moreover, our analysis shows that induced seismicity associated with fault reactivation may not necessarily open up a new flow path for leakage. Results show a poor correlation between magnitude and amount of fluid leakage, meaning that a single event is generally not enough to substantially change the permeability along the entire fault length. Finally, and consequently, even if some changes in permeability occur, this does not mean that the CO2 will migrate up along the entire fault, breaking through the caprock to enter the overlying aquifer.

  1. Comparative study of large scale simulation of underground explosions inalluvium and in fractured granite using stochastic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, O.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.; Glenn, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a methodology used for large scale modeling of wave propagation fromunderground explosions conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in two different geological settings:fractured granitic rock mass and in alluvium deposition. We show that the discrete nature of rockmasses as well as the spatial variability of the fabric of alluvium is very important to understand groundmotions induced by underground explosions. In order to build a credible conceptual model of thesubsurface we integrated the geological, geomechanical and geophysical characterizations conductedduring recent test at the NTS as well as historical data from the characterization during the undergroundnuclear test conducted at the NTS. Because detailed site characterization is limited, expensive and, insome instances, impossible we have numerically investigated the effects of the characterization gaps onthe overall response of the system. We performed several computational studies to identify the keyimportant geologic features specific to fractured media mainly the joints; and those specific foralluvium porous media mainly the spatial variability of geological alluvium facies characterized bytheir variances and their integral scales. We have also explored common key features to both geologicalenvironments such as saturation and topography and assess which characteristics affect the most theground motion in the near-field and in the far-field. Stochastic representation of these features based onthe field characterizations have been implemented in Geodyn and GeodynL hydrocodes. Both codeswere used to guide site characterization efforts in order to provide the essential data to the modelingcommunity. We validate our computational results by comparing the measured and computed groundmotion at various ranges. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence LivermoreNational Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts post a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, whi...

  3. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts pose a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, whi...

  4. ATLAS Cavern - Sainte-Barbe evening

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The December at cavern of ATLAS was full of surprises, while during the iron mounting and concrete work the cavern got its new purpose for being the restaurant under little while -Live music and happy people.

  5. The huge ATLAS cavern now fully excavated

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Excavation of the ATLAS cavern is now complete! At the end of two years' work involving a tremendous technical challenge, the civil engineering contractors have succeeded in digging out one of the biggest experimental caverns in the world. Bravo!

  6. Features of West Hackberry SPR Caverns and Internal Structure Of the Salt Dome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Darrell Eugene [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Underground Storage Technology Dept.

    2006-09-01

    The intent of this report is to examine the internal structure of the West Hackberry salt dome utilizing the information from the geometric configuration of the internal cavern surfaces obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data. In a general sense, the caverns of West Hackberry are remarkable in the symmetry of their shapes. There are only rather moderate deviations from what would be considered an ideal cylindrical solution mining geometry in these caverns. This finding is in marked contrast to the directional solutioning found in the elliptical cross sectioned, sometimes winged, caverns of Big Hill. None of the persistent lineaments prevalent in Big Hill caverns are evident in West Hackberry caverns. Irregularities of the West Hackberry caverns are restricted to preferential solution formed pits and protuberances with moderate dimensions. In fact, the principal characteristic of West Hackberry caverns is the often large sections of smooth and cylindrical cavern wall. Differences in the cavern characteristics between West Hackberry and Big Hill suggest that the former dome is quite homogeneous, while the latter still retains strong remnants of the interbeds of the original bedded Louann salt. One possible explanation is that the source of the two domes, while both from the Louann mother salt, differs. While the source of the Big Hill dome is directly from the mother salt bed, it appears that the West Hackberry arises from a laterally extruded sill of the mother salt. Consequently, the amount of deformation, and hence, mixing of the salt and interbed material in the extruded sill is significantly greater than would be the case for the directly formed diapir. In West Hackberry, remnants of interbeds apparently no longer exist. An important aspect of the construction of the West Hackberry caverns is the evidence of an attempt to use a uniform solutioning construction practice. This uniformity involved the utilization of single well solutioning and

  7. Carotid cavernous fistula: Ophthalmological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry Imtiaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. A CCF can be due to a direct connection between the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, or a communication between the cavernous sinus, and one or more meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery, external carotid artery or both. These fistulas may be divided into spontaneous or traumatic in relation to cause and direct or dural in relation to angiographic findings. The dural fistulas usually have low rates of arterial blood flow and may be difficult to diagnose without angiography. Patients with CCF may initially present to an ophthalmologist with decreased vision, conjunctival chemosis, external ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Patients with CCF may have predisposing causes, which need to be elicited. Radiological features may be helpful in confirming the diagnosis and determining possible intervention. Patients with any associated visual impairment or ocular conditions, such as glaucoma, need to be identified and treated. Based on patient′s signs and symptoms, timely intervention is mandatory to prevent morbidity or mortality. The conventional treatments include carotid ligation and embolization, with minimal significant morbidity or mortality. Ophthalmologist may be the first physician to encounter a patient with clinical manifestations of CCF, and this review article should help in understanding the clinical features of CCF, current diagnostic approach, usefulness of the available imaging modalities, possible modes of treatment and expected outcome.

  8. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm after medical prolactinoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Siri Sahib; Hollon, Todd C; Shastri, Ravi; Trobe, Jonathan D; Gemmete, Joseph J; Pandey, Aditya S

    2016-06-08

    Aneurysms of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are believed to have a low risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), given the confines of the dural rings and the anterior clinoid process. The risk may be greater when the bony and dural protection has been eroded. We report a case of spontaneous SAH from rupture of a cavernous ICA aneurysm in a patient whose large prolactinoma had markedly decreased in size as the result of cabergoline treatment. After passing a balloon test occlusion, the patient underwent successful endovascular vessel deconstruction. This case suggests that an eroding skull base lesion may distort normal anterior cranial base anatomy and allow communication between the cavernous ICA and subarachnoid space. The potential for SAH due to cavernous ICA aneurysm rupture should be recognised in patients with previous pituitary or other skull base lesions adjacent to the cavernous sinus.

  9. CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA OF THE INTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Hekmatara

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the internal auditory canal (IAC of which fourteen cases have been reported so far."nTinnitus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL are the chief complaints of the patients. Audiological and radiological planes, CTScan, and magnetic resonance image (MRI studies are helpful in diagnosis. The only choice of treatment is surgery with elective transmastoid trans¬labyrinthine approach. And if tumor is very large, the method of choice will be retrosigmoid approach.

  10. Geotechnical basis for underground energy storage in hard rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, O. C.

    1982-03-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage requires the excavation of caverns in hard rock. Hard rock caverns, also, are one option for compressed air stoage. Preliminary design studies for both technologies at a specific site were completed. The geotechnical aspects of these storage systems are discussed from a generic viewpoint. Information about effective use of hard rock openings, including tunnels and shafts, comes mainly from other types of underground projects. These are power houses for hydroelectric and conventional pumped storage schemes, as well as transportation facilities and mines. Rock strength, support, instrumentation, costs, management, and experimental work are among the items considered. Mapping of geologic structures, rock fragmentation, and rock mass properties is also discussed. The general conclusions are that rock types favorable for underground energy storage are present at suitable depths in many areas and that they can be identified by adequate geotechnical exploration prior to detailed design.

  11. Large-Scale Underground Mining in Tromsdalen: With focus on dimensioning and design of stopes and pillars

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Anja Hammernes

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to estimate the stope dimensions for a future underground mine in Tromsdalen, Verdal. Additionally, the most favourable orientation of the stopes and possible stope layouts will be assessed. Initially, surface mapping was conducted and geotechnical features such as joint orientations, roughness, aperture and weathering were registered. The rock mass quality was assessed using the RMR and Q-system, and the results conclude a rock mass of fair to good quality. Th...

  12. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as

  13. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient

  14. Tolerance of cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tishler, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E. III; Kooy, H.M. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Lunsford, L.D.; Duma, C.; Flickinger, J.C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States))

    1993-09-20

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming a more accepted treatment option for benign, deep seated intracranial lesions. However, little is known about the effects of large single fractions of radiation on cranial nerves. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of radiosurgery on the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus. The authors examined the tolerance of cranial nerves (II-VI) following radiosurgery for 62 patients (42/62 with meningiomas) treated for lesions within or near the cavernous sinus. Twenty-nine patients were treated with a modified 6 MV linear accelerator (Joint Center for Radiation Therapy) and 33 were treated with the Gamma Knife (University of Pittsburgh). Three-dimensional treatment plans were retrospectively reviewed and maximum doses were calculated for the cavernous sinus and the optic nerve and chiasm. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 3-49). New cranial neuropathies developed in 12 patients from 3-41 months following radiosurgery. Four of these complications involved injury to the optic system and 8 (3/8 transient) were the result of injury to the sensory or motor nerves of the cavernous sinus. There was no clear relationship between the maximum dose to the cavernous sinus and the development of complications for cranial nerves III-VI over the dose range used (1000-4000 cGy). For the optic apparatus, there was a significantly increased incidence of complications with dose. Four of 17 patients (24%) receiving greater than 800 cGy to any part of the optic apparatus developed visual complications compared with 0/35 who received less than 800 cGy (p = 0.009). Radiosurgery using tumor-controlling doses of up to 4000 cGy appears to be a relatively safe technique in treating lesions within or near the sensory and motor nerves (III-VI) of the cavernous sinus. The dose to the optic apparatus should be limited to under 800 cGy. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Giant cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quildrian, Sergio Damián; Silberman, Ezequiel Aníbal; Vigovich, Felix Alberto; Porto, Eduardo Agustín

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland is a rare non-functioning benign neoplasm. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 62-year-old woman with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was diagnosed as having an incidental non-functioning adrenal tumor. Because of the impossibility of ruling out the presence of malignancy, conventional surgical resection was carried out. The histopathology revealed a 12.5 cm × 11.5 cm × 8 cm adrenal mass with large and lacunae vascular spaces lined with mature endothelial cells. These findings were compatible with cavernous hemangioma. DISCUSSION The majority of patients in the literature underwent surgical resection due to the impossibility of excluding malignancy, because of related symptoms in patients with large masses, or because of the risk of spontaneous tumoral rupture. CONCLUSION These tumors are quite infrequent. Due to the low frequency and the lack of specific symptoms, most adrenal hemangiomas are diagnosed postoperatively. PMID:23287064

  16. Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Sweis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia analyzed the clinical and radiographic findings in 12 cases of cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST seen between 2000 and 2013, and conducted a literature search and review of the pooled data.

  17. The ALICE cavern and solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ALICE experiment, one of the four major experiments of CERN's LHC project, will be housed in the cavern that once contained the L3 experiment at the LEP accelerator. The huge solenoid is the only remaining piece of the L3 experiment and will be used by ALICE.

  18. Numerical estimation of structural integrity of salt cavern wells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Schreppers, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Finite element analyses were performed to estimate axial deformation of cavern wells due to gas storage operations in solution-mined salt caverns. Caverns shrink over time due to salt creep and the cavern roof subsides potentially threatening well integrity. Cavern deformation, deformation of salt

  19. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  20. When nearing the ATLAS cavern UX15 through RB16: the TX1S shielding

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: 52 tons of ATLAS TX1S shielding with bare hands. Photos 02,03,04: Installation of the second TX1S shielding tube at Point Photos 05,06: Positioning of TX1S shielding, the first ATLAS/LHC interface component to be installed underground. Photo 07: Final adjustment of the TX1S shielding tube at the interface between the LHC tunnel and the ATLAS cavern (UX15).

  1. Literature Survey Concerning the Feasibility of Remedial Leach for Select Phase I Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Karen A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Bryan Mound 5 ( BM5 ) and West Hackberry 9 ( WH9 ) have the potential to create a significant amount of new storage space should the caverns be deemed "leach - ready". This study discusses the original drilling history of the caverns, surrounding geology, current stability, and, based on this culmination of data, makes a preliminary assessment of the leach potential for the cavern. The risks associated with leaching BM5 present substantial problems for the SPR . The odd shape and large amount of insoluble material make it difficult to de termine whether a targeted leach would have the desired effect and create useable ullage or further distort the shape with preferential leaching . T he likelihood of salt falls and damaged or severed casing string is significant . In addition, a targeted le ach would require the relocation of approximately 27 MMB of oil . Due to the abundance of unknown factors associated with this cavern, a targeted leach of BM5 is not recommended. A targeted leaching of the neck of WH 9 could potentially eliminate or diminis h the mid - cavern ledge result ing in a more stable cavern with a more favorable shape. A better understanding of the composition of the surrounding salt and a less complicated leaching history yields more confidence in the ability to successfully leach this region. A targeted leach of WH9 can be recommended upon the completion of a full leach plan with consideration of the impacts upon nearby caverns .

  2. Underground Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  3. Reinforcement of the concrete base slab of the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 02: UX15 cavern, preparation for concreting of base slab first lift. Photo 05: UX15 cavern, placing of reinforcement for base slab first lift. Photo 07: UX15 cavern, preparation for concreting of base slab first lift. Photo 09: UX15 cavern, placing of reinforcement for base slab first lift. Photo 10: UX15 cavern, view into PX14 shaft above. Photo 12: UX15 cavern, temporary access platform of RB16 tunnel. Photo 15: UJ17 chamber, invert excavation.

  4. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-08-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  5. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  6. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 4, West Hackberry site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 4 focuses on the West Hackberry SPR site, located in southwestern Louisiana. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  7. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-10-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  8. Fracture development around deep underground excavations: Insights from FDEM modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lisjak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, there has been a growing interest in the development of numerical models that can realistically capture the progressive failure of rock masses. In particular, the investigation of damage development around underground excavations represents a key issue in several rock engineering applications, including tunnelling, mining, drilling, hydroelectric power generation, and the deep geological disposal of nuclear waste. The goal of this paper is to show the effectiveness of a hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM code to simulate the fracturing mechanisms associated with the excavation of underground openings in brittle rock formations. A brief review of the current state-of-the-art modelling approaches is initially provided, including the description of selecting continuum- and discontinuum-based techniques. Then, the influence of a number of factors, including mechanical and in situ stress anisotropy, as well as excavation geometry, on the simulated damage is analysed for three different geomechanical scenarios. Firstly, the fracture nucleation and growth process under isotropic rock mass conditions is simulated for a circular shaft. Secondly, the influence of mechanical anisotropy on the development of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ around a tunnel excavated in a layered rock formation is considered. Finally, the interaction mechanisms between two large caverns of an underground hydroelectric power station are investigated, with particular emphasis on the rock mass response sensitivity to the pillar width and excavation sequence. Overall, the numerical results indicate that FDEM simulations can provide unique geomechanical insights in cases where an explicit consideration of fracture and fragmentation processes is of paramount importance.

  9. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  10. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  11. The first section of the CMS detector (centre of photo) arriving from the vertical shaft, viewed from the cavern floor.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    In the early morning of 2 November, the first section of the CMS detector began its eagerly awaited descent into the underground cavern. You may imagine the CMS detector as a loaf of sliced bread, cut into 15 slices of different sizes. The two HF sections are the end pieces; the slices in between will be lowered sequentially according to their positions in the ‘loaf', starting from the HF+ section at the far end of the cavern, towards the access shaft at the opposite end.

  12. Large-Scale Experimental and Numerical Study of Blast Acceleration Created by Close-In Buried Explosion on Underground Tunnel Lining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Soheyli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing demands for structures in water transportation tunnels, underground installations, subsurface dams, and subterranean channels, there is limited field knowledge about the dynamic behavior of these structures in the face of near-fault earthquakes or impulse excitations. This study conducted a large-scale test on underground tunnel excited by two close-in subsurface explosions. The horizontal and vertical acceleration were recorded on the vertical wall of the tunnel and the free field data including the acceleration on the ground surface at 11-meter distance from the tunnel. The frequency domain analysis of recorded results determined the frequency 961 Hz and 968 Hz for 1.69 kg and 2.76 kg equivalent T.N.T., respectively. Then, finite element analysis results were compared with the test data. The comparisons demonstrated a good correlation and satisfied the field data. Finally, based on numerical modeling, a parametric study was applied to determine the effects of shear wave velocity distance of the crater with respect to the tunnel on impulse response of the tunnel.

  13. Hazard assessment of the stability of a cavern roof along the coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, A.; Lollino, P.

    2009-04-01

    This work concerns the hazard assessment about the stability of a large shallow depth cavern, located along the coastline rocky sector of Polignano town (Apulia, Southern Italy) under an intensely urbanised area. This cavern, which lies at the sea level, has been created by a prolonged process of sea erosion within a rock mass formed of a lower stratified limestone mass and an upper Gravina Calcarenite mass. The thickness of the cavern roof, which has a dome shape, is less than 10 metres in the centre. Important buildings, as hotels and private houses, are located just above the top of the roof. Erosion processes have been observed to be still active along the whole cavern due to climate factors and, in particular, to sea salt weathering and sea spray effects. In 2007 a large calcarenite block, 3 m large, fell down from the cavern roof and consequently a field investigation campaign was carried out for a rational stabilization plan in order to understand the current stability conditions of the roof and the potential failure mechanism. Therefore, a thorough geo-structural survey has firstly been carried out, together with laboratory and in-situ testing for measuring the physical and mechanical properties of the calcarenite rock and of the corresponding joints. A monitoring system has also been planned and installed in order to measure the erosional rate and the block displacements in the cavern.

  14. 大型地下车库照明设计%Lighting Design of Large-scale Underground Parking Garage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢结弟

    2015-01-01

    介绍了某大型地下车库的照明设计。阐述了控制方案和灯具的选择,对汽车库出入口的照明亮度进行了计算。根据计算的各照明段的照明长度,并结合车道宽度、高度,可通过模拟照度软件进行灯具的选型与布置。指出双车道连续布置控制方案节能效果好,具有连续疏导的作用。%This paper introduced the lighting design of underground parking garage.The selections of control scheme and lamps were elaborated.The illuminance of lighting transition section was calculated.According to the lignting length of each lighting section and width,height of the driveway,the selection and arrangement of lamps and lanterns are carried out through illumination simulation software.It is pointed that the two-lane continuous control scheme has advantages of good energy-saving effect and continuous guidance.

  15. Modeling the thermal-hydrologic processes in a large-scale underground heater test in partially saturated fractured tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholzer, J. T.; Tsang, Y. W.

    2000-02-01

    The Drift Scale Test (DST) is being conducted in an underground facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to probe the coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical processes likely to occur in the fractured rock mass around a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. Thermal-hydrological processes in the DST have been simulated using a three-dimensional numerical model. The model incorporates the realistic test configuration and all available site-specific measurements pertaining to the thermal and hydrological properties of the unsaturated fractured tuff of the test block. The modeled predictions were compared to the extensive set of measured data collected in the first year of this 8-year-long test. The mean error between the predictions and measurement at 12 months of heating for over 1600 temperature sensors is about 2°C. Heat-pipe signature in the temperature data, indicating two-phase regions of liquid-vapor counterflow, is seen in both the measurements and simulated results. The redistribution of moisture content in the rock mass (resulting from vaporization and condensation) was probed by periodic air-injection testing and geophysical measurements. Good agreement also occurred between the model predictions and these measurements. The general agreement between predictions from the numerical simulations and the measurements of the thermal test indicates that our fundamental understanding of the coupled thermal-hydrologic processes at Yucca Mountain is sound. However, effects of spatial heterogeneity from discrete fractures that are observed in the temperature data are not matched by simulations from the numerical model, which treat the densely spaced fractures as a continuum.

  16. Arachnoid cyst in cavernous sinus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyoung Gun; Yoo, Won Jong; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Hae Giu; Lim, Hyun Wook; Im, Soo Ah [The Catholic University of Kore College of Medicine, Puchun (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    Arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus is very rare. When present, its anatomic location frequently gives rise to cranial nerve palsy. We report a case of arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus in a 38-year-old man with impeder eyeball movement and diplopia.

  17. Spontaneous Resolution of Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishaq, Mazhar; Arain, Muhammad Aamir; Ahmed, Saadullah; Niazi, Muhammad Khizar; Khan, Muhammad Dawood; Iqbal, Zamir

    2010-01-01

    Proptosis due to carotid cavernous fistula is rare sequelae of head injury. We report a case of post-traumatic, direct high flow carotid cavernous fistula that resolved spontaneously 06 weeks after carotid angiography. It however, resulted in loss of vision due to delay in early treatment. In the ca

  18. 大型地下综合智能停车场设计%Design of the Large Intelligent Underground Car Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈勃斌

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the design of the large intelligent underground car park. Combining with intelligent recognition system, parking guidance systems, computer and network technology and using a variety of means of identification, it can improve the in%本文介绍了某大型地下停车场的智能化设计,其在设计中采用多种识别方式并用,结合智能识别系统、停车引导系统、计算机和网络技术,提高了停车场的信息化、智能化水平,真正做到设计合理、管理科学有效。

  19. Do we have to consider temperature-dependent material properties in large-scale environmental impact assessments of underground coal gasification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) can increase the world-wide coal reserves by utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. The UCG process involves combusting coal in situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from its high economic potentials, UCG may induce environmental impacts such as ground subsidence associated with groundwater pollution due to generation of hydraulic connectivities between the UCG reactor and adjacent aquifers. These changes overburden conductivity may introduce potential migration pathways for UCG contaminants such as organic (phenols, benzene, PAHs and heterocyclics) and inorganic (ammonia, sulphates, cyanides, and heavy metals) pollutants. Mitigation of potential environmental UCG impacts can be achieved by improving the understanding of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the rocks surrounding the UCG reactor. In the present study, a coupled thermo-mechanical model has been developed to carry out a parameter sensitivity analysis and assess permeability changes derived from volumetric strain increments in the UCG reactor overburden. Our simulation results demonstrate that thermo-mechanical rock behavior is mainly influenced by the thermal expansion coefficient, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the surrounding rock. A comparison of temperature-dependent and temperature-independent simulation results indicates high variations in the distribution of total displacements in the UCG reactor vicinity related to thermal stress, but only negligible differences in permeability changes. Hence, temperature-dependent thermo-mechanical parameters have to be considered in the assessment of near-field UCG impacts, while far-field models can achieve a higher computational efficiency by using temperature-independent thermo-mechanical parameters. Considering the findings of the present study in the large-scale assessment of

  20. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouard B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  1. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, T. J.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. It was concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site, even with the proposed savings from marketable material, amount to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. It was concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time.

  2. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    ) in the transport sector. We will show how the use of alternative technologies by activist groups provides temporary spatial asylum to groups of immigrants without papers. REVA Spotter, for example, is a tool, a manifesto and a peaceful mean of resistance to the REVA policing methods through continuous Facebook...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  3. Noncavernous arteriovenous shunts mimicking carotid cavernous fistulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobkitsuksakul, Chai; Jiarakongmun, Pakorn; Chanthanaphak, Ekachat; Singhara Na Ayudya, Sirintara (Pongpech)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The classic symptoms and signs of carotid cavernous sinus fistula or cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) consist of eye redness, exophthalmos, and gaze abnormality. The angiography findings typically consist of arteriovenous shunt at cavernous sinus with ophthalmic venous drainage with or without cortical venous reflux. In rare circumstances, the shunts are localized outside the cavernous sinus, but mimic symptoms and radiography of the cavernous shunt. We would like to present the other locations of the arteriovenous shunt, which mimic the clinical presentation of carotid cavernous fistulae, and analyze venous drainages. METHODS We retrospectively examined the records of 350 patients who were given provisional diagnoses of carotid cavernous sinus fistulae or cavernous sinus dural AVF in the division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok between 2008 and 2014. Any patient with cavernous arteriovenous shunt was excluded. RESULTS Of those 350 patients, 10 patients (2.85%) were identified as having noncavernous sinus AVF. The angiographic diagnoses consisted of three anterior condylar (hypoglossal) dural AVF, two traumatic middle meningeal AVF, one lesser sphenoid wing dural AVF, one vertebro-vertebral fistula (VVF), one intraorbital AVF, one direct dural artery to cortical vein dural AVF, and one transverse-sigmoid dural AVF. Six cases (60%) were found to have venous efferent obstruction. CONCLUSION Arteriovenous shunts mimicking the cavernous AVF are rare, with a prevalence of only 2.85% in this series. The clinical presentation mainly depends on venous outflow. The venous outlet of the arteriovenous shunts is influenced by venous afferent-efferent patterns according to the venous anatomy of the central nervous system and the skull base, as well as by architectural disturbance, specifically, obstruction of the venous outflow. PMID:27767958

  4. Spall formation in solution mined storage caverns based on a creep and fracture analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MUNSON,DARRELL E.

    2000-02-02

    Because of limited direct observation, understanding of the interior conditions of the massive storage caverns constructed in Gulf Coast salt domes is realizable only through predictions of salt response. Determination of the potential for formation of salt spans, leading to eventual salt falls, is based on salt creep and fracture using the Multimechanism-Deformation Coupled Fracture (MCDF) model. This is a continuum model for creep, coupled to continuum damage evolution. The model has been successfully tested against underground results of damage around several test rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Model simulations, here, evaluate observations made in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, namely, the accumulation of material on cavern floors and evidence of salt falls. A simulation of a smooth cavern wall indicates damage is maximum at the surface but diminishes monotonically into the salt, which suggests the source of salt accumulation is surface sluffing. If a protuberance occurs on the wall, fracture damage can form beneath the protuberance, which will eventually cause fracture, and lead to a salt fall.

  5. Aguamilpa underground penstocks: Excavation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, F. (Comision Federal de Electricidad, Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico))

    1994-01-01

    The Aguamilpa hydroelectric project is one of a number of hydroelectric schemes currently being constructed along the course of the Santiago River in western Mexico. Aguamilpa will cost US$750 million and includes a 187-m concrete-faced rockfill dam, spillway and diversion tunnels, and a 960 MW underground powerhouse. The underground works include the penstocks, the powerhouse and surge chamber caverns, and the tailrace tunnel. In the initial design, most of the tunnelling work was to have been of a permanent nature. However, as the date of completion was brought forward to June 1993, it became necessary to open up more working faces and, as such, a number of temporary tunnels were started. The sequence of underground penstock excavation is described along with the construction methods developed and the equipment employed. It was originally intended to excavate the upper and lower ends of the penstocks and then raise-bore an initial pilot hole along the whole length. This hole would then be reamed out to the full diameter. To achieve faster completion, it was decided to excavate the lower portion of the penstocks from special access tunnels and to gain access to the top of the penstocks via geological exploration and drainage galleries. The horizontal parts of the penstocks were excavated by drill-and-blast methods, and the sloping parts were constructed by raise-boring a pilot hole and then using drill-and-blast to enlarge the hole in several stages to the full profile. Installation of steel liner sections will proceed upward and outward from the lower elbow section. 3 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. EVOKED CAVERNOUS ACTIVITY: NEUROANATOMIC IMPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ugur; Vicars, Brenda; Yang, Claire C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the autonomic innervation of the penis by using evoked cavernous activity (ECA). We recruited 7 males with thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) and sexual dysfunction and 6 males who were scheduled to have pelvic surgery (PS), specifically non-nerve-sparing radical cystoprostatectomy. In the PS subjects, ECA was performed both pre- and postoperatively. The left median nerve was electrically stimulated and ECA was recorded with two concentric electromyography needles placed into the right and left cavernous bodies. We simultaneously recorded hand and foot sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) as controls. In the SCI group, all but one subject had reproducible hand SSRs. None of these subjects had ECA or foot SSRs. All the PS subjects had reproducible ECA and SSRs, both preoperatively and postoperatively. There was no difference in the latency and amplitude measurements of ECA and SSRs in the postoperative compared to the preoperative period (p>0.05). In conclusion, ECA is absent in men with SCI above the sympathetic outflow to the genitalia. In men following radical pelvic surgery, ECA is preserved, indicating the preservation of sympathetic fibers. PMID:19609298

  7. Cluster Headache Secondary to Macroprolactinoma with Ipsilateral Cavernous Sinus Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Levy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 25 year-old man with episodic cluster headache that was refractory to all standard pharmacological prophylactic and abortive treatments. Because of the lack of response, an MRI brain was performed which showed a large pituitary tumour with ipsilateral cavernous sinus invasion. The serum prolactin was significantly elevated at 54,700 miU/L (50–400 confirming a macro-prolactinoma. Within a few days of cabergoline therapy the headache resolved. He continues to be headache free several years after starting the dopamine agonist. This case highlights the importance of imaging the pituitary fossa in patients with refractory cluster headache, It also raises the potential anatomical importance of the cavernous sinus in pituitary-associated headache.

  8. A giant frontal cavernous malformation with review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind; Mittal, Radhey Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Cavernous malformations (CMs) are vascular anomalies with dilated spaces called caverns. These spaces are lined by endothelial cells and collage and devoid of smooth muscle or intervening neural tissue, and filled with blood at various stages of stasis, thrombosis, organization, and calcification. Most CMs are relatively small in size but when they are large enough they can produce sing of mass effect and may simulate neoplastic, vascular, inflammatory pathology. Giant CM (size >6 cm) are very rare lesions and very few cases are reported in world literature. We are reporting such a rare case of a 16 year male. Our case is also unique in the sense that it is the largest reported CM in Indian population. PMID:27114662

  9. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  10. Underground logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Foraz, K; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    More than 80’000 tons of materials have to be transported and installed down into the LHC tunnel. The magnet assemblies which represent about 50’000 tons, will be transported according to the master schedule between March 2005 and November 2006. Considering that these about 1’800 cryo-magnets will be transported at a maximum speed of 3 km/h in a narrow tube (where installation works and hardware commissioning activities are ongoing) this duration of 21 months is a real challenge. This paper aims at describing: - the information flows between the different people involved in the logistics attached to the cryo-magnets, - the organization chosen within the Installation Coordination group, - the problems encountered so far and the solutions adopted. The coordination process with other underground transport and activities, mainly for the QRL will also be presented.

  11. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts pose a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution, and the permeability is required to be several orders of magnitude less than that of normal coal and enough length is also in demand. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high-pressure gas in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high-pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  12. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  13. Pulmonary cavernous hemangioma:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunyi Jia; Shaolin Sun; Xiaokai Zhang; Lixin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary cavernous hemangioma in a 51-year-old female. A computed tomographic scan of the chest showed an il-defined mass measuring 2.3 cm × 2.2 cm in the right lower lobe. Surgical resection was per-formed and postoperative histological examination revealed cavernous hemangioma. We reviewed the clinical features and therapeutic methods of hemangioma.

  14. Civil Engineering in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Ghostly figures can be seen wandering the cavern that will eventually house the ATLAS experiment, part of the LHC at CERN. Quite fitting since the detector will hunt the illusive 'ghostly' particles, such as the Higgs boson and dark matter. These engineers are excavating the huge cavern that has to be anchored from above as the detector will fill so much space that there is no room for support pillars.

  15. Extraosseous, Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma with Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkal, Birol; Yaldiz, Can; Yaman, Onur; Ozdemır, Nail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cavernous malformations are characterized by enlarged vascular structures located in benign neural tissues within the cerebellum and spinal cord of the central nervous system. Cavernous hemangiomas (CHs) account for 5% to 12% of all spinal vascular malformations. Case Report We removed a hemorrhagic thoracic mass in a 40-year-old male patient who presented with progressive neurological deficits. Conclusions We found it appropriate to present this case due to its rarity. PMID:25960818

  16. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  17. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  18. Imaging the Underground Coal Gasification Zone with Microgravity Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotyrba Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of microgravity measurements made on the surface over an underground geo reactor where experimental coal gasification was performed in a shallow seam of coal. The aim of the research was to determine whether, and to what extent, the microgravity method can be used to detect and image a coal gasification zone, especially caverns where the coal was burnt out. In theory, the effects of coal gasification process create caverns and cracks, e.g., zones of altered bulk density. Before the measurements, theoretical density models of completely and partially gasified coal were analysed. Results of the calculations of gravity field response showed that in both cases on the surface over the gasification zone there should be local gravimetric anomalies. Over the geo reactor, two series of gravimetric measurements prior to and after gasification were conducted. Comparison of the results of two measurement series revealed the presence of gravimetric anomalies that could be related to the cavern formation process. Data from these measurements were used to verify theoretical models. After the experiment, a small cavern was detected at the depth of the coal seam by the test borehole drilled in one of the anomalous areas.

  19. Imaging the Underground Coal Gasification Zone with Microgravity Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Kortas, Łukasz; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes results of microgravity measurements made on the surface over an underground geo reactor where experimental coal gasification was performed in a shallow seam of coal. The aim of the research was to determine whether, and to what extent, the microgravity method can be used to detect and image a coal gasification zone, especially caverns where the coal was burnt out. In theory, the effects of coal gasification process create caverns and cracks, e.g., zones of altered bulk density. Before the measurements, theoretical density models of completely and partially gasified coal were analysed. Results of the calculations of gravity field response showed that in both cases on the surface over the gasification zone there should be local gravimetric anomalies. Over the geo reactor, two series of gravimetric measurements prior to and after gasification were conducted. Comparison of the results of two measurement series revealed the presence of gravimetric anomalies that could be related to the cavern formation process. Data from these measurements were used to verify theoretical models. After the experiment, a small cavern was detected at the depth of the coal seam by the test borehole drilled in one of the anomalous areas.

