WorldWideScience

Sample records for large truss structure

  1. Artificial intelligence approach to planning the robotic assembly of large tetrahedral truss structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homemdemello, Luiz S.

    1992-01-01

    An assembly planner for tetrahedral truss structures is presented. To overcome the difficulties due to the large number of parts, the planner exploits the simplicity and uniformity of the shapes of the parts and the regularity of their interconnection. The planning automation is based on the computational formalism known as production system. The global data base consists of a hexagonal grid representation of the truss structure. This representation captures the regularity of tetrahedral truss structures and their multiple hierarchies. It maps into quadratic grids and can be implemented in a computer by using a two-dimensional array data structure. By maintaining the multiple hierarchies explicitly in the model, the choice of a particular hierarchy is only made when needed, thus allowing a more informed decision. Furthermore, testing the preconditions of the production rules is simple because the patterned way in which the struts are interconnected is incorporated into the topology of the hexagonal grid. A directed graph representation of assembly sequences allows the use of both graph search and backtracking control strategies.

  2. Shape morphing hinged truss structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofla, A Y N; Elzey, D M; Wadley, H N G

    2009-01-01

    Truss structures are widely used for the support of structural loads in applications where minimum mass solutions are required. Their nodes are normally constructed to resist rotation to maximize their stiffness under load. A multi-link node concept has recently been proposed that permits independent rotation of tetrahedral trusses linked by such a joint. High authority shape morphing truss structures can therefore be designed by the installation of linear displacement actuators within the truss mechanisms. Examples of actuated structures with either linear or planar shapes are presented and their ability to bend, twist and undulate is demonstrated. An experimental device has been constructed using one-way shape memory wire actuators in antagonistic configurations that permit reversible actuated structures. It is shown that the actuated structure displacement response is significantly amplified by use of a mechanically magnified design

  3. Weight optimization of large span steel truss structures with genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojolic, Cristian; Hulea, Radu; Pârv, Bianca Roxana [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Structural Mechanics, Str. Constantin Daicoviciu nr. 15, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-03-10

    The paper presents the weight optimization process of the main steel truss that supports the Slatina Sport Hall roof. The structure was loaded with self-weight, dead loads, live loads, snow, wind and temperature, grouped in eleven load cases. The optimization of the structure was made using genetic algorithms implemented in a Matlab code. A total number of four different cases were taken into consideration when trying to determine the lowest weight of the structure, depending on the types of connections with the concrete structure ( types of supports, bearing modes), and the possibility of the lower truss chord nodes to change their vertical position. A number of restrictions for tension, maximum displacement and buckling were enforced on the elements, and the cross sections are chosen by the program from a user data base. The results in each of the four cases were analyzed in terms of weight, element tension, element section and displacement. The paper presents the optimization process and the conclusions drawn.

  4. A Teaching Model for Truss Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigoni, Davide; Dal Corso, Francesco; Misseroni, Diego; Tommasini, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    A classroom demonstration model has been designed, machined and successfully tested in different learning environments to facilitate understanding of the mechanics of truss structures, in which struts are subject to purely axial load and deformation. Gaining confidence with these structures is crucial for the development of lattice models, which…

  5. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed....

  6. STUDYING DEFORMATIONS OF AN FLAT TRUSS STRUCTURE STATICALLY INDETERMINATED EXTERNALLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsanov Mikhail Nikolaevich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A flat statically determinate parallel-chord truss structure has a cross-shaped grid and rests upon two rigid pin-bearing supports. Loads in bars are determined in a symbol form using the method of joint isolation by the computer mathematics Maple system. The peculiarity of the considered truss structure is its external static indeterminacy. In fact, all efforts and reactions of supports can be determined from the equilibrium conditions. But the inconvenience is necessary to consider the equilibrium of all the nodes of the truss. The Ritter cross-section method is not applicable to this truss structure. The sections that cut the truss into two parts and pass through the three rods, here exist only for several rods of the extreme panels. The purpose of this paper is to calculate a truss structure with a different number of panels in analytical and numerical form. Finite element calculation method with the use of software LISA 8.0 is applied. It’s noted that a truss structure is kinetically changeable when the number of spans is odd. The corresponding plan of probable velocities is given. In order to receive analytic dependence of deflection on the span number, the induction method and Maxwell-Moor formula has been applied. The operators of the compilation and solution of recurrence equations are involved in determining the general terms of the coefficient sequences. The formulas for calculation of loads in the most compressed bars of a truss structure were received.

  7. Verification Test of Automated Robotic Assembly of Space Truss Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marvin D.; Will, Ralph W.; Quach, Cuong C.

    1995-01-01

    A multidisciplinary program has been conducted at the Langley Research Center to develop operational procedures for supervised autonomous assembly of truss structures suitable for large-aperture antennas. The hardware and operations required to assemble a 102-member tetrahedral truss and attach 12 hexagonal panels were developed and evaluated. A brute-force automation approach was used to develop baseline assembly hardware and software techniques. However, as the system matured and operations were proven, upgrades were incorporated and assessed against the baseline test results. These upgrades included the use of distributed microprocessors to control dedicated end-effector operations, machine vision guidance for strut installation, and the use of an expert system-based executive-control program. This paper summarizes the developmental phases of the program, the results of several assembly tests, and a series of proposed enhancements. No problems that would preclude automated in-space assembly or truss structures have been encountered. The test system was developed at a breadboard level and continued development at an enhanced level is warranted.

  8. SpRoUTS (Space Robot Universal Truss System): Reversible Robotic Assembly of Deployable Truss Structures of Reconfigurable Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenett, Benjamin; Cellucci, Daniel; Cheung, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Automatic deployment of structures has been a focus of much academic and industrial work on infrastructure applications and robotics in general. This paper presents a robotic truss assembler designed for space applications - the Space Robot Universal Truss System (SpRoUTS) - that reversibly assembles a truss from a feedstock of hinged andflat-packed components, by folding the sides of each component up and locking onto the assembled structure. We describe the design and implementation of the robot and show that the assembled truss compares favorably with prior truss deployment systems.

  9. A variable geometry truss manipulator for positioning large payloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Tucker, J.C.; Horner, C.G.

    1995-02-01

    A major thrust within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Decontamination and Dismantling (D ampersand D) Robotics program is the development of a Selective Equipment Removal System (SERS). SERS will consist of a mobile vehicle, a Dual-Arm Work Module (DAWM), and a deployment manipulator capable of extending the DAWM up to 6.096m (20) from the vehicle. The DAWM, built by RedZone Robotics, includes two Schilling Titan II manipulators, a unique five degree-of-freedom (DOF) module for positioning/orienting the two Schilling arms, and a massive steel backplane to maintain structural rigidity. Together with its payload, the DAWM weighs about 975 kg (2150 pounds). In order to accurately position the DAWM, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) together with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center (NASA LARC) are developing a deployment manipulator, which includes two double-octahedral Variable Geometry Truss (VGT) modules connected with a static truss section. The entire SERS system (Figure 1) will include the mobile vehicle, a 2-DOF base actuation system (waist rotate and pitch) with an output link approximately 2.134m (7) in length, the VGT system and the DAWM. The VGT system (Figure 2) consists of a 1.067m (42) diameter (∼1.346m (53) long) base VGT, which mounts to the end of the output link of the base actuation system, a 1.524m (60) long static truss section which tapers from 1.067m (42) diameter at its base to 0.8128m (32) diameter at the end, and a 0.8128m (32) diameter (∼1.0922m (43) long) tip VGT to which the DAWM is mounted. The stiffness of the VGT system is such that with the base VGT mounted to a rigid base and the VGT system oriented horizontally (worst case), the static deflection of the DAWM together with full payload will be less than 0.0254m

  10. Robustness Analysis of Big Span Glulam Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčié, V.; čizmar, D.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    (Eurocode 0 &1, Probabilistic model code etc.) Based on a project of big span glulam truss structure, build in Croatia few years ago, a probabilistic model is made with four failure elements. Reliability analysis of components is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed. It can...

  11. Global stability-based design optimization of truss structures using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Furthermore, a pure pareto-ranking based multi-objective optimization model is employed for the design optimization of the truss structure with multiple objectives. The computational performance of the optimization model is increased by implementing an island model into its evolutionary search mechanism. The proposed ...

  12. Nanocrystalline Aluminum Truss Cores for Lightweight Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Chan, Lisa J.; Clough, Eric C.; Stilke, Morgan A.; Hundley, Jacob M.; Masur, Lawrence J.

    2017-12-01

    Substitution of conventional honeycomb composite sandwich structures with lighter alternatives has the potential to reduce the mass of future vehicles. Here we demonstrate nanocrystalline aluminum-manganese truss cores that achieve 2-4 times higher strength than aluminum alloy 5056 honeycombs of the same density. The scalable fabrication approach starts with additive manufacturing of polymer templates, followed by electrodeposition of nanocrystalline Al-Mn alloy, removal of the polymer, and facesheet integration. This facilitates curved and net-shaped sandwich structures, as well as co-curing of the facesheets, which eliminates the need for extra adhesive. The nanocrystalline Al-Mn alloy thin-film material exhibits high strength and ductility and can be converted into a three-dimensional hollow truss structure with this approach. Ultra-lightweight sandwich structures are of interest for a range of applications in aerospace, such as fairings, wings, and flaps, as well as for the automotive and sports industries.

  13. Quick-Connect/Disconnect Joint For Truss Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Benny B.

    1991-01-01

    Simple connector used for temporary structures and pipes. Truss connector joins and aligns structural members. Consists of two sections, one flanged and other with mating internal groove. When flanged half inserted in groove, moves lever of trigger mechanism upward. Cone then shoots into grooved half. Attached without tools in less than 2 seconds and taken apart just as quickly and easily. Developed for assembling structures in outer space, also useful for temporary terrestrial structures like scaffolds and portable bleachers. With modifications, used to join sections of pipelines carrying liquids or gases.

  14. Numerical form-finding method for large mesh reflectors with elastic rim trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongwu; Zhang, Yiqun; Li, Peng; Du, Jingli

    2018-06-01

    Traditional methods for designing a mesh reflector usually treat the rim truss as rigid. Due to large aperture, light weight and high accuracy requirements on spaceborne reflectors, the rim truss deformation is indeed not negligible. In order to design a cable net with asymmetric boundaries for the front and rear nets, a cable-net form-finding method is firstly introduced. Then, the form-finding method is embedded into an iterative approach for designing a mesh reflector considering the elasticity of the supporting rim truss. By iterations on form-findings of the cable-net based on the updated boundary conditions due to the rim truss deformation, a mesh reflector with a fairly uniform tension distribution in its equilibrium state could be finally designed. Applications on offset mesh reflectors with both circular and elliptical rim trusses are illustrated. The numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach and that a circular rim truss is more stable than an elliptical rim truss.

  15. Breaking wave impact forces on truss support structures for offshore wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślikiewicz, Witold; Gudmestad, Ove T.; Podrażka, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Due to depletion of the conventional energy sources, wind energy is becoming more popular these days. Wind energy is being produced mostly from onshore farms, but there is a clear tendency to transfer wind farms to the sea. The foundations of offshore wind turbines may be truss structures and might be located in shallow water, where are subjected to highly varying hydrodynamic loads, particularly from plunging breaking waves. There are models for impact forces prediction on monopiles. Typically the total wave force on slender pile from breaking waves is a superposition of slowly varying quasi-static force, calculated from the Morison equation and additional dynamical, short duration force due to the impact of the breaker front or breaker tongue. There is not much research done on the truss structures of wind turbines and there are still uncertainties on slamming wave forces, due to plunging breaking waves on those structures. Within the WaveSlam (Wave slamming forces on truss structures in shallow water) project the large scale tests were carried out in 2013 at the Large Wave Flume in Forschungszentrum Küste (FZK) in Hannover, Germany. The following institutions participated in this initiative: the University of Stavanger and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (project management), University of Gdańsk, Poland, Hamburg University of Technology and the University of Rostock, Germany and Reinertsen AS, Norway. This work was supported by the EU 7th Framework Programme through the grant to the budget of the Integrating Activity HYDRALAB IV. The main aim of the experiment was to investigate the wave slamming forces on truss structures, development of new and improvement of existing methods to calculate forces from the plunging breakers. The majority of the measurements were carried out for regular waves with specified frequencies and wave heights as well as for the irregular waves based on JONSWAP spectrum. The truss structure was equipped with both

  16. A Cultural Algorithm for Optimal Design of Truss Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Jalili

    Full Text Available Abstract A cultural algorithm was utilized in this study to solve optimal design of truss structures problem achieving minimum weight objective under stress and deflection constraints. The algorithm is inspired by principles of human social evolution. It simulates the social interaction between the peoples and their beliefs in a belief space. Cultural Algorithm (CA utilizes the belief space and population space which affects each other based on acceptance and influence functions. The belief space of CA consists of different knowledge components. In this paper, only situational and normative knowledge components are used within the belief space. The performance of the method is demonstrated through four benchmark design examples. Comparison of the obtained results with those of some previous studies demonstrates the efficiency of this algorithm.

  17. Comparative Research of Extra-large-span Cable-stayed Bridge with Steel Truss Girder and Steel Box Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Manjiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To research structural performance of extra-large-span cable-stayed bridge under different section forms, with the engineering background of a 800m main-span cable-stayed bridge with steel truss girder, the cable-stayed bridge with steel box girder is designed according to the current bridge regulations when two bridges are designed in an ultimate state of the carrying capacity, so the maximum stress and minimum stress of the stress envelope diagram are substantially the same. A comprehensive comparison is given to two types of bridge on the aspect of static force, natural vibration frequency, stability, economic performance and so on. Analysis results provide future reference for the large-span cable-stayed bridge to select between the steel truss girder and the steel box girder.

  18. Loading mode dependent effective properties of octet-truss lattice structures using 3D-printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challapalli, Adithya

    Cellular materials, often called lattice materials, are increasingly receiving attention for their ultralight structures with high specific strength, excellent impact absorption, acoustic insulation, heat dissipation media and compact heat exchangers. In alignment with emerging additive manufacturing (AM) technology, realization of the structural applications of the lattice materials appears to be becoming faster. Considering the direction dependent material properties of the products with AM, by directionally dependent printing resolution, effective moduli of lattice structures appear to be directionally dependent. In this paper, a constitutive model of a lattice structure, which is an octet-truss with a base material having an orthotropic material property considering AM is developed. In a case study, polyjet based 3D printing material having an orthotropic property with a 9% difference in the principal direction provides difference in the axial and shear moduli in the octet-truss by 2.3 and 4.6%. Experimental validation for the effective properties of a 3D printed octet-truss is done for uniaxial tension and compression test. The theoretical value based on the micro-buckling of truss member are used to estimate the failure strength. Modulus value appears a little overestimate compared with the experiment. Finite element (FE) simulations for uniaxial compression and tension of octettruss lattice materials are conducted. New effective properties for the octet-truss lattice structure are developed considering the observed behavior of the octet-truss structure under macroscopic compression and tension trough simulations.

  19. Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Structural Members under Uniform Loads Using Truss Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Dabbagh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Truss model is an analytical approach to predict the strength of reinforced concrete members with geometric or statical discontinuous regions. This study investigates the use of truss model to predict the structural behavior of reinforced concrete members with discontinuity areas under monotonic loading. The estimated failure load and its corresponding deformation are the main objective of this research. Twenty and three samples including short shear walls, short columns and deep beams tested by other researchers throughout the literature have been selected. Then their truss models as well as their three dimensional finite element models are analyzed using ABAQUS software. The comparison of experimental and analytical results shows fair correlation between them. Also, the structural response of samples estimated by truss model analysis is fairly acceptable.

  20. Structural Evaluation Procedures for Heavy Wood Truss Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Issa, Mohsen

    1998-01-01

    .... An evaluation procedure for wood structures differs from conventional methods used in steel, concrete, and masonry structures because, in wood construction, the allowable stresses used in design...

  1. Generating Free-Form Grid Truss Structures from 3D Scanned Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction, according to physical shape, is a novel way to generate free-form grid truss structures. 3D scanning is an effective means of acquiring physical form information and it generates dense point clouds on surfaces of objects. However, generating grid truss structures from point clouds is still a challenge. Based on the advancing front technique (AFT which is widely used in Finite Element Method (FEM, a scheme for generating grid truss structures from 3D scanned point clouds is proposed in this paper. Based on the characteristics of point cloud data, the search box is adopted to reduce the search space in grid generating. A front advancing procedure suit for point clouds is established. Delaunay method and Laplacian method are used to improve the quality of the generated grids, and an adjustment strategy that locates grid nodes at appointed places is proposed. Several examples of generating grid truss structures from 3D scanned point clouds of seashells are carried out to verify the proposed scheme. Physical models of the grid truss structures generated in the examples are manufactured by 3D print, which solidifies the feasibility of the scheme.

  2. Measurement of deforming mode of lattice truss structures under impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao H.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lattice truss structures, which are used as a core material in sandwich panels, were widely investigated experimentally and theoretically. However, explanation of the deforming mechanism using reliable experimental results is almost rarely reported, particularly for the dynamic deforming mechanism. The present work aimed at the measurement of the deforming mode of lattice truss structures. Indeed, quasi-static and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB tests have been performed on the tetrahedral truss cores structures made of Aluminum 3003-O. Global values such as crushing forces and displacements between the loading platens are obtained. However, in order to understand the deforming mechanism and to explain the observed impact strength enhancement observed in the experiments, images of the truss core element during the tests are recorded. A method based on the edge detection algorithm is developed and applied to these images. The deforming profiles of one beam are extracted and it allows for calculating the length of beam. It is found that these lengths diminish to a critical value (due to compression and remain constant afterwards (because of significant bending. The comparison between quasi-static and impact tests shows that the beam were much more compressed under impact loading, which could be understood as the lateral inertia effect in dynamic bucking. Therefore, the impact strength enhancement of tetrahedral truss core sandwich panel can be explained by the delayed buckling of beam under impact (more compression reached, together with the strain hardening of base material.

  3. Joint nonlinearity effects in the design of a flexible truss structure control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadal, Mathieu

    1986-01-01

    Nonlinear effects are introduced in the dynamics of large space truss structures by the connecting joints which are designed with rather important tolerances to facilitate the assembly of the structures in space. The purpose was to develop means to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of the structures, particularly the limit cycles that might occur when active control is applied to the structures. An analytical method was sought and derived to predict the occurrence of limit cycles and to determine their stability. This method is mainly based on the quasi-linearization of every joint using describing functions. This approach was proven successful when simple dynamical systems were tested. Its applicability to larger systems depends on the amount of computations it requires, and estimates of the computational task tend to indicate that the number of individual sources of nonlinearity should be limited. Alternate analytical approaches, which do not account for every single nonlinearity, or the simulation of a simplified model of the dynamical system should, therefore, be investigated to determine a more effective way to predict limit cycles in large dynamical systems with an important number of distributed nonlinearities.

  4. Application of Carbon Fibre Truss Technology to the Fuselage Structure of the SKYLON Spaceplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvill, R.; Bond, A.

    A reusable SSTO spaceplane employing dual mode airbreathing/rocket engines, such as SKYLON, has a voluminous fuselage in order to accommodate the considerable quantities of hydrogen fuel needed for the ascent. The loading intensity which this fuselage has to withstand is relatively low due to the modest in-flight inertial accelerations coupled with the very low density of liquid hydrogen. Also the requirement to accommo- date considerable temperature differentials between the internal cryogenic tankage and the aerodynamically heated outer skin of the vehicle imposes an additional design constraint that results in an optimum fuselage structural concept very different to conventional aircraft or rocket practice. Several different structural con- cepts exist for the primary loadbearing structure. This paper explores the design possibilities of the various types and explains why an independent near ambient temperature CFRP truss structure was selected for the SKYLON vehicle. The construction of such a truss structure, at a scale not witnessed since the days of the airship, poses a number of manufacturing and design difficulties. In particular the construction of the nodes and their attachment to the struts is considered to be a key issue. This paper describes the current design status of the overall truss geometry, strut construction and manufacturing route, and the final method of assembly. The results of a preliminary strut and node test programme are presented which give confidence that the design targets will eventually be met.

  5. A Novel Double-Piston Magnetorheological Damper for Space Truss Structures Vibration Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Wang; Mehdi Ahmadian; Zhaobo Chen

    2014-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of a new double-piston MR damper for space applications are discussed. The design concept for the damper is described in detail. The electromagnetic analysis of the design and the fabrication of the MR damper are also presented. The design analysis shows that the damper meets the weight and size requirements for being included in a space truss structure. The prototype design is tested in a damper dynamometer. The test results show that the damper can provi...

  6. Structural health monitoring of a railway truss bridge using vibration-based and ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołakowski, Przemysław; Szelążek, Jacek; Sekuła, Krzysztof; Świercz, Andrzej; Mizerski, Krzysztof; Gutkiewicz, Piotr

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents results of in situ investigation of a railway truss bridge in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM). Three experimental methods are examined. Dynamic responses of the bridge recorded by strain gauges are confronted with alternative ways of acquisition using piezoelectric patch sensors and ultrasonic probeheads. All types of sensors produce similar output. Also the corresponding responses of the numerical model of the bridge match experimental data.

  7. Structural health monitoring of a railway truss bridge using vibration-based and ultrasonic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kołakowski, Przemysław; Sekuła, Krzysztof; Szelążek, Jacek; Świercz, Andrzej; Mizerski, Krzysztof; Gutkiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of in situ investigation of a railway truss bridge in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM). Three experimental methods are examined. Dynamic responses of the bridge recorded by strain gauges are confronted with alternative ways of acquisition using piezoelectric patch sensors and ultrasonic probeheads. All types of sensors produce similar output. Also the corresponding responses of the numerical model of the bridge match experimental data

  8. EQUILIBRIUM OF TRUSS AND BEAM STRUCTURES OF INELASTIC MATERIALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten, Lars German

    2017-01-01

    A physically based method for the determination of equilibrium for structures with inelastic response is described. The method is based on minimisation of the potential energy. For structures with inelastic response, some of the applied energy is converted to non-mechanical energy. This part...... and shrinkage, as well as plastic strains from previous load scenarios, will also change the potential energy. The method is also capable of taken these effects into account. Three examples are included in order to support the physical understanding, and to illustrate the procedure for the application...

  9. Experimental Active Vibration Control in Truss Structures Considering Uncertainties in System Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Domingues Bueno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of algorithms for robust active vibration control in flexible structures considering uncertainties in system parameters. It became an area of enormous interest, mainly due to the countless demands of optimal performance in mechanical systems as aircraft, aerospace, and automotive structures. An important and difficult problem for designing active vibration control is to get a representative dynamic model. Generally, this model can be obtained using finite element method (FEM or an identification method using experimental data. Actuators and sensors may affect the dynamics properties of the structure, for instance, electromechanical coupling of piezoelectric material must be considered in FEM formulation for flexible and lightly damping structure. The nonlinearities and uncertainties involved in these structures make it a difficult task, mainly for complex structures as spatial truss structures. On the other hand, by using an identification method, it is possible to obtain the dynamic model represented through a state space realization considering this coupling. This paper proposes an experimental methodology for vibration control in a 3D truss structure using PZT wafer stacks and a robust control algorithm solved by linear matrix inequalities.

  10. System Reliability of Timber Trusses Based on Non-Linear Structural Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Martin; Ellegaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    . In this paper, Monte Carlo simulations of a timber W-truss with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates) are performed. Structural timber displays a significant variability in strength and stiffness both within and between members and is described by a statistic model calibrated against data from Norway......Structural design is today concerned with single component performance where each limit state is related to a single mode of failure of a single component. Further, in limit state codes the strength variables are related to a deterministic value (usually the 5-percentile). However, in a structure...... with a number of elements, two different effects (called system effects) can be found: - The probabilistic system effect that is based on the reduced probability that weak sections coincide with the most stressed sections. - Structural load-sharing that is the ability to redistribute load between members...

  11. Truss Structure Optimization with Subset Simulation and Augmented Lagrangian Multiplier Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Du

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a global optimization method for structural design optimization, which integrates subset simulation optimization (SSO and the dynamic augmented Lagrangian multiplier method (DALMM. The proposed method formulates the structural design optimization as a series of unconstrained optimization sub-problems using DALMM and makes use of SSO to find the global optimum. The combined strategy guarantees that the proposed method can automatically detect active constraints and provide global optimal solutions with finite penalty parameters. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed method are demonstrated by four classical truss sizing problems. The results are compared with those reported in the literature, and show a remarkable statistical performance based on 30 independent runs.

  12. An Efficient Modal Control Strategy for the Active Vibration Control of a Truss Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carvalhal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an efficient modal control strategy is described for the active vibration control of a truss structure. In this approach, a feedback force is applied to each mode to be controlled according to a weighting factor that is determined by assessing how much each mode is excited by the primary source. The strategy is effective provided that the primary source is at a fixed position on the structure, and that the source is stationary in the statistical sense. To test the effectiveness of the control strategy it is compared with an alternative, established approach namely, Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC. Numerical simulations show that with the new strategy it is possible to significantly reduce the control effort required, with a minimal reduction in control performance.

  13. Continuum modeling of three-dimensional truss-like space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Hefzy, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical and computational analysis capability has been developed for calculating the effective mechanical properties of three-dimensional periodic truss-like structures. Two models are studied in detail. The first, called the octetruss model, is a three-dimensional extension of a two-dimensional model, and the second is a cubic model. Symmetry considerations are employed as a first step to show that the specific octetruss model has four independent constants and that the cubic model has two. The actual values of these constants are determined by averaging the contributions of each rod element to the overall structure stiffness. The individual rod member contribution to the overall stiffness is obtained by a three-dimensional coordinate transformation. The analysis shows that the effective three-dimensional elastic properties of both models are relatively close to each other.

  14. Structural response of existing spatial truss roof construction based on Cosserat rod theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miśkiewicz, Mikołaj

    2018-04-01

    Paper presents the application of the Cosserat rod theory and newly developed associated finite elements code as the tools that support in the expert-designing engineering practice. Mechanical principles of the 3D spatially curved rods, dynamics (statics) laws, principle of virtual work are discussed. Corresponding FEM approach with interpolation and accumulation techniques of state variables are shown that enable the formulation of the C0 Lagrangian rod elements with 6-degrees of freedom per node. Two test examples are shown proving the correctness and suitability of the proposed formulation. Next, the developed FEM code is applied to assess the structural response of the spatial truss roof of the "Olivia" Sports Arena Gdansk, Poland. The numerical results are compared with load test results. It is shown that the proposed FEM approach yields correct results.

  15. Origami-based tunable truss structures for non-volatile mechanical memory operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiromi; Tachi, Tomohiro; Lee, Mia; Yang, Jinkyu

    2017-10-17

    Origami has recently received significant interest from the scientific community as a method for designing building blocks to construct metamaterials. However, the primary focus has been placed on their kinematic applications by leveraging the compactness and auxeticity of planar origami platforms. Here, we present volumetric origami cells-specifically triangulated cylindrical origami (TCO)-with tunable stability and stiffness, and demonstrate their feasibility as non-volatile mechanical memory storage devices. We show that a pair of TCO cells can develop a double-well potential to store bit information. What makes this origami-based approach more appealing is the realization of two-bit mechanical memory, in which two pairs of TCO cells are interconnected and one pair acts as a control for the other pair. By assembling TCO-based truss structures, we experimentally verify the tunable nature of the TCO units and demonstrate the operation of purely mechanical one- and two-bit memory storage prototypes.Origami is a popular method to design building blocks for mechanical metamaterials. Here, the authors assemble a volumetric origami-based structure, predict its axial and rotational movements during folding, and demonstrate the operation of mechanical one- and two-bit memory storage.

  16. A Novel Double-Piston Magnetorheological Damper for Space Truss Structures Vibration Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design, fabrication, and testing of a new double-piston MR damper for space applications are discussed. The design concept for the damper is described in detail. The electromagnetic analysis of the design and the fabrication of the MR damper are also presented. The design analysis shows that the damper meets the weight and size requirements for being included in a space truss structure. The prototype design is tested in a damper dynamometer. The test results show that the damper can provide nearly 80 N of damping force at its maximum velocity and current. The test results also show that the seal drag could contribute significantly to the damping forces. Additionally, the test results indicate that both the work by the damper and damping force increase rapidly with increasing current at lower currents and taper off at higher currents as the damper starts to saturate. The damper force versus velocity plots show hysteresis in both pre- and postyield regions and asymmetric forces in jounce and rebound. A model is proposed for representing the force-displacement, force-velocity, and asymmetric forces observed in test results. A comparison of the modeling results and test data indicates that the model accurately represents the force characteristics of the damper.

  17. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Telescopic Mechanism for Truss Structure Bridge Inspection Vehicle Under Pedestrian Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Sui

    Full Text Available Abstract Nonlinear dynamic analysis of an axially moving telescopic mechanism for truss structure bridge inspection vehicle under pedestrian excitation is carried out. A biomechanically inspired inverted-pendulum model is utilized to simplify the pedestrian. The nonlinear equations of motion for the beam-pedestrian system are derived using the Hamilton's principle. The equations are transformed into two ordinary differential equations by applying the Galerkin's method at the first two orders. The solutions to the equations are acquired by using the Newmark-β method associated with the Newton-Raphson method. The time-dependent feature of the eigenfunctions for the two beams are taken into consideration in the solutions. Accordingly, the equations of motion for a simplified system, in which the pedestrian is regarded as moving cart, are given. In the numerical examples, dynamic responses of the telescopic mechanism in eight conditions of different beam-telescoping and pedestrian-moving directions are simulated. Comparisons between the vibrations of the beams under pedestrian excitation and corresponding moving cart are carried out to investigate the influence of the pedestrian excitation on the telescopic mechanism. The results show that the displacement of the telescopic mechanism under pedestrian excitation is smaller than that under moving cart especially when the pedestrian approaches the beams end. Additionally, compared with moving cart, the pedestrian excitation can effectively strengthen the vibration when the beam extension is small or when the pedestrian is close to the beams end.

  18. Strain Measurement of Steel Roof Truss Using FBG Sensor during Construction of Reverse Shell Shaped Reinforced Concrete Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kun Woo [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hong Chul; Seo, Tae Seok [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Application of FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) sensors to measure strain of steel roof trusses has been performed. This is to check and confirm the structural integrity of an unusually shaped, reverse shell structure made of reinforced concrete. The issue was to place sensors at proper location and compare the measured values to the results from structural analysis. It has been learned that a deliberate measurement scheme is needed in order to monitor a complex structure during construction. In this study, the measured values were within allowable range of strain, thus confirming the safety of the structure during measurement and construction.

  19. Field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of large-span spatial cable-truss system under strong wind or typhoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhihong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure wind-resistance safety of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in southeast coast area of China,and to prepare something for revising of current codes of practice or technical standards,the present paper conducts field measurement of wind pressure and wind-induced vibration of a practical and typical large-span spatial cable-truss system-lunar stadium in Yueqing city.Wind loading and wind effects on full-scale structure under strong wind or typhoon in real architectural environment can be obtained directly and effectively.Field measurement is the best way to investigate the wind loading property,wind effects,and wind-structure interactions of large-span flexible system.Measured data will be highly valuable for scientific research and practical design.On the other hand,it also provides the basis of wind-resistance safety design of this kind of tension structures.If any creative development,it would dramatically improve the research level of large-span pre-stressed flexible system in our country.

  20. A practical monitoring system for the structural safety of mega-trusses using wireless vibrating wire strain gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Lee, Hwan Young; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-12-16

    Sensor technologies have been actively employed in structural health monitoring (SHM) to evaluate structural safety. To provide stable and real-time monitoring, a practical wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs) is proposed and applied to a building under construction. In this WSNS, the data measured from each VWSG are transmitted to the sensor node via a signal line and then transmitted to the master node through a short-range wireless communication module (operating on the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band). The master node also employs a long-range wireless communication module (Code Division Multiple Access-CDMA) to transmit the received data from the sensor node to a server located in a remote area, which enables a manager to examine the measured data in real time without any time or location restrictions. In this study, a total of 48 VWSGs, 14 sensor nodes, and seven master nodes were implemented to measure long-term strain variations of mega-trusses in an irregular large-scale building under construction. Based on strain data collected over a 16-month period, a quantitative evaluation of the construction process was performed to determine the aspects that exhibit the greatest influence on member behavior and to conduct a comparison with numerical simulation results. The effect of temperature stress on the structural elements was also analyzed. From these observations, the feasibility of a long-term WSNS based on VWSGs to evaluate the structural safety of an irregular building under construction was confirmed.

  1. A Practical Monitoring System for the Structural Safety of Mega-Trusses Using Wireless Vibrating Wire Strain Gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seon Park

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensor technologies have been actively employed in structural health monitoring (SHM to evaluate structural safety. To provide stable and real-time monitoring, a practical wireless sensor network system (WSNS based on vibrating wire strain gauges (VWSGs is proposed and applied to a building under construction. In this WSNS, the data measured from each VWSG are transmitted to the sensor node via a signal line and then transmitted to the master node through a short-range wireless communication module (operating on the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM band. The master node also employs a long-range wireless communication module (Code Division Multiple Access—CDMA to transmit the received data from the sensor node to a server located in a remote area, which enables a manager to examine the measured data in real time without any time or location restrictions. In this study, a total of 48 VWSGs, 14 sensor nodes, and seven master nodes were implemented to measure long-term strain variations of mega-trusses in an irregular large-scale building under construction. Based on strain data collected over a 16-month period, a quantitative evaluation of the construction process was performed to determine the aspects that exhibit the greatest influence on member behavior and to conduct a comparison with numerical simulation results. The effect of temperature stress on the structural elements was also analyzed. From these observations, the feasibility of a long-term WSNS based on VWSGs to evaluate the structural safety of an irregular building under construction was confirmed.

  2. Modelling of the stiffness evolution of truss core structures damaged by plastic buckling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šiška, Filip; Stratil, Luděk; Dlouhý, Ivo; Barnett, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 100, AUG (2015), s. 1-11 ISSN 0168-874X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0197 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : beam theory * plastic buckling * finite element * beam-columns * truss-coredlaminates Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2015

  3. Design and analysis of a deployable truss for the large modular mesh antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Akira

    This paper describes the design and deployment analysis for large deployable modular mesh antennas. Key design criteria are deployability, and the driving force and latching moment requirements. Reaction forces and moments due to mesh and cable network seriously influence the driving force. These forces and moments can be precisely estimated by means of analyzing the cable network using Cable Structure Analyzer (CASA). Deployment analysis is carried out using Dynamic Analysis and Design System (DADS). The influence of alignment errors on the driving reaction force can be eliminated by replacing the joint element with a spring element. The joint slop is also modeled using a discontinuous spring elements. Their design approach for three types of deployable modules and the deployment characterstics of three Bread-Board Models based on those designs are also presented. In order to study gravity effects on the deployment characteristics and the effects of the gravity compensation method, ground deployment analysis is carried out. A planned deployment test that will use aircraft parabolic flight to simulate a micro-gravity environment is also described.

  4. Hybrid deployable support truss designs for LDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgepeth, J.

    1988-01-01

    Concepts for a 20-meter diameter Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) deployable truss backup structure, and analytical predictions of its structural characteristics are discussed. The concept shown is referred to as the SIXPAC; It is a combination of the PACTRUSS concept and a single-fold beam, which would make up the desired backup structure. One advantage of retaining the PACTRUSS concept is its packaging density and its capability for synchronous deployment. Various 2-meter hexagonal panel arrangements are possible for this Hybrid PACTRUSS structure depending on the panel-to-structure attachment strategies used. Static analyses of the SIXPAC using various assumptions for truss designs and panel masses of 10 kg sq meters were performed to predict the tip displacement of the structure when supported at the center. The tip displacement ranged from 0.20 to 0.44 mm without the panel mass, and from 0.9 to 3.9 mm with the panel mass (in a 1-g field). The data indicate that the structure can be adequately ground tested to validate its required performance in space, assuming the required performance in space is approximately 100 microns. The static displacement at the tip of the structure when subjected to an angular acceleration of 0.001 rad/sec squared were estimated to range from 0.8 to 7.5 microns, depending on the type of truss elements.

  5. Fitness Estimation Based Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Layout Design of Truss Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayang Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that vastly different variables and constraints are simultaneously considered, truss layout optimization is a typical difficult constrained mixed-integer nonlinear program. Moreover, the computational cost of truss analysis is often quite expensive. In this paper, a novel fitness estimation based particle swarm optimization algorithm with an adaptive penalty function approach (FEPSO-AP is proposed to handle this problem. FEPSO-AP adopts a special fitness estimate strategy to evaluate the similar particles in the current population, with the purpose to reduce the computational cost. Further more, a laconic adaptive penalty function is employed by FEPSO-AP, which can handle multiple constraints effectively by making good use of historical iteration information. Four benchmark examples with fixed topologies and up to 44 design dimensions were studied to verify the generality and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Numerical results of the present work compared with results of other state-of-the-art hybrid algorithms shown in the literature demonstrate that the convergence rate and the solution quality of FEPSO-AP are essentially competitive.

  6. Comparative study of trusses to determine the influence of the geometry in the structural efficiency, according to the directions of the principal stresses

    OpenAIRE

    Señís López, Roger; Brufau Niubó, Roberto; Sastre Sastre, Ramon; Carbajal Navarro, Eusebio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study compares flat lattice girders mounted on two supports, based on various design parameters, to determine which have better structural performance and what geometries are more efficient. The fundamental goal is to determine the relationship of performance and structural behavior of each type of framework structure, with respect to the principle of optimization and improvement in the efficiency of the trusses if their geometry adapts to the directions of the principal s...

  7. Micro-scale truss structures with three-fold and six-fold symmetry formed from self-propagating polymer waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Alan J. [HRL Laboratories LLC, Sensors and Materials Laboratory, 3011 Malibu Canyon Road, Malibu, CA 90265-4797 (United States); Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)], E-mail: ajjacobsen@hrl.com; Barvosa-Carter, William [HRL Laboratories LLC, Sensors and Materials Laboratory, 3011 Malibu Canyon Road, Malibu, CA 90265-4797 (United States); Nutt, Steven [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    A process for interconnecting a three-dimensional pattern of self-propagating polymer waveguides was used to form micro-truss structures with two new unit cell architectures. The structures were formed using a two-dimensional mask with a hexagonal pattern of apertures. Distinct unit cell architectures were possible by exposing the mask to a different number of incident UV exposure beams, which are used to form the waveguides. One unit cell design featured three intersecting waveguides per node, resulting in a structure with three-fold symmetry. The second unit cell design had six-fold symmetry and was characterized by primary nodes with six intersecting waveguides and secondary nodes with two intersecting waveguides. Compression loading experiments were conducted on micro-truss samples with comparable relative density values ({rho}/{rho}{sub s} = 6.5%), but different unit cell architectures. The addition of secondary nodes in the structures based on the second design led to an increase in compressive modulus of up to 70% and an average increase in peak strength of 42%. The increase in compressive strength and modulus was attributed to a reduction in the truss-member slenderness ratio achieved through increased waveguide connectivity.

  8. Micro-scale truss structures with three-fold and six-fold symmetry formed from self-propagating polymer waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Alan J.; Barvosa-Carter, William; Nutt, Steven

    2008-01-01

    A process for interconnecting a three-dimensional pattern of self-propagating polymer waveguides was used to form micro-truss structures with two new unit cell architectures. The structures were formed using a two-dimensional mask with a hexagonal pattern of apertures. Distinct unit cell architectures were possible by exposing the mask to a different number of incident UV exposure beams, which are used to form the waveguides. One unit cell design featured three intersecting waveguides per node, resulting in a structure with three-fold symmetry. The second unit cell design had six-fold symmetry and was characterized by primary nodes with six intersecting waveguides and secondary nodes with two intersecting waveguides. Compression loading experiments were conducted on micro-truss samples with comparable relative density values (ρ/ρ s = 6.5%), but different unit cell architectures. The addition of secondary nodes in the structures based on the second design led to an increase in compressive modulus of up to 70% and an average increase in peak strength of 42%. The increase in compressive strength and modulus was attributed to a reduction in the truss-member slenderness ratio achieved through increased waveguide connectivity

  9. solveTruss v1.0: Static, global buckling and frequency analysis of 2D and 3D trusses with Mathematica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozbasaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trusses have an important place amongst engineering structures due to many advantages such as high structural efficiency, fast assembly and easy maintenance. Iterative truss design procedures, which require analysis of a large number of candidate structural systems such as size, shape and topology optimization with stochastic methods, mostly lead the engineer to establish a link between the development platform and external structural analysis software. By increasing number of structural analyses, this (probably slow-response link may climb to the top of the list of performance issues. This paper introduces a software for static, global member buckling and frequency analysis of 2D and 3D trusses to overcome this problem for Mathematica users.

  10. Truss systems and shape optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricop, Mihai Victor; Bunea, Marian; Nedelcu, Roxana

    2017-07-01

    Structure optimization is an important topic because of its benefits and wide applicability range, from civil engineering to aerospace and automotive industries, contributing to a more green industry and life. Truss finite elements are still in use in many research/industrial codesfor their simple stiffness matrixand are naturally matching the requirements for cellular materials especially considering various 3D printing technologies. Optimality Criteria combined with Solid Isotropic Material with Penalization is the optimization method of choice, particularized for truss systems. Global locked structures areobtainedusinglocally locked lattice local organization, corresponding to structured or unstructured meshes. Post processing is important for downstream application of the method, to make a faster link to the CAD systems. To export the optimal structure in CATIA, a CATScript file is automatically generated. Results, findings and conclusions are given for two and three-dimensional cases.

  11. A Quantitative Comparison Between Size, Shape, Topology and Simultaneous Optimization for Truss Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.E. Müller

    Full Text Available Abstract There are typically three broad categories of structural optimization namely size, shape and topology. Over the past few decades various researchers have focused on developing techniques for optimizing structures by considering either one or a combination of these aspects. In this paper the efficiency of these techniques are investigated in an effort to quantify the improvement of the result obtained by utilizing a more complex optimization routine. The percentage of the structural weight saved and computational effort required are used as measures to compare these techniques. The well-known genetic algorithm with elitism is used to perform these tests on various benchmark structures found in literature. Some of the results that are obtained include that a simultaneous approach produces, on average, a 22 % better solution than a simple size optimization and a 12 % improvement when compared to a staged approach where the size, shape and topology of the structure is considered sequentially. From these results, it is concluded that a significant saving can be made by using a more complex optimization routine, such as a simultaneous approach.

  12. Experimental Modal Test of the Laboratory Model of Steel Truss Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortiš Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental modal analysis is often used to validate the accuracy of dynamic numerical models. It is also a good tool to obtain valuable information about current condition of the structures that could help to determine residual lifetime. The quality of modal testing results is highly dependent on the proper estimation of the natural frequencies from the frequency response function. This article presents the experimental modal test of the laboratory steel structure in which the natural frequencies and mode shapes are determined.

  13. A study of the deformability of composite rods with end fittings for truss structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanychev, E I; Novikov, V V; Sukhanov, A V; Lapotkin, V A; Postnov, A N [Moskovskii Aviatsionnyi Tekhnologicheskii Institut, Moscow (USSR)

    1989-04-01

    A method is proposed for studying the deformability characteristics of composite rods with end fittings under static loading. Three types of connectors for tubular composite rods are examined from the standpoint of deformability, and differences in the deformability of the central part of a rod and of the connection zone are discussed. The effect of thermal cycling on the deformability of structures of this type is analyzed. 7 refs.

  14. The numerical assessment of a full-scale historical truss structure reconstructed with use of traditional all-wooden joints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milch, J.; Tippner, J.; Sebera, V.; Kunecký, Jiří; Kloiber, Michal; Navrátil, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 21, September-October (2016), s. 759-766 ISSN 1296-2074 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DG16P02M026 Keywords : elastic behavior * finite element method * historical truss * substructuring * wooden joints Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1296207416300450

  15. Vibration characteristics of a deployable controllable-geometry truss boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical study was made to evaluate changes in the fundamental frequency of a two dimensional cantilevered truss boom at various stages of deployment. The truss could be axially deployed or retracted and undergo a variety of controlled geometry changes by shortening or lengthening the telescoping diagonal members in each bay. Both untapered and tapered versions of the truss boom were modeled and analyzed by using the finite element method. Large reductions in fundamental frequency occurred for both the untapered and tapered trusses when they were uniformly retracted or maneuvered laterally from their fully deployed position. These frequency reductions can be minimized, however, if truss geometries are selected which maintain cantilever root stiffness during truss maneuvers.

  16. Mobile work station concept for assembly of large space structures (zero gravity simulation tests)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, W. L., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Wallsom, R. E.; Jensen, J. K.

    1982-03-01

    The concept presented is intended to enhance astronaut assembly of truss structure that is either too large or complex to fold for efficient Shuttle delivery to orbit. The potential of augmented astronaut assembly is illustrated by applying the result of the tests to a barebones assembly of a truss structure. If this structure were assembled from the same nestable struts that were used in the Mobile Work Station assembly tests, the spacecraft would be 55 meters in diameter and consist of about 500 struts. The struts could be packaged in less than 1/2% of the Shuttle cargo bay volume and would take up approximately 3% of the mass lift capability. They could be assembled in approximately four hours. This assembly concept for erectable structures is not only feasible, but could be used to significant economic advantage by permitting the superior packaging feature of erectable structures to be exploited and thereby reduce expensive Shuttle delivery flights.

  17. Sintering of micro-trusses created by extrusion-3D-printing of lunar regolith inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shannon L.; Jakus, Adam E.; Koube, Katie D.; Ibeh, Amaka J.; Geisendorfer, Nicholas R.; Shah, Ramille N.; Dunand, David C.

    2018-02-01

    The development of in situ fabrication methods for the infrastructure required to support human life on the Moon is necessary due to the prohibitive cost of transporting large quantities of materials from the Earth. Cellular structures, consisting of a regular network (truss) of micro-struts with ∼500 μm diameters, suitable for bricks, blocks, panels, and other load-bearing structural elements for habitats and other infrastructure are created by direct-extrusion 3D-printing of liquid inks containing JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant powders, followed by sintering. The effects of sintering time, temperature, and atmosphere (air or hydrogen) on the microstructures, mechanical properties, and magnetic properties of the sintered lunar regolith micro-trusses are investigated. The air-sintered micro-trusses have higher relative densities, linear shrinkages, and peak compressive strengths, due to the improved sintering of the struts within the micro-trusses achieved by a liquid or glassy phase. Whereas the hydrogen-sintered micro-trusses show no liquid-phase sintering or glassy phase, they contain metallic iron 0.1-2 μm particles from the reduction of ilmenite, which allows them to be lifted with magnets.

  18. Experimental results of active control on a large structure to suppress vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Three design methods, Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR), H-infinity, and mu-synthesis, are used to obtain compensators for suppressing the vibrations of a 10-bay vertical truss structure, a component typical of what may be used to build a large space structure. For the design process the plant dynamic characteristics of the structure were determined experimentally using an identification method. The resulting compensators were implemented on a digital computer and tested for their ability to suppress the first bending mode response of the 10-bay vertical truss. Time histories of the measured motion are presented, and modal damping obtained during the experiments are compared with analytical predictions. The advantages and disadvantages of using the various design methods are discussed.

  19. Simulation of fatigue damagesin secondary truss of crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin Konstantin Ivanovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the damaging statistics obtained during the on-site inspections of industrial multi-span building structures with under-crane secondary trusses which have continuous lower plinth, we simulated the scenario of the most likely damage development of under-crane secondary trusses.The first scenario is the development of cracks along the total cross section of plinth. In the process of calculations we defined a real deformation scheme of plinth of under-crane secondary trusses with damage and its stress condition.The second scenario is the destruction of a support or support mounting unit to the lower plinth of under-crane secondary trusses. The destruction of this kind can occur as a result of a crack in a support or as a result of destruction of high-strength fasteners of a support to plinth. We discovered that a system with such damage is geometrically unchanged; there is no possibility of sudden destruction of both the under-crane secondary trusses and the entire building frame.The third scenario is the upper plinth separation from one of the walls of lower plinth of under-crane secondary trusses.The scenario is developed to define the viability of under-crane secondary trusses as a result of cracks in the area of wall junction with the upper shelf of lower plinth, their further development and the appearance of discrete cracks developing into a backbone along the entire span length of under-crane secondary trusses.Based on the calculations of the stress strain state of under-crane secondary trusses with damages in the emergency nature in a separate span of the lower plinth and a truss member, we estimated the viability of structure. The analysis of viability limits makes it possible to find the measures of collapse preventing and avoid possible victims.

  20. King post truss as a motif for internal structure of (meta)material with controlled elastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Emilio; Giorgio, Ivan; Misra, Anil; dell'Isola, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    One of the most interesting challenges in the modern theory of materials consists in the determination of those microstructures which produce, at the macro-level, a class of metamaterials whose elastic range is many orders of magnitude wider than the one exhibited by `standard' materials. In dell'Isola et al. (2015 Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik 66, 3473-3498. (doi:10.1007/s00033-015-0556-4)), it was proved that, with a pantographic microstructure constituted by `long' micro-beams it is possible to obtain metamaterials whose elastic range spans up to an elongation exceeding 30%. In this paper, we demonstrate that the same behaviour can be obtained by means of an internal microstructure based on a king post motif. This solution shows many advantages: it involves only microbeams; all constituting beams are undergoing only extension or compression; all internal constraints are terminal pivots. While the elastic deformation energy can be determined as easily as in the case of long-beam microstructure, the proposed design seems to have obvious remarkable advantages: it seems to be more damage resistant and therefore to be able to have a wider elastic range; it can be realized with the same three-dimensional printing technology; it seems to be less subject to compression buckling. The analysis which we present here includes: (i) the determination of Hencky-type discrete models for king post trusses, (ii) the application of an effective integration scheme to a class of relevant deformation tests for the proposed metamaterial and (iii) the numerical determination of an equivalent second gradient continuum model. The numerical tools which we have developed and which are presented here can be readily used to develop an extensive measurement campaign for the proposed metamaterial.

  1. Design considerations for an astronaut monorail system for large space structures and the structural characterization of its positioning arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Judith J.

    1992-08-01

    An astronaut monorail system (AMS) is presented as a vehicle to transport and position EVA astronauts along large space truss structures. The AMS is proposed specifically as an alternative to the crew and equipment transfer aid for Space Station Freedom. Design considerations for the AMS were discussed and a reference configuration was selected for the study. Equations were developed to characterize the stiffness and frequency behavior of the AMS positioning arm. Experimental data showed that these equations gave a fairly accurate representation of the stiffness and frequency behavior of the arm. A study was presented to show trends for the arm behavior based on varying parameters of the stiffness and frequency equations. An ergonomics study was conducted to provide boundary conditions for tolerable frequency and deflection to be used in developing a design concept for the positioning arm. The feasibility of the AMS positioning arm was examined using equations and working curves developed in this study. It was found that a positioning arm of a length to reach all interior points of the space station truss structure could not be designed to satisfy frequency and deflection constraints. By relaxing the design requirements and the ergonomic boundaries, an arm could be designed which would provide a stable work platform for the EVA astronaut and give him access to over 75 percent of the truss interior.

  2. Numerical Analysis Of Buckling Of Von Mises Planar Truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A computational algorithm of a discrete model of von Mises planar steel truss is presented. The structure deformation is evaluated by seeking the minimal potential energy. The critical force invented by mathematical solution was compared with solution by computer algorithm. Symmetric and asymmetric effects of initial shape of geometric imperfection of axis of struts are used in model. The shapes of buckling of von Mises planar truss of selected vertical displacement of top joint are shown.

