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Sample records for large transform plate

  1. Parallel plate transmission line transformer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, S.J.; Brussaard, G.J.H.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A Transmission Line Transformer (TLT) can be used to transform high-voltage nanosecond pulses. These transformers rely on the fact that the length of the pulse is shorter than the transmission lines used. This allows connecting the transmission lines in parallel at the input and in series at the

  2. Method of nickel-plating large components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention concerns a method of nickel-plating components, according to which even large components can be provided with an adequate layer of nickel which is pore- and stress-free and such that water is not lost. According to the invention, the component is heated and, after heating, is pickled, rinsed, scoured, plated in an electrolysis process, and rinsed again. (author)

  3. A very large multigap resistive plate chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Cerron-Zeballos, E; Hatzifotiadou, D; Kim, D W; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lee, S C; Platner, E D; Roberts, J; Williams, M C S; Zichichi, A

    1999-01-01

    We have built and tested a very large multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). We discuss the suitability of the multigap RPC for the construction of large area modules. We give details of the construction technique and results from a scan across the surface of the chamber. We also report on the implementation of `half-strip resolution', where we improve the spatial resolution by a factor 2 without increasing the number of read-out channels. (9 refs).

  4. Plate-shaped transformation products in zirconium-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Dey, G.K.; Srivastava, D.

    1997-01-01

    Plate-shaped products resulting from martensitic, diffusional, and mixed mode transformations in zirconium-base alloys are compared in the present study. These alloys are particularly suitable for the comparison in view of the fact that the lattice correspondence between the parent β (bcc) and the product α (hcp) or γ-hydride (fct) phases are remarkably similar for different types of transformations. Crystallographic features such as orientation relations, habit planes, and interface structures associated with these transformations have been compared, with a view toward examining whether the transformation mechanisms have characteristic imprints on these experimental observables

  5. Transpressive mantle uplift at large offset oceanic transform faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M.; Briais, A.; Brunelli, D.; Ligi, M.; Sichel, S. E.; Campos, T.

    2017-12-01

    Large-offset transform faults deform due to changes in plate motions and local processes. At the St. Paul transform, in the Equatorial Atlantic, a large body of ultramafic rocks composed of variably serpentinized and mylonitized peridotites is presently being tectonically uplifted. We recently discovered that the origin of the regional mantle uplift is linked to long-standing compressive stresses along the transform fault (1). A positive flower structure, mainly made of mylonitized mantle rocks, can be recognized on the 200 km large push-up ridge. Compressive earthquakes mechanisms reveal seismically active thrust faults on the southern flank of the ridge . The regional transpressive stress field affects a large portion of the ridge segment south of the transform, as revealed by the presence of faults and dykes striking obliquely to the direction of the central ridge axis. A smaller thrust, affecting recent sediments, was mapped south of this segment, suggesting a regional active compressive stress field. The transpressive stress field is interpreted to derive from the propagation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) segment into the transform domain as a response to the enhanced melt supply at the ridge axis. The propagation forced the migration and segmentation of the transform fault southward and the formation of restraining step-overs. The process started after a counterclockwise change in plate motion at 11 Ma initially resulting in extensive stress of the transform domain. A flexural transverse ridge formed in response. Shortly after plate reorganization, the MAR segment started to propagate southwards due to the interaction of the ridge and the Sierra Leone thermal anomaly. 1- Maia et al., 2016. Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault Nat. Geo. doi:10.1038/ngeo2759

  6. Evidence of displacement-driven maturation along the San Cristobal Trough transform plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, James S.; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2018-03-01

    The San Cristobal Trough (SCT), formed by the tearing of the Australia plate as it subducts under the Pacific plate near the Solomon Islands, provides an opportunity to study the transform boundary development process. Recent seismicity (2013-2016) along the 280 km long SCT, known as a Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault, highlights the tearing process and ongoing development of the plate boundary. The region's earthquakes reveal two key characteristics. First, earthquakes at the western terminus of the SCT, which we interpret to indicate the Australia plate tearing, display disparate fault geometries. These events demonstrate that plate tearing is accommodated via multiple intersecting planes rather than a single through-going fault. Second, the SCT hosts sequences of Mw ∼7 strike-slip earthquakes that migrate westward through a rapid succession of events. Sequences in 1993 and 2015 both began along the eastern SCT and propagated west, but neither progression ruptured into or nucleated a large earthquake within the region near the tear. Utilizing b-value and Coulomb Failure Stress analyses, we examine these along-strike variations in the SCT's seismicity. b-Values are highest along the youngest, western end of the SCT and decrease with increasing distance from the tear. This trend may reflect increasing strain localization with increasing displacement. Coulomb Failure Stress analyses indicate that the stress conditions were conducive to continued western propagation of the 1993 and 2015 sequences suggesting that the unruptured western SCT may have fault geometries or properties that inhibit continued rupture. Our results indicate a displacement-driven fault maturation process. The multi-plane Australia plate tearing likely creates a western SCT with diffuse strain accommodated along a network of disorganized faults. After ∼90 km of cumulative displacement (∼900,000 yr of plate motion), strain localizes and faults align, allowing the SCT to host

  7. Stress accumulation and release at complex transform plate boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonck, D.; Furlong, K.P. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Finite element methods are used to model the dynamics of deformation along complex transform plate boundaries, specifically the San Andreas fault system, California. Effects of mantle rheology and fault geometry on the stress buildup and release are investigated. No prior knowledge of the earthquake cycle time or amount of fault slip is assumed that the results suggest that the San Andreas fault slips at low shear stress (about 15 MPa). Although the maximum stress on the fault is 15 MPa, models with an upper mantle shear zone deforming entirely by dislocation creep accumulate stresses that exceed 100 MPa, a stress level high enough to drive localized dynamic recrystallization and a shift in dominant deformation mechanism to diffusion creep. Models in which the mantle shear zone deform locally by diffusion creep reach a dynamic steady state where lithospheric shear stresses never exceed the specified fault stress anywhere in the model and indicate that the strength of the upper mantle is an important parameter in the dynamics of plate boundary deformation. 17 refs.

  8. Subleading soft photons and large gauge transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campiglia, Miguel [Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias,Iguá 4225, Montevideo (Uruguay); Laddha, Alok [Chennai Mathematical Institute,Siruseri 603103 (India)

    2016-11-04

    Lysov, Pasterski and Strominger have shown how Low’s subleading soft photon theorem can be understood as Ward identities of new symmetries of massless QED. In this paper we offer a different perspective and show that there exists a class of large U(1) gauge transformations such that (i) the associated (electric and magnetic) charges can be computed from first principles, (ii) their Ward identities are equivalent to Low’s theorem. Our framework paves the way to analyze the sub-subleading theorem in gravity in terms of Ward identities associated to large diffeomorphisms.

  9. Design study on divertor plates of Large Helical Device (LHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, N.; Kubota, Y.; Sagara, A.