  20. 强采动下近距离硐室群围岩应力演化及加固对策%Stress Development and Reinforcement Countermeasure of Surrounding Rock of Close-distance Caverns Influenced by Strong Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜鹏飞; 郭相平

    2014-01-01

    Stress development rule of close-distance caverns influenced by 2322 face's strong mining was researched with FLAC3D , and the mechanism of grouting reinforcement for close-distance caverns was researched by applying UDEC software. Corresponding reinforce-ment countermeasure was put forward. Results showed that after close-distance caverns including water sumps and substation were exca-vated, superimposition effect of vertical stress of surrounding rock between caverns was more obvious than that of horizontal stress, but horizontal stress concentration degree was larger. Mining of 2322 face result into abutment pressure of coal-pillar moving to floor. Influenced by high stress superimposition of coal and floor, strong floor heave occurred in caverns. Under the condition of the same grouting pressure and ratio of water-to-ash, slurry diffusion radius along tangential direction of hole was larger than that along radial di-rection. Bearing capacity of caverns' shallow surrounding rock largely increased by reinforcing with grouting anchored-cable. High mining stress was transferred from deep to shallow location, which prevented further failure of deep rock. Underground test showed that after ap-plying grouting anchored-cable, surrounding rock of every cavern could keep stability and deformation of surrounding rock of close-dis-tance caverns influenced by strong mining was effectively controlled.%以成庄煤矿井下甲、乙水仓及变电所等近距离硐室群为背景,采用FLAC3D 有限差分程序计算分析了2322工作面强采动下近距离硐室群围岩应力演化规律,采用UDEC离散元软件研究了近距离硐室群注浆加固机理,并提出了相应的加固对策。研究结果表明:成庄煤矿甲、乙水仓及变电所等近距离硐室群开挖后,围岩间垂直应力叠加效应较水平应力更为明显,但水平应力集中程度更高;2322工作面回采引起煤柱支承压力向底板传递,受煤柱高应力与底

  1. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun H. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  2. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun H; Christopoulos, George I; Kwok, Kian W; Roberts, Adam C; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  3. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun H.; Christopoulos, George I.; Kwok, Kian W.; Roberts, Adam C.; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges. PMID:28400744

  4. Proposal of probability block theory for the purpose of information working of large-scale underground cavity; Daikibo chika kudo no johoka seko wo mokuteki to shita kakuritsu block riron no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mito, Y.; Kito, T.; Kikuchi, H. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-01-05

    For the purpose of information working of the large-scale underground cavity, such as underground cavity for underground power plant and underground cavity for fuel storage, this paper proposes a probability block theory, by which the mobility of base rock blocks can be evaluated. For the search of blocks having mobility, the discontinuous plane is assumed to be a complete flat having sufficient extent in the base rock. The discontinuous plane and the excavating surface can be expressed by the strike and dip. The discontinuous plane in this paper is joint. Applicability of the probability block theory has been examined by using a probability model of joint distribution. Validity of this method could be confirmed by the simulation. For the probability block theory, information of state of joint distribution is accumulated with progressing the excavation. With accumulation of the information, the estimation accuracy of analyzed values can be expected to be improved. This paper focuses on the excavation in the horizontal direction. It was suggested that the proposed theory can be also applied to the excavation in the vertical direction. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Dorsal spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Sanghvi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old female patient presented with diffuse pain in the dorsal region of the back of 3 months duration. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an extramedullary, extradural space occupative lesion on the right side of the spinal canal from D5 to D7 vertebral levels. The mass was well marginated and there was no bone involvement. Compression of the adjacent thecal sac was observed, with displacement to the left side. Radiological differential diagnosis included nerve sheath tumor and meningioma. The patient underwent D6 hemilaminectomy under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, the tumor was purely extradural in location with mild extension into the right foramina. No attachment to the nerves or dura was found. Total excision of the extradural compressing mass was possible as there were preserved planes all around. Histopathology revealed cavernous hemangioma. As illustrated in our case, purely epidural hemangiomas, although uncommon, ought to be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal epidural soft tissue masses. Findings that may help to differentiate this lesion from the ubiquitous disk prolapse, more common meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors are its ovoid shape, uniform T2 hyperintense signal and lack of anatomic connection with the neighboring intervertebral disk or the exiting nerve root. Entirely extradural lesions with no bone involvement are rare and represent about 12% of all intraspinal hemangiomas.

  6. Dorsal spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Darshana; Munshi, Mihir; Kulkarni, Bijal; Kumar, Abhaya

    2010-07-01

    A 61-year-old female patient presented with diffuse pain in the dorsal region of the back of 3 months duration. The magnetic resonance imaging showed an extramedullary, extradural space occupative lesion on the right side of the spinal canal from D5 to D7 vertebral levels. The mass was well marginated and there was no bone involvement. Compression of the adjacent thecal sac was observed, with displacement to the left side. Radiological differential diagnosis included nerve sheath tumor and meningioma. The patient underwent D6 hemilaminectomy under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, the tumor was purely extradural in location with mild extension into the right foramina. No attachment to the nerves or dura was found. Total excision of the extradural compressing mass was possible as there were preserved planes all around. Histopathology revealed cavernous hemangioma. As illustrated in our case, purely epidural hemangiomas, although uncommon, ought to be considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal epidural soft tissue masses. Findings that may help to differentiate this lesion from the ubiquitous disk prolapse, more common meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors are its ovoid shape, uniform T2 hyperintense signal and lack of anatomic connection with the neighboring intervertebral disk or the exiting nerve root. Entirely extradural lesions with no bone involvement are rare and represent about 12% of all intraspinal hemangiomas.

  7. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  8. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  9. Site investigations on cavernous limestone for the Remouchamps Viaduct, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Waltham, Antony; Vandenven, Georges; Ek, Camille

    1986-01-01

    POOR GROUND CONDITIONS on cavernous limestone created severe difficulties at the sites of four piers of the Remouchamps Viaduct. The discovery, during excavations for foundations, of large open cavities prompted a major re-appraisal of site investigation procedure, and also some redesign of the viaduct structure. La situation défavorable des fondations de quatre des piliers du viaduc autoroutier de Remouchamps posa des problèmes de construction. La présence de cavités karstiques largement ...

  10. Neodymium YAG laser for treatment of oral cavernous hemangiomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul F.

    1999-02-01

    Oral cavernous haemangiomas are common lesions which may require treatment due to episodes of bleeding when bitten or deformity particularly when involving the lips and/or cheeks. Surgery can be hazardous due to haemorrhage while cryosurgery tends to be tedious for large lesions and be accompanied by major oedema. Sclerosants produce hard bulky masses. Embolization is seldom helpful due to lack of arterial feeders. The Nd:YAG laser is proving a useful modality in the oro-facial region and appeared worth investigating for these lesions in a laboratory animal model, by thermography and in the clinical situation.

  11. Underground Layout Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Linden

    2003-09-25

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings.

  12. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  13. Radiological features of childhood giant cavernous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgen, Burce; Senocak, Efsun; Oguz, Kader K. [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Soylemezoglu, Figen [Hacettepe University, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Akalan, Nejat [Hacettepe University, Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Giant cavernous malformations (GCM) are very large, low-flow vascular malformations, which usually have atypical imaging features and are commonly misdiagnosed preoperatively as neoplasms or vascular malformations. These lesions have mostly been reported in children. As cavernomas show different features in children compared to adults, we evaluated the imaging features of pediatric GCMs in order to help in the preoperative diagnosis of these malformations. Brain MR studies of nine children (mean age of 4 years; 8 months-9 years) with biopsy-proven GCM were retrospectively evaluated. We defined GCMs as cavernomas of {>=}4 cm. Lesions were evaluated regarding their size, location, signal characteristics, general appearance (uni/multilocular) as well as regarding the presence of mass effect, edema, and fluid-fluid levels and were classified according to the Mottolese classification of pediatric cavernomas. Lesion locations were parietal (n = 5), frontal (n = 2), temporal, and intraventricular. Seven lesions were in the periventricular region (with five in the periatrial region). Six patients had T1 hyperintense multilobulated lesions with ''bubbles of blood'' appearance and three patients had heterogeneous lesions with reticular core. All lesions had mass effect, edema (marked in four cases), and peripheral hemosiderin rim. Fluid-fluid levels were also common (n = 7). Most of our lesions (six of nine) were classified as type IIIA, two as type IIIC, and one as type IA. In children, a GCM should be considered in case of very large hemorrhagic intra-axial mass with ''bubbles of blood'' multicystic appearance, surrounding hemosiderin ring, fluid-fluid levels, and accompanying edema-mass effect, especially in the periatrial location. (orig.)

  14. Cavernous haemangioma mimicking as clitoral hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Nayyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemangioma is the most common benign neoplasm of infantile age. It is most commonly located in head and neck region, trunk and extremities but very rarely it can be located at clitoris. However, it is very important to differentiate clitoral haemangioma from enlargement of the clitoris secondary to androgen excess. Only four cases of clitoromegaly caused by cavernous haemangioma have been reported in the literature so far. Herein, we report our experience with a 10-year-old girl who presented with clitoromegaly and normal hormonal assay that turned out to be clitoral cavernous haemangioma after histopathological examination of the clitoral mass.

  15. Dural cavernous haemangioma of posterior cranial fossa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of extracerebral dural cavernous angioma sited near the sigmoid sinus is reported. This 60 yr old male patient gave history of episodic ataxia of left sided limbs experienced twice on same day and occasional giddiness. Examination did not reveal any findings. A mass was diagnosed on CT Scan following which angiography was carried out. The features matched with those of a meningioma. Retro-sigmoid craniectomy was performed. Occipital artery was coagulated. Tumor was dissected out. Post-operative course of the patient was uneventful. Histopathology revealed that the mass was a cavernous haemangioma.

  16. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  17. Polysubstance Use Patterns in Underground Rave Attenders: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Calderon, Fermin; Lozano, Oscar M.; Vidal, Claudio; Ortega, Josefa Gutierrez; Vergara, Esperanza; Gonzalez-Saiz, Francisco; Bilbao, Izaskun; Caluente, Marta; Cano, Tomas; Cid, Francisco; Dominguez, Celia; Izquierdo, Emcarni; Perez, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Drug use in mainstream rave parties has been widely documented in a large number of studies. However, not much is known about drug use in underground raves. The purpose of this study is to find out the polysubstance use patterns at underground raves. Two hundred and fifty-two young people between the ages of 18 and 30 who went to underground raves…

  18. Imaging diagnosis of dural and direct cavernous carotid fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniela dos; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Cruz, Antonio Augusto Velasco e; Colli, Benedicto Oscar; Abud, Daniel Giansante, E-mail: danisantos2404@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-15

    Arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus are rare and difficult to diagnose. They are classified into dural cavernous sinus fistulae or direct carotid-cavernous fistulae. Despite the similarity of symptoms between both types, a precise diagnosis is essential since the treatment is specific for each type of fistula. Imaging findings are remarkably similar in both dural cavernous sinus fistulae and carotid-cavernous fistulae, but it is possible to differentiate one type from the other. Amongst the available imaging methods (Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography), angiography is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. The present essay is aimed at didactically presenting the classification and imaging findings of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. (author)

  19. Numerical Simulation of Gas Storage Caverns in Qom Region

    CERN Document Server

    Sharifzadeh, Mostafa

    2009-01-01

    The rock mechanical design of gas storage cavern in salt requires the analysis of the stability and the usability of the cavern over the planned operating time period. The design includes the build up of a rock mass model and a numerical model taking into account the geological situation, load condition, geometrical condition, and material parameters. In this paper multiple caverns in salt formation with geological and geomechanical situation in Qom (central part of Iran) was investigated a using creep model. Minimum safe center to center distances (CTCD) of multiple horizontal caverns also were studied. CTCD of caverns interact at less than two times of cavern diameter. With increasing the CTCD to 2.5 times cavern diameters, diminish most interaction.

  20. The ATLAS cavern in the spotlight

    CERN Multimedia

    On Wednesday, 4th June, the President of the Swiss Confederation, Pascal Couchepin, inaugurated the world's largest experimental cavern, which is to house the ATLAS detector in 2007, and announced Switzerland's gift to CERN of the "Palais de l'Equilibre".

  1. Cavernous hemangioma of Meckel's cave. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlings, M G; Tucker, W S

    1988-04-01

    A case of a cavernous hemangioma located within Meckel's cave and involving the gasserian ganglion is described in a patient presenting with facial pain and a trigeminal nerve deficit. Although these lesions have been reported to occur in the middle fossa, this is believed to be the first case of such a vascular malformation arising solely from within Meckel's cave.

  2. Cavernous Hemangioma of the Bony Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Yan; Yu Cai; Zhongyao Wu; Ji Han; Youjian Pang

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study the clinical features, diagnosis and management of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma of the orbit.Methods: Five cases of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma seen in our hospital from Jan 1, 1986 to Dec 31, 2000 were reviewed.Results: Among all five cases, two were male and three were female. The mean age was 47.6 years old, ranging from 39.0 to 55.0 years. The left orbit was affected in 4 cases and the right one in 1 case. The bony involvement occurred in frontal bone (two cases),zygomatic bone (two cases) and sphenoid bone (one case). A painless, slowly enlarging hard bony mass fixed to the bone with no pulsations was the main clinical sign. The x-ray and CT appearance of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma of the orbit were characteristic and usually diagnostic. The differential diagnosis of it included fibrous dysplasia,eosinophilic granuloma, multiple myeloma and metastatic carcinoma. Treatment is local removal of the bone containing the tumor.Conclusions: Intraosseous cavernous hemangioma is a rare tumor of the orbit and usually has good surgical result.

  3. Transport model of underground sediment in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jichao, Sun; Guangqian, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large particles will be taken away later. The pore ratio of the soil increases gradually. The flow ultimately becomes direct water seepage, and the sediment concentration at the same position in the water decreases over time. The concentration of maximal flushing potential sediment decreases along the path. The underground sediment flushing model reflects the flushing mechanism of underground sediment.

  4. Status and prospects of a deep underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Chen, Y. H.; Li, Y. J.; Shen, M. B.; Wu, S. Y.; Yue, Q.

    2010-01-01

    An excellent candidate location for a deep underground laboratory with more than 2500 m of rock overburden has been identified at Sichuan Province in China. It can be accessed through a road tunnel of length 17.5 km, and is supported by services and amenities near the entrance provided by the local Ertan Hydropower Plant. The particle physics community in China is actively pursuing the construction of an underground laboratory at this location, under the leadership of Tsinghua University. Memorandum has been signed with Ertan Hydropower Plant which permits access to and construction of the underground laboratory — China JinPing Deep Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The basic features of this underground site, as well as the status and schedules of the construction of the first laboratory cavern are presented. The immediate goal is to have the first experiment operational in 2010, deploying an Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium detector for WIMP dark matter searches, with emphasis on the mass range of 1-10 GeV. The conceptual design of the experiment, as well as the future plans and prospects of the laboratory, will be surveyed.

  5. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  6. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  7. The association of carotid cavernous fistula with Graves′ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Celik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ ophthalmopathy (GO is one of the frequent manifestations of the disorder which is an inflammatory process due to fibroblast infiltration, fibroblast proliferation and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Eye irritation, dryness, excessive tearing, visual blurring, diplopia, pain, visual loss, retroorbital discomfort are the symptoms and they can mimic carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. The clinical manifestations of GO can mimic the signs of carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the GO patients especially who are not responding to the standard treatment and when there is a unilateral or asymmetric eye involvement. Here we report the second case report with concurrent occurrence of GO and carotid cavernous fistula in the literature.

  8. Developments in Researches on the Disasters during Cavern Construction in Salt Beds with Multi-Interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huafu Qiu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the developments in researches on the disasters during cavern construction in salt beds with multi-interlayer. Relative to the foreign large salt dome landscape, there are many layers of mudstone in salt beds which has a thin single layer. And such special geological conditions increase the difficulty of solution mining in the control of cavity shape and stability of the cavity, which easily leads to disasters. To statistical analysis the disasters in process of cavern building with multi-interlayer in china, it show that: taking Chinese geological conditions for example, the disasters during cavern construction in salt beds with multi-interlayer caused the failure of cavity can be divided into three categories: geological conditions in beds; the damage of cavity wall in the process of cavity building; the distortion of cavity shape expansion. To analyze predisposing factors lead to salt cavern storage failure in detail, the mechanism of the corresponding factors lead to disaster has been summarized. Finally , some suggestions has been proposed to avoid the disaster maybe happened.

  9. Down with Physics: giant compact muon solenoid (CMS) magnet goes underground at CERN UCR physicists to participate in the international experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists of the US CMS collaboration, which includes UC riverside physicists, joined colleagues around the world in announcing today that the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid particle detector has begun te momentous journey into its experimenta cavern 100 meters underground." (2,5 pages)

  10. Neuraxis Cavernous Malformations: a Four Cases Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandy Prieto Leyras

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous malformations are benign vascular tumors, with a raspberry-like morphology, commonly described as part of the group of the so called cryptic vascular malformations, which are rare neurological presentations. They are considered to be a controversial chapter in neuroscience due to the clinical-topographic variability of their presentation. Their management remains controversial. We present the cases of four patients with neuraxis cavernomas who are characterization from clinical and imaging standpoint, up to their final outcome. Early detection, understanding, and better management of the neuraxis cavernous malformations are the result of contemporary technological advances. The historical review on the subject shows the difference between the few cases that could be clinically diagnosed through conventional radiology and the largest number of lesions detected at autopsy or during surgery.

  11. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma presented as cavernous sinus tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moona, Mohammad Shafi; Mehdi, Itrat

    2011-12-01

    A 32 year Libyan male presented with the complaints of headache and diplopia. He was diagnosed with a cavernous sinus meningioma on the basis of MRI findings but no initial biopsy was taken. Depending on the radiologic diagnosis the patient was treated with gamma knife surgery twice, abroad. During follow up he developed left ear deafness and left cervical lymph adenopathy. An ENT evaluation with biopsy from the nasopharynx and cervical lymph node was taken. The histopathologic diagnosis of the resected tumour showed a nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis (poorly differentiated lympho-epithelial carcinoma). The cavernous sinus tumour which was initially treated as a meningioma was in fact metastasis from the nasopharyngeal carcinoma, making this an interesting and rare occurrence.

  12. Thoracic Cavernous Lymphangioma Provoking Massive Chyloptysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ferguson MD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chyloptysis is a relatively rare embodiment of disease that encompasses a lengthy differential and provides many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Presented here is the case of a young woman with massive chyloptysis due to a thoracic cavernous lymphangioma arising in the peripartum period. The severity of her condition mandated the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to resect her lymphangioma. We believe that the extent of her symptoms, etiology of disease, and surgical management represent a unique scenario in the literature.

  13. Inauguration of the ATLAS cavern, June 2003.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Before the inauguration, Pascal Couchepin visited the ATLAS cavern. From left to right: Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman; Maurice Bourquin, President of the CERN Council; Carlo Lamprecht, State councillor, Canton of Geneva; Pascal Couchepin, President of the Swiss Confederation; Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General; Marzio Nessi, ATLAS technical coordinator; Arturo Henniger, ZSCHOKKE-LOCHER AG Director; Benno Baettig, personal advisor of President Couchepin; Jean-Luc Baldy, head of CERN Civil Engineering Group.

  14. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Nose Complicated with Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Swaminath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive life threatening bacterial infection of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, and the fascia. We present a case of necrotizing fasciitis involving the nose complicated by cavernous sinus thrombosis. Few cases of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis have been reported to be caused by cellulitis of the face but necrotizing fasciitis of the nose is rare. It is very important to recognize the early signs of cavernous thrombosis. Treatment for septic cavernous sinus thrombosis is controversial but early use of empirical antibiotics is imperative.

  15. Imaging findings of cavernous hemangioma arising from the transverse colon: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Lee, Hye Kyung; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Suh, Jung Ho [Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Diffuse cavernous hemangioma (DCH) of the large bowel is a rare disease and usually involves the rectosigmoid colon. There have been only a few reports on the CT and MR imaging findings of DCH of the large bowel which are helpful in its correct diagnosis. We report herein an asymptomatic patient with DCH of the transverse colon and describe the CT and MRI features of the colon.

  16. Determination of hydraulic conductivity of fractured rock masses:A case study for a rock cavern project in Singapore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhipeng Xu; Zhiye Zhao; Jianping Sun; Ming Lu

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the risk associated with water seepage in an underground rock cavern project in Singapore, a reliable hydro-geological model should be established based on the in situ investigation data. The key challenging issue in the hydro-geological model building is how to integrate limited geological and hydro-geological data to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the fractured rock masses. Based on the data obtained from different stages (feasibility investigation stage, construction stage, and post-construction stage), suitable models and methods are proposed to determine the hy-draulic conductivities at different locations and depths, which will be used at other locations in the future.

  17. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  18. Lightweight Real-Time Rendering System for Online Large Scale Underground Space%网上大规模地下空间的轻量级实时绘制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东培; 谢宁; 刘小军; 贾金原

    2015-01-01

    Large scale scene visualization is a challenge to Web3D virtual reality (VR) system. In the virtual urban simulation, apart from the buildings on the ground, the underground space visualization is also essential, because it includes many important components such as subway stations, car parks and underground utilities (e.g., pipelines and tunnels). This paper proposes a lightweight Web real-time rendering scheme for large scale underground space. Firstly, in order to organize the mass underground space data more efficiently, this paper proposes a lightweight scene ground structure. Then, this paper proposes an underground space scene management strategy based on pro-gressive area of interest (PAOI). In order to optimize the rendering system with respect to data loading according to needs, the components of the outdoor structure are bounded on their corresponding grid. Alternatively, the interior space is represented as a connected graph. Using the proposed techniques, the memory consumption is apparently cut off. Meanwhile, the display content significantly increases. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algo-rithms, this paper implements the prototype system using Flash 3D. Without any plug-in installation, the user experi-ence is improved. The experiment shows that the proposed method has high performance and is suitable for large scale underground scene online rendering.%在移动互联网上显示大规模虚拟世界总是极具挑战性的课题。在虚拟城市模拟中,除地面建筑外,地下空间可视化也是必需的,因为它包括很多重要的组件,例如地铁站、停车场以及其他地下设施(如管线和管道)。针对大规模地下空间场景,提出了一套适合在网页级实时绘制的轻量级解决方案。首先,对地下空间种类庞杂而又弱关联的数据模型进行了梳理与组织,建立了一套适用于Web3D显示的轻量级场景结构;然后,提出了地下空间的渐进式兴

  19. Transvenous injection of Onyx for casting of the cavernous sinus for the treatment of a carotid-cavernous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Anil; Cekirge, Saruhan; Saatci, Isil; Ozgen, Burce

    2004-12-01

    A complex case of carotid-cavernous fistula was treated transvenously by injection of ethyl vinyl alcohol co-polymer into the cavernous sinus after an unsuccessful embolization attempt with detachable coils and liquid adhesive agents. There were no complications. At 3 months the patient's symptoms had resolved completely, and a control angiogram revealed persistent occlusion. The physical properties of ethyl vinyl alcohol polymer justify further investigation of this agent for the treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula.

  20. A research on the excavation and maintenance of underground energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee-Soon; Chung, So-Keul; Ryu, Chang-Ha [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    CAES which is called as a compressed air energy storage was firstly developed at Huntorf, Gen-nan in 1978. The capacity of that system was 290MW, and it can be treated as a first commercial power plant. CAES has a lot of merits, such as saving the unit price of power generation, averaging the peak demand, improvement of maintenance, enlarging the benefit of dynamic use. According to the literature survey, the unlined rock cavern should be proposed to be a reasonable storing style as a method of compressed air storage in Korea. In this study, the most important techniques were evaluated through the investigation of the foreign construction case studies, especially on the unlined rock caverns in hard rock mass. We decided the hill of the Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials as CAES site. If we construct the underground spaces in this site, the demand for electricity nearby Taejon should be considered. So we could determine the capacity of the power plant as a 350MW. This capacity needs a underground space of 200,000, and we can conclude 4 parallel tunnels 550m deep from the surface through the numerical studies. Design parameters were achieved from 300m depth boring job and image processing job. Moreover the techniques for determination of joint characteristics from the images could be obtained. Blasting pattern was designed on the underground spaces, and automatic gas control system and thermomechanical characteristics on caverns were also studied. And finally the following research items could be proposed for future researches. (1) Establishment of criteria for selection of optimal tunnel type. (2) Evaluation of water tightening ability. (3) Investigation of Lining type. (4) Development of techniques for site investigation in deep underground project. (5) Evaluation of construction techniques for underground space and shaft. (6) Investigation of long-term maintenance for pressured tunnel. (author). 14 refs.

  1. Clinical study on CyberKnife for treating giant cavernous hemangioma in cavernous sinus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu SUN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of CyberKnife for giant cavernous hemangioma in cavernous sinus. Methods The data of 7 cases of giant cavernous hemangioma in cavernous sinus region confirmed by imaging examination and treated with CyberKnife were collected. The tumor volume was 11.86-70.12 cm3 (median 23.30 cm3. CT and MRI were acquired and fused by MIM 6.5.4 software. The acquired data sets were imported into a CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System (Multiplan 4.0.2 and used to delineate the target organs at risk. The irradiation doses received by the lesions were 21 Gy/3 times in 5 cases, 25 Gy/5 times in one case and 30 Gy/3 times in one case. The exposure field was 109-155, and target volume reached over 95%. Patients maintained at supine positionduring treatment and utilized a 6D-skull trace mode specific to CyberKnife. Changes of clinical symptoms and imaging immediately after treatment and during follow-up period were observed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic method. Results Patients were followed-up for 6-18 months, and the meanfollow-up period was 9.37 months. Volumes of lesions were calculated after operation. All of these patients showed decrease in tumor volume (35.48% to 84.03% and improvement in symptoms (including visual impairment, visual field defect and headaches after therapy. Postoperative MRI revealed the tumor volume was 6.75-28.35 cm3 (median 10.50 cm3, which were significantly lower than that of before treatment [11.86-70.12 cm3 (median 23.30 cm3; Z = -2.366, P = 0.018]. Only one case presented radioactive cerebral edema, and the symptom was disappeared after 5-day treatment with mannitol and dexamethasone. Conclusions CyberKnife is an effective treatment method for giant cavernous hemangioma in cavernous sinus region. It is suggested to be the first selection for patients with giant cavernous hemangioma in cavernous sinus, who are not suitable for traditional surgeries and general

  2. ADVANCED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF CEREBRAL CAVERNOUS MALFORMATIONS: I. HIGH FIELD IMAGING OF EXCISED HUMAN LESIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, Robert; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai N.; Zhao, Jin-cheng; Batjer, H. Hunt; Wyrwicz, Alice M.; Awad, Issam A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesized that structural details would be revealed in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) through the use of high field magnetic resonance (MR) and confocal microscopy, which have not been described previously. The structural details of CCMs excised from human patients were sought by examination with high field MR imaging, and correlated with confocal microscopy of the same specimens. Novel features of CCM structure are outlined, including methodological limitations, venues for future research and possible clinical implications. Methods CCM lesions excised from four patients were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and subjected to high resolution MR imaging at 9.4 or 14.1 Tesla by spin-echo and gradient recalled echo methods. Histological validation of angioarchitecture was conducted on thick sections of CCM lesions using fluorescent probes to endothelium under confocal microscopy. Results Images of excised human CCM lesions were acquired with proton density-weighted, T1-weighted, T2-weighted spin echo and T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo MR. These images revealed large “bland” regions with thin walled caverns, and “honeycombed” regions with notable capillary proliferation and smaller caverns surrounding larger caverns. Proliferating capillaries and caverns of various sizes were also associated with the wall of apparent larger blood vessels in the lesions. Similar features were confirmed within thick sections of CCMs by confocal microscopy. MR relaxation times in different regions of interest suggested the presence of different states of blood breakdown products in areas with apparent angiogenic proliferative activity. Conclusions The high field MR imaging techniques demonstrate novel features of CCM angioarchitecture, visible at near histological resolution, including regions with apparently different biologic activity. These preliminary observations will motivate future research, correlating lesion biologic and clinical activity with

  3. DEEP UNDERGROUND NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Robert J. [Fermilab

    2016-03-03

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) collaboration will perform an experiment centered on accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino studies along with nucleon decay and topics in neutrino astrophysics. It will consist of a modular 40-kt (fiducial) mass liquid argon TPC detector located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and a high-resolution near detector at Fermilab in Illinois. This conguration provides a 1300-km baseline in a megawatt-scale neutrino beam provided by the Fermilab- hosted international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.

  4. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park....

  5. Recovery of opthalmoplegia associated with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas after transvenous cavernous sinus packing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Xianli; Jiang Chuhan; Li Youxiang; Yang Xinjian [Beijing Neurosurgical institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing (China); Wu Zhongxue, E-mail: ttyyzjb@sina.co [Beijing Neurosurgical institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Background: We report the recovery of ophthalmoplegia in 11 patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) after sinus packing at follow-up. Methods: Of 18 patients with CSDAVF treated with transvenous cavernous sinus packing between August 2002 and December 2007 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, there were 9 patients with initial CNIII or CNVI dysfunction and 2 patients with CNVI dysfunction immediately after cavernous sinus packing selected and reevaluated. Results: Of 11 patients with CNIII or CNVI palsy, recovery was complete in 10. In 1 patient, complete CNVI palsy was unchanged because the CSDAVF was not cured. There were 6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 52.9 years. In 5 patients, CNVI palsy was associated with chemosis, proptosis and pulsatile tinnitus. Timing of treatment after onset of symptoms was from 4 to 35 days in 9 patients. All CSDAVFs were Barrow type D. Mean follow-up after treatment was 17.7 months (range, 2-54 months). Conclusion: CSDAVF-induced CNIII or CNVI palsies can be cured after cavernous sinus packing transvenously in most patients.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of a cerebral cavernous haemangioma in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Schoeman

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 13-month-old, neutered, male Golden retriever presented with seizures and progressive depression. Clinical and neurological assessment was consistent with severe intracranial disease. The neurological condition progressively deteriorated and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed the presence of a large, contrast-enhancing, space-occupying mass in the right cerebral hemisphere. Therapy with corticosteroids, mannitol and furosemide ameliorated the signs of depression and ataxia, but the owner elected euthanasia after 1 week. Post mortem examination of the brain confirmed the presence of a large haemorrhagic lesion in the right olfactory lobe, the histopathological appearance of which was consistent with cerebral cavernous haemangioma. This is the 1st case describing the MRI appearance of a cavernous haemangioma of the cerebrum in the veterinary literature.

  7. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  8. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  9. Cavernous hemangioma arising from the gastro-splenic ligament: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kin-Fah Chin; Ghaith Khair; Palani Sathish Babu; David Russell Morgan

    2009-01-01

    We present a rare case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with epigastric pain associated with early satiety and weight loss. Imaging revealed a large intraabdominal mass in the epigastrium. Despite intensive investigations, including ultrasound scanning, computed tomography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and percutaneous biopsy, a diagnosis could not be obtained.A histological diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma arising from the gastro-splenic ligament was confirmed after laparoscopic excision and histological examination of the intra-abdominal epigastric mass.

  10. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  11. Retrofitting of VNG AG gas storage caverns near Bernburg and Bad Lauchstaedt, 1991 through 2006; Umruestung gasgefuellter Kavernen auf den Untergrundspeichern Bad Lauchstaedt und Bernburg der VNG AG von 1991 bis 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, C. [VNG Verbundnetz Gas AG (Germany); Rehmer, K.P.; Pischner, M. [Untergrundspeicher- und Gastechnologie-Systeme GmbH (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    In 1991 the VNG AG has started to modernize outdated installations of the underground gas storage caverns near Bernburg and Bad Lauchstaedt (Germany). On 33 caverns, which were mostly leached during the 70s and 80s of the last century, the old wellheads have been replaced (or will be replaced soon) by new ones. In this paper the reasons and technical suppositions for these measures will be explained. Most of the modifications have been made above gasfilled caverns and have been safe despite of the high pressures. The packer-system developed by UGS GmbH and VNG AG will be presented. Furthermore the technical procedures are grouped and described. Finally experiences and advantages will be underlined. (orig.)