  3. Large floating structures technological advances

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, BT

    2015-01-01

    This book surveys key projects that have seen the construction of large floating structures or have attained detailed conceptual designs. This compilation of key floating structures in a single volume captures the innovative features that mark the technological advances made in this field of engineering, and will provide a useful reference for ideas, analysis, design, and construction of these unique and emerging urban projects to offshore and marine engineers, urban planners, architects and students.

  4. Large scale structure and baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilova, D.P.; Chizhov, M.V.

    2001-08-01

    We discuss a possible connection between the large scale structure formation and the baryogenesis in the universe. An update review of the observational indications for the presence of a very large scale 120h -1 Mpc in the distribution of the visible matter of the universe is provided. The possibility to generate a periodic distribution with the characteristic scale 120h -1 Mpc through a mechanism producing quasi-periodic baryon density perturbations during inflationary stage, is discussed. The evolution of the baryon charge density distribution is explored in the framework of a low temperature boson condensate baryogenesis scenario. Both the observed very large scale of a the visible matter distribution in the universe and the observed baryon asymmetry value could naturally appear as a result of the evolution of a complex scalar field condensate, formed at the inflationary stage. Moreover, for some model's parameters a natural separation of matter superclusters from antimatter ones can be achieved. (author)

  5. Analysis of Lateral Buckling of Bar with Axial Force Accumulation in Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanamankong, Nuttapon; Petchsasithon, Arthit; Dhirasedh, Suwat

    2017-06-01

    This research studies the lateral buckling behavior in truss and lateral buckling coefficient of truss. Lateral buckling analysis of truss is performed by simulating the structural model with both end supports being pinned and roller-supports. The analysis is indirectly conducted using Elastic Theory to evaluate the length of lateral buckling by calculating the determinant of the Matrix [K]. Results from the analysis are marginally different from those obtained from finite element program and are considerably less than those obtained from Eurocode standard. This can be concluded that using elastic theory to evaluate lateral buckling coefficient of truss member will result in more economical section.

  6. Zenith 1 truss transfer ceremony

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Zenith-1 (Z-1) Truss is officially presented to NASA by The Boeing Co. on the Space Station Processing Facility floor on July 31. STS-92 Commander Col. Brian Duffy, comments on the presentation. Pictured are The Boeing Co. processing team and STS-92 astronauts. The Z-1 Truss is the cornerstone truss of the International Space Station and is scheduled to fly in Space Shuttle Discovery's payload pay on STS-92 targeted for launch Oct. 5, 2000. The Z-1 is considered a cornerstone truss because it carries critical components of the Station's attitude, communications, thermal and power control systems as well as four control moment gyros, high and low gain antenna systems, and two plasma contactor units used to disperse electrical charge build- ups. The Z-1 truss and a Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-3), also flying to the Station on the same mission, will be the first major U.S. elements flown to the ISS aboard the Shuttle since the launch of the Unity element in December 1998.

  7. A Branch and Bound Approach for Truss Topology Design Problems with Valid Inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerveira, Adelaide; Agra, Agostinho; Bastos, Fernando; Varum, Humberto

    2010-01-01

    One of the classical problems in the structural optimization field is the Truss Topology Design Problem (TTDP) which deals with the selection of optimal configuration for structural systems for applications in mechanical, civil, aerospace engineering, among others. In this paper we consider a TTDP where the goal is to find the stiffest truss, under a given load and with a bound on the total volume. The design variables are the cross-section areas of the truss bars that must be chosen from a given finite set. This results in a large-scale non-convex problem with discrete variables. This problem can be formulated as a Semidefinite Programming Problem (SDP problem) with binary variables. We propose a branch and bound algorithm to solve this problem. In this paper it is considered a binary formulation of the problem, to take advantage of its structure, which admits a Knapsack problem as subproblem. Thus, trying to improve the performance of the Branch and Bound, at each step, some valid inequalities for the Knapsack problem are included.

  8. A new hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm for optimal design of large-scale dome structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, A.; Ilchi Ghazaan, M.

    2018-02-01

    In this article a hybrid algorithm based on a vibrating particles system (VPS) algorithm, multi-design variable configuration (Multi-DVC) cascade optimization, and an upper bound strategy (UBS) is presented for global optimization of large-scale dome truss structures. The new algorithm is called MDVC-UVPS in which the VPS algorithm acts as the main engine of the algorithm. The VPS algorithm is one of the most recent multi-agent meta-heuristic algorithms mimicking the mechanisms of damped free vibration of single degree of freedom systems. In order to handle a large number of variables, cascade sizing optimization utilizing a series of DVCs is used. Moreover, the UBS is utilized to reduce the computational time. Various dome truss examples are studied to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method, as compared to some existing structural optimization techniques. The results indicate that the MDVC-UVPS technique is a powerful search and optimization method for optimizing structural engineering problems.

  9. Large scale nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results of large scale nuclear structure studies are reported. The starting point is the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solution with angular momentum and proton and neutron number projection after variation. This model for number and spin projected two-quasiparticle excitations with realistic forces yields in sd-shell nuclei similar good results as the 'exact' shell-model calculations. Here the authors present results for a pf-shell nucleus 46 Ti and results for the A=130 mass region where they studied 58 different nuclei with the same single-particle energies and the same effective force derived from a meson exchange potential. They carried out a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov variation after mean field projection in realistic model spaces. In this way, they determine for each yrast state the optimal mean Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov field. They apply this method to 130 Ce and 128 Ba using the same effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. (Auth.)

  10. Tensioned Rollable Ultra-light Solar array System (TRUSS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRUSS is a structurally efficient solar array concept that utilizes a TRAC rollable boom and tension-stiffened structure to exceed the program requirements for very...

  11. Influence of stiffness in bolted connections in wooden plane structure of truss type Influência da rigidez de ligações parafusadas em estruturas planas de madeira do tipo treliça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. Christoforo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trusses are structural systems commonly used in projects, being employed mainly in roof structures, present in most rural buildings. The design of trusses, as well as other structural systems, requires the determination of displacements, strains and stresses. However, the project is developed from an ideal model of calculation, considering free rotation between the elements of a connection. This paper presents a computer program for the analysis of bidimensional wooden trusses with connections formed with two screws per node. The formulation is based on the flexibility method, taking into account the influence of the effect of semi-rigid connections formed by two screws. An example of a structure is presented and analyzed by the program developed here, highlighting the importance of behavior analysis on semi-rigid connections.Treliças são sistemas estruturais comumente utilizados em projetos, empregadas principalmente em estruturas de cobertura, presentes na maioria das construções rurais. O dimensionamento de treliças, assim como o de outros sistemas estruturais, requer a determinação dos deslocamentos, esforços, tensões e deformações atuantes em seus elementos constituintes. O cálculo é desenvolvido com base em um modelo ideal, considerando-se o giro livre entre os elementos componentes de uma ligação. Este trabalho objetiva apresentar um programa computacional destinado à análise de treliças planas de madeira com ligações formadas com dois parafusos por nó. A formulação é fundamentada no Método da Flexibilidade, levando-se em consideração a influência do efeito semirrígido das ligações formadas por dois parafusos. Um exemplo de estrutura auxiliar de cobertura é apresentado e analisado pelo programa desenvolvido, evidenciando-se a importância da análise do comportamento semirrígido sobre as ligações.

  12. Aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eybye, Birgitte Tanderup

    2014-01-01

    The aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland were built under hard conditions, such as harsh climate and scarce resources. Hence, the aisle-truss houses display a number of resource-saving and sustainable building principles, including the arcade construction and the use of passive energy strategies......, which make them relevant to research. This paper investigates resource-saving and sustainable principles in the aisle-truss houses of Thy, Northern Jutland. General features as well as three cases of the one-wing dwelling aisle-truss houses are studied. The aim is to improve the understanding of aisle......-truss houses. Another aim is to suggest strategies for modern sustainable building on the basis of the identified principles in aisle-truss houses....

  13. Structuring very large domain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    View/Viewpoint approaches like IEEE 1471-2000, or Kruchten's 4+1-view model are used to structure software architectures at a high level of granularity. While research has focused on architectural languages and with consistency between multiple views, practical questions such as the structuring a...

  14. Application of lightweight materials in structure concept design of large-scale solar energy unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Lv, Shengli; Guan, XiQi

    2017-09-01

    Carbon fiber composites and film materials can be effectively used in light aircraft structures, especially for solar unmanned aerial vehicles. The use of light materials can reduce the weight of the aircraft, but also can effectively improve the aircraft's strength and stiffness. The structure of the large aspect ratio solar energy UAV was analyzed in detail, taking Solar-impulse solar aircraft as an example. The solar energy UAV has a wing aspect ratio greater than 20, and the detailed digital model of the wing structure including beam, ribs and skin was built, also the Finite Element Method was applied to analyze the static and dynamic performance of the structure. The upper skin of the wing is covered with silicon solar cells, while the lower skin is light and transparent film. The single beam truss form of carbon fiber lightweight material is used in the wing structure. The wing beam is a box beam with rectangular cross sections. The box beam connected the front parts and after parts of the ribs together. The fuselage of the aircraft was built by space truss structure. According to the static and dynamic analysis with Finite Element method, it was found that the aircraft has a small wingtip deflection relative to the wingspan in the level flight state. The first natural frequency of the wing structure is pretty low, which is closed to the gust load.

  15. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  16. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMAL NUMBER AND LOCATION FOR STEEL OUTRIGGER-BELT TRUSS SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDI BABAEI

    2017-01-01

    During the past two decades, outrigger-belt truss system has been investigated and used in design of tall buildings. Most of the studies focused on the optimization of the system for minimum displacement and some of them proposed the best locations. In this study, however, multi-objective optimization of tall steel frames with belt trusses is investigated to minimize displacement and weight of the structure. For this purpose, structures with 20, 30, 40, and 50 stories are considered as ...

  17. Nonlinear dynamics and chaos in a pseudoelastic two-bar truss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savi, Marcelo A; Nogueira, Jefferson B

    2010-01-01

    Stability aspects of structures are usually treated by archetypal models that provide global comprehension of the system behavior. The two-bar truss is an example of this kind of model that presents snap-through behavior. This paper deals with the dynamical response of a pseudoelastic two-bar truss, representing an archetypal model of a structural system that exhibits both geometrical and constitutive nonlinearities. Adaptive trusses with shape memory alloy actuators are examples of dynamical systems that may behave like the structure considered in this paper. A constitutive model is employed in order to describe the SMA behavior, presenting close agreement with experimental data. An iterative numerical procedure based on the operator split technique, the orthogonal projection algorithm and the classical fourth order Runge–Kutta method is developed to deal with nonlinearities in the formulation. Numerical investigation is carried out considering free and forced responses of the pseudoelastic two-bar truss showing complex behaviors

  18. Discrete size optimization of steel trusses using a refined big bang-big crunch algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasançebi, O.; Kazemzadeh Azad, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a methodology that provides a method for design optimization of steel truss structures based on a refined big bang-big crunch (BB-BC) algorithm. It is shown that a standard formulation of the BB-BC algorithm occasionally falls short of producing acceptable solutions to problems from discrete size optimum design of steel trusses. A reformulation of the algorithm is proposed and implemented for design optimization of various discrete truss structures according to American Institute of Steel Construction Allowable Stress Design (AISC-ASD) specifications. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed BB-BC algorithm is compared to its standard version as well as other well-known metaheuristic techniques. The numerical results confirm the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in practical design optimization of truss structures.

  19. Optimization of practical trusses with constraints on eigenfrequencies, displacements, stresses, and buckling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Nielsen, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider the optimization of general 3D truss structures. The design variables are the cross-sections of the truss bars together with the joint coordinates, and are considered to be continuous variables. Using these design variables we simultaneously carry out size optimization...... are imposed in correlation with industrial standards, to make the optimized designs valuable from a practical point of view. The optimization problem is solved using SLP (Sequential Linear Programming)....

  20. Truss topology optimization with simultaneous analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, S.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Kapania, Rakesh K.

    1992-01-01

    Strategies for topology optimization of trusses for minimum weight subject to stress and displacement constraints by Simultaneous Analysis and Design (SAND) are considered. The ground structure approach is used. A penalty function formulation of SAND is compared with an augmented Lagrangian formulation. The efficiency of SAND in handling combinations of general constraints is tested. A strategy for obtaining an optimal topology by minimizing the compliance of the truss is compared with a direct weight minimization solution to satisfy stress and displacement constraints. It is shown that for some problems, starting from the ground structure and using SAND is better than starting from a minimum compliance topology design and optimizing only the cross sections for minimum weight under stress and displacement constraints. A member elimination strategy to save CPU time is discussed.

  1. Multiobjective optimization for design of multifunctional sandwich panel heat pipes with micro-architected truss cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    A micro-architected multifunctional structure, a sandwich panel heat pipe with a micro-scale truss core and arterial wick, is modeled and optimized. To characterize multiple functionalities, objective equations are formulated for density, compressive modulus, compressive strength, and maximum heat flux. Multiobjective optimization is used to determine the Pareto-optimal design surfaces, which consist of hundreds of individually optimized designs. The Pareto-optimal surfaces for different working fluids (water, ethanol, and perfluoro(methylcyclohexane)) as well as different micro-scale truss core materials (metal, ceramic, and polymer) are determined and compared. Examination of the Pareto fronts allows comparison of the trade-offs between density, compressive stiffness, compressive strength, and maximum heat flux in the design of multifunctional sandwich panel heat pipes with micro-scale truss cores. Heat fluxes up to 3.0 MW/m 2 are predicted for silicon carbide truss core heat pipes with water as the working fluid.

  2. The Research of Historical Trusses in Northern Regions of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenková Renáta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The blanket research of historical trusses in the territory of Slovakia has been running at our department since 2008. This research is done as teamwork in cooperation with experts from the field of conservation, and it is mainly focused on typology, construction, and the current technical and constructional state of investigated trusses. The long-time support of the grant scheme from the Ministry of Culture allows to get a fair amount of different data related to individual buildings and structures, which enables to carry out the in-depth research. In terms of their conservation and maintenance with an effort to extend their lifetime (the oldest known historical trusses in Slovakia are those of the 13th century, it is necessary to look into the microclimate impact of the under-roof space on wooden roof structures as well as to monitor the contemporary constructional and technical condition of a roof structure itself. The suitable microclimate in the under-roof space is influenced by a number of marginal conditions, constructional solutions of roof details, proper space ventilation etc

  3. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2016-06-28

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  4. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2018-01-30

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  5. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel

    2015-10-20

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  6. Assembly considerations for large reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, H.

    1988-01-01

    The technologies developed at LaRC in the area of erectable instructures are discussed. The information is of direct value to the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) because an option for the LDR backup structure is to assemble it in space. The efforts in this area, which include development of joints, underwater assembly simulation tests, flight assembly/disassembly tests, and fabrication of 5-meter trusses, led to the use of the LaRC concept as the baseline configuration for the Space Station Structure. The Space Station joint is linear in the load and displacement range of interest to Space Station; the ability to manually assemble and disassemble a 45-foot truss structure was demonstrated by astronauts in space as part of the ACCESS Shuttle Flight Experiment. The structure was built in 26 minutes 46 seconds, and involved a total of 500 manipulations of untethered hardware. Also, the correlation of the space experience with the neutral buoyancy simulation was very good. Sections of the proposed 5-meter bay Space Station truss have been built on the ground. Activities at LaRC have included the development of mobile remote manipulator systems (which can traverse the Space Station 5-meter structure), preliminary LDR sun shield concepts, LDR construction scenarios, and activities in robotic assembly of truss-type structures.

  7. Optimization of Large-Scale Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, F. M.

    solutions to small problems with one or two variables to the optimization of large structures such as bridges, ships and offshore structures. The methods used for salving these problems have evolved from being classical differential calculus and calculus of variation to very advanced numerical techniques...

  8. Large coil program support structure conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litherland, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to perform tests on both pool boiling and force cooled superconducting toroidal field coils. The tests will attempt to approximate conditions anticipated in an ignition tokamak. The test requirements resulted in a coil support design which accommodates up to six (6) test coils and is mounted to a structure capable of resisting coil interactions. The steps leading to the present LCP coil support structure design, details on selected structural components, and the basic assembly sequence are discussed

  9. Comparative study of trusses to determine the influence of the geometry in the structural efficiency, according to the directions of the principal stresses : Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Señís, Roger; Brufau, Robert; Sastre, Ramón; Carbajal, Eusebio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Congreso celebrado en la Escuela de Arquitectura de la Universidad de Sevilla desde el 24 hasta el 26 de junio de 2015. This study compares flat lattice girders mounted on two supports, based on various design parameters, to determine which have better structural performance and what geometries are more efficient. The fundamental goal is to determine the relationship of performance and structural behaviour of each type of framework structure, with respect to the principle of optimization a...

  10. The origin of large scale cosmic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.; Palmer, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the origin of large scale cosmic structure. The evolution of density perturbations, the nonlinear regime (Zel'dovich's solution and others), the Gott and Rees clustering hierarchy, the spectrum of condensations, and biassed galaxy formation, are all discussed. (UK)

  11. OPTICON: Pro-Matlab software for large order controlled structure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lee D.

    1989-01-01

    A software package for large order controlled structure design is described and demonstrated. The primary program, called OPTICAN, uses both Pro-Matlab M-file routines and selected compiled FORTRAN routines linked into the Pro-Matlab structure. The program accepts structural model information in the form of state-space matrices and performs three basic design functions on the model: (1) open loop analyses; (2) closed loop reduced order controller synthesis; and (3) closed loop stability and performance assessment. The current controller synthesis methods which were implemented in this software are based on the Generalized Linear Quadratic Gaussian theory of Bernstein. In particular, a reduced order Optimal Projection synthesis algorithm based on a homotopy solution method was successfully applied to an experimental truss structure using a 58-state dynamic model. These results are presented and discussed. Current plans to expand the practical size of the design model to several hundred states and the intention to interface Pro-Matlab to a supercomputing environment are discussed.

  12. Analysis of proportional conception of the historical truss Church of St. Martin in Dolní Újezd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krušinský Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The late-Romanesque St. Martin’s Church in Dolní Újezd was probably built in the mid-13th century. The nave has a wooden joist ceiling whose beams serve as tie beams too. The Gothic vaults above the presbytery date from ’30s of the 15th century. The truss of the church is dendro-dated to 1420 – 1421. Some members of a truss structure are dendro-dated to 1823 – 1824, when the repair was undertaken. The examined truss is a rafter-collar tie structure with collar beams and pedestal struts. It has a characteristic shape and may be typologically classified as a structure of the earlier period. This type of a truss structure was typically built in this region and represents one of the features occurring in the particular social and culture circles at the time.

  13. Hybrid Laser Welding of Large Steel Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhi, Farhang

    Manufacturing of large steel structures requires the processing of thick-section steels. Welding is one of the main processes during the manufacturing of such structures and includes a significant part of the production costs. One of the ways to reduce the production costs is to use the hybrid...... laser welding technology instead of the conventional arc welding methods. However, hybrid laser welding is a complicated process that involves several complex physical phenomena that are highly coupled. Understanding of the process is very important for obtaining quality welds in an efficient way....... This thesis investigates two different challenges related to the hybrid laser welding of thick-section steel plates. Employing empirical and analytical approaches, this thesis attempts to provide further knowledge towards obtaining quality welds in the manufacturing of large steel structures....

  14. Large-scale structure of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The problems, discussed at the ''Large-scale Structure of the Universe'' symposium are considered on a popular level. Described are the cell structure of galaxy distribution in the Universe, principles of mathematical galaxy distribution modelling. The images of cell structures, obtained after reprocessing with the computer are given. Discussed are three hypothesis - vortical, entropic, adiabatic, suggesting various processes of galaxy and galaxy clusters origin. A considerable advantage of the adiabatic hypothesis is recognized. The relict radiation, as a method of direct studying the processes taking place in the Universe is considered. The large-scale peculiarities and small-scale fluctuations of the relict radiation temperature enable one to estimate the turbance properties at the pre-galaxy stage. The discussion of problems, pertaining to studying the hot gas, contained in galaxy clusters, the interactions within galaxy clusters and with the inter-galaxy medium, is recognized to be a notable contribution into the development of theoretical and observational cosmology

  15. CALCULATION ALGORITHM TRUSS UNDER CRANE BEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Akaev1

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim.The task of reducing the deflection and increase the rigidity of single-span beams are made. In the article the calculation algorithm for truss crane girders is determined.Methods. To identify the internal effort required for the selection of cross section elements the design uses the Green's function.Results. It was found that the simplest truss system reduces deflection and increases the strength of design. The upper crossbar is subjected not only to bending and shear and compression work due to tightening tension. Preliminary determination of the geometrical characteristics of the crane farms elements are offered to make a comparison with previous similar configuration of his farms, using a simple approximate calculation methods.Conclusion.The method of sequential movements (incrementally the two bridge cranes along the length of the upper crossbar truss beams is suggested. We give the corresponding formulas and conditions of safety.

  16. Features of the Calculation Deployment Large Transformable Structures of Different Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zimin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant progress achieved in the design of space transformable structures to ensure a smooth and reliable deployment remains an important task. This type of construction can consist of dozens, hundreds or even thousands of interconnected elements. Deployment transformable space structures in orbit to test their performance in orbital conditions are associated with high material costs. Full deploy: experimental development process transformable structures involve a number of fundamental difficulties: It is impossible to eliminate the influence of gravity and resistance forces conditions. Thus, to calculate deploy of large transformable structures of various configurations is an important stage of their creation. Simulation provides an opportunity to analyze various schemes of deploy, to reveal their advantages and possible disadvantages. For numerical analysis of deploy of such structures is necessary to use modern software modeling of the dynamics of multi-component of mechanical systems such as EULER and Adams. Simulation of deployment space transformable structures was performed taking as example folding flat antenna contours diameter of 5 m and 20 m, foldable spatial calibration reflector diameter of 3 m, deployable antenna reflector truss-type aperture 3×6 m.The results of the calculations represent following characteristics: the time of adoption of the working position structures; form intermediate positions structures during deployment; dependence of opening angles and angular velocities of the design links on the time. The parameters of these calculations can be used as input in the development of structural elements providing deployment. They can also be used to prepare stands for experimental testing of disclosure designs in ground conditions. It should be noted that the theoretical models are the only way to analyze the deployment of such structures for possible emergency situations.

  17. Challenges for Large Scale Structure Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    I will describe some of the outstanding questions in Cosmology where answers could be provided by observations of the Large Scale Structure of the Universe at late times.I will discuss some of the theoretical challenges which will have to be overcome to extract this information from the observations. I will describe some of the theoretical tools that might be useful to achieve this goal. 

  18. Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization Issues for Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, L. D. (Compiler); Amos, A. K. (Compiler); Venkayya, V. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Topics concerning the modeling, analysis, and optimization of large space structures are discussed including structure-control interaction, structural and structural dynamics modeling, thermal analysis, testing, and design.

  19. Strengthening of competence planning truss through instructional media development details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Sri; Nurcahyono, M. Hadi

    2017-03-01

    Competency-Based Learning is a model of learning in which the planning, implementation, and assessment refers to the mastery of competencies. Learning in lectures conducted in the framework for comprehensively realizing student competency. Competence means the orientation of the learning activities in the classroom must be given to the students to be more active learning, active search for information themselves and explore alone or with friends in learning activities in pairs or in groups, learn to use a variety of learning resources and printed materials, electronic media, as well as environment. Analysis of learning wooden structure known weakness in the understanding of the truss detail. Hence the need for the development of media that can provide a clear picture of what the structure of the wooden horses and connection details. Development of instructional media consisted of three phases of activity, namely planning, production and assessment. Learning Media planning should be tailored to the needs and conditions necessary to provide reinforcement to the mastery of competencies, through the table material needs. The production process of learning media is done by using hardware (hardware) and software (software) to support the creation of a medium of learning. Assessment of the media poduk yan include feasibility studies, namely by subject matter experts, media experts, while testing was done according to the student's perception of the product. The results of the analysis of the materials for the instructional aspects of the results obtained 100% (very good) and media analysis for the design aspects of the media expressed very good with a percentage of 88.93%. While the analysis of student perceptions expressed very good with a percentage of 84.84%. Media Learning Truss Details feasible and can be used in the implementation of learning wooden structure to provide capacity-building in planning truss

  20. Variable geometry truss manipulators: A new type of robot for site inspection and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naccarato, F.

    1996-01-01

    A new type of robotic manipulator has been developed that offers many potential advantages over conventional robot arms for site inspection and remediation. This new robot is based on the variable geometry truss manipulator (VGTM) concept which combines the structural properties of a truss with the dexterous capabilities of a manipulator. By substituting linear actuators for some of the fixed-length members within a truss, the structure can be made to change its overall shape. By coordinating the motion of these actuators appropriately, a VGTM can perform tasks that are relevant to hazardous waste clean-up, including deployment through curved ducts, probing into crevices and obstacle avoidance. Trussarm trademark, a prototype VGTM with twelve degrees-of-freedom, has been constructed by Dynacon Enterprises Limited

  1. Assessment of current state of the art in modeling techniques and analysis methods for large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in continuum modeling, progress in reduction methods, and analysis and modeling needs for large space structures are covered with specific attention given to repetitive lattice trusses. As far as continuum modeling is concerned, an effective and verified analysis capability exists for linear thermoelastic stress, birfurcation buckling, and free vibration problems of repetitive lattices. However, application of continuum modeling to nonlinear analysis needs more development. Reduction methods are very effective for bifurcation buckling and static (steady-state) nonlinear analysis. However, more work is needed to realize their full potential for nonlinear dynamic and time-dependent problems. As far as analysis and modeling needs are concerned, three areas are identified: loads determination, modeling and nonclassical behavior characteristics, and computational algorithms. The impact of new advances in computer hardware, software, integrated analysis, CAD/CAM stems, and materials technology is also discussed.

  2. Cooling pipeline disposing structure for large-scaled cryogenic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns an electromagnetic force supporting structure for superconductive coils. As the size of a cryogenic structure is increased, since it takes much cooling time, temperature difference between cooling pipelines and the cryogenic structure is increased over a wide range, and difference of heat shrinkage is increased to increase thermal stresses. Then, in the cooling pipelines for a large scaled cryogenic structure, the cooling pipelines and the structure are connected by way of a thin metal plate made of a material having a heat conductivity higher than that of the material of the structure by one digit or more, and the thin metal plate is bent. The displacement between the cryogenic structure and the cooling pipelines caused by heat shrinkage is absorbed by the elongation/shrinkage of the bent structure of the thin metal plate, and the thermal stresses due to the displacement is reduced. In addition, the heat of the cryogenic structures is transferred by way of the thin metal plate. Then, the cooling pipelines can be secured to the cryogenic structure such that cooling by heat transfer is enabled by absorbing a great deviation or three dimensional displacement due to the difference of the temperature distribution between the cryogenic structure enlarged in the scale and put into the three dimensional shape, and the cooling pipelines. (N.H.)

  3. Comparative study of adhesive joint designs for composite trusses based on numerical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavalette, N.P.; Bergsma, O.K.; Zarouchas, D.; Benedictus, R.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of lightweight structure design for the transportation and robotics industries, new types of composite structures are being developed, in the form of trusses made of fiber-reinforced polymer composite members of small diameter (a few millimeters thick at most). Some concepts of

  4. Load-Bearing Capacity of Roof Trusses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Damkilde, Lars; Munch-Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    systems such as roof trusses are established and statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined. The results show that there is a significant increase in the characteristic (nominal) value and a reduction in the coefficient of variation (COV) for typical loads such as permanent...

  5. Laser Truss Sensor for Segmented Telescope Phasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duncan T.; Lay, Oliver P.; Azizi, Alireza; Erlig, Herman; Dorsky, Leonard I.; Asbury, Cheryl G.; Zhao, Feng

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes the laser truss sensor (LTS) for detecting piston motion between two adjacent telescope segment edges. LTS is formed by two point-to-point laser metrology gauges in a crossed geometry. A high-resolution (distribution can be optimized using the range-gated metrology (RGM) approach.

  6. Simple clamped connection for bamboo truss systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, R.

    2016-01-01

    “How to make fast and simple tension connections for truss systems?” The Solution: The innovation is a connection that uses only widely available base components (boltsand threaded steel bars) and simple hand tools to install it. With a handsaw and aspanner, the bamboo stems can be combined into to

  7. Neutrinos and large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    I review the use of cosmological large-scale structure to measure properties of neutrinos and other relic populations of light relativistic particles. With experiments to measure the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave anisotropies and the clustering of matter at low redshift, we now have securely measured a relativistic background with density appropriate to the cosmic neutrino background. Our limits on the mass of the neutrino continue to shrink. Experiments coming in the next decade will greatly improve the available precision on searches for the energy density of novel relativistic backgrounds and the mass of neutrinos

  8. Puzzles of large scale structure and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidharth, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the puzzle of cosmic voids bounded by two-dimensional structures of galactic clusters as also a puzzle pointed out by Weinberg: How can the mass of a typical elementary particle depend on a cosmic parameter like the Hubble constant? An answer to the first puzzle is proposed in terms of 'Scaled' Quantum Mechanical like behaviour which appears at large scales. The second puzzle can be answered by showing that the gravitational mass of an elementary particle has a Machian character (see Ahmed N. Cantorian small worked, Mach's principle and the universal mass network. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;21(4))

  9. Neutrinos and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Daniel J. Eisenstein, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS #20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    I review the use of cosmological large-scale structure to measure properties of neutrinos and other relic populations of light relativistic particles. With experiments to measure the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave anisotropies and the clustering of matter at low redshift, we now have securely measured a relativistic background with density appropriate to the cosmic neutrino background. Our limits on the mass of the neutrino continue to shrink. Experiments coming in the next decade will greatly improve the available precision on searches for the energy density of novel relativistic backgrounds and the mass of neutrinos.

  10. Critical joints in large composite aircraft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W. D.; Bunin, B. L.; Hart-Smith, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical structural joints of composite wing structure that meets design requirements for a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The prime objective of the program was to demonstrate the ability to reliably predict the strength of large bolted composite joints. Ancillary testing of 180 specimens generated data on strength and load-deflection characteristics which provided input to the joint analysis. Load-sharing between fasteners in multirow bolted joints was computed by the nonlinear analysis program A4EJ. This program was used to predict strengths of 20 additional large subcomponents representing strips from a wing root chordwise splice. In most cases, the predictions were accurate to within a few percent of the test results. In some cases, the observed mode of failure was different than anticipated. The highlight of the subcomponent testing was the consistent ability to achieve gross-section failure strains close to 0.005. That represents a considerable improvement over the state of the art.

  11. Simultaneous Topology, Shape, and Sizing Optimisation of Plane Trusses with Adaptive Ground Finite Elements Using MOEAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norapat Noilublao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel integrated design strategy to accomplish simultaneous topology shape and sizing optimisation of a two-dimensional (2D truss. An optimisation problem is posed to find a structural topology, shape, and element sizes of the truss such that two objective functions, mass and compliance, are minimised. Design constraints include stress, buckling, and compliance. The procedure for an adaptive ground elements approach is proposed and its encoding/decoding process is detailed. Two sets of design variables defining truss layout, shape, and element sizes at the same time are applied. A number of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs are implemented to solve the design problem. Comparative performance based on a hypervolume indicator shows that multiobjective population-based incremental learning (PBIL is the best performer. Optimising three design variable types simultaneously is more efficient and effective.

  12. Dipolar modulation of Large-Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mijin

    For the last two decades, we have seen a drastic development of modern cosmology based on various observations such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB), type Ia supernovae, and baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). These observational evidences have led us to a great deal of consensus on the cosmological model so-called LambdaCDM and tight constraints on cosmological parameters consisting the model. On the other hand, the advancement in cosmology relies on the cosmological principle: the universe is isotropic and homogeneous on large scales. Testing these fundamental assumptions is crucial and will soon become possible given the planned observations ahead. Dipolar modulation is the largest angular anisotropy of the sky, which is quantified by its direction and amplitude. We measured a huge dipolar modulation in CMB, which mainly originated from our solar system's motion relative to CMB rest frame. However, we have not yet acquired consistent measurements of dipolar modulations in large-scale structure (LSS), as they require large sky coverage and a number of well-identified objects. In this thesis, we explore measurement of dipolar modulation in number counts of LSS objects as a test of statistical isotropy. This thesis is based on two papers that were published in peer-reviewed journals. In Chapter 2 [Yoon et al., 2014], we measured a dipolar modulation in number counts of WISE matched with 2MASS sources. In Chapter 3 [Yoon & Huterer, 2015], we investigated requirements for detection of kinematic dipole in future surveys.

  13. Global optimization of discrete truss topology design problems using a parallel cut-and-branch method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Højlund; Stolpe, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    the physics, and the cuts (Combinatorial Benders’ and projected Chvátal–Gomory) come from an understanding of the particular mathematical structure of the reformulation. The impact of a stronger representation is investigated on several truss topology optimization problems in two and three dimensions.......The subject of this article is solving discrete truss topology optimization problems with local stress and displacement constraints to global optimum. We consider a formulation based on the Simultaneous ANalysis and Design (SAND) approach. This intrinsically non-convex problem is reformulated...

  14. Remote handling facility and equipment used for space truss assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ACCESS truss remote handling experiments were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Remote Operation and Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility. The ROMD facility has been developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program to develop and demonstrate remote maintenance techniques for advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment and other programs of national interest. The facility is a large-volume, high-bay area that encloses a complete, technologically advanced remote maintenance system that first began operation in FY 1982. The maintenance system consists of a full complement of teleoperated manipulators, manipulator transport systems, and overhead hoists that provide the capability of performing a large variety of remote handling tasks. This system has been used to demonstrate remote manipulation techniques for the DOE, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan, and the US Navy in addition to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACCESS truss remote assembly was performed in the ROMD facility using the Central Research Laboratory's (CRL) model M-2 servomanipulator. The model M-2 is a dual-arm, bilateral force-reflecting, master/slave servomanipulator which was jointly developed by CRL and ORNL and represents the state of the art in teleoperated manipulators commercially available in the United States today. The model M-2 servomanipulator incorporates a distributed, microprocessor-based digital control system and was the first successful implementation of an entirely digitally controlled servomanipulator. The system has been in operation since FY 1983. 3 refs., 2 figs

  15. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMAL NUMBER AND LOCATION FOR STEEL OUTRIGGER-BELT TRUSS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI BABAEI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, outrigger-belt truss system has been investigated and used in design of tall buildings. Most of the studies focused on the optimization of the system for minimum displacement and some of them proposed the best locations. In this study, however, multi-objective optimization of tall steel frames with belt trusses is investigated to minimize displacement and weight of the structure. For this purpose, structures with 20, 30, 40, and 50 stories are considered as models, based on the suggestions in the literature. The location and number of trusses and cross section of all structural elements are considered as design variables. After sizing of the structure for a specific topology and shape, weight and displacement of the structure are obtained and plotted in a diagram to illustrate trade-off between two objective functions. The results show the optimal Pareto-front solutions for different stories. Smooth trade-off and optimal number of trusses and their locations obtained.

  16. Weight optimization of plane truss using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeraja, D.; Kamireddy, Thejesh; Santosh Kumar, Potnuru; Simha Reddy, Vijay

    2017-11-01

    Optimization of structure on basis of weight has many practical benefits in every engineering field. The efficiency is proportionally related to its weight and hence weight optimization gains prime importance. Considering the field of civil engineering, weight optimized structural elements are economical and easier to transport to the site. In this study, genetic optimization algorithm for weight optimization of steel truss considering its shape, size and topology aspects has been developed in MATLAB. Material strength and Buckling stability have been adopted from IS 800-2007 code of construction steel. The constraints considered in the present study are fabrication, basic nodes, displacements, and compatibility. Genetic programming is a natural selection search technique intended to combine good solutions to a problem from many generations to improve the results. All solutions are generated randomly and represented individually by a binary string with similarities of natural chromosomes, and hence it is termed as genetic programming. The outcome of the study is a MATLAB program, which can optimise a steel truss and display the optimised topology along with element shapes, deflections, and stress results.

  17. Grid sensitivity capability for large scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Gopal K.; Wallerstein, David V.

    1989-01-01

    The considerations and the resultant approach used to implement design sensitivity capability for grids into a large scale, general purpose finite element system (MSC/NASTRAN) are presented. The design variables are grid perturbations with a rather general linking capability. Moreover, shape and sizing variables may be linked together. The design is general enough to facilitate geometric modeling techniques for generating design variable linking schemes in an easy and straightforward manner. Test cases have been run and validated by comparison with the overall finite difference method. The linking of a design sensitivity capability for shape variables in MSC/NASTRAN with an optimizer would give designers a powerful, automated tool to carry out practical optimization design of real life, complicated structures.

  18. Size, shape, and topology optimization of planar and space trusses using mutation-based improved metaheuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam G. Tejani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simultaneous size, shape, and topology optimization of planar and space trusses are investigated. Moreover, the trusses are subjected to constraints for element stresses, nodal displacements, and kinematic stability conditions. Truss Topology Optimization (TTO removes the superfluous elements and nodes from the ground structure. In this method, the difficulties arise due to unacceptable and singular topologies; therefore, the Grubler’s criterion and the positive definiteness are used to handle such issue. Moreover, the TTO is challenging due to its search space, which is implicit, non-convex, non-linear, and often leading to divergence. Therefore, mutation-based metaheuristics are proposed to investigate them. This study compares the performance of four improved metaheuristics (viz. Improved Teaching–Learning-Based Optimization (ITLBO, Improved Heat Transfer Search (IHTS, Improved Water Wave Optimization (IWWO, and Improved Passing Vehicle Search (IPVS and four basic metaheuristics (viz. TLBO, HTS, WWO, and PVS in order to solve structural optimization problems. Keywords: Structural optimization, Mutation operator, Improved metaheuristics, Modified algorithms, Truss topology optimization

  19. Mirror dark matter and large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, A.Yu.; Volkas, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Mirror matter is a dark matter candidate. In this paper, we reexamine the linear regime of density perturbation growth in a universe containing mirror dark matter. Taking adiabatic scale-invariant perturbations as the input, we confirm that the resulting processed power spectrum is richer than for the more familiar cases of cold, warm and hot dark matter. The new features include a maximum at a certain scale λ max , collisional damping below a smaller characteristic scale λ S ' , with oscillatory perturbations between the two. These scales are functions of the fundamental parameters of the theory. In particular, they decrease for decreasing x, the ratio of the mirror plasma temperature to that of the ordinary. For x∼0.2, the scale λ max becomes galactic. Mirror dark matter therefore leads to bottom-up large scale structure formation, similar to conventional cold dark matter, for x(less-or-similar sign)0.2. Indeed, the smaller the value of x, the closer mirror dark matter resembles standard cold dark matter during the linear regime. The differences pertain to scales smaller than λ S ' in the linear regime, and generally in the nonlinear regime because mirror dark matter is chemically complex and to some extent dissipative. Lyman-α forest data and the early reionization epoch established by WMAP may hold the key to distinguishing mirror dark matter from WIMP-style cold dark matter

  20. Damage Identification of Trusses with Elastic Supports Using FEM and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Il Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The computationally efficient damage identification technique for truss structures with elastic supports is proposed based on the force method. To transform the truss with supports into the equivalent free-standing model without supports, the novel zero-length dummy members are employed. General equilibrium equations and kinematic relations, in which the reaction forces and the displacements at the elastic supports are taken into account, are clearly formulated. The compatibility equations, in terms of forces in which the flexibilities of elastic supports are considered, are explicitly presented using the singular value decomposition (SVD technique. Both member and reaction forces are simultaneously and directly obtained. Then, all nodal displacements including constrained nodes are back calculated from the member and reaction forces. Next, the microgenetic algorithm (MGA is used to properly identify the site and the extent of multiple damages in truss structures. In order to verify the superiority of the current study, the numerical solutions are presented for the planar and space truss models with and without elastic supports. The numerical results indicate that the computational effort required by this study is found to be significantly lower than that of the displacement method.

  1. Geometric and Static Analysis of the Historical Trusses in Roman Catholic Church of the Holy Kozma and Damian in the Abramová Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krušinský, Peter; Capková, Eva; Gocál, Jozef; Holešová, Michaela

    2015-12-01

    The truss of the Roman Catholic Church of the holy Kozma and Damian was managed to date to the year 1470/71d. It represents one of the few well-preserved medieval structures in this region. The form of roofs is a typical for rafter collar-beam construction without stiffening frame. The geometrical analysis of the main roofs trusses is based on logical dependencies and a description of a process in the truss design, pointing to evaluative relations resulting especially from the Pythagorean Geometry. Consequently, a spatial numerical model of the roof structure was developed in order to perform a static analysis of the roof structure in accordance with present standards. Due to the fact that during the diagnostic survey there were noted some missing structural elements in the roof construction (angle braces), in further analysis, an attention was paid to the importance of the selected structural elements and their role in the construction of the truss itself.

  2. Underwater nuclear power plant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, S.; Toll, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    A structure for an underwater nuclear power generating plant comprising a triangular platform formed of tubular leg and truss members upon which are attached one or more large spherical pressure vessels and one or more small cylindrical auxiliary pressure vessels. (author)

  3. Truss topology optimization with discrete design variables by outer approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Several variants of an outer approximation method are proposed to solve truss topology optimization problems with discrete design variables to proven global optimality. The objective is to minimize the volume of the structure while satisfying constraints on the global stiffness of the structure...... for classical outer approximation approaches applied to optimal design problems. A set of two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems are solved and the numerical results suggest that the proposed approaches are competitive with other special-purpose global optimization methods for the considered class...... under the applied loads. We extend the natural problem formulation by adding redundant force variables and force equilibrium constraints. This guarantees that the designs suggested by the relaxed master problems are capable of carrying the applied loads, a property which is generally not satisfied...

  4. Deflection Control in Composite Building by Using Belt Truss and Outriggers Systems

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fawzia; T. Fatima

    2010-01-01

    The design of high-rise building is more often dictated by its serviceability rather than strength. Structural Engineers are always striving to overcome challenge of controlling lateral deflection and storey drifts as well as self weight of structure imposed on foundation. One of the most effective techniques is the use of outrigger and belt truss system in Composite structures that can astutely solve the above two issues in High-rise constructions. This paper investig...

  5. Stress-constrained truss topology optimization problems that can be solved by linear programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolpe, Mathias; Svanberg, Krister

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of simultaneously selecting the material and determining the area of each bar in a truss structure in such a way that the cost of the structure is minimized subject to stress constraints under a single load condition. We show that such problems can be solved by linear...... programming to give the global optimum, and that two different materials are always sufficient in an optimal structure....

  6. UHPFRC in large span shell structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Maten, R.N.; Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-High Performance Fibre-Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) is an innovative concrete type with a high compressive strength and a far more durable character compared to conventional concrete. UHPFRC can be applied in structures with aesthetic appearance and high material efficiency. Shell structures

  7. Topology and layout optimization of discrete and continuum structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendsoe, Martin P.; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    The basic features of the ground structure method for truss structure an continuum problems are described. Problems with a large number of potential structural elements are considered using the compliance of the structure as the objective function. The design problem is the minimization of compliance for a given structural weight, and the design variables for truss problems are the cross-sectional areas of the individual truss members, while for continuum problems they are the variable densities of material in each of the elements of the FEM discretization. It is shown how homogenization theory can be applied to provide a relation between material density and the effective material properties of a periodic medium with a known microstructure of material and voids.

  8. ANALISIS KARAKTER TRUSS MORPHOMETRICS PADA IKAN KEMPRIT (Ilisha megaloptera FAMILIA PRISTIGASTERIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wijayanti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The fish auction site at Ocean Fishing Port of Cilacap is one of the major fish landings sites in Indonesia. Fishes landed in this port mainly of large pelagic fish, bycatch, crustaceans including kemprit fish (Ilisha megaloptera Swainson,1839. Kemprit fish is a member of the family Pristigasteridae, which has an elongated body shape-sprawl. Fishers use this fish as the main ingredient to produce fish crackers and dried salted fish. Overfishing is the greatest threat to kemprit fish, and without conservation efforts the future population is uncertain. Fish farming is one right answer in kemprit fish conservation. However, information on this fish biology is insufficient. One of the biological aspects is sexual dimorphism, the morphological properties that can be used to distinguish between male and female fish. Truss morphometrics can measure the morphological traits differences of male and female. This technique in which the measurement of the distance Truss morphometrics in certain parts, by the benchmark points (dots Truss morphometrics, then compared with standard size. The result of the preliminary survey indicated that kemprit fish did not show sexual dimorphism, therefore truss morphometric technique applies to distinguish sexes of this fish. This research was a survey, and purposive sampling techniques were used to collect data. Data were then analyzed using the “t” test. The results showed that distinct truss distance between male and female fish was the distance between the anterior base of the dorsal fin to the anterior base of the ventral fins and the distance between the posterior base of the dorsal fin to the anterior base of the anal fin.

  9. Control of large flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervelde, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in robust design of generalized parity relations, design of failure sensitive observers using the geometric system theory of Wonham, computational techniques for evaluation of the performance of control systems with fault tolerance and redundancy management features, and the design and evaluation od control systems for structures having nonlinear joints are described.

  10. Inflation, large scale structure and particle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences ... Hybrid inflation; Higgs scalar field; structure formation; curvation. ... We then discuss a particle physics model of supersymmetric hybrid inflation at the intermediate scale in which ... May 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board ...

  11. Testing for structural changes in large portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Posch, Peter N.; Ullmann, Daniel; Wied, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Model free tests for constant parameters often fail to detect structural changes in high dimensions. In practice, this corresponds to a portfolio with many assets and a reasonable long time series. We reduce the dimensionality of the problem by looking a compressed panel of time series obtained by cluster analysis and the principal components of the data. Using our methodology we are able to extend a test for a constant correlation matrix from a sub portfolio to whole indices a...

  12. Large Scale Testing of Drystone Retaining Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Mundell, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Drystone walls have been used extensively around the world as earth retaining structures wherever suitable stone is found. Commonly about 0.6m thick (irrespective of height), there are about 9000km of drystone retaining walls on the UK road network alone, mostly built in the 19th and early 20th centuries, with an estimated replacement value in excess of £1 billion[1]. Drystone wall design is traditionally empirical, based on local knowledge of what has worked in the past. Methods vary from re...

  13. Joint U.S./Japan Conference on Adaptive Structures, 1st, Maui, HI, Nov. 13-15, 1990, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ben K.; Fanson, James L.; Miura, Koryo

    1991-11-01

    The present volume of adaptive structures discusses the development of control laws for an orbiting tethered antenna/reflector system test scale model, the sizing of active piezoelectric struts for vibration suppression on a space-based interferometer, the control design of a space station mobile transporter with multiple constraints, and optimum configuration control of an intelligent truss structure. Attention is given to the formulation of full state feedback for infinite order structural systems, robustness issues in the design of smart structures, passive piezoelectric vibration damping, shape control experiments with a functional model for large optical reflectors, and a mathematical basis for the design optimization of adaptive trusses in precision control. Topics addressed include approaches to the optimal adaptive geometries of intelligent truss structures, the design of an automated manufacturing system for tubular smart structures, the Sandia structural control experiments, and the zero-gravity dynamics of space structures in parabolic aircraft flight.

  14. Measuring structural similarity in large online networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongren; Macy, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Structural similarity based on bipartite graphs can be used to detect meaningful communities, but the networks have been tiny compared to massive online networks. Scalability is important in applications involving tens of millions of individuals with highly skewed degree distributions. Simulation analysis holding underlying similarity constant shows that two widely used measures - Jaccard index and cosine similarity - are biased by the distribution of out-degree in web-scale networks. However, an alternative measure, the Standardized Co-incident Ratio (SCR), is unbiased. We apply SCR to members of Congress, musical artists, and professional sports teams to show how massive co-following on Twitter can be used to map meaningful affiliations among cultural entities, even in the absence of direct connections to one another. Our results show how structural similarity can be used to map cultural alignments and demonstrate the potential usefulness of social media data in the study of culture, politics, and organizations across the social and behavioral sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Responses in large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: barreira@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: fabians@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a rigorous definition of general power-spectrum responses as resummed vertices with two hard and n soft momenta in cosmological perturbation theory. These responses measure the impact of long-wavelength perturbations on the local small-scale power spectrum. The kinematic structure of the responses (i.e., their angular dependence) can be decomposed unambiguously through a ''bias'' expansion of the local power spectrum, with a fixed number of physical response coefficients , which are only a function of the hard wavenumber k . Further, the responses up to n -th order completely describe the ( n +2)-point function in the squeezed limit, i.e. with two hard and n soft modes, which one can use to derive the response coefficients. This generalizes previous results, which relate the angle-averaged squeezed limit to isotropic response coefficients. We derive the complete expression of first- and second-order responses at leading order in perturbation theory, and present extrapolations to nonlinear scales based on simulation measurements of the isotropic response coefficients. As an application, we use these results to predict the non-Gaussian part of the angle-averaged matter power spectrum covariance Cov{sup NG}{sub ℓ=0}( k {sub 1}, k {sub 2}), in the limit where one of the modes, say k {sub 2}, is much smaller than the other. Without any free parameters, our model results are in very good agreement with simulations for k {sub 2} ∼< 0.06 h Mpc{sup −1}, and for any k {sub 1} ∼> 2 k {sub 2}. The well-defined kinematic structure of the power spectrum response also permits a quick evaluation of the angular dependence of the covariance matrix. While we focus on the matter density field, the formalism presented here can be generalized to generic tracers such as galaxies.

  16. Responses in large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Schmidt, Fabian

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a rigorous definition of general power-spectrum responses as resummed vertices with two hard and n soft momenta in cosmological perturbation theory. These responses measure the impact of long-wavelength perturbations on the local small-scale power spectrum. The kinematic structure of the responses (i.e., their angular dependence) can be decomposed unambiguously through a ``bias'' expansion of the local power spectrum, with a fixed number of physical response coefficients, which are only a function of the hard wavenumber k. Further, the responses up to n-th order completely describe the (n+2)-point function in the squeezed limit, i.e. with two hard and n soft modes, which one can use to derive the response coefficients. This generalizes previous results, which relate the angle-averaged squeezed limit to isotropic response coefficients. We derive the complete expression of first- and second-order responses at leading order in perturbation theory, and present extrapolations to nonlinear scales based on simulation measurements of the isotropic response coefficients. As an application, we use these results to predict the non-Gaussian part of the angle-averaged matter power spectrum covariance CovNGl=0(k1,k2), in the limit where one of the modes, say k2, is much smaller than the other. Without any free parameters, our model results are in very good agreement with simulations for k2 lesssim 0.06 h Mpc-1, and for any k1 gtrsim 2k2. The well-defined kinematic structure of the power spectrum response also permits a quick evaluation of the angular dependence of the covariance matrix. While we focus on the matter density field, the formalism presented here can be generalized to generic tracers such as galaxies.

  17. Probes of large-scale structure in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Yasushi; Gorski, K.; Juszkiewicz, R.; Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent progress in observational techniques has made it possible to confront quantitatively various models for the large-scale structure of the Universe with detailed observational data. We develop a general formalism to show that the gravitational instability theory for the origin of large-scale structure is now capable of critically confronting observational results on cosmic microwave background radiation angular anisotropies, large-scale bulk motions and large-scale clumpiness in the galaxy counts. (author)

  18. Vibration measurement-based simple technique for damage detection of truss bridges: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath C. Siriwardane

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bridges experience increasing traffic volume and weight, deteriorating of components and large number of stress cycles. Therefore, assessment of the current condition of steel railway bridges becomes necessary. Most of the commonly available approaches for structural health monitoring are based on visual inspection and non-destructive testing methods. The visual inspection is unreliable as those depend on uncertainty behind inspectors and their experience. Also, the non-destructive testing methods are found to be expensive. Therefore, recent researches have noticed that dynamic modal parameters or vibration measurement-based structural health monitoring methods are economical and may also provide more realistic predictions to damage state of civil infrastructure. Therefore this paper proposes a simple technique to locate the damage region of railway truss bridges based on measured modal parameters. The technique is discussed with a case study. Initially paper describes the details of considered railway bridge. Then observations of visual inspection, material testing and in situ load testing are discussed under separate sections. Development of validated finite element model of the considered bridge is comprehensively discussed. Hence, variations of modal parameters versus position of the damage are plotted. These plots are considered as the main reference for locating the damage of the railway bridge in future periodical inspection by comparing the measured corresponding modal parameters. Finally the procedure of periodical vibration measurement and damage locating technique are clearly illustrated.