    1992-10-01

    A conceptual design has been completed for the divertor plates of the Large Helical Device (LHD, R = 3.9 m, a p = 50 ∼ 60 cm, B h = 3 ∼ 4T/ superconducting coils of NbTi) and the detailed technical design is now in progress. The design concept and the status of research and development (R and D) programs are described. (author)

  10. Capacity of the circular plate condenser: analytical solutions for large gaps between the plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T V

    2005-01-01

    A solution of Love's integral equation (Love E R 1949 Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 2 428), which forms the basis for the analysis of the electrostatic field due to two equal circular co-axial parallel conducting plates, is considered for the case when the ratio, τ, of distance of separation to radius of the plates is greater than 2. The kernel of the integral equation is expanded into an infinite series in odd powers of 1/τ and an approximate kernel accurate to O(τ -(2N+1) ) is deduced therefrom by terminating the series after an arbitrary but finite number of terms, N. The approximate kernel is rearranged into a degenerate form and the integral equation with this kernel is reduced to a system of N linear equations. An explicit analytical solution is obtained for N = 4 and the resulting analytical expression for the capacity of the circular plate condenser is shown to be accurate to O(τ -9 ). Analytical expressions of lower orders of accuracy with respect to 1/τ are deduced from the four-term (i.e., N 4) solution and predictions (of capacity) from the expressions of different orders of accuracy (with respect to 1/τ) are compared with very accurate numerical solutions obtained by solving the linear system for large enough N. It is shown that the O(τ -9 ) approximation predicts the capacity extremely well for any τ ≥ 2 and an O(τ -3 ) approximation gives, for all practical purposes, results of adequate accuracy for τ ≥ 4. It is further shown that an approximate solution, applicable for the case of large distances of separation between the plates, due to Sneddon (Sneddon I N 1966 Mixed Boundary Value Problems in Potential Theory (Amsterdam: North-Holland) pp 230-46) is accurate to O(τ -6 ) for τ ≥ 2

  11. Interference in a thick plate at large angle of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, M.T.; Shah Shehany, F.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the interference in a plane parallel plate is introduced which is valid for any angle of incidence and any thickness. It is shown that the interference in a plate can be interpreted as the interference in a double-slit and the corresponding parameters are derived. It is also shown that for a particular angle of incidence, which depends only on the refractive index, the interfringes are minimum. It is proved theoretically and verified experimentally that the interference around this particular angle of incidence has several exploitable features which include: a) In thick plates large numbers of equidistant fringes are formed which are very adequate for producing interference gratings. b) It provides, in comparison to the conventional interferometric methods, an easier and more accurate means for direct measurement of wave-length. c) Multiple-beam interference at this particular angle improve the accuracy of the measurement of the fine structures of the atomic spectra, compared to other interferometric methods. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs

  12. Hydroelastic analysis of a very large floating plate with large deflections in stochastic seaway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xu-jun; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, Wei-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The hydroelasticity of a very large floating plate with large deflections in multidirectional irregular waves is discussed. After a brief introduction on wave loads on a flexible structure, the paper derives the generalised fluid force acting on a floating structure in multidirectional irregular ...

  13. Estimates of elastic plate thicknesses beneath large volcanos on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Megellan radar imaging and topography data are now available for a number of volcanos on Venus greater than 100 km in radius. These data can be examined to reveal evidence of the flexural response of the lithosphere to the volcanic load. On Earth, flexure beneath large hotspot volcanos results in an annual topographic moat that is partially to completely filled in by sedimentation and mass wasting from the volcano's flanks. On Venus, erosion and sediment deposition are considered to be negligible at the resolution of Magellan images. Thus, it may be possible to observe evidence of flexure by the ponding of recent volcanic flows in the moat. We also might expect to find topographic signals from unfilled moats surrounding large volcanos on Venus, although these signals may be partially obscured by regional topography. Also, in the absence of sedimentation, tectonic evidence of deformation around large volcanos should be evident except where buried by very young flows. We use analytic solutions in axisymmetric geometry for deflections and stresses resulting from loading of a plate overlying an inviscid fluid. Solutions for a set of disk loads are superimposed to obtain a solution for a conical volcano. The deflection of the lithosphere produces an annular depression or moat, the extent of which can be estimated by measuring the distance from the volcano's edge to the first zero crossing or to the peak of the flexural arch. Magellan altimetry data records (ARCDRs) from data cycle 1 are processed using the GMT mapping and graphics software to produce topographic contour maps of the volcanos. We then take topographic profiles that cut across the annular and ponded flows seen on the radar images. By comparing the locations of these flows to the predicted moat locations from a range of models, we estimate the elastic plate thickness that best fits the observations, together with the uncertainty in that estimate.

  14. 77 FR 52758 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1189 (Final)] Large Power Transformers... materially injured, by reason of imports from Korea of large power transformers, provided for in subheadings... Commission and Commerce by ABB Inc., Cary, NC; Delta Star Inc., Lynchburg, VA; and Pennsylvania Transformer...

  15. The Development and Microstructure Analysis of High Strength Steel Plate NVE36 for Large Heat Input Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhang; Liangfa, Xie; Ming, Wei; Jianli, Li

    In the shipbuilding industry, the welding efficiency of the ship plate not only has a great effect on the construction cost of the ship, but also affects the construction speed and determines the delivery cycle. The steel plate used for large heat input welding was developed sufficiently. In this paper, the composition of the steel with a small amount of Nb, Ti and large amount of Mn had been designed in micro-alloyed route. The content of C and the carbon equivalent were also designed to a low level. The technology of oxide metallurgy was used during the smelting process of the steel. The rolling technology of TMCP was controlled at a low rolling temperature and ultra-fast cooling technology was used, for the purpose of controlling the transformation of the microstructure. The microstructure of the steel plate was controlled to be the mixed microstructure of low carbon bainite and ferrite. Large amount of oxide particles dispersed in the microstructure of steel, which had a positive effects on the mechanical property and welding performance of the steel. The mechanical property of the steel plate was excellent and the value of longitudinal Akv at -60 °C is more than 200 J. The toughness of WM and HAZ were excellent after the steel plate was welded with a large heat input of 100-250 kJ/cm. The steel plate processed by mentioned above can meet the requirement of large heat input welding.

  16. Stress wave calculations in composite plates using the fast Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The protection of composite turbine fan blades against impact forces has prompted the study of dynamic stresses in composites due to transient loads. The mathematical model treats the laminated plate as an equivalent anisotropic material. The use of Mindlin's approximate theory of crystal plates results in five two-dimensional stress waves. Three of the waves are flexural and two involve in-plane extensional strains. The initial value problem due to a transient distributed transverse force on the plate is solved using Laplace and Fourier transforms. A fast computer program for inverting the two-dimensional Fourier transform is used. Stress contours for various stresses and times after application of load are obtained for a graphite fiber-epoxy matrix composite plate. Results indicate that the points of maximum stress travel along the fiber directions.

  17. Multi-type Tectonic Responses to Plate Motion Changes of Mega-Offset Transform Faults at the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Lin, J.; Yang, H.; Zhou, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Magmatic and tectonic responses of a mid-ocean ridge system to plate motion changes can provide important constraints on the mechanisms of ridge-transform interaction and lithospheric properties. Here we present new analysis of multi-type responses of the mega-offset transform faults at the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge (PAR) system to plate motion changes in the last 12 Ma. Detailed analysis of the Heezen, Tharp, and Udintsev transform faults showed that the extensional stresses induced by plate motion changes could have been released through a combination of magmatic and tectonic processes: (1) For a number of ridge segments with abundant magma supply, plate motion changes might have caused the lateral transport of magma along the ridge axis and into the abutting transform valley, forming curved "hook" ridges at the ridge-transform intersection. (2) Plate motion changes might also have caused vertical deformation on steeply-dipping transtensional faults that were developed along the Heezen, Tharp, and Udintsev transform faults. (3) Distinct zones of intensive tectonic deformation, resembling belts of "rift zones", were found to be sub-parallel to the investigated transform faults. These rift-like deformation zones were hypothesized to have developed when the stresses required to drive the vertical deformation on the steeply-dipping transtensional faults along the transform faults becomes excessive, and thus deformation on off-transform "rift zones" became favored. (4) However, to explain the observed large offsets on the steeply-dipping transtensional faults, the transform faults must be relatively weak with low apparent friction coefficient comparing to the adjacent lithospheric plates.