  12. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  13. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  14. Geo-mechanical Model Testing for Stability of Underground Gas Storage in Halite During the Operational Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuguang; Zhang, Qiangyong; Li, Shucai; Liu, Dejun

    2016-07-01

    A 3D geo-mechanical model test is conducted to study the stability of underground gas storage in halite, modeled after the Jintan gas storage constructed in bedded salt rock in China. A testing apparatus is developed to generate long-term stable trapezoid geostresses onto the model cavity, corresponding to the actual gas storage cavern. The time-depending character of the material is simulated using a rheological material, which was tested using a self-developed apparatus. The model cavern is built using an ellipsoid wooden mold divided into small blocks which are assembled and placed into the designed position during the model construction. They are then pulled out one by one to form the cavern. The ellipsoid cavern wall is then lined within a latex balloon. Gas is injected into the cavity and extracted to simulate the operational process of gas injection and recovery. Optical sensors embedded into the model to measure the displacement around the cavity showed that the largest deformation occurs in the middle section of the cavity. The deformation rate increases with increasing gas pressure. At 11 MPa the cavity is in equilibrium with the geostress. The pressure is highest during the gas recovery stages, indicating that gas recovery can threaten the cavern's operational stability, while high gas injection causes rock mass compression and deformation outward from the cavern. The deformation is the combination of cavern convergence and gas-induced rebound which leads to tensile and compression during gas injection and recovery. Hence, the fatigue properties of salt rock should be studied further.

  15. 19 September 2011 - Austrian State Secretary for European and International Affairs W. Waldner, signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting CMS service cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Zerlauth.

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoît Jeannet

    2011-01-01

    Austrian state secretary for foreign affairs, Wolfgang Waldner, left, was welcomed to CERN by Felicitas Pauss, head of international relations at CERN, on 19 September. While at CERN, he toured the CMS control room and underground experimental service cavern, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, and the Universe of Particles exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation.

  16. Distinct Element Modelling in Static and Dynamic Conditions with Application to an Underground Archaeological Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barla, G.; Monacis, G.; Perino, A.; Hatzor, Y. H.

    2010-11-01

    This paper considers the seismic response of the underground water storage cavern at the archaeological site of Tel Beer Sheva, excavated about 3,000 years ago in a highly jointed chalk region in the Negev Desert, in Israel. By using the distinct element method and the UDEC code, the stability conditions of the cavern are analysed. Close attention is given during rock mass modelling to the presence of discontinuities including horizontal bedding and a vertical joint set. The results of the static analyses performed confirm, as illustrated with archaeological researches, that the cavern roof had collapsed, probably during the time of construction, when a massive support pillar in the centre of the opening was constructed to support the remaining roof. The results of the dynamic analyses, which considered the recorded accelerations of the 1995 Nuweiba earthquake, demonstrate that the cavern in its present configuration, with the massive pillar in its centre, did not undergo any significant damage throughout the years, even when subjected to seismic events.

  17. Estimating the capital cost of underground car parking projects

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Mónica; Ribeiro, F. Loforte; Teixeira, José M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    Underground parking projects are expansive. The capital cost of underground parking project has been, and still is, one of the promoter's main economic concerns. Therefore, the capital cost estimation is an essential taskin the early stages pf underground parking projcts. In this context, the promoters mainly use cost estimation models, most of them produced by methodologies with lack of precision and with low performances. Over the last yeras Portugal has embarked ona a large programme of...

  18. Cascade recursion models of computing the temperatures of underground layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Liqun; BI; Siwen; SONG; Shixin

    2006-01-01

    An RBF neural network was used to construct computational models of the underground temperatures of different layers, using ground-surface parameters and the temperatures of various underground layers. Because series recursion models also enable researchers to use above-ground surface parameters to compute the temperatures of different underground layers, this method provides a new way of using thermal infrared remote sensing to monitor the suture zones of large areas of blocks and to research thermal anomalies in geologic structures.

  19. Estimation of low energy neutron flux ($E_n\\leq15$ MeV) in India-based Neutrino Observatory cavern using Monte Carlo techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Dokania, N; Mathimalar, S; Garai, A; Nanal, V; Pillay, R G; Bhushan, K G

    2015-01-01

    The neutron flux at low energy ($E_n\\leq15$ MeV) resulting from the radioactivity of the rock in the underground cavern of the India-based Neutrino Observatory is estimated using Geant4-based Monte Carlo simulations. The neutron production rate due to the spontaneous fission of U, Th and ($\\alpha, n$) interactions in the rock is determined employing the actual rock composition. It has been demonstrated that the total flux is equivalent to a finite size cylindrical rock ($D=L=140$ cm) element. The energy integrated neutron flux thus obtained at the center of the underground tunnel is 2.76 (0.47) $\\times 10^{-6}\\rm~n ~cm^{-2}~s^{-1}$. The estimated neutron flux is of the same order ($\\sim10^{-6}\\rm~n ~cm^{-2}~s^{-1}$)~as measured in other underground laboratories.

  20. Stability Evaluation on Surrounding Rocks of Underground Powerhouse Based on Microseismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the stability of underground powerhouse at Houziyan hydropower station during excavation, a microseismic monitoring system is adopted. Based on the space-time distribution characteristics of microseismic events during excavation of the main powerhouse, the correlation between microseismic events and blasting construction is established; and the microseismic clustering areas of the underground powerhouse are identified and delineated. The FLAC3D code is used to simulate the deformation of main powerhouse. The simulated deformation characteristics are consistent with that recorded by microseismic monitoring. Finally, the correlation between the macroscopic deformation of surrounding rock mass and microseismic activities is also revealed. The results show that multiple faults between 1# and 3# bus tunnels are activated during excavation of floors V and VI of the main powerhouse. The comprehensive method combining microseismic monitoring with numerical simulation as well as routine monitoring can provide an effective way to evaluate the surrounding rock mass stability of underground caverns.

  1. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao;

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observ......Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case......-controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability...... correlates with CCM disease activity. Permeability in white matter far (WMF) from lesions was significantly greater in familial than in sporadic cases, but was similar in CCM lesions. Permeability in WMF increased with age in sporadic patients, but not in familial cases. Patients with more aggressive...

  2. Endovascular management of carotid-cavernous fistulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Bu-lang; LI Ming-hua; LI Yong-dong; FANG Chun; WANG Jue; DU Zhuo-ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate endovascular treatment of traumatic direct carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) and their complications such as pseudoaneurysms. Methods: Over a five-year period, 22 patients with traumatic direct CCFs were treated endovascularly in our institution. Thirteen patients were treated once with the result of CCF occluded, 8 twice and 1 three times. Treatment modalities included balloon occlusion of the CCF, sacrifice of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery with detachable balloon, coil embolization of the cavernous sinus and secondary pseudoaneurysms, and covered-stent management of the pseudoaneurysms. Results All the direct CCFs were successfully managed endovascularly. Four patients developed a pseudoaneurysm after the occlusion of the CCF with an incidence of pseudoaneurysm formation of 18.2% (4/22). A total number of 8 patients experienced permanent occlusion of the ICA with a rate of ICA occlusion reaching 36.4% (8/22). Followed up through telephone consultation from 6 months to 5 years, all did well with no recurrence of CCF symptoms and signs. Conclusion Traumatic direct CCFs can be successfully managed with endovascular means. The pseudoaneurysms secondary to the occlusion of the CCFs can be occluded with stent-assisted coiling and implantation of covered stents.

  3. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  4. CaveMan Version 3.0: A Software System for SPR Cavern Pressure Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BALLARD,SANFORD; EHGARTNER,BRIAN L.

    2000-07-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve currently has approximately 500 million barrels of crude oil stored in 62 caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. One of the challenges of operating these caverns is ensuring that none of the fluids in the caverns are leaking into the environment. The current approach is to test the mechanical integrity of all the wells entering each cavern approximately once every five years. An alternative approach to detecting cavern leaks is to monitor the cavern pressure, since leaking fluid would act to reduce cavern pressure. Leak detection by pressure monitoring is complicated by other factors that influence cavern pressure, the most important of which are thermal expansion and contraction of the fluids in the cavern as they come into thermal equilibrium with the host salt, and cavern volume reduction due to salt creep. Cavern pressure is also influenced by cavern enlargement resulting from salt dissolution following introduction of raw water or unsaturated brine into the cavern. However, this effect only lasts for a month or two following a fluid injection. In order to implement a cavern pressure monitoring program, a software program called CaveMan has been developed. It includes thermal, creep and salt dissolution models and is able to predict the cavern pressurization rate based on the operational history of the cavern. Many of the numerous thermal and mechanical parameters in the model have been optimized to produce the best match between the historical data and the model predictions. Future measurements of cavern pressure are compared to the model predictions, and significant differences in cavern pressure set program flags that notify cavern operators of a potential problem. Measured cavern pressures that are significantly less than those predicted by the model may indicate the existence of a leak.

  5. A Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at Kimballton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaar, R. Bruce

    2004-11-01

    The National Academy of Science, as well as several long-range plans from the physics communities, have endorsed the need to create a large, multi-disciplinary underground laboratory in the US. Several potential sites have been identified, and the National Science Foundation has begun a solicitation process to help formulate the science program as well as to identify and develop candidate sites. The only site on the East Coast is at Kimballton, near Blacksburg, in western Virginia. Of all the sites, it is the only one located in sedimentary rocks. This makes it an IDEAL and unique location for both physics, geoscience, and engineering studies. Kimballton is also only half an hour from Virginia Tech, the largest university in the state of Virginia. A multi-institution group has been developing this possibility, and will be competing on the national scale to have DUSEL located at Kimballton. One of the assets of this location is a large limestone mine, already at a depth of 2300 ft (1850 mwe), with true drive-in access and extremely large caverns. The DUSEL facility at this location will try to take advantage of the existing infrastructure, while at the same time develop complementary and adjacent facilities down to 7000 ft (6000 mwe) to allow independent operation of the future facility. Since 2003, Virginia Tech and the Naval Research Laboratory have been working to also develop a general low-level facility at this location. The initial program is to help develop extremely low-background germanium and gas proportional counters, and a single super-module of the Low-Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (LENS) detector -- designed to measure the real-time low-energy neutrino spectrum from the Sun, including the pp-flux. Progress in this program (including seismic imaging), and the proposed overall extensive science program (Phys, Geo, Eng, Bio) which can be addressed at Kimballton will be presented. For further information, see our webpage http://www.phys.vt.edu/ kimballton

  6. Saline Cavern Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage Using Sand as Heat Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Haemmerle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic compressed air energy storage systems offer large energy storage capacities and power outputs beyond 100MWel. Salt production in Austria produces large caverns which are able to hold pressure up to 100 bar, thus providing low cost pressurized air storage reservoirs for adiabatic compressed air energy storage plants. In this paper the results of a feasibility study is presented, which was financed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, with the objective to determine the adiabatic compressed air energy storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns. The study contains designs of realisable plants with capacities between 10 and 50 MWel, applying a high temperature energy storage system currently developed at the Institute for Energy Systems and Thermodynamics in Vienna. It could be shown that the overall storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns exceeds a total of 4GWhel in the year 2030 and, assuming an adequate performance of the heat exchanger, that a 10MWel adiabatic compressed air energy storage plant in Upper Austria is currently feasible using state of the art thermal turbomachinery which is able to provide a compressor discharge temperature of 400 °C.

  7. Strategic petroleum reserve caverns casing damage update 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Neal, J.T. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Hanging casing strings are used for oil and brine transfer in the domal salt storage caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Damage to these casings is of concern because hanging string replacement is costly and because of implications on cavern stability. Although the causes of casing damage are not always well defined, many events leading to damage are assumed to be the result of salt falls impacting the hanging strings. However, in some cases, operational aspects may be suspected. The history of damage to hanging strings is updated in this study to include the most recent events. Potential general domal and local operational and material factors that could influence the tendency for caverns to have salt falls are examined in detail. As a result of this examination, general factors, such as salt dome anomalies and crude type, and most of the operational factors, such as geometry, location and depressurizations, are not believed to be primary causes of casing damage. Further analysis is presented of the accumulation of insolubles during cavern solutioning and accumulation of salt fall material on the cavern floor. Inaccuracies in sump geometry probably make relative cavern insolubles contents uncertain. However, determination of the salt fall accumulations, which are more accurate, suggest that the caverns with the largest salt fall accumulations show the greatest number of hanging string events. There is good correlation between the accumulation rate and the number of events when the event numbers are corrected to an equivalent number for a single hanging string in a quiescent, operating cavern. The principal factor that determines the propensity for a cavern to exhibit this behavior is thought to be the effect of impurity content on the fracture behavior of salt.

  8. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Andreas; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of He-3 counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  9. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strieder, Frank; Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The work of the LUNA Collaboration at the Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator for the field of nuclear astrophysics. Several key reactions could be studied at LUNA, some directly at the Gamow peak for solar hydrogen burning. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. The installation of the accelerator in the recently rehabilitated underground cavity at SURF started in Summer 2015 and first beam should be delivered by the end of the year. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the s-process, e.g. 13C(α , n) 16O and 22Ne(α , n) 25Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies. A detailed overview of the science goals of CASPAR will be presented.

  10. Underground gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.

    1986-11-01

    A brief history is given of research in Czechoslovakia, which took 3 main factors into account: environmental protection, geological situation and need to produce gas for use both within the plant and elsewhere. In order to assess economic viability, model studies were performed on following mines: Podlesice (North Bohemia), Vatovce (South Slovakia), Syrenov (East Moravia), Zukovsky Hrbet (Ostrava-Karvina), Stonovska (Ostrava-Karvina) and Merkur (North Bohemia). Figures given in tabular form show that underground gasification at these sites would be cheaper than importing natural gas. Problems are discussed associated with underground gasification and it is concluded that research must be conducted into drilling techniques, drill design, methods of cutting through coal seam between shafts, underground generator design, methods of gasifying several seams with one shaft and methods of dealing with residual pillars.

  11. Underground physics with DUNE

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40 kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  12. Evaluation of Computational Method of High Reynolds Number Slurry Flow for Caverns Backfilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The abandonment of salt caverns used for brining or product storage poses a significant environmental and economic risk. Risk mitigation can in part be address ed by the process of backfilling which can improve the cavern geomechanical stability and reduce the risk o f fluid loss to the environment. This study evaluate s a currently available computational tool , Barracuda, to simulate such process es as slurry flow at high Reynolds number with high particle loading . Using Barracuda software, a parametric sequence of simu lations evaluated slurry flow at Re ynolds number up to 15000 and loading up to 25%. Li mitations come into the long time required to run these simulation s due in particular to the mesh size requirement at the jet nozzle. This study has found that slurry - jet width and centerline velocities are functions of Re ynold s number and volume fractio n The solid phase was found to spread less than the water - phase with a spreading rate smaller than 1 , dependent on the volume fraction. Particle size distribution does seem to have a large influence on the jet flow development. This study constitutes a first step to understand the behavior of highly loaded slurries and their ultimate application to cavern backfilling.

  13. [Giant cavernous hemangioma of the orbit (case report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusha, Ia O; Ismailova, D S; Eksarenko, O V; Fedorov, A A; Kharlap, S I

    2014-01-01

    The following case demonstrates a successful en bloc removal of a massive cavernous hemangioma of the orbit via vertical transpalpebral approach with postoperative improvement of optic nerve condition and optimal cosmetic result.

  14. Therapeutic surprise! Photodynamic therapy for cavernous haemangioma of the disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh P Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the response of cavernous haemangioma of the disc to PDT. Methods and Patients: A 32 years old lady presented to us with complaints of sudden onset of blurry vision in her right eye. What seemed initially as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy turned out as cavernous haemangioma of the disc after pneumatic displacement of the sub-retinal haeme. She was treated with PDT as she was prone to recurrent haemorrhage from the lesion due to her low platelet count. Results: Complete regression of the cavernous haemangioma was noted as early as the second week itself and remained regressed for 4 months. Conclusion: PDT can be safe option for patients presenting with symptomatic cavernous haemangioma of the disc or retina.

  15. Cavernous hemangioma of the dura mater mimicking meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambra Di Vitantonio

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Dural-based cavernous hemangiomas of the convexity are uncommon lesions. Up to now, only 13 cases have been described in the literature. The authors have discussed clinical aspects, radiological features, surgical treatment, and operative findings.

  16. ATLAS - End-Cap calorimeter lowered in to the cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The End-cap calorimeter was lowered into the ATLAS cavern at POINT1. This calorimeter will measure the energy of particles close to the beam axis when protons collide. Cooling is important for maximum detector efficiency.

  17. [Cavernous haemangiomas: hearing and vestibular inaugural symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G; Schmerber, S

    2004-11-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas (cavernomas)(CH) are relatively rare (2% of cranial tumoral pathology) vascular malformations mostly observed in the central nervous system. Their most common topographical site in brain stem is midline in the pons, for which clinical course may mimic symptoms of peripheral origin (sudden deafness, fluctuating hearing loss, Meniere-like vertigo). To establish the correlation between the clinical manifestations of hearing and balance disturbance and the anatomical site within the pons of cavernous haemangiomas, and to describe their clinical features, and the findings on auditory brainstem response (ABR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To propose a literature review about CH and its implications. We made a retrospective review of the histories of three patients aged 24, 44 and 45 years, diagnosed as having cavernomas of the brainstem in which audiometric evaluation, videonystagmography (VNG), ABR and imaging techniques lead to the diagnosis of intracranial cavernoma. The clinical and radiological files were reviewed and a direct relationship between symptoms and localization was found in all 3 patients, especially in relation to our understanding of the auditory and vestibular pathways within the brainstem. The literature regarding cavernomas of the pons is reviewed and the clinical, neuroimage, pathological, natural course and management aspects of the disease are discussed. We recommend the use of cerebral MRI for initial diagnosis which shows a typical rosette-like appearance with a heterogeneous signal on T2-weighted images, along with follow-up and investigation into similar profiles among family members. At present there is no consensus about the treatment to follow when cavernomas are located in the brain stem. There is no specific medical treatment for this condition, and surgery is indicated only exceptionally. Anticoagulant therapy, platelet-dispersing medication and violent sports activities are contraindicated.

  18. Seasonal heat storage in underground caverns. Final report; Saisonale Waermespeicherung in Grubenraeumen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmeier, B.; Mohr, M.; Unger, H.

    1999-11-01

    The solar assisted heat supply of buildings can provide an important contribution in order to achieve the targets of minimization of primary energy consumption and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the problem of the seasonal divergence between the high solar energy supply in the summer and the high demand in the winter consists; therefore seasonal heat storage is indispensable. Here, a considerable fraction of the investments must be addressed to the central reservoir. An approach towards the reduction of the investment costs for the installation of seasonal storages in the use of cavities, which are already available in mines. In the Ruhr-Area a complex net of subterranean cavities is available. For the cost estimation of solar assisted heat supply with integrated storage in mines, the reference suburban colony 'Essen-Stoppenberg' with 42 double family houses is chosen. The specific storage costs are estimated for different technical options (tunnel- or shaft storage, direct or indirect charging system). In most cases these costs are comparable to other seasonal heat storage projects. With advantageous conditions specific capital expenditures can be achieved, which are lower than those of conventional seasonal storage. However, it must be considered, that the operating costs of pit storages are expected to be higher. (orig.)

  19. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  20. The Case for an Underground Neutrino Facility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2017-01-01

    Experiments in physics, Astro-particle physics and cosmology that require careful shielding against cosmic rays includes dark matter searches, studies of radioactive decays, and neutrino detection experiments. The need for such shielding has motivated the construction of laboratory caverns in mines and adjacent to tunnels under mountains. There are currently about a dozen such laboratories, in existence or under construction, all in the Northern Hemisphere. A motivation has been made for the establishment of a Southern Hemisphere facility. In this paper a feasibility study of measurements of radon in air (using electret ion chambers and alpha spectroscopy), background gamma ray measurements (inside/outside) the tunnel using scintillator (inorganic) detectors, cosmic ray measurements using organic scintillators and radiometric analyses of representative rock samplesfor the establishment of such a facility in the South Africa is presented. Keywords: Underground laboratory, Neutrinos, Gamma ray, Radon, Dark matter, Background.

  1. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  2. Traffic design concepts in underground parking of large-scale commercial plaza on urban%城市商业广场地下停车场交通设计若干理念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叱诚; 潘晓东; 陈丽烨

    2011-01-01

    Through surveys, the features of parking and the use characteristics on large commercial plaza underground parking were analyzed and discussed. With examples, from internal and external traffic organization, parking division, export-led logo, human aspects of transport facilities, traffic design concepts and some specific forms of implementation were discussed in order to provide the necessary traffic concept support for traffic design of large commercial buildings on city.%通过调查,分析了大型商业广场地下停车场的主要特征与使用特点.结合实例,从商业广场地下停车场内外部交通组织、车库内部分区、出口引导标识和人性化交通设施设计等方面出发,论述了大型商业广场地下停车场交通设计的若干理念与具体实现形式,为城市大型商业建筑地下停车场交通设计提供了必要的理念支撑.

  3. Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    Electricity storage is needed on an unprecedented scale to sustain the ongoing transition of electricity generation from fossil fuels to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar power. Today pumped hydro is the only commercially viable large-scale electricity storage technology, ......-scale electricity storage with a round-trip efficiency exceeding 70% and an estimated storage cost around 3 b kW-1 h-1, i.e., comparable to pumped hydro and much better than previously proposed technologies...

  4. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  5. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coverage of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions.

  6. Lunar Holes and Their Associating Subsurface Caverns: From SELENE (Kaguya) to UZUME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, J.; Kawano, I.; Nishibori, T.; Iwata, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Shimada, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Hasenaka, T.; Morota, T.; Nishino, M. N.; Hashizume, K.; Shirao, M.; Komatsu, G.; Hasebe, N.; Shimizu, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Yokobori, S.; Miyake, Y.; Michikawa, Y.; Tsuji, T.; Shinoda, R.

    2016-05-01

    We present a summary of lunar holes and associated caverns. Furthermore, we also introduce the project Unprecedented Zipangu Underworld of the Moon/Mars Exploration (UZUME) to explore the holes and caverns.

  7. Hemiparesis in carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs):a case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧晓; 白如林; 黄承光; 卢亦成; 张光霁

    2004-01-01

    @@ Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are abnormal arteriovenous anastamoses between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. These fistulas may be classified by cause (spontaneous or traumatic), flow velocity (high or low ), or pathogenesis (direct or indirect).

  8. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao; Girard, Romuald; Shenkar, Robert; Guo, Xiaodong; Shah, Akash; Larsson, Henrik B W; Tan, Huan; Li, Luying; Wishnoff, Matthew S; Shi, Changbin; Christoforidis, Gregory A; Awad, Issam A

    2015-10-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability correlates with CCM disease activity. Permeability in white matter far (WMF) from lesions was significantly greater in familial than in sporadic cases, but was similar in CCM lesions. Permeability in WMF increased with age in sporadic patients, but not in familial cases. Patients with more aggressive familial CCM disease had greater WMF permeability compared to those with milder disease phenotype, but similar lesion permeability. Subjects receiving statin medications for routine cardiovascular indications had a trend of lower WMF, but not lesion, permeability. This is the first demonstration of brain vascular hyperpermeability in humans with an autosomal dominant disease, as predicted mechanistically. Brain permeability, more than lesion permeability, may serve as a biomarker of CCM disease activity, and help calibrate potential drug therapy.

  9. Gallium scintigraphy in a case of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J.; Malat, J.; Gladstone, A.G.; Richman, A.H.

    1986-09-01

    Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis, a relatively uncommon disease entity, frequently can be fatal. Early diagnosis is imperative in order that appropriate treatment be instituted. A 59-year-old woman who was admitted to our institution with complaints of diplopia, blurred vision and fevers that developed following a tooth extraction is presented. Initial CT and lumbar puncture on the day of admission were totally normal. A repeat CT performed 48 hours after admission, on the same day as gallium imaging, demonstrated findings consistent with cavernous sinus thrombosis. Gallium imaging demonstrated intense uptake in the left cavernous sinus and left orbit as well as moderately increased activity in the right cavernous sinus and orbit, confirming infection. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and repeat CT and gallium imaging were performed ten days later, both of which demonstrated near total resolution of the disease process. Conceivably, if gallium imaging had been initiated on the day of admission it may have been the first study to demonstrate an infectious process in the cavernous sinus. Gallium imaging should be considered as a diagnostic tool in the noninvasive workup of this entity.

  10. Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenomas invading the cavernous sinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yu-xin; QU Qiu-yi; WANG Zhen-lin; ZHANG Qiu-hang

    2010-01-01

    Background Surgery of pituitary adenomas invading cavernous sinus has always been thought as a challenge due to the complex anatomical structures and high risk of complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate endoscopic trarssphenoidal approach to pituitary adenomas invading cavernous sinus.Methods The clinical data of 22 patients who admitted to Xuanwu Hospital with pituitary adenomas invading cavernous sinus were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. To expose the surgical field sufficiently, the opening of sellar floor was exceeded the bone overlying the invaded cavernous sinus, and synthetic dura was used to repair and strengthen the sella floor for preventing the leak of cerebrospinal fluid.Results Among 22 patients, total resection was achieved in 14, subtotal resection in 5, and partial resection in 3; no patient underwent insufficient resection. Visual symptoms improved in 7 of 9 patients. In one patient diplopia disappeared.Headache was relieved to various extents in all patients. No serious complications were found. Patient's hospital stay ranged from 7 to 20 days.Conclusion These data suggest that the endoscopic transsphenoid approach is a safe, minimally invasive, and efficient surgical technique, which might be an important therapeutic strategy for the pituitary adenoms invading cavernous sinus.

  11. CAVERN ROOF STABILITY FOR NATURAL GAS STORAGE IN BEDDED SALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVries, Kerry L; Mellegard, Kirby D; Callahan, Gary D; Goodman, William M

    2005-06-01

    This report documents research performed to develop a new stress-based criterion for predicting the onset of damage in salt formations surrounding natural gas storage caverns. Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of shear stress, mean stress, pore pressure, temperature, and Lode angle on the strength and creep characteristics of salt. The laboratory test data were used in the development of the new criterion. The laboratory results indicate that the strength of salt strongly depends on the mean stress and Lode angle. The strength of the salt does not appear to be sensitive to temperature. Pore pressure effects were not readily apparent until a significant level of damage was induced and the permeability was increased to allow penetration of the liquid permeant. Utilizing the new criterion, numerical simulations were used to estimate the minimum allowable gas pressure for hypothetical storage caverns located in a bedded salt formation. The simulations performed illustrate the influence that cavern roof span, depth, roof salt thickness, shale thickness, and shale stiffness have on the allowable operating pressure range. Interestingly, comparison of predictions using the new criterion with that of a commonly used criterion indicate that lower minimum gas pressures may be allowed for caverns at shallow depths. However, as cavern depth is increased, less conservative estimates for minimum gas pressure were determined by the new criterion.

  12. Logging Geology Study of the Caverned Paleokarst Reservoir Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuXinsong; YangLei; PanWenqing; GuQiaoyuan

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, many carbonate rock oilfields such as Lunnan and Tahe have been found in the Tarim Basin, and the main reservoir space of the stable high yield wells in these oilfields consists mainly of the caverns formed by the paleo-karstification and the dissolution pores and fractures connected with them. Nevertheless, it is difficult to predict effectively the distribution of the cavern reservoir because of its extremely serious heterogeneity. In this paper, a case study of the Lunxi Oilfield in the north uplift of the Tarim Basin is conducted to introduce the logging geology method for predicting the distribution of the caverned paleokarst, reservoir. By means of building up the logging recognition style of different caverns and differentiating and correlating the karst zones with logging curves, and through an analysis of the paleokarst topography background, the favorable karst zones and distribution areas of the high quality cavern reservoir have been located, which lays a new basis for further exploration in this area.

  13. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a large and high precision liquid scintillator detector under construction in the south of China. With its 20 kt target mass, it aims to achieve an unprecedented 3% energy resolution at 1 MeV. Its main goal is to study the disappearance of reactor antineutrino to determine the neutrino mass ordering, and to precisely measure the mixing parameters $\\theta_{12}$, $\\Delta m^2_{12}$, and $\\Delta m ^2_{ee}$. It also aims to detect neutrinos emitted from radioactive processes taking place within the inner layers of the Earth (geonutrinos), as well as neutrinos produced during rare supernova bursts. Neutrinos emitted in solar nuclear reactions could also be observed, if stringent radiopurity requirements on the scintillator are met. This manuscript provides some highlights of JUNO's Physics Programme, and describes the detector design, as well as the ongoing detector R&D.

  14. Bilateral cavernous sinus thrombosis as first manifestation of primary Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moghaddasi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST is a rare condition that is usually associated with infections, pregnancy, vasculitis and some types of medication, such as the contraceptive pill and paraneoplastic. Primary Burkitt lymphoma (PBL of the thyroid gland is very uncommon and the clinical description of such cases has been largely limited to case reports. In this paper, we present a case of CST as the first manifestation of PBL of the thyroid gland. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first case report of PBL of the thyroid gland that presents with bilateral CST.

  15. Treatment of recurrent traumatic carotid cavernous fistula via endovascular embo lism technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Endovascular embolism technique has been demonstrated to be the best initial option for treatment of carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). Several large series re ports have shown that most CCFs can be successfully occluded via transarterial or transvenous endovascular approach.1-6 This paper reports a case of C CF recurred after endovascular occlusion of internal carotid artery (ICA) proxim al to the fistula. A new technique has been described for transarterial emboliza tion with tungsten microcoils via surgical exposure to ICA, which has not been r eported previously in the literatures.

  16. Effect of installing monobars in stability of powerhouse cavern roof in Masjed-Soleiman power plant extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahabi, M. [Moshanir, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdiloo, M.R. [Moshanir, Masjed-Soleiman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The Masjed-e-Soleiman Dam and Hydroelectric Power Plant consists of a 170 metres high rock fill dam with a capacity of 2000 mega watts (MW). This power plant is located approximately 25 kilometres northeast of Masjed-e-Soleiman on the Karun River in southwestern Iran. The underground cavern houses the powerhouse, which consists of eight 250 MW power units (4 units for phase 1 and 4 units for the extension phase). The overburden of the powerhouse is 250-320 metres. The recent completion of the first step of the project involved a dam which supplies 1000 MW of electricity. This paper describes the installation of monobars to ensure the stability of the roof of the extension. It also provides a brief overview of the geological condition, rock support measures and the sequences of excavation for the extension powerhouse cavern. The impact that the installation of the monobars had on roof stability, based on instrumentation results, was examined. 4 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  17. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches: UPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    The development of the design approaches used to determine the plant and overall layout for a underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh is discussed. Key factors were the selection of the high head pump-turbine equipment and the geotechnical considerations relevant to the underground cavern designs. The comparison of pump-turbine alternatives is described leading to the selection for detailed study of both a single-step configurations, using multistage reversible pump-turbines, and a two-step configuration, with single-stage reversible pump-turbines.

  18. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground...-3 through § 75.1107-16, or be enclosed in a noncombustible structure or area. (b) Underground shops...

  19. Seizure risk from cavernous or arteriovenous malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, C.B.; Leach, J.-P.; Duncan, R.; Roberts, R.C.; Counsell, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the risk of epileptic seizures due to a brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or cavernous malformation (CM). Methods: In a prospective population-based study of new diagnoses of AVMs (n = 229) or CMs (n = 139) in adults in Scotland in 1999–2003, we used annual medical records surveillance, general practitioner follow-up, and patient questionnaires to quantify the risk of seizures between clinical presentation and AVM/CM treatment, last follow-up, or death. Results: The 5-year risk of first-ever seizure after presentation was higher for AVMs presenting with intracranial hemorrhage or focal neurologic deficit (ICH/FND: n = 119; 23%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9%–37%) than for incidental AVMs (n = 40; 8%, 95% CI 0%–20%), CMs presenting with ICH/FND (n = 38; 6%, 95% CI 0%–14%), or incidental CMs (n = 57; 4%, 95% CI 0%–10%). For adults who had never experienced ICH/FND, the 5-year risk of epilepsy after first-ever seizure was higher for CMs (n = 23; 94%, 95% CI 84%–100%) than AVMs (n = 37; 58%, 95% CI 40%–76%; p = 0.02). Among adults who never experienced ICH/FND and presented with or developed epilepsy, there was no difference in the proportions achieving 2-year seizure freedom over 5 years between AVMs (n = 43; 45%, 95% CI 20%–70%) and CMs (n = 35; 47%, 95% CI 27%–67%). Conclusions: AVM-related ICH confers a significantly higher risk of a first-ever seizure compared to CMs or incidental AVMs. Adults with a CM have a high risk of epilepsy after a first-ever seizure but achieve seizure freedom as frequently as those with epilepsy due to an AVM. PMID:21536634

  20. Heuber Maneuver in Evaluation of Direct Carotid-Cavernous Fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Rengarajan; Mehta, Neeraj; Saran, Sonal; Khera, Pushpinder S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Carotid-cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid system and the cavernous sinus. Elevated venous pressure produces congestion in the orbit with resultant transudation of fluid and increased intraocular pressure, thereby leading to secondary glaucoma which may result in visual loss. Immediate treatment is hence, warranted in these cases. The planning of endovascular management is dependent on many parameters, the most important of which are the size and location of the fistula. Since these are high-flow fistulas, assessment requires certain manoeuvers. Heuber manoeuver is one of the manoeuvers used to demonstrate the size of the fistula.