  19. Nonlinear wave forces on large ocean structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Erick T.

    1993-04-01

    This study explores the significance of second-order wave excitations on a large pontoon and tests the feasibility of reducing a nonlinear free surface problem by perturbation expansions. A simulation model has been developed based on the perturbation expansion technique to estimate the wave forces. The model uses a versatile finite element procedure for the solution of the reduced linear boundary value problems. This procedure achieves a fair compromise between computation costs and physical details by using a combination of 2D and 3D elements. A simple hydraulic model test was conducted to observe the wave forces imposed on a rectangle box by Cnoidal waves in shallow water. The test measurements are consistent with the numerical predictions by the simulation model. This result shows favorable support to the perturbation approach for estimating the nonlinear wave forces on shallow draft vessels. However, more sophisticated model tests are required for a full justification. Both theoretical and experimental results show profound second-order forces that could substantially impact the design of ocean facilities.

  20. Compressive and bending behavior of sandwich panels with Octet truss core fabricated from wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Hyun; Nah, Seong Jun; Kang, Ki Ju; Koo, Man Hoe

    2005-01-01

    Ultra light metal structures have been studied for several years because of their superior specific stiffness, strength and potential of multi functions. Many studies have been focused on how to manufacture ultra light metal structures and optimize them. In this study, we introduced a new idea to make sandwich panels having Octet truss cores. Wires bent in a shape of triangular wave were assembled to construct an Octet truss core and it was bonded with two face sheets to be a sandwich panel. The bending and compressive strength and stiffness were estimated through elementary mechanics for the sandwich specimens with two kinds of face sheets and the results were compared with the ones measured by experiments. Some aspects of assembling and mechanical behavior were discussed compared with Kagome core fabricated from wire, which had been introduced in the authors' previous work

  1. Damage Detection in Railway Truss Bridges Employing Data Sensitivity under Bayesian Framework: A Numerical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanta Prajapat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, for a structure it is quite difficult to get information about all of its modes through its dynamic response under ambient or external excitation. Therefore, it is vital to exhaustively use the available information in the acquired modal data to detect any damage in the structures. Further, in a Bayesian algorithm, it can be quite beneficial if a damage localization algorithm is first used to localize damage in the structure. In this way, the number of unknown parameters in the Bayesian algorithm can be reduced significantly and thus, the efficiency of Bayesian algorithm can be enhanced. This study exploits a mode shape and its derivative based approach to localize damage in truss type structures. For damage quantification purpose, a parameter sensitivity based prediction error variance approach in Bayesian model updating is employed, which allows extracting maximum information available in the modal data. This work employs the sensitivity based Bayesian algorithm to determine the posterior confidence in truss type railway bridges. Results of the study show that the proposed approach can efficiently detect and quantify damage in railway truss bridges.

  2. Size and Topology Optimization for Trusses with Discrete Design Variables by Improved Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Firefly Algorithm (FA, for short is inspired by the social behavior of fireflies and their phenomenon of bioluminescent communication. Based on the fundamentals of FA, two improved strategies are proposed to conduct size and topology optimization for trusses with discrete design variables. Firstly, development of structural topology optimization method and the basic principle of standard FA are introduced in detail. Then, in order to apply the algorithm to optimization problems with discrete variables, the initial positions of fireflies and the position updating formula are discretized. By embedding the random-weight and enhancing the attractiveness, the performance of this algorithm is improved, and thus an Improved Firefly Algorithm (IFA, for short is proposed. Furthermore, using size variables which are capable of including topology variables and size and topology optimization for trusses with discrete variables is formulated based on the Ground Structure Approach. The essential techniques of variable elastic modulus technology and geometric construction analysis are applied in the structural analysis process. Subsequently, an optimization method for the size and topological design of trusses based on the IFA is introduced. Finally, two numerical examples are shown to verify the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method by comparing with different deterministic methods.

  3. Ductility of a 60-Story Shearwall Frame-Belt Truss (Virtual Outrigger Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudjisuryadi P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches have been conducted to study Shearwall-frame combined with belt truss as structural system (SFBT, in which the post-elastic behavior and ductility of this structural system are explored. A 60-story SFBT building, with a ductility set equal to 3.75 (value for fully ductile cantilever wall is considered. The Elastic Response Spectrum used for design is taken from Zone 2 of Indonesian Seismic Map. Capacity design method according to Indonesian Concrete Code is employed. The seismic performance is analyzed using static non-linear push-over analysis and dynamic non-linear time-history analysis. Spectrum consistent ground motions of the May 18, 1940 El-Centro earthquake N-S components scaled to maximum accelerations of various return periods (50, 200, and 500 years are used for analysis. The results of this study show that plastic hinges mainly developed in beams above the truss, columns below the truss, and bottom levels of the wall. The building shows no indication of structural instability.

  4. Design of pedestrian truss bridge with Sengon-Rubber laminated veneer lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbudiman, B.; Pranata, Y. A.; Pangestu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Timber bridges are one of the bridge that has long been used, but nowadays, large dimension of sawn timber has limited supply and also it is not environmental-friendly. Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) is a engineered wood that becomes one of the promising alternative, because it is made from lower quality wood that processed to be used as a more quality one. The bridge planned to be a pedestrian truss bridge with length of 9 m, width of 3 m, height of 2.5 m, and using bolt and steel plate as its connection system. Mechanical properties of LVL obtained directly from laboratory test result. Bridge modeling and planning for wood construction refers to SNI 7973:2013, while the loading refers to SNI 1725:2016. Based on the modelling and calculation, the dimension of truss frame and girder beam which are 9 cm x 9 cm and 9 cm x 18 cm have adequate strengths and satisfy deflection requirement.

  5. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  6. TRUSSPOLE - Trussed Metallic Pole. Results of its application in 69 kV TL - simple circuit; Trusspole: poste metalico trelicado. Resultados da aplicacao em LT 69kV - circuito simples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo Ricardo Ralo Liberato da; Mello, Reynaldo Castriota de; Ferreira, Sirio Jose; Cadete, Marcia Augusta de Moura [MJMS - Mendes Junior Montagens e Servicos Ltda., Santa Luzia, MG (Brazil); Souza, Mauro Dias de [EGEL - Engenharia e Construcoes Ltda. (Brazil); Dantas, Roberto Pires [PLT - Projetos de Linhas de Transmissao Ltda. (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the origin, the development and the results of the TRUSSPOLE(Trussed Metallic Post) application in electric power transmission systems. It concerns a spatial trussed structure with a single metallic basis, similar to the concrete or wood pole, able to associate the technical and economical advantages of the trussed structures and the tubular or solid thick poles. The results obtained in the project, in load experiments of a study initial prototype and in the construction of a 69 kV Cs transmission line, with a 53.2 Km extension, using this type of structural solution, are shown 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Environmental Disturbance Modeling for Large Inflatable Space Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Donald

    2001-01-01

    Tightening space budgets and stagnating spacelift capabilities are driving the Air Force and other space agencies to focus on inflatable technology as a reliable, inexpensive means of deploying large structures in orbit...

  8. Large-Scale Structure and Hyperuniformity of Amorphous Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Fausto; Torquato, Salvatore; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Car, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the large-scale structure of amorphous ices and transitions between their different forms by quantifying their large-scale density fluctuations. Specifically, we simulate the isothermal compression of low-density amorphous ice (LDA) and hexagonal ice to produce high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Both HDA and LDA are nearly hyperuniform; i.e., they are characterized by an anomalous suppression of large-scale density fluctuations. By contrast, in correspondence with the nonequilibrium phase transitions to HDA, the presence of structural heterogeneities strongly suppresses the hyperuniformity and the system becomes hyposurficial (devoid of "surface-area fluctuations"). Our investigation challenges the largely accepted "frozen-liquid" picture, which views glasses as structurally arrested liquids. Beyond implications for water, our findings enrich our understanding of pressure-induced structural transformations in glasses.

  9. Displacement and deformation measurement for large structures by camera network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yang; Yu, Qifeng; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-03-01

    A displacement and deformation measurement method for large structures by a series-parallel connection camera network is presented. By taking the dynamic monitoring of a large-scale crane in lifting operation as an example, a series-parallel connection camera network is designed, and the displacement and deformation measurement method by using this series-parallel connection camera network is studied. The movement range of the crane body is small, and that of the crane arm is large. The displacement of the crane body, the displacement of the crane arm relative to the body and the deformation of the arm are measured. Compared with a pure series or parallel connection camera network, the designed series-parallel connection camera network can be used to measure not only the movement and displacement of a large structure but also the relative movement and deformation of some interesting parts of the large structure by a relatively simple optical measurement system.

  10. Review of Large Spacecraft Deployable Membrane Antenna Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Quan; Qiu, Hui; Li, Xiao; Yang, Shu-Li

    2017-11-01

    The demand for large antennas in future space missions has increasingly stimulated the development of deployable membrane antenna structures owing to their light weight and small stowage volume. However, there is little literature providing a comprehensive review and comparison of different membrane antenna structures. Space-borne membrane antenna structures are mainly classified as either parabolic or planar membrane antenna structures. For parabolic membrane antenna structures, there are five deploying and forming methods, including inflation, inflation-rigidization, elastic ribs driven, Shape Memory Polymer (SMP)-inflation, and electrostatic forming. The development and detailed comparison of these five methods are presented. Then, properties of membrane materials (including polyester film and polyimide film) for parabolic membrane antennas are compared. Additionally, for planar membrane antenna structures, frame shapes have changed from circular to rectangular, and different tensioning systems have emerged successively, including single Miura-Natori, double, and multi-layer tensioning systems. Recent advances in structural configurations, tensioning system design, and dynamic analysis for planar membrane antenna structures are investigated. Finally, future trends for large space membrane antenna structures are pointed out and technical problems are proposed, including design and analysis of membrane structures, materials and processes, membrane packing, surface accuracy stability, and test and verification technology. Through a review of large deployable membrane antenna structures, guidance for space membrane-antenna research and applications is provided.

  11. The photon structure function at large Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordier, A.

    1987-01-01

    LEP II offers the unique opportunity to measure the photon structure function over a large Q 2 range up to ∼ 2000 GeV 2 . Two crucial predictions of QCD can be tested in this experiment: the linear rise in log Q 2 as a consequence of asymptotic freedom, and the large renormalization O(1) of the shape of the structure function due to gluon bremsstrahlung, unperturbed by higher-twist effects

  12. Structural design of superconducting magnets for the large coil program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.H.; Long, C.J.; Stoddart, W.C.T.

    1979-09-01

    The Large Coil Program (LCP) is a research, development, and demonstration effort specifically for the advancement of the technologies involved in the production of large superconducting magnets. This paper presents a review of the status of the structural designs, analysis methods, and verification tests being performed by the participating LCP design teams in the USA, Switzerland, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany. The significant structural mechanics concerns that are being investigated with the LCP are presented

  13. Optimal truss and frame design from projected homogenization-based topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S. D.; Sigmund, O.; Groen, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we propose a novel method to obtain a near-optimal frame structure, based on the solution of a homogenization-based topology optimization model. The presented approach exploits the equivalence between Michell’s problem of least-weight trusses and a compliance minimization problem...... using optimal rank-2 laminates in the low volume fraction limit. In a fully automated procedure, a discrete structure is extracted from the homogenization-based continuum model. This near-optimal structure is post-optimized as a frame, where the bending stiffness is continuously decreased, to allow...

  14. Structuring and assessing large and complex decision problems using MCDA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    This paper presents an approach for the structuring and assessing of large and complex decision problems using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The MCDA problem is structured in a decision tree and assessed using the REMBRANDT technique featuring a procedure for limiting the number of pair...

  15. Some Statistics for Measuring Large-Scale Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Kaplan, David M.; A, Stephen; Ramsey

    1993-01-01

    Good statistics for measuring large-scale structure in the Universe must be able to distinguish between different models of structure formation. In this paper, two and three dimensional ``counts in cell" statistics and a new ``discrete genus statistic" are applied to toy versions of several popular theories of structure formation: random phase cold dark matter model, cosmic string models, and global texture scenario. All three statistics appear quite promising in terms of differentiating betw...

  16. Static stability of a three-dimensional space truss. M.S. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ., 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, John F.

    1995-01-01

    In order to deploy large flexible space structures it is necessary to develop support systems that are strong and lightweight. The most recent example of this aerospace design need is vividly evident in the space station solar array assembly. In order to accommodate both weight limitations and strength performance criteria, ABLE Engineering has developed the Folding Articulating Square Truss (FASTMast) support structure. The FASTMast is a space truss/mechanism hybrid that can provide system support while adhering to stringent packaging demands. However, due to its slender nature and anticipated loading, stability characterization is a critical part of the design process. Furthermore, the dire consequences surely to result from a catastrophic instability quickly provide the motivation for careful examination of this problem. The fundamental components of the space station solar array system are the (1) solar array blanket system, (2) FASTMast support structure, and (3) mast canister assembly. The FASTMast once fully deployed from the canister will provide support to the solar array blankets. A unique feature of this structure is that the system responds linearly within a certain range of operating loads and nonlinearly when that range is exceeded. The source of nonlinear behavior in this case is due to a changing stiffness state resulting from an inability of diagonal members to resist applied loads. The principal objective of this study was to establish the failure modes involving instability of the FASTMast structure. Also of great interest during this effort was to establish a reliable analytical approach capable of effectively predicting critical values at which the mast becomes unstable. Due to the dual nature of structural response inherent to this problem, both linear and nonlinear analyses are required to characterize the mast in terms of stability. The approach employed herein is one that can be considered systematic in nature. The analysis begins with one

  17. Large-scale structure observables in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We review recent studies that rigorously define several key observables of the large-scale structure of the Universe in a general relativistic context. Specifically, we consider (i) redshift perturbation of cosmic clock events; (ii) distortion of cosmic rulers, including weak lensing shear and magnification; and (iii) observed number density of tracers of the large-scale structure. We provide covariant and gauge-invariant expressions of these observables. Our expressions are given for a linearly perturbed flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker metric including scalar, vector, and tensor metric perturbations. While we restrict ourselves to linear order in perturbation theory, the approach can be straightforwardly generalized to higher order. (paper)

  18. Trends in large-scale testing of reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    Large-scale tests of reactor structures have been conducted at Sandia National Laboratories since the late 1970s. This paper describes a number of different large-scale impact tests, pressurization tests of models of containment structures, and thermal-pressure tests of models of reactor pressure vessels. The advantages of large-scale testing are evident, but cost, in particular limits its use. As computer models have grown in size, such as number of degrees of freedom, the advent of computer graphics has made possible very realistic representation of results - results that may not accurately represent reality. A necessary condition to avoiding this pitfall is the validation of the analytical methods and underlying physical representations. Ironically, the immensely larger computer models sometimes increase the need for large-scale testing, because the modeling is applied to increasing more complex structural systems and/or more complex physical phenomena. Unfortunately, the cost of large-scale tests is a disadvantage that will likely severely limit similar testing in the future. International collaborations may provide the best mechanism for funding future programs with large-scale tests. (author)

  19. Truss Assembly and Welding by Intelligent Precision Jigging Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an Intelligent Precision Jigging Robot (IPJR) prototype that enables the precise alignment and welding of titanium space telescope optical benches. The IPJR, equipped with micron accuracy sensors and actuators, worked in tandem with a lower precision remote controlled manipulator. The combined system assembled and welded a 2 m truss from stock titanium components. The calibration of the IPJR, and the difference between the predicted and the truss dimensions as-built, identified additional sources of error that should be addressed in the next generation of IPJRs in 2D and 3D.

  20. Analysis of Truss Frames by Method of the Stiffness Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    of the web members of the truss. There also are variations in the truss frame given by the geometric shape of the frame, also referred to in some...at the elastic center, 0 (Figure .3.2), are: R AX = Wix - Hot RBX W2x -Ho, RAY =WIY + Vo, (1) RBy WLy - Vo, MAB =- Mo + CH. + aVo + CMA, MBA =M - CH...o Co Ce Substituting the results of Equation (7) into Equations (1), x c D x RAY = Wix + + -- (eA - GO - D (8)C x C x C cx x cx AY a D RAY

  1. INDUCTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE DEFORMATION OF THE ARCHED TRUSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail N. Kirsanov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution to the problem of the deflection of a flat arched statically determinate truss un-der the action of a uniformly distributed and concentrated load is obtained and analyzed. To obtain the depend-ence of the deflection on the number of panels, an induction method was used in two parameters — the number of panels in the crossbar and the number of panels in the supporting side trusses. All transformations and analysis are performed in the system of computer mathematics Maple. Expressions for the forces in individual rods are found. The asymptotic approximation of solutions is obtained.

  2. Simple Planar Truss (Linear, Nonlinear and Stochastic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frydrýšek Karel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a simple planar and statically determinate pin-connected truss. It demonstrates the processes and methods of derivations and solutions according to 1st and 2nd order theories. The article applies linear and nonlinear approaches and their simplifications via a Maclaurin series. Programming connected with the stochastic Simulation-Based Reliability Method (i.e. the direct Monte Carlo approach is used to conduct a probabilistic reliability assessment (i.e. a calculation of the probability that plastic deformation will occur in members of the truss.

  3. Traveling wave accelerating structures with a large phase advance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramonov, V.V.

    2012-01-01

    The cells RF parameters for the well known Disk Loaded Waveguide (DLW) are considered in higher pass bands of TM01 wave, providing operating phase advance between 180 o - 1230 o per cell. With an appropriate shape optimization and some additional elements proposed traveling wave structures with such large phase advance overlap the classical first band DLW in RF efficiency. Examples of proposed structures together with RF and dispersion properties are presented.

  4. Structural materials for large superconducting magnets for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, C.J.

    1976-12-01

    The selection of structural materials for large superconducting magnets for tokamak-type fusion reactors is considered. The important criteria are working stress, radiation resistance, electromagnetic interaction, and general feasibility. The most advantageous materials appear to be face-centered-cubic alloys in the Fe-Ni-Cr system, but high-modulus composites may be necessary where severe pulsed magnetic fields are present. Special-purpose structural materials are considered briefly

  5. 33 CFR 147.839 - Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.839 Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Mad Dog Truss Spar Platform, Green Canyon 782 (GC 782), located at position...

  6. Exploring the large-scale structure of Taylor–Couette turbulence through Large-Eddy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Zhu, Xiaojue; Verzicco, Roberto

    2018-04-01

    Large eddy simulations (LES) of Taylor-Couette (TC) flow, the flow between two co-axial and independently rotating cylinders are performed in an attempt to explore the large-scale axially-pinned structures seen in experiments and simulations. Both static and dynamic LES models are used. The Reynolds number is kept fixed at Re = 3.4 · 104, and the radius ratio η = ri /ro is set to η = 0.909, limiting the effects of curvature and resulting in frictional Reynolds numbers of around Re τ ≈ 500. Four rotation ratios from Rot = ‑0.0909 to Rot = 0.3 are simulated. First, the LES of TC is benchmarked for different rotation ratios. Both the Smagorinsky model with a constant of cs = 0.1 and the dynamic model are found to produce reasonable results for no mean rotation and cyclonic rotation, but deviations increase for increasing rotation. This is attributed to the increasing anisotropic character of the fluctuations. Second, “over-damped” LES, i.e. LES with a large Smagorinsky constant is performed and is shown to reproduce some features of the large-scale structures, even when the near-wall region is not adequately modeled. This shows the potential for using over-damped LES for fast explorations of the parameter space where large-scale structures are found.

  7. Origin of large-scale cell structure in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Y.B.

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative explanation is offered for the characteristic global structure of the universe, wherein ''black'' regions devoid of galaxies are surrounded on all sides by closed, comparatively thin, ''bright'' layers populated by galaxies. The interpretation rests on some very general arguments regarding the growth of large-scale perturbations in a cold gas

  8. The Large-Scale Structure of Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosso, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The standard textbook description of the nature of science describes the proposal, testing, and acceptance of a theoretical idea almost entirely in isolation from other theories. The resulting model of science is a kind of piecemeal empiricism that misses the important network structure of scientific knowledge. Only the large-scale description of…

  9. Fractals and the Large-Scale Structure in the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 4. Fractals and the Large-Scale Structure in the Universe - Is the Cosmological Principle Valid? A K Mittal T R Seshadri. General Article Volume 7 Issue 4 April 2002 pp 39-47 ...

  10. Modeling and analysis of a large deployable antenna structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhengrong; Deng, Zongquan; Qi, Xiaozhi; Li, Bing

    2014-02-01

    One kind of large deployable antenna (LDA) structure is proposed by combining a number of basic deployable units in this paper. In order to avoid vibration caused by fast deployment speed of the mechanism, a braking system is used to control the spring-actuated system. Comparisons between the LDA structure and a similar structure used by the large deployable reflector (LDR) indicate that the former has potential for use in antennas with up to 30 m aperture due to its lighter weight. The LDA structure is designed to form a spherical surface found by the least square fitting method so that it can be symmetrical. In this case, the positions of the terminal points in the structure are determined by two principles. A method to calculate the cable network stretched on the LDA structure is developed, which combines the original force density method and the parabolic surface constraint. Genetic algorithm is applied to ensure that each cable reaches a desired tension, which avoids the non-convergence issue effectively. We find that the pattern for the front and rear cable net must be the same when finding the shape of the rear cable net, otherwise anticlastic surface would generate.

  11. Feasibility of Very Large Sparse Aperture Deployable Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    25 Figure 7: 3D Reflector Box Truss...mesh surface seen in Figure 7. 27 Figure 7: 3D Reflector Box Truss 4.2 Inducing Errors in Truss Members With the ideal structure solved for...deviation can be thought of as a Zernike Polynomial 35 with a Noll index of 1 [16]. This piston error assumes all energy is radiated back towards the

  12. Stiffness and strength degradation of damaged truss core composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šiška, Filip; Tawfeeq, Arwa F.; Dlouhý, I.; Barnett, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 125, JUL (2015), s. 287-294 ISSN 0263-8223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0197 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Truss core composites * Finite element * Strain rate * High temperature tests Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 3.853, year: 2015

  13. Challenges in parameter identification of large structural dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    In theory, it is possible to determine the parameters of a structural or mechanical system by subjecting it to some dynamic excitation and measuring the response. Considerable research has been carried out in this subject area known as the system identification over the past two decades. Nevertheless, the challenges associated with numerical convergence are still formidable when the system is large in terms of the number of degrees of freedom and number of unknowns. While many methods work for small systems, the convergence becomes difficult, if not impossible, for large systems. In this keynote lecture, both classical and non-classical system identification methods for dynamic testing and vibration-based inspection are discussed. For classical methods, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach is used. On this basis, a substructural identification method has been developed as a strategy to deal with large structural systems. This is achieved by reducing the problem size, thereby significantly improving the numerical convergence and efficiency. Two versions of this method are presented each with its own merits. A numerical example of frame structure with 20 unknown parameters is illustrated. For non-classical methods, the Genetic Algorithm (GA) is shown to be applicable with relative ease due to its 'forward analysis' nature. The computational time is, however, still enormous for large structural systems due to the combinatorial explosion problem. A model GA method has been developed to address this problem and tested with considerable success on a relatively large system of 50 degrees of freedom, accounting for input and output noise effects. An advantages of this GA-based identification method is that the objective function can be defined in response measured. Numerical studies show that the method is relatively robust, as it does in response measured. Numerical studies show that the method is relatively robust, as it dos not require good initial guess and the

  14. Similitude and scaling of large structural elements: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shehadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scaled down models are widely used for experimental investigations of large structures due to the limitation in the capacities of testing facilities along with the expenses of the experimentation. The modeling accuracy depends upon the model material properties, fabrication accuracy and loading techniques. In the present work the Buckingham π theorem is used to develop the relations (i.e. geometry, loading and properties between the model and a large structural element as that is present in the huge existing petroleum oil drilling rigs. The model is to be designed, loaded and treated according to a set of similitude requirements that relate the model to the large structural element. Three independent scale factors which represent three fundamental dimensions, namely mass, length and time need to be selected for designing the scaled down model. Numerical prediction of the stress distribution within the model and its elastic deformation under steady loading is to be made. The results are compared with those obtained from the full scale structure numerical computations. The effect of scaled down model size and material on the accuracy of the modeling technique is thoroughly examined.

  15. Geophysical mapping of complex glaciogenic large-scale structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anne-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the main results of a four year PhD study concerning the use of geophysical data in geological mapping. The study is related to the Geocenter project, “KOMPLEKS”, which focuses on the mapping of complex, large-scale geological structures. The study area is approximately 100 km2...... data types and co-interpret them in order to improve our geological understanding. However, in order to perform this successfully, methodological considerations are necessary. For instance, a structure indicated by a reflection in the seismic data is not always apparent in the resistivity data...... information) can be collected. The geophysical data are used together with geological analyses from boreholes and pits to interpret the geological history of the hill-island. The geophysical data reveal that the glaciotectonic structures truncate at the surface. The directions of the structures were mapped...

  16. Large-scale structure in the universe: Theory vs observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Jones, B.J.T.

    1990-01-01

    A variety of observations constrain models of the origin of large scale cosmic structures. We review here the elements of current theories and comment in detail on which of the current observational data provide the principal constraints. We point out that enough observational data have accumulated to constrain (and perhaps determine) the power spectrum of primordial density fluctuations over a very large range of scales. We discuss the theories in the light of observational data and focus on the potential of future observations in providing even (and ever) tighter constraints. (orig.)

  17. Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, G. A.; Wilson, L. B.; Sibeck, D. G.; Shane, N.; Zhang, T. L.; Moore, T. E.; Coates, A. J.; Barabash, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first observation of magnetic fluctuations consistent with Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) in the foreshock of the planet Venus. Three monolithic magnetic field spikes were observed by the Venus Express on the 11th of April 2009. The structures were approx.1.5->11s in duration, had magnetic compression ratios between approx.3->6, and exhibited elliptical polarization. These characteristics are consistent with the SLAMS observed at Earth, Jupiter, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner, and thus we hypothesize that it is possible SLAMS may be found at any celestial body with a foreshock.

  18. Reliability-Based Design Optimization of Trusses with Linked-Discrete Design Variables using the Improved Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Okasha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach for conducting a Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO of truss structures with linked-discrete design variables is proposed. The sections of the truss members are selected from the AISC standard tables and thus the design variables that represent the properties of each section are linked. Latin hypercube sampling is used in the evaluation of the structural reliability. The improved firefly algorithm is used for the optimization solution process. It was found that in order to use the improved firefly algorithm for efficiently solving problems of reliability-based design optimization with linked-discrete design variables; it needs to be modified as proposed in this paper to accelerate its convergence.

  19. Lagrangian space consistency relation for large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias and Riotto and Peloso and Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in Lagrangian space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present. The simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in Lagrangian space

  20. Developments in damage assessment by Marie Skłodowska-Curie TRUSS ITN project

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A.

    2017-05-01

    The growth of cities, the impacts of climate change and the massive cost of providing new infrastructure provide the impetus for TRUSS (Training in Reducing Uncertainty in Structural Safety), a €3.7 million Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action Innovative Training Network project funded by EU’s Horizon 2020 programme, which aims to maximize the potential of infrastructure that already exists (http://trussitn.eu). For that purpose, TRUSS brings together an international, inter-sectoral and multidisciplinary collaboration between five academic and eleven industry institutions from five European countries. The project covers rail and road infrastructure, buildings and energy and marine infrastructure. This paper reports progress in fields such as advanced sensor-based structural health monitoring solutions - unmanned aerial vehicles, optical backscatter reflectometry, monitoring sensors mounted on vehicles, … - and innovative algorithms for structural designs and short- and long-term assessments of buildings, bridges, pavements, ships, ship unloaders, nuclear components and wind turbine towers that will support infrastructure operators and owners in managing their assets.

  1. Nuclear structure at high-spin and large-deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.

    2000-01-01

    Atomic nucleus is a finite quantal system and shows various marvelous features. One of the purposes of the nuclear structure study is to understand such features from a microscopic viewpoint of nuclear many-body problem. Recently, it is becoming possible to explore nuclear states under 'extreme conditions', which are far different from the usual ground states of stable nuclei, and new aspects of such unstable nuclei attract our interests. In this lecture, I would like to discuss the nuclear structure in the limit of rapid rotation, or the extreme states with very large angular momenta, which became accessible by recent advent of large arrays of gamma-ray detecting system; these devices are extremely useful to measure coincident multiple γ-rays following heavy-ion fusion reactions. Including such experimental aspects as how to detect the nuclear rotational states, I review physics of high-spin states starting from the elementary subjects of nuclear structure study. In would like also to discuss the extreme states with very large nuclear deformation, which are easily realized in rapidly rotating nuclei. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Extended Wall OSB Sheathing Connection under Combined Uplift and Shear Loading for 24-inch Heel Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kochkin; Andrew DeRenzis; Xiping Wang

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the extended wall structural panel connection in resisting combined uplift and shear forces at the roof-to-wall interface with a focus on a truss heel height of 24 in. to address the expected increases in the depth of attic insulation used in Climate Zones 5 and higher. Five full-size roof-wall assemblies were...

  3. Large-scale structures in turbulent Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Hwa

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation of fully developed turbulent Couette flow is performed with a large computational domain in the streamwise and spanwise directions (40 πh and 6 πh) to investigate streamwise-scale growth mechanism of the streamwise velocity fluctuating structures in the core region, where h is the channel half height. It is shown that long streamwise-scale structures (> 3 h) are highly energetic and they contribute to more than 80% of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress, compared to previous studies in canonical Poiseuille flows. Instantaneous and statistical analysis show that negative-u' structures on the bottom wall in the Couette flow continuously grow in the streamwise direction due to mean shear, and they penetrate to the opposite moving wall. The geometric center of the log layer is observed in the centerline with a dominant outer peak in streamwise spectrum, and the maximum streamwise extent for structure is found in the centerline, similar to previous observation in turbulent Poiseuille flows at high Reynolds number. Further inspection of time-evolving instantaneous fields clearly exhibits that adjacent long structures combine to form a longer structure in the centerline. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2014R1A1A2057031).

  4. Complex modular structure of large-scale brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, M.; Pastor, M. A.; Fernández-Seara, M. A.; Artieda, J.; Martinerie, J.; Chavez, M.

    2009-06-01

    Modular structure is ubiquitous among real-world networks from related proteins to social groups. Here we analyze the modular organization of brain networks at a large scale (voxel level) extracted from functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. By using a random-walk-based method, we unveil the modularity of brain webs and show modules with a spatial distribution that matches anatomical structures with functional significance. The functional role of each node in the network is studied by analyzing its patterns of inter- and intramodular connections. Results suggest that the modular architecture constitutes the structural basis for the coexistence of functional integration of distant and specialized brain areas during normal brain activities at rest.

  5. Structural Quality of Service in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    , telephony and data. To meet the requirements of the different applications, and to handle the increased vulnerability to failures, the ability to design robust networks providing good Quality of Service is crucial. However, most planning of large-scale networks today is ad-hoc based, leading to highly...... complex networks lacking predictability and global structural properties. The thesis applies the concept of Structural Quality of Service to formulate desirable global properties, and it shows how regular graph structures can be used to obtain such properties.......Digitalization has created the base for co-existence and convergence in communications, leading to an increasing use of multi service networks. This is for example seen in the Fiber To The Home implementations, where a single fiber is used for virtually all means of communication, including TV...

  6. BigSUR: large-scale structured urban reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Tom; Femiani, John; Wonka, Peter; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2017-01-01

    The creation of high-quality semantically parsed 3D models for dense metropolitan areas is a fundamental urban modeling problem. Although recent advances in acquisition techniques and processing algorithms have resulted in large-scale imagery or 3D polygonal reconstructions, such data-sources are typically noisy, and incomplete, with no semantic structure. In this paper, we present an automatic data fusion technique that produces high-quality structured models of city blocks. From coarse polygonal meshes, street-level imagery, and GIS footprints, we formulate a binary integer program that globally balances sources of error to produce semantically parsed mass models with associated facade elements. We demonstrate our system on four city regions of varying complexity; our examples typically contain densely built urban blocks spanning hundreds of buildings. In our largest example, we produce a structured model of 37 city blocks spanning a total of 1,011 buildings at a scale and quality previously impossible to achieve automatically.

  7. Cryogenic expansion joint for large superconducting magnet structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    An expansion joint is provided that accommodates dimensional changes occurring during the cooldown and warm-up of large cryogenic devices such as superconducting magnet coils. Flattened tubes containing a refrigerant such as gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) are inserted into expansion spaces in the structure. The gaseous N.sub.2 is circulated under pressure and aids in the cooldown process while providing its primary function of accommodating differential thermal contraction and expansion in the structure. After lower temperatures are reached and the greater part of the contraction has occured, the N.sub.2 liquefies then solidifies to provide a completely rigid structure at the cryogenic operating temperatures of the device.

  8. BigSUR: large-scale structured urban reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Tom

    2017-11-22

    The creation of high-quality semantically parsed 3D models for dense metropolitan areas is a fundamental urban modeling problem. Although recent advances in acquisition techniques and processing algorithms have resulted in large-scale imagery or 3D polygonal reconstructions, such data-sources are typically noisy, and incomplete, with no semantic structure. In this paper, we present an automatic data fusion technique that produces high-quality structured models of city blocks. From coarse polygonal meshes, street-level imagery, and GIS footprints, we formulate a binary integer program that globally balances sources of error to produce semantically parsed mass models with associated facade elements. We demonstrate our system on four city regions of varying complexity; our examples typically contain densely built urban blocks spanning hundreds of buildings. In our largest example, we produce a structured model of 37 city blocks spanning a total of 1,011 buildings at a scale and quality previously impossible to achieve automatically.

  9. Control and large deformations of marginal disordered structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Arvind; Pinson, Matthew; Chen, Elizabeth

    Designed deformations, such as origami patterns, provide a way to make easily controlled mechanical metamaterials with tailored responses to external forces. We focus on an often overlooked regime of origami - non-linear deformations of large disordered origami patterns with no symmetries. We find that practical questions of control in origami have counterintuitive answers, because of intimate connections to spin glasses and neural networks. For example, 1 degree of freedom origami structures are actually difficult to control about the flat state with a single actuator; the actuator is thrown off by an exponential number of `red herring' zero modes for small deformations, all but one of which disappear at larger deformations. Conversely, structures with multiple programmed motions are much easier to control than expected - in fact, they are as easy to control as a dedicated single-motion structure if the number of programmed motions is below a threshold (`memory capacity').

  10. Novel large deployable antenna backing structure concepts for foldable reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraux, V.; Lawton, M.; Reveles, J. R.; You, Z.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes a number of large deployable antenna (LDA) reflector structure concepts developed at EnerSys-ABSL. Furthermore, EnerSys-ABSL has confirmed the desire to build a breadboard demonstrator of a backing deployable structure for a foldable reflector in the diameter range of 4-9 m. As part of this project EnerSys-ABSL has explored five novel deployable structure concepts. This paper presents the top level definition of these concepts together with the requirements considered in the design and selection of the preferred candidate. These new concepts are described and then compared through a trade-off analysis to identify the most suitable concept that EnerSys-ABSL would like to consider for the breadboard demonstrator. Finally, the kinematics of the chosen concept is described in more detail and future steps in the development process are highlighted.

  11. Characterization of Large Structural Genetic Mosaicism in Human Autosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zhou, Weiyin; Sampson, Joshua N.; Dean, Michael C.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Black, Amanda; Brinton, Louise A.; Chang, I-Shou; Chen, Chu; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kexin; Cook, Linda S.; Crous Bou, Marta; De Vivo, Immaculata; Doherty, Jennifer; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hartge, Patricia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hsiung, Chao A.; Hu, Wei; Hunter, David J.; Jessop, Lea; Kim, Hee Nam; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Klein, Robert; Kraft, Peter; Lan, Qing; Lin, Dongxin; Liu, Jianjun; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Park, Jae Yong; Pooler, Loreall; Prescott, Jennifer; Rastogi, Radhai; Risch, Harvey A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Seow, Adeline; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Shen, Hongbing; Sheng, Xin; Shin, Min-Ho; Shu, Xiao-Ou; VanDen Berg, David; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Yi-Long; Xia, Lucy; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Abnet, Christian C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Bracci, Paige M.; Burdett, Laurie; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary A.; Carreón, Tania; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chung, Charles C.; Cook, Michael B.; Cullen, Michael; Davis, Faith G.; Ding, Ti; Duell, Eric J.; Epstein, Caroline G.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Freedman, Neal D.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Patiño-Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goldin, Lynn; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Greene, Mark H.; Hallmans, Goran; Harris, Curtis C.; Henriksson, Roger; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hu, Nan; Hutchinson, Amy; Jenab, Mazda; Johansen, Christoffer; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Landgren, Annelie; Landi, Maria Teresa; Li, Donghui; Liao, Linda M.; Malats, Nuria; McGlynn, Katherine A.; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Mirabello, Lisa; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Purdue, Mark; Qiao, You-Lin; Rabe, Kari G.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Rodríguez-Santiago, Benjamín; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Severi, Gianluca; Silverman, Debra T.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Stram, Daniel; Tang, Ze-Zhong; Taylor, Philip R.; Teras, Lauren R.; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Viswanathan, Kala; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Zhaoming; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wu, Xifeng; Wunder, Jay S.; Yu, Kai; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Ziegler, Regina G.; de Andrade, Mariza; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Beaty, Terri H.; Bierut, Laura J.; Desch, Karl C.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Ginsburg, David; Heit, John A.; Kang, Jae H.; Laurie, Cecilia A.; Li, Jun Z.; Lowe, William L.; Marazita, Mary L.; Melbye, Mads; Mirel, Daniel B.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Nelson, Sarah C.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Rice, Kenneth; Wiggs, Janey L.; Wise, Anastasia; Tucker, Margaret; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data have revealed that detectable genetic mosaicism involving large (>2 Mb) structural autosomal alterations occurs in a fraction of individuals. We present results for a set of 24,849 genotyped individuals (total GWAS set II [TGSII]) in whom 341 large autosomal abnormalities were observed in 168 (0.68%) individuals. Merging data from the new TGSII set with data from two prior reports (the Gene-Environment Association Studies and the total GWAS set I) generated a large dataset of 127,179 individuals; we then conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the patterns of detectable autosomal mosaicism (n = 1,315 events in 925 [0.73%] individuals). Restricting to events >2 Mb in size, we observed an increase in event frequency as event size decreased. The combined results underscore that the rate of detectable mosaicism increases with age (p value = 5.5 × 10−31) and is higher in men (p value = 0.002) but lower in participants of African ancestry (p value = 0.003). In a subset of 47 individuals from whom serial samples were collected up to 6 years apart, complex changes were noted over time and showed an overall increase in the proportion of mosaic cells as age increased. Our large combined sample allowed for a unique ability to characterize detectable genetic mosaicism involving large structural events and strengthens the emerging evidence of non-random erosion of the genome in the aging population. PMID:25748358

  12. Self-supporting method; an alternative method for steel truss bridge element replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, Muhammad; Sangadji, Senot; As'ad, Sholihin

    2017-11-01

    Steel truss bridge often requires replacement of its element due to serious damage caused by traffic accidents. This replacement is carried out using temporary supporting structure. It would be difficult when the available space for the temporary structure is quite limited and or the position of work is at a high elevation. The self-supporting method is proposed instead of temporary supporting structure. This paper will discuss an innovative method of bridge rehabilitation by utilizing the existing bridge structure. It requires such temporary connecting structure that installed on the existing bridge element, therefore, the forces during replacement process could be transferred to the bridge foundation directly. By taking the case on a steel truss bridge Jetis Salatiga which requires element replacement due to its damages on two main diagonals, a modeling is carried out to get a proper repair method. Structural analysis is conducted for three temporary connecting structure models: “I,” “V,” and triangular model. Stresses and translations that occur in the structure are used as constraints. Bridge bearings are modeled in two different modes: fixed-fixed system and fixed-free one. Temperature load is given in each condition to obtain the appropriate time for execution. The triangular model is chosen as the best one. In the fixed-fixed mode, this method can be carried out in a temperature range 27-28.8° C, while in fixed-free one, the temperature it is allowed between 27-43.4 °C. The D4 is dismantled first by cutting the D4 leaving an area of 1140.2 mm2 or 127 mm web length to enable plastic condition until the D4 collapses. At the beginning of elongation occurs, immediately performed a slowly jacking on a temporary connecting structure so that the force on D4 is gradually transferred to the temporary connecting structure then the D4 and D5 are set in their place.

  13. Reliability-Based Optimal Design for Very Large Floating Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-hua(张淑华); FUJIKUBO Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Costs and losses induced by possible future extreme environmental conditions and difficulties in repairing post-yielding damage strongly suggest the need for proper consideration in design rather than just life loss prevention. This can be addressed through the development of design methodology that balances the initial cost of the very large floating structure (VLFS) against the expected potential losses resulting from future extreme wave-induced structural damage. Here, the development of a methodology for determining optimal, cost-effective design will be presented and applied to a VLFS located in the Tokyo bay. Optimal design criteria are determined based on the total expected life-cycle cost and acceptable damage probability and curvature of the structure, and a set of sizes of the structure are obtained. The methodology and applications require expressions of the initial cost and the expected life-cycle damage cost as functions of the optimal design variables. This study includes the methodology, total life-cycle cost function, structural damage modeling, and reliability analysis.

  14. BAND STRUCTURE OF NON-STEIOCHIOMETRIC LARGE-SIZED NANOCRYSTALLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V.Kityk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A band structure of large-sized (from 20 to 35nm non-steichiometric nanocrystallites (NC of the Si2-xCx (1.04 < x < 1.10 has been investigated using different band energy approaches and a modified Car-Parinello molecular dynamics structure optimization of the NC interfaces. The non-steichiometric excess of carbon favors the appearance of a thin prevailingly carbon-contained layer (with thickness of about 1 nm covering the crystallites. As a consequence, one can observe a substantial structure reconstruction of boundary SiC crystalline layers. The numerical modeling has shown that these NC can be considered as SiC reconstructed crystalline films with thickness of about 2 nm covering the SiC crystallites. The observed data are considered within the different one-electron band structure methods. It was shown that the nano-sized carbon sheet plays a key role in a modified band structure. Independent manifestation of the important role played by the reconstructed confined layers is due to the experimentally discovered excitonic-like resonances. Low-temperature absorption measurements confirm the existence of sharp-like absorption resonances originating from the reconstructed layers.

  15. The seam visual tracking method for large structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Qilin; Jiang, Xiaomin; Liu, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Taobo; Zhu, Yulong

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a compact and flexible weld visual tracking method is proposed. Firstly, there was the interference between the visual device and the work-piece to be welded when visual tracking height cannot change. a kind of weld vision system with compact structure and tracking height is researched. Secondly, according to analyze the relative spatial pose between the camera, the laser and the work-piece to be welded and study with the theory of relative geometric imaging, The mathematical model between image feature parameters and three-dimensional trajectory of the assembly gap to be welded is established. Thirdly, the visual imaging parameters of line structured light are optimized by experiment of the weld structure of the weld. Fourth, the interference that line structure light will be scatters at the bright area of metal and the area of surface scratches will be bright is exited in the imaging. These disturbances seriously affect the computational efficiency. The algorithm based on the human eye visual attention mechanism is used to extract the weld characteristics efficiently and stably. Finally, in the experiment, It is verified that the compact and flexible weld tracking method has the tracking accuracy of 0.5mm in the tracking of large structural parts. It is a wide range of industrial application prospects.

  16. Origin of the large scale structures of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oaknin, David H.

    2004-01-01

    We revise the statistical properties of the primordial cosmological density anisotropies that, at the time of matter-radiation equality, seeded the gravitational development of large scale structures in the otherwise homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker flat universe. Our analysis shows that random fluctuations of the density field at the same instant of equality and with comoving wavelength shorter than the causal horizon at that time can naturally account, when globally constrained to conserve the total mass (energy) of the system, for the observed scale invariance of the anisotropies over cosmologically large comoving volumes. Statistical systems with similar features are generically known as glasslike or latticelike. Obviously, these conclusions conflict with the widely accepted understanding of the primordial structures reported in the literature, which requires an epoch of inflationary cosmology to precede the standard expansion of the universe. The origin of the conflict must be found in the widespread, but unjustified, claim that scale invariant mass (energy) anisotropies at the instant of equality over comoving volumes of cosmological size, larger than the causal horizon at the time, must be generated by fluctuations in the density field with comparably large comoving wavelength

  17. Reliability analysis of large scaled structures by optimization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, N.; Mihara, T.; Iizuka, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability analysis based on the optimization technique using PNET (Probabilistic Network Evaluation Technique) method for the highly redundant structures having a large number of collapse modes. This approach makes the best use of the merit of the optimization technique in which the idea of PNET method is used. The analytical process involves the minimization of safety index of the representative mode, subjected to satisfaction of the mechanism condition and of the positive external work. The procedure entails the sequential performance of a series of the NLP (Nonlinear Programming) problems, where the correlation condition as the idea of PNET method pertaining to the representative mode is taken as an additional constraint to the next analysis. Upon succeeding iterations, the final analysis is achieved when a collapse probability at the subsequent mode is extremely less than the value at the 1st mode. The approximate collapse probability of the structure is defined as the sum of the collapse probabilities of the representative modes classified by the extent of correlation. Then, in order to confirm the validity of the proposed method, the conventional Monte Carlo simulation is also revised by using the collapse load analysis. Finally, two fairly large structures were analyzed to illustrate the scope and application of the approach. (orig./HP)

  18. Efficient reanalysis of structures by a direct modification method. [local stiffness modifications of large structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibstein, A. I.; Kalev, I.; Pipano, A.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the local stiffness modifications of large structures is described. It enables structural modifications without an a priori definition of the changes in the original structure and without loss of efficiency due to multiple loading conditions. The solution procedure, implemented in NASTRAN, involved the decomposed stiffness matrix and the displacement vectors of the original structure. It solves the modified structure exactly, irrespective of the magnitude of the stiffness changes. In order to investigate the efficiency of the present procedure and to test its applicability within a design environment, several real and large structures were solved. The results of the efficiency studies indicate that the break-even point of the procedure varies between 8% and 60% stiffness modifications, depending upon the structure's characteristics and the options employed.

  19. Divergence of perturbation theory in large scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Enrico; van der Woude, Drian

    2018-05-01

    We make progress towards an analytical understanding of the regime of validity of perturbation theory for large scale structures and the nature of some non-perturbative corrections. We restrict ourselves to 1D gravitational collapse, for which exact solutions before shell crossing are known. We review the convergence of perturbation theory for the power spectrum, recently proven by McQuinn and White [1], and extend it to non-Gaussian initial conditions and the bispectrum. In contrast, we prove that perturbation theory diverges for the real space two-point correlation function and for the probability density function (PDF) of the density averaged in cells and all the cumulants derived from it. We attribute these divergences to the statistical averaging intrinsic to cosmological observables, which, even on very large and "perturbative" scales, gives non-vanishing weight to all extreme fluctuations. Finally, we discuss some general properties of non-perturbative effects in real space and Fourier space.

  20. Speckle photography applied to measure deformations of very large structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Edgar; Morgan, Chris K.

    1995-04-01

    Fundamental principles of mechanics have recently been brought to bear on problems concerning very large structures. Fields of study include tectonic plate motion, nuclear waste repository vault closure mechanisms, the flow of glacier and sea ice, and highway bridge damage assessment and residual life prediction. Quantitative observations, appropriate for formulating and verifying models, are still scarce however, so the need to adapt new methods of experimental mechanics is clear. Large dynamic systems often exist in environments subject to rapid change. Therefore, a simple field technique that incorporates short time scales and short gage lengths is required. Further, the measuring methods must yield displacements reliably, and under oft-times adverse field conditions. Fortunately, the advantages conferred by an experimental mechanics technique known as speckle photography nicely fulfill this rather stringent set of performance requirements. Speckle seemed to lend itself nicely to the application since it is robust and relatively inexpensive. Experiment requirements are minimal -- a camera, high resolution film, illumination, and an optically rough surface. Perhaps most important is speckle's distinct advantage over point-by-point methods: It maps the two dimensional displacement vectors of the whole field of interest. And finally, given the method's high spatial resolution, relatively short observation times are necessary. In this paper we discuss speckle, two variations of which were used to gage the deformation of a reinforced concrete bridge structure subjected to bending loads. The measurement technique proved to be easily applied, and yielded the location of the neutral axis self consistently. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using whole field techniques to detect and quantify surface strains of large structures under load.

  1. Nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenk, C.S.; White, S.D.M.; Davis, M.

    1983-01-01

    Using N-body simulations we study the nonlinear development of primordial density perturbation in an Einstein--de Sitter universe. We compare the evolution of an initial distribution without small-scale density fluctuations to evolution from a random Poisson distribution. These initial conditions mimic the assumptions of the adiabatic and isothermal theories of galaxy formation. The large-scale structures which form in the two cases are markedly dissimilar. In particular, the correlation function xi(r) and the visual appearance of our adiabatic (or ''pancake'') models match better the observed distribution of galaxies. This distribution is characterized by large-scale filamentary structure. Because the pancake models do not evolve in a self-similar fashion, the slope of xi(r) steepens with time; as a result there is a unique epoch at which these models fit the galaxy observations. We find the ratio of cutoff length to correlation length at this time to be lambda/sub min//r 0 = 5.1; its expected value in a neutrino dominated universe is 4(Ωh) -1 (H 0 = 100h km s -1 Mpc -1 ). At early epochs these models predict a negligible amplitude for xi(r) and could explain the lack of measurable clustering in the Lyα absorption lines of high-redshift quasars. However, large-scale structure in our models collapses after z = 2. If this collapse precedes galaxy formation as in the usual pancake theory, galaxies formed uncomfortably recently. The extent of this problem may depend on the cosmological model used; the present series of experiments should be extended in the future to include models with Ω<1

  2. Cosmological parameters from large scale structure - geometric versus shape information

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Jan; Lesgourgues, Julien; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-01-01

    The matter power spectrum as derived from large scale structure (LSS) surveys contains two important and distinct pieces of information: an overall smooth shape and the imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We investigate the separate impact of these two types of information on cosmological parameter estimation, and show that for the simplest cosmological models, the broad-band shape information currently contained in the SDSS DR7 halo power spectrum (HPS) is by far superseded by geometric information derived from the baryonic features. An immediate corollary is that contrary to popular beliefs, the upper limit on the neutrino mass m_\

  3. Testing Inflation with Large Scale Structure: Connecting Hopes with Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Marcello; Baldauf, T.; Bond, J. Richard; Dalal, N.; Putter, R. D.; Dore, O.; Green, Daniel; Hirata, Chris; Huang, Zhiqi; Huterer, Dragan; Jeong, Donghui; Johnson, Matthew C.; Krause, Elisabeth; Loverde, Marilena; Meyers, Joel; Meeburg, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo; Shandera, Sarah; Silverstein, Eva; Slosar, Anze; Smith, Kendrick; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Assassi, Valentin; Braden, Jonathan; Hajian, Amir; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Stein, George; Engelen, Alexander van

    2014-01-01

    The statistics of primordial curvature fluctuations are our window into the period of inflation, where these fluctuations were generated. To date, the cosmic microwave background has been the dominant source of information about these perturbations. Large-scale structure is, however, from where drastic improvements should originate. In this paper, we explain the theoretical motivations for pursuing such measurements and the challenges that lie ahead. In particular, we discuss and identify theoretical targets regarding the measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity. We argue that when quantified in terms of the local (equilateral) template amplitude floc\

  4. Optimal control of large space structures via generalized inverse matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Fang, Xiaowen

    1987-01-01

    Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) is a control scheme that decouples the space structure into n independent second-order subsystems according to n controlled modes and controls each mode independently. It is well-known that the IMSC eliminates control and observation spillover caused when the conventional coupled modal control scheme is employed. The independent control of each mode requires that the number of actuators be equal to the number of modelled modes, which is very high for a faithful modeling of large space structures. A control scheme is proposed that allows one to use a reduced number of actuators to control all modeled modes suboptimally. In particular, the method of generalized inverse matrices is employed to implement the actuators such that the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system are as closed as possible to those specified by the optimal IMSC. Computer simulation of the proposed control scheme on a simply supported beam is given.