  18. Overvoltage protection of large power transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz; Einarsdottir, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the results from a detailed study of the overvoltage protection of a particular 400/150 kV 400 MVA power transformer. The work presented here is based on real-life power system substation design and data and initiated by Danish TSO Energinet.dk as a consequence of a serious...... exceeded. It is clearly illustrated that the transient performance of the earth grid plays an important role in the overall overvoltage protection system design...

  19. Tracking the India-Arabia Transform Plate Boundary during Paleogene Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M.; Huchon, P.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R. A.; Fournier, M.; Delescluse, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Zagros and Himalaya mountain belts are the most prominent reliefs built by continental collision. They respectively result from Arabia and India collision with Eurasia. Convergence motions at mountain belts induced most of plate reorganization events in the Indian Ocean during the Cenozoic. Although critical for paleogeographic reconstructions, the way relative motion between Arabia and India was accommodated prior to the formation of the Sheba ridge in the Gulf of Aden remains poorly understood. The India-Arabia plate-boundary belongs to the category of long-lived (~90-Ma) oceanic transform faults, thus providing a good case study to investigate the role of major kinematic events over the structural evolution of a long-lived transform system. A seismic dataset crossing the Owen Fracture Zone, the Owen Basin, and the Oman Margin was acquired to track the past locations of the India-Arabia plate boundary. We highlight the composite age of the Owen Basin basement, made of Paleocene oceanic crust drilled on its eastern part, and composed of pre-Maastrichtian continental crust overlaid by Early Paleocene ophiolites on its western side. A major transform fault system crossing the Owen Basin juxtaposed these two slivers of lithosphere of different ages, and controlled the uplift of marginal ridges along the Oman Margin. This transform system deactivated ~40 Ma ago, coeval with the onset of ultra-slow spreading at the Carlsberg Ridge. The transform boundary then jumped to the edge of the present-day Owen Ridge during the Late Eocene-Oligocene period, before seafloor spreading began at the Sheba Ridge. This migration of the plate boundary involved the transfer of a part of the Indian oceanic lithosphere accreted at the Carlsberg Ridge to the Arabian plate. The episode of plate transfer at the India-Arabia plate boundary during the Late Eocene-Oligocene interval is synchronous with a global plate reorganization event corresponding to geological events at the Zagros and

  20. Binary zone-plate array for a parallel joint transform correlator applied to face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodate, K; Hashimoto, A; Thapliya, R

    1999-05-10

    Taking advantage of small aberrations, high efficiency, and compactness, we developed a new, to our knowledge, design procedure for a binary zone-plate array (BZPA) and applied it to a parallel joint transform correlator for the recognition of the human face. Pairs of reference and unknown images of faces are displayed on a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), Fourier transformed by the BZPA, intensity recorded on an optically addressable SLM, and inversely Fourier transformed to obtain correlation signals. Consideration of the bandwidth allows the relations among the channel number, the numerical aperture of the zone plates, and the pattern size to be determined. Experimentally a five-channel parallel correlator was implemented and tested successfully with a 100-person database. The design and the fabrication of a 20-channel BZPA for phonetic character recognition are also included.

  1. Analysis of a rectangular ceramic plate in electrically forced thickness-twist vibration as a piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiashi; Liu, Jinjin; Li, Jiangyu

    2007-04-01

    A rectangular ceramic plate with appropriate electrical load and operating mode is analyzed for piezoelectric transformer application. An exact solution from the three-dimensional equations of linear piezoelectricity is obtained. The solution simulates the real operating situation of a transformer as a vibrating piezoelectric body connected to a circuit. Transforming ratio, input admittance, and efficiency of the transformer are obtained.

  2. A variational analysis for large deflection of skew plates under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present paper, the static behaviour of thin isotropic skew plates under uniformly distributed load is analyzed with the geometric nonlinearity of the model properly handled. A variational method based on total potential energy has been implemented through assumed displacement field. The computational work has ...

  3. Integral transform solution of bending problem of clamped orthotropic rectangular plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.; Gu, J.-J.; Su, J.

    2011-01-01

    The generalized integral transform technique (GITT) is employed to obtain an exact solution for the bending problem of fully clamped orthotropic rectangular plates. The use of the GITT approach in the analysis of the transverse deflection equation leads to a coupled system of fourth order differential equations in the dimensionless longitudinal spatial variable. The resulting transformed ODE system is then numerically solved by making use of the subroutine DBVPFD from IMSL Library. Numerical results with automatic global accuracy control are produced for different values of aspect ratio. Critical comparisons with previously reported numerical results are performed with excellent agreement. Several sets of reference results for clamped orthotropic rectangular plates are also provided for future covalidation purposes. (author)

  4. Peculiarities of light transformation by the plate-lane biisotropic layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovydenko, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article the peculiarities of transformation of light wave with arbitrary polarization by a half-infinity biisotropic medium and a biisotropic layer surrounded by different media are considered. Analytical expressions are obtained for refraction and reflection coefficients of transformed waves. The influence of layer parameters on refraction and reflection is investigated. It is shown that at arbitrary polarization of incident light the reflected wave is elliptically polarized. The possibility is established and the conditions are determined for π/2 turning the polarization plate of the wave at reflection from the biisotropic medium/layer. The refraction of the light wave by a plate-lake biisotropic layer is analyzed. It is grounded that the wave, transmitted the layer, is elliptically polarized, at that its ellipticity depends on chiral and non-reciprocal parameters, the non-reciprocality influence is weaker. (authors)

  5. Large-scale land transformations in Indonesia: The role of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... enable timely responses to the impacts of large-scale land transformations in Central Kalimantan ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change.

  6. Development and Technology of Large Thickness TMCP Steel Plate with 390MPA Grade Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Peng

    Recently, with the rapid upgrading of the equipment in the steel Corp, the rolling technology of TMCP has been rapidly developed and widely applied. A large amount of steel plate has been produced by using the TMCP technology. The TMCP processes have been used more and more widely and replaced the heat treatment technology of normalizing, quenching and tempering heat process. In this paper, low financial input is considered in steel plate production and the composition of the steel has been designed with low C component, a limited alloy element of the Nb, and certain amounts of Mn element. During the continuous casting process, the size of the continuous casting slab section is 300 mm × 2400 mm. The rolling technology of TMCP is controlled at a lower rolling and red temperature to control the transformation of the microstructure. Four different rolling treatments are chosen to test its effects on the 390MPa grade low carbon steel of bainitic microstructure and properties. This test manages to produce a proper steel plate fulfilling the standard mechanical properties. Specifically, low carbon bainite is observed in the microstructure of the steel plate and the maximum thickness of steel plate under this TMCP technology is up to 80mm. The mechanical property of the steel plate is excellent and the KV2 at -40 °C performs more than 200 J. Moreover, the production costs are greatly reduced when the steel plate is produced by this TMCP technology when replacing the current production process of quenching and tempering. The low cost steel plate could well meet the requirements of producing engineering machinery in the steel market.