  1. CAVERNOUS HAEMANGIOMA WITH RETIFORM HAEMANGIOENDOTHELIOMA - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION : Retiform hemangioendothelioma is a rare variant of lo w - grade angiosarcoma with an indolent clinical behaviour, with predilection for young adults. Mostly is seen in the extremities, especially the distal lower limbs. CASE REPORT: An eighty year old lady, presented with complaints of a solitary, well defined swelling below the nape of the neck since two years. The swelling was clinically diagnosed as cavernous haemangioma. However the colour of the lesion s was looking like a melanocytic naevus. Excision was done under local anaesthesia and was sent for histopa tho lo gical examination. Histopathological diagnosis was confirmed as “Cavernous haemangioma with Retiform Haemangioendothelioma”

  2. Cavernous Hemangioma as A Palpable Breast Mass: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Tae Seok; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Cha, Yoon Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Cavernous hemangioma of the breast is rare, and if manifested as a focal palpable mass of the breast, it should be differentiated from angiosarcoma and other breast malignancies. We described a case of a 54-year-old woman with apalpable breast mass confirmed as a cavernous hemangioma. This lesion presented as a hyperdense mass on mammography and a hypoechoicmass with internal calcifications on ultrasonography. The calcifications exhibited a round shape and central lucency, making themphleboliths. Phlebolithsisare characteristic findings in soft tissue hemangiomas, and finding them during a mammography helps to identify hemangiomas

  3. Endovascular treatment of traumatic carotid cavernous fistula with trapping technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Young

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional endovascular treatment for carotid cavernous fistula (CCF involves a direct delivery of either coils, detachable balloon or both to the fistula with end point of CCF resolution and carotid artery preservation. But in few cases with severe laceration of carotid artery, the feasible endovascular technique applicable is by blocking the filling of fistula from cerebral circulation. This method known as trapping technique which implicates carotid artery occlusion, was performed in our present case with good result. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:178-82. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.588Keywords: Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF, carotid occlusion, trapping technique

  4. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage

  5. Cavernous sinus thrombosis and air embolism following surgery for acoustic neurinoma : a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadkarni T

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A 55 year old male patient was operated on for a massive and vascular acoustic neurinoma in a sitting position. The tumor was completely excised. Post-operatively, the patient developed irritability and clinical features suggestive of contralateral cavernous sinus thrombosis. CT scan showed air within the dural walls of the cavernous sinus on the side of surgery. However, there was no radiological evidence of cavernous sinus thrombosis on the contralateral side. Cavernous sinus thrombosis as a post-surgery complication has not been reported. Air within the dural confines of the cavernous sinus has also not been observed or radiologically recorded in the literature.

  6. RP delves underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  7. Muon simulation codes MUSIC and MUSUN for underground physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, V A

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes two Monte Carlo codes dedicated to muon simulations: MUSIC (MUon SImulation Code) and MUSUN (MUon Simulations UNderground). MUSIC is a package for muon transport through matter. It is particularly useful for propagating muons through large thickness of rock or water, for instance from the surface down to underground/underwater laboratory. MUSUN is designed to use the results of muon transport through rock/water to generate muons in or around underground laboratory taking into account their energy spectrum and angular distribution.

  8. Muon simulation codes MUSIC and MUSUN for underground physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes two Monte Carlo codes dedicated to muon simulations: MUSIC (MUon SImulation Code) and MUSUN (MUon Simulations UNderground). MUSIC is a package for muon transport through matter. It is particularly useful for propagating muons through large thickness of rock or water, for instance from the surface down to underground/underwater laboratory. MUSUN is designed to use the results of muon transport through rock/water to generate muons in or around underground laboratory taking into account their energy spectrum and angular distribution.

  9. Ruptured hepatic cavernous hemangioma: a case report and literature review; Hemangioma cavernoso hepatico roto: relato de caso e revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula Neto, Walter Teixeira de [Hospital Uniclinicas, Chapeco, SC (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem], e-mail: walterteixeira21@yahoo.com.br; Koifman, Ana Celia Baptista [Hospital Municipal Souza Aguiar, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martins, Carlos Alberto de Souza [Sociedade Brasileira de Radiologia (SBR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica Life Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    Hepatic hemangioma is frequently asymptomatic, and bleeding is rare, even in cases of large lesions. The authors report the case of a 31-year-old female patient presenting with acute abdominal pain, whose imaging studies have demonstrated hematoma in the left hepatic lobe associated with hemo peritoneum. The patient was submitted to left hepatectomy, with a final histopathological diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma. (author)

  10. Transvenous treatment of a complex cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula secondary to balloon embolization of a traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI Jian; CHEN Zuo-quan; DENG Dong-feng; PAN Qing-gang; LING Feng

    2006-01-01

    @@ AIthough recurrent traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) and its treatment have been reported sporadically,1 a complex cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) secondary to balloon embolization of a direct traumatic CCF is rare. In 2005, we treated such a case via transvenous approach using coils and N-buty-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). The causes of recurrent cavernous sinus DAVF and its endovascular approach are discussed.

  11. A rare coexistence of adrenal cavernous hemangioma with extramedullar hemopoietic tissue: a case report and brief review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Kyriazi, Maria; Yiallourou, Anneza I; Stafyla, Vaia K; Theodosopoulos, Theodosios; Dafnios, Nikolaos; Smyrniotis, Vassilis; Kondi-Pafiti, Agathi

    2009-01-01

    Background Cavernous hemangiomas of the adrenal gland are rare, benign, non-functioning neoplastic tumors. To our knowledge, 55 cases have been reported in the literature to date. Case presentation We report the first case of a large, non-functioning adrenal cavernous hemangioma that was incidentally found during the preoperative staging workup of a 75 year old woman with left breast adenocarcinoma. Imaging with US, CT scan and MRI showed a heterogeneous 8 cm mass with non-specific radiological features that was located on the left adrenal gland. The mass was surgically excised and pathology revealed an adrenal hemangioma with areas of extramedullar hemopoiesis. Conclusion Although adrenal hemangiomas are rare and their preoperative diagnosis is difficult, they should always be included in the differential diagnosis of adrenal neoplasms. PMID:19193247

  12. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilkka Vhaho

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an under-ground master plan (UMP) for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy effi-ciency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century;at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city’s underground con-struction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  13. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  14. Lowering End-cap YE-1 in the CMS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 January, the dance of the CMS end-caps came to an end with the lowering of YE-1, the heaviest of them all. After a spectacular lowering operation lsting ten hours, this mammoth component completed the 100-metre descent and was gently placed on the floor of the CMS cavern to the applause of the many onlookers.

  15. NA62 cavern and sub-detectors 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Graham, Connor

    2017-01-01

    The NA62 cavern, with the completed detector, during breaks in data taking in July 2017. Pictures from 05-07-17 by Dan Protopopescu and pictures from 08-07-17 by Connor Graham (Both Glasgow-affiliated). Includes pictures of the whole experiment, safety systems and sub-detector elements.

  16. Cavernous hemangioma of the dura mater mimicking meningioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vitantonio, Hambra; De Paulis, Danilo; Ricci, Alessandro; Marzi, Sara; Dehcordi, Soheila Raysi; Galzio, Renato Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cavernomas are benign lesions that most commonly occur intra-parenchymally, but occasionally they have been described as arising from the dura mater. Extra-axial cavernous angiomas (or hemangiomas) account for 0.4–2% of all intracranial vascular malformations, and they usually occur in the middle cranial fossa, associated with the cavernous sinus. Other possible localizations (e.g. tentorium, convexity, anterior cranial fossa, cerebellopontine angle, Meckel's cave, sella turcica and internal auditory meatus) are rare, and they account only for 0.2–0.5%. Case Description: We report a case of a 30-year-old female presenting with a 2 years history of headache unresponsive to drug therapy. The magnetic resonance imaging showed a dural-based lesion in the left frontal region; the lesion size was: 1.5 cm × 3.5 cm. The appearance suggested a convexity meningioma. A left frontal craniotomy was performed, and the histopathological diagnosis deposed for a cavernous hemangioma of the dura mater. The follow-up at 1-year was good without any neurologic deficit. Conclusions: Dural-based cavernous hemangiomas of the convexity are uncommon lesions. Up to now, only 13 cases have been described in the literature. The authors have discussed clinical aspects, radiological features, surgical treatment, and operative findings. PMID:26421218

  17. Carotid-cavernous fistula after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Emin; Isildak, Huseyin; Haciyev, Yusuf; Kaytaz, Asim; Enver, Ozgun

    2009-03-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are anomalous communications between the carotid arterial system and the venous cavernous sinus. They can arise because of spontaneous or trauma causes. Most caroticocavernous fistulas are of spontaneous origin and unknown etiology. Spontaneous CCF may also be associated with cavernous sinus pathology such as arteriosclerotic changes of the arterial wall, fibromuscular dysplasia, or Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Traumatic CCFs may occur after either blunt or penetrating head trauma. Their clinical presentation is related to their size and to the type of venous drainage, which can lead to a variety of symptoms, such as visual loss, proptosis, bruit, chemosis, cranial nerve impairment, intracranial hemorrhage (rare), and so on. Treatment by endovascular transarterial embolization with electrolytically detachable coils is a very effective method for CCF with good outcomes. Carotid-cavernous fistulas have been rarely reported after craniofacial surgery and are uncommon pathologies in otolaryngology practice. In this study, we report a 40-year-old woman with CCF secondary to blunt trauma of functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  18. A Case of Brainstem Cavernous Angioma Presenting with Persistent Hiccups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Arami

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nIntractable hiccup most be considered as a symptom of underlying serious pathologies. We report a case of medulla oblongata cavernous angima presented with persistant hiccup and without any improvement during routine nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment regimns. The patient is under our follow up visits and surgery is very high risk for this young girl.

  19. Fat deposition in the cavernous sinus in Cushing disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachow, T.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Aaron, J.O.; Davis, K.R.; Taveras, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    Fat density in the cavernous sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in 6 out of 16 (37.5%) patients with Cushing disease. This finding may aid in making a specific diagnosis in patients with a pituitary mass. It was not seen in 30 random CT studies of the sella; however, supra seller fat was incidentally noted in the patient with acromegaly.

  20. Orbital cavernous hemangiomas: ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, A; Damianidis, Ch; Kyriakou, V; Kotziamani, N; Emmanouilidou, M; Goutsaridou, F; Tsitouridis, I

    2010-03-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is the most common intraorbital lesion in adults. The aim of our study was to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) characteristics of cavernous hemangioma and their role in the differential diagnosis of orbital tumors. Eight patients with orbital cavernous hemangiomas, five women and three men with a mean age of 48 years were examined in a period of six years. All patients underwent MRI examination and four patients were also evaluated by US. In all cases MRI depicted a well-defined intraconal tumor. The lesions were homogeneous, isointense to muscle on T1-weighted sequence and hyperintense to muscle on T2-weighted sequence in six patients. In one patient the mass was isointense on T1WI with heterogeneous signal intensity on T2WI and in one patient the lesion had heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences. After intravenous contrast medium administration, the tumors showed initial inhomogeneous enhancement with progressive accumulation of contrast material on delayed images in seven patients and initial homogeneous enhancement in one patient. On ultrasonography, the orbital masses appeared slightly hyperechoic, heterogeneous with small areas of slow blood flow. The analysis of imaging characteristics of a well-defined intraconal lesion in an adult patient with painless progressive proptosis can be highly suggestive of the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma.

  1. Traumatic basilar pseudoaneurysm with a basilar-cavernous arteriovenous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Deasy, N.P.; Jeffree, M.A. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, King' s Coll. Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Martin, A.J.; Strong, A.J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, King' s Coll. Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    A traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the basilar artery with a basilar-cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistula was diagnosed in a 12-year-old girl using CT, MRI and angiography. It was successfully treated by coil embolisation. We speculate on the mode of formation of this rare traumatic lesion. (orig.)

  2. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  3. 大型地下停车库综合施工技术——城市建筑密集区地下空间开发利用的新技术%Integrated Construction Technology of the Large Underground Parking Garage——the new technology of underground space development and utilization in urban built-up areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓉峰; 马惠龄

    2011-01-01

    The prefabricated underground wall construction is the emerging recently technology which has been combined with other construction technology such as cover excavation and applied to the urban built-up areas for underground space development and utilization. Through the project implementation of the Huadong hospital, this method has gotten a good economic and social benefits.%预制地下连续墙是近年新涌现的施工工艺,将其与盖挖法等施工技术相结合,运用到密集建筑群中进行地下空间的开发利用,通过华东医院二层地下停车库的工程实施,取得了良好的经济效益和社会效益.

  4. Underground void filling by cemented mill tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choudhary Bhanwar Singh; Kumar Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining always create voids. These voids can cause subsidence of surface. So it is always a demand to fill the void in such a manner that the effect of underground mining can be minimized. Void filling using mill tailings especially in metal mining is one of the best techniques. The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environ-mental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution, etc. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in paste backfilling operations. The results revealed that material composition and use of super plasticizer strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill.

  5. Thermal-noise-limited underground interferometer CLIO

    CERN Document Server

    Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Kawamura, Seiji; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Miyakawa, Osamu; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Telada, Souichi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    We report on the current status of CLIO (Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory), which is a prototype interferometer for LCGT (Large scale Cryogenic Gravitational-wave Telescope). LCGT is a Japanese next-generation interferometric gravitational wave detector featuring the use of cryogenic mirrors and a quiet underground site. The main purpose of CLIO is to demonstrate a reduction of the mirror thermal noise by cooling the sapphire mirrors. CLIO is located in an underground site of the Kamioka mine, 1000 m deep from the mountain top, to verify its advantages. After a few years of commissioning work, we have achieved a thermal-noise-limited sensitivity at room temperature. One of the main results of noise hunting was the elimination of thermal noise caused by a conductive coil-holder coupled with a pendulum through magnets.

  6. Stability analysis of underground openings for extraction of natural stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Fifer Bizjak

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of natural stone is usually carried out in surface quarries. Underground excavation is not a frequently used method. Due to the restrictive environmental legislature and limited stores of natural stone, underground extraction has become quite an interestingalternative. Dimensions of underground openings are determined with stability analyses.Prior to starting a numerical analysis of a large underground opening it is very important to determine the mechanism of failure and set up a proper numerical model. The continuum method is usually used in rock mechanics. A disadvantage of this calculation is that it cannotbe applied to a large number of joints. Other methods are preferred, such as the numerical discrete method, which allows joint systems to be involved into calculations. The most probable failure of rock with several joint systems is block sliding. In the example of themarble of Hotavlje both methods were used. It was established that the continuum method is convenient for the global stability prediction of the underground opening. Further discretemethod enable the block stability calculation. The analytical block analysis is still accurate for the a stability calculation of single block. The prerequisite for a good numerical analysis is sufficient quality data on geomechanical properties of rock. In-situ tests, laboratory tests and geotechnical measurements on the site are therefore necessary. Optimum dimensions of underground chambers in the Quarry of Hotavlje were calculated by using several numericalmodels, and the maximum chamber width of 12 m was obtained.

  7. Preliminary design studies of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 10: Environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Results of preliminary environmental assessments for a proposed UPH or CAES demonstration facility are presented. Included are characterizations of the existing environment of the sunshine site in Montgomery County, Maryland, and assessments of environmental impacts and public safety concerns. Elements of the existing environment which are considered sensitive are described. Environmental impacts are identified, rated, and described for both alternative demonstration facilities. Public safety concerns for both alternative demonstration facilities are also identified and discussed. These include, for both UPH and CAES, underground cavern collapse and surface subsidence, explosives, site security, icing, upper reservoir failure, and mechanical failure of plant equipment. In addition, fuel handling and the champagne effect are addressed for CAES.

  8. Compressed air energy storage monitoring to support refrigerated mined rock cavern technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moo Yul; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2004-06-01

    This document is the final report for the Compressed Air Energy Storage Monitoring to Support Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology (CAES Monitoring to Support RMRCT) (DE-FC26-01NT40868) project to have been conducted by CAES Development Co., along with Sandia National Laboratories. This document provides a final report covering tasks 1.0 and subtasks 2.1, 2.2, and 2.5 of task 2.0 of the Statement of Project Objectives and constitutes the final project deliverable. The proposed work was to have provided physical measurements and analyses of large-scale rock mass response to pressure cycling. The goal was to develop proof-of-concept data for a previously developed and DOE sponsored technology (RMRCT or Refrigerated-Mined Rock Cavern Technology). In the RMRCT concept, a room and pillar mine developed in rock serves as a pressure vessel. That vessel will need to contain pressure of about 1370 psi (and cycle down to 300 psi). The measurements gathered in this study would have provided a means to determine directly rock mass response during cyclic loading on the same scale, under similar pressure conditions. The CAES project has been delayed due to national economic unrest in the energy sector.

  9. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  10. Finite Element Optimised Back Analysis of In Situ Stress Field and Stability Analysis of Shaft Wall in the Underground Gas Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel optimised back analysis method is proposed in this paper. The in situ stress field of an underground gas storage (UGS reservoir in a Turkey salt cavern is analysed by the basic theory of elastic mechanics. A finite element method is implemented to optimise and approximate the objective function by systematically adjusting boundary loads. Optimising calculation is performed based on a novel method to reduce the error between measurement and calculation as much as possible. Compared with common back analysis methods such as regression method, the method proposed can further improve the calculation precision. By constructing a large circular geometric model, the effect of stress concentration is eliminated and a minimum difference between computed and measured stress can be guaranteed in the rectangular objective region. The efficiency of the proposed method is investigated and confirmed by its capability on restoring in situ stress field, which agrees well with experimental results. The characteristics of stress distribution of chosen UGS wells are obtained based on the back analysis results and by applying the corresponding fracture criterion, the shaft walls are proven safe.

  11. A measurement of creep and permeability of a salt cavern; Une mesure de la permeabilite et du fluage d`une caverne dans le sel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berest, P.; Bergues, J.; Brouard, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, (LMS), 91 - Palaiseau (France); Durup, G.; Guerber, B. [Gaz de France (GDF), 93 - La-Plaine-Saint-Denis (France)

    1999-07-01

    Rock mass properties differ significantly from those measured on samples in the laboratory. A test has been performed on a deep brine-filled cavern, with the objective of measuring the equilibrium pressure reached when the cavern was closed. Such an equilibrium is reached when salt mass creep, which leads to cavern shrinkage, balances brine permeation through the cavern wall. A K = 2.10{sup -19} m{sup 2} value of the average in situ intrinsic permeability has been deduced from the test; it is significantly higher than the intrinsic permeability measured in a well or in the laboratory. This result supports cavern abandonment scenarios in which the risk of natural fracturing due to high brine pressures is alleviated. (authors) 14 refs.

  12. Science underground (Los Alamos, 1982)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, M.M.; Haxton, W.C.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kolb, E.W.; Sandberg, V.D.; Toevs, J.W. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    Topics covered include solar neutrinos, proton decay, cosmic rays, geophysics, gravity waves, double beta decay, and possible future research directions with underground detectors. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  13. On construction technique of double side drift method of large-section mined underground metro%大断面地铁暗挖车站双侧壁导坑法施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟

    2011-01-01

    通过工程实践,从施工方面详细介绍了深圳地铁某暗挖车站双侧壁导坑施工技术,总结了该施工方法在应用过程中主要施工工艺及控制要点,对今后类似条件下的暗挖车站施工有很好的参考作用。%According to the project practice,the paper introduces the double side drift method of some mined underground metro in Shenzhen from the construction,sums up the main construction craft and the controlling points of the construction method in the application process,so as to have better reference role for the mined underground metro construction with similar conditions in future.

  14. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  15. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification,gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  16. The ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLAS Collaboration; Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B. A.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Achenbach, R.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D. L.; Adamyan, F.; Addy, T. N.; Aderholz, M.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, P. F.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, S. M.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alimonti, G.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, J.; Alves, R.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amaral, S. P.; Ambrosini, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Anderson, B.; Anderson, K. J.; Anderssen, E. C.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andricek, L.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Apsimon, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Arms, K. E.; Armstrong, S. R.; Arnaud, M.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Asai, S.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Athar, B.; Atkinson, T.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, A.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bailey, D. C.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Ballester, F.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S. P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbier, G.; Barclay, P.; Bardin, D. Y.; Bargassa, P.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, M.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barriuso Poy, A.; Barros, N.; Bartheld, V.; Bartko, H.; Bartoldus, R.; Basiladze, S.; Bastos, J.; Batchelor, L. E.; Bates, R. L.; Batley, J. R.; Batraneanu, S.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Batusov, V.; Bauer, F.; Bauss, B.; Baynham, D. E.; Bazalova, M.; Bazan, A.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beaugiraud, B.; Beccherle, R. B.; Beck, G. A.; Beck, H. P.; Becks, K. H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Belanger, G. A. N.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Belhorma, B.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellachia, F.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Beltramello, O.; Belymam, A.; Ben Ami, S.; Ben Moshe, M.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B. H.; Benekos, N.; Benes, J.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G. P.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, S.; Bergsma, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernabéu, J.; Bernardet, K.; Berriaud, C.; Berry, T.; Bertelsen, H.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, S.; Besson, N.; Beteille, A.; Bethke, S.; Bialas, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieri, M.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Binder, M.; Binet, S.; Bingefors, N.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bischof, R.; Bischofberger, M.; Bitadze, A.; Bizzell, J. P.; Black, K. M.; Blair, R. E.; Blaising, J. J.; Blanch, O.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Boaretto, C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bocci, A.; Bocian, D.; Bock, R.; Boehm, M.; Boek, J.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bonino, R.; Bonis, J.; Bonivento, W.; Bonneau, P.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Boosten, M.; Booth, C. N.; Booth, P. S. L.; Booth, P.; Booth, J. R. A.; Borer, K.; Borisov, A.; Borjanovic, I.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosi, F.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Botchev, B.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutemeur, M.; Bouzakis, K.; Boyd, G. R.; Boyd, J.; Boyer, B. H.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozhko, N. I.; Braccini, S.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G. W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Braun, H. M.; Bravo, S.; Brawn, I. P.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N. D.; Breugnon, P.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Broklova, Z.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brouwer, G.; Broz, J.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, P.; Budagov, I. A.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E. J.; Bujor, F.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burckhart-Chromek, D.; Burdin, S.; Burns, R.; Busato, E.; Buskop, J. J. F.; Buszello, K. P.; Butin, F.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Cabruja Casas, E.; Caccia, M.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calderón Terol, D.; Callahan, J.; Caloba, L. P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camard, A.; Camarena, F.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campabadal Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Canale, V.; Cantero, J.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Caprio, M.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Carcagno, Y.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardeira, C.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Cardini, A.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Carr, F. S.; Carter, A. A.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castelo, J.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.; Castrovillari, F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavallari, A.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerna, C.; Cernoch, C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerutti, F.; Cervetto, M.; Cetin, S. A.; Cevenini, F.; Chalifour, M.; Chamizo llatas, M.; Chan, A.; Chapman, J. W.; Charlton, D. G.; Charron, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chen, H.; Chen, L.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheng, T. L.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chevalley, J. L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chouridou, S.; Chren, D.; Christiansen, T.; Christidi, I. A.; Christov, A.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chuguev, A. G.; Ciapetti, G.; Cicalini, E.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M. D.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Civera, J. V.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J. C.; Clement, B. C.; Clément, C.; Clements, D.; Clifft, R. W.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coco, R.; Coe, P.; Coelli, S.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C. D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A. P.; Collard, C.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Coluccia, R.; Comune, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F. A.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper-Smith, N. J.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Correard, S.; Corso-Radu, A.; Coss, J.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cox, J.; Cragg, D. A.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuneo, S.; Cunha, A.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C. J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, A.; Da Silva, P. V. M.; Da Silva, R.; Dabrowski, W.; Dael, A.; Dahlhoff, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S. J.; Dalmau, J.; Daly, C. H.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Dameri, M.; Danielsen, K. M.; Danielsson, H. O.; Dankers, R.; Dannheim, D.; Darbo, G.; Dargent, P.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J. P.; David, M.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J. W.; Daya, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; de Boer, R.; DeCastro, S.; DeGroot, N.; de Jong, P.; de La Broise, X.; DeLa Cruz-Burelo, E.; DeLa Taille, C.; DeLotto, B.; DeOliveira Branco, M.; DePedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; DeSalvo, A.; DeSanctis, U.; DeSanto, A.; DeVivie DeRegie, J. B.; DeZorzi, G.; Dean, S.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D. V.; Defay, P. O.; Degele, R.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; DelPapa, C.; DelPeso, J.; DelPrete, T.; Delagnes, E.; Delebecque, P.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca Silberberg, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demierre, P.; Demirköz, B.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S. P.; Dennis, C.; Densham, C. J.; Dentan, M.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K. K.; Dewhurst, A.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Simone, A.; Diaz Gomez, M. M.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietl, H.; Dietrich, J.; Dietsche, W.; Diglio, S.; Dima, M.; Dindar, K.; Dinkespiler, B.; Dionisi, C.; Dipanjan, R.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, S. D.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O. B.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Domingo, E.; Donega, M.; Dopke, J.; Dorfan, D. E.; Dorholt, O.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M. T.; Dowell, J. D.; Doyle, A. T.; Drake, G.; Drakoulakos, D.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Drohan, J. G.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dührssen, M.; Dür, H.; Duerdoth, I. P.; Duffin, S.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M.-A.; Dumont Dayot, N.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Durand, D.; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Díez Cornell, S.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Eerola, P.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egede, U.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; Eklund, L. M.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engström, M.; Ennes, P.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Epshteyn, V. S.; Ereditato, A.; Eremin, V.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Esteves, F.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Eyring, A.; Fabbri, L.; Fabjan, C. W.; Fabre, C.; Faccioli, P.; Facius, K.; Fadeyev, V.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falleau, I.; Falou, A. C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farrell, J.; Farthouat, P.; Fasching, D.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fawzi, F.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, I.; Feld, L.; Feldman, G.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Fent, J.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferguson, D.; Ferland, J.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M. L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferro, F.; Fiascaris, M.; Fichet, S.; Fiedler, F.; Filimonov, V.; Filipčič, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M. J.; Fisher, S. M.; Flaminio, V.; Flammer, J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Flegel, W.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fleta Corral, C. M.; Fleuret, F.; Flick, T.; Flix, J.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T. M.; Fopma, J.; Forbush, D. A.; Formica, A.; Foster, J. M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A. J.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Francis, D.; Franz, S.; Fraser, J. T.; Fraternali, M.; Fratianni, S.; Freestone, J.; French, R. S.; Fritsch, K.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fulachier, J.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallas, M. V.; Gallop, B. J.; Gan, K. K.; Gannaway, F. C.; Gao, Y. S.; Gapienko, V. A.; Gaponenko, A.; Garciá, C.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garcìa Navarro, J. E.; Garde, V.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V. G.; Garvey, J.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gautard, V.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gayde, J.-C.; Gazis, E. N.; Gazo, E.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M. A.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gernizky, Y.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghete, V. M.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, M. D.; Gibson, S. M.; Gieraltowski, G. F.; Gil Botella, I.; Gilbert, L. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gildemeister, O.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillman, A. R.; Gingrich, D. M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Girard, C. G.; Giraud, P. F.; Girtler, P.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K. W.; Glonti, G. L.; Gnanvo, K. G.; Godlewski, J.; Göpfert, T.; Gössling, C.; Göttfert, T.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N. P.; Golonka, P. J.; Golovnia, S. N.; Gomes, A.; Gomes, J.; Gonçalo, R.; Gongadze, A.; Gonidec, A.; Gonzalez, S.; González de la Hoz, S.; González Millán, V.; Gonzalez Silva, M. L.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; González-Sevilla, S.; Goodrick, M. J.; Goodson, J. J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordeev, A.; Gordon, H.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gorokhov, S. A.; Gorski, B. T.; Goryachev, S. V.; Goryachev, V. N.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M. I.; Gouanère, M.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M.; Gousakov, I.; Gouveia, J.; Gowdy, S.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grabski, V.; Grafström, P.; Grah, C.; Grahn, K.-J.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassmann, H.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Green, B.; Greenall, A.; Greenfield, D.; Greenwood, D.; Gregor, I. M.; Grewal, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grigson, C.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimaldi, F.; Grimm, K.; Gris, P. L. Y.; Grishkevich, Y.; Groenstege, H.; Groer, L. S.; Grognuz, J.; Groh, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grothe, M. E. M.; Grudzinski, J.; Gruse, C.; Gruwe, M.; Grybel, K.; Grybos, P.; Gschwendtner, E. M.; Guarino, V. J.; Guicheney, C. J.; Guilhem, G.; Guillemin, T.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Gupta, A.; Gurriana, L.; Gushchin, V. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Guy, L.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Haboubi, G.; Hackenburg, R.; Hadash, E.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haeberli, C.; Härtel, R.; Haggerty, R.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakimi, M.; Hakobyan, H.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hallgren, B.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, A.; Han, H.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, C. J.; Hansen, F. H.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hanson, G.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Harder, S.; Harel, A.; Harenberg, T.; Harper, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hart, R. G. G.; Hartjes, F.; Hartman, N.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hashemi, K.; Hassani, S.; Hatch, M.; Hatley, R. W.; Haubold, T. G.; Hauff, D.; Haug, F.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Hauviller, C.; Havranek, M.; Hawes, B. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, D.; Hayler, T.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Hazen, E.; He, M.; He, Y. P.; Head, S. J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heinemann, F. E. W.; Heldmann, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hendriks, P. J.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Henß, T.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hess, M.; Hessey, N. P.; Hicheur, A.; Hidvegi, A.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, D.; Hill, J.; Hill, J. C.; Hill, N.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hindson, D.; Hinkelbein, C.; Hodges, T. A.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, A. E.; Hoffmann, D.; Hoffmann, H. F.; Holder, M.; Hollins, T. I.; Hollyman, G.; Holmes, A.; Holmgren, S. O.; Holt, R.; Holtom, E.; Holy, T.; Homer, R. J.; Homma, Y.; Homola, P.; Honerbach, W.; Honma, A.; Hooton, I.; Horazdovsky, T.; Horn, C.; Horvat, S.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hott, T.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M. A.; Hoummada, A.; Hover, J.; Howell, D. 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N.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Rabbers, J. J.; Radeka, V.; Rafi, J. M.; Ragusa, F.; Rahimi, A. M.; Rahm, D.; Raine, C.; Raith, B.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rajek, S.; Rammer, H.; Ramstedt, M.; Rangod, S.; Ratoff, P. N.; Raufer, T.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Reads, A. L.; Rebuzzi, D.; Redlinger, G. R.; Reeves, K.; Rehak, M.; Reichold, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.; Renaudin-Crepe, S. R. C.; Renkel, P.; Rensch, B.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Rewiersma, P.; Rey, J.; Rey-Campagnolle, M.; Rezaie, E.; Reznicek, P.; Richards, R. A.; Richer, J.-P.; Richter, R. H.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Riegler, W.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rios, R. R.; Riu Dachs, I.; Rivline, M.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robins, S.; Robinson, D.; Robson, A.; Rochford, J. H.; Roda, C.; Rodier, S.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rohrbach, F.; Roldán, J.; Rolli, S.; Romance, J. B.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V. M.; Romeo, G.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, F.; Rosenbaum, G. A.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossi, L. P.; Rossi, L.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruber, R.; Ruckert, B.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruggiero, G.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Rust, D. R.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkine, G.; da Costa, J. Sá; Saavedra, A. F.; Saboumazrag, S.; F-W Sadrozinski, H.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Sala, P.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salt, J.; Saltó Bauza, O.; Salvachúa Ferrando, B. M.; Salvatore, D.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B. H.; Sánchez Sánchez, C. A.; Sanchis Lozano, M. A.; Sanchis Peris, E.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H. G.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sanny, B.; Sansone, S.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santander, J.; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, J.; Sapinski, M.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, D.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A. Y.; Savinov, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Savva, P.; Saxon, D. H.; Says, L. P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrissa, E.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schaller, M.; Schamov, A. G.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schiavi, C.; Schick, H.; Schieck, J.; Schieferdecker, P.; Schioppa, M.; Schlager, G.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J. L.; Schmid, P.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, K.; Schmitz, M.; Schmücker, H.; Schoerner, T.; Scholte, R. C.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schram, M.; Schricker, A.; Schroff, D.; Schuh, S.; Schuijlenburg, H. W.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schumacher, J.; Schumacher, M.; Schune, Ph; Schwartzman, A.; Schweiger, D.; Schwemling, Ph; Schwick, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Secker, H.; Sedykh, E.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Selldén, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sexton, K. A.; Sfyrla, A.; Shah, T. P.; Shan, L.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shears, T. G.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shield, P.; Shilov, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoa, M.; Shochet, M. J.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siebel, M.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, D.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S.; Sjölin, J.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slattery, P.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T. J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Small, A.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D. S.; Smith, J.; Smith, K. M.; Smith, B.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Soares, S.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Söderberg, M.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Sole, D.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solov'yanov, O. V.; Soloviev, I.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Soret Medel, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sospedra Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Soukup, J.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spegel, M.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spogli, L.; Spousta, M.; Sprachmann, G.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Staley, R. J.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S. N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Staroba, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavrianakou, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Stefanidis, E.; Steffens, J. L.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G.; Stewart, T. D.; Stiller, W.; Stockmanns, T.; Stodulski, M.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strickland, V.; Striegel, D.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Su, D.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultanov, S.; Sun, Z.; Sundal, B.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutcliffe, P.; Sutton, M. R.; Sviridov, Yu M.; Sykora, I.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Szeless, B.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Taboada Gameiro, S.; Tadel, M.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tarrant, J.; Tartarelli, G.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, R. P.; Tcherniatine, V.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Terada, S.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Tevlin, C. M.; Thadome, J.; Thion, J.; Thioye, M.; Thomas, A.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas, T. L.; Thomas, E.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timm, S.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Titov, M.; Tobias, J.; Tocut, V. M.; Toczek, B.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres Pais, J. G.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tovey, S. N.; Towndrow, E. F.; Trefzger, T.; Treichel, M.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tribanek, W.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trilling, G.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trka, Z.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; C-L Tseng, J.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Turala, M.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P. M.; Twomey, M. S.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzamarioudaki, E.; Tzanakos, G.; Ueda, I.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Ullán Comes, M.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urkovsky, E.; Usai, G.; Usov, Y.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valero, A.; Valkar, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van der Bij, H.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Van Berg, R.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Varanda, M.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Vataga, E.; Vaz, L.; Vazeille, F.; Vedrine, P.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, S.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vertogardov, L.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Vigeolas, E.; Villa, M.; Villani, E. G.; Villate, J.; Villella, I.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincent, P.; Vincke, H.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives, R.; Vives Vaques, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Vollmer, C. F.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von Boehn-Buchholz, R.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorozhtsov, A. S.; Vorozhtsov, S. B.; Vos, M.; Voss, K. C.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vovenko, A. S.; Vranjes, N.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Vuaridel, B.; Vudragovic, M.; Vuillemin, V.; Vuillermet, R.; Wänanen, A.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wallny, R. S.; Walsh, S.; Wang, C.; Wang, J. C.; Wappler, F.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warner, G. P.; Warren, M.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watts, G.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weaverdyck, C.; Webel, M.; Weber, G.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weilhammer, P. M.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wellisch, H. P.; Wells, P. S.; Wemans, A.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werneke, P.; Werner, P.; Werthenbach, U.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiesmann, M.; Wiesmann, M.; Wijnen, T.; Wildauer, A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilmut, I.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winton, L.; Witzeling, W.; Wlodek, T.; Woehrling, E.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wright, C.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Wunstorf, R.; Xella-Hansen, S.; Xiang, A.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, G.; Xu, N.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, J. C.; Yang, S.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yarradoddi, K.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, H.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S. P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajac, J.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, A. Yu; Zalite, Yo K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P. F.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, W.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Z.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhichao, L.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, S.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H. Z.; Zhuang, X. A.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimin, N. I.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zoeller, M. M.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zychacek, V.