  5. Extremely large magnetoresistance and electronic structure of TmSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Yan; Zhang, Hongyun; Lu, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Lin-Lin; Xu, Sheng; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Liu, Kai; Zhou, Shuyun; Xia, Tian-Long

    2018-02-01

    We report the magnetotransport properties and the electronic structure of TmSb. TmSb exhibits extremely large transverse magnetoresistance and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillation at low temperature and high magnetic field. Interestingly, the split of Fermi surfaces induced by the nonsymmetric spin-orbit interaction has been observed from SdH oscillation. The analysis of the angle-dependent SdH oscillation illustrates the contribution of each Fermi surface to the conductivity. The electronic structure revealed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and first-principles calculations demonstrates a gap at the X point and the absence of band inversion. Combined with the trivial Berry phase extracted from SdH oscillation and the nearly equal concentrations of electron and hole from Hall measurements, it is suggested that TmSb is a topologically trivial semimetal and the observed XMR originates from the electron-hole compensation and high mobility.

  6. Two-phase flow structure in large diameter pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.R.; Schlegel, J.P.; Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Local profiles of various quantities measured in large diameter pipe. ► Database for interfacial area in large pipes extended to churn-turbulent flow. ► Flow regime map confirms previous models for flow regime transitions. ► Data will be useful in developing interfacial area transport models for large pipes. - Abstract: Flow in large pipes is important in a wide variety of applications. In the nuclear industry in particular, understanding of flow in large diameter pipes is essential in predicting the behavior of reactor systems. This is especially true of natural circulation Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) designs, where a large-diameter chimney above the core provides the gravity head to drive circulation of the coolant through the reactor. The behavior of such reactors during transients and during normal operation will be predicted using advanced thermal–hydraulics analysis codes utilizing the two-fluid model. Essential to accurate two-fluid model calculations is reliable and accurate computation of the interfacial transfer terms. These interfacial transfer terms can be expressed as the product of one term describing the potential driving the transfer and a second term describing the available surface area for transfer, or interfacial area concentration. Currently, the interfacial area is predicted using flow regime dependent empirical correlations; however the interfacial area concentration is best computed through the use of the one-dimensional interfacial area transport equation (IATE). To facilitate the development of IATE source and sink term models in large-diameter pipes a fundamental understanding of the structure of the two-phase flow is essential. This understanding is improved through measurement of the local void fraction, interfacial area concentration and gas velocity profiles in pipes with diameters of 0.102 m and 0.152 m under a wide variety of flow conditions. Additionally, flow regime identification has been performed to

  7. Research on Optimization of Formula SAE Truss-Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The frame, as one of the basic components of a car, plays an important role of connecting components and withstanding various loads. The truss-frame is the commonest form of Formula SAE car in that it has many advantages, such as low cost, simple manufacture, high rigidity and high strength. The development of frame is reviewed. First, the key performance indicators and the mechanical state of the frame under different conditions are discussed. Second, a variety of optimization methods used in the design of frame are described. Finally, the test method of frame are introduced, with the experimental data and the finite element analysis of results being compared. Through analyzing and summarizing the development of the design, optimization and testing technology of the Formula SAE truss-frame, forecasting the future trends, the great theoretical reference is provided for the design and research of the follow-up frame.

  8. Argentine Population Genetic Structure: Large Variance in Amerindian Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Michael F.; Tian, Chao; Shigeta, Russell; Scherbarth, Hugo R.; Silva, Gabriel; Belmont, John W.; Kittles, Rick; Gamron, Susana; Allevi, Alberto; Palatnik, Simon A.; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Paira, Sergio; Caprarulo, Cesar; Guillerón, Carolina; Catoggio, Luis J.; Prigione, Cristina; Berbotto, Guillermo A.; García, Mercedes A.; Perandones, Carlos E.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2011-01-01

    Argentine population genetic structure was examined using a set of 78 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to assess the contributions of European, Amerindian, and African ancestry in 94 individuals members of this population. Using the Bayesian clustering algorithm STRUCTURE, the mean European contribution was 78%, the Amerindian contribution was 19.4%, and the African contribution was 2.5%. Similar results were found using weighted least mean square method: European, 80.2%; Amerindian, 18.1%; and African, 1.7%. Consistent with previous studies the current results showed very few individuals (four of 94) with greater than 10% African admixture. Notably, when individual admixture was examined, the Amerindian and European admixture showed a very large variance and individual Amerindian contribution ranged from 1.5 to 84.5% in the 94 individual Argentine subjects. These results indicate that admixture must be considered when clinical epidemiology or case control genetic analyses are studied in this population. Moreover, the current study provides a set of informative SNPs that can be used to ascertain or control for this potentially hidden stratification. In addition, the large variance in admixture proportions in individual Argentine subjects shown by this study suggests that this population is appropriate for future admixture mapping studies. PMID:17177183

  9. Improved Genetic Algorithm with Two-Level Approximation for Truss Optimization by Using Discrete Shape Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-yan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Improved Genetic Algorithm with Two-Level Approximation (IGATA to minimize truss weight by simultaneously optimizing size, shape, and topology variables. On the basis of a previously presented truss sizing/topology optimization method based on two-level approximation and genetic algorithm (GA, a new method for adding shape variables is presented, in which the nodal positions are corresponding to a set of coordinate lists. A uniform optimization model including size/shape/topology variables is established. First, a first-level approximate problem is constructed to transform the original implicit problem to an explicit problem. To solve this explicit problem which involves size/shape/topology variables, GA is used to optimize individuals which include discrete topology variables and shape variables. When calculating the fitness value of each member in the current generation, a second-level approximation method is used to optimize the continuous size variables. With the introduction of shape variables, the original optimization algorithm was improved in individual coding strategy as well as GA execution techniques. Meanwhile, the update strategy of the first-level approximation problem was also improved. The results of numerical examples show that the proposed method is effective in dealing with the three kinds of design variables simultaneously, and the required computational cost for structural analysis is quite small.

  10. The effective field theory of cosmological large scale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Hertzberg, Mark P. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Large scale structure surveys will likely become the next leading cosmological probe. In our universe, matter perturbations are large on short distances and small at long scales, i.e. strongly coupled in the UV and weakly coupled in the IR. To make precise analytical predictions on large scales, we develop an effective field theory formulated in terms of an IR effective fluid characterized by several parameters, such as speed of sound and viscosity. These parameters, determined by the UV physics described by the Boltzmann equation, are measured from N-body simulations. We find that the speed of sound of the effective fluid is c2s ≈ 10–6c2 and that the viscosity contributions are of the same order. The fluid describes all the relevant physics at long scales k and permits a manifestly convergent perturbative expansion in the size of the matter perturbations δ(k) for all the observables. As an example, we calculate the correction to the power spectrum at order δ(k)4. As a result, the predictions of the effective field theory are found to be in much better agreement with observation than standard cosmological perturbation theory, already reaching percent precision at this order up to a relatively short scale k ≃ 0.24h Mpc–1.

  11. Solving large scale structure in ten easy steps with COLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassev, Svetlin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Zaldarriaga, Matias [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Olden Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J., E-mail: stassev@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu, E-mail: deisenstein@cfa.harvard.edu [Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We present the COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration (COLA) method: an N-body method for solving for Large Scale Structure (LSS) in a frame that is comoving with observers following trajectories calculated in Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT). Unlike standard N-body methods, the COLA method can straightforwardly trade accuracy at small-scales in order to gain computational speed without sacrificing accuracy at large scales. This is especially useful for cheaply generating large ensembles of accurate mock halo catalogs required to study galaxy clustering and weak lensing, as those catalogs are essential for performing detailed error analysis for ongoing and future surveys of LSS. As an illustration, we ran a COLA-based N-body code on a box of size 100 Mpc/h with particles of mass ≈ 5 × 10{sup 9}M{sub s}un/h. Running the code with only 10 timesteps was sufficient to obtain an accurate description of halo statistics down to halo masses of at least 10{sup 11}M{sub s}un/h. This is only at a modest speed penalty when compared to mocks obtained with LPT. A standard detailed N-body run is orders of magnitude slower than our COLA-based code. The speed-up we obtain with COLA is due to the fact that we calculate the large-scale dynamics exactly using LPT, while letting the N-body code solve for the small scales, without requiring it to capture exactly the internal dynamics of halos. Achieving a similar level of accuracy in halo statistics without the COLA method requires at least 3 times more timesteps than when COLA is employed.

  12. Chiral dynamics and partonic structure at large transverse distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strikman, M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Weiss, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States). Theory Center

    2009-12-30

    In this paper, we study large-distance contributions to the nucleon’s parton densities in the transverse coordinate (impact parameter) representation based on generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Chiral dynamics generates a distinct component of the partonic structure, located at momentum fractions x≲Mπ/MN and transverse distances b~1/Mπ. We calculate this component using phenomenological pion exchange with a physical lower limit in b (the transverse “core” radius estimated from the nucleon’s axial form factor, Rcore=0.55 fm) and demonstrate its universal character. This formulation preserves the basic picture of the “pion cloud” model of the nucleon’s sea quark distributions, while restricting its application to the region actually governed by chiral dynamics. It is found that (a) the large-distance component accounts for only ~1/3 of the measured antiquark flavor asymmetry d¯-u¯ at x~0.1; (b) the strange sea quarks s and s¯ are significantly more localized than the light antiquark sea; (c) the nucleon’s singlet quark size for x<0.1 is larger than its gluonic size, (b2)q+q¯>(b2)g, as suggested by the t-slopes of deeply-virtual Compton scattering and exclusive J/ψ production measured at HERA and FNAL. We show that our approach reproduces the general Nc-scaling of parton densities in QCD, thanks to the degeneracy of N and Δ intermediate states in the large-Nc limit. Finally, we also comment on the role of pionic configurations at large longitudinal distances and the limits of their applicability at small x.

  13. LARGE-SCALE FILAMENTARY STRUCTURES AROUND THE VIRGO CLUSTER REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Lee, Woong; Chung, Jiwon [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Bureau, Martin [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Yoon, Hyein; Chung, Aeree [Department of Astronomy and Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jeong, Hyunjin; Sung, Eon-Chang, E-mail: screy@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: star4citizen@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    We revisit the filamentary structures of galaxies around the Virgo cluster, exploiting a larger data set, based on the HyperLeda database, than previous studies. In particular, this includes a large number of low-luminosity galaxies, resulting in better sampled individual structures. We confirm seven known structures in the distance range 4  h {sup −1} Mpc < SGY < 16  h {sup −1} Mpc, now identified as filaments, where SGY is the axis of the supergalactic coordinate system roughly along the line of sight. The Hubble diagram of the filament galaxies suggests they are infalling toward the main body of the Virgo cluster. We propose that the collinear distribution of giant elliptical galaxies along the fundamental axis of the Virgo cluster is smoothly connected to two of these filaments (Leo II A and B). Behind the Virgo cluster (16  h {sup −1} Mpc < SGY < 27  h {sup −1} Mpc), we also identify a new filament elongated toward the NGC 5353/4 group (“NGC 5353/4 filament”) and confirm a sheet that includes galaxies from the W and M clouds of the Virgo cluster (“W–M sheet”). In the Hubble diagram, the NGC 5353/4 filament galaxies show infall toward the NGC 5353/4 group, whereas the W–M sheet galaxies do not show hints of gravitational influence from the Virgo cluster. The filamentary structures identified can now be used to better understand the generic role of filaments in the build-up of galaxy clusters at z  ≈ 0.

  14. A redundant, 6-DOF parallel manipulator structure with improved workspace and dexterity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Salerno, R.; Canfield, S.; Reinholtz, C.

    1994-08-01

    This paper presents a novel manipulator structure which combines two known parallel manipulator structures--a Stewart Platform (SP), and a double octahedral Variable Geometry Truss (VGT). The combined VGT + SP structure is redundant, using nine actuators to realize six-DOF motion. Combining the two structures allows the translational and orientational workspaces of the two individual structures to sum together to a much larger workspace than is generally achievable with parallel manipulator structures. In addition, the VGT portion of the structure allows the configuration of the Stewart Platform to be changed ''on the fly'' from one with a large workspace to one with high dexterity. A useful application of this structure is at the distal end of a truss-based manipulator, where it can serve as a dexterous wrist while preserving an internal passageway for cabling and/or conveyance systems

  15. Towards a 'standard model' of large scale structure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.

    1994-01-01

    We explore constraints on inflationary models employing data on large scale structure mainly from COBE temperature anisotropies and IRAS selected galaxy surveys. In models where the tensor contribution to the COBE signal is negligible, we find that the spectral index of density fluctuations n must exceed 0.7. Furthermore the COBE signal cannot be dominated by the tensor component, implying n > 0.85 in such models. The data favors cold plus hot dark matter models with n equal or close to unity and Ω HDM ∼ 0.2 - 0.35. Realistic grand unified theories, including supersymmetric versions, which produce inflation with these properties are presented. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs

  16. Testing Inflation with Large Scale Structure: Connecting Hopes with Reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Marcello [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Baldauf, T. [Inst. of Advanced Studies, Princeton, NJ (United States); Bond, J. Richard [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON (Canada); Dalal, N. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Putter, R. D. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Dore, O. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Green, Daniel [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON (Canada); Hirata, Chris [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huang, Zhiqi [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Huterer, Dragan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jeong, Donghui [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Johnson, Matthew C. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada); Perimeter Inst., Waterloo, ON (Canada); Krause, Elisabeth [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Loverde, Marilena [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Meyers, Joel [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Meeburg, Daniel [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Shandera, Sarah [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Silverstein, Eva [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Slosar, Anze [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Kendrick [Perimeter Inst., Waterloo, Toronto, ON (Canada); Zaldarriaga, Matias [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Assassi, Valentin [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Braden, Jonathan [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Hajian, Amir [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Kobayashi, Takeshi [Perimeter Inst., Waterloo, Toronto, ON (Canada); Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Stein, George [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Engelen, Alexander van [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    The statistics of primordial curvature fluctuations are our window into the period of inflation, where these fluctuations were generated. To date, the cosmic microwave background has been the dominant source of information about these perturbations. Large-scale structure is, however, from where drastic improvements should originate. In this paper, we explain the theoretical motivations for pursuing such measurements and the challenges that lie ahead. In particular, we discuss and identify theoretical targets regarding the measurement of primordial non-Gaussianity. We argue that when quantified in terms of the local (equilateral) template amplitude f$loc\\atop{NL}$ (f$eq\\atop{NL}$), natural target levels of sensitivity are Δf$loc, eq\\atop{NL}$ ≃ 1. We highlight that such levels are within reach of future surveys by measuring 2-, 3- and 4-point statistics of the galaxy spatial distribution. This paper summarizes a workshop held at CITA (University of Toronto) on October 23-24, 2014.

  17. Cosmological perturbations from quantum fluctuations to large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Classical perturbation theory is developed from the 3 + 1 form of the Einstein equations. A somewhat unusual form of the perturbation equations in the synchronous gauge is recommended for carrying out computations, but interpretation is based on certain hypersurface-invariant combinations of the variables. The formalism is used to analyze the origin of density perturbations from quantum fluctuations during inflation, with particular emphasis on dealing with 'double inflation' and deviations from the Zel'dovich spectrum. The evolution of the density perturbation to the present gives the final density perturbation power spectrum, whose relationship to observed large scale structure is discussed in the context of simple cold-dark-matter biasing schemes. 86 refs

  18. Spin-flavor structure of large Nc baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashen, R.F.; Jenkins, E.; Manohar, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The spin-flavor structure of large N c baryons is described in the 1/N c expansion of QCD using quark operators. The complete set of quark operator identities is obtained, and used to derive an operator reduction rule which simplifies the 1/N c expansion. The operator reduction rule is applied to the axial vector currents, masses, magnetic moments, and hyperon nonleptonic decay amplitudes in the SU(3) limit, to first order in SU(3) breaking, and without assuming SU(3) symmetry. The connection between the Skyrme and quark operator representations is discussed. An explicit formula is given for the quark model operators in terms of the Skyrme model operators to all orders in 1/N c for the two flavor case

  19. Large-Scale Structure Behind The Milky Way with ALFAZOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Barrantes, Monica; Henning, Patricia A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; McIntyre, Travis; Minchin, Robert F.

    2018-06-01

    The region of the sky behind the Milky Way (the Zone of Avoidance; ZOA) is not well studied due to high obscuration from gas and dust in our galaxy as well as stellar confusion, which results in low detection rate of galaxies in this region. Because of this, little is known about the distribution of galaxies in the ZOA, and other all sky redshift surveys have incomplete maps (e.g. the 2MASS Redshift survey in NIR has a gap of 5-8 deg around the Galactic plane). There is still controversy about the dipole anisotropy calculated from the comparison between the CMB and galaxy and redshift surveys, in part due to the incomplete sky mapping and redshift depth of these surveys. Fortunately, there is no ZOA at radio wavelengths because such wavelengths can pass unimpeded through dust and are not affected by stellar confusion. Therefore, we can detect and make a map of the distribution of obscured galaxies that contain the 21cm neutral hydrogen emission line, and trace the large-scale structure across the Galactic plane. The Arecibo L-Band Feed Array Zone of Avoidance (ALFAZOA) survey is a blind HI survey for galaxies behind the Milky Way that covers more than 1000 square degrees of the sky, conducted in two phases: shallow (completed) and deep (ongoing). We show the results of the finished shallow phase of the survey, which mapped a region between the galactic longitude l=30-75 deg, and latitude b <|10 deg|, and detected 418 galaxies to about 12,000 km/s, including galaxy properties and mapped large-scale structure. We do the same for new results from the deep phase, which is ongoing and covers 30 < l < 75 deg and b < |2| deg for the inner galaxy and 175 < l < 207 deg, with -2 < b < 1 for the outer galaxy.

  20. On soft limits of large-scale structure correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagunski, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale structure surveys have the potential to become the leading probe for precision cosmology in the next decade. To extract valuable information on the cosmological evolution of the Universe from the observational data, it is of major importance to derive accurate theoretical predictions for the statistical large-scale structure observables, such as the power spectrum and the bispectrum of (dark) matter density perturbations. Hence, one of the greatest challenges of modern cosmology is to theoretically understand the non-linear dynamics of large-scale structure formation in the Universe from first principles. While analytic approaches to describe the large-scale structure formation are usually based on the framework of non-relativistic cosmological perturbation theory, we pursue another road in this thesis and develop methods to derive generic, non-perturbative statements about large-scale structure correlation functions. We study unequal- and equal-time correlation functions of density and velocity perturbations in the limit where one of their wavenumbers becomes small, that is, in the soft limit. In the soft limit, it is possible to link (N+1)-point and N-point correlation functions to non-perturbative 'consistency conditions'. These provide in turn a powerful tool to test fundamental aspects of the underlying theory at hand. In this work, we first rederive the (resummed) consistency conditions at unequal times by using the so-called eikonal approximation. The main appeal of the unequal-time consistency conditions is that they are solely based on symmetry arguments and thus are universal. Proceeding from this, we direct our attention to consistency conditions at equal times, which, on the other hand, depend on the interplay between soft and hard modes. We explore the existence and validity of equal-time consistency conditions within and beyond perturbation theory. For this purpose, we investigate the predictions for the soft limit of the

  1. On soft limits of large-scale structure correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagunski, Laura

    2016-08-15

    Large-scale structure surveys have the potential to become the leading probe for precision cosmology in the next decade. To extract valuable information on the cosmological evolution of the Universe from the observational data, it is of major importance to derive accurate theoretical predictions for the statistical large-scale structure observables, such as the power spectrum and the bispectrum of (dark) matter density perturbations. Hence, one of the greatest challenges of modern cosmology is to theoretically understand the non-linear dynamics of large-scale structure formation in the Universe from first principles. While analytic approaches to describe the large-scale structure formation are usually based on the framework of non-relativistic cosmological perturbation theory, we pursue another road in this thesis and develop methods to derive generic, non-perturbative statements about large-scale structure correlation functions. We study unequal- and equal-time correlation functions of density and velocity perturbations in the limit where one of their wavenumbers becomes small, that is, in the soft limit. In the soft limit, it is possible to link (N+1)-point and N-point correlation functions to non-perturbative 'consistency conditions'. These provide in turn a powerful tool to test fundamental aspects of the underlying theory at hand. In this work, we first rederive the (resummed) consistency conditions at unequal times by using the so-called eikonal approximation. The main appeal of the unequal-time consistency conditions is that they are solely based on symmetry arguments and thus are universal. Proceeding from this, we direct our attention to consistency conditions at equal times, which, on the other hand, depend on the interplay between soft and hard modes. We explore the existence and validity of equal-time consistency conditions within and beyond perturbation theory. For this purpose, we investigate the predictions for the soft limit of the

  2. Systematic renormalization of the effective theory of Large Scale Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Pajer, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    A perturbative description of Large Scale Structure is a cornerstone of our understanding of the observed distribution of matter in the universe. Renormalization is an essential and defining step to make this description physical and predictive. Here we introduce a systematic renormalization procedure, which neatly associates counterterms to the UV-sensitive diagrams order by order, as it is commonly done in quantum field theory. As a concrete example, we renormalize the one-loop power spectrum and bispectrum of both density and velocity. In addition, we present a series of results that are valid to all orders in perturbation theory. First, we show that while systematic renormalization requires temporally non-local counterterms, in practice one can use an equivalent basis made of local operators. We give an explicit prescription to generate all counterterms allowed by the symmetries. Second, we present a formal proof of the well-known general argument that the contribution of short distance perturbations to large scale density contrast δ and momentum density π(k) scale as k 2 and k, respectively. Third, we demonstrate that the common practice of introducing counterterms only in the Euler equation when one is interested in correlators of δ is indeed valid to all orders.

  3. EFT of large scale structures in redshift space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo; Prada, Francisco; Zhao, Cheng; Chuang, Chia-Hsun

    2018-03-01

    We further develop the description of redshift-space distortions within the effective field theory of large scale structures. First, we generalize the counterterms to include the effect of baryonic physics and primordial non-Gaussianity. Second, we evaluate the IR resummation of the dark matter power spectrum in redshift space. This requires us to identify a controlled approximation that makes the numerical evaluation straightforward and efficient. Third, we compare the predictions of the theory at one loop with the power spectrum from numerical simulations up to ℓ=6 . We find that the IR resummation allows us to correctly reproduce the baryon acoustic oscillation peak. The k reach—or, equivalently, the precision for a given k —depends on additional counterterms that need to be matched to simulations. Since the nonlinear scale for the velocity is expected to be longer than the one for the overdensity, we consider a minimal and a nonminimal set of counterterms. The quality of our numerical data makes it hard to firmly establish the performance of the theory at high wave numbers. Within this limitation, we find that the theory at redshift z =0.56 and up to ℓ=2 matches the data at the percent level approximately up to k ˜0.13 h Mpc-1 or k ˜0.18 h Mpc-1 , depending on the number of counterterms used, with a potentially large improvement over former analytical techniques.

  4. Ab initio nuclear structure - the large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vary, James P; Maris, Pieter [Department of Physics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011 (United States); Ng, Esmond; Yang, Chao [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sosonkina, Masha, E-mail: jvary@iastate.ed [Scalable Computing Laboratory, Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The structure and reactions of light nuclei represent fundamental and formidable challenges for microscopic theory based on realistic strong interaction potentials. Several ab initio methods have now emerged that provide nearly exact solutions for some nuclear properties. The ab initio no core shell model (NCSM) and the no core full configuration (NCFC) method, frame this quantum many-particle problem as a large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem where one evaluates the Hamiltonian matrix in a basis space consisting of many-fermion Slater determinants and then solves for a set of the lowest eigenvalues and their associated eigenvectors. The resulting eigenvectors are employed to evaluate a set of experimental quantities to test the underlying potential. For fundamental problems of interest, the matrix dimension often exceeds 10{sup 10} and the number of nonzero matrix elements may saturate available storage on present-day leadership class facilities. We survey recent results and advances in solving this large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem. We also outline the challenges that lie ahead for achieving further breakthroughs in fundamental nuclear theory using these ab initio approaches.

  5. Ab initio nuclear structure - the large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, James P; Maris, Pieter; Ng, Esmond; Yang, Chao; Sosonkina, Masha

    2009-01-01

    The structure and reactions of light nuclei represent fundamental and formidable challenges for microscopic theory based on realistic strong interaction potentials. Several ab initio methods have now emerged that provide nearly exact solutions for some nuclear properties. The ab initio no core shell model (NCSM) and the no core full configuration (NCFC) method, frame this quantum many-particle problem as a large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem where one evaluates the Hamiltonian matrix in a basis space consisting of many-fermion Slater determinants and then solves for a set of the lowest eigenvalues and their associated eigenvectors. The resulting eigenvectors are employed to evaluate a set of experimental quantities to test the underlying potential. For fundamental problems of interest, the matrix dimension often exceeds 10 10 and the number of nonzero matrix elements may saturate available storage on present-day leadership class facilities. We survey recent results and advances in solving this large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem. We also outline the challenges that lie ahead for achieving further breakthroughs in fundamental nuclear theory using these ab initio approaches.

  6. The structure functions of the photon at large x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    We derive 'improved' perturbative results in QCD for the structure functions of the photon at large Bjorken x by (a) using a correct phase-space treatment of the leading mass-singularity logarithms and (b) summing the leading logarithms of (1-x) associated with the wave function of the final state. We obtain explicit results in three kinematic regimes: (i) Q 2 low enough for logarithmic QCD corrections to the parton model to be negligible; we estimate that this is the case for all presently realistic values of Q 2 (approx. 2 ). (ii) Q 2 high enough (at fixed x) for the effects of the leading mass-singularity logarithms to be important; we discuss the modifications to Witten's result at large x due to the correct kinematical treatment of the leading logarithms. (iii) Q 2 /s → infinite, where we sum the wave-function logarithms of (1-x); we show that F 2 sup(γ) → finite constant as Q 2 /s → infinite and that there is a close inclusive-exclusive connection in this limit. (orig.)

  7. DEMNUni: massive neutrinos and the bispectrum of large scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Rossana; Castorina, Emanuele; Carbone, Carmelita; Sefusatti, Emiliano

    2018-03-01

    The main effect of massive neutrinos on the large-scale structure consists in a few percent suppression of matter perturbations on all scales below their free-streaming scale. Such effect is of particular importance as it allows to constraint the value of the sum of neutrino masses from measurements of the galaxy power spectrum. In this work, we present the first measurements of the next higher-order correlation function, the bispectrum, from N-body simulations that include massive neutrinos as particles. This is the simplest statistics characterising the non-Gaussian properties of the matter and dark matter halos distributions. We investigate, in the first place, the suppression due to massive neutrinos on the matter bispectrum, comparing our measurements with the simplest perturbation theory predictions, finding the approximation of neutrinos contributing at quadratic order in perturbation theory to provide a good fit to the measurements in the simulations. On the other hand, as expected, a linear approximation for neutrino perturbations would lead to Script O(fν) errors on the total matter bispectrum at large scales. We then attempt an extension of previous results on the universality of linear halo bias in neutrino cosmologies, to non-linear and non-local corrections finding consistent results with the power spectrum analysis.

  8. Large scale structures in liquid crystal/clay colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijneveldt, Jeroen S.; Klein, Susanne; Leach, Edward; Pizzey, Claire; Richardson, Robert M.

    2005-04-01

    Suspensions of three different clays in K15, a thermotropic liquid crystal, have been studied by optical microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. The three clays were claytone AF, a surface treated natural montmorillonite, laponite RD, a synthetic hectorite, and mined sepiolite. The claytone and laponite were sterically stabilized whereas sepiolite formed a relatively stable suspension in K15 without any surface treatment. Micrographs of the different suspensions revealed that all three suspensions contained large scale structures. The nature of these aggregates was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering. For the clays with sheet-like particles, claytone and laponite, the flocs contain a mixture of stacked and single platelets. The basal spacing in the stacks was independent of particle concentration in the suspension and the phase of the solvent. The number of platelets in the stack and their percentage in the suspension varied with concentration and the aspect ratio of the platelets. The lath shaped sepiolite did not show any tendency to organize into ordered structures. Here the aggregates are networks of randomly oriented single rods.

  9. Large scale structures in liquid crystal/clay colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijneveldt, Jeroen S van; Klein, Susanne; Leach, Edward; Pizzey, Claire; Richardson, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    Suspensions of three different clays in K15, a thermotropic liquid crystal, have been studied by optical microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. The three clays were claytone AF, a surface treated natural montmorillonite, laponite RD, a synthetic hectorite, and mined sepiolite. The claytone and laponite were sterically stabilized whereas sepiolite formed a relatively stable suspension in K15 without any surface treatment. Micrographs of the different suspensions revealed that all three suspensions contained large scale structures. The nature of these aggregates was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering. For the clays with sheet-like particles, claytone and laponite, the flocs contain a mixture of stacked and single platelets. The basal spacing in the stacks was independent of particle concentration in the suspension and the phase of the solvent. The number of platelets in the stack and their percentage in the suspension varied with concentration and the aspect ratio of the platelets. The lath shaped sepiolite did not show any tendency to organize into ordered structures. Here the aggregates are networks of randomly oriented single rods

  10. Detection for flatness of large surface based on structured light

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenyan; Cao, Xuedong; Long, Kuang; Peng, Zhang

    2016-09-01

    In order to get flatness of a large plane, this paper set up a measurement system, composed by Line Structured Light, imaging system, CCD, etc. Line Structured Light transmits parallel fringes at a proper angle onto the plane which is measured; the imaging system and CCD locate above the plane to catch the fringes. When the plane is perfect, CCD will catch straight fringes; however, the real plane is not perfect; according to the theory of projection, the fringes caught by CCD will be distorted by convex and concave. Extract the center of line fringes to obtain the distortion of the fringe, according to the functional relationship between the distortion of fringes and the height which is measured, then we will get flatness of the entire surface. Data from experiment approached the analysis of theory. In the simulation, the vertical resolution is 0.0075 mm per pixel when measuring a plane of 400mm×400mm, choosing the size of CCD 4096×4096, at the angle 85°. Helped by sub-pixel, the precision will get the level of submicron. There are two obvious advantages: method of surface sampling can increase the efficiency for auto-repairing of machines; considering the center of fringe is required mainly in this system, as a consequence, there is no serious demand for back light.

  11. Multipodal Structure and Phase Transitions in Large Constrained Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Richard; Radin, Charles; Ren, Kui; Sadun, Lorenzo

    2017-07-01

    We study the asymptotics of large, simple, labeled graphs constrained by the densities of two subgraphs. It was recently conjectured that for all feasible values of the densities most such graphs have a simple structure. Here we prove this in the special case where the densities are those of edges and of k-star subgraphs, k≥2 fixed. We prove that under such constraints graphs are "multipodal": asymptotically in the number of vertices there is a partition of the vertices into M < ∞ subsets V_1, V_2, \\ldots , V_M, and a set of well-defined probabilities g_{ij} of an edge between any v_i \\in V_i and v_j \\in V_j. For 2≤ k≤ 30 we determine the phase space: the combinations of edge and k-star densities achievable asymptotically. For these models there are special points on the boundary of the phase space with nonunique asymptotic (graphon) structure; for the 2-star model we prove that the nonuniqueness extends to entropy maximizers in the interior of the phase space.

  12. Reconstructing Information in Large-Scale Structure via Logarithmic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapudi, Istvan

    We propose to develop a new method to extract information from large-scale structure data combining two-point statistics and non-linear transformations; before, this information was available only with substantially more complex higher-order statistical methods. Initially, most of the cosmological information in large-scale structure lies in two-point statistics. With non- linear evolution, some of that useful information leaks into higher-order statistics. The PI and group has shown in a series of theoretical investigations how that leakage occurs, and explained the Fisher information plateau at smaller scales. This plateau means that even as more modes are added to the measurement of the power spectrum, the total cumulative information (loosely speaking the inverse errorbar) is not increasing. Recently we have shown in Neyrinck et al. (2009, 2010) that a logarithmic (and a related Gaussianization or Box-Cox) transformation on the non-linear Dark Matter or galaxy field reconstructs a surprisingly large fraction of this missing Fisher information of the initial conditions. This was predicted by the earlier wave mechanical formulation of gravitational dynamics by Szapudi & Kaiser (2003). The present proposal is focused on working out the theoretical underpinning of the method to a point that it can be used in practice to analyze data. In particular, one needs to deal with the usual real-life issues of galaxy surveys, such as complex geometry, discrete sam- pling (Poisson or sub-Poisson noise), bias (linear, or non-linear, deterministic, or stochastic), redshift distortions, pro jection effects for 2D samples, and the effects of photometric redshift errors. We will develop methods for weak lensing and Sunyaev-Zeldovich power spectra as well, the latter specifically targetting Planck. In addition, we plan to investigate the question of residual higher- order information after the non-linear mapping, and possible applications for cosmology. Our aim will be to work out

  13. Alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltenbacher, A.; Li Cheng; White, Simon D. M.; Jing, Yi-Peng; Mao Shude; Wang Jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR6 (SDSS) and the Millennium Simulation (MS), we investigate the alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure. For this purpose, we develop two new statistical tools, namely the alignment correlation function and the cos(2θ)-statistic. The former is a two-dimensional extension of the traditional two-point correlation function and the latter is related to the ellipticity correlation function used for cosmic shear measurements. Both are based on the cross correlation between a sample of galaxies with orientations and a reference sample which represents the large-scale structure. We apply the new statistics to the SDSS galaxy catalog. The alignment correlation function reveals an overabundance of reference galaxies along the major axes of red, luminous (L ∼ * ) galaxies out to projected separations of 60 h- 1 Mpc. The signal increases with central galaxy luminosity. No alignment signal is detected for blue galaxies. The cos(2θ)-statistic yields very similar results. Starting from a MS semi-analytic galaxy catalog, we assign an orientation to each red, luminous and central galaxy, based on that of the central region of the host halo (with size similar to that of the stellar galaxy). As an alternative, we use the orientation of the host halo itself. We find a mean projected misalignment between a halo and its central region of ∼ 25 deg. The misalignment decreases slightly with increasing luminosity of the central galaxy. Using the orientations and luminosities of the semi-analytic galaxies, we repeat our alignment analysis on mock surveys of the MS. Agreement with the SDSS results is good if the central orientations are used. Predictions using the halo orientations as proxies for central galaxy orientations overestimate the observed alignment by more than a factor of 2. Finally, the large volume of the MS allows us to generate a two-dimensional map of the alignment correlation function, which shows the reference

  14. Cryogenic structural material and design of support structures for the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Arata; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Tamura, Hitoshi

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a short history of material selection for the cryogenic support structures for the Large Helical Device (LHD) which has superconducting coils. Since the support structures are cooled down to 4.4 K together with the coils, SUS 316 was chosen because of its stable austenitic phase, sufficient mechanical properties at cryogenic temperature and good weldability. Also, outlines of the design and fabrication processes of the support structures are summarized. On the design of the support structures, a deformation analysis was carried out to maintain the proper magnetic field during operation. Afterwards, a stress analysis was performed. During machining and assembling, tolerance was noticed to keep coil positions accurate. Special welding grooves and fabrication processes were considered and achieved successfully. Finally, a cryogenic supporting post which sustains the cryogenic structures and superconducting coils is presented. CFRP was used in this specially developed supporting post to reduce the heat conduction from ambient 300 K structures. (author)

  15. Optimization of Three Dimensional Combined Truss/Frame Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    number associa:ed wi-h the element’s 1st charicteristic dimensicn 6 NDSG4-design variable number associated with the element’s 2nd chricter s tic ...California 85721 8. LT Jorge E. Felix Care of: Director de Educacion de la Armada Comandancia General de Marina Quito, Equador, SOUTH AMERICA 9. LT Gregory L

  16. Wood-damaging fungi in truss structures of baroque churches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frankl, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2015), s. 04014138 ISSN 0887-3828 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP105/11/P628; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : wood * biological damage * wood-damaging fungi Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 0.893, year: 2015 http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000632

  17. Global stability-based design optimization of truss structures using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The quality of current pareto front obtained in the end of a whole genetic search is assessed according to its closeness to the ...... better optimal designation with a lower displacement value of 0.3075 in. satisfying the service- .... Internal force. R.

  18. Inflationary tensor fossils in large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimastrogiovanni, Emanuela [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Fasiello, Matteo [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Jeong, Donghui [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kamionkowski, Marc, E-mail: ema@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: mrf65@case.edu, E-mail: duj13@psu.edu, E-mail: kamion@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 3400 N. Charles St., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Inflation models make specific predictions for a tensor-scalar-scalar three-point correlation, or bispectrum, between one gravitational-wave (tensor) mode and two density-perturbation (scalar) modes. This tensor-scalar-scalar correlation leads to a local power quadrupole, an apparent departure from statistical isotropy in our Universe, as well as characteristic four-point correlations in the current mass distribution in the Universe. So far, the predictions for these observables have been worked out only for single-clock models in which certain consistency conditions between the tensor-scalar-scalar correlation and tensor and scalar power spectra are satisfied. Here we review the requirements on inflation models for these consistency conditions to be satisfied. We then consider several examples of inflation models, such as non-attractor and solid-inflation models, in which these conditions are put to the test. In solid inflation the simplest consistency conditions are already violated whilst in the non-attractor model we find that, contrary to the standard scenario, the tensor-scalar-scalar correlator probes directly relevant model-dependent information. We work out the predictions for observables in these models. For non-attractor inflation we find an apparent local quadrupolar departure from statistical isotropy in large-scale structure but that this power quadrupole decreases very rapidly at smaller scales. The consistency of the CMB quadrupole with statistical isotropy then constrains the distance scale that corresponds to the transition from the non-attractor to attractor phase of inflation to be larger than the currently observable horizon. Solid inflation predicts clustering fossils signatures in the current galaxy distribution that may be large enough to be detectable with forthcoming, and possibly even current, galaxy surveys.

  19. Advanced Modelling of Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter; Nielsen, Jacob

    Most of the finite element programs for design of timber trusses with punched metal fasteners are based on models using beam and fictitious elements. Different models have been used for different types of joints. Common problems for all the models are how to calculate the forces in the nail groups...... and the plates and furthermore, how big 'the deformations in the joints are. By developing an advanced model that includes all parts of the joint, i.e. plate, nail groups and contact it is possible to give a better description of the joint. An advanced model with these properties is presented. The advanced model...

  20. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley; Myers, Adam D.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Muna, Demitri; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P.; Streblyanska, Alina; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study

  1. A Simple Instrumentation System for Large Structure Vibration Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik R. Santoso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional instrumentation systems used for monitoring vibration of large-scale infrastructure building such as bridges, railway, and others structural building, generally have a complex design. Makes it simple would be very useful both in terms of low-cost and easy maintenance. This paper describes how to develop the instrumentation system. The system is built based on distributed network, with field bus topology, using single-master multi-slave architecture. Master is a control unit, built based on a PC equipped with RS-485 interface. Slave is a sensing unit; each slave was built by integrating a 3-axis vibration sensor with a microcontroller based data acquisition system. Vibration sensor is designed using the main components of a MEMS accelerometer. While the software is developed for two functions: as a control system hardware and data processing. To verify performance of the developed instrumentation system, several laboratory tests have been performed. The result shows that the system has good performance.

  2. Inflation and large scale structure formation after COBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, R.K.; Shafi, Q.

    1992-06-01

    The simplest realizations of the new inflationary scenario typically give rise to primordial density fluctuations which deviate logarithmically from the scale free Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum. We consider a number of such examples and, in each case we normalize the amplitude of the fluctuations with the recent COBE measurement of the microwave background anisotropy. The predictions for the bulk velocities as well as anisotropies on smaller (1-2 degrees) angular scales are compared with the Harrison-Zeldovich case. Deviations from the latter range from a few to about 15 percent. We also estimate the redshift beyond which the quasars would not be expected to be seen. The inflationary quasar cutoff redshifts can vary by as much as 25% from the Harrison-Zeldovich case. We find that the inflationary scenario provides a good starting point for a theory of large scale structure in the universe provided the dark matter is a combination of cold plus (10-30%) hot components. (author). 27 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Auxiliary basis expansions for large-scale electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yousung; Sodt, Alex; Gill, Peter M W; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2005-05-10

    One way to reduce the computational cost of electronic structure calculations is to use auxiliary basis expansions to approximate four-center integrals in terms of two- and three-center integrals, usually by using the variationally optimum Coulomb metric to determine the expansion coefficients. However, the long-range decay behavior of the auxiliary basis expansion coefficients has not been characterized. We find that this decay can be surprisingly slow. Numerical experiments on linear alkanes and a toy model both show that the decay can be as slow as 1/r in the distance between the auxiliary function and the fitted charge distribution. The Coulomb metric fitting equations also involve divergent matrix elements for extended systems treated with periodic boundary conditions. An attenuated Coulomb metric that is short-range can eliminate these oddities without substantially degrading calculated relative energies. The sparsity of the fit coefficients is assessed on simple hydrocarbon molecules and shows quite early onset of linear growth in the number of significant coefficients with system size using the attenuated Coulomb metric. Hence it is possible to design linear scaling auxiliary basis methods without additional approximations to treat large systems.

  4. Characterizing unknown systematics in large scale structure surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Nishant; Ho, Shirley [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ross, Ashley J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Bahcall, Neta [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Brinkmann, Jonathan [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Muna, Demitri [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Yèche, Christophe [CEA, Centre de Saclay, Irfu/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pâris, Isabelle [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, Patrick [Université Paris 6 et CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Streblyanska, Alina [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: nishanta@andrew.cmu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Photometric large scale structure (LSS) surveys probe the largest volumes in the Universe, but are inevitably limited by systematic uncertainties. Imperfect photometric calibration leads to biases in our measurements of the density fields of LSS tracers such as galaxies and quasars, and as a result in cosmological parameter estimation. Earlier studies have proposed using cross-correlations between different redshift slices or cross-correlations between different surveys to reduce the effects of such systematics. In this paper we develop a method to characterize unknown systematics. We demonstrate that while we do not have sufficient information to correct for unknown systematics in the data, we can obtain an estimate of their magnitude. We define a parameter to estimate contamination from unknown systematics using cross-correlations between different redshift slices and propose discarding bins in the angular power spectrum that lie outside a certain contamination tolerance level. We show that this method improves estimates of the bias using simulated data and further apply it to photometric luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a case study.

  5. Resin infusion of large composite structures modeling and manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, A.C. [Michigan State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The resin infusion processes resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI) and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are cost effective techniques for the fabrication of complex shaped composite structures. The dry fibrous preform is placed in the mold, consolidated, resin impregnated and cured in a single step process. The fibrous performs are often constructed near net shape using highly automated textile processes such as knitting, weaving and braiding. In this paper, the infusion processes RTM, RFI and VARTM are discussed along with the advantages of each technique compared with traditional composite fabrication methods such as prepreg tape lay up and autoclave cure. The large number of processing variables and the complex material behavior during infiltration and cure make experimental optimization of the infusion processes costly and inefficient. Numerical models have been developed which can be used to simulate the resin infusion processes. The model formulation and solution procedures for the VARTM process are presented. A VARTM process simulation of a carbon fiber preform was presented to demonstrate the type of information that can be generated by the model and to compare the model predictions with experimental measurements. Overall, the predicted flow front positions, resin pressures and preform thicknesses agree well with the measured values. The results of the simulation show the potential cost and performance benefits that can be realized by using a simulation model as part of the development process. (au)

  6. Cost-efficient foundation structures for large offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch, C.; Gormsen, C.; Lyngesen, S.; Rasmussen, J. L.; Juhl, H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the development of a cost-efficient foundation for large (1.5 MW) offshore wind farms at water depth of 5 to 11 m. Previously, medium sized wind turbines (500 kW) in Denmark have been installed offshore at water depths of approximately 5 m on concrete gravity foundations. The installation of larger turbines at greater depth does, however, hold great promise in terms of wind environment and environmental considerations. The costs of a traditional gravity foundation at these increased water depths is expected to be prohibitive, and the aim of the project has been to reduce the foundations costs in general. This paper describes the theoretical basis for the geotechnical and structural design of three alternative concepts and presents an optimised layout of each based on a research and development project. The basis has been a wind farm consisting of 100 turbines. The R and D project has been undertaken by the consulting engineers Nellemann, Nielsen and Rauschenberger A/S (Gravity foundation), LICengineering A/S (Mono pile) and Ramboell (Tripod) in co-operation with the Danish utility engineering companies Elkraft and Elsamprojekt A/S. The project was partly financed by the participants and by the Danish Energy Agency through their 1996 Energy Research Programme (EFP-96). (au) 18 refs

  7. Truss topology optimization with discrete design variables — Guaranteed global optimality and benchmark examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    this problem is well-studied for continuous bar areas, we consider in this study the case of discrete areas. This problem is of major practical relevance if the truss must be built from pre-produced bars with given areas. As a special case, we consider the design problem for a single available bar area, i.......e., a 0/1 problem. In contrast to the heuristic methods considered in many other approaches, our goal is to compute guaranteed globally optimal structures. This is done by a branch-and-bound method for which convergence can be proven. In this branch-and-bound framework, lower bounds of the optimal......-integer problems. The main intention of this paper is to provide optimal solutions for single and multiple load benchmark examples, which can be used for testing and validating other methods or heuristics for the treatment of this discrete topology design problem....

  8. Numerical/experimental research on welded joints in aluminium truss girders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hove, B.W.E.M.; Soetens, F.; Mazzolani, F.M.; Bellucci, F.; Faggiano, B.; Squillace, A.

    2016-01-01

    Welded joints in a 30 meter span aluminium truss girder were investigated numerically and experimentally. Since aluminium design rules for welded K-and N-joints in CHS truss girders were lacking the joints were checked using steel design rules. Calculations showed that the N-joints were governing

  9. Soft-Pion theorems for large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Consistency relations — which relate an N-point function to a squeezed (N+1)-point function — are useful in large scale structure (LSS) because of their non-perturbative nature: they hold even if the N-point function is deep in the nonlinear regime, and even if they involve astrophysically messy galaxy observables. The non-perturbative nature of the consistency relations is guaranteed by the fact that they are symmetry statements, in which the velocity plays the role of the soft pion. In this paper, we address two issues: (1) how to derive the relations systematically using the residual coordinate freedom in the Newtonian gauge, and relate them to known results in ζ-gauge (often used in studies of inflation); (2) under what conditions the consistency relations are violated. In the non-relativistic limit, our derivation reproduces the Newtonian consistency relation discovered by Kehagias and Riotto and Peloso and Pietroni. More generally, there is an infinite set of consistency relations, as is known in ζ-gauge. There is a one-to-one correspondence between symmetries in the two gauges; in particular, the Newtonian consistency relation follows from the dilation and special conformal symmetries in ζ-gauge. We probe the robustness of the consistency relations by studying models of galaxy dynamics and biasing. We give a systematic list of conditions under which the consistency relations are violated; violations occur if the galaxy bias is non-local in an infrared divergent way. We emphasize the relevance of the adiabatic mode condition, as distinct from symmetry considerations. As a by-product of our investigation, we discuss a simple fluid Lagrangian for LSS

  10. Simulation of Adaptive Kinetic Architectural Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    to obtain the control forces that must be known in order to control the shape of a real variable geometry truss structure. An experimental test of the of the shape control approach has been implemented using VGT truss structure and a low-cost data acquisition system based on the open-source Arduino...

  11. Review of the research on “structural bionic” method of large sculpture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiang; Yang, Wenchang

    2017-09-01

    This paper presented the basic concept of bionic sculpture and summarized the application status of “structural bionic”theory in large bionic sculpture field. Introduced the development trend and challenges of large bionic sculpture and pointed out that the sculpture's “structural bionic” can bring higher mechanical performance of the new structure and system, The evaluation method and structure design for large bionic sculpture are urgently needed.Finally prospected the market of the large bionic sculpture.

  12. Structural Flexibility of Large Direct Drive Generators for Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, G.

    2013-01-01

    The trend in wind energy is towards large offshore wind farms. This trend has led to the demand for high reliability and large single unit wind turbines. Different energy conversion topologies such as multiple stage geared generators, single stage geared generators and gearless (direct drive)

  13. Multi-Objective Two-Dimensional Truss Optimization by using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Alrasyid

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During last three decade, many mathematical programming methods have been develop for solving optimization problems. However, no single method has been found to be entirely efficient and robust for the wide range of engineering optimization problems. Most design application in civil engineering involve selecting values for a set of design variables that best describe the behavior and performance of the particular problem while satisfying the requirements and specifications imposed by codes of practice. The introduction of Genetic Algorithm (GA into the field of structural optimization has opened new avenues for research because they have been successful applied while traditional methods have failed. GAs is efficient and broadly applicable global search procedure based on stochastic approach which relies on “survival of the fittest” strategy. GAs are search algorithms that are based on the concepts of natural selection and natural genetics. On this research Multi-objective sizing and configuration optimization of the two-dimensional truss has been conducted using a genetic algorithm. Some preliminary runs of the GA were conducted to determine the best combinations of GA parameters such as population size and probability of mutation so as to get better scaling for rest of the runs. Comparing the results from sizing and sizing– configuration optimization, can obtained a significant reduction in the weight and deflection. Sizing–configuration optimization produces lighter weight and small displacement than sizing optimization. The results were obtained by using a GA with relative ease (computationally and these results are very competitive compared to those obtained from other methods of truss optimization.

  14. RNA secondary structure diagrams for very large molecules: RNAfdl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, Nikolai; Wiegels, Tim; Torda, Andrew E.

    2013-01-01

    There are many programs that can read the secondary structure of an RNA molecule and draw a diagram, but hardly any that can cope with 10 3 bases. RNAfdl is slow but capable of producing intersection-free diagrams for ribosome-sized structures, has a graphical user interface for adjustments...

  15. Chaperonin Structure - The Large Multi-Subunit Protein Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Roterman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The multi sub-unit protein structure representing the chaperonins group is analyzed with respect to its hydrophobicity distribution. The proteins of this group assist protein folding supported by ATP. The specific axial symmetry GroEL structure (two rings of seven units stacked back to back - 524 aa each and the GroES (single ring of seven units - 97 aa each polypeptide chains are analyzed using the hydrophobicity distribution expressed as excess/deficiency all over the molecule to search for structure-to-function relationships. The empirically observed distribution of hydrophobic residues is confronted with the theoretical one representing the idealized hydrophobic core with hydrophilic residues exposure on the surface. The observed discrepancy between these two distributions seems to be aim-oriented, determining the structure-to-function relation. The hydrophobic force field structure generated by the chaperonin capsule is presented. Its possible influence on substrate folding is suggested.