  7. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  8. Some aspects of stray losses in large power transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, Zvonimir

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some results of the investigation of stray losses in power transformers that are caused by high-current loops. The investigation was focused on: a) additional losses in tank cover around high-current bushings and the way of their reduction, b) extra leakage flux and additional losses due to high current delta-connections. The insertion of nonmagnetic gaps between the phase bushings reduces the extra cover losses more than three times. A nonmagnetic plate around the high-current bushings reduces these extra losses practically to zero. The extra losses due to the high-current delta-connections could be significant for the transformer loss level. These extra losses could be controlled (reduced) by the design layout of the delta-connections. (Author)

  9. Readout for a large area neutron sensitive microchannel plate detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yiming [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Yang, Yigang, E-mail: yangyigang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Wang, Xuewu; Li, Yuanjing [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    A neutron sensitive microchannel plate (MCP) detector was developed for neutron imaging on the beamline of a compact pulsed hadron source (CPHS). The detector was set up with a Wedge-and-Strip Anode (WSA) and a delay line anode readout to compare the spatial resolution and throughput with these two anodes. Tests show that the WSA readout is suitable for small area imaging with a spatial resolution of 200 μm with low energy X-rays in a 50 mm diameter MCP–WSA assembly. However, the spatial resolution deteriorated to ~2 mm in a 106 mm diameter MCP–WSA assembly because the noise caused by the parasitic capacitance is 10 times larger in the larger assembly than in the 50 mm diameter assembly. A 120 mm by 120 mm delay line anode was then used for the 106 mm MCP readout. The spatial resolution was evaluated for various voltages applied to the MCP V-stack, various readout voltages and various distances between the MCP V-stack rear face and the delay line. The delay line readout had resolutions of 65.6 μm in the x direction and 63.7 μm in the y direction and the throughput was greater than 600 kcps. The MCP was then used to acquire a neutron image of an USAF1951 Gd-mask.

  10. Application of Fourier transform to MHD flow over an accelerated plate with partial-slippage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-Hydrodynamic (MHD flow over an accelerated plate is investigated with partial slip conditions. Generalized Fourier Transform is used to get the exact solution not only for uniform acceleration but also for variable acceleration. The numerical solution is obtained by using linear finite element method in space and One-Step-θ-scheme in time. The resulting discretized algebraic systems are solved by applying geometric-multigrid approach. Numerical solutions are compared with the obtained Fourier transform results. Many interesting results related with slippage and MHD effects are discussed in detail through graphical sketches and tables. Application of Dirac-Delta function is one of the main features of present work.

  11. Overcurrent protection of transformers. Part 2: Traditional and new fusing philosophies for small and large transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C. J.; Niemira, J. K.

    2003-07-01

    New and traditional fusing philosophies for protecting transformers are discussed. This second in a two-part paper covers selection criteria for a transformer-primary fuse to protect the transformer consistent with industry-accepted through-fault protection curves. Also covered are the principles of coordination as they relate to the proper selection of the primary-side fuse and power fuses and the principles underlying the protection of load-side conductors and cables. The critical nature of secondary fault protection on small three-phase transformers used on industrial, commercial, and institutional power systems, as well as small-to-medium size three-phase power transformers used in utility substations is emphasized, in view of the long lead time and expense involved in replacing these transformers. In contrast, no special protection recommendations are made for small-kVA overhead distribution transformers, since they are not considered likely to experience secondary faults, and the rare faults that do occur will not likely be detected and cleared by the primary fuse. Also of importance is the fact that these transformers are inexpensive and readily available. Overall, large fuse rating, used in combination with a tank-mounted surge arrester is recommended, because it can provide better transformer protection than the smaller fuse ratings traditionally employed. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. 3D craniofacial registration using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yucong; Zhao, Junli; Deng, Qingqiong; Duan, Fuqing

    2017-01-01

    Craniofacial registration is used to establish the point-to-point correspondence in a unified coordinate system among human craniofacial models. It is the foundation of craniofacial reconstruction and other craniofacial statistical analysis research. In this paper, a non-rigid 3D craniofacial registration method using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection is proposed. First, the gradient descent optimization is utilized to improve a cylindrical surface fitting (CSF) for the reference craniofacial model. Second, the thin-plate spline transform (TPST) is applied to deform a target craniofacial model to the reference model. Finally, the cylindrical surface projection (CSP) is used to derive the point correspondence between the reference and deformed target models. To accelerate the procedure, the iterative closest point ICP algorithm is used to obtain a rough correspondence, which can provide a possible intersection area of the CSP. Finally, the inverse TPST is used to map the obtained corresponding points from the deformed target craniofacial model to the original model, and it can be realized directly by the correspondence between the original target model and the deformed target model. Three types of registration, namely, reflexive, involutive and transitive registration, are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed craniofacial registration algorithm. Comparison with the methods in the literature shows that the proposed method is more accurate.

  13. 3D craniofacial registration using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucong Chen

    Full Text Available Craniofacial registration is used to establish the point-to-point correspondence in a unified coordinate system among human craniofacial models. It is the foundation of craniofacial reconstruction and other craniofacial statistical analysis research. In this paper, a non-rigid 3D craniofacial registration method using thin-plate spline transform and cylindrical surface projection is proposed. First, the gradient descent optimization is utilized to improve a cylindrical surface fitting (CSF for the reference craniofacial model. Second, the thin-plate spline transform (TPST is applied to deform a target craniofacial model to the reference model. Finally, the cylindrical surface projection (CSP is used to derive the point correspondence between the reference and deformed target models. To accelerate the procedure, the iterative closest point ICP algorithm is used to obtain a rough correspondence, which can provide a possible intersection area of the CSP. Finally, the inverse TPST is used to map the obtained corresponding points from the deformed target craniofacial model to the original model, and it can be realized directly by the correspondence between the original target model and the deformed target model. Three types of registration, namely, reflexive, involutive and transitive registration, are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed craniofacial registration algorithm. Comparison with the methods in the literature shows that the proposed method is more accurate.

  14. Linear Analytical Solutions of Mechanical Sensitivity in Large Deflection of Unsymmetrically Layered Piezoelectric Plate under Pretension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fu Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear analytical study on the mechanical sensitivity in large deflection of unsymmetrically layered and laterally loaded piezoelectric plate under pretension is conducted. von Karman plate theory for large deflection is utilized but extended to the case of an unsymmetrically layered plate embedded with a piezoelectric layer. The governing equations thus obtained are simplified by omitting the arising nonlinear terms, yielding a Bessel or modified Bessel equation for the lateral slope. Depending on the relative magnitude of the piezoelectric effect, for both cases, analytical solutions of various geometrical responses are developed and formulated via Bessel and modified Bessel functions. The associated ultimate radial stresses are further derived following lamina constitutive law to evaluate the mechanical sensitivity of the considered plate. For a nearly monolithic plate under a very low applied voltage, the results are in good agreement with those for a single-layered case due to pure mechanical load available in literature, and thus the present approach is checked. For a two-layered unsymmetric plate made of typical silicon-based materials, a sound piezoelectric effect is illustrated particularly in a low pretension condition.