    2008-08-01

    The ATLAS detector as installed in its experimental cavern at point 1 at CERN is described in this paper. A brief overview of the expected performance of the detector when the Large Hadron Collider begins operation is also presented.

  17. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  18. Abducens Nerve Palsy and Ipsilateral Horner Syndrome in a Patient With Carotid-Cavernous Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, Ali; Ercan, Zeynep E; Duman, Enes; Arpaci, Enver

    2015-10-01

    The combination of abducens nerve palsy and ipsilateral Horner syndrome was first described by Parkinson and considered as a localizing sign of posterior cavernous sinus lesions. The authors present a case with right abducens nerve palsy with ipsilateral Horner syndrome in a patient with carotid-cavernous fistula because of head trauma. The patient was referred to the ophthalmology clinic with diplopia complaint after suffering a head trauma during a motorcycle accident. Cerebral angiography showed low-flow carotid-cavernous fistula.

  19. Orthostatic hypotension associated with dorsal medullary cavernous angioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiaquez, J; Araya, P; Benarroch, E

    2009-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a rare manifestation of medulla oblongata lesions that may be because of interruption of descending sympathoexcitatory axons. To illustrate the location of a medullary lesion that produced OH following resection in relationship to the location of putative sympathoexcitatory pathways. A case with dorsal medullary cavernous angioma presenting with OH is described. The possible localization of lesion was compared with distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive axons in a comparable section of the medulla of a control brain. The patient had marked OH after partial removal of the cavernous angioma. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The magnetic resonance imaging location of the lesion overlapped that of TH-immunoreactive axons of the medullary transtegmental tract. A restricted lesion of medullary lesion interrupting the catecholaminergic transtegmental tract arising from the sympathoexcitatory C1 neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla could result in severe OH.

  20. Cavernous Hemangioma of the Rib: A Rare Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Gourgiotis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma of the rib is an uncommon benign vascular tumour. A case of rib hemangioma in a 29-year-old woman is presented. Chest roentgenogram and computed tomography revealed a mass along the inner surface of the 7th left rib with bone destruction. She underwent resection of the 7th rib. The pathologic diagnosis was cavernous hemangioma. Hemangiomas of the rib are rare tumours but should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of rib tumours.

  1. MRI diagnosis and preoperative evaluation for pure epidural cavernous hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jie; Xu, Yi-Kai; Yang, Rui-Meng; Yu, Tian; Lin, Bing-Quan [Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Li, Long [Guangdong Provincial Corps Hospital, Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Ye, Xiang-Hua [Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Department of Radiotherapy, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Nan [Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Department of Pathology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2009-11-15

    The aims of the study were to summarize the characteristics of the spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma, especially for the MRI, and to improve the accurate rate of the preoperative diagnosis. The clinical and medical imaging data of six patients with pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma proved by operation and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The level was thoracic (n = 2), thoracolumbar (n = 1), lumbar (n = 1), and sacral (n = 2). The tumor showed lobulated contour, and the areas the tumors appeared were dorsal side of spinal cord (n = 2), ventral side (n = 1), and lateral side (n = 3). In all six patients, the lesions were isointense to the spinal cord on T{sub 1}-weighted images and hyperintense on T{sub 2}-weighted images and showed homogeneously strong enhancement on contrast-enhanced T{sub 1}-weighted images. The characteristic MRI features were named as the ''wafting-silk'' sign. Widening of the intervertebral neural foramen (n = 4) and erosion of the adjacent bones (n = 3) can be observed. MRI of the epidural cavernous hemangioma showed the characteristic lobulated contour, which encircled the spinal cord. T{sub 1}WI on the MRI presented as isointense and T{sub 2}WI presented as hyperintense and a homogeneously strong enhancement, so we first proposed the sign of wafting silk. The widening of the intervertebral neural foramen and erosion of the adjacent bones can easily be observed. MR imaging has an important role in the detection and diagnosis of pure spinal epidural cavernous hemangioma. (orig.)

  2. [Condition of cavernous tissue of the penis after unilateral incomplete proximal intracavernous falloprosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurashvili, G I; Medvedev, V L; Chilov, S A; Kochov, V N; Taruashvili, I G

    2011-01-01

    Unilateral incomplete proximal intracavernous falloprosthesis (UIPIF) was followed by US-dopplerography of the intact penis and penis in medical erection induced by E1 prostoglandin introduction into the intact cavernous body. UIPIF preserves 89-90% of functionally active cavernous tissue with effective blood flow. Investigation 2 months and more after operation demonstrated that systolic blood flow rate in the cavernous artery of the cavernous tissue around the endoprosthersis can reach values registered in normal erection. The conclusion is made that after UIPIF quality of sexual life of the patient improves due to creation of additional density and axial stability of the trunk of the penis.

  3. Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Fossum, A.F.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.

  4. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy caused by cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihn, Yon Kwon; Jung, Won Sang [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum Soo [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Cavernous dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), which usually presents with conjunctival injection, proptosis, loss of visual acuity, and ophthalmoplegia, is a rare cause of ophthalmoplegia. Thus, it may be overlooked when the typical symptoms are lacking. There have been some cavernous DAVF case reports presenting with isolated oculomotor, abducens and trochlear nerve palsy. We report a patient presenting with isolated oculomotor palsy, caused by cavernous DAVF, which was treated by transvenous coil embolization. This case suggests that cavernous DAVF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy and for which case - selective angiography and embolization may be helpful in reaching a diagnosis and providing a guide for optimal treatment.

  5. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  6. Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudeen, David Keith; Weber, Paula D.; Lord, David L.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve implemented the first stage of a leach plan in 2011-2012 to expand storage volume in the existing Bryan Mound 113 cavern from a starting volume of 7.4 million barrels (MMB) to its design volume of 11.2 MMB. The first stage was terminated several months earlier than expected in August, 2012, as the upper section of the leach zone expanded outward more quickly than design. The oil-brine interface was then re-positioned with the intent to resume leaching in the second stage configuration. This report evaluates the as-built configuration of the cavern at the end of the first stage, and recommends changes to the second stage plan in order to accommodate for the variance between the first stage plan and the as-built cavern. SANSMIC leach code simulations are presented and compared with sonar surveys in order to aid in the analysis and offer projections of likely outcomes from the revised plan for the second stage leach.

  7. Intraosseous Cavernous Hemangioma in the Mandible: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derya, Yildirim; Gulperi, Kocer; Sevgi, Bozova

    2017-01-01

    Intraosseous vascular lesions are rare conditions. They are most commonly seen in the vertebral column and skull; nevertheless, the mandible is a quite rare location. In this report, we present a case of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma in the mandible and discuss the clinical and radiological features. A 28-year-old male patient attended to our clinic with a complaint of painless swelling of mandible. Clinical evaluation revealed a bone-hard, smooth-surfaced, immobile mass in the left mandibular lingual area. The patient was evaluated with panoramic and occlusal radiography and computed tomography. The lesion surgically excised and pathological examination revealed an intraosseous cavernous hemangioma. Follow-up imaging 1 year later with cone beam computed tomography revealed recurrence of the lesion. The conclusion of this paper; when a bone hard, well-shaped mass was seen in the mandible, the possibility of intraosseous hemangioma must be remembered and before surgical procedure detailed radiographic evaluation should be performed. Key words:Hemangioma, intraosseous, mandible, cavernous, cbct. PMID:28149481

  8. Post-traumatic carotid cavernous fistula of late manifestation report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Roskal-Wałek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF is an abnormal connection between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Carotid cavernous fistula of traumatic aetiology occurs more commonly. The characteristic triad of symptoms covers the following: pulsating exophthalmos, a humming sound within the skull, and dilation and tortuosity of conjunctival and episcleral veins. The diagnosis of CCF may constitute a diagnostic problem in the situation when the symptoms occur several weeks after injury, it may overlap with other post-traumatic changes, and the dominant symptom may be cranial nerve palsy. The lack of a correct diagnosis and adequate causative therapy creates the risk of not only loss of vision, but also of life. We present a case of a patient who developed fistula symptoms a few weeks after an injury. The diagnosis of post-traumatic CCF was confirmed by imaging examinations. The application of transluminal embolisation led to the resolution of the majority of symptoms.

  9. Intraosseous Cavernous Hemangioma in the Mandible: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elif, Bilgir; Derya, Yildirim; Gulperi, Kocer; Sevgi, Bozova

    2017-01-01

    Intraosseous vascular lesions are rare conditions. They are most commonly seen in the vertebral column and skull; nevertheless, the mandible is a quite rare location. In this report, we present a case of intraosseous cavernous hemangioma in the mandible and discuss the clinical and radiological features. A 28-year-old male patient attended to our clinic with a complaint of painless swelling of mandible. Clinical evaluation revealed a bone-hard, smooth-surfaced, immobile mass in the left mandibular lingual area. The patient was evaluated with panoramic and occlusal radiography and computed tomography. The lesion surgically excised and pathological examination revealed an intraosseous cavernous hemangioma. Follow-up imaging 1 year later with cone beam computed tomography revealed recurrence of the lesion. The conclusion of this paper; when a bone hard, well-shaped mass was seen in the mandible, the possibility of intraosseous hemangioma must be remembered and before surgical procedure detailed radiographic evaluation should be performed. Key words:Hemangioma, intraosseous, mandible, cavernous, cbct.

  10. Gas hydrates in gas storage caverns; Gashydrate bei der Gaskavernenspeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenefeld, P. [Kavernen Bau- und Betriebs-GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Given appropriate pressure and temperature conditions the storage of natural gas in salt caverns can lead to the formation of gas hydrates in the producing well or aboveground operating facilities. This is attributable to the stored gas becoming more or less saturated with water vapour. The present contribution describes the humidity, pressure, and temperature conditions conducive to gas hydrate formation. It also deals with the reduction of the gas removal capacity resulting from gas hydrate formation, and possible measures for preventing hydrate formation such as injection of glycol, the reduction of water vapour absorption from the cavern sump, and dewatering of the cavern sump. (MSK) [Deutsch] Bei der Speicherung von Erdgas in Salzkavernen kann es unter entsprechenden Druck- und Temperaturverhaeltnissen zur Gashydratbildung in den Foerdersonden oder obertaegigen Betriebseinrichtungen kommen, weil sich das eingelagerte Gas mehr oder weniger mit Wasserdampf aufsaettigt. Im Folgenden werden die Feuchtigkeits-, Druck- und Temperaturbedingungen, die zur Hydratbildung fuehren erlaeutert. Ebenso werden die Verringerung der Auslagerungskapazitaet durch die Hydratbildung, Massnahmen zur Verhinderung der Hydratbildung wie die Injektion von Glykol, die Verringerung der Wasserdampfaufnahme aus dem Kavernensumpf und die Entwaesserung der Kavernensumpfs selbst beschrieben.

  11. Creep behaviour of a polymer-based underground support liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guner, Dogukan; Ozturk, Hasan

    2017-09-01

    All underground excavations (tunnels, mines, caverns, etc.) need a form of support to ensure that excavations remain safe and stable for the designed service lifetime. In the last decade, a new support material, thin spray-on liner (TSL) has started to take place of traditional underground surface supports of bolts and shotcrete. TSLs are generally cement, latex, polymer-based and also reactive or non-reactive, multi-component materials applied to the rock surface with a layer of few millimeter thickness. They have the advantages of low volume, logistics, rapid application and low operating cost. The majority of current TSLs are two-part products that are mixed on site before spraying onto excavation rock surfaces. Contrary to the traditional brittle supports, the high plastic behaviour of TSLs make them to distribute the loads on larger lining area. In literature, there is a very limited information exist on the creep behavior of TSLs. In this study, the creep behavior of a polymer-based TSL was investigated. For this purpose, 7-day cured dogbone TSL specimens were tested under room temperature and humidity conditions according to ASTM-D2990 creep testing standard. A range of dead weights (80, 60, 40, and 20 % of the tensile strength) were applied up to 1500 hours. As a result of this study, the time-dependent strain behavior of a TSL was presented for different constant load conditions. Moreover, a new equation was derived to estimate tensile failure time of the TSL for a given loading condition. If the tensile stress acting on the TSL is known, the effective permanent support time of the TSL can be estimated by the proposed relationship.

  12. Study on the planning of a demonstration plant for hydrogen fuel production by electrolysis using caching in salt caverns under pressure; Studie ueber die Planung einer Demonstrationsanlage zur Wasserstoff-Kraftstoffgewinnung durch Elektrolyse mit Zwischenspeicherung in Salzkavernen unter Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-02-05

    In a two year research project the long-term storage of hydrogen as energy carrier has been assessed in detail for large renewable electricity quantities in underground storage caverns in Germany. Next to a regions analysis for potential storage sites, the benchmarking against other large scale storage concepts, a comparative and perspective analysis of alkaline and PEM-electrolysers also potential business cases for Power-to-Hydrogen in the mobility sector as well as for the chemical, electricity and natural gas industry have been analysed. [German] Durch den geplanten Ausbau der Stromerzeugung aus fluktuierenden, erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland ruecken Speichertechnologien fuer elektrische Energie immer staerker in den Fokus des industriellen und politischen Interesses. Eine vielversprechende Moeglichkeit fuer eine Langzeitspeicherung bei hohen Anteilen von Wind- und Photovoltaikanlagen sind Speichertechnologien wie die Wasserstoffspeicherung mit Hilfe von Wasserelektrolyseuren. Diese koennen erneuerbaren Strom in grossen Mengen und bei entsprechender Steuerung selektiv in Zeiten mit hohem Dargebot z.B. an Windstrom chemisch speichern. Der gespeicherte Wasserstoff kann dann entweder zu einem spaeteren Zeitpunkt wieder rueckverstromt oder direkt stofflich verwertet werden, z.B. als Kraftstoff fuer den Verkehrssektor, als chemischer Rohstoff oder fuer den Hausenergiebereich durch Einspeisung in das Erdgastransportnetz. Thema der vorliegenden Studie sind Analysen und Planungen fuer die Erprobung des Gesamtsystems ''Wasserstoff-Elektrolyse-Speicherung'' in energiewirtschaftlich relevanten Dimensionen. Dazu werden mit einem neuen Ansatz techno-oekonomische Entwicklungspfade fuer Wasserstoff-Systeme unterschiedlicher Groesse und Technologien charakterisiert und technologische Risiken bei der Realisierung dieser Systeme identifiziert und bewertet. Diese Arbeiten werden ergaenzt durch Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der Salzkavernenspeicherung in Form

  13. Engineering rock mechanics practices in the underground powerhouse at Jinping I hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqing Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analyses of data obtained from the underground powerhouse at Jinping I hydropower station, a comprehensive review of engineering rock mechanics practice in the underground powerhouse is first conducted. The distribution of strata, lithology, and initial geo-stress, the excavation process and corresponding rock mass support measures, the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass, the stress characteristics of anchorage structures in the cavern complex, and numerical simulations of surrounding rock mass stability and anchor support performance are presented. The results indicate that the underground powerhouse of Jinping I hydropower station is characterized by high to extremely high geo-stresses during rock excavation. Excessive surrounding rock mass deformation and high stress of anchorage structures, surrounding rock mass unloading damage, and local cracking failure of surrounding rock masses, etc., are mainly caused by rock mass excavation. Deformations of surrounding rock masses and stresses in anchorage structures here are larger than those found elsewhere: 20% of extensometers in the main powerhouse record more than 50 mm with the maximum at around 250 mm observed in the downstream sidewall of the transformer hall. There are about 25% of the anchor bolts having recorded stresses of more than 200 MPa. Jinping I hydropower plant is the first to have an underground powerhouse construction conducted in host rocks under extremely high geo-stress conditions, with the ratio of rock mass strength to geo-stress of less than 2.0. The results can provide a reference to underground powerhouse construction in similar geological conditions.

  14. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-06-15

    The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two

  15. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  16. LUNA: Nuclear Astrophysics Deep Underground

    CERN Document Server

    Broggini, Carlo; Guglielmetti, Alessandra; Menegazzo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics strives for a comprehensive picture of the nuclear reactions responsible for synthesizing the chemical elements and for powering the stellar evolution engine. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory the cross sections of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The salient features of underground nuclear astrophysics are summarized here. The main results obtained by LUNA in the last twenty years are reviewed, and their influence on the comprehension of the properties of the neutrino, of the Sun and of the Universe itself are discussed. Future directions of underground nuclear astrophysics towards the study of helium and carbon burning and of stellar neutron sources in stars are pointed out.

  17. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies, such as 25Mg(p,γ)26Al, 19F(p,α)16O, 13C(α,n)16O and 12C(α,γ)16O.

  18. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  19. Endovascular management of dural fistulas into the cavernous sinus. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dural fistula to the cavernous sinus (DFCS is an infrequent pathology that consists in the anomalous communication between the meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA and/or the external carotid artery (ECA and the cavernous sinus. Aim: To perform a systematic review to evaluate clinical and imaging findings in DFCS, and current indications for treatment.

  20. Tuberculoma of the Cavernous Sinus and Meckel's Cave in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V R Roopesh; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Verma, Surendra Kumar; Barathi, S Deepak; Yadav, Awdhesh Kumar; Bidkar, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculous infection of the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave is extremely rare. In this report, we describe a patient with tuberculoma of the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave, extending to the petrous apex. The patient underwent microsurgical excision of the lesion and antitubercular chemotherapy resulting in a good outcome. We describe the diagnostic difficulties and review the relevant literature.

  1. Endovascular treatment with transvenous approach for embolization of carotid cavernous fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Young

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of endovascular treatment in carotid cavernous fistula is to close the tear side at cavernous sinus part. It can be dealt either by transvenous or transarterial approach. The option is influenced by type of fistula and angioarchitectural findings. We described two different transvenous routes emphasizing on anatomical consideration and its technical aspect.

  2. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  3. Fight Against Underground Policies Intensifies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZHUOQIONG

    2004-01-01

    On May 27, the China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC)called in the chief representatives of foreign life insurers with branches in Hong Kong and Macao for a meeting andasked the companies to get more disciplined and help the government to combat underground policies.

  4. An embedded underground navigation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available GPS. Our research interest is focused on using a lowcost off-the-shelf inertial measurement unit (IMU) to improve the Active Beacon Positioning System (ABPS) developed here at the CSIR. This paper proposes a novel pose estimator, for underground mines...

  5. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  6. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  7. Direct orbital puncture of the cavernous sinus for the treatment of a carotid-cavernous dural AV fistula with a concomitant venous/lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumou, Adriaan D; van den Berg, René; Bot, Joost C; Beetsma, Daan B; Saeed, Peerooz

    2014-02-01

    A 37- year old male with a long history of a left orbital venous/lympathic malformation presented with ocular injection, increased proptosis and reduced left vision. Angiography demonstrated a carotid cavernous dural AV fistula combined with a concomitant venous/lymphatic malformation. After attempts at transvenous embolization, a direct uncomplicated transorbital puncture of the cavernous sinus via a lateral orbitotomy was performed with complete resolution of ocular symptoms.

  8. Operative management of tumors involving the cavernous sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, L N; Møller, A R

    1986-06-01

    In the past, neurosurgeons have been reluctant to operate on tumors involving the cavernous sinus because of the possibility of bleeding from the venous plexus or injury to the internal carotid artery (ICA) or the third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerves. The authors describe techniques for a more aggressive surgical approach to neoplasms in this area that are either benign or locally confined malignant lesions. During the last 2 years, seven tumors involving the cavernous sinus have been resected: six totally and one subtotally. The preoperative evaluation included axial and coronal computerized tomography, cerebral angiography, and a balloon-occlusion test of the ICA. Intraoperative monitoring of the third, fourth, sixth, and seventh cranial nerves was used to assist in locating the nerves and in avoiding injury to them. The first major step in the operative procedure was to obtain proximal control of the ICA at the petrous apex and distal control in the supraclinoid segment. The cavernous sinus was then opened by a lateral, superior, or inferior approach for tumor resection. Temporary clipping and suture of the ICA was necessary in one patient. None of the patients died or suffered a stroke postoperatively. Permanent trigeminal nerve injury occurred in three patients; in two, this was the result of tumor invasion. One patient suffered temporary paralysis of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves, and in another the sixth cranial nerve was temporarily paralyzed. Preoperative cranial nerve deficits were improved postoperatively in three patients. Radiation therapy was administered postoperatively to four patients. These seven patients have been followed for 6 to 18 months to date and none has shown evidence of recurrence of the intracavernous tumor.

  9. Fibrosis of corpus cavernosum in animals following cavernous nerve ablation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-LiHu; Li-QuanHu; jianSong; Shi-WenLi; Xin-MinZheng; BeiCheng; Bing-ChunTian

    2004-01-01

    t Aim: To investigate alterations of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum following cavernous neurectomy and its relation to the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Methods: Ten adult male SD rats (neurectomy group) were subject to a bilateral cavernous nerve (CN) resection aseptically under an operating microscope, with 6 sham-operated rats as the control. Fifteen weeks after the operation, the penile specimens were collected and prepared for quantitative-analyzing of ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum with confocal microscopy, and for detecting the expression of TGF-β1 by RT-PCR and westernblot.Results: Smooth muscle cells that show red color after fluorescent-labeling with tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanatephalloidin and collagen fibers that produce green autofluorescence after paraformaldehyde fixation were clearly identified under the confocal microscope. Quantification of fluorescent intensity showed that the ratio of smooth muscle to collagen fibers in corpus cavernosum in neurectomy group was 0.265± 0.125, which was significantly lower than that in sham-operated group (0.760±0.196, P<0.01). RT-PCR and western-blot analyses revealed a significantlyhigher expression of TGF-β1 in the penile tissues of the neurectomy animals than that in sham-operated group.Conclusion: Bilateral ablation of CN can lead to fibrosis of corpus cavernosum, which may be related to an increased expression of TGF-β1 induced by hypoxia in cavernous tissue after denervation.

  10. Control Surveys for Underground Construction of the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, W.J.Trevor; Robinson, Gregory L.; /Measurment Science Inc.; Robbins, Jeffrey S.; Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    Particular care had to be taken in the design and implementation of the geodetic control systems for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) due to stringent accuracy requirements, the demanding tunneling schedule, long duration and large size of the construction effort of the project. The surveying requirements and the design and implementation of the surface and underground control scheme for the precise location of facilities which include approximately 120 km of bored tunnel are discussed. The methodology used for the densification of the surface control networks, the technique used for the transfer of horizontal and vertical control into the underground facilities, and the control traverse scheme employed in the tunnels is described.

  11. Control Surveys for Underground Construction of the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, W.J.Trevor; Robinson, Gregory L.; /Measurment Science Inc.; Robbins, Jeffrey S.; Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    Particular care had to be taken in the design and implementation of the geodetic control systems for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) due to stringent accuracy requirements, the demanding tunneling schedule, long duration and large size of the construction effort of the project. The surveying requirements and the design and implementation of the surface and underground control scheme for the precise location of facilities which include approximately 120 km of bored tunnel are discussed. The methodology used for the densification of the surface control networks, the technique used for the transfer of horizontal and vertical control into the underground facilities, and the control traverse scheme employed in the tunnels is described.

  12. A simple statistical signal loss model for deep underground garage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the channel modeling aspects for a deep-indoor scenario with extreme coverage conditions in terms of signal losses, namely underground garage areas. We provide an in-depth analysis in terms of path loss (gain) and large scale signal shadowing, and a propose simple...

  13. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 57.4761 Section 57.4761... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Ventilation Control Measures § 57.4761 Underground shops. To confine or prevent the spread of...

  14. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated with...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of underground cable installed in conduit and of...

  16. Cavernous Angioma of the Corpus Callosum Presenting with Acute Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Pavesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric symptoms may occasionally be related to anatomic alterations of brain structures. Particularly, corpus callosum lesions seem to play a role in the change of patients’ behavior. We present a case of a sudden psychotic attack presumably due to a hemorrhagic cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum, which was surgically removed with complete resolution of symptoms. Although a developmental defect like agenesis or lipoma is present in the majority of these cases, a growing lesion of the corpus callosum can rarely be the primary cause. Since it is potentially possible to cure these patients, clinicians should be aware of this association.

  17. [Pontine cavernous angioma (cavernoma) with initial ENT manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Rivero, V; González Palomino, A; Pantoja Hernández, C G; Trinidad Ruíz, G; Marqués Rebollo, L; Blasco Huelva, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 22 years old female who consulted us for facial parestesias, hearing loss in right ear and sudden tinnitus. Her audiometry showed an unilateral discreet sensorineural hipoacusia and the cranial IRM, a mass of 20 mm diameter in right pontine region and bulbus informed as cavernous angioma with signs of recent bleeding. The patient was sent to Neurosurgery but she refused the intervention. The risk of hemorrhage in the cavernomas is estimated at 0.25% to 1.6% per year and represents the main reason to advise a surgical treatment.

  18. Multiple Cavernous Angiomas Associated With Psychotic Symptoms: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayadnasiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Multiple cerebral cavernous angiomas (CCA have genetic origin. They are uncommon entity and rarely occurring with psychiatric manifestations. Case Presentation A 28- year-old man presented with delusional disorder some months after diagnosis of CCA for which a neurosurgical intervention had been performed. According to clinical and neuroimaging findings, we discuss the possible correlation of CCA with psychotic symptoms of this patient. Conclusions Possibly, abnormal brain development secondary to a genetic abnormality or peri-natal insult predisposed patient to two different neuropsychiatric conditions.

  19. Studies on activation in the ATLAS cavern with MPX detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Benedikt; Sopczak, Andre; Biskup, Bartolomej; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solc, Jaroslav; Sopko, Vit; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek; Benes, Petr [IEAP CTU Prague (Czech Republic); Asbah, Nedaa; Leroy, Claude; Soueid, Paul [Universite de Montreal (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The ATLAS-MPX detectors are based on Medipix2 silicon devices designed by CERN for the detection of different types of radiation. These detectors are successfully operating in the ATLAS detector at 16 positions and collect data independent of the ATLAS data-recording chain. Their data was used to study the activation of the surrounding material and the ATLAS-MPX detectors itself during and after collisions. As the detectors also offer the possibility to distinguish between different types of radiation, an attempt was made to estimate the corresponding dose rates at different locations in the ATLAS detector and in the cavern. First results are presented.

  20. Cavernous Hemangioma of the Skull and Meningioma: Association or Coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kilani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraosseous cavernous hemangiomas of the skull are rare. Meningiomas are quite frequently encountered in a neurosurgical practice. The association between these two entities is nevertheless very uncommon. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old woman suffering from headache. The MRI showed a parietal meningioma with adjacent thick bone. The meningioma and the bone were removed. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of meningioma and revealed a cavernoma of the skull. The relationship between the lesions suggests more than a coincidental association. Several hypotheses are proposed to explain common causal connections.

  1. An interesting case of angiogenesis in cavernous hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is the most common orbital tumor in adult. There is lot of literatures for clinicopathological features of this tumor. These tumors had been studied for the model of angiogenesis in many of the experimental setups. We present a case of 34-year-old male with this tumor in the left eye with computerized tomography evidence. Postsurgical laboratory findings gave interesting evidence of tumor angiogenesis with tumor endothelial cells and sprouting of the small vessels endothelial cells. Podosome rosette could be conceptualized from the characteristic patterns seen in the tumor.

  2. Uncommon cavernous malformation of the optic chiasm: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xianbin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cavernous malformation (CM is a vascular malformation disorder characterized by a berry-like mass of expanded blood vessels. CM, originating from the optic chiasm. usually leads to chiasma syndrome presenting with bitemporal hemianopsia. We report a 28-year-old male presenting with left homonymous hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed an occupied lesion located in the right side of the optic chiasm, and a clinical diagnosis of chiasmal CM was made. Microsurgical excision was performed via anterolateral pterional craniotomy. The patient showed good recovery with slight improvement of the visual field deficits after the operation. No CM recurrence was discovered during the follow-up MRI scans.

  3. Acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis with cavernous sinus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Tzu-Hang; Chen, Hsien-Shen; Yuan, Chien-Han; Su, Feng-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis is most commonly found in immunocompromised patients with conditions such as diabetes mellitus, malignancies and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The most common pathogens are Aspergillus and Mucoraceae and the sinus most frequently involved is the maxillary sinus. Fever, rhinorrhea, facial pain, headache, and diplopia are common presenting symptoms. Complications of this infection include intracranial and / or intraorbital spread of the infection; the prognosis is poor. Here, a rare case of acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis with cavernous sinus syndrome is reported.

  4. Study on effects of longwall mining on the underground water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-bing; Syd S. Peng

    2007-01-01

    It is very important for secure mining under water bodies to study the effects of Iongwall mining on the underground water. In order to study this problem, piezometers for monitoring underground water levels were established in an American coalmine. Large amounts of pre-mining and post-mining monitoring data were collected. Based on the data,the effects of Iongwall mining on the underground water was studied. The results demonstrate that when the piezometer monitoring wells have an interburden thickness less than 72.7 m, the groundwater level decreases immediately to immeasurable levels and go dry after undermining. The height of the fractured zone in is 72.7~85.3 m in this geological and mining conditions. The results also show that the calculated value of fractured zone by the empirical formulae used in China is smaller than the actual results. Therefore, it is not always safe to use them in analysis of mining under water bodies.