  16. Ultra-Lightweight Large Aperture Support Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ultra-lightweight membranes may prove to be very attractive for large aperture systems, but their value will be fully realized only if they are mated with equally...

  17. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application to the structural health assessment of large civil engineering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Carlo A.; Rabuffetti, Angelo S.; Chiarelli, Gian P.; Brambilla, Giovanni; Georgi, Julia

    2017-09-01

    This paper summarizes the experience gained in the structural assessment of an existing Thermal Power Plant (TPP) located near Pristina, focusing on the cooling tower and the flue gas stack, which are the main structures of the TPP. Scope of the work was the evaluation of the actual conditions of the structures and to identify the eventual repair measures in order to guarantee a safe and reliable operation of the TPP in view of the extension of its operational lifetime for the next 30 years. With this aim, a sequence of different activities was performed, like: a topographic survey to compare the actual geometrical configuration with the design one, an investigation of the material properties, an in depth visual inspection in order to detect any visible existing damage. Due to the very high elevations of the constructions and to the lack of appropriate structures aimed to their inspections and maintenance, this activity could not be performed without using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This resulted the safest, most economical and less time-consuming solution identified to map the surface damage in the reinforced concrete elements of these large structures including zones that could not be inspected because out of reach by other means.

  18. Acoustic Emission of Large PRSEUS Structures (Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    In the role of structural health monitoring (SHM), Acoustic Emission (AE) analysis is being investigated as an effective method for tracking damage development in large composite structures under load. Structures made using Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) for damage tolerant, light, and economical airframe construction are being pursued by The Boeing Company and NASA under the Environmentally Responsible Aircraft initiative (ERA). The failure tests of two PRSEUS substructures based on the Boeing Hybrid Wing Body fuselage concept were conducted during third quarter 2011 and second quarter 2015. One fundamental concern of these tests was determining the effectiveness of the stitched integral stiffeners to inhibit damage progression. By design, severe degradation of load carrying capability should not occur prior to Design Ultimate Load (DUL). While minor damage prior to DUL was anticipated, the integral stitching should not fail since this would allow a stiffener-skin delamination to progress rapidly and alter the transfer of load into the stiffeners. In addition, the stiffeners should not fracture because they are fundamental to structural integrity. Getting the best information from each AE sensor is a primary consideration because a sparse network of sensors is implemented. Sensitivity to stiffener-contiguous degradation is supported by sensors near the stiffeners, which increases the coverage per sensor via AE waveguide actions. Some sensors are located near potentially critical areas or "critical zones" as identified by numerical analyses. The approach is compared with the damage progression monitored by other techniques (e.g. ultrasonic C-scan).

  19. LDR structural experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    A system study to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector on the Space Station was accomplished by the Boeing Aerospace Company for NASA's Langley Research Center. The objective of the study was to use a Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration as the basis for focusing an experiment definition, so that the resulting accommodation requirements and interface constraints could be used as part of the mission requirements data base for Space Station. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of an optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments, and alignment of the optical components, would occur on a second experiment. The structure would then be moved to the payload point system for pointing, optical control, and scientific optical measurement for a third experiment. Experiment 1 will deploy the primary support truss while it is attached to the instrument module structure. The ability to adjust the mirror attachment points and to attach several dummy primary mirror segments with a robotic system will also be demonstrated. Experiment 2 will be achieved by adding new components and equipment to experiment one. Experiment 3 will demonstrate advanced control strategies, active adjustment of the primary mirror alignment, and technologies associated with optical sensing.

  20. LDR structural experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard A.; Gates, Richard M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was performed to develop the definition of a structural flight experiment for a large precision segmented reflector that would utilize the Space Station. The objective of the study was to use the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) baseline configuration for focusing on experiment definition activity which would identify the Space Station accommodation requirements and interface constraints. Results of the study defined three Space Station based experiments to demonstrate the technologies needed for an LDR type structure. The basic experiment configurations are the same as the JPL baseline except that the primary mirror truss is 10 meters in diameter instead of 20. The primary objectives of the first experiment are to construct the primary mirror support truss and to determine its structural and thermal characteristics. Addition of the optical bench, thermal shield and primary mirror segments and alignment of the optical components occur on the second experiment. The structure will then be moved to the payload pointing system for pointing, optical control and scientific optical measurement for the third experiment.

  1. Measuring Cosmic Expansion and Large Scale Structure with Destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod R.

    2007-01-01

    Destiny is a simple, direct, low cost mission to determine the properties of dark energy by obtaining a cosmologically deep supernova (SN) type Ia Hubble diagram and by measuring the large-scale mass power spectrum over time. Its science instrument is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared survey camera/spectrometer with a large field of view. During its first two years, Destiny will detect, observe, and characterize 23000 SN Ia events over the redshift interval 0.4Destiny will be used in its third year as a high resolution, wide-field imager to conduct a weak lensing survey covering >lo00 square degrees to measure the large-scale mass power spectrum. The combination of surveys is much more powerful than either technique on its own, and will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than will be provided by ongoing ground-based projects.

  2. Assessment of the possibility of increasing a load - carrying strength of truss bridges of overhead travelling cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał MUSIOŁ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility of increasing the load-carrying strength of truss bridges of overhead travelling cranes by transferring a part of a useful load from the main truss (which transfers directly the load originated from road wheels of the crane carriage on the parallel auxiliary truss by means of increasing rigidity of truss members joining both trusses - was presented in the paper. The verification of a static relief of the main truss by the auxiliary one as a function of rigidity of transverse and skew space trusses was performed. The A. Blum method was used in analytical calculations. The obtained results were verified by means of the ANSYS 12.1 program utilising the finite element method (FEM.

  3. Mid-frequency Band Dynamics of Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppolino, Robert N.; Adams, Douglas S.

    2004-01-01

    High and low intensity dynamic environments experienced by a spacecraft during launch and on-orbit operations, respectively, induce structural loads and motions, which are difficult to reliably predict. Structural dynamics in low- and mid-frequency bands are sensitive to component interface uncertainty and non-linearity as evidenced in laboratory testing and flight operations. Analytical tools for prediction of linear system response are not necessarily adequate for reliable prediction of mid-frequency band dynamics and analysis of measured laboratory and flight data. A new MATLAB toolbox, designed to address the key challenges of mid-frequency band dynamics, is introduced in this paper. Finite-element models of major subassemblies are defined following rational frequency-wavelength guidelines. For computational efficiency, these subassemblies are described as linear, component mode models. The complete structural system model is composed of component mode subassemblies and linear or non-linear joint descriptions. Computation and display of structural dynamic responses are accomplished employing well-established, stable numerical methods, modern signal processing procedures and descriptive graphical tools. Parametric sensitivity and Monte-Carlo based system identification tools are used to reconcile models with experimental data and investigate the effects of uncertainties. Models and dynamic responses are exported for employment in applications, such as detailed structural integrity and mechanical-optical-control performance analyses.

  4. Algorithms for Electromagnetic Scattering Analysis of Electrically Large Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter

    Accurate analysis of electrically large antennas is often done using either Physical Optics (PO) or Method of Moments (MoM), where the former typically requires fewer computational resources but has a limited application regime. This study has focused on fast variants of these two methods, with t...

  5. Structure-Based Partitioning of Large Concept Hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Klein, Michel

    2004-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the benefits of ontologies for information processing has lead to the creation of a number of large ontologies about real-world domains. The size of these ontologies and their monolithic character cause serious problems in handling them. In other areas, e.g. software

  6. Structural analysis of the large coil segment test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, W.D.; Gray, W.H.; Hendrich, W.R.; Nelson, B.E.; Stoddart, W.C.T.

    1977-01-01

    In the analysis of the LCS, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to design complex structures utilizing existing hardware in a highly reliable and efficient manner. It has also been shown that GIFTS is very useful for aiding in the design and analysis of these complex structures. GIFTS' element generation and graphics display capabilities allow for on-line structural analysis to be performed and permit the incorporation and analysis of major design changes in short periods of time. This flexibility means that more design iterations can be analyzed, and thus a better design can often be achieved instead of just an adequate design. The on-line nature of GIFTS allows for continuity of thought and its visual displays highlight trouble areas which can usually be redesigned in an efficient manner. For the LCS, GIFTS was used to generate a working design of the complete system in a logical and efficient manner in a relatively short period of time

  7. An Evaluation Framework for Large-Scale Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    structure is a matter of trade-offs between different desired properties, and given a specific case with specific known or expected demands and constraints, the parameters presented will be weighted differently. The decision of such a weighting is supported by a discussion of each parameter. The paper...

  8. High resolution soil moisture radiometer. [large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilheit, T. T.

    1978-01-01

    An electrically scanned pushbroom phased antenna array is described for a microwave radiometer which can provide agriculturally meaningful measurements of soil moisture. The antenna size of 100 meters at 1400 MHz or 230 meters at 611 MHz requires several shuttle launches and orbital assembly. Problems inherent to the size of the structure and specific instrument problems are discussed as well as the preliminary design.

  9. Structure and properties of copper after large strain deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, Kinga; Molak, Rafal M.; Pakiela, Zbigniew

    2010-05-15

    Structure and properties of Cu in dependence on strain (from {epsilon}{proportional_to} 0.9 to {epsilon}{proportional_to} 15) during multi-axial compression processing at room temperature was investigated. The evolution of dislocation structure, misorientation distribution and crystallite size were observed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipment with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) facility. The mechanical properties of yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and uniform elongation was performed on MTS QTest/10 machine equipped with digital image correlation method (DIC). The structure-flow stress relationship of multi-axial compression processing material at strains {epsilon}{proportional_to} 3.5 and {epsilon}{proportional_to} 5.5 is discussed. It is found that processing does not produce any drastic changes in deformation structure and the microstructural refinement is slow. These results indicate that dynamic recrystallization plays an important role during multi-axial compression process in this range of deformation (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Seismic soil-structure interaction of foundations with large piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, L.

    1996-01-01

    In seismic regions with soft soil deposits subjected to ground surface subsidence, there is the necessity to support the weight of constructions on large diameter piles or piers hearing on deep firm strata. To justify the action of these elements working under flexo compression and shear, it is necessary to perform calculations of soil pile interaction from a practical engineering point of view and estimate the order of magnitude of the forces and displacements to which these elements will be subjected during the seismic action assigned to the foundation. In this paper we defined a pier as a large diameter pile constructed on site. Furthermore, in the seismic analysis it is necessary to evaluate the seismic pore water pressure to learn on the effective seismic soil stresses close to the ground surface. (author)

  11. Large-scale density structures in the outer heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Gordon, G. S., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Plasma Science experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft has measured the solar wind density from 1 to 38 AU. Over this distance, the solar wind density decreases as the inverse square of the heliocentric distance. However, there are large variations in this density at a given radius. Such changes in density are the dominant cause of changes in the solar wind ram pressure in the outer heliosphere and can cause large perturbations in the location of the termination shock of the solar wind. Following a simple model suggested by Suess, we study the non-equilibrium, dynamic location of the termination shock as it responds to these pressure changes. The results of this study suggest that the termination shock is rarely if ever at its equilibrium distance and may depart from that distance by as much as 50 AU at times.

  12. Large Eddy Simulation of stratified flows over structures

    OpenAIRE

    Brechler J.; Fuka V.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the ability of the LES model CLMM (Charles University Large-Eddy Microscale Model) to model the stratified flow around three dimensional hills. We compared the quantities, as the height of the dividing streamline, recirculation zone length or length of the lee waves with experiments by Hunt and Snyder[3] and numerical computations by Ding, Calhoun and Street[5]. The results mostly agreed with the references, but some important differences are present.

  13. Large Eddy Simulation of stratified flows over structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechler J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We tested the ability of the LES model CLMM (Charles University Large-Eddy Microscale Model to model the stratified flow around three dimensional hills. We compared the quantities, as the height of the dividing streamline, recirculation zone length or length of the lee waves with experiments by Hunt and Snyder[3] and numerical computations by Ding, Calhoun and Street[5]. The results mostly agreed with the references, but some important differences are present.

  14. Large Eddy Simulation of stratified flows over structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, V.; Brechler, J.

    2013-04-01

    We tested the ability of the LES model CLMM (Charles University Large-Eddy Microscale Model) to model the stratified flow around three dimensional hills. We compared the quantities, as the height of the dividing streamline, recirculation zone length or length of the lee waves with experiments by Hunt and Snyder[3] and numerical computations by Ding, Calhoun and Street[5]. The results mostly agreed with the references, but some important differences are present.

  15. Approximating spectral impact of structural perturbations in large networks

    CERN Document Server

    Milanese, A; Nishikawa, Takashi; Sun, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Determining the effect of structural perturbations on the eigenvalue spectra of networks is an important problem because the spectra characterize not only their topological structures, but also their dynamical behavior, such as synchronization and cascading processes on networks. Here we develop a theory for estimating the change of the largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix or the extreme eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian when small but arbitrary set of links are added or removed from the network. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approximation schemes using both real and artificial networks, showing in particular that we can accurately obtain the spectral ranking of small subgraphs. We also propose a local iterative scheme which computes the relative ranking of a subgraph using only the connectivity information of its neighbors within a few links. Our results may not only contribute to our theoretical understanding of dynamical processes on networks, but also lead to practical applications in ran...

  16. Risk Management of Large RC Structures within Spatial Information System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jianjun; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The present article addresses the development of a spatial information system (SIS), which aims to facilitate risk management of large‐scale concrete structures. The formulation of the SIS is based on ideas developed in the context of indicator‐based risk modeling for concrete structures...... subject to corrosion and geographical information system based risk modeling concerning large‐scale risk management. The term “risk management” here refers in particular to the process of condition assessment and optimization of the inspection and repair activities. The SIS facilitates the storage...... and handling of all relevant information to the risk management. The probabilistic modeling utilized in the condition assessment takes basis in a Bayesian hierarchical modeling philosophy. It facilitates the updating of risks as well as optimizing inspection plans whenever new information about the condition...

  17. Electronic Structure of Large-Scale Graphene Nanoflakes

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei; Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Yang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    With the help of the recently developed SIESTA-PEXSI method [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter \\textbf{26}, 305503 (2014)], we perform Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the stability and electronic structure of hexagonal graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) with up to 11,700 atoms. We find the electronic properties of GNFs, including their cohesive energy, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, edge states and aromaticity, depend sensitively on the type of edges (ACGNFs and ZZGNFs), size and the n...

  18. On Soft Limits of Large-Scale Structure Correlation Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Konstandin, Thomas; Porto, Rafael A.; Sagunski, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We study soft limits of correlation functions for the density and velocity fields in the theory of structure formation. First, we re-derive the (resummed) consistency conditions at unequal times using the eikonal approximation. These are solely based on symmetry arguments and are therefore universal. Then, we explore the existence of equal-time relations in the soft limit which, on the other hand, depend on the interplay between soft and hard modes. We scrutinize two approaches in the literat...

  19. Fabrication of large area woodpile structure in polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jaya Prakash; Dutta, Neilanjan; Yao, Peng; Sharkawy, Ahmed S.; Prather, Dennis W.

    2009-02-01

    A fabrication process of three-dimensional Woodpile photonic crystals based on multilayer photolithography from commercially available photo resist SU8 have been demonstrated. A 6-layer, 2 mm × 2mm woodpile has been fabricated. Different factors that influence the spin thickness on multiple resist application have been studied. The fabrication method used removes, the problem of intermixing, and is more repeatable and robust than the multilayer fabrication techniques for three dimensional photonic crystal structures that have been previously reported. Each layer is developed before next layer photo resist spin, instead of developing the whole structure in the final step as used in multilayer process. The desired thickness for each layer is achieved by the calibration of spin speed and use of different photo resist compositions. Deep UV exposure confinement has been the defining parameter in this process. Layer uniformity for every layer is independent of the previous developed layers and depends on the photo resist planarizing capability, spin parameters and baking conditions. The intermixing problem, which results from the previous layers left uncrossed linked photo resist, is completely removed in this process as the previous layers are fully developed, avoiding any intermixing between the newly spun and previous layers. Also this process gives the freedom to redo every spin any number of times without affecting the previously made structure, which is not possible in other multilayer process where intermediate developing is not performed.

  20. New integrable structures in large-N QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Heise, Rainer; Zarembo, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    We study the anomalous dimensions of single trace operators composed of field strengths F μν in large-N QCD. The matrix of anomalous dimensions is the Hamiltonian of a compact spin chain with two spin one representations at each vertex corresponding to the self-dual and anti-self-dual components of F μν . Because of the special form of the interaction it is possible to study separately renormalization of purely self-dual components. In this sector the Hamiltonian is integrable and can be exactly solved by Bethe ansatz. Its continuum limit is described by the level two SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten model

  1. Structural design of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satter, Celeste M.; Lou, Michael C.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) analysis model was developed to enable studies of system responses to the mechanical and thermal disturbances anticipated during on-orbit operations. Functional requirements of the major subsystems of the LDR are investigated, design trades are conducted, and design options are proposed. System mass and inertia properties are computed in order to estimate environmental disturbances, and in the sizing of control system hardware. Scaled system characteristics are derived for use in evaluating launch capabilities and achievable orbits. It is concluded that a completely passive 20-m primary appears feasible for the LDR from the standpoint of both mechanical vibration and thermal distortions.

  2. Structural design of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satter, Celeste M.; Lou, Michael C.

    1991-09-01

    An integrated Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) analysis model was developed to enable studies of system responses to the mechanical and thermal disturbances anticipated during on-orbit operations. Functional requirements of the major subsystems of the LDR are investigated, design trades are conducted, and design options are proposed. System mass and inertia properties are computed in order to estimate environmental disturbances, and in the sizing of control system hardware. Scaled system characteristics are derived for use in evaluating launch capabilities and achievable orbits. It is concluded that a completely passive 20-m primary appears feasible for the LDR from the standpoint of both mechanical vibration and thermal distortions.

  3. Large-Scale Unsupervised Hashing with Shared Structure Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglong; Mu, Yadong; Zhang, Danchen; Lang, Bo; Li, Xuelong

    2015-09-01

    Hashing methods are effective in generating compact binary signatures for images and videos. This paper addresses an important open issue in the literature, i.e., how to learn compact hash codes by enhancing the complementarity among different hash functions. Most of prior studies solve this problem either by adopting time-consuming sequential learning algorithms or by generating the hash functions which are subject to some deliberately-designed constraints (e.g., enforcing hash functions orthogonal to one another). We analyze the drawbacks of past works and propose a new solution to this problem. Our idea is to decompose the feature space into a subspace shared by all hash functions and its complementary subspace. On one hand, the shared subspace, corresponding to the common structure across different hash functions, conveys most relevant information for the hashing task. Similar to data de-noising, irrelevant information is explicitly suppressed during hash function generation. On the other hand, in case that the complementary subspace also contains useful information for specific hash functions, the final form of our proposed hashing scheme is a compromise between these two kinds of subspaces. To make hash functions not only preserve the local neighborhood structure but also capture the global cluster distribution of the whole data, an objective function incorporating spectral embedding loss, binary quantization loss, and shared subspace contribution is introduced to guide the hash function learning. We propose an efficient alternating optimization method to simultaneously learn both the shared structure and the hash functions. Experimental results on three well-known benchmarks CIFAR-10, NUS-WIDE, and a-TRECVID demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods.

  4. Digital image rectification tool for metrification of gusset plate connections in steel truss bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A method was developed to obtain dimensional data from photographs for analyzing steel truss gusset plate : connections. The method relies on a software application to correct photographic distortion and to scale the : photographs for analysis. The a...

  5. Low Vertical Clearance Truss Bridges : Risk Assessment and Retrofit Mitigation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-10

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) has over 60 steel truss bridges in its inventory with vertical clearances less than the minimum 16-6 required for new bridges. This study evaluates the risks of oversized vehicle impacts...

  6. On the origin of large-scale cosmological structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    It should be emphasized that the authors do not know at this point with any certainty what is the ultimate origin of cosmological structure. There is a collection of assumptions that make up a more or less standard model, wherein a broad spectrum of quantum fluctuations from an early epoch, modulated by physical effects that depend on the nature of the dominant component of the mass of the universe, provide the seeds that are amplified by gravitational attraction into the structures that they see today. This at least allows some statement on what this origin is not. Although all of the individual choices involved are relatively plausible, there are many steps along the way, and the resulting construct should by no means be taken to be the only possible version of the truth. The author summarizes the more commonly held beliefs and outlines what has come to be the standard model. This paper outlines main points, with most details left to the references (which also contains some visual representations of the results of numerical simulations

  7. Shell structures and chaos in nuclei and large metallic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, W.D.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Nazmitdinov, R.G.; Radu, S.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

    1995-01-01

    A reflection-asymmetric deformed oscillator potential is analyzed from the classical and quantum mechanical point of view. The connection between occurrence of shell structures and classical periodic orbits is studied using the ''removal of resonances method'' in a classical analysis. In this approximation, the effective single particle potential becomes separable and the frequencies of the classical trajectories are easily determined. It turns out that the winding numbers calculated in this way are in good agreement with the ones found from the corresponding quantum mechanical spectrum using the particle number dependence of the fluctuating part of the total energy. When the octupole term is switched on it is found that prolate shapes are stable against chaos and can exhibit shells where spherical and oblate cases become chaotic. An attempt is made to explain this difference in the quantum mechanical context by looking at the distribution of exceptional points which results from the matrix structure of the respective Hamiltonians. In a similar way we analyze the modified Nilsson model and discuss its consequences for metallic clusters. (orig.)

  8. Large p sub( t) phenomena and the structure of jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowski, R.

    1979-01-01

    The modern history of high transverse momentum phenomena started in 1972 when it was found that the spectrum of the transverse momentum p sub(T) of secondaries produced in hadronic collisions did not drop as fast as expected from its behavior at low transverse momentum. Now it is possible to study the production of secondaries at transverse momenta as high as 16 GeV/c. The aim of this review is to systematize the existing experimental knowledge in this field. It is believed that the production of objects with high transverse momenta in the collision of two hadrons is due to the hard scattering of their constituents. According to this hard scattering picture, in the collision causing hard scattering, two scattered constituents with high transverse momenta should show up as two jets of hadrons, trigger jet and away jet. Two incoming hadrons, one constituent is removed by hard scattering from each, are expected to create two spectator jets. The present review is made through the four-jet world. The experimental studies of high p sub(T) phenomena in hadronic collision showed this four-jet structure. The observed structure is consistent with the assumption that high p sub(T) objects originate from scattered hadronic constituents. Many aspects of the collision indicate that the scattering constituents are quarks. (Kako, I.)

  9. Large Molecule Structures by Broadband Fourier Transform Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Seifert, Nathan A.; Spada, Lorenzo; Pate, Brooks

    2016-06-01

    Fourier transform molecular rotational resonance spectroscopy (FT-MRR) using pulsed jet molecular beam sources is a high-resolution spectroscopy technique that can be used for chiral analysis of molecules with multiple chiral centers. The sensitivity of the molecular rotational spectrum pattern to small changes in the three dimensional structure makes it possible to identify diastereomers without prior chemical separation. For larger molecules, there is the additional challenge that different conformations of each diastereomer may be present and these need to be differentiated from the diastereomers in the spectral analysis. Broadband rotational spectra of several larger molecules have been measured using a chirped-pulse FT-MRR spectrometer. Measurements of nootkatone (C15H22O), cedrol (C15H26O), ambroxide (C16H28O) and sclareolide (C16H26O2) are presented. These spectra are measured with high sensitivity (signal-to-noise ratio near 1,000:1) and permit structure determination of the most populated isomers using isotopic analysis of the 13C and 18O isotopologues in natural abundance. The accuracy of quantum chemistry calculations to identify diastereomers and conformers and to predict the dipole moment properties needed for three wave mixing measurements is examined.

  10. Quantum cosmological origin of large scale structures of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anini, Y.

    1989-07-01

    In this paper, the initial quantum state of matter perturbations about de Sitter minisuperspace model is found. For a large class of boundary conditions (bcs), including those of Hartle-Hawking and Vilenkin, the resulting quantum state is the de Sitter invariant vacuum. This result is found to depend only on the regularity requirement at the euclidean origin of spacetime which is common to all reasonable (bcs). The initial value of the density perturbations implied by these quantum fluctuations are found and evaluated at the initial horizon crossing. The perturbations are found to have an almost scale independent spectrum, and an amplitude which depends on the scale at which inflation took place. The amplitude would have the right value if the scale of inflation is H ≤ 10 15 Gev. (author). 9 refs

  11. Cosmological Parameter Estimation with Large Scale Structure Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Di Dio, Enea; Durrer, Ruth; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the sensitivity of future galaxy surveys to cosmological parameters, using the redshift dependent angular power spectra of galaxy number counts, $C_\\ell(z_1,z_2)$, calculated with all relativistic corrections at first order in perturbation theory. We pay special attention to the redshift dependence of the non-linearity scale and present Fisher matrix forecasts for Euclid-like and DES-like galaxy surveys. We compare the standard $P(k)$ analysis with the new $C_\\ell(z_1,z_2)$ method. We show that for surveys with photometric redshifts the new analysis performs significantly better than the $P(k)$ analysis. For spectroscopic redshifts, however, the large number of redshift bins which would be needed to fully profit from the redshift information, is severely limited by shot noise. We also identify surveys which can measure the lensing contribution and we study the monopole, $C_0(z_1,z_2)$.

  12. Isolating relativistic effects in large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Camille

    2014-12-01

    We present a fully relativistic calculation of the observed galaxy number counts in the linear regime. We show that besides the density fluctuations and redshift-space distortions, various relativistic effects contribute to observations at large scales. These effects all have the same physical origin: they result from the fact that our coordinate system, namely the galaxy redshift and the incoming photons’ direction, is distorted by inhomogeneities in our Universe. We then discuss the impact of the relativistic effects on the angular power spectrum and on the two-point correlation function in configuration space. We show that the latter is very well adapted to isolate the relativistic effects since it naturally makes use of the symmetries of the different contributions. In particular, we discuss how the Doppler effect and the gravitational redshift distortions can be isolated by looking for a dipole in the cross-correlation function between a bright and a faint population of galaxies.

  13. THE OPTIMIZATION OF WOOD TRUSSES CONNECTED WITH METAL PLATES USING ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil BAŞBOĞA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the world population causes an increasing demand for wood materials. As one of the most common problems seen in today's forest destructions may be able to avoided by means of the rational use of forests and processing of trees cut with optimal level and also it helps to fulfill demand of wood materials. In this study, ANSYS software has been used in order to optimize wood usage in metal plate connected wood trusses which save 25% or higher rates of wood raw material comparing to massive beams. Three different types of flat- wood truss systems have been considered in the study. The first cross sectional dimension of the truss elements was accepted as 5 x 10 nominal dimensions as can be found in the market. The elements of the truss systems have been modeled using Link1 ANSYS element. The parameters used in modeling of the link1 element were; modulus elasticity and Poisson’s ratio. First order optimization method was chosen for the optimization process. The constraints of the truss systems in optimization process were deformation and stress. The optimized trusses were manufactured in laboratory in order to check the methods appropriateness. Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten. lumber and metal plate connectors were used in the construction of the optimized truss systems. The obtained values of deformation in the laboratory were similar to the calculated values of deformation in the ANSYS software. Results show that metal plate connected wood truss systems optimization can be achieved by the ANSYS software. Optimization process proves that more than 25% or higher in wood usage can be gained.

  14. Structural fatigue test results for large wind turbine blade sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Sullivan, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    In order to provide quantitative information on the operating life capabilities of wind turbine rotor blade concepts for root-end load transfer, a series of cantilever beam fatigue tests was conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted on a laminated wood blade with bonded steel studs, a low cost steel spar (utility pole) with a welded flange, a utility pole with additional root-end thickness provided by a swaged collar, fiberglass spars with both bonded and nonbonded fittings, and, finally, an aluminum blade with a bolted steel fitting (Lockheed Mod-0 blade). Photographs, data, and conclusions for each of these tests are presented. In addition, the aluminum blade test results are compared to field failure information; these results provide evidence that the cantilever beam type of fatigue test is a satisfactory method for obtaining qualitative data on blade life expectancy and for identifying structurally underdesigned areas (hot spots).

  15. Hierarchical Cantor set in the large scale structure with torus geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdzek, R. [Physics Department, ' Al. I. Cuza' University, Blvd. Carol I, Nr. 11, Iassy 700506 (Romania)], E-mail: rmurdzek@yahoo.com

    2008-12-15

    The formation of large scale structures is considered within a model with string on toroidal space-time. Firstly, the space-time geometry is presented. In this geometry, the Universe is represented by a string describing a torus surface. Thereafter, the large scale structure of the Universe is derived from the string oscillations. The results are in agreement with the cellular structure of the large scale distribution and with the theory of a Cantorian space-time.

  16. Stochastic structure of annual discharges of large European rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Milan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water resource has become a guarantee for sustainable development on both local and global scales. Exploiting water resources involves development of hydrological models for water management planning. In this paper we present a new stochastic model for generation of mean annul flows. The model is based on historical characteristics of time series of annual flows and consists of the trend component, long-term periodic component and stochastic component. The rest of specified components are model errors which are represented as a random time series. The random time series is generated by the single bootstrap model (SBM. Stochastic ensemble of error terms at the single hydrological station is formed using the SBM method. The ultimate stochastic model gives solutions of annual flows and presents a useful tool for integrated river basin planning and water management studies. The model is applied for ten large European rivers with long observed period. Validation of model results suggests that the stochastic flows simulated by the model can be used for hydrological simulations in river basins.

  17. Robustness Analysis of a Wide-Span Timber Structure with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers robustness evaluation of a wide span timber truss structure where the ductile behavior is taken into account. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability framework used on a simplified mechanical system modelling a timber truss system. A measure of ductile...... behaviour is introduced and for different values of this measure the robustness indices are estimated. The results indicate that the robustness of a timber truss system can be increased by taking the ductile behavior into....

  18. Calculation of load-bearing capacity of prestressed reinforced concrete trusses by the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapov, Vladimir; Golovanov, Roman; Aidemirov, Kurban

    2017-10-01

    The technique of calculation of prestressed reinforced concrete trusses with taking into account geometrical and physical nonlinearity is considered. As a tool for solving the problem, the finite element method has been chosen. Basic design equations and methods for their solution are given. It is assumed that there are both a prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement in the bars of the trusses. The prestress is modeled by setting the temperature effect on the reinforcement. The ways of taking into account the physical and geometrical nonlinearity for bars of reinforced concrete trusses are considered. An example of the analysis of a flat truss is given and the behavior of the truss on various stages of its loading up to destruction is analyzed. A program for the analysis of flat and spatial concrete trusses taking into account the nonlinear deformation is developed. The program is adapted to the computational complex PRINS. As a part of this complex it is available to a wide range of engineering, scientific and technical workers

  19. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation Data from the Aeroelastic Test of the SUGAR Truss-Braced Wing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Funk, Christie; Scott, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Research focus in recent years has been given to the design of aircraft that provide significant reductions in emissions, noise and fuel usage. Increases in fuel efficiency have also generally been attended by overall increased wing flexibility. The truss-braced wing (TBW) configuration has been forwarded as one that increases fuel efficiency. The Boeing company recently tested the Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) Truss-Braced Wing (TBW) wind-tunnel model in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). This test resulted in a wealth of accelerometer data. Other publications have presented details of the construction of that model, the test itself, and a few of the results of the test. This paper aims to provide a much more detailed look at what the accelerometer data says about the onset of aeroelastic instability, usually known as flutter onset. Every flight vehicle has a location in the flight envelope of flutter onset, and the TBW vehicle is not different. For the TBW model test, the flutter onset generally occurred at the conditions that the Boeing company analysis said it should. What was not known until the test is that, over a large area of the Mach number dynamic pressure map, the model displayed wing/engine nacelle aeroelastic limit cycle oscillation (LCO). This paper dissects that LCO data in order to provide additional insights into the aeroelastic behavior of the model.

  20. Large-Scale Structure of the Carina Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith; Egan; Carey; Price; Morse; Price

    2000-04-01

    Observations obtained with the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite reveal for the first time the complex mid-infrared morphology of the entire Carina Nebula (NGC 3372). On the largest size scale of approximately 100 pc, the thermal infrared emission from the giant H ii region delineates one coherent structure: a (somewhat distorted) bipolar nebula with the major axis perpendicular to the Galactic plane. The Carina Nebula is usually described as an evolved H ii region that is no longer actively forming stars, clearing away the last vestiges of its natal molecular cloud. However, the MSX observations presented here reveal numerous embedded infrared sources that are good candidates for sites of current star formation. Several compact infrared sources are located at the heads of dust pillars or in dark globules behind ionization fronts. Because their morphology suggests a strong interaction with the peculiar collection of massive stars in the nebula, we speculate that these new infrared sources may be sites of triggered star formation in NGC 3372.

  1. The large-scale structure of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Big Bang is a highly predictive theory, and one that has been systematically refined as the observational data base grows. We assume that the laws an constants of physics are unchanged throughout cosmic time. Einstein's theory of gravitation and the Planck-inspired quantum theory tell us all that we need to know to describe space and time. The local universe is observed to be highly inhomogeneous. Yet if one filters the observed structure, homogeneity appears once the filter bandpass exceeds a few tens of Mpc. The universe is approximately homogeneous. It is also isotropic, there being no apparent preferred direction. Of course, these observations are made from out vantage point. The cosmological principle generalizes the appearance of homogeneity and isotropy to a set of observers distributed through the universe. One motivation behind the cosmological principle is the need to dethrone US as being privileged observers from the vantage point of the earth. The universe is assumed to be statistically isotropic at all times for sets of fundamental observers. One consequence is that the universe must be statistically homogeneous. Observations of the cosmic microwave background have vindicated the cosmological principle, originally applied by Einstein in high first derivation of a static universe, originally applied by Einstein in his first derivation of a static universe. The cosmic microwave background is isotropic to approximately 1 part in 10 5 . It originates from the early universe, and demonstrates that the matter distribution satisfied a similar level of homogeneity during the first million years of cosmic history. (author)

  2. On soft limits of large-scale structure correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Konstandin, Thomas; Porto, Rafael A.; Sagunski, Laura

    2014-11-01

    We study soft limits of correlation functions for the density and velocity fields in the theory of structure formation. First, we rederive the (resummed) consistency conditions at unequal times using the eikonal approximation. These are solely based on symmetry arguments and are therefore universal. Then, we explore the existence of equal-time relations in the soft limit which, on the other hand, depend on the interplay between soft and hard modes. We scrutinize two approaches in the literature: The time-flow formalism, and a background method where the soft mode is absorbed into a locally curved cosmology. The latter has been recently used to set up (angular averaged) 'equal-time consistency relations'. We explicitly demonstrate that the time-flow relations and 'equal-time consistency conditions' are only fulfilled at the linear level, and fail at next-to-leading order for an Einstein de-Sitter universe. While applied to the velocities both proposals break down beyond leading order, we find that the 'equal-time consistency conditions' quantitatively approximates the perturbative results for the density contrast. Thus, we generalize the background method to properly incorporate the effect of curvature in the density and velocity fluctuations on short scales, and discuss the reasons behind this discrepancy. We conclude with a few comments on practical implementations and future directions.

  3. Detection of morphometric differentiation in Sattar snowtrout, Schizothorax curvifrons (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from Kashmir Himalaya using a truss network system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Farooq Ahmad; Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Chandra, Suresh

    2014-03-01

    Schizothorax curvifrons is a morphometrically and meristically most variable and economically valuable promising fish food from Kashmir Valley. Since there is a lack of information on stock structure of wild populations on this species, this study was aimed to investigate the intraspecific variation of this important snowtrout. For this, two rivers and one lake in Kashmir Himalaya were sampled from January 2011 to October 2012. Fish body measurements were taken and morphometric characters using the truss network system was constructed. Altogether, 506 fish specimens were collected. Data were subjected to principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis and univariate analysis of variance. The first principal component explained 63.44% of total variation, while second and third components explained 8.34% and 5.31%, respectively. The step-wise discriminant function analysis retained two variables that significantly discriminated the populations. Using these variables 83.4% of the original specimens were classified into their correct groups and 81.1% of the cross-validated (leave one out procedure) specimens were classified into their correct groups. All of the total 31 transformed truss measurements exhibited highly significant (pHimalaya area.

  4. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  5. Large eddy simulation study of the kinetic energy entrainment by energetic turbulent flow structures in large wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    VerHulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we address the question of how kinetic energy is entrained into large wind turbine arrays and, in particular, how large-scale flow structures contribute to such entrainment. Previous research has shown this entrainment to be an important limiting factor in the performance of very large arrays where the flow becomes fully developed and there is a balance between the forcing of the atmospheric boundary layer and the resistance of the wind turbines. Given the high Reynolds numbers and domain sizes on the order of kilometers, we rely on wall-modeled large eddy simulation (LES) to simulate turbulent flow within the wind farm. Three-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis is then used to identify the most energetic flow structures present in the LES data. We quantify the contribution of each POD mode to the kinetic energy entrainment and its dependence on the layout of the wind turbine array. The primary large-scale structures are found to be streamwise, counter-rotating vortices located above the height of the wind turbines. While the flow is periodic, the geometry is not invariant to all horizontal translations due to the presence of the wind turbines and thus POD modes need not be Fourier modes. Differences of the obtained modes with Fourier modes are documented. Some of the modes are responsible for a large fraction of the kinetic energy flux to the wind turbine region. Surprisingly, more flow structures (POD modes) are needed to capture at least 40% of the turbulent kinetic energy, for which the POD analysis is optimal, than are needed to capture at least 40% of the kinetic energy flux to the turbines. For comparison, we consider the cases of aligned and staggered wind turbine arrays in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer as well as a reference case without wind turbines. While the general characteristics of the flow structures are robust, the net kinetic energy entrainment to the turbines depends on the presence and relative

  6. Hypersingular integral equations, waveguiding effects in Cantorian Universe and genesis of large scale structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovane, G.; Giordano, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we introduce the hypersingular integral equations and analyze a realistic model of gravitational waveguides on a cantorian space-time. A waveguiding effect is considered with respect to the large scale structure of the Universe, where the structure formation appears as if it were a classically self-similar random process at all astrophysical scales. The result is that it seems we live in an El Naschie's o (∞) Cantorian space-time, where gravitational lensing and waveguiding effects can explain the appearing Universe. In particular, we consider filamentary and planar large scale structures as possible refraction channels for electromagnetic radiation coming from cosmological structures. From this vision the Universe appears like a large self-similar adaptive mirrors set, thanks to three numerical simulations. Consequently, an infinite Universe is just an optical illusion that is produced by mirroring effects connected with the large scale structure of a finite and not a large Universe

  7. Development and verification testing of automation and robotics for assembly of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marvin D.; Will, Ralph W.; Quach, Cuong C.

    1993-01-01

    A program was initiated within the past several years to develop operational procedures for automated assembly of truss structures suitable for large-aperture antennas. The assembly operations require the use of a robotic manipulator and are based on the principle of supervised autonomy to minimize crew resources. A hardware testbed was established to support development and evaluation testing. A brute-force automation approach was used to develop the baseline assembly hardware and software techniques. As the system matured and an operation was proven, upgrades were incorprated and assessed against the baseline test results. This paper summarizes the developmental phases of the program, the results of several assembly tests, the current status, and a series of proposed developments for additional hardware and software control capability. No problems that would preclude automated in-space assembly of truss structures have been encountered. The current system was developed at a breadboard level and continued development at an enhanced level is warranted.

  8. Structural concepts for very large (400-meter-diameter) solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1989-01-01

    A general discussion of various types of large space structures is presented. A brief overview of the history of space structures is presented to provide insight into the current state-of-the art. Finally, the results of a structural study to assess the viability of very large solar concentrators are presented. These results include weight, stiffness, part count, and in-space construction time.

  9. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  10. Shear Behavior Models of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams Modifying Softened Truss Model Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jin-Ha; Lee, Deuck Hang; Ju, Hyunjin; Kim, Kang Su; Seo, Soo-Yeon; Kang, Joo-Won

    2013-10-23

    Recognizing that steel fibers can supplement the brittle tensile characteristics of concrete, many studies have been conducted on the shear performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) members. However, previous studies were mostly focused on the shear strength and proposed empirical shear strength equations based on their experimental results. Thus, this study attempts to estimate the strains and stresses in steel fibers by considering the detailed characteristics of steel fibers in SFRC members, from which more accurate estimation on the shear behavior and strength of SFRC members is possible, and the failure mode of steel fibers can be also identified. Four shear behavior models for SFRC members have been proposed, which have been modified from the softened truss models for reinforced concrete members, and they can estimate the contribution of steel fibers to the total shear strength of the SFRC member. The performances of all the models proposed in this study were also evaluated by a large number of test results. The contribution of steel fibers to the shear strength varied from 5% to 50% according to their amount, and the most optimized volume fraction of steel fibers was estimated as 1%-1.5%, in terms of shear performance.

  11. Shear Behavior Models of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams Modifying Softened Truss Model Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Won Kang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that steel fibers can supplement the brittle tensile characteristics of concrete, many studies have been conducted on the shear performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC members. However, previous studies were mostly focused on the shear strength and proposed empirical shear strength equations based on their experimental results. Thus, this study attempts to estimate the strains and stresses in steel fibers by considering the detailed characteristics of steel fibers in SFRC members, from which more accurate estimation on the shear behavior and strength of SFRC members is possible, and the failure mode of steel fibers can be also identified. Four shear behavior models for SFRC members have been proposed, which have been modified from the softened truss models for reinforced concrete members, and they can estimate the contribution of steel fibers to the total shear strength of the SFRC member. The performances of all the models proposed in this study were also evaluated by a large number of test results. The contribution of steel fibers to the shear strength varied from 5% to 50% according to their amount, and the most optimized volume fraction of steel fibers was estimated as 1%–1.5%, in terms of shear performance.

  12. Non-superconducting magnet structures for near-term, large fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    File, J.; Knutson, D.S.; Marino, R.E.; Rappe, G.H.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes the magnet and structural design in the following American tokamak devices: the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Joint European Torus (JET), also presented herein, has a magnet structure evolved from several European programs and, like TFTR, represents state of the art magnet and structure design

  13. MODAL ANALYSIS FOR REVISION OF A FEM MODEL OF A STEEL TRUSS BEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Venglar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a preparation of a complex FEM model for a local damage detection. The initial verified and validated three-dimensional FEM model of a steel truss bridge in laboratory is revised step-by-step to achieve the accurate model according to the experimental model. The emphasis is on modelling of the joints with 4 rivets and modelling of correct boundary conditions, as well as mass parameters and cross-section dimensions.A modal analysis of the structure is performed in FEM software. Many experimental measurements were made to correctly revise the FEM model. The calculated natural frequencies are compared with the measured ones. In addition, mode-shapes from the calculation are validated with the measured mode-shapes. The difference between the prepared FEM model and the measured specimen is small enough after a few steps of tuning. The verified, validated and revised numerical model can be used in future for a local damage detection.

  14. Truss-Integrated Thermoformed Ductwork Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Winter; Dianne Griffiths; Ravi Gorthala

    2007-08-30

    This report summarizes a multi-year research effort to develop a leak-free duct system that can be readily installed within the thermal envelope. There are numerous efforts underway to improve duct system efficiency. Most of these involve modifications to current technology such as air sealing techniques like mastic and aeroseal, snap together duct connections, and greater levels of insulation. This project sought to make a more significant stride forward by introducing a duct system of a material that can be more readily sealed and can exhibit lower friction losses. The research focused on the use of smooth internal surface, low friction plastic ducts that could be easily installed with very low air leakage. The initial system concept that was proposed and researched in Phase I focused on the use of thermoformed plastic ducts installed in a recessed roof truss underneath the attic insulation. A bench top thermoformed system was developed and tested during Phase I of the project. In Phase II, a first generation duct system utilizing a resin impregnated fiberglass duct product was designed and specified. The system was installed and tested in an Atlanta area home. Following this installation research and correspondence with code officials was undertaken to alleviate the continued concern over the code acceptance of plastic ducts in above ground applications. A Committee Interpretation response was received from the International Code Council (ICC) stating that plastic ducts were allowed, but must be manufactured from materials complying with Class 0 or Class 1 rating. With assurance of code acceptance, a plastic duct system using rotomolded high density polyethylene ducts that had passed the material test requirements by impregnating the material with a fire retardant during the molding process was installed in the basement of a new ranch-style home in Madison, WI. A series of measurements to evaluate the performance benefits relative to a similar control house with

  15. Signatures of non-universal large scales in conditional structure functions from various turbulent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Daniel B; Voth, Greg A; Bewley, Gregory P; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Gibert, Mathieu; Xu Haitao; Gylfason, Ármann; Mydlarski, Laurent; Yeung, P K

    2011-01-01

    We present a systematic comparison of conditional structure functions in nine turbulent flows. The flows studied include forced isotropic turbulence simulated on a periodic domain, passive grid wind tunnel turbulence in air and in pressurized SF 6 , active grid wind tunnel turbulence (in both synchronous and random driving modes), the flow between counter-rotating discs, oscillating grid turbulence and the flow in the Lagrangian exploration module (in both constant and random driving modes). We compare longitudinal Eulerian second-order structure functions conditioned on the instantaneous large-scale velocity in each flow to assess the ways in which the large scales affect the small scales in a variety of turbulent flows. Structure functions are shown to have larger values when the large-scale velocity significantly deviates from the mean in most flows, suggesting that dependence on the large scales is typical in many turbulent flows. The effects of the large-scale velocity on the structure functions can be quite strong, with the structure function varying by up to a factor of 2 when the large-scale velocity deviates from the mean by ±2 standard deviations. In several flows, the effects of the large-scale velocity are similar at all the length scales we measured, indicating that the large-scale effects are scale independent. In a few flows, the effects of the large-scale velocity are larger on the smallest length scales. (paper)

  16. Double inflation: A possible resolution of the large-scale structure problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.; Villumsen, J.V.; Vittorio, N.; Silk, J.; Juszkiewicz, R.

    1986-11-01

    A model is presented for the large-scale structure of the universe in which two successive inflationary phases resulted in large small-scale and small large-scale density fluctuations. This bimodal density fluctuation spectrum in an Ω = 1 universe dominated by hot dark matter leads to large-scale structure of the galaxy distribution that is consistent with recent observational results. In particular, large, nearly empty voids and significant large-scale peculiar velocity fields are produced over scales of ∼100 Mpc, while the small-scale structure over ≤ 10 Mpc resembles that in a low density universe, as observed. Detailed analytical calculations and numerical simulations are given of the spatial and velocity correlations. 38 refs., 6 figs

  17. Decoupling local mechanics from large-scale structure in modular metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Silverberg, Jesse L.

    2017-04-01

    A defining feature of mechanical metamaterials is that their properties are determined by the organization of internal structure instead of the raw fabrication materials. This shift of attention to engineering internal degrees of freedom has coaxed relatively simple materials into exhibiting a wide range of remarkable mechanical properties. For practical applications to be realized, however, this nascent understanding of metamaterial design must be translated into a capacity for engineering large-scale structures with prescribed mechanical functionality. Thus, the challenge is to systematically map desired functionality of large-scale structures backward into a design scheme while using finite parameter domains. Such “inverse design” is often complicated by the deep coupling between large-scale structure and local mechanical function, which limits the available design space. Here, we introduce a design strategy for constructing 1D, 2D, and 3D mechanical metamaterials inspired by modular origami and kirigami. Our approach is to assemble a number of modules into a voxelized large-scale structure, where the module’s design has a greater number of mechanical design parameters than the number of constraints imposed by bulk assembly. This inequality allows each voxel in the bulk structure to be uniquely assigned mechanical properties independent from its ability to connect and deform with its neighbors. In studying specific examples of large-scale metamaterial structures we show that a decoupling of global structure from local mechanical function allows for a variety of mechanically and topologically complex designs.

  18. Initial condition effects on large scale structure in numerical simulations of plane mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, W. A.; Garrett, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, Large Eddy Simulations are performed on the spatially developing plane turbulent mixing layer. The simulated mixing layers originate from initially laminar conditions. The focus of this research is on the effect of the nature of the imposed fluctuations on the large-scale spanwise and streamwise structures in the flow. Two simulations are performed; one with low-level three-dimensional inflow fluctuations obtained from pseudo-random numbers, the other with physically correlated fluctuations of the same magnitude obtained from an inflow generation technique. Where white-noise fluctuations provide the inflow disturbances, no spatially stationary streamwise vortex structure is observed, and the large-scale spanwise turbulent vortical structures grow continuously and linearly. These structures are observed to have a three-dimensional internal geometry with branches and dislocations. Where physically correlated provide the inflow disturbances a "streaky" streamwise structure that is spatially stationary is observed, with the large-scale turbulent vortical structures growing with the square-root of time. These large-scale structures are quasi-two-dimensional, on top of which the secondary structure rides. The simulation results are discussed in the context of the varying interpretations of mixing layer growth that have been postulated. Recommendations are made concerning the data required from experiments in order to produce accurate numerical simulation recreations of real flows.

  19. Towards Interactive Steering of a Very Large Floating Structure Code by Using HPC Parallelisation Strategies

    KAUST Repository

    Frisch, Jerome; Gao, Ruiping; Mundani, Ralf-Peter; Wang, Chien Ming; Rank, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    Very large floating structures (VLFSs) have been used for broad applications such as floating storage facilities, floating piers, floating bridges, floating airports, entertainment facilities, even habitation, and other purposes. Owing to its small

  20. Co-Cure-Ply Resins for High Performance, Large-Scale Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large-scale composite structures are commonly joined by secondary bonding of molded-and-cured thermoset components. This approach may result in unpredictable joint...

  1. The Space Station as a Construction Base for Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of using the Space Station as a construction site for large space structures is examined. An overview is presented of the results of a program entitled Definition of Technology Development Missions (TDM's) for Early Space Stations - Large Space Structures. The definition of LSS technology development missions must be responsive to the needs of future space missions which require large space structures. Long range plans for space were assembled by reviewing Space System Technology Models (SSTM) and other published sources. Those missions which will use large space structures were reviewed to determine the objectives which must be demonstrated by technology development missions. The three TDM's defined during this study are: (1) a construction storage/hangar facility; (2) a passive microwave radiometer; and (3) a precision optical system.

  2. On the universal character of the large scale structure of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demianski, M.; International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics; Rome Univ.; Doroshkevich, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    We review different theories of formation of the large scale structure of the Universe. Special emphasis is put on the theory of inertial instability. We show that for a large class of initial spectra the resulting two point correlation functions are similar. We discuss also the adhesion theory which uses the Burgers equation, Navier-Stokes equation or coagulation process. We review the Zeldovich theory of gravitational instability and discuss the internal structure of pancakes. Finally we discuss the role of the velocity potential in determining the global characteristics of large scale structures (distribution of caustics, scale of voids, etc.). In the last chapter we list the main unsolved problems and main successes of the theory of formation of large scale structure. (orig.)

  3. Hydro-structural issues in the design of ultra large container ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sime Malenica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural design of the ships includes two main issues which should be checked carefully, namely the extreme structural response (yielding & buckling and the fatigue structural response. Even if the corresponding failure modes are fundamentally different, the overall methodologies for their evaluation have many common points. Both issues require application of two main steps: deterministic calculations of hydro-structure interactions for given operating conditions on one side and the statistical post-processing in order to take into account the lifetime operational profile, on the other side. In the case of ultra large ships such as the container ships and in addition to the classical quasi-static type of structural responses the hydroelastic structural response becomes important. This is due to several reasons among which the following are the most important: the increase of the flexibility due to their large dimensions (Lpp close to 400 m which leads to the lower structural natural frequencies, very large operational speed (20 knots and large bow flare (increased slamming loads. The correct modeling of the hydroelastic ship structural response, and its inclusion into the overall design procedure, is significantly more complex than the evaluation of the quasi static structural response. The present paper gives an overview of the different tools and methods which are used in nowadays practice.