  15. H∞ Robust Control of a Large-Piston MEMS Micromirror for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating linear-scanning micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS micromirrors into Fourier transform spectral acquisition systems can greatly reduce the size of the spectrometer equipment, making portable Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS possible. How to minimize the tilting of the MEMS mirror plate during its large linear scan is a major problem in this application. In this work, an FTS system has been constructed based on a biaxial MEMS micromirror with a large-piston displacement of 180 μm, and a biaxial H∞ robust controller is designed. Compared with open-loop control and proportional-integral-derivative (PID closed-loop control, H∞ robust control has good stability and robustness. The experimental results show that the stable scanning displacement reaches 110.9 μm under the H∞ robust control, and the tilting angle of the MEMS mirror plate in that full scanning range falls within ±0.0014°. Without control, the FTS system cannot generate meaningful spectra. In contrast, the FTS yields a clean spectrum with a full width at half maximum (FWHM spectral linewidth of 96 cm−1 under the H∞ robust control. Moreover, the FTS system can maintain good stability and robustness under various driving conditions.

  16. H∞ Robust Control of a Large-Piston MEMS Micromirror for Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huipeng; Li, Mengyuan; Zhang, Yi; Xie, Huikai; Chen, Chang; Peng, Zhangming; Su, Shaohui

    2018-02-08

    Incorporating linear-scanning micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) micromirrors into Fourier transform spectral acquisition systems can greatly reduce the size of the spectrometer equipment, making portable Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) possible. How to minimize the tilting of the MEMS mirror plate during its large linear scan is a major problem in this application. In this work, an FTS system has been constructed based on a biaxial MEMS micromirror with a large-piston displacement of 180 μm, and a biaxial H∞ robust controller is designed. Compared with open-loop control and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) closed-loop control, H∞ robust control has good stability and robustness. The experimental results show that the stable scanning displacement reaches 110.9 μm under the H∞ robust control, and the tilting angle of the MEMS mirror plate in that full scanning range falls within ±0.0014°. Without control, the FTS system cannot generate meaningful spectra. In contrast, the FTS yields a clean spectrum with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) spectral linewidth of 96 cm -1 under the H∞ robust control. Moreover, the FTS system can maintain good stability and robustness under various driving conditions.

  17. Optical image encryption using fresnel zone plate mask based on fast walsh hadamard transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Mehak; Singh, Hukum

    2018-05-01

    A new symmetric encryption technique using Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) based on Fast Walsh Hadamard Transform (FWHT) is proposed for security enhancement. In this technique, bits of plain image is randomized by shuffling the bits randomly. The obtained scrambled image is then masked with FZP using symmetric encryption in FWHT domain to obtain final encrypted image. FWHT has been used in the cryptosystem so as to protect image data from the quantization error and for reconstructing the image perfectly. The FZP used in proposed scheme increases the key space and makes it robust to many traditional attacks. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed cryptosystem has been analyzed on the basis of various parameters by simulating on MATLAB 8.1.0 (R2012b). The experimental results are provided to highlight suitability of the proposed cryptosystem and prove that the system is secure.

  18. Mandibular transformations in prepubertal patients following treatment for craniofacial microsomia: thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, A D; Singh, G D

    2000-01-01

    To analyze correction of mandibular deformity using an inverted L osteotomy and autogenous bone graft in patients exhibiting unilateral craniofacial microsomia (CFM), thin-plate spline analysis was undertaken. Preoperative, early postoperative, and approximately 3.5-year postoperative posteroanterior cephalographs of 15 children (age 10+/-3 years) with CFM were scanned, and eight homologous mandibular landmarks digitized. Average mandibular geometries, scaled to an equivalent size, were generated using Procrustes superimposition. Results indicated that the mean pre- and postoperative mandibular configurations differed statistically (PThin-plate spline analysis indicated that the total spline (Cartesian transformation grid) of the pre- to early postoperative configuration showed mandibular body elongation on the treated side and inferior symphyseal displacement. The affine component of the total spline revealed a clockwise rotation of the preoperative configuration, whereas the nonaffine component was responsible for ramus, body, and symphyseal displacements. The transformation grid for the early and late postoperative comparison showed bilateral ramus elongation. A superior symphyseal displacement contrasted with its earlier inferior displacement, the affine component had translocated the symphyseal landmarks towards the midline. The nonaffine component demonstrated bilateral ramus lengthening, and partial warps suggested that these elongations were slightly greater on the nontreated side. The affine component of the pre- and late postoperative comparison also demonstrated a clockwise rotation. The nonaffine component produced the bilateral ramus elongations-the nontreated side ramus lengthening slightly more than the treated side. It is concluded that an inverted L osteotomy improves mandibular morphology significantly in CFM patients and permits continued bilateral ramus growth. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Use of Large Surface MicroChannel Plates for the Tagging of Intermediate Energy Exotic Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, I., E-mail: ilombardo@lns.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Amorini, F. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Cardella, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); De Filippo, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Geraci, E.; Grassi, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); La Guidara, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Libera Universita Kore, Enna (Italy); Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Politi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Verde, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Vigilante, M. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Federico II di Napoli (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    We show the properties of the tagging system for exotic beams coupled to the CHIMERA detector. In particular, the characteristics of a newly developed large surface MicroChannel Plate will be discussed. Timing and efficiency of this instrument have been investigated. Preliminary results of tests performed with radioactive beams and alpha sources are presented.

  20. Analytical modeling of a sandwiched plate piezoelectric transformer-based acoustic-electric transmission channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawry, Tristan J; Wilt, Kyle R; Scarton, Henry A; Saulnier, Gary J

    2012-11-01

    The linear propagation of electromagnetic and dilatational waves through a sandwiched plate piezoelectric transformer (SPPT)-based acoustic-electric transmission channel is modeled using the transfer matrix method with mixed-domain two-port ABCD parameters. This SPPT structure is of great interest because it has been explored in recent years as a mechanism for wireless transmission of electrical signals through solid metallic barriers using ultrasound. The model we present is developed to allow for accurate channel performance prediction while greatly reducing the computational complexity associated with 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis. As a result, the model primarily considers 1-dimensional wave propagation; however, approximate solutions for higher-dimensional phenomena (e.g., diffraction in the SPPT's metallic core layer) are also incorporated. The model is then assessed by comparing it to the measured wideband frequency response of a physical SPPT-based channel from our previous work. Very strong agreement between the modeled and measured data is observed, confirming the accuracy and utility of the presented model.

  1. The Role of Resorbable Plate and Artificial Bone Substitute in Reconstruction of Large Orbital Floor Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to reduce and reconstruct bony defects adequately in large orbital floor fracture and defect. Among many reconstructive methods, alloplastic materials have attracted attention because of their safety and ease of use. We have used resorbable plates combined with artificial bone substitutes in large orbital floor defect reconstructions and have evaluated their long-term reliability compared with porous polyethylene plate. A total of 147 patients with traumatic orbital floor fracture were included in the study. Surgical results were evaluated by clinical evaluations, exophthalmometry, and computed tomography at least 12 months postoperatively. Both orbital floor height discrepancy and orbital volume change were calculated and compared with preoperative CT findings. The average volume discrepancy and vertical height discrepancies were not different between two groups. Also, exophthalmometric measurements were not significantly different between the two groups. No significant postoperative complication including permanent diplopia, proptosis, and enophthalmos was noted. Use of a resorbable plate with an artificial bone substitute to repair orbital floor defects larger than 2.5 cm2 in size yielded long-lasting, effective reconstruction without significant complications. We therefore propose our approach as an effective alternative method for large orbital floor reconstructions.