  5. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  6. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  7. Ultrasonography guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatic cavernous hemangioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cui; Hong-Wen Zhang; Li-Yan Zhou; Man-Ku Dong; Ping Wang; Min Ji; Xiao-Ou Li; Chang-Wei Chen; Zi-Pei Liu; Yong-Jie Xu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Hepatic cavernous hemangioma (HCH) is the mostcommon benign tumor of the liver and its management isstill controversial. Recent successin situ radiofrequencyablation of hepatic malignancies has led us to consider usingthis technique in patients with HCH. This study was to assessthe efficacy, safety, and complications of percutaneousradiofrequency ablation (PRFA) under ultrasonographyguidance in patients with HCH.METHODS: Twelve patients (four men and eight women,age ranged 33-56 years, mean age was 41.7 years) with 15hepatic cavernous hemangiomas (2.5 cm to 9.5 cm) weretreated using the RF-2000 generator and 10-needle LeVeenelectrode percutaneously guided by B-ultrasound. Lesionslarger than 3 cm were treated by multiple overlappingablations that encompass the entire lesion as well as a rimof normal liver tissue (approximately 0.5 cm).RESULTS: All the patients who received PRFA therapy hadno severe pain, bleeding or bile leakage during and afterthe procedures. Nine to 34 months′ follow-up (mean, 21months) by ultrasound and/or spiral CT scan demonstratedthat the ablated lesions in this group were shrunk remarkably,and the shrunken range was 38-79 % (mean, 67 % per 21months). The contrast enhancement was disappeared withinthe tumor or at its periphery in all cases on spiral CT scansobtained 3 to 6 months after treatment.CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that PRFAtherapy is a mini-invasive, simple, safe, and effective methodfor the treatment of selected patients with HCH.

  8. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia; Lord, David

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  9. Cavernous sinus hemangioma: a fourteen year single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sumit; Suri, Ashish; Singh, Manmohan; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Agarwal, Deepak; Sharma, Manish Singh; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-06-01

    Cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) is a rare extra-axial vascular neoplasm that accounts for 2% to 3% of all cavernous sinus tumors. Their location, propensity for profuse bleeding during surgery, and relationship to complex neurovascular structures are factors which present difficulty in excising these lesions. The authors describe their experience of 22 patients with CSH over 14 years at a tertiary care center. Patients were managed with microsurgical resection using a purely extradural transcavernous approach (13 patients) and with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) (nine patients). Retrospective data analysis found headache and visual impairment were the most common presenting complaints, followed by facial hypesthesia and diplopia. All but one patient had complete tumor excision in the surgical series. Transient ophthalmoparesis (complete resolution in 6-8 weeks) was the most common surgical complication. In the GKRS group, marked tumor shrinkage (>50% tumor volume reduction) was achieved in two patients, slight shrinkage in five and no change in two patients, with symptom improvement in the majority of patients. To our knowledge, we describe one of the largest series of CSH managed at a single center. Although microsurgical resection using an extradural transcavernous approach is considered the treatment of choice in CSH and allows complete excision with minimal mortality and long-term morbidity, GKRS is an additional tool for treating residual symptomatic lesions or in patients with associated comorbidities making surgical resection unsuitable.

  10. Extradural spinal cavernous angiomas: report of seven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Antonio; Piccirilli, Manolo; Bristot, Roberto; di Norcia, Valerio; Salvati, Maurizio; Delfini, Roberto

    2005-10-01

    The authors describe seven cases of extradural spinal cavernous angioma. Although cavernoma itself is not rare, the extradural spinal localization is uncommon and makes preoperative differential diagnosis difficult. Routine MRI investigation has aided neurosurgeons in evaluating the true incidence of these vascular malformations, which was understimated in the past. The data published so far have not entirely clarified the treatment of choice for these lesions. Considering their rarity in this site, their presenting symptoms and the difficulties involved in neuroradiological diagnosis, the authors discuss the role of surgery as the principal form of treatment and review the relevant literature. Seven patients (4 male, 3 female) were admitted to our Institute of Neurosurgery between 1992 and 2004, with a 5-6 month history (range=2-365 days) of low back pain or radicular pain, sometimes associated with paresthesia. All patients had a CT scan, as well as MRI with gadolinium when possible, which detected an extradural roundish lesion: differential diagnosis was very difficult, especially between neurinoma and cavernoma. Treatment was always surgical and resection of the lesion radical. Postoperatively, all patients presented complete regression of clinical symptoms. In all cases histological diagnosis was cavernous angioma. Postoperative MRI with gadolinium or CT scan with IV contrast, performed before discharge, confirmed radical removal of the vascular malformation in all cases. Our experience confirms that surgery should be the treatment of choice for these lesions, in view of both their tendency to bleed and their straightforward surgical removal.

  11. International Conference on Underground Pumped Hydro and Compressed Air Energy Storage, San Francisco, CA, September 20-22, 1982, Collection of Technical Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Topics discussed include an assessment of the market potential of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, turbocompressor considerations in CAES plants, subsurface geological considerations in siting an underground pumped hydro (UPH) project, and the preliminary assessment of waste heat recovery system for CAES plants. Also considered are CAES caverns design for leakage, simulation of the champagne effect in CAES plants, design of wells and piping for an aquifer CAES plant, various aspects of the Huntor CAES facility, low-pressure CAES, subsurface instrumentation plan for the Pittsfield CAES field test facility, and the feasibility of UPH storage in the Netherlands.

  12. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  13. 我国隧道及地下工程发展现状与展望%State-of-art and Prospect of Tunnels and Underground Works in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪开荣

    2015-01-01

    The state﹣of﹣the﹣art of the tunnels and underground works in China,including railway tunnels,highway tunnels,Metro tunnels,hydraulic tunnels,municipal﹣service tunnels and underground energy storage caverns,are analyzed.The technological development and innovation of tunnels and underground works in China are summarized in terms of geological prospecting and prediction,design,construction,disaster prevention,ventilation and lighting,risk control and operation management,and application of new materials and technologies related to waterproofing and drainage.The technological development and innovation of construction technologies,including shallow﹣cover mining method,TBM (shield)equipment and tunneling technology,single﹣shield TBM,open﹣mode TBM,rectangular pipe jacking method,shield launching and arriving at the ground surface,treatment of karst tunnel,deformation control technology and rock burst control technology for high ground stress tunnel,mechanization of drilling and blasting method,gas tunnel and immersed tunnel,are presented in detail.In the end,the development of tunnels and underground works in China is prospected.Conclusions drawn are as follows:There will be more and more extremely﹣long tunnels in China;Metro tunnels will be developed continuously;Underground urban railway tunnels will be built;urban underground highways will be build;Deep drainage tunnel system in urban area is worth popularizing;A new mode will be adopted for the development and use of underground space and underground utility tunnels;The underground energy storage cavern is a trend;The west line of South﹣to﹣North Water﹣diversion Project is worth to be focused;Bohai Strait Crossing Tunnel,Taiwan Strait Crossing Tunnel and Qiongzhou Strait Crossing Tunnel will be built definitely;There will be numerous tunnels to be constructed on the future international railways,and large challenges will be encountered.Briefly,there will be larger progress and larger development

  14. Road construction in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benke, L.; Benkovics, I.

    1985-01-01

    The need and reasons of road construction for rubber-tyre vehicles in various mine sections are examined. A detailed analysis is given of the direct and indirect influences of underground haulage ways and transport roads on the parameters of mine performance. The various mine road construction technologies are overviewed. Experiences are presented with road construction in the Mecsek Ore Mines Company, Plant 3, Hungary. The cost factors of four construction technologies are compared.

  15. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  16. Urban underground network expansion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozic, Z. [Sinclair Knight Merz Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia); Hobson, E. [HI Consulting Services Pty Ltd., Adelaide (Australia)

    1997-03-01

    The authors describe a three step approach to expansion planning of high voltage (HV) urban underground distribution networks. Although the techniques are specifically oriented to underground systems, they are equally applicable to overhead system design. The fundamental engineering problem is how to connect individual high voltage to low voltage substations (HV/LV SS) and zone HV SS into a future urban underground network. The problem is to rearrange the HV network to minimise the cost of expansion subject to provision of an alternative supply, specified load transfer among the neighbouring zone SS, and other general planning constraints such as feeder capacity, voltage regulation, operational requirements and losses. A review of the current state of the art of distribution expansion planning is provided. The normal manual approach is discussed together with more recent research into computer methods. Three lines of computer research are identified and classified as radially constrained, security constrained and utilisation of travelling salesman/vehicle routing problem algorithms (TSP/VRP). The TSP/VRP line of research has been extended here to produce practical techniques for the assistance of network planners. (Author)

  17. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  18. A CERN-based high-intensity high-energy proton source for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments with next-generation large underground detectors for proton decay searches and neutrino physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, A

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of a European next-generation very massive neutrino observatory in seven potential candidate sites located at distances from CERN ranging from 130 km to 2300 km, is being considered within the LAGUNA design study. The study is providing a coordinated technical design and assessment of the underground research infrastructure in the various sites, and its coherent cost estimation. It aims at a prioritization of the sites within summer 2010 and a start of operation around 2020. In addition to a rich non-accelerator based physics programme including the GUT-scale with proton decay searches, the detection of a next-generation neutrino superbeam tuned to measure the flavor-conversion oscillatory pattern (i.e. 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima) would allow to complete our understanding of the leptonic mixing matrix, in particular by determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and by studying CP-violation in the leptonic sector, thereby addressing the outstanding puzzle of the origin of the excess of matter ...

  19. First cosmic ray results of the RPC commissioning in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Document Server

    Solfaroli, E

    2008-01-01

    The first commissioning test of three muon towers of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, installed in the cavern, was carried out. The stations under test belong to the barrel sector 13, which is a large sector. A muon tower consists of three stations: the Inner, the Middle and the Outer, starting from the interaction point. The Barrel Inner Large (BIL) stations are constituted by MDT chambers; the Barrel Middle Large (BML) stations by MDTs assembled between two RPC chambers; and the Barrel Outer Large (BOL) stations by MDTs with only one RPC mounted downstream. Specific Level-1 trigger algorithms have been studied to trigger on cosmic rays and implemented to commission the muon stations. Comparison between the measured trigger rate and the simulated results will be presented. Moreover, the RPC performances have been studied by comparing the MDT track extrapolations with the firing RPC readout strips. The RPC detection efficiency is evaluated in the eta measuring view, resulting as a combination of gas volume effici...

  20. Microsurgical thromboendarterectomy of the cavernous carotid artery--case report and surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitsu, K; Fujii, S; Tanaka, N; Kuwabara, T

    1990-10-01

    A 53-year-old male suffered a transient right hemiparesis and left monocular blindness. Angiography revealed 80% stenosis of the cavernous carotid artery. Microsurgical thromboendarterectomy was performed by a direct approach through Parkinson's triangle. During surgery, the carotid circulation was transiently trapped between the cervical and the supraclinoid segment and the trapped arterial lumen was irrigated with heparinized saline. Soft elastic lesion was easily removed. Cavernous carotid thromboendarterectomy through a direct approach is considered as a suitable operation for the solitary and localized stenotic lesions of the cavernous carotid artery, although this operation has not yet been reported to date.

  1. DOE Grant to organize "International Symposium on Opportunities in Underground Physics", Asilomar, CA, May 24-27, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Kaladi S. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2015-03-16

    The International Symposium in Opportunities in Underground Physics (ISOUP) was held in Asilomar, CA during May 24-27, 2013. The Symposium brought together scientists from the US and abroad for an open discussion on science opportunities provided by the possibility of a new generation of large underground detectors associated with long baseline neutrino beams. The Symposium was highly successful. The main focus of the Symposium was the science goals that could be achieved by placing such a detector deep underground.

  2. Endovascular treatment of carotid-cavernous vascular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Guilherme Brasileiro DE; Silva, João Miguel; Paiva, Aline Lariessy; Jory, Maurício; Conti, Mario Luiz; Veiga, José Carlos

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the endovascular treatment of vascular lesions of the cavernous segment of the internal carotidartery (ICA) performed at our institution. we conducted a descriptive, retrospective and prospective study of patients with aneurysms of the cavernous portion of the ICA or with direct carotid-cavernous fistulas (dCCF) undergoing endovascular treatment. we included 26 patients with intracavernous aneurysms and ten with dCCF. All aneurysms were treated with ICA occlusion. Those with dCCF were treated with occlusion in seven cases and with selective fistula occlusion in the remaining three. There was improvement of pain and ocular proptosis in all patients with dCCF. In patients with intracavernous aneurysms, the incidence of retro-orbital pain fell from 84.6% to 30.8% after treatment. The endovascular treatment decreased the dysfunction of affected cranial nerves in both groups, especially the oculomotor one. the endovascular treatment significantly improved the symptoms in the patients studied, especially those related to pain and oculomotor nerve dysfunction. avaliar o tratamento endovascular de lesões vasculares da artéria carótida interna (ACI), segmento cavernoso, realizado na Santa Casa de São Paulo. estudo descritivo, retrospectivo e prospectivo, de pacientes com aneurisma da porção cavernosa da ACI ou com fístulas carótido-cavernosas diretas (FCCd) submetidos a tratamento endovascular. foram incluídos 26 pacientes com aneurismas intracavernosos e dez com FCCd. Todos os aneurismas foram tratados com oclusão da ACI. Os com FCCd foram tratados com oclusão, em sete casos, e com oclusão seletiva da fístula nos outros três. Houve melhora da dor e proptose ocular em todos os pacientes com FCCd. Nos pacientes com aneurisma intracavernoso, a incidência de dor retro-orbitária caiu de 84,6% para 30,8% após o tratamento. Após o tratamento endovascular houve uma melhora importante da disfunção de nervos cranianos afetados em ambos os grupos

  3. A Fast Neutron Spectrometer for Underground Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Thomas; Beise, Elizabeth; Breuer, Herbert; Erwin, Dylan; Bass, Christopher; Heimbach, Craig; Nico, Jeff

    2010-02-01

    The characterization of the fast neutron fluence has become a critical issue for experiments that require extreme low-background environments, such as neutrino-less double-beta decay, dark matter searches, and solar neutrino experiments. In such experiments, fast neutrons may be the dominant and a potentially irreducible background, thus necessitating precise information about the fast neutron fluence and energy spectrum. The most reasonable approach to addressing the problem is through the complete characterization of the neutrons through both site-specific measurement and benchmarking of simulation codes. We will discuss the progress toward the development of a large-volume, segmented detector consisting of plastic scintillator and ^3He proportional counters. The detector will be placed in an underground environment to measure the fast neutron flux and energy spectrum. A prototype detector has been constructed and testing is in progress. We will discuss the status of the project and present data from the prototype detector. )

  4. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  5. Epileptic Seizures Induced by a Spontaneous Carotid Cavernous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güner Koyuncu Çelik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department with complaints of fainting and loss of consciousness three times during the past month. She was diagnosed with epilepsy and started to be treated with antiepileptic drug. Physical examination showed, in the left eye, chemosis, limited eye movements in all directions, and minimal exophthalmos as unexisting symptoms on admission developed on the sixth day. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and digital subtraction angiography (DSA imaging revealed a carotid cavernous fistula (CCF. Epileptic attacks and ophthalmic findings previously present but diagnosed during our examinations were determined to ameliorate completely after performing the coil embolization. Based on literature, we present the first case with nontraumatic CCF manifesting with epileptic seizures and intermittent eye symptoms in the present report.

  6. Epileptic Seizures Induced by a Spontaneous Carotid Cavernous Fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our emergency department with complaints of fainting and loss of consciousness three times during the past month. She was diagnosed with epilepsy and started to be treated with antiepileptic drug. Physical examination showed, in the left eye, chemosis, limited eye movements in all directions, and minimal exophthalmos as unexisting symptoms on admission developed on the sixth day. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging revealed a carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). Epileptic attacks and ophthalmic findings previously present but diagnosed during our examinations were determined to ameliorate completely after performing the coil embolization. Based on literature, we present the first case with nontraumatic CCF manifesting with epileptic seizures and intermittent eye symptoms in the present report. PMID:28077946

  7. Management of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: From Diagnosis to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mouchtouris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cavernous malformations are the most common vascular malformations and can be found in many locations in the brain. If left untreated, cavernomas may lead to intracerebral hemorrhage, seizures, focal neurological deficits, or headaches. As they are angiographically occult, their diagnosis relies on various MR imaging techniques, which detect different characteristics of the lesions as well as aiding in planning the surgical treatment. The clinical presentation and the location of the lesion are the most important factors involved in determining the optimal course of treatment of cavernomas. We concisely review the literature and discuss the advantages and limitations of each of the three available methods of treatment—microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, and conservative management—depending on the lesion characteristics.

  8. Dural carotid cavernous sinus fistula presenting as isolated oculomotor nerve palsy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehnaz Arıcı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Indirect (dural carotid cavernous fistula is formed by the connection between meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinüs, and low flow circulation with low pressure is occured. Proptosis, ophtalmoplegia, headache, scleral and conjuctival hyperemia expanding around the eyeball can be observed. A forty-eight year old female patient with a background of diabetes mellitus and hypertension was admitted with complaints of double vision. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy was found in neurological examination and an indirect carotid cavernous fistula was revealed by digital subtraction angiography. Our case with carotid cavernous fistula as a rare cause of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy is worth to be reported.

  9. Transorbital superior ophthalmic vein sacrifice to preserve vision in ocular hypertension from aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; Davis, Brandon J; He, Lucy; Mawn, Louise A; Mocco, J

    2015-12-01

    Aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is rare and may clinically masquerade as a carotid cavernous fistula. Conventional management includes oral anticoagulation, but cases of ocular hypertension affecting vision may require more aggressive intervention. We report a case of a woman with spontaneous bilaterally occluded cavernous sinuses with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which resolved immediately following unilateral superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) sacrifice. She was subsequently placed on oral anticoagulants. By 4 months postoperatively her IOP was normalized and her vision had improved. Repeat angiography demonstrated stable venous filling, with some mild improvement of flow through the cavernous sinus. Coil-mediated sacrifice of the SOV might be an effective means to relieve ocular hypertension and preserve vision in the setting of aseptic CST.

  10. Diagnosis and management of trigemino-cavernous fistulas: case reports and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy R; Jindal, Gaurav; Mohan, Suyash; Fortes, Manuel; Hurst, Robert; Pukenas, Bryan; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2015-01-01

    Although usually asymptomatic, a persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) can rarely be associated with a direct fistula to the cavernous sinus (ie, trigemino-cavernous fistula). We present three patients with trigemino-cavernous fistulas; two were subsequently treated using modern endovascular techniques while the third initially declined therapy. We then review the literature of reported cases of this unusual entity. The aberrant anatomy associated with a PTA presents unique challenges to the management of these lesions, and must be well delineated prior to treatment. Finally, conservative management of trigemino-cavernous fistulas, either de novo or recurrent, may be considered if they demonstrate no evidence of cortical venous reflux and patient symptoms are tolerable.

  11. Direct carotid cavernous fistula after submucous resection of the nasal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizri, A R; al-Ajam, M; Zaytoun, G; al-Kutoubi, A

    2000-01-01

    A carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal arteriovenous anastomosis between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Etiologies of this condition reported in the literature so far include facial trauma, rupture of an intracavernous aneurysm of the carotid artery, Ehler-Danlos syndrome and fibromuscular dysplasia of the cerebral arteries. Such fistulae were reported as complications of rhinoplasty, transsphenoidal surgery, embolization of cavernous sinus meningioma, and rhinocerebral mucormycosis. CCF may also occur spontaneously in children or as a congenital malformation. However, to our knowledge, submucous resection of the nasal septum has not been reported before to cause direct carotid-cavernous fistula. CT and angiographic findings are presented and a review of the literature for reported causes of CCF is made as well as a brief discussion of the possible pathophysiology.

  12. A dural arteriovenous fistula in cavernous sinus developed from viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Jian; Zhang, Lin; Wan, Jue-Feng; Su, Shao-Hua; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Gui-Yun

    2011-06-01

    Although hormonal influences, inflammation, trauma, sinus thrombosis, venous hypertension, and congenital origin have been proposed as sources of dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) in cavernous and sigmoid sinuses, the etiology of these lesions remains controversial. We present a case with a cavernous sinus DAVF developed from viral meningitis which has not been previously described. A 24-year-old male was admitted to our institute because of periorbital pain, decreased vision, pulsatile tinnitus, chemosis, and exophthalmos on the right side after he had suffered viral meningitis four months before. Cerebral angiography demonstrated a cavernous sinus DAVF, which was successfully obliterated with several platinum coils using a transvenous approach. The viral meningitis most likely caused the inflammation, that may be responsible for the occurrence of the cavernous sinus DAVF. Prompt treatment for inflammation may help to prevent the development of DAVFs.

  13. [Anatomical study of the cavernous nerve in relation to nerve sparing operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanawa, K

    1994-08-01

    Recently, nerve sparing radical prostatectomy has became widely considered as the primary goal for maintaining a high standard of quality of life (QOL). However, anatomical localization of the cavernous nerve has not yet been precisely clarified in terms of the terminal end in the corpus cavernous penis distal to the urogenital membrane. Here in attempt to demonstrate the precise localization of the cavernous nerve, in six adult male cadaver. The cavernous nerves ran between the prostatic capsule and the prostatic fascia, through the capsule of the seminal vesicle. The nerves penetrated the membranous urethra at 8 mm from the margin of the urethra at the position of 5 and 7 o'clock. Therefore, the following procedures are critical to achieve successful nerve sparing: 1) meticulous division of the seminal-vesicle, 2) precise separation of the neurovascular bundle between the prostatic capsule and fascia, and 3) the careful transaction of the membranous urethra.

  14. FAM222B Is Not a Likely Novel Candidate Gene for Cerebral Cavernous Malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegler, Stefanie; Kirchmaier, Bettina; Rath, Matthias; Korenke, G. Christoph; Tetzlaff, Fabian; Van De Vorst, Maartje; Neveling, Kornelia; Acker-Palmer, Amparo; Kuss, Andreas W.; Gilissen, Christian; Fischer, Andreas; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Felbor, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are prevalent slow-flow vascular lesions which harbour the risk to develop intracranial haemorrhages, focal neurological deficits, and epileptic seizures. Autosomal dominantly inherited CCMs were found to be associated with heterozygous inactivating mutations

  15. Dural cavernous sinus fistulas. Diagnostic and endovascular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, Goetz [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Ben Taub General Hospital, Houston, TX (United States). Interventional Neuroradiology

    2010-07-01

    Dural cavernous sinus fistulas (DCSFs) represent a benign vascular disease, consisting in an arteriovenous shunt at the cavernous sinus. In the absence of spontaneous resolution, the fistula may lead to eye redness, swelling, proptosis, chemosis, ophthalmoplegia and visual loss. Although modern imaging techniques have improved the diagnostic, patients with low-flow DCSFs are still misdiagnosed. These patients can get erroneously treated for infections and inflammation for months or years and are at risk of visual loss. Early and proper diagnosis helps to avoid deleterious clinical course of the disease. This volume provides a complete guide to clinical and radiological diagnosis as well as to therapeutic management of DCSF with emphasis on modern minimal invasive treatment options. It commences with an informative description of relevant anatomy. After sections on the classification, etiology and pathogenesis of DCSF, the clinical symptomatology of the disease is described in detail. The role of modern non-invasive imaging tools is then addressed with the use of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (DSA), although invasive, remains the gold standard and is mandatory for clinical decision-making and strategy in endovascular treatment. Hence, a throughout consideration is given to both, 2D-DSA and 3D rotational angiography, including recent technological advancements such as Dual Volume (DV) imaging and angiographic computed tomography (ACT). After a short section on arteriovenous hemodynamics, the therapeutic management of DCSFs is described in detail. In particular, various transvenous techniques, required for successful endovascular occlusion of DCSF, are discussed in depth. This well-illustrated volume will be invaluable to all who may encounter DCSF in their clinical practice. (orig.)

  16. High-Energy Neutron Backgrounds for Underground Dark Matter Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Direct dark matter detection experiments usually have excellent capability to distinguish nuclear recoils, expected interactions with Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter, and electronic recoils, so that they can efficiently reject background events such as gamma-rays and charged particles. However, both WIMPs and neutrons can induce nuclear recoils. Neutrons are then the most crucial background for direct dark matter detection. It is important to understand and account for all sources of neutron backgrounds when claiming a discovery of dark matter detection or reporting limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section. One type of neutron background that is not well understood is the cosmogenic neutrons from muons interacting with the underground cavern rock and materials surrounding a dark matter detector. The Neutron Multiplicity Meter (NMM) is a water Cherenkov detector capable of measuring the cosmogenic neutron flux at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, which has an overburden of 2090 meters water equivalent. The NMM consists of two 2.2-tonne gadolinium-doped water tanks situated atop a 20-tonne lead target. It detects a high-energy (>~ 50 MeV) neutron via moderation and capture of the multiple secondary neutrons released when the former interacts in the lead target. The multiplicity of secondary neutrons for the high-energy neutron provides a benchmark for comparison to the current Monte Carlo predictions. Combining with the Monte Carlo simulation, the muon-induced high-energy neutron flux above 50 MeV is measured to be (1.3 ± 0.2) ~ 10-9 cm-2s-1, in reasonable agreement with the model prediction. The measured multiplicity spectrum agrees well with that of Monte Carlo simulation for multiplicity below 10, but shows an excess of approximately a factor of three over Monte Carlo prediction for multiplicities ~ 10 - 20. In an effort to reduce neutron backgrounds for the dark matter experiment SuperCDMS SNO- LAB, an active neutron veto was developed

  17. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals

  18. Endoscopic endonasal transclival resection of a ventral pontine cavernous malformation: technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Amador, Juan Luis; Ortega-Porcayo, Luis Alberto; Palacios-Ortíz, Isaac Jair; Perdomo-Pantoja, Alexander; Nares-López, Felipe Eduardo; Vega-Alarcón, Alfredo

    2016-10-21

    Brainstem cavernous malformations are challenging due to the critical anatomy and potential surgical risks. Anterolateral, lateral, and dorsal surgical approaches provide limited ventral exposure of the brainstem. The authors present a case of a midline ventral pontine cavernous malformation resected through an endoscopic endonasal transclival approach based on minimal brainstem transection, negligible cranial nerve manipulation, and a straightforward trajectory. Technical and reconstruction technique advances in endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery provide a direct, safe, and effective corridor to the brainstem.

  19. Dural arteriovenous fistulas of the cavernous sinus - clinical case and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our article is to present the results of our treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula of the cavernous sinus by glue embolization of the external carotid artery feeders. By this case presentation we try to clarify the clinical course, with the dural carotid cavernous fistula (CCF, characterizing a pallet of symptoms, paying special attention to radiological finding and endovascular treatment.

  20. Color Doppler Imaging in the Diagnosis and Follow-up of Carotid Cavernous Sinus Fistulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes color doppler imaging (CDI) in theevaluation and follow-up of nine patients with carotid cavernous sinusfistulas.The orbits and carotid arteries were examined with CDI.In allcases,the diagnosis was confirmed by angiography.CDI clearlydemonstrated the dilated superior ophthalmic veins (SOVs) with retrogradeflow and low resistance arterial doppler waveform in all nine patients (10eyes).After the study of quantitative hemodynamics,we found that directcarotid cavernous sinus fistulas s...

  1. Mixed capillary-cavernous extramedullary intradural hemangioma of the spinal cord mimicking meningioma: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaid, Abdullah; Bennardo, Michael Ross; Cenic, Aleksa; Lach, Boleslaw

    2015-06-01

    Hemangiomas are customarily described as low-grade vascular tumors most often located in the head and neck, but on rare occasions occurring in the intradural space of the spine. The different subtypes of hemangiomas can be distinguished histologically as capillary, cavernous, or mixed types. We describe a rare case of a mixed capillary-cavernous extramedullary intradural hemangioma of the thoracic spinal cord, mimicking meningioma radiologically.

  2. Image–guided resection of small lesions in the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, M.; Krauss, J K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective The microsurgical resection of tumors or vascular lesions in the cavernous sinus and the neighbouring Meckel's cave has been considered as hazardous because of often associated cranial nerve morbidity. Despite increasing consent that many of such tumors should not undergo surgical therapy, the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave may harbour small lesions of various origin, which are amenable for surgical resection. Surgery in this anatomical area needs a...

  3. The CMS cavern at Point 5 (SX5) in February 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee

    2005-01-01

    The CMS cavern at Point 5 (also called SX5) in Cessy, neighbouring France. The 4th and 5th pictures, taken in March 2003, shows the cavern during its construction, while the first three photos are taken once ready in February 2005. Fig. 6 shows the structure assembly in June 2005 and Fig. 7 the civil engineering works on the SX5 surface in April 2004.

  4. Spontaneous occlusion of traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula - the effect of angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfel, G.

    1984-08-01

    In two patients with a traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula, permanent occlusion of the lesion was observed following cerebral angiography and confirmed by further angiography. A delay is therefore recommended between performing angiography and carrying out further treatment, which may carry some risk. Possibly the use of ionic contrast media, which irritate the vessels, compression of the carotid artery, which reduces flow through the fistula, and general anaesthesia, which may drop the blood pressure, initiate thrombosis in the cavernous sinus. 3 figs.

  5. [Embolization as a treatment method in traumatic bilateral direct carotid cavernous fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprezak, Kamila; Brzegowy, Paweł; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    A case of 42-year-old man with rare posttraumatic bilateral direct carotid. cavernous fistulas, who was three times treated by endovascular management via trans-arterial route with stent-assisted microcoil placement, is reported. Presented technique might be method of choice for the intervention in cases of bilateral traumatic ca. rotid-cavernous fistulas. Stent-as sisted microcoil placement may in crease ability to successfully treat fistulas with preservation of the parent artery.

  6. The superior ophthalmic vein approach for the treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas: our first experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF are still a technical challenge to neurovascular team. The most commonly performed treatment consists in endovascular embolization of the lesion through an arterial or venous approach. Not always these conventional routes are feasible, requiring alternative routes. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with a complex indirect (Barrow D carotid cavernous sinus fistula treated by two interventional sessions that imposing a retrograde direct transvenous approach via the superior ophthalmic vein.

  7. The superior ophthalmic vein approach for the treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas: our first experience

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac A.; Dobrin N.; Ion Georgiana; Costan V.; Poeata I.

    2016-01-01

    Complex cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF) are still a technical challenge to neurovascular team. The most commonly performed treatment consists in endovascular embolization of the lesion through an arterial or venous approach. Not always these conventional routes are feasible, requiring alternative routes. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with a complex indirect (Barrow D) carotid cavernous sinus fistula treated by two interventional sessions that imposing a retrograde direct transvenous ...

  8. Preoperative diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma presenting with melena using wireless capsule endoscopy of the small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Yu; Hiramatsu, Katsushi; Nosaka, Takuto; Saito, Yasushi; Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Kazuto; Naito, Tatsushi; Ofuji, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hidetaka; Ohtani, Masahiro; Nemoto, Tomoyuki; Suto, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Akio; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Nakamoto, Yasunari

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Primary neoplasms of the small intestine are relatively rare in all age groups, accounting for about 5 % of all gastrointestinal tumors 1. Cavernous hemangiomas of the small intestine are also rare, can cause gastrointestinal bleeding, and are extremely difficult to diagnose preoperatively 2. We present a patient who presented with melena and iron deficiency anemia, for whom wireless capsule endoscopy and single-balloon enteroscopy facilitated the diagnosis of cavernous hemangioma. PMID:27004239

  9. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean &apos

  10. The ANDES Deep Underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Bertou, X

    2013-01-01

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is a unique opportunity to build a deep underground laboratory in the southern hemisphere. It will be built in the Agua Negra tunnel planned between Argentina and Chile, and operated by the CLES, a Latin American consortium. With 1750m of rock overburden, and no close- by nuclear power plant, it will provide an extremely radiation quiet environment for neutrino and dark matter experiments. In particular, its location in the southern hemisphere should play a major role in understanding dark matter modulation signals.

  11. Design fires in underground mines

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Rickard

    2010-01-01

    This report deals with the issue on design fires in underground mines. The main purposes of the report are: -          Describe different approaches to describe design fires. -          Develop suitable design fires for different systems, mines, warehouses, workshops etc. -          Discuss the position of the design fires with respect to adjacent installations, egress, interruptions in the production etc. -          Discuss the influence of ventilation on the fire growth and its influence wh...