  4. Quantum probability, choice in large worlds, and the statistical structure of reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Don; Ladyman, James

    2013-06-01

    Classical probability models of incentive response are inadequate in "large worlds," where the dimensions of relative risk and the dimensions of similarity in outcome comparisons typically differ. Quantum probability models for choice in large worlds may be motivated pragmatically - there is no third theory - or metaphysically: statistical processing in the brain adapts to the true scale-relative structure of the universe.

  5. Thermodynamic Stability of Structure H Hydrates Based on the Molecular Properties of Large Guest Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Tezuka, Kyoichi; Taguchi, Tatsuhiko; Alavi, Saman; Sum, Amadeu K.; Ohmura, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    This paper report analyses of thermodynamic stability of structure-H clathrate hydrates formed with methane and large guest molecules in terms of their gas phase molecular sizes and molar masses for the selection of a large guest molecule providing better hydrate stability. We investigated the correlation among the gas phase molecular sizes, the molar masses of large molecule guest substances, and the equilibrium pressures. The results suggest that there exists a molecular-size value for the ...

  6. Non-linear finite element analyses applicable for the design of large reinforced concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engen, M; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Øverli, Jan Arve; Åldstedt, Erik

    2017-01-01

    In order to make non-linear finite element analyses applicable during assessments of the ultimate load capacity or the structural reliability of large reinforced concrete structures, there is need for an efficient solution strategy with a low modelling uncertainty. A solution strategy comprises

  7. Large scale electronic structure calculations in the study of the condensed phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, H.J.J.; Guest, M.F.; Sherwood, P.; Thomas, J.M.H.; van Lenthe, J.H.; van Lingen, J.N.J.; Bailey, C.L.; Bush, I.J.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the role that large-scale electronic structure computations can now play in the modelling of the condensed phase. To structure our analysis, we consider four distict ways in which today's scientific targets can be re-scoped to take advantage of advances in computing resources: 1. time to

  8. Significance of Operating Environment in Condition Monitoring of Large Civil Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Alampalli, Sreenivas

    1999-01-01

    Success of remote long-term condition monitoring of large civil structures and developing calibrated analytical models for damage detection, depend significantly on establishing accurate baseline signatures and their sensitivity. Most studies reported in the literature concentrated on the effect of structural damage on modal parameters without emphasis on reliability of modal parameters. Thus, a field bridge structure was studied for the significance of operating conditions in relation to bas...

  9. Development of pressure containment and damage tolerance technology for composite fuselage structures in large transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. J.; Thomson, L. W.; Wilson, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA sponsored composites research and development programs were set in place to develop the critical engineering technologies in large transport aircraft structures. This NASA-Boeing program focused on the critical issues of damage tolerance and pressure containment generic to the fuselage structure of large pressurized aircraft. Skin-stringer and honeycomb sandwich composite fuselage shell designs were evaluated to resolve these issues. Analyses were developed to model the structural response of the fuselage shell designs, and a development test program evaluated the selected design configurations to appropriate load conditions.

  10. Structure Transformation and Coherent Interface in Large Lattice-Mismatched Nanoscale Multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale Al/W multilayers were fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy. Despite the large lattice mismatch and significantly different lattice structures between Al and W, a structural transition from face-centered cubic to body-centered cubic in Al layers was observed when the individual layer thickness was reduced from 5 nm to 1 nm, forming coherent Al/W interfaces. For potential mechanisms underlying the observed structure transition and forming of coherent interfaces, it was suggested that the reduction of interfacial energy and high stresses induced by large lattice-mismatch play a crucial role.

  11. A wireless sensor network design and evaluation for large structural strain field monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zixue; Wu, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang

    2011-01-01

    Structural strain changes under external environmental or mechanical loads are the main monitoring parameters in structural health monitoring or mechanical property tests. This paper presents a wireless sensor network designed for monitoring large structural strain field variation. First of all, a precision strain sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and wireless monitoring. In order to establish a synchronous strain data acquisition network, the cluster-star network synchronization method is designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless network for strain field monitoring capability, a multi-point network evaluation system is developed for an experimental aluminum plate structure for load variation monitoring. Based on the precision wireless strain nodes, the wireless data acquisition network is deployed to synchronously gather, process and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under concentrated loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network for large structural strain field monitoring

  12. Significance of Operating Environment in Condition Monitoring of Large Civil Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas Alampalli

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Success of remote long-term condition monitoring of large civil structures and developing calibrated analytical models for damage detection, depend significantly on establishing accurate baseline signatures and their sensitivity. Most studies reported in the literature concentrated on the effect of structural damage on modal parameters without emphasis on reliability of modal parameters. Thus, a field bridge structure was studied for the significance of operating conditions in relation to baseline signatures. Results indicate that in practice, civil structures should be monitored for at least one full cycle of in-service environmental changes before establishing baselines for condition monitoring or calibrating finite-element models. Boundary conditions deserve special attention.

  13. Size and Topology Optimization for Trusses with Discrete Design Variables by Improved Firefly Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yue; Li, Q.; Hu, Qingjie; Borgart, A.

    2017-01-01

    Firefly Algorithm (FA, for short) is inspired by the social behavior of fireflies and their phenomenon of bioluminescent communication. Based on the fundamentals of FA, two improved strategies are proposed to conduct size and topology optimization for trusses with discrete design variables. Firstly,

  14. 75 FR 34064 - Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards, Test Procedures for Roof Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... failure. Failure is rupture, fracture, or excessive yielding. (v) Final recovery phase. Remove 2.0 times... members of the public. Commenters should follow the instructions provided on that site to submit comments... nondestructive testing procedure for roof trusses that permits a lower overall factor of safety to be used in...

  15. Paradigms and nursing management, analysis of the current organizational structure in a large hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D

    1992-01-01

    Hospitals developed over the period of time when positivism become a predominant world view. Positivism was founded by four Western trends: preponderance of hierarchy and autocracy, popularization of bureaucracy, extensive application of a machine orientation to work and predominance of "scientific" inquiry. Organizational theory developed largely from quantitative research findings arising from a positivistic world view. A case study, analyzing a current nursing organizational structure at one large hospital, is presented. Nursing management was found to be based upon the positivistic paradigm. The predominance of a machine orientation, and an autocratic and bureaucratic structure are evidence of this. A change to shared governance had been attempted, indicating a shift to a more modern organizational structure based on a different paradigm. The article concludes by emphasizing that managers are largely responsible for facilitating change; change that will meet internal human resource needs and the cost-effectiveness crises of hospitals today through more effective use of human resources.

  16. Electromagnetic and structural coupled analysis with the effect of large deflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Tomoyoshi; Niho, Tomoya

    1997-01-01

    In the designs of future fusion reactors and magnetic levitated vehicles, thin shell conducting structures are located in a high electromagnetic field. The transient magnetic field induces the eddy current on the conductive structure. While the Lorentz force by the eddy current and the magnetic field is loaded to the thin shell structure, the electromotive force by the deflection velocity and magnetic field reduces the eddy current. Therefore, the electromagnetic and structural coupled analysis is required for the design of these components. This paper describes a coupled finite element analysis for the eddy current and the structure. A formulation is presented considering the effect of the large deflection of shell structures by the total Lagrangian formulation. Both matrix equations for the eddy current and the structure are solved simultaneously using coupling sub-matrices. A coupled problem of a cantilever bending plate is analyzed. Based on the analysis results, the influence of the large deflection on the coupling effect is discussed. The condition that the large deflection analysis is required is examined through some parametric analyses

  17. An algebraic sub-structuring method for large-scale eigenvalue calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Gao, W.; Bai, Z.; Li, X.; Lee, L.; Husbands, P.; Ng, E.

    2004-01-01

    We examine sub-structuring methods for solving large-scale generalized eigenvalue problems from a purely algebraic point of view. We use the term 'algebraic sub-structuring' to refer to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to provide approximate solutions to the original problem. We are interested in the question of which spectral components one should extract from each sub-structure in order to produce an approximate solution to the original problem with a desired level of accuracy. Error estimate for the approximation to the smallest eigenpair is developed. The estimate leads to a simple heuristic for choosing spectral components (modes) from each sub-structure. The effectiveness of such a heuristic is demonstrated with numerical examples. We show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve a generalized eigenvalue problem arising from the simulation of an accelerator structure. One interesting characteristic of this application is that the stiffness matrix produced by a hierarchical vector finite elements scheme contains a null space of large dimension. We present an efficient scheme to deflate this null space in the algebraic sub-structuring process

  18. Accelerating large-scale protein structure alignments with graphics processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Bin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale protein structure alignment, an indispensable tool to structural bioinformatics, poses a tremendous challenge on computational resources. To ensure structure alignment accuracy and efficiency, efforts have been made to parallelize traditional alignment algorithms in grid environments. However, these solutions are costly and of limited accessibility. Others trade alignment quality for speedup by using high-level characteristics of structure fragments for structure comparisons. Findings We present ppsAlign, a parallel protein structure Alignment framework designed and optimized to exploit the parallelism of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs. As a general-purpose GPU platform, ppsAlign could take many concurrent methods, such as TM-align and Fr-TM-align, into the parallelized algorithm design. We evaluated ppsAlign on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU card, and compared it with existing software solutions running on an AMD dual-core CPU. We observed a 36-fold speedup over TM-align, a 65-fold speedup over Fr-TM-align, and a 40-fold speedup over MAMMOTH. Conclusions ppsAlign is a high-performance protein structure alignment tool designed to tackle the computational complexity issues from protein structural data. The solution presented in this paper allows large-scale structure comparisons to be performed using massive parallel computing power of GPU.

  19. Large-scale seismic test for soil-structure interaction research in Hualien, Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, T.; Kokusho, T.; Okamoto, T.

    1995-01-01

    It is important to evaluate dynamic soil-structure interaction more accurately in the aseismic design of important facilities such as nuclear power plants. A large-scale model structure with about 1/4th of commercial nuclear power plants was constructed on the gravelly layers in seismically active Hualien, Taiwan. This international joint project is called 'the Hualien LSST Project', where 'LSST' is short for Large-Scale Seismic Test. In this paper, research tasks and responsibilities, the process of the construction work and research tasks along the time-line, main results obtained up to now, and so on in this Project are described. (J.P.N.)

  20. Interactive computer graphics and its role in control system design of large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. S. S. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to show the relevance of interactive computer graphics in the design of control systems to maintain attitude and shape of large space structures to accomplish the required mission objectives. The typical phases of control system design, starting from the physical model such as modeling the dynamics, modal analysis, and control system design methodology are reviewed and the need of the interactive computer graphics is demonstrated. Typical constituent parts of large space structures such as free-free beams and free-free plates are used to demonstrate the complexity of the control system design and the effectiveness of the interactive computer graphics.

  1. Primordial Non-Gaussianity in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Desjacques

    2010-01-01

    generated the cosmological fluctuations observed today. Any detection of significant non-Gaussianity would thus have profound implications for our understanding of cosmic structure formation. The large-scale mass distribution in the Universe is a sensitive probe of the nature of initial conditions. Recent theoretical progress together with rapid developments in observational techniques will enable us to critically confront predictions of inflationary scenarios and set constraints as competitive as those from the Cosmic Microwave Background. In this paper, we review past and current efforts in the search for primordial non-Gaussianity in the large-scale structure of the Universe.

  2. Development of the simulation package 'ELSES' for extra-large-scale electronic structure calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, T; Fujiwara, T

    2009-01-01

    An early-stage version of the simulation package 'ELSES' (extra-large-scale electronic structure calculation) is developed for simulating the electronic structure and dynamics of large systems, particularly nanometer-scale and ten-nanometer-scale systems (see www.elses.jp). Input and output files are written in the extensible markup language (XML) style for general users. Related pre-/post-simulation tools are also available. A practical workflow and an example are described. A test calculation for the GaAs bulk system is shown, to demonstrate that the present code can handle systems with more than one atom species. Several future aspects are also discussed.

  3. Design of a Generic and Flexible Data Structure for Efficient Formulation of Large Scale Network Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    structure for efficient formulation of enterprise-wide optimization problems is presented. Through the integration of the described data structure in our synthesis and design framework, the problem formulation workflow is automated in a software tool, reducing time and resources needed to formulate large......The formulation of Enterprise-Wide Optimization (EWO) problems as mixed integer nonlinear programming requires collecting, consolidating and systematizing large amount of data, coming from different sources and specific to different disciplines. In this manuscript, a generic and flexible data...... problems, while ensuring at the same time data consistency and quality at the application stage....

  4. Replication fidelity assessment of large area sub-μm structured polymer surfaces using scatterometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calaon, M; Hansen, H N; Tosello, G; Madsen, M H; Weirich, J; Hansen, P E; Garnaes, J; Tang, P T

    2015-01-01

    The present study addresses one of the key challenges in the product quality control of transparent structured polymer substrates, the replication fidelity of sub-μm structures over a large area. Additionally the work contributes to the development of new techniques focused on in-line characterization of large nanostructured surfaces using scatterometry. In particular an approach to quantify the replication fidelity of high volume manufacturing processes such as polymer injection moulding is presented. Both periodic channels and semi-spherical structures were fabricated on nickel shims used for later injection moulding of Cyclic-olefin-copolymer (COC) substrate were the sub-μm features where ultimately transferred. The scatterometry system was validated using calibrated atomic force microscopy measurements and a model based on scalar diffraction theory employed to calculate the expected angular distribution of the reflected and the transmitted intensity for the nickel surfaces and structured COC and, respectively. (paper)

  5. A finite element based substructuring procedure for design analysis of large smart structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwin, U; Raja, S; Dwarakanathan, D

    2009-01-01

    A substructuring based design analysis procedure is presented for large smart structural system using the Craig–Bampton method. The smart structural system is distinctively characterized as an active substructure, modelled as a design problem, and a passive substructure, idealized as an analysis problem. Furthermore, a novel thought has been applied by introducing the electro–elastic coupling into the reduction scheme to solve the global structural control problem in a local domain. As an illustration, a smart composite box beam with surface bonded actuators/sensors is considered, and results of the local to global control analysis are presented to show the potential use of the developed procedure. The present numerical scheme is useful for optimally designing the active substructures to study their locations, coupled structure–actuator interaction and provide a solution to the global design of large smart structural systems

  6. Structure of exotic nuclei by large-scale shell model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsuno, Yutaka; Otsuka, Takaharu; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Honma, Michio

    2006-01-01

    An extensive large-scale shell-model study is conducted for unstable nuclei around N = 20 and N = 28, aiming to investigate how the shell structure evolves from stable to unstable nuclei and affects the nuclear structure. The structure around N = 20 including the disappearance of the magic number is reproduced systematically, exemplified in the systematics of the electromagnetic moments in the Na isotope chain. As a key ingredient dominating the structure/shell evolution in the exotic nuclei from a general viewpoint, we pay attention to the tensor force. Including a proper strength of the tensor force in the effective interaction, we successfully reproduce the proton shell evolution ranging from N = 20 to 28 without any arbitrary modifications in the interaction and predict the ground state of 42Si to contain a large deformed component

  7. Evaluation of linear DC motor actuators for control of large space structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ide, Eric Nelson

    1988-01-01

    This thesis examines the use of a linear DC motor as a proof mass actuator for the control of large space structures. A model for the actuator, including the current and force compensation used, is derived. Because of the force compensation, the actuator is unstable when placed on a structure. Relative position feedback is used for actuator stabilization. This method of compensation couples the actuator to the mast in a feedback configuration. Three compensator designs are prop...

  8. Seismic analysis of a large LMFBR with fluid-structure interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The seismic analysis of a large LMFBR with many internal components and structures is presented. Both vertical and horizontal seismic excitations are considered. The important hydrodynamic phenomena such as fluid-structure interaction, sloshing, fluid coupling and fluid inertia effects are included in the analysis. The results of this study are discussed in detail. Information which is useful to the design of future reactions under seismic conditions is also given. 4 refs., 12 figs

  9. Infrared structure and large Psub(T) behavior of quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafael, Eduardo de.

    1977-09-01

    The study of the infrared structure of QCD in perturbation theory is an interesting problem per se regardless of its relationship to the confinement problem. The ultimate motivation for the study of the large transverse momentum behavior of QCD is to provide a field theoretic framework to the large Psub(T)-phenomena in hadronic interactions. As a first step towards that aim it is of interest to explore the possibility that the QCD Green's functions in 'some' regions of exceptional momenta, like the large-Psub(T) regime, may still obey some kind of renormalization group type equations

  10. Structure design of the Westinghouse superconducting magnet for the Large Coil Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domeisen, F.N.; Hackworth, D.T.; Stuebinger, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    In the on-going development of superconducting toroidal field coils for tokamak reactors, the Large Coil Program (LCP) managed by Union Carbide Corporation will include the design, fabrication, and testing of large superconducting coils to determine their feasibility for use in the magnetic fusion energy effort. Structural analysis of the large coil is essential to ensure adequate safety in the test coil design and confidence in the scalability of the design. This paper will discuss the action of tensile and shear loads on the various materials used in the coil. These loads are of magnetic and thermal origin

  11. New Insights about Enzyme Evolution from Large Scale Studies of Sequence and Structure Relationships*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shoshana D.; Babbitt, Patricia C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how enzymes have evolved offers clues about their structure-function relationships and mechanisms. Here, we describe evolution of functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies, each representing a large set of sequences that evolved from a common ancestor and that retain conserved features of their structures and active sites. Using several examples, we describe the different structural strategies nature has used to evolve new reaction and substrate specificities in each unique superfamily. The results provide insight about enzyme evolution that is not easily obtained from studies of one or only a few enzymes. PMID:25210038

  12. New insights about enzyme evolution from large scale studies of sequence and structure relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shoshana D; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2014-10-31

    Understanding how enzymes have evolved offers clues about their structure-function relationships and mechanisms. Here, we describe evolution of functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies, each representing a large set of sequences that evolved from a common ancestor and that retain conserved features of their structures and active sites. Using several examples, we describe the different structural strategies nature has used to evolve new reaction and substrate specificities in each unique superfamily. The results provide insight about enzyme evolution that is not easily obtained from studies of one or only a few enzymes. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Simulation of Locking Space Truss Deployments for a Large Deployable Sparse Aperture Reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    0 0 v2 θz2 v3 θz3  (1) Here, E (Youngs’s Modulus) is stiffness of the material in... v2 θz2 v3 θz3  =  12EIz L3 + 12EIz L3 −6EIz L2 + −6EIz L2 −12EIz L3 6EIz L2 −6EIz L2 + −6EIz L2 4EIz L...Free-Free Vibration Testing,” Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets , Vol. 44, No. 1, January 2007, pp. 132–142. 12. Heller, J. C., “Feasibility of Very

  14. System concept for a moderate cost Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, P. N.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Diner, A.; Freeland, R. E.; Irace, W. R.; Mcelroy, P. M.; Meinel, A. B.; Tolivar, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    A study was carried out at JPL during the first quarter of 1985 to develop a system concept for NASA's LDR. Major features of the concept are a four-mirror, two-stage optical system; a lightweight structural composite segmented primary reflector; and a deployable truss backup structure with integral thermal shield. The two-stage optics uses active figure control at the quaternary reflector located at the primary reflector exit pupil, allowing the large primary to be passive. The lightweight composite reflector panels limit the short-wavelength operation to approximately 30 microns but reduce the total primary reflector weight by a factor of 3 to 4 over competing technologies. On-orbit thermal analysis indicates a primary reflector equilibrium temperature of less than 200 K with a maximum gradient of about 5 C across the 20-m aperture. Weight and volume estimates are consistent with a single Shuttle launch, and are based on Space Station assembly and checkout.

  15. The Impact of Ownership Structure on Firm Performance : Evidence From a Large Emerging Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, S.W.; George, R.; Kabir, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    We examine how ownership structure affects the performance of firms using firm level data from a large emerging market, India.We specifically focus on a previously unexplored phenomenon, namely the differential role played by foreign institutional and foreign corporate shareholders.An examination of

  16. Material model for non-linear finite element analyses of large concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engen, Morten; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Øverli, Jan Arve; Åldstedt, Erik; Beushausen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A fully triaxial material model for concrete was implemented in a commercial finite element code. The only required input parameter was the cylinder compressive strength. The material model was suitable for non-linear finite element analyses of large concrete structures. The importance of including

  17. Large-scale structural alteration of brain in epileptic children with SCN1A mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jeong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Significance: This study showed large-scale developmental brain changes in patients with epilepsy and SCN1A gene mutation, which may be associated with the core symptoms of the patients. Further longitudinal MRI studies with larger cohorts are required to confirm the effect of SCN1A gene mutation on structural brain development.

  18. An Improved Conceptually-Based Method for Analysis of Communication Network Structure of Large Complex Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William D., Jr.

    Previous methods for determining the communication structure of organizations work well for small or simple organizations, but are either inadequate or unwieldy for use with large complex organizations. An improved method uses a number of different measures and a series of successive approximations to order the communication matrix such that…

  19. Direct evaluation of free energy for large system through structure integration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuhito; Tanaka, Ryohei; Yuge, Koretaka

    2015-09-30

    We propose a new approach, 'structure integration', enabling direct evaluation of configurational free energy for large systems. The present approach is based on the statistical information of lattice. Through first-principles-based simulation, we find that the present method evaluates configurational free energy accurately in disorder states above critical temperature.

  20. A Qualitative Program Evaluation of a Structured Leadership Mentoring Program at a Large Aerospace Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Romney P.

    2011-01-01

    The researcher utilized a qualitative approach to conduct a program evaluation of the organization where he is employed. The study intended to serve as a program evaluation for the structured in-house mentoring program at a large aerospace corporation (A-Corp). This program evaluation clarified areas in which the current mentoring program is…

  1. Electromagnetic modelling of large complex 3-D structures with LEGO and the eigencurrent expansion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancellotti, V.; Hon, de B.P.; Tijhuis, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Linear embedding via Green's operators (LEGO) is a computational method in which the multiple scattering between adjacent objects - forming a large composite structure - is determined through the interaction of simple-shaped building domains, whose electromagnetic (EM) behavior is accounted for by

  2. Hierarchical formation of large scale structures of the Universe: observations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurogordato, Sophie

    2003-01-01

    In this report for an Accreditation to Supervise Research (HDR), the author proposes an overview of her research works in cosmology. These works notably addressed the large scale distribution of the Universe (with constraints on the scenario of formation, and on the bias relationship, and the structuring of clusters), the analysis of galaxy clusters during coalescence, mass distribution within relaxed clusters [fr

  3. Reference Management Methodologies for Large Structural Models at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Bingham, Ryan; Schmidt, Rick

    2011-01-01

    There have been many challenges associated with modeling some of NASA KSC's largest structures. Given the size of the welded structures here at KSC, it was critically important to properly organize model struc.ture and carefully manage references. Additionally, because of the amount of hardware to be installed on these structures, it was very important to have a means to coordinate between different design teams and organizations, check for interferences, produce consistent drawings, and allow for simple release processes. Facing these challenges, the modeling team developed a unique reference management methodology and model fidelity methodology. This presentation will describe the techniques and methodologies that were developed for these projects. The attendees will learn about KSC's reference management and model fidelity methodologies for large structures. The attendees will understand the goals of these methodologies. The attendees will appreciate the advantages of developing a reference management methodology.

  4. Fabrication of Large Area Fishnet Optical Metamaterial Structures Operational at Near-IR Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis W. Prather

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a fabrication process for large area (2 mm × 2 mm fishnet metamaterial structures for near IR wavelengths. This process involves: (a defining a sacrificial Si template structure onto a quartz wafer using deep-UV lithography and a dry etching process (b deposition of a stack of Au-SiO2-Au layers and (c a ‘lift-off’ process which removes the sacrificial template structure to yield the fishnet structure. The fabrication steps in this process are compatible with today’s CMOS technology making it eminently well suited for batch fabrication. Also, depending on area of the exposure mask available for patterning the template structure, this fabrication process can potentially lead to optical metamaterials spanning across wafer-size areas.

  5. Simplified DFT methods for consistent structures and energies of large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeweyher, Eike; Gerit Brandenburg, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Kohn–Sham density functional theory (DFT) is routinely used for the fast electronic structure computation of large systems and will most likely continue to be the method of choice for the generation of reliable geometries in the foreseeable future. Here, we present a hierarchy of simplified DFT methods designed for consistent structures and non-covalent interactions of large systems with particular focus on molecular crystals. The covered methods are a minimal basis set Hartree–Fock (HF-3c), a small basis set screened exchange hybrid functional (HSE-3c), and a generalized gradient approximated functional evaluated in a medium-sized basis set (B97-3c), all augmented with semi-classical correction potentials. We give an overview on the methods design, a comprehensive evaluation on established benchmark sets for geometries and lattice energies of molecular crystals, and highlight some realistic applications on large organic crystals with several hundreds of atoms in the primitive unit cell.

  6. TOPOLOGY OF A LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE AS A TEST OF MODIFIED GRAVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Chen Xuelei; Park, Changbom

    2012-01-01

    The genus of the isodensity contours is a robust measure of the topology of a large-scale structure, and it is relatively insensitive to nonlinear gravitational evolution, galaxy bias, and redshift-space distortion. We show that the growth of density fluctuations is scale dependent even in the linear regime in some modified gravity theories, which opens a new possibility of testing the theories observationally. We propose to use the genus of the isodensity contours, an intrinsic measure of the topology of the large-scale structure, as a statistic to be used in such tests. In Einstein's general theory of relativity, density fluctuations grow at the same rate on all scales in the linear regime, and the genus per comoving volume is almost conserved as structures grow homologously, so we expect that the genus-smoothing-scale relation is basically time independent. However, in some modified gravity models where structures grow with different rates on different scales, the genus-smoothing-scale relation should change over time. This can be used to test the gravity models with large-scale structure observations. We study the cases of the f(R) theory, DGP braneworld theory as well as the parameterized post-Friedmann models. We also forecast how the modified gravity models can be constrained with optical/IR or redshifted 21 cm radio surveys in the near future.

  7. Developing eThread Pipeline Using SAGA-Pilot Abstraction for Large-Scale Structural Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjani Ragothaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While most of computational annotation approaches are sequence-based, threading methods are becoming increasingly attractive because of predicted structural information that could uncover the underlying function. However, threading tools are generally compute-intensive and the number of protein sequences from even small genomes such as prokaryotes is large typically containing many thousands, prohibiting their application as a genome-wide structural systems biology tool. To leverage its utility, we have developed a pipeline for eThread—a meta-threading protein structure modeling tool, that can use computational resources efficiently and effectively. We employ a pilot-based approach that supports seamless data and task-level parallelism and manages large variation in workload and computational requirements. Our scalable pipeline is deployed on Amazon EC2 and can efficiently select resources based upon task requirements. We present runtime analysis to characterize computational complexity of eThread and EC2 infrastructure. Based on results, we suggest a pathway to an optimized solution with respect to metrics such as time-to-solution or cost-to-solution. Our eThread pipeline can scale to support a large number of sequences and is expected to be a viable solution for genome-scale structural bioinformatics and structure-based annotation, particularly, amenable for small genomes such as prokaryotes. The developed pipeline is easily extensible to other types of distributed cyberinfrastructure.

  8. The prospect of modern thermomechanics in structural integrity calculations of large-scale pressure vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Tamás

    2018-05-01

    Structural integrity calculations play a crucial role in designing large-scale pressure vessels. Used in the electric power generation industry, these kinds of vessels undergo extensive safety analyses and certification procedures before deemed feasible for future long-term operation. The calculations are nowadays directed and supported by international standards and guides based on state-of-the-art results of applied research and technical development. However, their ability to predict a vessel's behavior under accidental circumstances after long-term operation is largely limited by the strong dependence of the analysis methodology on empirical models that are correlated to the behavior of structural materials and their changes during material aging. Recently a new scientific engineering paradigm, structural integrity has been developing that is essentially a synergistic collaboration between a number of scientific and engineering disciplines, modeling, experiments and numerics. Although the application of the structural integrity paradigm highly contributed to improving the accuracy of safety evaluations of large-scale pressure vessels, the predictive power of the analysis methodology has not yet improved significantly. This is due to the fact that already existing structural integrity calculation methodologies are based on the widespread and commonly accepted 'traditional' engineering thermal stress approach, which is essentially based on the weakly coupled model of thermomechanics and fracture mechanics. Recently, a research has been initiated in MTA EK with the aim to review and evaluate current methodologies and models applied in structural integrity calculations, including their scope of validity. The research intends to come to a better understanding of the physical problems that are inherently present in the pool of structural integrity problems of reactor pressure vessels, and to ultimately find a theoretical framework that could serve as a well

  9. Novel material and structural design for large-scale marine protective devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Ang; Lin, Wei; Ma, Yong; Zhao, Chengbi; Tang, Youhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-scale protective devices with different structural designs have been optimized. • Large-scale protective devices with novel material designs have been optimized. • Protective devices constructed of sandwich panels have the best anti-collision performance. • Protective devices with novel material design can reduce weight and construction cost. - Abstract: Large-scale protective devices must endure the impact of severe forces, large structural deformation, the increased stress and strain rate effects, and multiple coupling effects. In evaluation of the safety of conceptual design through simulation, several key parameters considered in this research are maximum impact force, energy dissipated by the impactor (e.g. a ship) and energy absorbed by the device and the impactor stroke. During impact, the main function of the ring beam structure is to resist and buffer the impact force between ship and bridge pile caps, which could guarantee that the magnitude of impact force meets the corresponding requirements. The means of improving anti-collision performance can be to increase the strength of the beam section or to exchange the steel material with novel fiber reinforced polymer laminates. The main function of the buoyancy tank is to absorb and transfer the ship’s kinetic energy through large plastic deformation, damage, or friction occurring within itself. The energy absorption effect can be improved by structure optimization or by the use of new sandwich panels. Structural and material optimization schemes are proposed on the basis of conceptual design in this research, and protective devices constructed of sandwich panels prove to have the best anti-collision performance

  10. Robust stability analysis of large power systems using the structured singular value theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, R.; Sarmiento, H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Messina, A.R. [Cinvestav, Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This paper examines the application of structured singular value (SSV) theory to analyse robust stability of complex power systems with respect to a set of structured uncertainties. Based on SSV theory and the frequency sweep method, techniques for robust analysis of large-scale power systems are developed. The main interest is focused on determining robust stability for varying operating conditions and uncertainties in the structure of the power system. The applicability of the proposed techniques is verified through simulation studies on a large-scale power system. In particular, results for the system are considered for a wide range of uncertainties of operating conditions. Specifically, the developed technique is used to estimate the effect of variations in the parameters of a major system inter-tie on the nominal stability of a critical inter-area mode. (Author)

  11. Collinear factorization for deep inelastic scattering structure functions at large Bjorken xB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accardi, Alberto; Qiu, Jian-Wei

    2008-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/07/090 We examine the uncertainty of perturbative QCD factorization for hadron structure functions in deep inelastic scattering at a large value of the Bjorken variable xB. We analyze the target mass correction to the structure functions by using the collinear factorization approach in the momentum space. We express the long distance physics of structure functions and the leading target mass corrections in terms of parton distribution functions with the standard operator definition. We compare our result with existing work on the target mass correction. We also discuss the impact of a final-state jet function on the extraction of parton distributions at large fractional momentum x.

  12. A European collaboration research programme to study and test large scale base isolated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renda, V.; Verzeletti, G.; Papa, L.

    1995-01-01

    The improvement of the technology of innovative anti-seismic mechanisms, as those for base isolation and energy dissipation, needs of testing capability for large scale models of structures integrated with these mechanisms. These kind experimental tests are of primary importance for the validation of design rules and the setting up of an advanced earthquake engineering for civil constructions of relevant interest. The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission offers the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment located at Ispra - Italy, as a focal point for an international european collaboration research programme to test large scale models of structure making use of innovative anti-seismic mechanisms. A collaboration contract, opened to other future contributions, has been signed with the national italian working group on seismic isolation (Gruppo di Lavoro sull's Isolamento Sismico GLIS) which includes the national research centre ENEA, the national electricity board ENEL, the industrial research centre ISMES and producer of isolators ALGA. (author). 3 figs

  13. Effect of Chord Splice Joints on Force Distribution and Deformations in Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The span of roof trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates) makes it often necessary to use splice joints in the top and bottom chords. In the finite element models used for design of the trusses these splice joints are normally assumed to be either rotationally stiff or pinned....... Timber-to-timber contact and non-linear elastic behaviour are included in the model. Results from tests with joints under fourpoint bending are compared with predictions given by TrussLab, and a good agreement is found. Splice joints in trusses with nail plates may be assumed to be rotationally stiff...... if their deformation has no significant effect upon the distribution of member forces according to Eurocode 5. Two simple guidelines for the design and location of splice joints are given in Eurocode 5 for treating the splice joints as rotationally stiff. The reasonability of these guidelines and the influence...

  14. Performance of Arch-Style Road Crossing Structures from Relative Movement Rates of Large Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Andis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, an increasing number of highway construction and reconstruction projects have included mitigation measures aimed at reducing wildlife-vehicle collisions and maintaining habitat connectivity for wildlife. The most effective and robust measures include wildlife fences combined with wildlife underpasses and overpasses. The 39 wildlife crossing structures included along a 90 km stretch of US Highway 93 on the Flathead Indian Reservation in western Montana represent one of the most extensive of such projects. We measured movements of large mammal species at 15 elliptical arch-style wildlife underpasses and adjacent habitat between April and November 2015. We investigated if the movements of large mammals through the underpasses were similar to large mammal movements in the adjacent habitat. Across all structures, large mammals (all species combined were more likely to move through the structures than pass at a random location in the surrounding habitat. At the species level, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus and mule deer (O. hemionus used the underpasses significantly more than could be expected based on their movement through the surrounding habitat. However, carnivorous species such as, black bear (Ursus americanus and coyote (Canis latrans moved through the underpasses in similar numbers compared to the surrounding habitat.

  15. Choice of rational structural solution for smart innovative suspension structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goremikins, V.; Serdjuks, D.; Buka-Vaivade, K.; Pakrastins, L.

    2017-10-01

    Choice of the rational structural solution for smart innovative suspension structure was carried out. The prestressed cable trusses and cross-laminated timber panels were considered as the main load bearing members for the smart innovative suspension structure. The FEM model, which enables to predict behaviours of the structure, was developed in the programme ANSYS v12. Structural solutions that are differed by the lattice configuration of the cable truss and placement of cross-laminated timber panels were considered. The variant of the cable truss with the vertical suspenders and chords joined in the middle of the span was chosen as the best one. It was shown, that placement of cross-laminated timber panels by the bottom chord of the prestressed cable truss enables to decrease materials consumption by 16.7% in comparison with the variant, where the panels are placed by the top chord. It was stated, that the materials consumption decrease by 17.3% in the case, when common work of the prestressed cable trusses and cross-laminated timber panels is taken into account. The cross-laminated timber panels are working in the both directions. Physical model of the structure with the span equal to 2 m was developed for checking of numerically obtained results.

  16. Structural Analysis of the Support System for a Large Compressor Driven by a Synchronous Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    For economic reasons, the steam drive for a large compressor was replaced by a large synchronous electric motor. Due to the resulting large increase in mass and because the unit was mounted on a steel frame approximately 18 feet above ground level, it was deemed necessary to determine if a steady state or transient vibration problem existed. There was a definite possibility that a resonant or near resonant condition could be encountered. The ensuing analysis, which led to some structural changes as the analysis proceeded, did not reveal any major steady state vibration problems. However, the analysis did indicate that the system would go through several natural frequencies of the support structure during start-up and shutdown. This led to the development of special start-up and shutdown procedures to minimize the possibility of exciting any of the major structural modes. A coast-down could result in significant support structure and/or equipment damage, especially under certain circumstances. In any event, dynamic field tests verified the major analytical results. The unit has now been operating for over three years without any major vibration problems.

  17. Novel Threadlike Structures May Be Present on the Large Animal Organ Surface: Evidence in Swine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hee Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The types of embryonic development probably provoke different paths of novel threadlike structure (NTS development. The authors hypothesized that NTS may be easily observed on the surface of swine intestines by using trypan blue staining method and visualization under an optical microscope. Methods. General anesthesia was administered to 2 Yorkshire pigs. The abdominal walls of the pigs were carefully dissected along the medial alba. NTSs were identified on organ surfaces under a stereoscopic microscope after trypan blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens obtained from the large intestine were subjected to 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining and observed using the polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the obtained structure fits the definition of NTS. Results. We found elastic, semitransparent threadlike structures (forming a network structure that had a milky-white color in situ and in vivo in swine large intestines. The samples showed distinct extinction of polarized light at every 90 degrees, and nucleus was shown to be rod shaped by DAPI staining, indicating that they meet the criteria of NTS. Conclusion. We used a swine model to demonstrate that NTS may be present on large animal organ surfaces. Our results may permit similar studies by using human specimens.

  18. 2MASS Constraints on the Local Large-Scale Structure: A Challenge to LCDM?

    OpenAIRE

    Frith, W. J.; Shanks, T.; Outram, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the large-scale structure of the local galaxy distribution using the recently completed 2 Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). First, we determine the K-band number counts over the 4000 sq.deg. APM survey area where evidence for a large-scale `local hole' has previously been detected and compare them to a homogeneous prediction. Considering a LCDM form for the 2-point angular correlation function, the observed deficiency represents a 5 sigma fluctuation in the galaxy distribution. We...

  19. Towards Interactive Steering of a Very Large Floating Structure Code by Using HPC Parallelisation Strategies

    KAUST Repository

    Frisch, Jerome

    2012-09-01

    Very large floating structures (VLFSs) have been used for broad applications such as floating storage facilities, floating piers, floating bridges, floating airports, entertainment facilities, even habitation, and other purposes. Owing to its small bending rigidity, VLFS deforms elastically when subjected to wave action. This elastic deformation due to wave is called hydro elastic response and it can be obtained by solving the interaction between the surface wave and the floating structure in the frequency domain. In solving the fluid-structure interaction, the floating structure can be modelled by applying the finite element method, whereas the fluid part may be analyzed by using the Green\\'s function method. When using the Green\\'s function which satisfies the boundary condition on the free-surface, the sea bottom and that at infinite distance from the floating structure, the unknown parameters to be determined for the fluid part can be minimized to be only those associated with the wetted surface of the floating structure. However, in the evaluation of the Green\\'s function, extensive computation time O(N2) is needed (N is the number of unknowns). Therefore, acceleration techniques are necessary to tackle the computational complexity. Nowadays, standard multi-core office PCs are already quite powerful if all the cores can be used efficiently. This paper will show different parallelisation strategies for speeding up the Green\\'s function computation. A shared memory based implementation as well as a distributed memory concept will be analysed regarding speed-up and efficiency. For large computations, batch jobs can be used to compute detailed results in high resolution on a large computational cluster or supercomputer. Different speed-up computations on clusters will be included for showing strong speed-up results. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Compton imaging tomography for nondestructive evaluation of large multilayer aircraft components and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Volodymyr; Grubsky, Victor; Zahiri, Feraidoon

    2017-02-01

    We present a novel NDT/NDE tool for non-contact, single-sided 3D inspection of aerospace components, based on Compton Imaging Tomography (CIT) technique, which is applicable to large, non-uniform, and/or multilayer structures made of composites or lightweight metals. CIT is based on the registration of Compton-scattered X-rays, and permits the reconstruction of the full 3D (tomographic) image of the inspected objects. Unlike conventional computerized tomography (CT), CIT requires only single-sided access to objects, and therefore can be applied to large structures without their disassembly. The developed tool provides accurate detection, identification, and precise 3D localizations and measurements of any possible internal and surface defects (corrosions, cracks, voids, delaminations, porosity, and inclusions), and also disbonds, core and skin defects, and intrusion of foreign fluids (e.g., fresh and salt water, oil) inside of honeycomb sandwich structures. The NDE capabilities of the system were successfully demonstrated on various aerospace structure samples provided by several major aerospace companies. Such a CIT-based tool can detect and localize individual internal defects with dimensions about 1-2 mm3, and honeycomb disbond defects less than 6 mm by 6 mm area with the variations in the thickness of the adhesive by 100 m. Current maximum scanning speed of aircraft/spacecraft structures is about 5-8 min/ft2 (50-80 min/m2).

  1. Auxetic hexachiral structures with wavy ligaments for large elasto-plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yilin; Wang, Zhen-Pei; Hien Poh, Leong

    2018-05-01

    The hexachiral structure is in-plane isotropic in small deformation. When subjected to large elasto-plastic deformation, however, the hexachiral structure tends to lose its auxeticity and/or isotropy—properties which are desirable in many potential applications. The objective of this study is to improve these two mechanical properties, without significantly compromising the effective yield stress, in the regime with significant material and geometrical nonlinearity effects. It is found that the deformation mechanisms underlying the auxeticity and isotropy properties of a hexachiral structure are largely influenced by the extent of rotation of the central ring in a unit cell. To facilitate the development of this deformation mechanism, an improved design with wavy ligaments is proposed. The improved performance of the proposed hexachiral structure is demonstrated. An initial study on possible applications as a protective material is next carried out, where the improved hexachiral design is shown to exhibit higher specific energy absorption capacity compared to the original design, as well as standard honeycomb structures.

  2. The spectra of type IIB flux compactifications at large complex structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, Callum; Marsh, M.C. David

    2016-01-01

    We compute the spectra of the Hessian matrix, H, and the matrix M that governs the critical point equation of the low-energy effective supergravity, as a function of the complex structure and axio-dilaton moduli space in type IIB flux compactifications at large complex structure. We find both spectra analytically in an h − 1,2 +3 real-dimensional subspace of the moduli space, and show that they exhibit a universal structure with highly degenerate eigenvalues, independently of the choice of flux, the details of the compactification geometry, and the number of complex structure moduli. In this subspace, the spectrum of the Hessian matrix contains no tachyons, but there are also no critical points. We show numerically that the spectra of H and M remain highly peaked over a large fraction of the sampled moduli space of explicit Calabi-Yau compactifications with 2 to 5 complex structure moduli. In these models, the scale of the supersymmetric contribution to the scalar masses is strongly linearly correlated with the value of the superpotential over almost the entire moduli space, with particularly strong correlations arising for g s <1. We contrast these results with the expectations from the much-used continuous flux approximation, and comment on the applicability of Random Matrix Theory to the statistical modelling of the string theory landscape.

  3. Large eddy simulation of a buoyancy-aided flow in a non-uniform channel – Buoyancy effects on large flow structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); He, S., E-mail: s.he@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Buoyancy may greatly redistribute the flow in a non-uniform channel. • Flow structures in the narrow gap are greatly changed when buoyancy is strong. • Large flow structures exist in wider gap, which is enhanced when heat is strong. • Buoyancy reduces mixing factor caused by large flow structures in narrow gap. - Abstract: It has been a long time since the ‘abnormal’ turbulent intensity distribution and high inter-sub-channel mixing rates were observed in the vicinity of the narrow gaps formed by the fuel rods in nuclear reactors. The extraordinary flow behaviour was first described as periodic flow structures by Hooper and Rehme (1984). Since then, the existences of large flow structures were demonstrated by many researchers in various non-uniform flow channels. It has been proved by many authors that the Strouhal number of the flow structure in the isothermal flow is dependent on the size of the narrow gap, not the Reynolds number once it is sufficiently large. This paper reports a numerical investigation on the effect of buoyancy on the large flow structures. A buoyancy-aided flow in a tightly-packed rod-bundle-like channel is modelled using large eddy simulation (LES) together with the Boussinesq approximation. The behaviour of the large flow structures in the gaps of the flow passage are studied using instantaneous flow fields, spectrum analysis and correlation analysis. It is found that the non-uniform buoyancy force in the cross section of the flow channel may greatly redistribute the velocity field once the overall buoyancy force is sufficiently strong, and consequently modify the large flow structures. The temporal and axial spatial scales of the large flow structures are influenced by buoyancy in a way similar to that turbulence is influenced. These scales reduce when the flow is laminarised, but start increasing in the turbulence regeneration region. The spanwise scale of the flow structures in the narrow gap remains more or

  4. Penentuan Jenis Kelamin Benih Ikan Betutu (Oxyeleotris marmorata Blkr. dengan Teknik Truss Morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atang Atang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on The Gender Determination Of Betutu Germ (Oxyeleotris marmorata Blkr. by Truss Morphometrics used survey method with Simple Random Sampling design, Betutu’s germ as sample were taken from Penjalin reservoir,  Brebes. The 26 distance of 13 pile points were based or Truss Morphometrics it were recorded as variables. The result of this research indicated that the size of Betutu’s A2 (origin anterior tip of snout at upper jaw – most posterior aspect of neurocranium, A4 (origin posterior point maxillary – origin of pelvic fin, B5 (origin of pelvic fin – origin of dorsal fin, B6 (origin of pelvic fin – origin of anal fin, D1 (insertion of anal fin – origin of lower caudal fin and D3 (insertion of dorsal II fin – origin of lower caudal fin can differentiate the gender of Betutu’s germ.

  5. Quality Improvement Process in a Large Intensive Care Unit: Structure and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Anita J; Guzman, Jorge A

    2016-11-01

    Quality improvement in the health care setting is a complex process, and even more so in the critical care environment. The development of intensive care unit process measures and quality improvement strategies are associated with improved outcomes, but should be individualized to each medical center as structure and culture can differ from institution to institution. The purpose of this report is to describe the structure of quality improvement processes within a large medical intensive care unit while using examples of the study institution's successes and challenges in the areas of stat antibiotic administration, reduction in blood product waste, central line-associated bloodstream infections, and medication errors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. M.; Reid, G.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives studied are the definition of the tested role of an early Space Station for the construction of large space structures. This is accomplished by defining the LSS technology development missions (TDMs) identified in phase 1. Design and operations trade studies are used to identify the best structural concepts and procedures for each TDMs. Details of the TDM designs are then developed along with their operational requirements. Space Station resources required for each mission, both human and physical, are identified. The costs and development schedules for the TDMs provide an indication of the programs needed to develop these missions.

  7. An optimum organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary Space Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify an optimum hypothetical organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary research and applications (R&A) Space Base manned by a mixed crew of technologists. Since such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than the empirical testing of it. The essential finding of this research was that a four-level project type 'total matrix' model will optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of Space Base technologists.

  8. Comparing direct and iterative equation solvers in a large structural analysis software system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    Two direct Choleski equation solvers and two iterative preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) equation solvers used in a large structural analysis software system are described. The two direct solvers are implementations of the Choleski method for variable-band matrix storage and sparse matrix storage. The two iterative PCG solvers include the Jacobi conjugate gradient method and an incomplete Choleski conjugate gradient method. The performance of the direct and iterative solvers is compared by solving several representative structural analysis problems. Some key factors affecting the performance of the iterative solvers relative to the direct solvers are identified.

  9. LDR structural technology activities at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ben

    1988-01-01

    The status of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) technology requirements and the availability of that technology in the next few years are summarized. The research efforts at JPL related to these technology needs are also discussed. LDR requires that a large and relatively stiff truss-type backup structure have a surface accurate to 100 microns in space (initial position with thermal distortions) and the dynamic characteristics predictable and/or measurable by on-orbit system identification for micron level motion. This motion may result from the excitation of the lower modes or from wave-type motions. It is also assumed that the LDR structure can be ground tested to validate its ability to meet mission requirements. No program manager will commit a structural design based solely on analysis, unless the analysis is backed by a validation test program.

  10. Thermal interaction in crusted melt jets with large-scale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Ken-ichiro; Sotome, Fuminori; Ishikawa, Michio [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to experimentally observe thermal interaction which would be capable of triggering due to entrainment, or entrapment in crusted melt jets with `large-scale structure`. The present experiment was carried out by dropping molten zinc and molten tin of 100 grams, of which mass was sufficient to generate large-scale structures of melt jets. The experimental results show that the thermal interaction of entrapment type occurs in molten-zinc jets with rare probability, and the thermal interaction of entrainment type occurs in molten tin jets with high probability. The difference of thermal interaction between molten zinc and molten tin may attribute to differences of kinematic viscosity and melting point between them. (author)

  11. Fuel containment, lightning protection and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Charles F.; James, Arthur M.

    1985-01-01

    The damage-tolerance characteristics of high strain-to-failure graphite fibers and toughened resins were evaluated. Test results show that conventional fuel tank sealing techniques are applicable to composite structures. Techniques were developed to prevent fuel leaks due to low-energy impact damage. For wing panels subjected to swept stroke lightning strikes, a surface protection of graphite/aluminum wire fabric and a fastener treatment proved effective in eliminating internal sparking and reducing structural damage. The technology features developed were incorporated and demonstrated in a test panel designed to meet the strength, stiffness, and damage tolerance requirements of a large commercial transport aircraft. The panel test results exceeded design requirements for all test conditions. Wing surfaces constructed with composites offer large weight savings if design allowable strains for compression can be increased from current levels.

  12. On the Soft Limit of the Large Scale Structure Power Spectrum: UV Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Garny, Mathias; Porto, Rafael A; Sagunski, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We derive a non-perturbative equation for the large scale structure power spectrum of long-wavelength modes. Thereby, we use an operator product expansion together with relations between the three-point function and power spectrum in the soft limit. The resulting equation encodes the coupling to ultraviolet (UV) modes in two time-dependent coefficients, which may be obtained from response functions to (anisotropic) parameters, such as spatial curvature, in a modified cosmology. We argue that both depend weakly on fluctuations deep in the UV. As a byproduct, this implies that the renormalized leading order coefficient(s) in the effective field theory (EFT) of large scale structures receive most of their contribution from modes close to the non-linear scale. Consequently, the UV dependence found in explicit computations within standard perturbation theory stems mostly from counter-term(s). We confront a simplified version of our non-perturbative equation against existent numerical simulations, and find good agr...

  13. Surface and Internal Waves due to a Moving Load on a Very Large Floating Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Kakinuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of surface/internal water waves with a floating platform is discussed with nonlinearity of fluid motion and flexibility of oscillating structure. The set of governing equations based on a variational principle is applied to a one- or two-layer fluid interacting with a horizontally very large and elastic thin plate floating on the water surface. Calculation results of surface displacements are compared with the existing experimental data, where a tsunami, in terms of a solitary wave, propagates across one-layer water with a floating thin plate. We also simulate surface and internal waves due to a point load, such as an airplane, moving on a very large floating structure in shallow water. The wave height of the surface or internal mode is amplified when the velocity of moving point load is equal to the surface- or internal-mode celerity, respectively.

  14. Inverse truss design as a conic mathematical program with equilibrium constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočvara, Michal; Outrata, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2017), s. 1329-1350 ISSN 1937-1632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00735S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : conic optimization * truss topology optimization * mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.781, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/kocvara-0477818.pdf

  15. Computer-simulated safety test of a fink-type roof truss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afolaxan, J.O.

    2003-01-01

    The safety of a Fink-type truss system following the BS5950/sup 1/ design requirements is examined. The design point approach of reliability analysis is developed to determine the safety indices for the individual members and the joints which are assumed filet-welded. Consequently, for assumed loading options, the entire system safety indices are reported indicating a need for the re-appraisal of the adopted criteria. (author)

  16. Testing the Big Bang: Light elements, neutrinos, dark matter and large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Several experimental and observational tests of the standard cosmological model are examined. In particular, a detailed discussion is presented regarding: (1) nucleosynthesis, the light element abundances, and neutrino counting; (2) the dark matter problems; and (3) the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Comments are made on the possible implications of the recent solar neutrino experimental results for cosmology. An appendix briefly discusses the 17 keV thing and the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on it.