  2. Hot air impingement on a flat plate using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plengsa-ard, C.; Kaewbumrung, M.

    2018-01-01

    Impinging hot gas jets to a flat plate generate very high heat transfer coefficients in the impingement zone. The magnitude of heat transfer prediction near the stagnation point is important and accurate heat flux distribution are needed. This research studies on heat transfer and flow field resulting from a single hot air impinging wall. The simulation is carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) commercial code FLUENT. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach with a subgrid-scale Smagorinsky-Lilly model is present. The classical Werner-Wengle wall model is used to compute the predicted results of velocity and temperature near walls. The Smagorinsky constant in the turbulence model is set to 0.1 and is kept constant throughout the investigation. The hot gas jet impingement on the flat plate with a constant surface temperature is chosen to validate the predicted heat flux results with experimental data. The jet Reynolds number is equal to 20,000 and a fixed jet-to-plate spacing of H/D = 2.0. Nusselt number on the impingement surface is calculated. As predicted by the wall model, the instantaneous computed Nusselt number agree fairly well with experimental data. The largest values of calculated Nusselt number are near the stagnation point and decrease monotonically in the wall jet region. Also, the contour plots of instantaneous values of wall heat flux on a flat plate are captured by LES simulation.

  3. 76 FR 54790 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigation... transformers, provided for in subheadings 8504.23.00 and 8504.90.95 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...., Lynchburg, VA; and Pennsylvania Transformer Technology Inc., Canonsburg, PA, alleging that an industry in...

  4. 77 FR 53177 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-867] Large Power Transformers... Commission (ITC), the Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on large power transformers from the... determination of sales at less than fair value in the antidumping duty investigation of large power transformers...

  5. 76 FR 76146 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-867] Large Power Transformers... initiation of the antidumping duty investigation of large power transformers from the Republic of Korea (Korea). See Large Power Transformers from the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

  6. Reduction of eddy current losses around bushing holes on the top-plate of a high efficient transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Aytaç ÇINAR

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Low voltage winding leads cause local eddy current losses in top-plate of the transformer tank. In this paper, this loss component which also causes local hot spots is investigated. Top-plate design is modified using stainless steel non-magnetic material, around the low voltage bushing holes. Manufacturing issues and cost as well as power losses are considered as main criteria during modification study. Magnetic flux distributions and eddy current losses are analysed and compared for different designs. Comparisons are based on 3D finite element simulations and experimental studies. Obtained results show that, insertion of single I-shaped stainless steel plate reduces eddy current losses around low voltage bushing holes to nearly zero.

  7. Non-linear analysis of wave progagation using transform methods and plates and shells using integral equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipkins, Daniel Scott

    Two diverse topics of relevance in modern computational mechanics are treated. The first involves the modeling of linear and non-linear wave propagation in flexible, lattice structures. The technique used combines the Laplace Transform with the Finite Element Method (FEM). The procedure is to transform the governing differential equations and boundary conditions into the transform domain where the FEM formulation is carried out. For linear problems, the transformed differential equations can be solved exactly, hence the method is exact. As a result, each member of the lattice structure is modeled using only one element. In the non-linear problem, the method is no longer exact. The approximation introduced is a spatial discretization of the transformed non-linear terms. The non-linear terms are represented in the transform domain by making use of the complex convolution theorem. A weak formulation of the resulting transformed non-linear equations yields a set of element level matrix equations. The trial and test functions used in the weak formulation correspond to the exact solution of the linear part of the transformed governing differential equation. Numerical results are presented for both linear and non-linear systems. The linear systems modeled are longitudinal and torsional rods and Bernoulli-Euler and Timoshenko beams. For non-linear systems, a viscoelastic rod and Von Karman type beam are modeled. The second topic is the analysis of plates and shallow shells under-going finite deflections by the Field/Boundary Element Method. Numerical results are presented for two plate problems. The first is the bifurcation problem associated with a square plate having free boundaries which is loaded by four, self equilibrating corner forces. The results are compared to two existing numerical solutions of the problem which differ substantially. plate. &The bending moments in the non-linear model are compared to those

  8. Large deflection analysis of a pre-stressed annular plate with a rigid boss under axisymmetric loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y. H.; Chen, K. S.; Roberts, D. C.; Spearing, S. M.

    2001-11-01

    The large deflection analysis of a pre-stressed annular plate with a central rigid boss subjected to axisymmetric loading is presented. The factors affecting the transition from plate behaviour to membrane behaviour (e.g. thickness, in-plane tension and material properties) are studied. The effect of boss size and pre-tension on the effective stiffness of the plate are investigated. The extent of the bending boundary layers at the edges of the plate are quantified. All results are presented in non-dimensional form. The design implications for microelectromechanical system components are assessed.

  9. Large zero-tension plate lysimeters for soil water and solute collection in undisturbed soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peters

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Water collection from undisturbed unsaturated soils to estimate in situ water and solute fluxes in the field is a challenge, in particular if soils are heterogeneous. Large sampling devices are required if preferential flow paths are present. We present a modular plate system that allows installation of large zero-tension lysimeter plates under undisturbed soils in the field. To investigate the influence of the lysimeter on the water flow field in the soil, a numerical 2-D simulation study was conducted for homogeneous soils with uni- and bimodal pore-size distributions and stochastic Miller-Miller heterogeneity. The collection efficiency was found to be highly dependent on the hydraulic functions, infiltration rate, and lysimeter size, and was furthermore affected by the degree of heterogeneity. In homogeneous soils with high saturated conductivities the devices perform poorly and even large lysimeters (width 250 cm can be bypassed by the soil water. Heterogeneities of soil hydraulic properties result into a network of flow channels that enhance the sampling efficiency of the lysimeter plates. Solute breakthrough into zero-tension lysimeter occurs slightly retarded as compared to the free soil, but concentrations in the collected water are similar to the mean flux concentration in the undisturbed soil. To validate the results from the numerical study, a dual tracer study with seven lysimeters of 1.25×1.25 m area was conducted in the field. Three lysimeters were installed underneath a 1.2 m filling of contaminated silty sand, the others deeper in the undisturbed soil. The lysimeters directly underneath the filled soil material collected water with a collection efficiency of 45%. The deeper lysimeters did not collect any water. The arrival of the tracers showed that almost all collected water came from preferential flow paths.

  10. Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates resting on nonlinear elastic foundations by the method of discrete singular convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltacioglu, A.K.; Civalek, O.; Akgoez, B.; Demir, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents nonlinear static analysis of a rectangular laminated composite thick plate resting on nonlinear two-parameter elastic foundation with cubic nonlinearity. The plate formulation is based on first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The governing equation of motion for a rectangular laminated composite thick plate is derived by using the von Karman equation. The nonlinear static deflections of laminated plates on elastic foundation are investigated using the discrete singular convolution method. The effects of foundation and geometric parameters of plates on nonlinear deflections are investigated. The validity of the present method is demonstrated by comparing the present results with those available in the literature. - Highlights: → Large deflection analysis of laminated composite plates are investigated. → As foundation, nonlinear elastic models have been used firstly. → The effects of three-parameter foundation are investigated in detail.