  12. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  13. The Maintenance of The London Underground Tube Tunnel Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gleig Frazer

    2004-01-01

    It is helpful to have a brief history of London Underground when considering any aspect of its maintenance or future development. The system has developed over more than 100 years and only comparatively recently come under the control of a single organisation. This partly explains the complexity that has resulted from differences in construction between lines. A brief History is accordingly appended to this presentation as Appendix B. The recent History outlines how Tube Lines have come to be involved with London Underground and explains a little of the reason for our existence. We are required to maintain and improve London Underground assets. Our performance has to be measurable and it follows that we need to know the current condition "value" of those assets. A large part of London Underground's infrastructure is tube tunnels some of which have not been fully assessed since they were first constructed in the 19th Century. They used materials whose physical and durability properties were not, at the time, fully understood; and they were designed on a very empirical basis if they were "designed" at all. Some shafts and other elements of the Tunnel Asset appeared to have been forgotten or lost when the Public Private Partnership (PPP) instigation procedures began in earnest in 1998. A major part of our current maintenance programme is thus to ascertain and agree the current condition and extent of approximately 178kilometres of tube tunnel asset that we are required to maintain and improve.

  14. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance...

  15. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  16. Probabilistic Analysis of a Rock Salt Cavern with Application to Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Elham; Khaledi, Kavan; Miro, Shorash; König, Diethard; Schanz, Tom

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the failure probability of storing renewable energy in the form of hydrogen or compressed air in rock salt caverns. The validation of the short- and long-term integrity and stability of rock salt cavern is a prerequisite in their design process. The present paper provides a reliability-based analysis of a typical renewable energy storage cavern in rock salt. An elasto-viscoplastic creep constitutive model is implemented into a numerical model of rock salt cavern to assess its behavior under different operation conditions. Sensitivity measures of different variables involved in the mechanical response of cavern are computed by elementary effect global sensitivity method. Subset simulation methodology is conducted to measure the failure probability of the system with a low computational cost. This methodology is further validated by a comparison with a Monte Carlo-based probabilistic analysis. The propagation of parameter uncertainties and the failure probability against different failure criteria are evaluated by utilizing a Monte Carlo-based analysis. In this stage, the original finite element model is substituted by a surrogate model to further reduce the computational effort. Finally, a reliability analysis approach is employed to obtain the minimum admissible internal pressure in a cavern.

  17. A new endoscopic surgical classification and invasion criteria for pituitary adenomas involving the cavernous sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Savas; Anik, Ihsan; Koc, Kenan

    2011-01-01

    There are two major problems for the pituitary adenomas invading the Cavernous Sinus (CS); differentiation of extension and invasion and inability to demonstrate the medial wall via preoperative imaging methods. Two important corridors are defined in endoscopic cavernous sinus approaches; the lateral and medial corridor. A retrospective analysis was performed in 400 endoscopic transphenoidal approaches and 360 pituitary adenomas underwent endoscopic transphenoidal surgery in our department between September 1997 and December 2010. 48 patients affected by the tumours involving the cavernous sinus were included in this study. We performed an intraoperative evaluation of cavernous sinus invasion considering visualization of the medial wall defect, intracavernous ICA segments, minor tumour extensions through small focal pit holes of the medial wall of CS or confirming carotid segments of CS by micro-doppler. Cavernous sinus involvement was classified into three types according to the medial and lateral corridor extension of the tumor as 25 isolated medial corridor involvement (Type I), 5 isolated lateral corridor involvement (Type II) and 18 total involvement (Type III). Our classification depends on fully surgical endoscopic approach supported by neuroimaging techniques and anatomical studies and shows a good predictive value for all cavernous sinus involvement.

  18. Fractal Prediction of Grouting Volume for Treating Karst Caverns along a Shield Tunneling Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chieh Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst geology is common in China, and buried karst formations are widely distributed in Guangdong province. In the process of shield tunneling, the abundant water resources present in karst caverns could lead to the potential for high water ingress, and a subsequent in situ stress change-induced stratum collapse. The development and distribution of karst caverns should therefore be identified and investigated prior to shield tunnel construction. Grouting is an efficient measure to stabilize karst caverns. The total volume of karst caverns along the shield tunneling alignment, and its relationship with the required volume of grouts, should be evaluated in the preliminary design phase. Conventionally, the total volume of karst caverns is empirically estimated based on limited geological drilling hole data; however, accurate results are rarely obtained. This study investigates the hydrogeology and engineering geology of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province, and determines the fractal characteristics of the karst caverns along the tunnel section of Guangzhou metro line no. 9. The karst grouting coefficients (VR were found to vary from 0.11 in the case of inadequate drilling holes to 1.1 in the case where adequate drilling holes are provided. A grouting design guideline was furthermore developed in this study for future projects in karst areas.

  19. A study on correlativity between Qinghai-Tibet Plateau thermal infrared remote sensing data and underground temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Liqun; BI; Siwen; SONG; Shixin

    2006-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the correlativity between Qinghai-Tibet Plateau thermal infrared remote sensing data (QPTIRSD) and underground temperature field distribution, the main factors which obviously influence underground-layer temperatures were derived. Using neural network technology, a model was built to compute underground temperatures via parameters out of the inversion of thermal infrared remote sensing (TIRS) and then analyze the correlativity between above-ground parameters and underground temperatures. This method offers a new way to apply TIRS in monitoring the suture zone of a large-area massif as well as to research structural thermal anomalies.

  20. Novel, mutable site in the cerebral cavernous malformation-1 gene in Chinese sporadic intracranial cavernous malformation patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Xie; Xiancheng Chen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cerebral cavernous malformation-1 (CCM1) gene mutation might result in functional loss of KREV interaction trapped-1 (KRIT1), which is related to onset of cavernous malformations (CM). However, data addressing sporadic CM in Chinese patients remains limited to date.OBJECTIVE: To analyze CCM1 mutation of Chinese patients with sporadic intracranial CM.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Genetics experiment was performed in the Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University between January 2004 and December 2005.PARTICIPANTS: Ninety patients with sporadic CM served as the CM group, and 30 healthy subjects were considered to be the control group.METHODS: Peripheral blood was collected from patients with CM and from control group subjects.Genomic DNA was extracted, and exons 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, and 18, as well as the related introns, were amplified using polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequences were compared with GeneBank.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Abnormal mutable site of CCM1 gene in the two groups.RESULTS: Four exclusive mutations of CCM1 were detected in the CM group, with a sporadic CM mutational rate of 32% (6/19). Of the four exclusive mutations, there was one missense mutation [exon 12, 1172C→T (S391F)], one insertion mutation [exon 8, 704insT (K246stop)], one intervening sequence mutation (IVS12-4C→T), and one synonymous mutation (exon 17,1875C→T). With the exception of 1875C→T, all mutations detected in the CM group led to functional changes of the KRIT1 protein, which was encoded by the CCM1 gene. Gene mutations were not detected in the control group.CONCLUSION: Four exclusive mutations of the CCM1 gene were determined in Chinese patients with sporadic CM, which led to functional changes or loss of the encoding KRIT1 protein. KRIT1 protein is considered to be the genetic basis of CM occurrence.

  1. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawatzki, Julia [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a next-generation medium-baseline reactor neutrino experiment located in southern China, close to Kaiping. The construction of the 700 m deep underground facility already started and the experiment is scheduled to start data-taking in 2020, and is expected to operate for at least 20 years. The 20 kt liquid scintillator detector will detect low-energy neutrinos with an unprecedented energy resolution of 3% (at 1 MeV). The primary experimental goal is the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy at 3σ significance from the measurement of the reactor neutrino energy spectrum. Two nuclear power plants: Yangjiang and Taishan are located at a distance of ∝ 53 km from the detector. Moreover, JUNO will measure the solar neutrino mixing parameters and the atmospheric neutrino squared-mass splitting with a precision < 1%. In addition, supernova neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, sterile neutrinos as well as solar and atmospheric neutrinos can be studied. This talk reviews the status of the project and highlight important scientific objectives.

  2. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  3. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawar, Neelam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb.CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF.

  4. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  5. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where... removed to safe places before blasting....

  6. The Local Helium Compound Transfer Lines for the Large Hadron Collider Cryogenic System

    CERN Document Server

    Parente, C; Munday, A; Wiggins, P

    2006-01-01

    The cryogenic system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN will include twelve new local helium transfer lines distributed among five LHC points in underground caverns. These lines, being manufactured and installed by industry, will connect the cold boxes of the 4.5-K refrigerators and the 1.8-K refrigeration units to the cryogenic interconnection boxes. The lines have a maximum of 30-m length and may possess either small or large re-distribution units to allow connection to the interface ports. Due to space restrictions the lines may have complex routings and require several elbowed sections. The lines consist of a vacuum jacket, a thermal shield and either three or four helium process pipes. Specific internal and external supporting and compensation systems were designed for each line to allow for thermal contraction of the process pipes (or vacuum jacket, in case of a break in the insulation vacuum) and to minimise the forces applied to the interface equipment. Whenever possible, f...

  7. Successfully Managing the Experimental Area of a Large Physics Experiment from Civil Engineering to the First Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Butin, F

    2010-01-01

    The role of "Experimental Area Manager" supported by a well organized, charismatic and motivated team is absolutely essential for managing the huge effort needed for a multi-cultural, multi-disciplinary installation of cathedral-size underground caverns housing a billion dollar physics experiment. Between the years 2002 and 2008, we supervised and coordinated the ATLAS work site at LHC, from the end of the civil engineering to the first circulating beams, culminating with 240 workers on the site, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, with activities taking place simultaneously on the surface, in the 60 m shafts and in the 100 m underground experimental cavern. We depict the activities preparation scheme (including tasks ranging from the installation of 280 ton cranes to super-delicate silicon detectors), the work-site organization method, the safety management that was a top priority throughout the whole project, and the opencommunication strategy that required maintaining permanent public visits. The accumulation o...

  8. Overview of the European Underground Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pandola, L

    2011-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories are the only places where the extremely low background radiation level required for most experiments looking for rare events in physics and astroparticle physics can be achieved. Underground sites are also the most suitable location for very low background gamma-ray spectrometers, able to assay trace radioactive contaminants. Many operational infrastructures are already available worldwide for science, differing for depth, dimension and rock characteristics. Other underground sites are emerging as potential new laboratories. In this paper the European underground sites are reviewed, giving a particular emphasis on their relative strength and complementarity. A coordination and integration effort among the European Union underground infrastructures was initiated by the EU-funded ILIAS project and proved to be very effective.

  9. Design of Underground Current Detection Nodes Based on ZigBee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deyu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, most current detection devices of underground power equipment in coal mines of China are equipped with the cable monitoring network. Certain problems such as difficult circuit extension and maintenance exist there. With the help of ZigBee technology, it is able to monitor the underground current of monitoring regions in coal mines safely and effectively. Major advantages include extremely low system cost, safe data transmission, flexible networking and ultra-large network capacity.

  10. Nobody Sells Gold for the Price of Silver: Dishonesty, Uncertainty and the Underground Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herley, Cormac; Florêncio, Dinei

    The underground economy has attracted a lot of attention recently as a key component of cybercrime. In particular the IRC markets for stolen identities, phishing kits, botnets, and cybercrime related services have been extensively studied. It is suggested that sophisticated underground markets show great specialization and maturity. There are complex divisions of labor and service offerings for every need. Stolen credentials are traded in bulk for pennies on the dollar. It is suggested that large sums move on these markets.

  11. Delivery at CERN and installation of the LHC underground refrigerator 1.8K in UX85 (point 8).

    CERN Multimedia

    Caterina BERTONE (TS-IC-HS)

    2004-01-01

    Series of photographs showing the delivery, handling and installation of the LHC cryogenic refrigerator in point 8 (UX85). The LHC cryogenic fluid (liquid helium at 1.9 K) is produced by cryogenic refrigerators (QURC) that are situated in the shafts and in the underground tunnel areas: 8 new units are being installed to reinforce the existing LEP cryogenic units. Each of them has an overall weight of about 25 t, the shape of a huge reversed L, 2-m wide, 7-m long and around 7-m high. Each QURC is installed in a different cavern/pit and is surrounded by a multitude of other services; consequentially it demands a detailed handling study, the procurement/design of dedicated handling tools and several days for installation of any single part.

  12. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 5: Site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    A six-step site selection process undertaken to identify and subsequently rank potential sites suitable for either an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) facility, or a water-compensated hard-rock cavern compressed air energy storage (CAES) facility is described. The region of study was confined to the service area of the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and contiguous areas. Overriding considerations related to geology, environmental impact and transmission-line routing were studies within the context of minimizing plant costs. The selection process led to the identification of several sites suitable for the development of either a CAES or an UPH facility. Design development and site exploration at the selected site are described.

  13. Locomotive track detection for underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhonglei; Lang, Wenhui; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Xing

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the PC-based track detection system, this paper proposes a method to detect linear track for underground locomotive based on DSP + FPGA. Firstly, the analog signal outputted from the camera is sampled by A / D chip. Then the collected digital signal is preprocessed by FPGA. Secondly, the output signal of FPGA is transmitted to DSP via EMIF port. Subsequently, the adaptive threshold edge detection, polar angle and radius constrain based Hough transform are implemented by DSP. Lastly, the detected track information is transmitted to host computer through Ethernet interface. The experimental results show that the system can not only meet the requirements of real-time detection, but also has good robustness.

  14. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  15. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  16. Underground gasification of coal pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.; Haas, K. (Ustav pro Vyzkum a Vyuziti Paliv, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-10-01

    Gives details of a feasibility study of underground gasification of the remaining non-extractable pillars at the Merkur coal mine, Tusimice. Briefly describes geological conditions and explains calculation of amount of heat held in coal pillars: seam is on average 11.7 m thick and generator area contains 7,182,300 t of coal with mean ash content of 29.71% and calorific value of 10.49 MJ/kg. Assuming losses of 15%, generator should be able to produce about 70,000 m{sup 3}/h of gas, equal to a lifetime of 20 years for coal pillars at the Merkur mine. Reviews gasification techniques and describes design of underground generator, which is to produce 70,000 m{sup 3}/h of gas at pressure of 0.4-0.45 MPa, temperature 350 C, humidity up to 0.25 kg/m{sup 3}. Describes equipment for compressing, cleaning and cooling gas and construction of access roads for positioning equipment and pipelines. It would not be viable to transport the type of gas produced over long distances; it should be used within the immediate area, e.g. at the Prunerov II power plant 2 km away. Concludes by calculating manpower required to operate gasification scheme (122) and cost benefit of scheme, which should provide gas at 31.1 Crowns per GJ (town gas currently costs 46.4 Crowns per GJ and imported natural gas costs 35.58 Crowns per GJ). 4 refs.

  17. Endovascular repair of direct carotid–cavernous fistula in Ehlers–Danlos type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linfante, Italo; Lin, Eugene; Knott, Eric; Katzen, Barry; Dabus, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) type IV is a collagen vascular disease with an autosomal dominant inheritance caused by COL3A1 mutation. Patients with EDS type IV can present with organ rupture, spontaneous arterial dissections and ruptured aneurysms. Because of their propensity to form arterial dissections, aneurysms and rupture, they can develop carotid–cavernous fistula (CCF) after minor trauma or spontaneously. In EDS, it has been reported that even conventional catheter diagnostic angiography may result in large artery dissections and vessel rupture. In addition, the treatment of CCF in EDS type IV can result in up to 59% mortality after initial treatment, of which 23% is attributed to direct complications of treatment. We present the case of a patient with EDS type IV who previously had spontaneous dissection and multiple pseudoaneurysms of both the iliac and femoral arteries and the distal abdominal aorta. Several years later the patient developed a direct type A CCF which was successfully treated with endovascular embolization using a transvenous approach with detachable coils. The literature pertaining to CCF in EDS type IV and its treatment is reviewed. PMID:24385391

  18. Is portal vein cavernous transformation a component of congenital hepatic fibrosis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozlem Yonem; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF) is an autosomal recessive disorder that belongs to the family of fibropolycystic liver diseases. This family includes a spectrum of disorders which are usually found in combination with each other and are usually inherited.Clinically fibropolycystic diseases have three effects being present in different proportions, those of a space occupying lesion, of portal hypertension and of cholangitis. In most patients, the first manifestations of CHF are signs and symptoms related to portal hypertension such as splenomegaly and varices. Portal hypertension in these patients has been attributed to the hypoplasia or compression of the portal vein radicles in the fibrous bands. Cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) is a relatively rare condition resulting from extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with recanalization or collateral vein formation to bypass the obstruction. It has been found that patients with CHF having an accompanying CTPV have relatively large splenomegaly and suffers more frequent episodes of bleeding from esophageal varices. We believe that CTPV is a congenital component of CHF and also one of the important causative factors of portal hypertension in these patients.

  19. Update on Novel CCM Gene Mutations in Patients with Cerebral Cavernous Malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Concetta; Bramanti, Placido; Alafaci, Concetta; Granata, Francesca; Piva, Francesco; Rinaldi, Carmela; Donato, Luigi; Greco, Federica; Sidoti, Antonina; D'Angelo, Rosalia

    2017-02-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are lesions affecting brain microvessels. The pathogenesis is not clearly understood. Conventional classification criterion is based on genetics, and thus, familial and sporadic forms can be distinguished; however, classification of sporadic cases with multiple lesions still remains uncertain. To date, three CCM causative genes have been identified: CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607 and CCM3/PDCD10. In our previous mutation screening, performed in a cohort of 95 Italian patients, with both sporadic and familial cases, we identified several mutations in CCM genes. This study represents further molecular screening in a cohort of 19 Italian patients enrolled by us in the few last years and classified into familial, sporadic and sporadic with multiple lesions cases. Direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis were performed to detect point mutations and large genomic rearrangements, respectively. Effects of detected mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were evaluated by an in silico approach and by western blot analysis. A novel nonsense mutation in CCM1 and a novel missense mutation in CCM2 were detected; moreover, several CCM2 gene polymorphisms in sporadic CCM patients were reported. We believe that these data enrich the mutation spectrum of CCM genes, which is useful for genetic counselling to identify both familial and sporadic CCM cases, as early as possible.

  20. Surgical management of cavernous malformations coursing with drug resistant epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Arturo Alonso-Vanegas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cavernous malformations (CM are dynamic lesions characterized by continuous size changes and repeated bleeding. When involving cortical tissue, CM pose a significant risk for the development of drug-resistant epilepsy, which is thought to be result of an altered neuronal network caused by the lesion itself and its blood degradation products. Preoperative evaluation should comprise a complete seizure history, neurological examination, epilepsy-oriented MRI, EEG, video-EEG, completed with SPECT, PET, functional MRI and/or invasive monitoring as needed. Radiosurgery shows variable rates of seizure freedom and a high incidence of complications, thus microsurgical resection remains the optimal treatment for CM coursing with drug-resistant epilepsy.Two thirds of patients reach Engel I class at three-year follow-up, regardless of lobar location. Those with secondarily generalized seizures, a higher seizure frequency, and generalized abnormalities on preoperative or postoperative EEG, show poorer outcomes, while factors such as gender, duration of epilepsy, lesion size, age, bleeding at the time of surgery, do not correlate consistently with seizure outcome. Electrocorticography and a meticulous removal of all cortical hemosiderin –beyond pure lesionectomy– reduce the risk of symptomatic recurrences.

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic carotid cavernous fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东虹; 何奇元; 邹咏文; 许民辉

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the diagnosis and managementof traumatic carotid cavernous fistula (TCCF).Methods: In all 15 patients with TCCF confirmed byangiography, 8 patients got early diagnosis and cure. WithSeldinger technique adpoted in the puncture of femoralartery, Magic 3 F-1.8 F BD catheters combining withballoon were used to embolize the fistula or the internalcarotid artery.Results: Early diagnosis and cure were achieved in 8patients within one week and no sequelae occurred. Sevenpatients with delayed diagnosis who were cured beyond oneweek had some sequelae such as hypopsia in 5 cases,incomplete oculomotor paralyses in 3 and incompleteabducent paralyses in 2. Among all the 15 cases, theinternal carotid artery was preserved in 12 cases acountingfor 80%. Occluding the fistula with sacrifice of the internalcarotid artery was performed in 3 cases and no repatency of the fistula occurred by following up beyond three months.Conclusions: The preferred therapy for TCCF is toocclude the fistula using detachable balloon. The diagnosisand treatment for TCCF can significantly reduce occurrencerate of the complications and sequelae.

  2. Chlorophyll f-driven photosynthesis in a cavernous cyanobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Lars; Brejnrod, Asker; Schliep, Martin; Sørensen, Søren J; Larkum, Anthony W D; Kühl, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) f is the most recently discovered chlorophyll and has only been found in cyanobacteria from wet environments. Although its structure and biophysical properties are resolved, the importance of Chl f as an accessory pigment in photosynthesis remains unresolved. We found Chl f in a cyanobacterium enriched from a cavernous environment and report the first example of Chl f-supported oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria from such habitats. Pigment extraction, hyperspectral microscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of Chl a and f in unicellular cyanobacteria found in enrichment cultures. Amplicon sequencing indicated that all oxygenic phototrophs were related to KC1, a Chl f-containing cyanobacterium previously isolated from an aquatic environment. Microsensor measurements on aggregates demonstrated oxygenic photosynthesis at 742 nm and less efficient photosynthesis under 768- and 777-nm light probably because of diminished overlap with the absorption spectrum of Chl f and other far-red absorbing pigments. Our findings suggest the importance of Chl f-containing cyanobacteria in terrestrial habitats.

  3. Cerebral cavernous malformations: clinical insights from genetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindea, Stefan A; Yang, Benson P; Shenkar, Robert; Bendok, Bernard; Batjer, H Hunt; Awad, Issam A

    2006-07-15

    Familial disease is responsible for one third to one half of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) cases presenting to clinical attention. Much has been learned in the past decade about the genetics of these cases, which are all inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, at three known chromosome loci. Unique features of inherited CCMs in Hispanic-Americans of Mexican descent have been described. The respective genes for each locus have been identified and preliminary observations on disease pathways and mechanisms are coming to light, including possible explanations for selectivity of neural milieu and relationships to endothelial layer abnormalities. Mechanisms of lesion genesis in cases of genetic predisposition are being investigated, with evidence to support a two-hit model emerging from somatic mutation screening of the lesions themselves and from lesion formation in transgenic murine models of the disease. Other information on potential inflammatory factors has emerged from differential gene expression studies. Unique phenotypic features of solitary versus familial cases have emerged: different associations with venous developmental anomaly and the exceptionally high penetrance rates that are found in inherited cases when high-sensitivity screening is performed with gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging. This information has changed the landscape of screening and counseling for patients and their families, and promises to lead to the development of new tools for predicting, explaining, and modifying disease behavior.

  4. ADVANCED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF CEREBRAL CAVERNOUS MALFORMATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, Robert; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai N.; Wyrwicz, Alice M.; Zhao, Jin-cheng; Shi, Changbin; Akers, Amy; Marchuk, Douglas A.; Awad, Issam A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We sought to assess the appearance of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in murine Ccm1 and Ccm2 gene knockout models, and to develop a technique of lesion localization for correlative pathobiologic studies Methods Brains from eighteen CCM mutant mice (Ccm1+/-Trp53-/- and Ccm2+/-Trp53-/-) and 28 controls were imaged by gradient recalled echo (T2*)-weighted MR at 4.7 T and 14.1 T in vivo and/or ex vivo. After MR imaging, the brains were removed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and cells were laser microdissected for molecular biologic studies. Results T2*-weighted MR imaging of brains in vivo and ex vivo revealed lesions similar to human CCMs in mutant mice, but not in control animals. Stereotactic localization and hematoxylin and eosin-staining of correlative tissue sections confirmed lesion histology, and revealed other areas of dilated capillaries in the same brains. Some lesions were identified by MR imaging at 14.1 T, but not at 4.7 T. PCR amplification from Ccm1 and β-actin genes was demonstrated from nucleic acids extracted from laser microdissected lesional and perilesional cells. Conclusions The high field MR imaging techniques offer new opportunities for further investigation of disease pathogenesis in vivo, and the localization, staging and histobiologic dissection of lesions, including the presumed earliest stages of CCM lesion development. PMID:18981891

  5. Second Barrel Toroid Coil Installed in ATLAS Cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Tappern, G.

    The second barrel toroid coil was lowered into the ATLAS Cavern on Friday, 26 November. The operation takes approximately five hours of precision crane and winch operations. Before lowering, several checks are made to ensure that no loose items have been left on the coil which would fall during the lowering down the shaft. This is a very difficult, but very important check, with the first coil in position, and partly below the shaft. After changing the winch tooling on Wednesday December 1st, the coil was lifted, rotated and placed into the feet. The girders which support the coil and the Z direction stops had all been pre-set before putting the coil in the feet. The angle is controlled by an inclinometer. When the final adjustments of position have been made, which will locate the coils at the plus/minus two mm level, the connection beams (voussoirs and struts) will be put in place; this requires a complex shimming procedure. This will lock together the two coils into the feet and forms the foundation for th...

  6. Treatment Outcome Of Seizures Associated With Intracranial Cavernous Angiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nievera Conrad C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are among the typical presentations of intracranial cavernous angiomas (ICA. Twenty-one patients (age range: 2 to 53 years treated for seizures associated with ICA between 1983 and 1997 were restrospectively studied to evaluate their outcome following medical or surgical intervention. The mean interval between seizure onset and initial presentation at our institution was 7.6 years. Seizures were simple partial in 3 patients, complex partial in 15 and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic in 13. The commonest site of the lesion was the temporal lobe (52%. Multiple angiomas were observed in 5 (24% patients. Seven (32% patients were medically-managed with antiepileptic therapy and 14 (68% underwent either lesionectomy with resection of the epileptogenic zone (9 patients or temporal lobectomy (5 patients. Mean follow-up time was 4 years (range: 3 months to 14 years. Of the medically-managed patients, 3 (43% remained seizure-free whereas 4 (57% continued to have seizures with an average frequency of one per day. Of the surgically-managed patients, 12 (86% became seizure-free and 2 (14% had no more than two seizures per year. Surgery appears to be extremely effective in the management of seizures associated with ICA and should receive a strong and early consideration in patients who fail medical therapy.

  7. Management of supratentorial cavernous malformations: craniotomy versus gammaknife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yang-Hsin; Pan, David Hung-Chi

    2005-02-01

    Although craniotomy is the preferred treatment for symptomatic solitary supratentorial cavernous malformation (CM), radiosurgery is also an option. Our aim was to see which of these strategies was the most effective and under what circumstances. Of the 46 patients with solitary supratentorial CM that we retrospectively studied, 24 presented with seizures, 16 with focal neurological deficits due to intracerebral hemorrhage, and 6 with both seizures and bleeding. Sixteen were treated with craniotomy and 30 with gammaknife radiosurgery (GKRS). The main outcome measures for comparing craniotomy with GKRS were the proportion of postoperative seizure-free patients and the proportion of patients in whom no rebleeding occurred. Of patients presenting with seizures with/without bleeding, a significantly higher proportion of the craniotomy group than the GKRS group became and remained seizure-free (11/14 [79%] versus 4/16 [25%]; P < 0.002), and of those presenting with bleeding with/without seizures, a somewhat (though nonsignificantly) higher proportion did not rebleed (4/4 [100%] versus 12/18 [67%]) after surgery. The remaining 2 of the 16 craniotomy patients did not rebleed and had no residual tumor at follow up. Twelve of the 30 GKRS patients had evidence of tumor regression at follow up. In the clinical management of solitary supratentorial CM, craniotomy for lesionectomy resulted in better seizure control and rebleeding avoidance than GKRS.

  8. Numerical Investigation of Rockfall Impacts on Muckpiles for Underground Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effeindzourou, Anna; Giacomini, Anna; Thoeni, Klaus; Sloan, Scott W.

    2017-06-01

    Small-scale waste rock piles or muckpiles are commonly used as energy absorption barriers in various surface mining applications. This paper numerically investigates the impact behaviour of blocks on muckpiles used as cushion layer on top of underground portal entries. A three-dimensional discrete element model is implemented into the open-source framework YADE and validated using full-scale experimental data. The model allows estimating the energy absorption capacity of the muckpile and the impact forces acting on the portal structure. It also provides valuable information on the rebound characteristics which are useful for the definition of the potential safety areas in the vicinity of an underground entry. In order to show its capabilities, the model is applied to a large number of cases representing potential design conditions. The influence of block mass, impact velocity and absorbing cushion thickness on the forces at the base of the muckpile and the rebound trajectories after impact are investigated.

  9. Ventilation and air-conditioning concept for CNGS underground areas

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the CNGS project is to prove the existence of neutrino oscillation by generating an intense neutrino beam from CERN in the direction of the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, where two large neutrino detectors are built to detect the neutrinos. All the components for producing the neutrino beam will be situated in the underground tunnels, service galleries and chambers. The ventilation and air-conditioning systems installed in these underground areas have multiple tasks. Depending on the operating mode and structure to be air-conditioned, the systems are required to provide fresh air, cool the machine, dehumidify areas housing sensible equipment or assure the smoke removal in a case of a fire. This paper presents the technical solutions foreseen to meet these requirements.

  10. Cavernous sinus invasion by pituitary macroadenomas: neuroradiological, clinical and surgical correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUKIERT ARTHUR

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical imaging gold-standard for this diagnosis is the presence of tumor lateral to the carotid artery. Seventeen patients with pituitary macroadenomas with intraoperative confirmation of cavernous sinus invasion were studied with MRI. Only 8 patients had tumor lateral to the carotid artery; 13 had tumor within the carotid syphon and all lacked the ring enhancement of the medial wall of the cavernous sinus. In 10 patients, widening of the posterior double leaflets of the cavernous sinus could be. All patients were operated by the transesphenoidal route. Only one patient was cured by surgery alone. Only 3 patients disclosing the above mentioned MRI features were identified in a series of 250 patients and did not have cavernous sinus invasion. The present criteria proved to be useful in the pre-operative diagnosis of cavenous sinus invasion and patients' counselling. Pre-operative diagnosis of cavernous sinus invasion of pituitary tumors has a great impact in the management of such patients.

  11. 大型地下含水体对地震波特殊反射规律的现场正演试验研究%Field-testing study on seismic reflection response of large-scale underground water-bearing body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霄; 李术才; 张庆松; 薛翊国; 刘人太; 孙克国; 张波; 赵岩

    2011-01-01

    在成功预报宜万铁路云雾山隧道大型含水溶腔的工程实践中,发现了地下大型含水体对地震波的特殊反射现象,用地震波在双相介质中的传播理论解释了这种特殊的反射现象,分析了地震波在岩石与水体界面的反射、透射规律.提出了地震波法预报中对大型地下含水体的判识准则,并于青岛胶州湾海底隧道进行了两次现场正演试验,由海底基岩对海底界面进行了探测,试验结论很好地验证了该判识准则的正确性.研究结论对于有效预报地下含水体,特别是在预防矿井、隧道等地下工程大型突水事故方面具有重要的应用和推广价值.%A special reflection phenomenon of seismic waves from the large-scale underground water-bearing body has been discovered in a seismic method advanced prediction in Yunwu tunnel. According to the classical theory of seismic wave reflection and transmission, this phenomenon has been explained. In order to verify the correctness and applicability of the conclusions, two field tests have been carried out in Qingdao Jiao Zhou sub sea tunnel. TSP method was used to detect the seafloor in the field tests of sub sea tunnel, and the results verify the special laws of seismic wave reflection. According to the field tests conclusions and engineering examples, seismic wave reflection laws of large-scale underground water-bearing body have been summarized. In engineering practice, especially for advanced geology prediction the laws have important application value.

  12. A shallow underground laboratory for low-background radiation measurements and materials development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Cantaloub, M. G.; Day, A. R.; Erikson, L. E.; Fast, J.; Forrester, J. B.; Fuller, E. S.; Glasgow, B. D.; Greenwood, L. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Myers, A. W.; Overman, C. T.; Overman, N. R.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.; Warren, G. A.; Runkle, R. C.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters-water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This paper describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  13. A shallow underground laboratory for low-background radiation measurements and materials development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalseth, C E; Bonicalzi, R M; Cantaloub, M G; Day, A R; Erikson, L E; Fast, J; Forrester, J B; Fuller, E S; Glasgow, B D; Greenwood, L R; Hoppe, E W; Hossbach, T W; Hyronimus, B J; Keillor, M E; Mace, E K; McIntyre, J I; Merriman, J H; Myers, A W; Overman, C T; Overman, N R; Panisko, M E; Seifert, A; Warren, G A; Runkle, R C

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters-water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This paper describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  14. A Shallow Underground Laboratory for Low-Background Radiation Measurements and Materials Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Cantaloub, Michael G.; Day, Anthony R.; Erikson, Luke E.; Fast, James E.; Forrester, Joel B.; Fuller, Erin S.; Glasgow, Brian D.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hyronimus, Brian J.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Merriman, Jason H.; Myers, Allan W.; Overman, Cory T.; Overman, Nicole R.; Panisko, Mark E.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.; Runkle, Robert C.