  17. Evidence for non-Abelian dark matter from large scale structure?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    If dark matter multiplicity arises from a weakly coupled non-Abelian dark gauge group the corresponding "dark gluons" can have interesting signatures in cosmology which I will review: 1. the "dark gluons" contribute to the radiation content of the universe and 2. gluon interactions with the dark matter may explain the >3 sigma discrepancy between precision fits to the CMB from Planck and direct measurements of large scale structure in the universe.

  18. ShakeNet: a portable wireless sensor network for instrumenting large civil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Monica D.; Hao, Shuai; Mishra, Nilesh; Govindan, Ramesh; Nigbor, Robert

    2015-08-03

    We report our findings from a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program-funded project to develop and test a wireless, portable, strong-motion network of up to 40 triaxial accelerometers for structural health monitoring. The overall goal of the project was to record ambient vibrations for several days from USGS-instrumented structures. Structural health monitoring has important applications in fields like civil engineering and the study of earthquakes. The emergence of wireless sensor networks provides a promising means to such applications. However, while most wireless sensor networks are still in the experimentation stage, very few take into consideration the realistic earthquake engineering application requirements. To collect comprehensive data for structural health monitoring for civil engineers, high-resolution vibration sensors and sufficient sampling rates should be adopted, which makes it challenging for current wireless sensor network technology in the following ways: processing capabilities, storage limit, and communication bandwidth. The wireless sensor network has to meet expectations set by wired sensor devices prevalent in the structural health monitoring community. For this project, we built and tested an application-realistic, commercially based, portable, wireless sensor network called ShakeNet for instrumentation of large civil structures, especially for buildings, bridges, or dams after earthquakes. Two to three people can deploy ShakeNet sensors within hours after an earthquake to measure the structural response of the building or bridge during aftershocks. ShakeNet involved the development of a new sensing platform (ShakeBox) running a software suite for networking, data collection, and monitoring. Deployments reported here on a tall building and a large dam were real-world tests of ShakeNet operation, and helped to refine both hardware and software. 

  19. Evaluation of Dynamic Load Factors for a High-Speed Railway Truss Arch Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Youliang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on dynamic impact of high-speed trains on long-span bridges are important for the design and evaluation of high-speed railway bridges. The use of the dynamic load factor (DLF to account for the impact effect has been widely accepted in bridge engineering. Although the field monitoring studies are the most dependable way to study the actual DLF of the bridge, according to previous studies there are few field monitoring data on high-speed railway truss arch bridges. This paper presents an evaluation of DLF based on field monitoring and finite element simulation of Nanjing DaShengGuan Bridge, which is a high-speed railway truss arch bridge with the longest span throughout the world. The DLFs in different members of steel truss arch are measured using monitoring data and simulated using finite element model, respectively. The effects of lane position, number of train carriages, and speed of trains on DLF are further investigated. By using the accumulative probability function of the Generalized Extreme Value Distribution, the probability distribution model of DLF is proposed, based on which the standard value of DLF within 50-year return period is evaluated and compared with different bridge design codes.

  20. Measuring the topology of large-scale structure in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, J. Richard, III

    1988-11-01

    An algorithm for quantitatively measuring the topology of large-scale structure has now been applied to a large number of observational data sets. The present paper summarizes and provides an overview of some of these observational results. On scales significantly larger than the correlation length, larger than about 1200 km/s, the cluster and galaxy data are fully consistent with a sponge-like random phase topology. At a smoothing length of about 600 km/s, however, the observed genus curves show a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology. Cold dark matter (CDM) models show similar shifts at these scales but not generally as large as those seen in the data. Bubble models, with voids completely surrounded on all sides by wall of galaxies, show shifts in the opposite direction. The CDM model is overall the most successful in explaining the data.

  1. Measuring the topology of large-scale structure in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gott, J.R. III

    1988-01-01

    An algorithm for quantitatively measuring the topology of large-scale structure has now been applied to a large number of observational data sets. The present paper summarizes and provides an overview of some of these observational results. On scales significantly larger than the correlation length, larger than about 1200 km/s, the cluster and galaxy data are fully consistent with a sponge-like random phase topology. At a smoothing length of about 600 km/s, however, the observed genus curves show a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology. Cold dark matter (CDM) models show similar shifts at these scales but not generally as large as those seen in the data. Bubble models, with voids completely surrounded on all sides by wall of galaxies, show shifts in the opposite direction. The CDM model is overall the most successful in explaining the data. 45 references

  2. Thermal test of the insulation structure for LH 2 tank by using the large experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, S.; Onishi, K.; Konshima, N.; Nishigaki, K.

    Conceptual designs of large mass LH 2 (liquid hydrogen) storage systems, whose capacity is 50,000 m3, have been studied in the Japanese hydrogen project, World Energy Network (WE-NET) [K. Fukuda, in: WE-NET Hydrogen Energy Symposium, 1999, P1-P41]. This study has concluded that their thermal insulation structures for the huge LH 2 tanks should be developed. Their actual insulation structures comprise not only the insulation material but also reinforced members and joints. To evaluate their thermal performance correctly, a large test specimen including reinforced members and joints will be necessary. After verifying the thermal performance of a developed large experimental apparatus [S. Kamiya, Cryogenics 40 (1) (2000) 35] for measuring the thermal conductance of various insulation structures, we tested two specimens, a vacuum multilayer insulation (MLI) with a glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) support and a vacuum solid insulation (microtherm ®) with joints. The thermal background test for verifying the thermal design of the experimental apparatus showed that the background heat leak is 0.1 W, small enough to satisfy apparatus performance requirement. The thermal conductance measurements of specimens also showed that thermal heat fluxes of MLI with a GFRP support and microtherm ® are 8 and 5.4 W/m2, respectively.

  3. Electromagnetic scattering of large structures in layered earths using integral equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zonghou; Tripp, Alan C.

    1995-07-01

    An electromagnetic scattering algorithm for large conductivity structures in stratified media has been developed and is based on the method of system iteration and spatial symmetry reduction using volume electric integral equations. The method of system iteration divides a structure into many substructures and solves the resulting matrix equation using a block iterative method. The block submatrices usually need to be stored on disk in order to save computer core memory. However, this requires a large disk for large structures. If the body is discretized into equal-size cells it is possible to use the spatial symmetry relations of the Green's functions to regenerate the scattering impedance matrix in each iteration, thus avoiding expensive disk storage. Numerical tests show that the system iteration converges much faster than the conventional point-wise Gauss-Seidel iterative method. The numbers of cells do not significantly affect the rate of convergency. Thus the algorithm effectively reduces the solution of the scattering problem to an order of O(N2), instead of O(N3) as with direct solvers.

  4. Visual Grading and Structural Properties Assessment of Large Cross-Section Pinus radiata D. Don Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hermoso Prieto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of large cross-section timber for structural purposes has increased in Spain, and knowledge of its properties is strategically necessary. The Spanish visual strength-grading standard UNE 56544 (2011 efficiency applied to large cross-section structural timber was analyzed using a sample of 363 specimens of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don. from the Basque Country and Catalonia, Spain. Different sizes were tested (80 × 120 × 2400 mm3, 150 × 250 × 5600 mm3, 150 × 250 × 4300 mm3, and 200 × 250 × 5000 mm3. Bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and density were obtained, and characteristic values were determined in order to assign strength class according to European standard EN 338 (2010. Knots and twists were the most relevant singularities for visual strength grading. It was concluded that large cross-section Spanish radiata pine timber was suitable for structures, and it was assigned to the C20 strength class.

  5. Effects of a large wildfire on vegetation structure in a variable fire mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C N; Barton, P S; Robinson, N M; MacGregor, C I; Lindenmayer, D B

    2017-12-01

    Management guidelines for many fire-prone ecosystems highlight the importance of maintaining a variable mosaic of fire histories for biodiversity conservation. Managers are encouraged to aim for fire mosaics that are temporally and spatially dynamic, include all successional states of vegetation, and also include variation in the underlying "invisible mosaic" of past fire frequencies, severities, and fire return intervals. However, establishing and maintaining variable mosaics in contemporary landscapes is subject to many challenges, one of which is deciding how the fire mosaic should be managed following the occurrence of large, unplanned wildfires. A key consideration for this decision is the extent to which the effects of previous fire history on vegetation and habitats persist after major wildfires, but this topic has rarely been investigated empirically. In this study, we tested to what extent a large wildfire interacted with previous fire history to affect the structure of forest, woodland, and heath vegetation in Booderee National Park in southeastern Australia. In 2003, a summer wildfire burned 49.5% of the park, increasing the extent of recently burned vegetation (post-fire) to more than 72% of the park area. We tracked the recovery of vegetation structure for nine years following the wildfire and found that the strength and persistence of fire effects differed substantially between vegetation types. Vegetation structure was modified by wildfire in forest, woodland, and heath vegetation, but among-site variability in vegetation structure was reduced only by severe fire in woodland vegetation. There also were persistent legacy effects of the previous fire regime on some attributes of vegetation structure including forest ground and understorey cover, and woodland midstorey and overstorey cover. For example, woodland midstorey cover was greater on sites with higher fire frequency, irrespective of the severity of the 2003 wildfire. Our results show that even

  6. Universal properties of type IIB and F-theory flux compactifications at large complex structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, M.C. David; Sousa, Kepa

    2016-01-01

    We consider flux compactifications of type IIB string theory and F-theory in which the respective superpotentials at large complex structure are dominated by cubic or quartic terms in the complex structure moduli. In this limit, the low-energy effective theory exhibits universal properties that are insensitive to the details of the compactification manifold or the flux configuration. Focussing on the complex structure and axio-dilaton sector, we show that there are no vacua in this region and the spectrum of the Hessian matrix is highly peaked and consists only of three distinct eigenvalues (0, 2m 3/2 2 and 8m 3/2 2 ), independently of the number of moduli. We briefly comment on how the inclusion of Kähler moduli affect these findings. Our results generalise those of Brodie & Marsh http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2016)037, in which these universal properties were found in a subspace of the large complex structure limit of type IIB compactifications.

  7. Prediction of welding residual distortions of large structures using a local/global approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Y. G.; Bergheau, J. M.; Vincent, Y.; Boitour, F.; Leblond, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Prediction of welding residual distortions is more difficult than that of the microstructure and residual stresses. On the one hand, a fine mesh (often 3D) has to be used in the heat affected zone for the sake of the sharp variations of thermal, metallurgical and mechanical fields in this region. On the other hand, the whole structure is required to be meshed for the calculation of residual distortions. But for large structures, a 3D mesh is inconceivable caused by the costs of the calculation. Numerous methods have been developed to reduce the size of models. A local/global approach has been proposed to determine the welding residual distortions of large structures. The plastic strains and the microstructure due to welding are supposed can be determined from a local 3D model which concerns only the weld and its vicinity. They are projected as initial strains into a global 3D model which consists of the whole structure and obviously much less fine in the welded zone than the local model. The residual distortions are then calculated using a simple elastic analysis, which makes this method particularly effective in an industrial context. The aim of this article is to present the principle of the local/global approach then show the capacity of this method in an industrial context and finally study the definition of the local model

  8. A new type of intelligent wireless sensing network for health monitoring of large-size structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Liu, Ch.; Wu, D. T.; Tang, Y. L.; Wang, J. X.; Wu, L. J.; Jiang, X. D.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, some innovative wireless sensing systems have been proposed. However, more exploration and research on wireless sensing systems are required before wireless systems can substitute for the traditional wire-based systems. In this paper, a new type of intelligent wireless sensing network is proposed for the heath monitoring of large-size structures. Hardware design of the new wireless sensing units is first studied. The wireless sensing unit mainly consists of functional modules of: sensing interface, signal conditioning, signal digitization, computational core, wireless communication and battery management. Then, software architecture of the unit is introduced. The sensing network has a two-level cluster-tree architecture with Zigbee communication protocol. Important issues such as power saving and fault tolerance are considered in the designs of the new wireless sensing units and sensing network. Each cluster head in the network is characterized by its computational capabilities that can be used to implement the computational methodologies of structural health monitoring; making the wireless sensing units and sensing network have "intelligent" characteristics. Primary tests on the measurement data collected by the wireless system are performed. The distributed computational capacity of the intelligent sensing network is also demonstrated. It is shown that the new type of intelligent wireless sensing network provides an efficient tool for structural health monitoring of large-size structures.

  9. Growth of equilibrium structures built from a large number of distinct component types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Lester O; Mannige, Ranjan V; Whitelam, Stephen

    2014-09-14

    We use simple analytic arguments and lattice-based computer simulations to study the growth of structures made from a large number of distinct component types. Components possess 'designed' interactions, chosen to stabilize an equilibrium target structure in which each component type has a defined spatial position, as well as 'undesigned' interactions that allow components to bind in a compositionally-disordered way. We find that high-fidelity growth of the equilibrium target structure can happen in the presence of substantial attractive undesigned interactions, as long as the energy scale of the set of designed interactions is chosen appropriately. This observation may help explain why equilibrium DNA 'brick' structures self-assemble even if undesigned interactions are not suppressed [Ke et al. Science, 338, 1177, (2012)]. We also find that high-fidelity growth of the target structure is most probable when designed interactions are drawn from a distribution that is as narrow as possible. We use this result to suggest how to choose complementary DNA sequences in order to maximize the fidelity of multicomponent self-assembly mediated by DNA. We also comment on the prospect of growing macroscopic structures in this manner.

  10. Earthquake response characteristics of large structure 'JOYO' deeply embedded in quaternary ground, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Hiroshi; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Hanada, Kazutake; Sawada, Makoto.

    1987-01-01

    In order to examine aseismicity of embedded structure and to clarify embedment effect, earthquake observations of the large structure 'JOYO' are carried out which is deeply embedded in quaternary ground, and the results are summarized as follows. (1) Amplification factors of horizontal component in ground surface is about 3 to 4 times against the bedrock. Contrastively on the structure, any amplification is not observed at the underground portion, however, little amplification exists at the ground portion of structure. (2) Transfer function of structure has several predominant peaks at frequencies of 4.3 Hz and 8.0 Hz which are well coincided with values obtained from force excitation tests. It is shown that transfer function between basement and ground surface is similar to that between ground of same level to basement and ground surface, suggesting the behavior of basement to be able to estimate by these under ground earthquake motion. (3) According to earthquake motion analysis using S-R models, without regard to consider or not the side ground stiffness, the calculated response values do not so much differ in each model and mostly correspond with observation data, provided that the underground earthquake motion at same level to basement is used as a input wave. Consequently, the behavior of these deeply embedded structure is subject to setting method of input wave rather than modeling method, and it is very useful in design that the most simple model without side ground stiffness can roughly represent the embedment effect. (author)

  11. Coupled Finite Volume and Finite Element Method Analysis of a Complex Large-Span Roof Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafran, J.; Juszczyk, K.; Kamiński, M.

    2017-12-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and structural analysis for the precise determination of wind impact on internal forces and deformations of structural elements of a longspan roof structure. The Finite Volume Method (FVM) serves for a solution of the fluid flow problem to model the air flow around the structure, whose results are applied in turn as the boundary tractions in the Finite Element Method problem structural solution for the linear elastostatics with small deformations. The first part is carried out with the use of ANSYS 15.0 computer system, whereas the FEM system Robot supports stress analysis in particular roof members. A comparison of the wind pressure distribution throughout the roof surface shows some differences with respect to that available in the engineering designing codes like Eurocode, which deserves separate further numerical studies. Coupling of these two separate numerical techniques appears to be promising in view of future computational models of stochastic nature in large scale structural systems due to the stochastic perturbation method.

  12. Socio-Cognitive Phenotypes Differentially Modulate Large-Scale Structural Covariance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valk, Sofie L; Bernhardt, Boris C; Böckler, Anne; Trautwein, Fynn-Mathis; Kanske, Philipp; Singer, Tania

    2017-02-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested the existence of 2 largely distinct social cognition networks, one for theory of mind (taking others' cognitive perspective) and another for empathy (sharing others' affective states). To address whether these networks can also be dissociated at the level of brain structure, we combined behavioral phenotyping across multiple socio-cognitive tasks with 3-Tesla MRI cortical thickness and structural covariance analysis in 270 healthy adults, recruited across 2 sites. Regional thickness mapping only provided partial support for divergent substrates, highlighting that individual differences in empathy relate to left insular-opercular thickness while no correlation between thickness and mentalizing scores was found. Conversely, structural covariance analysis showed clearly divergent network modulations by socio-cognitive and -affective phenotypes. Specifically, individual differences in theory of mind related to structural integration between temporo-parietal and dorsomedial prefrontal regions while empathy modulated the strength of dorsal anterior insula networks. Findings were robust across both recruitment sites, suggesting generalizability. At the level of structural network embedding, our study provides a double dissociation between empathy and mentalizing. Moreover, our findings suggest that structural substrates of higher-order social cognition are reflected rather in interregional networks than in the the local anatomical markup of specific regions per se. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Finite Element Analysis and Lightweight Optimization Design on Main Frame Structure of Large Electrostatic Precipitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuewen Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometric modeling and finite element modeling of the whole structure of an electrostatic precipitator and its main components consisting of top beam, column, bottom beam, and bracket were finished. The strength calculation was completed. As a result, the design of the whole structure of the electrostatic precipitator and the main components were reasonable, the structure was in a balance state, its working condition was safe and reliable, its stress variation was even, and the stress distribution was regular. The maximum von Mises stress of the whole structure is 20.14 MPa. The safety factor was large, resulting in a waste of material. An optimization mathematical model is established. Using the ANSYS first-order method, the dimension parameters of the main frame structure of the electrostatic precipitator were optimized. After optimization, more reasonable structural design parameters were obtained. The model weight is 72,344.11 kg, the optimal weight is 49,239.35 kg, and the revised weight is 53,645.68 kg. Compared with the model weight, the optimal weight decreased by 23,104.76 kg and the objective function decreased by 31.94%, while the revised weight decreased by 18,698.43 kg and the objective function decreased by 25.84%.

  14. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 2: Technology demonstration test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop the technology for critical structural joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. The results of four large composite multirow bolted joint tests are presented. The tests were conducted to demonstrate the technology for critical joints in highly loaded composite structure and to verify the analytical methods that were developed throughout the program. The test consisted of a wing skin-stringer transition specimen representing a stringer runout and skin splice on the wing lower surface at the side of the fuselage attachment. All tests were static tension tests. The composite material was Toray T-300 fiber with Ciba-Geigy 914 resin in 10 mil tape form. The splice members were metallic, using combinations of aluminum and titanium. Discussions are given of the test article, instrumentation, test setup, test procedures, and test results for each of the four specimens. Some of the analytical predictions are also included.

  15. Halo Models of Large Scale Structure and Reliability of Cosmological N-Body Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gaite

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Halo models of the large scale structure of the Universe are critically examined, focusing on the definition of halos as smooth distributions of cold dark matter. This definition is essentially based on the results of cosmological N-body simulations. By a careful analysis of the standard assumptions of halo models and N-body simulations and by taking into account previous studies of self-similarity of the cosmic web structure, we conclude that N-body cosmological simulations are not fully reliable in the range of scales where halos appear. Therefore, to have a consistent definition of halos is necessary either to define them as entities of arbitrary size with a grainy rather than smooth structure or to define their size in terms of small-scale baryonic physics.

  16. Statistics and Dynamics in the Large-scale Structure of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Takahiko

    2006-01-01

    In cosmology, observations and theories are related to each other by statistics in most cases. Especially, statistical methods play central roles in analyzing fluctuations in the universe, which are seeds of the present structure of the universe. The confrontation of the statistics and dynamics is one of the key methods to unveil the structure and evolution of the universe. I will review some of the major statistical methods in cosmology, in connection with linear and nonlinear dynamics of the large-scale structure of the universe. The present status of analyses of the observational data such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the future prospects to constrain the nature of exotic components of the universe such as the dark energy will be presented

  17. Preliminary results on the dynamics of large and flexible space structures in Halo orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagrossi, Andrea; Lavagna, Michèle

    2017-05-01

    The global exploration roadmap suggests, among other ambitious future space programmes, a possible manned outpost in lunar vicinity, to support surface operations and further astronaut training for longer and deeper space missions and transfers. In particular, a Lagrangian point orbit location - in the Earth- Moon system - is suggested for a manned cis-lunar infrastructure; proposal which opens an interesting field of study from the astrodynamics perspective. Literature offers a wide set of scientific research done on orbital dynamics under the Three-Body Problem modelling approach, while less of it includes the attitude dynamics modelling as well. However, whenever a large space structure (ISS-like) is considered, not only the coupled orbit-attitude dynamics should be modelled to run more accurate analyses, but the structural flexibility should be included too. The paper, starting from the well-known Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem formulation, presents some preliminary results obtained by adding a coupled orbit-attitude dynamical model and the effects due to the large structure flexibility. In addition, the most relevant perturbing phenomena, such as the Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) and the fourth-body (Sun) gravity, are included in the model as well. A multi-body approach has been preferred to represent possible configurations of the large cis-lunar infrastructure: interconnected simple structural elements - such as beams, rods or lumped masses linked by springs - build up the space segment. To better investigate the relevance of the flexibility effects, the lumped parameters approach is compared with a distributed parameters semi-analytical technique. A sensitivity analysis of system dynamics, with respect to different configurations and mechanical properties of the extended structure, is also presented, in order to highlight drivers for the lunar outpost design. Furthermore, a case study for a large and flexible space structure in Halo orbits around

  18. Angular momentum-large-scale structure alignments in ΛCDM models and the SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Dante J.; Stasyszyn, Federico; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2008-09-01

    We study the alignments between the angular momentum of individual objects and the large-scale structure in cosmological numerical simulations and real data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 6 (SDSS-DR6). To this end, we measure anisotropies in the two point cross-correlation function around simulated haloes and observed galaxies, studying separately the one- and two-halo regimes. The alignment of the angular momentum of dark-matter haloes in Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) simulations is found to be dependent on scale and halo mass. At large distances (two-halo regime), the spins of high-mass haloes are preferentially oriented in the direction perpendicular to the distribution of matter; lower mass systems show a weaker trend that may even reverse to show an angular momentum in the plane of the matter distribution. In the one-halo term regime, the angular momentum is aligned in the direction perpendicular to the matter distribution; the effect is stronger than for the one-halo term and increases for higher mass systems. On the observational side, we focus our study on galaxies in the SDSS-DR6 with elongated apparent shapes, and study alignments with respect to the major semi-axis. We study five samples of edge-on galaxies; the full SDSS-DR6 edge-on sample, bright galaxies, faint galaxies, red galaxies and blue galaxies (the latter two consisting mainly of ellipticals and spirals, respectively). Using the two-halo term of the projected correlation function, we find an excess of structure in the direction of the major semi-axis for all samples; the red sample shows the highest alignment (2.7 +/- 0.8per cent) and indicates that the angular momentum of flattened spheroidals tends to be perpendicular to the large-scale structure. These results are in qualitative agreement with the numerical simulation results indicating that the angular momentum of galaxies could be built up as in the Tidal Torque scenario. The one-halo term only shows a significant alignment

  19. Planetary Structures And Simulations Of Large-scale Impacts On Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damian; El-Dasher, B.

    2009-09-01

    The impact of large meteroids is a possible cause for isolated orogeny on bodies devoid of tectonic activity. On Mars, there is a significant, but not perfect, correlation between large, isolated volcanoes and antipodal impact craters. On Mercury and the Moon, brecciated terrain and other unusual surface features can be found at the antipodes of large impact sites. On Earth, there is a moderate correlation between long-lived mantle hotspots at opposite sides of the planet, with meteoroid impact suggested as a possible cause. If induced by impacts, the mechanisms of orogeny and volcanism thus appear to vary between these bodies, presumably because of differences in internal structure. Continuum mechanics (hydrocode) simulations have been used to investigate the response of planetary bodies to impacts, requiring assumptions about the structure of the body: its composition and temperature profile, and the constitutive properties (equation of state, strength, viscosity) of the components. We are able to predict theoretically and test experimentally the constitutive properties of matter under planetary conditions, with reasonable accuracy. To provide a reference series of simulations, we have constructed self-consistent planetary structures using simplified compositions (Fe core and basalt-like mantle), which turn out to agree surprisingly well with the moments of inertia. We have performed simulations of large-scale impacts, studying the transmission of energy to the antipodes. For Mars, significant antipodal heating to depths of a few tens of kilometers was predicted from compression waves transmitted through the mantle. Such heating is a mechanism for volcanism on Mars, possibly in conjunction with crustal cracking induced by surface waves. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Fabrication of large Ti–6Al–4V structures by direct laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Chunlei; Ravi, G.A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dance, Chris; Ranson, Andrew; Dilworth, Steve [Integrated Operations, Manufacturing & Materials Engineering Department, BAE Systems Ltd (United Kingdom); Attallah, Moataz M., E-mail: m.m.attallah@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • High laser power and a reasonably low powder feed rate are key to low porosity. • Scaling-up of samples requires smaller Z steps to achieve geometrical integrity. • HIPing effectively closed pores, changed microstructure and improved ductility. • Optimised processing conditions plus HIPing led to good quality Ti-64 structures. • HIPing helps recover shape of unclamped large structures from distortion. - Abstract: Ti–6Al–4V samples have been prepared by direct laser deposition (DLD) using varied processing conditions. Some of the as-fabricated samples were stress-relieved or hot isostatically pressed (HIPed). The microstructures of all the samples were characterised using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the tensile properties assessed. It was found that a high laser power together with a reasonably low powder feed rate was essential for achieving minimum porosity. The build height and geometrical integrity of samples were sensitive to the specified laser nozzle moving step along the build height direction (or Z step) with a too big Z step usually leading to a build height smaller than specified height (or under build) and a too small Z step to excessive building (or excess build). Particularly, scaling-up of samples requires a smaller Z step to obtain specified build height and geometry. The as-fabricated microstructure was characterised by columnar grains together with martensitic needle structure and a small fraction of β phase. This led generally to high tensile strengths but low elongations. The vertically machined samples showed even lower elongation than horizontally machined ones due to the presence of large lack-of-fusion pores at interlayer interfaces. HIPing effectively closed pores and fully transformed the martensites into lamellar α + β phases, which considerably improved ductility but caused slight reduction in strength. With optimisation of processing conditions

  1. Large herbivores affect forest ecosystem functions by altering the structure of dung beetle communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Taichi; Soga, Masashi; Koike, Shinsuke

    2018-04-01

    Dramatic increases in populations of large mammalian herbivores have become a major ecological issue, particularly in the northern hemisphere, due to their substantial impacts on both animal and plant communities through processes such as grazing, browsing, and trampling. However, little is known about the consequences of these population explosions on ecosystem functions. Here, we experimentally investigated how the population density of sika deer (Cervus nippon) in temperate deciduous forest areas in Japan affected the decomposition of mammal dung by dung beetles, which is a key process in forest ecosystems. We measured a range of environmental variables (e.g., vegetation cover, soil hardness) and the dung decomposition rate, measured as the amount of deer dung decomposed during one week, and sampled dung beetles at 16 study sites with three different deer densities (high/intermediate/low). We then used structural equation modeling to investigate the relationships between deer density, environmental variables, the biomass of dung beetles (classified into small or large species), and the dung decomposition rate. We found that the biomass of small species increased with increasing deer density, whereas that of large species was not related to deer density. Furthermore, the dung decomposition rate was positively related to the biomass of small species but unrelated to that of large species. Overall, our results showed that an increase in deer density affects the decomposition rate of mammal dung by changing the structure of dung beetle communities (i.e., increasing the number of small dung beetles). Such an understanding of how increases in large herbivore populations affect ecosystem functions is important for accurately evaluating the ecological consequences of their overabundance and ultimately managing their populations appropriately.

  2. Self-stress control of real civil engineering tensegrity structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosowska, Joanna; Obara, Paulina; Gilewski, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    The paper introduces the impact of the self-stress level on the behaviour of the tensegrity truss structures. Displacements for real civil engineering tensegrity structures are analysed. Full-scale tensegrity tower Warnow Tower which consists of six Simplex trusses is considered in this paper. Three models consisting of one, two and six modules are analysed. The analysis is performed by the second and third order theory. Mathematica software and Sofistik programme is applied to the analysis.

  3. Seismic Response Analysis of Concrete Lining Structure in Large Underground Powerhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the dynamic damage constitutive model of concrete material and seismic rock-lining structure interaction analysis method, the seismic response of lining structure in large underground powerhouse is studied in this paper. In order to describe strain rate dependence and fatigue damage of concrete material under cyclic loading, a dynamic constitutive model for concrete lining considering tension and shear anisotropic damage is presented, and the evolution equations of damage variables are derived. The proposed model is of simple form and can be programmed into finite element procedure easily. In order to describe seismic interaction characteristics of the surrounding rock and lining, an explicit dynamic contact analysis method considering bond and damage characteristics of contact face between the surrounding rock and lining is proposed, and this method can integrate directly without iteration. The proposed method is applied to seismic stability calculation of Yingxiuwan Underground Powerhouse, results reveal that the amplitude and duration of input seismic wave determine the damage degree of lining structure, the damage zone of lining structure is mainly distributed in its arch, and the contact face damage has great influence on the stability of the lining structure.

  4. Effect of Large Negative Phase of Blast Loading on Structural Response of RC Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural response of reinforced concrete (RC elements for analysis and design are often obtained using the positive phase of the blast pressure curve disregarding the negative phase assuming insignificant contribution from the negative phase of the loading. Although, some insight on the effect of negative phase of blast pressure based on elastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF analysis was presented before, the influence of negative phase on different types of resistance functions of SDOF models and on realistic finite element analysis has not been explored. In this study, the effects of inclusion of pulse negative phase on structural response of RC elements from SDOF analysis and from more detailed finite element analysis have been investigated. Investigation of SDOF part has been conducted using MATLAB code that utilizes non-linear resistance functions of SDOF model. Detailed numerical investigation using finite element code DIANA was conducted on the significance of the negative phase on structural response. In the FE model, different support stiffness was used to explore the effect of support stiffness on the structural response due to blast negative phase. Results from SDOF and FE analyses present specific situations where the effect of large negative phase was found to be significant on the structural response of RC elements.

  5. Large-scale Comparative Study of Hi-C-based Chromatin 3D Structure Modeling Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Cheng

    2018-05-17

    Chromatin is a complex polymer molecule in eukaryotic cells, primarily consisting of DNA and histones. Many works have shown that the 3D folding of chromatin structure plays an important role in DNA expression. The recently proposed Chro- mosome Conformation Capture technologies, especially the Hi-C assays, provide us an opportunity to study how the 3D structures of the chromatin are organized. Based on the data from Hi-C experiments, many chromatin 3D structure modeling methods have been proposed. However, there is limited ground truth to validate these methods and no robust chromatin structure alignment algorithms to evaluate the performance of these methods. In our work, we first made a thorough literature review of 25 publicly available population Hi-C-based chromatin 3D structure modeling methods. Furthermore, to evaluate and to compare the performance of these methods, we proposed a novel data simulation method, which combined the population Hi-C data and single-cell Hi-C data without ad hoc parameters. Also, we designed a global and a local alignment algorithms to measure the similarity between the templates and the chromatin struc- tures predicted by different modeling methods. Finally, the results from large-scale comparative tests indicated that our alignment algorithms significantly outperform the algorithms in literature.

  6. Structural-electromagnetic bidirectional coupling analysis of space large film reflector antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Zhang, Shuxin; Cheng, ZhengAi; Duan, Baoyan; Yang, Chen; Li, Meng; Hou, Xinbin; Li, Xun

    2017-10-01

    As used for energy transmission, a space large film reflector antenna (SLFRA) is characterized by large size and enduring high power density. The structural flexibility and the microwave radiation pressure (MRP) will lead to the phenomenon of structural-electromagnetic bidirectional coupling (SEBC). In this paper, the SEBC model of SLFRA is presented, then the deformation induced by the MRP and the corresponding far field pattern deterioration are simulated. Results show that, the direction of the MRP is identical to the normal of the reflector surface, and the magnitude is proportional to the power density and the square of cosine incident angle. For a typical cosine function distributed electric field, the MRP is a square of cosine distributed across the diameter. The maximum deflections of SLFRA linearly increase with the increasing microwave power densities and the square of the reflector diameters, and vary inversely with the film thicknesses. When the reflector diameter becomes 100 m large and the microwave power density exceeds 102 W/cm2, the gain loss of the 6.3 μm-thick reflector goes beyond 0.75 dB. When the MRP-induced deflection degrades the reflector performance, the SEBC should be taken into account.

  7. LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE AS A COSMIC STANDARD RULER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Changbom; Kim, Young-Rae

    2010-01-01

    We propose to use the large-scale structure (LSS) of the universe as a cosmic standard ruler. This is possible because the pattern of large-scale distribution of matter is scale-dependent and does not change in comoving space during the linear-regime evolution of structure. By examining the pattern of LSS in several redshift intervals it is possible to reconstruct the expansion history of the universe, and thus to measure the cosmological parameters governing the expansion of the universe. The features of the large-scale matter distribution that can be used as standard rulers include the topology of LSS and the overall shapes of the power spectrum and correlation function. The genus, being an intrinsic topology measure, is insensitive to systematic effects such as the nonlinear gravitational evolution, galaxy biasing, and redshift-space distortion, and thus is an ideal cosmic ruler when galaxies in redshift space are used to trace the initial matter distribution. The genus remains unchanged as far as the rank order of density is conserved, which is true for linear and weakly nonlinear gravitational evolution, monotonic galaxy biasing, and mild redshift-space distortions. The expansion history of the universe can be constrained by comparing the theoretically predicted genus corresponding to an adopted set of cosmological parameters with the observed genus measured by using the redshift-comoving distance relation of the same cosmological model.

  8. Analyses of the Sequence and Structural Properties Corresponding to Pentapeptide and Large Palindromes in Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settu Sridhar

    Full Text Available The analyses of 3967 representative proteins selected from the Protein Data Bank revealed the presence of 2803 pentapeptide and large palindrome sequences with known secondary structure conformation. These represent 2014 unique palindrome sequences. 60% palindromes are not associated with any regular secondary structure and 28% are in helix conformation, 11% in strand conformation and 1% in the coil conformation. The average solvent accessibility values are in the range between 0-155.28 Å2 suggesting that the palindromes in proteins can be either buried, exposed to the solvent or share an intermittent property. The number of residue neighborhood contacts defined by interactions ≤ 3.2 Ǻ is in the range between 0-29 residues. Palindromes of the same length in helix, strand and coil conformation are associated with different amino acid residue preferences at the individual positions. Nearly, 20% palindromes interact with catalytic/active site residues, ligand or metal ions in proteins and may therefore be important for function in the corresponding protein. The average hydrophobicity values for the pentapeptide and large palindromes range between -4.3 to +4.32 and the number of palindromes is almost equally distributed between the negative and positive hydrophobicity values. The palindromes represent 107 different protein families and the hydrolases, transferases, oxidoreductases and lyases contain relatively large number of palindromes.

  9. Structure of large spin expansion of anomalous dimensions at strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccaria, M. [Physics Department, Salento University and INFN, 73100 Lecce (Italy)], E-mail: matteo.beccaria@le.infn.it; Forini, V. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: forini@aei.mpg.de; Tirziu, A. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States)], E-mail: atirziu@purdue.edu; Tseytlin, A.A. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tseytlin@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-05-01

    The anomalous dimensions of planar N=4 SYM theory operators like tr({phi}D{sub +}{sup S}{phi}) expanded in large spin S have the asymptotics {gamma}=flnS+f{sub c}+1/S (f{sub 11}lnS+f{sub 10})+..., where f (the universal scaling function or cusp anomaly), f{sub c} and f{sub mn} are given by power series in the 't Hooft coupling {lambda}. The subleading coefficients appear to be related by the so-called functional relation and parity (reciprocity) property of the function expressing {gamma} in terms of the conformal spin of the collinear group. Here we study the structure of such large spin expansion at strong coupling via AdS/CFT, i.e. by using the dual description in terms of folded spinning string in AdS{sub 5}. The large spin expansion of the classical string energy happens to have exactly the same structure as that of {gamma} in the perturbative gauge theory. Moreover, the functional relation and the reciprocity constraints on the coefficients are also satisfied. We compute the leading string 1-loop corrections to the coefficients f{sub c}, f{sub 11}, f{sub 10} and verify the functional/reciprocity relations at subleading 1/({radical}({lambda})) order. This provides a strong indication that these relations hold not only in weak coupling (gauge-theory) but also in strong coupling (string-theory) perturbative expansions.

  10. Structure of large spin expansion of anomalous dimensions at strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccaria, M.; Forini, V.; Tirziu, A.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The anomalous dimensions of planar N=4 SYM theory operators like tr(ΦD + S Φ) expanded in large spin S have the asymptotics γ=flnS+f c +1/S (f 11 lnS+f 10 )+..., where f (the universal scaling function or cusp anomaly), f c and f mn are given by power series in the 't Hooft coupling λ. The subleading coefficients appear to be related by the so-called functional relation and parity (reciprocity) property of the function expressing γ in terms of the conformal spin of the collinear group. Here we study the structure of such large spin expansion at strong coupling via AdS/CFT, i.e. by using the dual description in terms of folded spinning string in AdS 5 . The large spin expansion of the classical string energy happens to have exactly the same structure as that of γ in the perturbative gauge theory. Moreover, the functional relation and the reciprocity constraints on the coefficients are also satisfied. We compute the leading string 1-loop corrections to the coefficients f c , f 11 , f 10 and verify the functional/reciprocity relations at subleading 1/(√(λ)) order. This provides a strong indication that these relations hold not only in weak coupling (gauge-theory) but also in strong coupling (string-theory) perturbative expansions

  11. The build up of the correlation between halo spin and the large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Kang, Xi

    2018-01-01

    Both simulations and observations have confirmed that the spin of haloes/galaxies is correlated with the large-scale structure (LSS) with a mass dependence such that the spin of low-mass haloes/galaxies tend to be parallel with the LSS, while that of massive haloes/galaxies tend to be perpendicular with the LSS. It is still unclear how this mass dependence is built up over time. We use N-body simulations to trace the evolution of the halo spin-LSS correlation and find that at early times the spin of all halo progenitors is parallel with the LSS. As time goes on, mass collapsing around massive halo is more isotropic, especially the recent mass accretion along the slowest collapsing direction is significant and it brings the halo spin to be perpendicular with the LSS. Adopting the fractional anisotropy (FA) parameter to describe the degree of anisotropy of the large-scale environment, we find that the spin-LSS correlation is a strong function of the environment such that a higher FA (more anisotropic environment) leads to an aligned signal, and a lower anisotropy leads to a misaligned signal. In general, our results show that the spin-LSS correlation is a combined consequence of mass flow and halo growth within the cosmic web. Our predicted environmental dependence between spin and large-scale structure can be further tested using galaxy surveys.

  12. The Impact of the Demand for Integration in the Large Multi-Business Unit Firm on the IT Organization Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Large, multi-business unit firms are decentralizing their overall corporate structures. At the same time, the structures of their IT organizations are becoming more centralized. This is contrary to current wisdom that the IT organization structure will mimic the structure of the corporation, all else being equal. Because the general business…

  13. Measures of large-scale structure in the CfA redshift survey slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lapparent, V.; Geller, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Variations of the counts-in-cells with cell size are used here to define two statistical measures of large-scale clustering in three 6 deg slices of the CfA redshift survey. A percolation criterion is used to estimate the filling factor which measures the fraction of the total volume in the survey occupied by the large-scale structures. For the full 18 deg slice of the CfA redshift survey, f is about 0.25 + or - 0.05. After removing groups with more than five members from two of the slices, variations of the counts in occupied cells with cell size have a power-law behavior with a slope beta about 2.2 on scales from 1-10/h Mpc. Application of both this statistic and the percolation analysis to simulations suggests that a network of two-dimensional structures is a better description of the geometry of the clustering in the CfA slices than a network of one-dimensional structures. Counts-in-cells are also used to estimate at 0.3 galaxy h-squared/Mpc the average galaxy surface density in sheets like the Great Wall. 46 refs

  14. Limits to the development of feed-forward structures in large recurrent neuronal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kunkel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP has traditionally been of great interest to theoreticians, as it seems to provide an answer to the question of how the brain can develop functional structure in response to repeated stimuli. However, despite this high level of interest, convincing demonstrations of this capacity in large, initially random networks have not been forthcoming. Such demonstrations as there are typically rely on constraining the problem artificially. Techniques include employing additional pruning mechanisms or STDP rules that enhance symmetry breaking, simulating networks with low connectivity that magnify competition between synapses, or combinations of the above. In this paper we first review modeling choices that carry particularly high risks of producing non-generalizable results in the context of STDP in recurrent networks. We then develop a theory for the development of feed-forward structure in random networks and conclude that an unstable fixed point in the dynamics prevents the stable propagation of structure in recurrent networks with weight-dependent STDP. We demonstrate that the key predictions of the theory hold in large-scale simulations. The theory provides insight into the reasons why such development does not take place in unconstrained systems and enables us to identify candidate biologically motivated adaptations to the balanced random network model that might enable it.

  15. A correlation between the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughn, Stephen; Crittenden, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Observations of distant supernovae and the fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) indicate that the expansion of the Universe may be accelerating under the action of a 'cosmological constant' or some other form of 'dark energy'. This dark energy now appears to dominate the Universe and not only alters its expansion rate, but also affects the evolution of fluctuations in the density of matter, slowing down the gravitational collapse of material (into, for example, clusters of galaxies) in recent times. Additional fluctuations in the temperature of CMB photons are induced as they pass through large-scale structures and these fluctuations are necessarily correlated with the distribution of relatively nearby matter. Here we report the detection of correlations between recent CMB data and two probes of large-scale structure: the X-ray background and the distribution of radio galaxies. These correlations are consistent with those predicted by dark energy, indicating that we are seeing the imprint of dark energy on the growth of structure in the Universe.

  16. Modelling of flexibles for structural analysis of short straight section of Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhay Kumar; Dutta, Subhajit; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Soni, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Short Straight Section (SSS) of Large hadron Collider (LRCM) is a 8-meter long structure with a diameter of 1 meter and it houses a twin quadrupole. The cryogens are fed to the Sass through a jumper connection between Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) and SSS. The bus bars travel through interconnection bellows to adjoining magnets. CAT is studying the structural behavior of cold mass and the cryostat when subjected to various forces imposed on the SSS under various operating conditions of LHC machine including realignment required to compensate local sinking of the floor of the tunnel during the LHC machine's lifetime. CAT did calculation of reaction forces and moments on the Short Straight Section due to presence of jumper connection last year after the experimental verification of finite element model at CERN. Subsequently, a unified Fe model consisting of cold mass, cold feet, vacuum vessel, main vacuum vessel bellows (large sleeves), magnet interconnects, jumper connection, service module and precision motion jacks is being developed for studying the structural behaviour. (author)

  17. Effect of soil-structure interaction on the seismic behaviour of pedestal-structure system in large dish antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Pourhatami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the progressive improvement in the territory of Space Technology in all developed countries and consequently developing countries including Islamic Republic of Iran, the optimization of design and utilization of the communication equipment has been paid more attention today. For instance, considering recent highly innovative methods, specifically in communication field, developed for design, manufacturing and exploiting dish antenna for specific cases, cooperation of other science and technology experts, like civil engineers, is also necessary. In this way, more delicate design procedure in order to satisfy communication requirement, is achieved. So far, no specific investigation about aforementioned subject, especially the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI in analysing the seismic behaviour of communication large dish antennas has been conducted in Iran. In this paper, with the aim of investigating the effect of SSI on seismic behavior of pedestal, first an acceptable range for antenna displacement – as the most important parameter in pedestal structure for antenna – in both operational and survival states, has been calculated numerically based on generic formula. Secondly, the modelling of the whole pedestal-structure system has been modelled subjected to the associated loads and other primary conditions. This procedure has been performed once without considering the SSI and once more with it. Comparison of the obtained results shows that considering the SSI would impress the output results with a difference rate more than 50% and 600% respectively at survival and operational condition.

  18. The three-point function as a probe of models for large-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frieman, J.A.; Gaztanaga, E.

    1993-01-01

    The authors analyze the consequences of models of structure formation for higher-order (n-point) galaxy correlation functions in the mildly non-linear regime. Several variations of the standard Ω = 1 cold dark matter model with scale-invariant primordial perturbations have recently been introduced to obtain more power on large scales, R p ∼20 h -1 Mpc, e.g., low-matter-density (non-zero cosmological constant) models, open-quote tilted close-quote primordial spectra, and scenarios with a mixture of cold and hot dark matter. They also include models with an effective scale-dependent bias, such as the cooperative galaxy formation scenario of Bower, et al. The authors show that higher-order (n-point) galaxy correlation functions can provide a useful test of such models and can discriminate between models with true large-scale power in the density field and those where the galaxy power arises from scale-dependent bias: a bias with rapid scale-dependence leads to a dramatic decrease of the hierarchical amplitudes Q J at large scales, r approx-gt R p . Current observational constraints on the three-point amplitudes Q 3 and S 3 can place limits on the bias parameter(s) and appear to disfavor, but not yet rule out, the hypothesis that scale-dependent bias is responsible for the extra power observed on large scales

  19. Packaging, deployment, and panel design concepts for a truss-stiffened 7-panel precision deployable reflector with feed boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Collins, Timothy J.; Dyess, James W.; Kenner, Scott; Bush, Harold G.

    1993-01-01

    A concept is presented for achieving a remotely deployable truss-stiffened reflector consisting of seven integrated sandwich panels that form the reflective surface, and an integrated feed boom. The concept has potential for meeting aperture size and surface precision requirements for some high-frequency microwave remote sensing applications. The packaged reflector/feed boom configuration is a self-contained unit that can be conveniently attached to a spacecraft bus. The package has a cylindrical envelope compatible with typical launch vehicle shrouds. Dynamic behavior of a deployed configuration having a 216-inch focal length and consisting of 80-inch-diameter, two-inch-thick panels is examined through finite-element analysis. Results show that the feed boom and spacecraft bus can have a large impact on the fundamental frequency of the deployed configuration. Two candidate rib-stiffened sandwich panel configurations for this application are described, and analytical results for panel mass and stiffness are presented. Results show that the addition of only a few rib stiffeners, if sufficiently deep, can efficiently improve sandwich panel stiffness.

  20. The topology of large-scale structure. VI - Slices of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the topology of large-scale structure in two observed slices of the universe are presented. Both slices pass through the Coma cluster and their depths are 100 and 230/h Mpc. The present topology study shows that the largest void in the CfA slice is divided into two smaller voids by a statistically significant line of galaxies. The topology of toy models like the white noise and bubble models is shown to be inconsistent with that of the observed slices. A large N-body simulation was made of the biased cloud dark matter model and the slices are simulated by matching them in selection functions and boundary conditions. The genus curves for these simulated slices are spongelike and have a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology like those of observed slices.

  1. Large-scale structure after COBE: Peculiar velocities and correlations of cold dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Quinn, Peter J.; Salmon, John K.; Warren, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    Large N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers allow one to simultaneously investigate large-scale structure and the formation of galactic halos with unprecedented resolution. Our study shows that the masses as well as the spatial distribution of halos on scales of tens of megaparsecs in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe with the spectrum normalized to the anisotropies detected by Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is compatible with the observations. We also show that the average value of the relative pairwise velocity dispersion sigma(sub v) - used as a principal argument against COBE-normalized CDM models-is significantly lower for halos than for individual particles. When the observational methods of extracting sigma(sub v) are applied to the redshift catalogs obtained from the numerical experiments, estimates differ significantly between different observation-sized samples and overlap observational estimates obtained following the same procedure.

  2. Simultaneous effect of modified gravity and primordial non-Gaussianity in large scale structure observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzatuny, Nareg; Khosravi, Shahram; Baghram, Shant; Moshafi, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the simultaneous effect of primordial non-Gaussianity and the modification of the gravity in f(R) framework on large scale structure observations. We show that non-Gaussianity and modified gravity introduce a scale dependent bias and growth rate functions. The deviation from ΛCDM in the case of primordial non-Gaussian models is in large scales, while the growth rate deviates from ΛCDM in small scales for modified gravity theories. We show that the redshift space distortion can be used to distinguish positive and negative f NL in standard background, while in f(R) theories they are not easily distinguishable. The galaxy power spectrum is generally enhanced in presence of non-Gaussianity and modified gravity. We also obtain the scale dependence of this enhancement. Finally we define galaxy growth rate and galaxy growth rate bias as new observational parameters to constrain cosmology

  3. Energetics and Structural Characterization of the large-scale Functional Motion of Adenylate Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Elena; Limongelli, Vittorio; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Adenylate Kinase (AK) is a signal transducing protein that regulates cellular energy homeostasis balancing between different conformations. An alteration of its activity can lead to severe pathologies such as heart failure, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. A comprehensive elucidation of the large-scale conformational motions that rule the functional mechanism of this enzyme is of great value to guide rationally the development of new medications. Here using a metadynamics-based computational protocol we elucidate the thermodynamics and structural properties underlying the AK functional transitions. The free energy estimation of the conformational motions of the enzyme allows characterizing the sequence of events that regulate its action. We reveal the atomistic details of the most relevant enzyme states, identifying residues such as Arg119 and Lys13, which play a key role during the conformational transitions and represent druggable spots to design enzyme inhibitors. Our study offers tools that open new areas of investigation on large-scale motion in proteins.

  4. The topology of large-scale structure. VI - Slices of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Gott, J. R., III; Melott, Adrian L.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    1992-03-01

    Results of an investigation of the topology of large-scale structure in two observed slices of the universe are presented. Both slices pass through the Coma cluster and their depths are 100 and 230/h Mpc. The present topology study shows that the largest void in the CfA slice is divided into two smaller voids by a statistically significant line of galaxies. The topology of toy models like the white noise and bubble models is shown to be inconsistent with that of the observed slices. A large N-body simulation was made of the biased cloud dark matter model and the slices are simulated by matching them in selection functions and boundary conditions. The genus curves for these simulated slices are spongelike and have a small shift in the direction of a meatball topology like those of observed slices.

  5. A New Approach for Structural Monitoring of Large Dams with a Three-Dimensional Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sánchez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer methods and data processing capabilities, 3D laser scanning has found a wide range of new application fields in recent years. Particularly, monitoring the static and dynamic behaviour of large dams has always been a topic of great importance, due to the impact these structures have on the whole landscape where they are built. The main goal of this paper is to show the relevance and novelty of the laserscanning methodology developed, which incorporates different statistical and modelling approaches not considered until now. As a result, the methods proposed in this paper have provided the measurement and monitoring of the large “Las Cogotas” dam (Avila, Spain.

  6. Numerical Analysis of a Large Floating Wave Energy Converter with Adjustable Structural Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco; Pecher, Arthur Francois Serge; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    by the structural loads in extreme conditions. TheWeptos is a large floating WEC, with multiple absorbers, which has proven to be a serious candidate for the renewable energy market, due to both relevant power performance and reduced cost if compared with other WECs. The scope of this article is to compare two......The current cost of energy (CoE) from wave energy converters (WECs) is still significantly higher than other renewable energy resources, thus the sector has not yet reached a competitive level. WECs have a relative small turnover compared to the high capital cost, which to a large extent is driven...... different configurations of the Weptos machine, using the cost of energy (CoE) as a base of comparison. The numerical results are obtained via a multi-body analysis carried out in frequency domain....