  11. Continuous cooling transformations and microstructures in a low-carbon, high-strength low-alloy plate steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. W.; Vin, D. J., Col; Krauss, G.

    1990-06-01

    A continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram was determined for a high-strength low-alloy plate steel containing (in weight percent) 0.06 C, 1.45 Mn, 1.25 Cu, 0.97 Ni, 0.72 Cr, and 0.42 Mo. Dilatometric measurements were supplemented by microhardness testing, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The CCT diagram showed significant suppression of polygonal ferrite formation and a prominent transformation region, normally attributed to bainite formation, at temperatures intermediate to those of polygonal ferrite and martensite formation. In the intermediate region, ferrite formation in groups of similarly oriented crystals about 1 μm in size and containing a high density of dislocations dominated the transformation of austenite during continuous cooling. The ferrite grains assumed two morphologies, elongated or acicular and equiaxed or granular, leading to the terms “acicular ferrite” and “granular ferrite,” respectively, to describe these structures. Austenite regions, some transformed to martensite, were enriched in carbon and retained at interfaces between ferrite grains. Coarse interfacial ledges and the nonacicular morphology of the granular ferrite grains provided evidence for a phase transformation mechanism involving reconstructive diffusion of substitutional atoms. At slow cooling rates, polygonal ferrite and Widmanstätten ferrite formed. These latter structures contained low dislocation densities and e-copper precipitates formed by an interphase transformation mechanism.

  12. The 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake related to a large velocity gradient within the Pacific plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Makoto; Obara, Kazushige

    2015-04-01

    rays from the hypocenter around the coseismic region of the Tohoku-oki earthquake take off downward and pass through the Pacific plate. The landward low-V zone with a large anomaly corresponds to the western edge of the coseismic slip zone of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The initial break point (hypocenter) is associated with the edge of a slightly low-V and low-Vp/Vs zone corresponding to the boundary of the low- and high-V zone. The trenchward low-V and low-Vp/Vs zone extending southwestward from the hypocenter may indicate the existence of a subducted seamount. The high-V zone and low-Vp/Vs zone might have accumulated the strain and resulted in the huge coseismic slip zone of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. The low-V and low-Vp/Vs zone is a slight fluctuation within the high-V zone and might have acted as the initial break point of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Reference Matsubara, M. and K. Obara (2011) The 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake related to a strong velocity gradient with the Pacific plate, Earth Planets Space, 63, 663-667. Okada, Y., K. Kasahara, S. Hori, K. Obara, S. Sekiguchi, H. Fujiwara, and A. Yamamoto (2004) Recent progress of seismic observation networks in Japan-Hi-net, F-net, K-NET and KiK-net, Research News Earth Planets Space, 56, xv-xxviii.

  13. Application of thin-plate spline transformations to finite element models, or, how to turn a bog turtle into a spotted turtle to analyze both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayton, C Tristan

    2009-05-01

    Finite element (FE) models are popular tools that allow biologists to analyze the biomechanical behavior of complex anatomical structures. However, the expense and time required to create models from specimens has prevented comparative studies from involving large numbers of species. A new method is presented for transforming existing FE models using geometric morphometric methods. Homologous landmark coordinates are digitized on the FE model and on a target specimen into which the FE model is being transformed. These coordinates are used to create a thin-plate spline function and coefficients, which are then applied to every node in the FE model. This function smoothly interpolates the location of points between landmarks, transforming the geometry of the original model to match the target. This new FE model is then used as input in FE analyses. This procedure is demonstrated with turtle shells: a Glyptemys muhlenbergii model is transformed into Clemmys guttata and Actinemys marmorata models. Models are loaded and the resulting stresses are compared. The validity of the models is tested by crushing actual turtle shells in a materials testing machine and comparing those results to predictions from FE models. General guidelines, cautions, and possibilities for this procedure are also presented.

  14. Novel Concept for Flexible and Resilient Large Power Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Parag [ABB Inc.; Englebretson, Steven [ABB Inc.; Ramanan, V. R. R [ABB Inc.

    2018-03-30

    This feasibility study investigates a flexible and adaptable LPT design solution which can facilitate long-term replacement in the event of both catastrophic failures as well as scheduled replacements, thereby increasing grid resilience. The scope of this project has been defined based on an initial system study and identification of the transformer requirements from an overall system load flow perspective.

  15. Analysis of the Elastic Large Deflection Behavior for Metal Plates under Nonuniformly Distributed Lateral Pressure with In-Plane Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeom Kee Paik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Galerkin method is applied to analyze the elastic large deflection behavior of metal plates subject to a combination of in-plane loads such as biaxial loads, edge shear and biaxial inplane bending moments, and uniformly or nonuniformly distributed lateral pressure loads. The motive of the present study was initiated by the fact that metal plates of ships and ship-shaped offshore structures at sea are often subjected to non-uniformly distributed lateral pressure loads arising from cargo or water pressure, together with inplane axial loads or inplane bending moments, but the current practice of the maritime industry usually applies some simplified design methods assuming that the non-uniform pressure distribution in the plates can be replaced by an equivalence of uniform pressure distribution. Applied examples are presented, demonstrating that the current plate design methods of the maritime industry may be inappropriate when the non-uniformity of lateral pressure loads becomes more significant.

  16. Large Molecule Structures by Broadband Fourier Transform Molecular Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Seifert, Nathan A.; Spada, Lorenzo; Pate, Brooks

    2016-06-01

    Fourier transform molecular rotational resonance spectroscopy (FT-MRR) using pulsed jet molecular beam sources is a high-resolution spectroscopy technique that can be used for chiral analysis of molecules with multiple chiral centers. The sensitivity of the molecular rotational spectrum pattern to small changes in the three dimensional structure makes it possible to identify diastereomers without prior chemical separation. For larger molecules, there is the additional challenge that different conformations of each diastereomer may be present and these need to be differentiated from the diastereomers in the spectral analysis. Broadband rotational spectra of several larger molecules have been measured using a chirped-pulse FT-MRR spectrometer. Measurements of nootkatone (C15H22O), cedrol (C15H26O), ambroxide (C16H28O) and sclareolide (C16H26O2) are presented. These spectra are measured with high sensitivity (signal-to-noise ratio near 1,000:1) and permit structure determination of the most populated isomers using isotopic analysis of the 13C and 18O isotopologues in natural abundance. The accuracy of quantum chemistry calculations to identify diastereomers and conformers and to predict the dipole moment properties needed for three wave mixing measurements is examined.

  17. Tensile Residual Stress Mitigation Using Low Temperature Phase Transformation Filler Wire in Welded Armor Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Bunn, Jeffrey R [ORNL; Tzelepis, Demetrios A [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) has been a persistent issue in welding of high-strength steels. Mitigating residual stresses is one of the most efficient ways to control HIC. The current study develops a proactive in-process weld residual stress mitigation technique, which manipulates the thermal expansion and contraction sequence in the weldments during welding process. When the steel weld is cooled after welding, martensitic transformation will occur at a temperature below 400 C. Volume expansion in the weld due to the martensitic transformation will reduce tensile stresses in the weld and heat affected zone and in some cases produce compressive residual stresses in the weld. Based on this concept, a customized filler wire which undergoes a martensitic phase transformation during cooling was developed. The new filler wire shows significant improvement in terms of reducing the tendency of HIC in high strength steels. Bulk residual stress mapping using neutron diffraction revealed reduced tensile and compressive residual stresses in the welds made by the new filler wire.