    2012-11-08

    Abstract: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths worldwide houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This manuscript describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  15. A shallow underground laboratory for low-background radiation measurements and materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R. M.; Cantaloub, M. G.; Day, A. R.; Erikson, L. E.; Fast, J.; Forrester, J. B.; Fuller, E. S.; Glasgow, B. D.; Greenwood, L. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Hossbach, T. W.; Hyronimus, B. J.; Keillor, M. E.; Mace, E. K.; McIntyre, J. I.; Merriman, J. H.; Myers, A. W.; Overman, C. T.; Overman, N. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); and others

    2012-11-15

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recently commissioned a new shallow underground laboratory, located at a depth of approximately 30 meters-water-equivalent. This new addition to the small class of radiation measurement laboratories located at modest underground depths houses the latest generation of custom-made, high-efficiency, low-background gamma-ray spectrometers and gas proportional counters. This paper describes the unique capabilities present in the shallow underground laboratory; these include large-scale ultra-pure materials production and a suite of radiation detection systems. Reported data characterize the degree of background reduction achieved through a combination of underground location, graded shielding, and rejection of cosmic-ray events. We conclude by presenting measurement targets and future opportunities.

  16. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    to offset the specific costs usually stressed by literature on underground production, such as those suggested by Loayza (1994) andAnderberg et al. (2003). Investigating the effects of different fiscal policy interventions,we find that taxation is a critical parameter to define the size of capital...... allocation in the underground production. In fact, a strong and inverse relationship is found, and tax reduction is the best policy to reduce the convenience to produce underground. Wealso confirm the depressing effect on investment of taxation (see, for instance, Summers,1981), so that tax reduction has...

  17. A noisy zygoma fracture--complication of carotid-cavernous sinus fistula: total recovery of monocular blindness and frozen-eye after endoarterial coil embolization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierenbroodspot, F.; Damme, P.A. van; Cruysberg, J.R.M.

    2005-01-01

    A case of a patient with a zygoma fracture in combination with a carotid-cavernous sinus fistula--an arterio-venous fistula between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus--is presented. The most frequent cause is trauma, but the carotid-cavernous sinus fistula itself may have been the c

  18. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  19. Bow-tie risk assessment combining causes and effects applied to gasoil storage in an abandoned salt cavern,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, K; Hendriks, D.; Wildenborg, T.; Duijne, H.

    2014-01-01

    A semi-quantitative risk assessment is presented for the storage of gas oil in depleted salt caverns in the Twente region, the Netherlands. It is based on a bow-tie model, in which an incident, leakage of gas oil from the storage system (cavern and wells), is evaluated by assessing its possible

  20. Dedication of the massive ATLAS art mural painted by Josef Kristofoletti directly above the cavern of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni, Michael Barnett

    2010-01-01

    Ceremony to celebrate the massive mural of the ATLAS detector at CERN painted by artist Josef Kristofoletti. The mural is located at the ATLAS Experiment site, and it shows on two perpendicular walls the detector with a collision event superimposed. The event on the large wall shows a simulation of an event that would be recorded in ATLAS if a Higgs boson was produced. The cavern of the ATLAS Experiment with the detector is 100 meters directly below the mural. The height of the mural is about 12 meters (40 feet). The actual ATLAS detector is more than twice as big.

  1. Direct traumatic carotid cavernous fistula: angiographic classification and treatment strategies. Study of 172 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Cuong Tran; Nguyen, Dang; Duc, Vo Tan; Chau, Huynh Hong; Son, Vo Tan

    2014-01-01

    We report our experience in treatment of traumatic direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) via endovascular intervention. We hereof recommend an additional classification system for type A CCF and suggest respective treatment strategies. Only type A CCF patients (Barrow's classification) would be recruited for the study. Based on the angiographic characteristics of the CCF, we classified type A CCF into three subtypes including small size, medium size and large size fistula depending on whether there was presence of the anterior carotid artery (ACA) and/or middle carotid artery (MCA). Angiograms with opacification of both ACA and MCA were categorized as small size fistula. Angiograms with opacification of either ACA or MCA were categorized as medium size fistula and those without opacification of neither ACA nor MCA were classified as large size fiatula. After the confirm angiogram, endovascular embolization would be performed impromptu using detachable balloon, coils or both. All cases were followed up for complication and effect after the embolization. A total of 172 direct traumatic CCF patients were enrolled. The small size fistula was accountant for 12.8% (22 cases), medium size 35.5% (61 cases) and large size fistula accountant for 51.7% (89 cases). The successful rate of fistula occlusion under endovascular embolization was 94% with preservation of the carotid artery in 70%. For the treatment of each subtype, a total of 21/22 cases of the small size fistulas were successfully treated using coils alone. The other single case of small fistula was defaulted. Most of the medium and large size fistulas were cured using detachable balloons. When the fistula sealing could not be obtained using detachable balloon, coils were added to affirm the embolization of the cavernous sinus via venous access. There were about 2.9% of patient experienced direct carotid artery puncture and 0.6% puncture after carotid artery cut-down exposure. About 30% of cases experienced

  2. Low background Ge spectrometry at Gran Sasso underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preusse, W. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Bucci, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Arpesella, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    Under the shelter of 1400 m limestone rock the Gran Sasso underground laboratories in the Apennines (110 km north-east of Rome at a turn-off inside the Gran Sasso motorway tunnel) were designed for running large experiments in the field of neutrino, particle and astrophysics by international collaborations. These experiments have in common the basic requirement to be capable to detect very rare events like e.g. neutrino interactions and double beta decays. Due to this their permanent demands for selecting radiopure materials have led to the equipping of a Ge detector laboratory - at present with 6 large detectors. (orig./DG)

  3. Disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns -- Legality, technical feasibility, economics, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approaching cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  4. Transvenous embolization of a dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula via the inferior ophthalmic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Kevin S; Ng, John D; Falardeau, Julie; Roberts, Warren G; Petersen, Bryan; Nesbit, Gary M; Barnwell, Stanley L

    2007-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented with an acute onset of right periocular pain, diplopia, ocular injection, progressive proptosis, and periocular swelling. She had an unremarkable past medical history, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and complete blood count were normal. A carotid-cavernous sinus fistula was suspected, and an MRI demonstrated enlargement of the superior ophthalmic vein posterior to the globe and enlargement of the inferior ophthalmic vein throughout its entire course. Cerebral arteriography demonstrated a dural cavernous sinus fistula. The inferior ophthalmic vein was accessed via the inferonasal orbital space and was catheterized for delivery of multiple platinum coils to the cavernous sinus fistula. Follow-up venograms demonstrated occlusion of the fistula. At 2-month follow-up, there was a residual sixth nerve palsy and resolution of symptoms, including proptosis and periocular swelling.

  5. Treatment of carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas retrograde via the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derang, J; Ying, H; Long, Y; Reifa, S; Qiming, W; Yimu, F; Guoxiang, S; Shimin, C; Lihua, X; Shi, W; Zunhua, C

    1999-09-01

    Carotid-cavernous sinus fistula is an old difficulty in neurosurgery. At present, the main way to deal with it is by embolizing the fistula via an arterial route. But if the fistula is small or supplied by several branches, it is difficult to embolize via an arterial approach. In this report, 21 patients with carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae were successfully cured by embolizing the fistula via the SOV approach. All patients were cured, and there were no serious postoperative complications. Follow-up has been carried out in 19 cases for 8 months to more than 4 years; no recurrence manifested. For carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae that cannot be embolized arterially, the superior ophthalmic vein route is an easy, safe, effective and promising approach.

  6. Depleted argon from underground sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, H.O.; /Princeton U.; Alton, A.; /Augustana U. Coll.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; /Princeton U.; Kendziora, C.; /Fermilab; Loer, B.; /Princeton U.; Montanari, D.; /Fermilab; Mosteiro, P.; /Princeton U.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  7. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  8. Region 6 Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is now a storage and retrieval application. Permit information and enforcement information of Underground Injection Wells are scanned and stored as a part of...

  9. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  10. The underground municipal information system (UMIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mulder, E.F.J.; Baardman, B.A.M. [Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands); Ten Kate, A.M. [Schiedamseweg, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the general trend towards digital storage of spatial data, Dutch municipalities are currently showing increased interest in digital storage and retrieval of underground geo scientific data. To meet this demand, the Geological Survey of the Netherlands has developed the Underground Municipal Information System (UMIS). This System consists of a database of underground data, a related Geographical Information System, and several modules for the preduction of thematic maps (showing foundation depth, potential settlement, subsurface distribution of aggregates, groundwater conditions, potential pathways for underground spreading of pollution sources, etc.). The Geological Survey is currently advertising UMIS among Dutch municipalities and cities abroad by distributing a free demonstration CD (in Dutch), presentations, and publications. Once UMIS is installed in a municipality, more Urban Geological research can be conducted by incorporating economic and legislative aspects in thematic geo scientific maps and by strengthening geo scientific aspects in Decision Support System.

  11. Systematic classification of hazards in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryncarz, T.

    1983-01-01

    Hazards in underground coal mines are analyzed. A general definition of a hazard is given as a physical process or interaction between environment and men which can harm miners. The following classification of mine environment is given: lithosphere, atmosphere, and so-called technosphere (equipment, machines and processes associated with mining operations in underground mines). It is stated that the traditional classification of hazards in underground mining which divides the hazards into two groups: natural hazards and other hazards, is not precise. The hazards classification proposed by the author uses three criteria: criterion of mining environment (lithosphere, atmosphere and technosphere), criterion of physical process development (mechanical process, thermal process), and criterion of process intensity (slow or rapid flow). The classification, presented in a table, covers all hazards in underground mining such as rock bursts, water influx, fires, dusts, rock falls etc. Practical use of the classification system in coal mining is discussed. 3 references.

  12. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  13. Improving underground ventilation conditions in coal mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, CF

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available projects could be initiated by miningtek in co-operation with different mines. This report deals with the findings of this project and also deals with the future of research within Miningtek with regard to underground ventilation....

  14. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small quantities...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and (b...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance work...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only. (a...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire... underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  19. Sidereal variations deep underground in Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, J. E.; Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the deep underground vertically directed muon telescopes at Poatina, Tasmania, have been used since 1972 for a number of investigations, including the daily intensity variations, atmospheric influences, and checking for possible effects due to the interplanetary magnetic field. These telescopes have a total sensitive area of only 3 square meters, with the result that the counting rate is low (about 1680 events per hour) and the statistical errors on the results are rather large. Consequently, it was decided several years ago to construct larger detectors for this station. The first of these telescopes has been in operation for two complete years, and the results from it are presented. Results from the new, more stable equipment at Poatina appear to confirm the existence of a first harmonic in the daily variations in sidereal time reported earlier, and are consistent with small or non-existent first harmonics in solar and anti-sidereal time. All the second harmonics appear to be small, if not zero at these energies.

  20. Cavernous hemangioma-like kaposi sarcoma: histomorphologic features and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onak Kandemir, Nilüfer; Barut, Figen; Doğan Gün, Banu; Solak Tekin, Nilgün; Hallaç Keser, Sevinç; Oğuz Özdamar, Sükrü

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Cavernous hemangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma is a rare morphologic type of Kaposi sarcoma. So far there are no cases in the literature defining the histological features of this morphologic spectrum in detail. In this study we presented two classical-type cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma cases with histologic findings resembling cavernous hemangioma in company with clinical and histopathological data. Cases. One hundred and eighty-five classical-type cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma lesions in 79 patients were assessed retrospectively in terms of histopathological features. Findings of two cases showing features of cavernous hemangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma whose clinical data could be accessed were presented in accompany with the literature data. Both cases were detected to have bluish-purple, protruded, irregularly bordered cutaneous lesions. Histopathological examination revealed a lesion formed by cavernous hemangioma-like vascular structures organized in a lobular pattern that became dilated and filled with blood. Typical histological findings of early-stage KS, consisting of mononuclear inflammation, extravasated erythrocytes, and a few immature vascular structures in superficial dermis, were observed. All cases were serologically HIV-1 negative. A positive reaction with HHV-8, CD31, CD34, and D2-40 monoclonal antibodies was identified at both cavernous hemangioma-like areas and in immature vascular structures. Results. Cavernous hemangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma is a rare Kaposi sarcoma variant presenting with diagnostic challenges, that may be confused with hemangioma. As characteristic morphological features may not be observed in every case, it is important for diagnostic purposes to show immunohistochemical HHV-8 positivity in this variant.

  1. The cavernous sinus in cluster headache - a quantitative structural magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkink, Enrico B; Schoonman, Guus G; van Vliet, Jorine A; Bakels, Hannah S; Sneeboer, Marjolein Am; Haan, Joost; van Buchem, Mark A; Ferrari, Michel D; Kruit, Mark C

    2017-03-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that a constitutionally narrow cavernous sinus might predispose individuals to cluster headache. Cavernous sinus dimensions, however, have never been assessed. Methods In this case-control study, we measured the dimensions of the cavernous sinus, skull base, internal carotid and pituitary gland with high-resolution T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in 25 episodic, 24 chronic and 13 probable cluster headache patients, 8 chronic paroxysmal hemicrania patients and 22 headache-free controls. Dimensions were compared between groups, correcting for age, sex and transcranial diameter. Results On qualitative inspection, no relevant pathology or anatomic variants that were previously associated with cluster headache or chronic paroxysmal hemicranias were observed in the cavernous sinus or paracavernous structures. The left-to-right transcranial diameter at the temporal fossa level (mean ± SD) was larger in the headache groups (episodic cluster headache: 147.5 ± 7.3 mm, p = 0.044; chronic cluster headache: 150.2 ± 7.3 mm, p cluster headache: 146.0 ± 5.3 mm, p = 0.012; and chronic paroxysmal hemicrania: 145.2 ± 9.4 mm, p = 0.044) compared with controls (140.2 ± 8.0 mm). After adjusting for transcranial diameter and correcting for multiple comparisons, there were no differences in the dimensions of the cavernous sinus and surrounding structures between headache patients and controls. Conclusion Patients with cluster headache or chronic paroxysmal hemicrania had wider skulls than headache-free controls, but the proportional dimensions of the cavernous sinus were similar.

  2. Spectrum of underground coal gasification in Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yongsheng; Bai Xiaohong [Tianjin Urban Construction Inst. (China)

    1997-12-31

    A feasibility study on underground coal gasification in Tianjin is conducted and a program for exploitation of these coal reserves with UCG techniques is suggested. Some issues, such as the coal resources in Tianjin, the geological features of the selected for UCG trial, the characteristics of local coal deposits and the coal quality are discussed. A proposal for a combination of the production of coalbed methane and underground coal gas was summarized.

  3. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  4. Treatment and Outcome of Epileptogenic Temporal Cavernous Malformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Zhi Shan; Xiao-Tong Fan; Liang Meng; Yang An; Jian-Kun Xu; Guo-Guang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background:The aim of this study is to explore the treatment and outcome ofepileptogenic temporal lobe cavernous malformations (CMs).Methods:We analyzed retrospectively the profiles of 52 patients diagnosed as temporal lobe CMs associated with epilepsy.Among the 52 cases,11 underwent a direct resection of CM along with the adjacent zone of hemosiderin rim without electrocorticogram (ECoG) monitoring while the other 41 cases had operations under the guidance of ECoG.Forty-six patients were treated by lesionectomy + hemosiderin rim while the other six were treated by lesionectomy + hemosiderin rim along with extended epileptogenic zone resection.The locations of lesions,the duration of illness,the manifestation,the excision ranges and the outcomes of postoperative follow-up were analyzed,respectively.Results:All of the 52 patients were treated by microsurgery.There was no neurological deficit through the long-term follow-up.Outcomes of seizure control are as follows:42 patients (80.8%) belong to Engel Class Ⅰ,5 patients (9.6%) belong to Engel Class Ⅱ,3 patients (5.8%) belong to Engel Class Ⅲ and 2 patients (3.8%) belong to Engel Class Ⅳ.Conclusion:Patients with epilepsy caused by temporal CMs should be treated as early as possible.Resection of the lesion and the surrounding hemosiderin zone is necessary.Moreover,an extended excision of epileptogenic cortex or cerebral lobes is needed to achieve a better prognosis if the ECoG indicates the existence of an extra epilepsy onset origin outside the lesion itself.

  5. Manifestations of hepatic cavernous hemangioma in carbon dioxidedigital subtraction angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei; LI Yan-ha0; HE Xiao-feng; CHEN Yong; ZENG Qing-le

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristic appearance of cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL)presented in carbon dioxide digital subtraction angiography (CO2-DSA) and to evaluate the significance of CO2-DSA in the diagnosis of CHL. Methods: Both CO2-DSA and iodinated contrast DSA (IC-DSA) were performed in all 16 patients with CHL, and the angiographic manifestations in the same patients were compared. The image quality was rated by three experienced angiographers, and the complications were also assessed. Results; There was good correlation between angiographers on image quality (R=0. 73). Diagnostic images were obtained with both CO2-DSA and IC-DSA in all CHL patients. No difference was noted between IC-DSA and CO2-DSA in visualizing the proper hepatic arteries and its branches (P>0. 05). CO2-DSA produced better images that clearly described the tumor size, shape and margination than those by IC-DSA (P<0. 05), but both demonstrated characteristic appearances of early opacification and persistent contrast enhancement of the tumors. The portal vein branches near the tumors were constantly demonstrated by CO2-DSA in 15 cases (15/16) but only in 2 cases (2/16) by IC-DSA. Conclusion: CO2-DSA is sensitive in CHL diagnosis, and in patients with contraindications to IC or with unsatisfactory imaging results by IC-DSA,CO2-DSA is a good alternative. As show in most cases by CO2-DSA, the portal veins might act as the main drainage vein of CHLs.

  6. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for hemangioma of the cavernous sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Sheehan, Jason P; Kano, Hideyuki; Akpinar, Berkcan; Martinez-Alvarez, Roberto; Martinez-Moreno, Nuria; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Lunsford, L Dade; Liu, Kang-Du

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSHs) are rare vascular tumors. A direct microsurgical approach usually results in massive hemorrhage and incomplete tumor resection. Although stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a therapeutic alternative to microsurgery, outcome studies are few. Authors of the present study evaluated the role of SRS for CSH. METHODS An international multicenter study was conducted to review outcome data in 31 patients with CSH. Eleven patients had initial microsurgery before SRS, and the other 20 patients (64.5%) underwent Gamma Knife SRS as the primary management for their CSH. Median age at the time of radiosurgery was 47 years, and 77.4% of patients had cranial nerve dysfunction before SRS. Patients received a median tumor margin dose of 12.6 Gy (range 12-19 Gy) at a median isodose of 55%. RESULTS Tumor regression was confirmed by imaging in all 31 patients, and all patients had greater than 50% reduction in tumor volume at 6 months post-SRS. No patient had delayed tumor growth, new cranial neuropathy, visual function deterioration, adverse radiation effects, or hypopituitarism after SRS. Twenty-four patients had presented with cranial nerve disorders before SRS, and 6 (25%) of them had gradual improvement. Four (66.7%) of the 6 patients with orbital symptoms had symptomatic relief at the last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Stereotactic radiosurgery was effective in reducing the volume of CSH and attaining long-term tumor control in all patients at a median of 40 months. The authors' experience suggests that SRS is a reasonable primary and adjuvant treatment modality for patients in whom a CSH is diagnosed.

  7. Ultimate storage in salt caverns / status report; Endverwahrung von Salzkavernen / Stand der Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, F.; Schmidt, U. [Kavernen Bau- und Betriebs-GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The contribution reviews the state of knowledge on final storage in salt caverns. The long-term effects of a hermetically sealed, brine-filled cavern are discussed. So far, there are no valid predictions. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dem Beitrag wird der derzeitige Kenntnis- und Diskussionsstand zur Endverwahrung von Salzkavernen zusammengefasst. Aufbauend auf den bisher vorliegenden Vorstellungen zur Soleimpraegnation bei einem Innendruck, der nahezu dem Ueberlagerungsdruck entspricht, werden die denkbaren langfristigen Auswirkungen einer vollstaendig abgeschlossenen solegefuellten Kaverne skizziert; belastbare Prognosen sind derzeit noch nicht moeglich. (orig.)

  8. Cavernous hemangioma concurrently involving the anterior and middle mediastinum and the lung parenchyma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jee Hyun; Lee, Soo Jung; Kim, Sung Jin; Cho, Bum Sang [Dept. of Radiology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Hemangioma is rarely found in the mediastinum or lung. In the mediastinum, this tumor is usually located in the anterior mediastinum and manifests as a nonspecific soft tissue mass. In the lung, it usually presents as a well-defined nodule. To the best of our knowledge, there is no case of cavernous hemangioma concurrently involving the mediastinum and lung parenchyma, except for one case of concurrent cardiac and pulmonary hemangiomas. Here, we present an interesting case of cystic anterior and middle mediastinal masses together with multiple pulmonary nodules and ground glass opacities, which were diagnosed as cavernous hemangiomas. When similar findings are encountered, clinicians should consider hemangioma in the differential diagnosis.

  9. Clitoromegaly caused by cavernous hemangioma: A rare case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Geramizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is a common benign neoplasm, but a location such as the clitoris is very rare. However, it is very important to differentiate clitoral hemangioma from enlargement of the clitoris secondary to androgen excess. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases of clitoromegaly caused by cavernous hemangioma have been reported in the English literature. Herein, we report our experience with a 16-year-old girl who presented with clitoromegaly and normal hormonal assay that turned out to be clitoral cavernous hemangioma after pathologic examination of the clitoral mass.

  10. Cavernous Hemangioma of the External Canal, Tympanic Membrane, and Middle Ear Cleft: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odat, Haitham; Al-Qudah, Mohannad; Al-Qudah, Mohammad A

    2016-06-01

    Cavernous hemangioma involving the external canal, tympanic membrane, and middle ear cavity is extremely rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman who had progressive right sided decreased hearing, pulsatile tinnitus, and aural fullness of 7 months duration. Microscopic examination, imaging studies, surgical treatment, and histological evaluation are reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of cavernous hemangioma with simultaneous involvement of the external ear, tympanic membrane, middle ear, and attic reported in English literature.

  11. Adult onset segmental cavernous hemangioma, varicose veins and limb atrophy (klippel-trenaunay-Weber syndrome variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawhney MPS

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22 year-old woman presented with multiple soft, compressible, protuberant, bluish cutaneous lesions as well as firm, non-compressible, subcutaneous masses and varicose veins affecting the right upper limb of three years duration. There was atrophy of soft tissue of forearm by 2.5 cm. X-ray showed soft tissue densities, multiple phleboliths and hypoplastic forearm bones. Histopathological examination from cutaneous lesions revealed cavernous hemangioma. Adult onset cavernous hemangioma involving one upper limb and breast with multiple phleboliths and limb atrophy is a very unusual presentation of Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.

  12. Bilateral indirect carotid cavernous fistula post trivial injury– A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Mat Abu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-seven years old Malay lady, post menopausal with co-morbid of diabetes mellitus and hypertension presented with three months history of bilateral painful red eyes associated with double vision. Examination revealed both eyes proptosis, corkscrew vessels with present of bruit, secondary narrow angle with raised intraocular pressure, 6th cranial nerve palsy, and bilateral venous stasis retinopathy. CT angiogram showed bilateral dilated superior ophthalmic veins with cerebral angiogram findings of bilateral indirect carotid cavernous fistula involving small meningeal vessels. Indirect or dural cavernous sinus Fistula can easily be missed or misdiagnosed. Trivial injury especially in the predisposing patient can initiate the occurrence.

  13. A novel mouse model of cerebral cavernous malformations based on the two-hit mutation hypothesis recapitulates the human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, David A; Shenkar, Robert; Shi, Changbin; Stockton, Rebecca A; Akers, Amy L; Kucherlapati, Melanie H; Kucherlapati, Raju; Brainer, James; Ginsberg, Mark H; Awad, Issam A; Marchuk, Douglas A

    2011-01-15

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular lesions of the central nervous system appearing as multicavernous, blood-filled capillaries, leading to headache, seizure and hemorrhagic stroke. CCM occurs either sporadically or as an autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutation of one of the three genes: CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2/MGC4607 and CCM3/PDCD10. Surgically resected human CCM lesions have provided molecular and immunohistochemical evidence for a two-hit (germline plus somatic) mutation mechanism. In contrast to the equivalent human genotype, mice heterozygous for a Ccm1- or Ccm2-null allele do not develop CCM lesions. Based on the two-hit hypothesis, we attempted to improve the penetrance of the model by crossing Ccm1 and Ccm2 heterozygotes into a mismatch repair-deficient Msh2(-/-) background. Ccm1(+/-)Msh2(-/-) mice exhibit CCM lesions with high penetrance as shown by magnetic resonance imaging and histology. Significantly, the CCM lesions range in size from early-stage, isolated caverns to large, multicavernous lesions. A subset of endothelial cells within the CCM lesions revealed somatic loss of CCM protein staining, supporting the two-hit mutation mechanism. The late-stage CCM lesions displayed many of the characteristics of human CCM lesions, including hemosiderin deposits, immune cell infiltration, increased endothelial cell proliferation and increased Rho-kinase activity. Some of these characteristics were also seen, but to a lesser extent, in early-stage lesions. Tight junctions were maintained between CCM lesion endothelial cells, but gaps were evident between endothelial cells and basement membrane was defective. In contrast, the Ccm2(+/-)Msh2(-/-) mice lacked cerebrovascular lesions. The CCM1 mouse model provides an in vivo tool to investigate CCM pathogenesis and new therapies.

  14. A GIS Based 3D Online Decision Assistance System for Underground Energy Storage in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, M.; Schwanebeck, M.; Biniyaz, E.; Duttmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    We would like to present a GIS-based 3D online decision assistance system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local land use planning authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The assistance system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt caverns and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, power line arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the decision finding process. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. The decision process is carried out via the 'Analytic Hierarchy Process' (AHP) methodology of the 'Multi Object Decision Making' (MODM) approach. While the process itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, with no software needed to be installed on the user side. The results are visualized as interactive 3d graphics. The implementation of the assistance system is based exclusively on free and open source software, and utilizes the 'Python' programming language in combination with current web technologies, such as 'HTML5', 'CSS3' and 'JavaScript'. It is

  15. Adsorption plant as alternative in gas treatment at underground stores; Adsorptionsanlagen als Alternative bei der Gasaufbereitung an Untertagespeichern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, T. [Engelhard Process Chemicals GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    The demand for natural gas depends largely on the climatic conditions during the year. During the cold period, the extra demand is met from natural gas stores. Depending on the current gas demand, a gas treatment plant at an underground store must be able to work in a wide range of operating conditions. The gas throughput and the working pressure must be mentioned in the first place here. Other requirements which are derived from the task, concern the starting behaviour and operation on stand-by. Usually, each underground store is provided with a natural gas drying plant at the outlet, as the gas absorbs water vapour in salt caverns and in former natural gas/petroleum stores. In certain cases, apart from purely removing water vapour, it may be necessary to remove high hydrocarbons. Examples of this are the use of former natural gas fields or petroleum fields, whose cover gas contains a high proportion of high hydrocarbons. Mixing with injected gas can lead to the specified gas quality no longer being complied with at the outlet and in addition to gas drying, the hydrocarbon dewpoint must be reset. After introduction of the process, there is an explanation from case studies of why adsorptive gas treatment plants can represent an alternative to the conventional process. The process also offers the required flexibility to convert to pure gas drying if the cover gas is reduced by increasing dilution, without any conversion being necessary. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Erdgasnachfrage haengt in grossem Masse von den klimatischen Bedingungen waehrend des Jahres ab. Waehrend der kalten Jahreszeit wird der Mehrbedarf aus Erdgasspeichern gedeckt. Abhaengig von der aktuellen Gasnachfrage muss eine Gasaufbereitungsanlage an einem Untertagespeicher in einem breiten Bereich von Betriebsbedingungen zuverlaessig arbeiten koennen. Hier sind in erster Linie der Gasdurchsatz und der Betriebsdruck zu nennen. Weitere Anforderungen, die sich aus der Aufgabenstellung ableiten, betreffen das

  16. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall...

  17. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance...

  18. Bacteria, fungi and biokarst in Lechuguilla Cave, Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, K. I.; Northup, D. E.; Pollastro, R. M.; Wright, W. G.; Larock, E. J.

    1995-02-01

    Lechuguilla Cave is a deep, extensive, gypsumand sulfur-bearing hypogenic cave in Carlsbad Caverns National Park, New Mexico, most of which (>90%) lies more than 300 m beneath the entrance. Located in the arid Guadalupe Mountains, Lechuguilla's remarkable state of preservation is partially due to the locally continuous Yates Formation siltstone that has effectively diverted most vadose water away from the cave. Allocthonous organic input to the cave is therefore very limited, but bacterial and fungal colonization is relatively extensive: (1) Aspergillus sp. fungi and unidentified bacteria are associated with iron-, manganese-, and sulfur-rich encrustations on calcitic folia near the suspected water table 466 m below the entrance; (2) 92 species of fungi in 19 genera have been identified throughout the cave in oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) “soils” and pools; (3) cave-air condensate contains unidentified microbes; (4) indigenous chemoheterotrophic Seliberius and Caulobacter bacteria are known from remote pool sites; and (5) at least four genera of heterotrophic bacteria with population densities near 5×105 colony-forming units (CFU) per gram are present in ceiling-bound deposits of supposedly abiogenic condensation-corrosion residues. Various lines of evidence suggest that autotrophic bacteria are present in the ceiling-bound residues and could act as primary producers in a unique subterranean microbial food chain. The suspected autotrophic bacteria are probably chemolithoautotrophic (CLA), utilizing trace iron, manganese, or sulfur in the limestone and dolomitic bedrock to mechanically (and possibly biochemically) erode the substrate to produce residual floor deposits. Because other major sources of organic matter have not been detected, we suggest that these CLA bacteria are providing requisite organic matter to the known heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the residues. The cavewide bacterial and fungal distribution, the large volumes of corrosion residues

  19. Use of Actuator-Driven Pulsed Water Jet in Brain and Spinal Cord Cavernous Malformations Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshiki; Takahashi, Yoko; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-09-01

    A piezo actuator-driven pulsed water jet (ADPJ) system is a novel surgical instrument that enables dissection of tissue without thermal damage. It can potentially resect intra-axial lesions while preserving neurological function. To report our first experience of applying an ADPJ system to brain and spinal cord cavernous malformations. Four patients (2 women and 2 men, mean age 44.5 years) with brain (n = 3) and spinal cord (n = 1) cavernous malformations were enrolled in the study. All surgeries were performed with the aid of the ADPJ system. Postoperative neurological function and radiological findings were evaluated. The ADPJ system was useful in dissecting boundaries between the lesion and surrounding brain/spinal cord tissues. The pulsed water jet provided a clear surgical view and helped surgeons follow the margins. Water jet dissection peeled off the brain and spinal cord tissues from the lesion wall. Surrounding gliotic tissue was preserved. As a consequence, the cavernous malformations were successfully removed. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging confirmed total removal of lesions in all cases. Preoperative neurological symptoms completely resolved in 2 patients. The others experienced partial recovery. No patients developed new postoperative neurological deficits; facial palsy temporarily worsened in 1 patient who underwent a suprafacial colliculus approach for the brainstem lesion. The ADPJ provided a clear surgical field and enabled surgeons to dissect boundaries between lesions and surrounding brain and spinal cord gliotic tissue. The ADPJ system is a feasible option for cavernous malformation surgery, enabling successful tumor removal and preservation of neurological function.

  20. Transvenous embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula of cavernous region by multiple venous routes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huai-rui; BAI Ru-lin; HUANG Cheng-guang; LI Bin; LU Yi-cheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficiency of transvenous embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula of cavernous region by multiple venous routes. Methods: Twenty seven patients with dural arteriovenous fistula uf cavernous region were treated by transvenous embolization with micro-coils. The transvenous routes included inferior petrosal sinus, superior ophthalmic vein and facial vein. Results: Clinical cure was achieved in 23 cases and significant improvement of symptoms in 4 cases. Complete angiographic obliteration was documented in 22 patients (82%). Residual shunting were left in 2 patients via pterygoid drainage and 1 case via inter-cavernous sinus, 2 cases via inferior petrosal sinus, disappeared one month later by manual compression carotid artery. Headache and vomiting were the most common symptoms after embolization. Three patients had diplopia and relieved within two months after embolization.There was no permanent procedure-related morbidity. The clinic follow up ranged from 5 months to 6 years, and there was not recurrence case. Conclusion: Transvenous embolization via different venous routes is a safe and efficient method for dural arteriovenous fistula of cavernous region treatment.