  7. Observing the temperature of the big bang through large scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro G.; Magueijo, João

    2008-09-01

    It is an interesting possibility that the Universe underwent a period of thermal equilibrium at very early times. One expects a residue of this primordial state to be imprinted on the large scale structure of space time. In this paper, we study the morphology of this thermal residue in a universe whose early dynamics is governed by a scalar field. We calculate the amplitude of fluctuations on large scales and compare it with the imprint of vacuum fluctuations. We then use the observed power spectrum of fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background to place a constraint on the temperature of the Universe before and during inflation. We also present an alternative scenario, where the fluctuations are predominantly thermal and near scale-invariant.

  8. Isocurvature modes and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations II: gains from combining CMB and Large Scale Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Carmelita; Mangilli, Anna; Verde, Licia

    2011-01-01

    We consider cosmological parameters estimation in the presence of a non-zero isocurvature contribution in the primordial perturbations. A previous analysis showed that even a tiny amount of isocurvature perturbation, if not accounted for, could affect standard rulers calibration from Cosmic Microwave Background observations such as those provided by the Planck mission, affect Baryon Acoustic Oscillations interpretation, and introduce biases in the recovered dark energy properties that are larger than forecasted statistical errors from future surveys. Extending on this work, here we adopt a general fiducial cosmology which includes a varying dark energy equation of state parameter and curvature. Beside Baryon Acoustic Oscillations measurements, we include the information from the shape of the galaxy power spectrum and consider a joint analysis of a Planck-like Cosmic Microwave Background probe and a future, space-based, Large Scale Structure probe not too dissimilar from recently proposed surveys. We find that this allows one to break the degeneracies that affect the Cosmic Microwave Background and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations combination. As a result, most of the cosmological parameter systematic biases arising from an incorrect assumption on the isocurvature fraction parameter f iso , become negligible with respect to the statistical errors. We find that the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure combination gives a statistical error σ(f iso ) ∼ 0.008, even when curvature and a varying dark energy equation of state are included, which is smaller that the error obtained from Cosmic Microwave Background alone when flatness and cosmological constant are assumed. These results confirm the synergy and complementarity between Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure, and the great potential of future and planned galaxy surveys

  9. Large scale identification and categorization of protein sequences using structured logistic regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn P Pedersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Structured Logistic Regression (SLR is a newly developed machine learning tool first proposed in the context of text categorization. Current availability of extensive protein sequence databases calls for an automated method to reliably classify sequences and SLR seems well-suited for this task. The classification of P-type ATPases, a large family of ATP-driven membrane pumps transporting essential cations, was selected as a test-case that would generate important biological information as well as provide a proof-of-concept for the application of SLR to a large scale bioinformatics problem. RESULTS: Using SLR, we have built classifiers to identify and automatically categorize P-type ATPases into one of 11 pre-defined classes. The SLR-classifiers are compared to a Hidden Markov Model approach and shown to be highly accurate and scalable. Representing the bulk of currently known sequences, we analysed 9.3 million sequences in the UniProtKB and attempted to classify a large number of P-type ATPases. To examine the distribution of pumps on organisms, we also applied SLR to 1,123 complete genomes from the Entrez genome database. Finally, we analysed the predicted membrane topology of the identified P-type ATPases. CONCLUSIONS: Using the SLR-based classification tool we are able to run a large scale study of P-type ATPases. This study provides proof-of-concept for the application of SLR to a bioinformatics problem and the analysis of P-type ATPases pinpoints new and interesting targets for further biochemical characterization and structural analysis.

  10. Testing the big bang: Light elements, neutrinos, dark matter and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

    1991-06-01

    In this series of lectures, several experimental and observational tests of the standard cosmological model are examined. In particular, detailed discussion is presented regarding nucleosynthesis, the light element abundances and neutrino counting; the dark matter problems; and the formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Comments will also be made on the possible implications of the recent solar neutrino experimental results for cosmology. An appendix briefly discusses the 17 keV thing'' and the cosmological and astrophysical constraints on it. 126 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe

    1997-01-01

    This book deals with special relativity theory and its application to cosmology. It presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The book will be of interest to cosmologists, astrophysicists, theoretical

  12. Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    This book presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large-scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The relationship between cosmic velocity, acceleration and distances is given. In the appendices gravitation is added in the form of a cosmological g

  13. Large distance modification of Newtonian potential and structure formation in universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameeda, Mir; Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed F.; Pourhassan, Behnam

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of super-light brane world perturbative modes on structure formation in our universe. As these modes modify the large distance behavior of Newtonian potential, they effect the clustering of a system of galaxies. So, we explicitly calculate the clustering of galaxies interacting through such a modified Newtonian potential. We use a suitable approximation for analyzing this system of galaxies, and discuss the validity of such approximations. We observe that such corrections also modify the virial theorem for such a system of galaxies.

  14. Improved Structure and Fabrication of Large, High-Power KHPS Rotors - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corren, Dean [Verdant Power, Inc.; Colby, Jonathan [Verdant Power, Inc.; Adonizio, Mary Ann [Verdant Power, Inc.

    2013-01-29

    Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.

  15. Analysis of Higher Order Modes in Large Superconducting Radio Frequency Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Galek, Tomasz; Brackebusch, Korinna; Van Rienen, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities used for accelerating charged particle beams are commonly used in accelerator facilities around the world. The design and optimization of modern superconducting RF cavities requires intensive numerical simulations. Vast number of operational parameters must be calculated to ensure appropriate functioning of the accelerating structures. In this study, we primarily focus on estimation and behavior of higher order modes in superconducting RF cavities connected in chains. To calculate large RF models the state-space concatenation scheme, an efficient hybrid method, is employed.

  16. The application of post yield fracture methodology to the evaluation of large structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landes, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine how to use small specimens test results to measure fracture toughness values for application to the evaluation of large structural components. Linear elastic fracture mechanics concepts based on the crack tip stress intensity factor, K, have been extended into the post yield regime by the use of elastic-plastic characterizing parameters such as J integral and COD. One of the primary applications of this technology is the determination of fracture toughness values from small specimens tests taken primarily in the post yield regime which can be used to evaluate structures operating in an essentially linear elastic regime. The fracture toughness values may be either conservative or unconservative depending on the fracture mode; extreme care must be taken in interpretting these results. (orig.)

  17. The existence of very large-scale structures in the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goicoechea, L J; Martin-Mirones, J M [Universidad de Cantabria Santander, (ES)

    1989-09-01

    Assuming that the dipole moment observed in the cosmic background radiation (microwaves and X-rays) can be interpreted as a consequence of the motion of the observer toward a non-local and very large-scale structure in our universe, we study the perturbation of the m-z relation by this inhomogeneity, the dynamical contribution of sources to the dipole anisotropy in the X-ray background and the imprint that several structures with such characteristics would have had on the microwave background at the decoupling. We conclude that in this model the observed anisotropy in the microwave background on intermediate angular scales ({approx}10{sup 0}) may be in conflict with the existence of superstructures.

  18. On a digital wireless impact-monitoring network for large-scale composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Qiu, Lei; Ren, Yuanqiang

    2014-01-01

    Impact, which may occur during manufacture, service or maintenance, is one of the major concerns to be monitored throughout the lifetime of aircraft composite structures. Aiming at monitoring impacts online while minimizing the weight added to the aircraft to meet the strict limitations of aerospace engineering, this paper puts forward a new digital wireless network based on miniaturized wireless digital impact-monitoring nodes developed for large-scale composite structures. In addition to investigations on the design methods of the network architecture, time synchronization and implementation method, a conflict resolution method based on the feature parameters of digital sequences is first presented to address impact localization conflicts when several nodes are arranged close together. To verify the feasibility and stability of the wireless network, experiments are performed on a complex aircraft composite wing box and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) composite wing. Experimental results show the successful design of the presented network. (paper)

  19. Critical joints in large composite primary aircraft structures. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunin, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    A program was conducted at Douglas Aircraft Company to develop the technology for critical joints in composite wing structure that meets all the design requirements of a 1990 commercial transport aircraft. In fulfilling this objective, analytical procedures for joint design and analysis were developed during Phase 1 of the program. Tests were conducted at the element level to supply the empirical data required for methods development. Large composite multirow joints were tested to verify the selected design concepts and for correlation with analysis predictions. The Phase 2 program included additional tests to provide joint design and analysis data, and culminated with several technology demonstration tests of a major joint area representative of a commercial transport wing. The technology demonstration program of Phase 2 is discussed. The analysis methodology development, structural test program, and correlation between test results and analytical strength predictions are reviewed.

  20. The anti corrosive design of structural metallic elements in buildings with large exploitation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila Ayon, V.; Rodriguez Quesada, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion deterioration in metallic structural elements, with the consistent loss of his physical and mechanical properties, is cause by errors in the design or fabrication, that allows the accumulation of humidity and contaminants in the surfaces, or acceleration zones of the corrosion processes, as the bimetalics pairs. The aggressiveness of the environment and the productive processes that develop in industrial installations, causes the apparition of premature failures that engage the edification use. The identification of design errors is the first step in the conservation of these structures. the elimination and made a project adapted to the proper installations conditions, is essential procedures to prolong the edification useful life with an optimum and rational use of the resources that destined for this end. The investigation is about the results obtained in the diagnostic and the conservation of industrial installment, with large exploitation periods, in which existed evidences of failures by corrosion, specifically to the elimination of errors of design. (Author) 12 refs

  1. Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dechelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Pullen, A.R.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the CMB anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25sigma. We use the temperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting LCDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z=1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing ...

  2. The cosmic large-scale structure, dark matter and the origin of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Frenk, Carlos S

    1998-01-01

    In this series of lectures, I will review the main events and processes which are thought to have led to the build of structure in the Universe. First, I will provide an overview of some basic ideas such as inflation, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the microwave background radiation and gravitanional instability. I will then dicuss the evidence for dark matter in the universe and current ideas on the nature and amount of this dark matter, including their consequences for the values of the fundamental cosmological parameters. Next, I will review the processes that give rise to the cosmic large-scale structure, starting with a discussion of the main fluctuation damping mechanisms at early times and finishing with a description of the non-linear phases of evolution. I will discuss how these calculations compare with observations and present the current status of competing cosmological models. Finally I will summarize the most recent and very exciting developments in observational and theoretical studies of gala...

  3. Large-scale trends in the evolution of gene structures within 11 animal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Yandell

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We have used the annotations of six animal genomes (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Ciona intestinalis, Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, and Caenorhabditis elegans together with the sequences of five unannotated Drosophila genomes to survey changes in protein sequence and gene structure over a variety of timescales--from the less than 5 million years since the divergence of D. simulans and D. melanogaster to the more than 500 million years that have elapsed since the Cambrian explosion. To do so, we have developed a new open-source software library called CGL (for "Comparative Genomics Library". Our results demonstrate that change in intron-exon structure is gradual, clock-like, and largely independent of coding-sequence evolution. This means that genome annotations can be used in new ways to inform, corroborate, and test conclusions drawn from comparative genomics analyses that are based upon protein and nucleotide sequence similarities.

  4. A numerical formulation and algorithm for limit and shakedown analysis of large-scale elastoplastic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Heng; Liu, Yinghua; Chen, Haofeng

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a novel direct method called the stress compensation method (SCM) is proposed for limit and shakedown analysis of large-scale elastoplastic structures. Without needing to solve the specific mathematical programming problem, the SCM is a two-level iterative procedure based on a sequence of linear elastic finite element solutions where the global stiffness matrix is decomposed only once. In the inner loop, the static admissible residual stress field for shakedown analysis is constructed. In the outer loop, a series of decreasing load multipliers are updated to approach to the shakedown limit multiplier by using an efficient and robust iteration control technique, where the static shakedown theorem is adopted. Three numerical examples up to about 140,000 finite element nodes confirm the applicability and efficiency of this method for two-dimensional and three-dimensional elastoplastic structures, with detailed discussions on the convergence and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Magnetic structure driven ferroelectricity and large magnetoelectric coupling in antiferromagnet Co4Nb2O9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P.; Chaudhary, S.; Maurya, V.; Saha, J.; Kaushik, S. D.; Siruguri, V.; Patnaik, S.

    2018-05-01

    Synthesis and extensive structural, pyroelectric, magnetic, dielectric and magneto-electric characterizations are reported for polycrystalline Co4Nb2O9 towards unraveling the multiferroic ground state. Magnetic measurements confirm that Co4Nb2O9 becomes an anti-ferromagnet at around 28 K. Associated with the magnetic phase transition, a sharp peak in pyroelectric current indicates the appearance of strong magneto-electric coupling below Neel temperature (TN) along with large coupling constant upto 17.8 μC/m2T. Using temperature oscillation technique, we establish Co4Nb2O9 to be a genuine multiferroic with spontaneous electric polarization in the anti-ferromagnetic state in the absence of magnetic field poling. This is in agreement with our low temperature neutron diffraction studies that show the magnetic structure of Co4Nb2O9 to be that of a non-collinear anti-ferromagnet with ferroelectric ground state.

  6. Model abstraction addressing long-term simulations of chemical degradation of large-scale concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, D.; Perko, J.; Seetharam, S.; Mallants, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to assess the spatial-temporal evolution of chemical degradation fronts in real-size concrete structures typical of a near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility. The methodology consists of the abstraction of a so-called full (complicated) model accounting for the multicomponent - multi-scale nature of concrete to an abstracted (simplified) model which simulates chemical concrete degradation based on a single component in the aqueous and solid phase. The abstracted model is verified against chemical degradation fronts simulated with the full model under both diffusive and advective transport conditions. Implementation in the multi-physics simulation tool COMSOL allows simulation of the spatial-temporal evolution of chemical degradation fronts in large-scale concrete structures. (authors)

  7. A Measurement of Nuclear Structure Functions in the Large $X$ Large $Q^{2}$ Kinematic Region in Neutrino Deep Inelastic Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakili, Masoud [Cincinnati U.

    1997-01-01

    Data from the CCFR E770 Neutrino Deep Inelastic Scatter- ing (DIS) experiment at Fermilab contain large Bjorken x, high $Q^2$ events. A comparison of the data with a model, based on no nuclear effects at large $x$, shows an excess of events in the data. Addition of Fermi gas motion of the nucleons in the nucleus to the model does not explain the model's deficit. Adding higher momentum tail due to the formation of "quasi-deuterons" makes the agreement better. Certain models based on "multi- quark clusters" and "few-nucleon correlations" predict an exponentially falling behavior for $F_2$ as $F_2 \\sim e^{s(x -x_0)}$ at large $x$. We measure a $s$ = 8.3 $\\pm$ 0.8 for the best fit to our data. This corresponds to a value of $F_2$($x = 1, Q^2 > 50) \\approx 2$ x $10^{-3}$ in neutrino DIS. These values agree with results from theoretical models and the $SLAC$ $E133$ experiment but seem to be different from the result of the BCDMS experiment

  8. Large woody debris input and its influence on channel structure in agricultural lands of Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Felipe Rossetti; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Gerhard, Pedro; Vettorazzi, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira, Anderson

    2011-10-01

    Riparian forests are important for the structure and functioning of stream ecosystems, providing structural components such as large woody debris (LWD). Changes in these forests will cause modifications in the LWD input to streams, affecting their structure. In order to assess the influence of riparian forests changes in LWD supply, 15 catchments (third and fourth order) with riparian forests at different conservation levels were selected for sampling. In each catchment we quantified the abundance, volume and diameter of LWD in stream channels; the number, area and volume of pools formed by LWD and basal area and tree diameter of riparian forest. We found that riparian forests were at a secondary successional stage with predominantly young trees (diameter at breast height LWD abundance, volume, frequency of LWD pools with subunits and area and volume of LWD pools. LWD diameter, LWD that form pools diameter and frequency of LWD pools without subunits did not differ between stream groups. Regression analyses showed that LWD abundance and volume, and frequency of LWD pools (with and without subunits) were positively related with the proportion of riparian forest. LWD diameter was not correlated to riparian tree diameter. The frequency of LWD pools was correlated to the abundance and volume of LWD, but characteristics of these pools (area and volume) were not correlated to the diameter of LWD that formed the pools. These results show that alterations in riparian forest cause modifications in the LWD abundance and volume in the stream channel, affecting mainly the structural complexity of these ecosystems (reduction in the number and structural characteristics of LWD pools). Our results also demonstrate that riparian forest conservation actions must consider not only its extension, but also successional stage to guarantee the quantity and quality of LWD necessary to enable the structuring of stream channels.

  9. Evaluating neighborhood structures for modeling intercity diffusion of large-scale dengue epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tzai-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Shun; Hu, Ming-Che

    2018-05-03

    Dengue fever is a vector-borne infectious disease that is transmitted by contact between vector mosquitoes and susceptible hosts. The literature has addressed the issue on quantifying the effect of individual mobility on dengue transmission. However, there are methodological concerns in the spatial regression model configuration for examining the effect of intercity-scale human mobility on dengue diffusion. The purposes of the study are to investigate the influence of neighborhood structures on intercity epidemic progression from pre-epidemic to epidemic periods and to compare definitions of different neighborhood structures for interpreting the spread of dengue epidemics. We proposed a framework for assessing the effect of model configurations on dengue incidence in 2014 and 2015, which were the most severe outbreaks in 70 years in Taiwan. Compared with the conventional model configuration in spatial regression analysis, our proposed model used a radiation model, which reflects population flow between townships, as a spatial weight to capture the structure of human mobility. The results of our model demonstrate better model fitting performance, indicating that the structure of human mobility has better explanatory power in dengue diffusion than the geometric structure of administration boundaries and geographic distance between centroids of cities. We also identified spatial-temporal hierarchy of dengue diffusion: dengue incidence would be influenced by its immediate neighboring townships during pre-epidemic and epidemic periods, and also with more distant neighbors (based on mobility) in pre-epidemic periods. Our findings suggest that the structure of population mobility could more reasonably capture urban-to-urban interactions, which implies that the hub cities could be a "bridge" for large-scale transmission and make townships that immediately connect to hub cities more vulnerable to dengue epidemics.

  10. Fluid-structure interaction in non-rigid pipeline systems - large scale validation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinsbroek, A.G.T.J.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The fluid-structure interaction computer code FLUSTRIN, developed by DELFT HYDRAULICS, enables the user to determine dynamic fluid pressures, structural stresses and displacements in a liquid-filled pipeline system under transient conditions. As such, the code is a useful tool to process and mechanical engineers in the safe design and operation of pipeline systems in nuclear power plants. To validate FLUSTRIN, experiments have been performed in a large scale 3D test facility. The test facility consists of a flexible pipeline system which is suspended by wires, bearings and anchors. Pressure surges, which excite the system, are generated by a fast acting shut-off valve. Dynamic pressures, structural displacements and strains (in total 70 signals) have been measured under well determined initial and boundary conditions. The experiments have been simulated with FLUSTRIN, which solves the acoustic equations using the method of characteristics (fluid) and the finite element method (structure). The agreement between experiments and simulations is shown to be good: frequencies, amplitudes and wave phenomena are well predicted by the numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that an uncoupled water hammer computation would render unreliable and useless results. (author)

  11. A large-scale soil-structure interaction experiment: Design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Tang, Y.K.; Stepp, J.C.; Wall, I.B.; Lin, E.; Cheng, S.C.; Lee, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the design and construction phase of the Large-Scale Soil-Structure Interaction Experiment project jointly sponsored by EPRI and Taipower. The project has two objectives: 1. to obtain an earthquake database which can be used to substantiate soil-structure interaction (SSI) models and analysis methods; and 2. to quantify nuclear power plant reactor containment and internal components seismic margin based on earthquake experience data. These objectives were accomplished by recording and analyzing data from two instrumented, scaled down, reinforced concrete containment structures during seismic events. The two model structures are sited in a high seismic region in Taiwan (SMART-1). A strong-motion seismic array network is located at the site. The containment models (1/4- and 1/12-scale) were constructed and instrumented specially for this experiment. Construction was completed and data recording began in September 1985. By November 1986, 18 strong motion earthquakes ranging from Richter magnitude 4.5 to 7.0 were recorded. (orig./HP)

  12. A large-scale soil-structure interaction experiment: Part I design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Tang, Y.K.; Wall, I.B.; Lin, E.

    1987-01-01

    In the simulated earthquake experiments (SIMQUAKE) sponsored by EPRI, the detonation of vertical arrays of explosives propagated wave motions through the ground to the model structures. Although such a simulation can provide information about dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) characteristics in a strong motion environment, it lacks seismic wave scattering characteristics for studying seismic input to the soil-structure system and the effect of different kinds of wave composition to the soil-structure response. To supplement the inadequacy of the simulated earthquake SSI experiment, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) jointly sponsored a large scale SSI experiment in the field. The objectives of the experiment are: (1) to obtain actual strong motion earthquakes induced database in a soft-soil environment which will substantiate predictive and design SSI models;and (2) to assess nuclear power plant reactor containment internal components dynamic response and margins relating to actual earthquake-induced excitation. These objectives are accomplished by recording and analyzing data from two instrumented, scaled down, (1/4- and 1/12-scale) reinforced concrete containments sited in a high seismic region in Taiwan where a strong-motion seismic array network is located

  13. Survey of large protein complexes D. vulgaris reveals great structural diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.-G.; Dong, M.; Liu, H.; Camp, L.; Geller, J.; Singer, M.; Hazen, T. C.; Choi, M.; Witkowska, H. E.; Ball, D. A.; Typke, D.; Downing, K. H.; Shatsky, M.; Brenner, S. E.; Chandonia, J.-M.; Biggin, M. D.; Glaeser, R. M.

    2009-08-15

    An unbiased survey has been made of the stable, most abundant multi-protein complexes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) that are larger than Mr {approx} 400 k. The quaternary structures for 8 of the 16 complexes purified during this work were determined by single-particle reconstruction of negatively stained specimens, a success rate {approx}10 times greater than that of previous 'proteomic' screens. In addition, the subunit compositions and stoichiometries of the remaining complexes were determined by biochemical methods. Our data show that the structures of only two of these large complexes, out of the 13 in this set that have recognizable functions, can be modeled with confidence based on the structures of known homologs. These results indicate that there is significantly greater variability in the way that homologous prokaryotic macromolecular complexes are assembled than has generally been appreciated. As a consequence, we suggest that relying solely on previously determined quaternary structures for homologous proteins may not be sufficient to properly understand their role in another cell of interest.

  14. Kinematic morphology of large-scale structure: evolution from potential to rotational flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Eyink, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative way to describe the cosmological velocity field, we discuss the evolution of rotational invariants constructed from the velocity gradient tensor. Compared with the traditional divergence-vorticity decomposition, these invariants, defined as coefficients of the characteristic equation of the velocity gradient tensor, enable a complete classification of all possible flow patterns in the dark-matter comoving frame, including both potential and vortical flows. We show that this tool, first introduced in turbulence two decades ago, is very useful for understanding the evolution of the cosmic web structure, and in classifying its morphology. Before shell crossing, different categories of potential flow are highly associated with the cosmic web structure because of the coherent evolution of density and velocity. This correspondence is even preserved at some level when vorticity is generated after shell crossing. The evolution from the potential to vortical flow can be traced continuously by these invariants. With the help of this tool, we show that the vorticity is generated in a particular way that is highly correlated with the large-scale structure. This includes a distinct spatial distribution and different types of alignment between the cosmic web and vorticity direction for various vortical flows. Incorporating shell crossing into closed dynamical systems is highly non-trivial, but we propose a possible statistical explanation for some of the phenomena relating to the internal structure of the three-dimensional invariant space.

  15. Kinematic morphology of large-scale structure: evolution from potential to rotational flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Szalay, Alex; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Eyink, Gregory L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    As an alternative way to describe the cosmological velocity field, we discuss the evolution of rotational invariants constructed from the velocity gradient tensor. Compared with the traditional divergence-vorticity decomposition, these invariants, defined as coefficients of the characteristic equation of the velocity gradient tensor, enable a complete classification of all possible flow patterns in the dark-matter comoving frame, including both potential and vortical flows. We show that this tool, first introduced in turbulence two decades ago, is very useful for understanding the evolution of the cosmic web structure, and in classifying its morphology. Before shell crossing, different categories of potential flow are highly associated with the cosmic web structure because of the coherent evolution of density and velocity. This correspondence is even preserved at some level when vorticity is generated after shell crossing. The evolution from the potential to vortical flow can be traced continuously by these invariants. With the help of this tool, we show that the vorticity is generated in a particular way that is highly correlated with the large-scale structure. This includes a distinct spatial distribution and different types of alignment between the cosmic web and vorticity direction for various vortical flows. Incorporating shell crossing into closed dynamical systems is highly non-trivial, but we propose a possible statistical explanation for some of the phenomena relating to the internal structure of the three-dimensional invariant space.

  16. Health Assessment of Large Two Dimensional Structures Using Limited Information: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajoy Kumar Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some recent advances of a recently developed structural health assessment procedure proposed by the research team at the University of Arizona, commonly known as generalized iterative least-squares extended Kalman filter with unknown input (GILS-EKF-UI are presented. The procedure is a finite elements-based time-domain system-identification technique. It can assess structural health at the element level using only limited number of noise-contaminated responses. With the help of examples, it is demonstrated that the structure can be excited by multiple loadings simultaneously. The method can identify defects in various stages of degradation in single or multiple members and also relatively less severe defect. The defective element(s need not be in the substructure, but the defect detection capability increases if the defect spot is close to the substructure. Two alternatives are suggested to locate defect spot more accurately within a defective element. The paper advances several areas of GILS-EKF-UI to assess health of large structural systems.

  17. Morphological analysis of Trichomycterus areolatus Valenciennes, 1846 from southern Chilean rivers using a truss-based system (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Colihueque

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichomycterus areolatus Valenciennes, 1846 is a small endemic catfish inhabiting the Andean river basins of Chile. In this study, the morphological variability of three T. areolatus populations, collected in two river basins from southern Chile, was assessed with multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant function analysis (DFA. It is hypothesized that populations must segregate morphologically from each other based on the river basin that they were sampled from, since each basin presents relatively particular hydrological characteristics. Significant morphological differences among the three populations were found with PCA (ANOSIM test, r = 0.552, p < 0.0001 and DFA (Wilks’s λ = 0.036, p < 0.01. PCA accounted for a total variation of 56.16% by the first two principal components. The first Principal Component (PC1 and PC2 explained 34.72 and 21.44% of the total variation, respectively. The scatter-plot of the first two discriminant functions (DF1 on DF2 also validated the existence of three different populations. In group classification using DFA, 93.3% of the specimens were correctly-classified into their original populations. Of the total of 22 transformed truss measurements, 17 exhibited highly significant (p < 0.01 differences among populations. The data support the existence of T. areolatus morphological variation across different rivers in southern Chile, likely reflecting the geographic isolation underlying population structure of the species.

  18. Statics and mechanics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    The statics and mechanics of structures form a core aspect of civil engineering. This book provides an introduction to the subject, starting from classic hand-calculation types of analysis and gradually advancing to a systematic form suitable for computer implementation. It starts with statically determinate structures in the form of trusses, beams and frames. Instability is discussed in the form of the column problem - both the ideal column and the imperfect column used in actual column design. The theory of statically indeterminate structures is then introduced, and the force and deformation methods are explained and illustrated. An important aspect of the book’s approach is the systematic development of the theory in a form suitable for computer implementation using finite elements. This development is supported by two small computer programs, MiniTruss and MiniFrame, which permit static analysis of trusses and frames, as well as linearized stability analysis. The book’s final section presents related ...

  19. Technique for large-scale structural mapping at uranium deposits i in non-metamorphosed sedimentary cover rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochkin, B.T.

    1985-01-01

    The technique for large-scale construction (1:1000 - 1:10000), reflecting small amplitude fracture plicate structures, is given for uranium deposits in non-metamorphozed sedimentary cover rocks. Structure drill log sections, as well as a set of maps with the results of area analysis of hidden disturbances, structural analysis of iso-pachous lines and facies of platform mantle horizons serve as sour ce materials for structural mapplotting. The steps of structural map construction are considered: 1) structural carcass construction; 2) reconstruction of structure contour; 3) time determination of structure initiation; 4) plotting of an additional geologic load

  20. Challenges to self-acceleration in modified gravity from gravitational waves and large-scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombriser, Lucas, E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk; Lima, Nelson A.

    2017-02-10

    With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar–tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar–tensor modification of gravity.

  1. The complete structure of the large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Basil J; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; Bieri, Philipp; Leitner, Alexander; Schmitz, Nikolaus; Aebersold, Ruedi; Ban, Nenad

    2014-11-13

    Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) are extensively modified ribosomes of bacterial descent specialized for the synthesis and insertion of membrane proteins that are critical for energy conversion and ATP production inside mitochondria. Mammalian mitoribosomes, which comprise 39S and 28S subunits, have diverged markedly from the bacterial ribosomes from which they are derived, rendering them unique compared to bacterial, eukaryotic cytosolic and fungal mitochondrial ribosomes. We have previously determined at 4.9 Å resolution the architecture of the porcine (Sus scrofa) 39S subunit, which is highly homologous to the human mitoribosomal large subunit. Here we present the complete atomic structure of the porcine 39S large mitoribosomal subunit determined in the context of a stalled translating mitoribosome at 3.4 Å resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and chemical crosslinking/mass spectrometry. The structure reveals the locations and the detailed folds of 50 mitoribosomal proteins, shows the highly conserved mitoribosomal peptidyl transferase active site in complex with its substrate transfer RNAs, and defines the path of the nascent chain in mammalian mitoribosomes along their idiosyncratic exit tunnel. Furthermore, we present evidence that a mitochondrial tRNA has become an integral component of the central protuberance of the 39S subunit where it architecturally substitutes for the absence of the 5S ribosomal RNA, a ubiquitous component of all cytoplasmic ribosomes.

  2. Challenges to self-acceleration in modified gravity from gravitational waves and large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Lima, Nelson A.

    2017-02-01

    With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar-tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar-tensor modification of gravity.

  3. A large scale analysis of information-theoretic network complexity measures using chemical structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dehmer

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate information-theoretic network complexity measures which have already been intensely used in mathematical- and medicinal chemistry including drug design. Numerous such measures have been developed so far but many of them lack a meaningful interpretation, e.g., we want to examine which kind of structural information they detect. Therefore, our main contribution is to shed light on the relatedness between some selected information measures for graphs by performing a large scale analysis using chemical networks. Starting from several sets containing real and synthetic chemical structures represented by graphs, we study the relatedness between a classical (partition-based complexity measure called the topological information content of a graph and some others inferred by a different paradigm leading to partition-independent measures. Moreover, we evaluate the uniqueness of network complexity measures numerically. Generally, a high uniqueness is an important and desirable property when designing novel topological descriptors having the potential to be applied to large chemical databases.

  4. Time-sliced perturbation theory for large scale structure I: general formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego; Garny, Mathias; Sibiryakov, Sergey [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Ivanov, Mikhail M., E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch, E-mail: mathias.garny@cern.ch, E-mail: mikhail.ivanov@cern.ch, E-mail: sergey.sibiryakov@cern.ch [FSB/ITP/LPPC, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    We present a new analytic approach to describe large scale structure formation in the mildly non-linear regime. The central object of the method is the time-dependent probability distribution function generating correlators of the cosmological observables at a given moment of time. Expanding the distribution function around the Gaussian weight we formulate a perturbative technique to calculate non-linear corrections to cosmological correlators, similar to the diagrammatic expansion in a three-dimensional Euclidean quantum field theory, with time playing the role of an external parameter. For the physically relevant case of cold dark matter in an Einstein-de Sitter universe, the time evolution of the distribution function can be found exactly and is encapsulated by a time-dependent coupling constant controlling the perturbative expansion. We show that all building blocks of the expansion are free from spurious infrared enhanced contributions that plague the standard cosmological perturbation theory. This paves the way towards the systematic resummation of infrared effects in large scale structure formation. We also argue that the approach proposed here provides a natural framework to account for the influence of short-scale dynamics on larger scales along the lines of effective field theory.

  5. On the soft limit of the large scale structure power spectrum. UV dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garny, Mathias

    2015-08-01

    We derive a non-perturbative equation for the large scale structure power spectrum of long-wavelength modes. Thereby, we use an operator product expansion together with relations between the three-point function and power spectrum in the soft limit. The resulting equation encodes the coupling to ultraviolet (UV) modes in two time-dependent coefficients, which may be obtained from response functions to (anisotropic) parameters, such as spatial curvature, in a modified cosmology. We argue that both depend weakly on fluctuations deep in the UV. As a byproduct, this implies that the renormalized leading order coefficient(s) in the effective field theory (EFT) of large scale structures receive most of their contribution from modes close to the non-linear scale. Consequently, the UV dependence found in explicit computations within standard perturbation theory stems mostly from counter-term(s). We confront a simplified version of our non-perturbative equation against existent numerical simulations, and find good agreement within the expected uncertainties. Our approach can in principle be used to precisely infer the relevance of the leading order EFT coefficient(s) using small volume simulations in an 'anisotropic separate universe' framework. Our results suggest that the importance of these coefficient(s) is a ∝ 10% effect, and plausibly smaller.

  6. Biased Tracers in Redshift Space in the EFT of Large-Scale Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, Ashley [Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Senatore, Leonardo [KIPAC, Menlo Park; Jennings, Elise [Chicago U., KICP; Wechsler, Risa H. [Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2016-10-28

    The Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure (EFTofLSS) provides a novel formalism that is able to accurately predict the clustering of large-scale structure (LSS) in the mildly non-linear regime. Here we provide the first computation of the power spectrum of biased tracers in redshift space at one loop order, and we make the associated code publicly available. We compare the multipoles $\\ell=0,2$ of the redshift-space halo power spectrum, together with the real-space matter and halo power spectra, with data from numerical simulations at $z=0.67$. For the samples we compare to, which have a number density of $\\bar n=3.8 \\cdot 10^{-2}(h \\ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1})^3$ and $\\bar n=3.9 \\cdot 10^{-4}(h \\ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1})^3$, we find that the calculation at one-loop order matches numerical measurements to within a few percent up to $k\\simeq 0.43 \\ h \\ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$, a significant improvement with respect to former techniques. By performing the so-called IR-resummation, we find that the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation peak is accurately reproduced. Based on the results presented here, long-wavelength statistics that are routinely observed in LSS surveys can be finally computed in the EFTofLSS. This formalism thus is ready to start to be compared directly to observational data.

  7. Challenges to self-acceleration in modified gravity from gravitational waves and large-scale structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Lombriser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy marked by the aLIGO GW150914 and GW151226 observations, a measurement of the cosmological speed of gravity will likely soon be realised. We show that a confirmation of equality to the speed of light as indicated by indirect Galactic observations will have important consequences for a very large class of alternative explanations of the late-time accelerated expansion of our Universe. It will break the dark degeneracy of self-accelerated Horndeski scalar–tensor theories in the large-scale structure that currently limits a rigorous discrimination between acceleration from modified gravity and from a cosmological constant or dark energy. Signatures of a self-acceleration must then manifest in the linear, unscreened cosmological structure. We describe the minimal modification required for self-acceleration with standard gravitational-wave speed and show that its maximum likelihood yields a 3σ poorer fit to cosmological observations compared to a cosmological constant. Hence, equality between the speeds challenges the concept of cosmic acceleration from a genuine scalar–tensor modification of gravity.

  8. Towards a Gravity Dual for the Large Scale Structure of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Kehagias, A.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the large-scale structure of the universe enjoys at all scales, even in the highly non-linear regime, a Lifshitz symmetry during the matter-dominated period. In this paper we propose a general class of six-dimensional spacetimes which could be a gravity dual to the four-dimensional large-scale structure of the universe. In this set-up, the Lifshitz symmetry manifests itself as an isometry in the bulk and our universe is a four-dimensional brane moving in such six-dimensional bulk. After finding the correspondence between the bulk and the brane dynamical Lifshitz exponents, we find the intriguing result that the preferred value of the dynamical Lifshitz exponent of our observed universe, at both linear and non-linear scales, corresponds to a fixed point of the RGE flow of the dynamical Lifshitz exponent in the dual system where the symmetry is enhanced to the Schrodinger group containing a non-relativistic conformal symmetry. We also investigate the RGE flow between fixed points of the Lifshitz...

  9. Substitution Structures of Large Molecules and Medium Range Correlations in Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Pate, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    A study of the minimally exciting topic of agreement between experimental and measured rotational constants of molecules was performed on a set of large molecules with 16-18 heavy atoms (carbon and oxygen). The molecules are: nootkatone (C_{15}H_{22}O), cedrol (C_{15}H_{26}O), ambroxide (C_{16}H_{28}O), sclareolide (C_{16}H_{22}O_{2}), and dihydroartemisinic acid (C_{15}H_{24}O_{2}). For this set of molecules we obtained 13C-subsitution structures for six molecules (this includes two conformers of nootkatone). A comparison of theoretical structures and experimental substitution structures was performed in the spirit of the recent work of Grimme and Steinmetz.[1] Our analysis focused the center-of-mass distance of the carbon atoms in the molecules. Four different computational methods were studied: standard DFT (B3LYP), dispersion corrected DFT (B3LYP-D3BJ), hybrid DFT with dispersion correction (B2PLYP-D3), and MP2. A significant difference in these theories is how they handle medium range correlation of electrons that produce dispersion forces. For larger molecules, these dispersion forces produce an overall contraction of the molecule around the center-of-mass. DFT poorly treats this effect and produces structures that are too expanded. MP2 calculations overestimate the correction and produce structures that are too compact. Both dispersion corrected DFT methods produce structures in excellent agreement with experiment. The analysis shows that the difference in computational methods can be described by a linear error in the center-of-mass distance. This makes it possible to correct poorer performing calculations with a single scale factor. We also reexamine the issue of the "Costain error" in substitution structures and show that it is significantly larger in these systems than in the smaller molecules used by Costain to establish the error limits. [1] Stefan Grimme and Marc Steinmetz, "Effects of London dispersion correction in density functional theory on

  10. Directed self-assembly of large scaffold-free multi-cellular honeycomb structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejavibulya, Nalin; Youssef, Jacquelyn; Bao, Brian; Ferruccio, Toni-Marie; Morgan, Jeffrey R

    2011-01-01

    A significant challenge to the field of biofabrication is the rapid construction of large three-dimensional (3D) living tissues and organs. Multi-cellular spheroids have been used as building blocks. In this paper, we create large multi-cellular honeycomb building blocks using directed self-assembly, whereby cell-to-cell adhesion, in the context of the shape and obstacles of a micro-mold, drives the formation of a 3D structure. Computer-aided design, rapid prototyping and replica molding were used to fabricate honeycomb-shaped micro-molds. Nonadhesive hydrogels cast from these micro-molds were equilibrated in the cell culture medium and seeded with two types of mammalian cells. The cells settled into the honeycomb recess were unable to attach to the nonadhesive hydrogel and so cell-to-cell adhesion drove the self-assembly of a large multi-cellular honeycomb within 24 h. Distinct morphological changes occurred to the honeycomb and its cells indicating the presence of significant cell-mediated tension. Unlike the spheroid, whose size is constrained by a critical diffusion distance needed to maintain cell viability, the overall size of the honeycomb is not limited. The rapid production of the honeycomb building unit, with its multiple rings of high-density cells and open lumen spaces, offers interesting new possibilities for biofabrication strategies.

  11. Teaching the Thrill of Discovery: Student Exploration of the Large-Scale Structures of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneau, Stephanie; Dey, Arjun; Walker, Constance E.; NOAO Data Lab

    2018-01-01

    In collaboration with the Teen Astronomy Cafes program, the NOAO Data Lab is developing online Jupyter Notebooks as a free and publicly accessible tool for students and teachers. Each interactive activity teaches students simultaneously about coding and astronomy with a focus on large datasets. Therefore, students learn state-of-the-art techniques at the cross-section between astronomy and data science. During the activity entitled “Our Vast Universe”, students use real spectroscopic data to measure the distance to galaxies before moving on to a catalog with distances to over 100,000 galaxies. Exploring this dataset gives students an appreciation of the large number of galaxies in the universe (2 trillion!), and leads them to discover how galaxies are located in large and impressive filamentary structures. During the Teen Astronomy Cafes program, the notebook is supplemented with visual material conducive to discussion, and hands-on activities involving cubes representing model universes. These steps contribute to build the students’ physical intuition and give them a better grasp of the concepts before using software and coding. At the end of the activity, students have made their own measurements, and have experienced scientific research directly. More information is available online for the Teen Astronomy Cafes (teensciencecafe.org/cafes) and the NOAO Data Lab (datalab.noao.edu).

  12. On the renormalization of the effective field theory of large scale structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajer, Enrico; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2013-01-01

    Standard perturbation theory (SPT) for large-scale matter inhomogeneities is unsatisfactory for at least three reasons: there is no clear expansion parameter since the density contrast is not small on all scales; it does not fully account for deviations at large scales from a perfect pressureless fluid induced by short-scale non-linearities; for generic initial conditions, loop corrections are UV-divergent, making predictions cutoff dependent and hence unphysical. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures successfully addresses all three issues. Here we focus on the third one and show explicitly that the terms induced by integrating out short scales, neglected in SPT, have exactly the right scale dependence to cancel all UV-divergences at one loop, and this should hold at all loops. A particularly clear example is an Einstein deSitter universe with no-scale initial conditions P in ∼ k n . After renormalizing the theory, we use self-similarity to derive a very simple result for the final power spectrum for any n, excluding two-loop corrections and higher. We show how the relative importance of different corrections depends on n. For n ∼ −1.5, relevant for our universe, pressure and dissipative corrections are more important than the two-loop corrections

  13. On the renormalization of the effective field theory of large scale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajer, Enrico [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Zaldarriaga, Matias, E-mail: enrico.pajer@gmail.com, E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Standard perturbation theory (SPT) for large-scale matter inhomogeneities is unsatisfactory for at least three reasons: there is no clear expansion parameter since the density contrast is not small on all scales; it does not fully account for deviations at large scales from a perfect pressureless fluid induced by short-scale non-linearities; for generic initial conditions, loop corrections are UV-divergent, making predictions cutoff dependent and hence unphysical. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures successfully addresses all three issues. Here we focus on the third one and show explicitly that the terms induced by integrating out short scales, neglected in SPT, have exactly the right scale dependence to cancel all UV-divergences at one loop, and this should hold at all loops. A particularly clear example is an Einstein deSitter universe with no-scale initial conditions P{sub in} ∼ k{sup n}. After renormalizing the theory, we use self-similarity to derive a very simple result for the final power spectrum for any n, excluding two-loop corrections and higher. We show how the relative importance of different corrections depends on n. For n ∼ −1.5, relevant for our universe, pressure and dissipative corrections are more important than the two-loop corrections.

  14. Inflation Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazajian, K.N.; Arnold,K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B.A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Buder, I.; Burke, D.L.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in the intensity and polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe each contain clues about the nature of the earliest moments of time. The next generation of CMB and large-scale structure (LSS) experiments are poised to test the leading paradigm for these earliest moments---the theory of cosmic inflation---and to detect the imprints of the inflationary epoch, thereby dramatically increasing our understanding of fundamental physics and the early universe. A future CMB experiment with sufficient angular resolution and frequency coverage that surveys at least 1 of the sky to a depth of 1 uK-arcmin can deliver a constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio that will either result in a 5-sigma measurement of the energy scale of inflation or rule out all large-field inflation models, even in the presence of foregrounds and the gravitational lensing B-mode signal. LSS experiments, particularly spectroscopic surveys such as the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, will complement the CMB effort by improving current constraints on running of the spectral index by up to a factor of four, improving constraints on curvature by a factor of ten, and providing non-Gaussianity constraints that are competitive with the current CMB bounds.

  15. Structural habitat predicts functional dispersal habitat of a large carnivore: how leopards change spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattebert, Julien; Robinson, Hugh S; Balme, Guy; Slotow, Rob; Hunter, Luke

    2015-10-01

    Natal dispersal promotes inter-population linkage, and is key to spatial distribution of populations. Degradation of suitable landscape structures beyond the specific threshold of an individual's ability to disperse can therefore lead to disruption of functional landscape connectivity and impact metapopulation function. Because it ignores behavioral responses of individuals, structural connectivity is easier to assess than functional connectivity and is often used as a surrogate for landscape connectivity modeling. However using structural resource selection models as surrogate for modeling functional connectivity through dispersal could be erroneous. We tested how well a second-order resource selection function (RSF) models (structural connectivity), based on GPS telemetry data from resident adult leopard (Panthera pardus L.), could predict subadult habitat use during dispersal (functional connectivity). We created eight non-exclusive subsets of the subadult data based on differing definitions of dispersal to assess the predictive ability of our adult-based RSF model extrapolated over a broader landscape. Dispersing leopards used habitats in accordance with adult selection patterns, regardless of the definition of dispersal considered. We demonstrate that, for a wide-ranging apex carnivore, functional connectivity through natal dispersal corresponds to structural connectivity as modeled by a second-order RSF. Mapping of the adult-based habitat classes provides direct visualization of the potential linkages between populations, without the need to model paths between a priori starting and destination points. The use of such landscape scale RSFs may provide insight into predicting suitable dispersal habitat peninsulas in human-dominated landscapes where mitigation of human-wildlife conflict should be focused. We recommend the use of second-order RSFs for landscape conservation planning and propose a similar approach to the conservation of other wide-ranging large

  16. Analysis of ground response data at Lotung large-scale soil- structure interaction experiment site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.Y.; Mok, C.M.; Power, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in cooperation with the Taiwan Power Company (TPC), constructed two models (1/4-scale and 1/2-scale) of a nuclear plant containment structure at a site in Lotung (Tang, 1987), a seismically active region in northeast Taiwan. The models were constructed to gather data for the evaluation and validation of soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis methodologies. Extensive instrumentation was deployed to record both structural and ground responses at the site during earthquakes. The experiment is generally referred to as the Lotung Large-Scale Seismic Test (LSST). As part of the LSST, two downhole arrays were installed at the site to record ground motions at depths as well as at the ground surface. Structural response and ground response have been recorded for a number of earthquakes (i.e. a total of 18 earthquakes in the period of October 1985 through November 1986) at the LSST site since the completion of the installation of the downhole instruments in October 1985. These data include those from earthquakes having magnitudes ranging from M L 4.5 to M L 7.0 and epicentral distances range from 4.7 km to 77.7 km. Peak ground surface accelerations range from 0.03 g to 0.21 g for the horizontal component and from 0.01 g to 0.20 g for the vertical component. The objectives of the study were: (1) to obtain empirical data on variations of earthquake ground motion with depth; (2) to examine field evidence of nonlinear soil response due to earthquake shaking and to determine the degree of soil nonlinearity; (3) to assess the ability of ground response analysis techniques including techniques to approximate nonlinear soil response to estimate ground motions due to earthquake shaking; and (4) to analyze earth pressures recorded beneath the basemat and on the side wall of the 1/4 scale model structure during selected earthquakes

  17. Automatic Generation of Connectivity for Large-Scale Neuronal Network Models through Structural Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Pier, Sandra; Naveau, Mikaël; Butz-Ostendorf, Markus; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    With the emergence of new high performance computation technology in the last decade, the simulation of large scale neural networks which are able to reproduce the behavior and structure of the brain has finally become an achievable target of neuroscience. Due to the number of synaptic connections between neurons and the complexity of biological networks, most contemporary models have manually defined or static connectivity. However, it is expected that modeling the dynamic generation and deletion of the links among neurons, locally and between different regions of the brain, is crucial to unravel important mechanisms associated with learning, memory and healing. Moreover, for many neural circuits that could potentially be modeled, activity data is more readily and reliably available than connectivity data. Thus, a framework that enables networks to wire themselves on the basis of specified activity targets can be of great value in specifying network models where connectivity data is incomplete or has large error margins. To address these issues, in the present work we present an implementation of a model of structural plasticity in the neural network simulator NEST. In this model, synapses consist of two parts, a pre- and a post-synaptic element. Synapses are created and deleted during the execution of the simulation following local homeostatic rules until a mean level of electrical activity is reached in the network. We assess the scalability of the implementation in order to evaluate its potential usage in the self generation of connectivity of large scale networks. We show and discuss the results of simulations on simple two population networks and more complex models of the cortical microcircuit involving 8 populations and 4 layers using the new framework.

  18. Building large collections of Chinese and English medical terms from semi-structured and encyclopedia websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yining; Sun, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Jianwen; Tsujii, Junichi; Chang, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S)), Object Recall (R(O)), and Surface Head recall (R(H)). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.

  19. Structural consequences of diffuse traumatic brain injury: A large deformation tensor-based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghoon; Avants, Brian; Patel, Sunil; Whyte, John; Coslett, H. Branch; Pluta, John; Detre, John A.; Gee, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common causes of long-term disability. Despite the importance of identifying neuropathology in individuals with chronic TBI, methodological challenges posed at the stage of inter-subject image registration have hampered previous voxel-based MRI studies from providing a clear pattern of structural atrophy after TBI. We used a novel symmetric diffeomorphic image normalization method to conduct a tensor-based morphometry (TBM) study of TBI. The key advantage of this method is that it simultaneously estimates an optimal template brain and topology preserving deformations between this template and individual subject brains. Detailed patterns of atrophies are then revealed by statistically contrasting control and subject deformations to the template space. Participants were 29 survivors of TBI and 20 control subjects who were matched in terms of age, gender, education, and ethnicity. Localized volume losses were found most prominently in white matter regions and the subcortical nuclei including the thalamus, the midbrain, the corpus callosum, the mid- and posterior cingulate cortices, and the caudate. Significant voxel-wise volume loss clusters were also detected in the cerebellum and the frontal/temporal neocortices. Volume enlargements were identified largely in ventricular regions. A similar pattern of results was observed in a subgroup analysis where we restricted our analysis to the 17 TBI participants who had no macroscopic focal lesions (total lesion volume> 1.5 cm 3). The current study confirms, extends, and partly challenges previous structural MRI studies in chronic TBI. By demonstrating that a large deformation image registration technique can be successfully combined with TBM to identify TBI-induced diffuse structural changes with greater precision, our approach is expected to increase the sensitivity of future studies examining brain-behavior relationships in the TBI population. PMID:17999940

  20. Hierarchical, decentralized control system for large-scale smart-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algermissen, Stephan; Fröhlich, Tim; Monner, Hans Peter

    2014-01-01

    Active control of sound and vibration has gained much attention in all kinds of industries in the past decade. Future prospects for maximizing airline passenger comfort are especially promising. The objectives of recent research projects in this area are the reduction of noise transmission through thin walled structures such as fuselages, linings or interior elements. Besides different external noise sources, such as the turbulent boundary layer, rotor or jet noise, the actuator and sensor placement as well as different control concepts are addressed. Mostly, the work is focused on a single panel or section of the fuselage, neglecting the fact that for effective noise reduction the entire fuselage has to be taken into account. Nevertheless, extending the scope of an active system from a single panel to the entire fuselage increases the effort for control hardware dramatically. This paper presents a control concept for large structures using distributed control nodes. Each node has the capability to execute a vibration or noise controller for a specific part or section of the fuselage. For maintenance, controller tuning or performance measurement, all nodes are connected to a host computer via Universal Serial Bus (USB). This topology allows a partitioning and distributing of tasks. The nodes execute the low-level control functions. High-level tasks like maintenance, system identification and control synthesis are operated by the host using streamed data from the nodes. By choosing low-price nodes, a very cost effective way of implementing an active system for large structures is realized. Besides the system identification and controller synthesis on the host computer, a detailed view on the hardware and software concept for the nodes is given. Finally, the results of an experimental test of a system running a robust vibration controller at an active panel demonstrator are shown. (paper)