  18. Large-eddy simulation of separation and reattachment of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of separation and reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow. Instead of resolving the near wall region, we develop a two-dimensional virtual wall model which

  19. Fourteen years of test experience with short-circuit withstand capability of large power transformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.P.P.; Paske, te L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Experience is reported of short-circuit testing of large power transformers during the past 14 years by KEMA in the Netherlands. In total, 119 transformers > 25 MVA participated in the survey. KEMA shows that at initial access to standard IEC short-circuit tests, 28% failed initially in a wide range

  20. Sixteen years of test experiences with short-circuit withstand capability of large power transformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.P.P.; Paske, te L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Experience is reported of short-circuit testing of large power transformers during the past 16 years by KEMA in the Netherlands. In total, 174 transformers > 25 MVA participated in the survey. KEMA shows that at initial access to standard IEC short-circuit tests, 24% failed initially in a wide range

  1. How to use the Fast Fourier Transform in Large Finite Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Petur Birgir

    2011-01-01

    The article contents suggestions on how to perform the Fast Fourier Transform over Large Finite Fields. The technique is to use the fact that the multiplicative groups of specific prime fields are surprisingly composite.

  2. 77 FR 42332 - Large Power Transformers From Korea; Revised Schedule for the Subject Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1189 (Final)] Large Power Transformers From Korea; Revised Schedule for the Subject Investigation AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. DATES: Effective Date: July 12, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Edward...

  3. Four-plate piezoelectric actuator driving a large-diameter special optical fiber for nonlinear optical microendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Zhi; Liang, Xiaobao; Fu, Ling

    2016-08-22

    In nonlinear optical microendoscope (NOME), a fiber with excellent optical characteristics and a miniature scanning mechanism at the distal end are two key components. Double-clad fibers (DCFs) and double-clad photonic crystal fibers (DCPCFs) have shown great optical characteristics but limited vibration amplitude due to large diameter. Besides reducing the damping of fiber cantilever, optimizing the structural of the actuator for lower energy dissipation also contributes to better driving capability. This paper presented an optimized actuator for driving a particular fiber cantilever in the view point of energy. Firstly, deformation energy of a bending fiber cantilever operating in resonant mode is investigated. Secondly, strain and stress analyses revealed that the four-plate actuator achieved lower energy dissipation. Then, finite-element simulations showed that the large-diameter fiber yielded an adequate vibration amplitude driven by a four-plate actuator, which was confirmed by experiments of our home-made four-plate actuator prototypes. Additionally, a NOME based on a DCPCF with a diameter of 350 μm driven by four-plate piezoelectric actuator has been developed. The NOME can excite and collect intrinsic second-harmonic and two-photon fluorescence signals with the excitation power of 10-30 mW and an adequate field of view of 200 μm, which suggest great potential applications in neuroscience and clinical diagnoses.

  4. Large plates and small blocks: The Variscan orogeny in the Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Uwe; Romer, Rolf L.

    2017-04-01

    The Bohemian Massif of the Central European Variscides consists of several late Proterozoic / early Paleozoic low-strain crustal units, namely the Bruno-Vistulian continental block of the Laurussian plate that is juxtaposed with the Tepla-Barrandian Unit and the Lausitz block of the Gondwana plate. These pre-Variscan low-strain units are separated by high-strain zones that contain the mid- and lower crustal record of the Variscan orogeny (400-300 Ma), with nappes reflecting successive subduction exhumation events, voluminous migmatites and a wide range of geochemically contrasting granites. Although the principal constraints are undisputed, there is no consensus regarding the general tectonics of this area. Here we present a plate tectonic model explaining the Bohemian Massif as an orogenic wedge with a Gondwana pro-wedge and a Laurussia retro-wedge area. The principal formation steps are as follows. Subduction of the oceanic crust of the Gondwana plate, i.e. the southern part of the Rheic Ocean eventually followed by continental subduction of the distal Peri-Gondwana shelf produced the early Devonian (U)HP complexes now exposed in the uppermost allochthonous units. The arrival of the Tepla-Barrandian Cadomian block initiates a flip of subduction polarity, leading to the complete closure of the Rheic Ocean in the late Devonian coeval with the exhumation of the early Variscan (U)HP units. Caused by the Lausitz block entering the plate boundary zone in the early Carboniferous, this early subduction accretion stage was followed by continent continent collision. The resulting orogenic wedge is characterized by an intra-continental subduction zone in the pro-wedge area superimposed by the crustal stack of early and mid-Variscan accreted units. Due to heating of the subducted slab in the mantle, the isothermal exhumation of this deeply buried continental crust caused HT-LP metamorphism during the final transpressional stage. Lateral extrusion tectonics coeval with the

  5. Method for the radioimmunoassay of large numbers of samples using quantitative autoradiography of multiple-well plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luner, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    A double antibody assay for thyroxine using 125 I as label was carried out on 10-μl samples in Microtiter V-plates. After an additional centrifugation to compact the precipitates the plates were placed in contact with x-ray film overnight and the spots were scanned. In the 20 to 160 ng/ml range the average coefficient of variation for thyroxine concentration determined on the basis of film spot optical density was 11 percent compared to 4.8 percent obtained using a standard gamma counter. Eliminating the need for each sample to spend on the order of 1 min in a crystal well detector makes the method convenient for large-scale applications involving more than 3000 samples per day

  6. Recognition of objects and position recovery from microdensitometer measurements of large field plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprioli, G.; Nanni, D.; Palma, A.; Vignato, A.

    1977-01-01

    The Coma region on a glass copy of the Palomar Sky Survey has been scanned by the PDS microdensitometer at the Napoli Observatory. A method is described for obtaining the photometric parameters and positions of the images: 12 316 objects have been found. The repositioning of the scanner over the computed coordinates is satisfactory. AGK3 stars were considered to evaluate the plate constants and the precision. Comparison with Dressel and Condon's positions of galaxies gives a r.m.s. scatter consistent with the internal error of the published list. (Auth.)

  7. Large quantum Fourier transforms are never exactly realized by braiding conformal blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Michael H.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2007-01-01

    Fourier transform is an essential ingredient in Shor's factoring algorithm. In the standard quantum circuit model with the gate set {U(2), controlled-NOT}, the discrete Fourier transforms F N =(ω ij ) NxN , i,j=0,1,...,N-1, ω=e 2πi at ∼sol∼ at N , can be realized exactly by quantum circuits of size O(n 2 ), n=ln N, and so can the discrete sine or cosine transforms. In topological quantum computing, the simplest universal topological quantum computer is based on the Fibonacci (2+1)-topological quantum field theory (TQFT), where the standard quantum circuits are replaced by unitary transformations realized by braiding conformal blocks. We report here that the large Fourier transforms F N and the discrete sine or cosine transforms can never be realized exactly by braiding conformal blocks for a fixed TQFT. It follows that an approximation is unavoidable in the implementation of Fourier transforms by braiding conformal blocks

  8. An improved yeast transformation method for the generation of very large human antibody libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatuil, Lorenzo; Perez, Jennifer M; Belk, Jonathan; Hsieh, Chung-Ming

    2010-04-01

    Antibody library selection by yeast display technology is an efficient and highly sensitive method to identify binders to target antigens. This powerful selection tool, however, is often hampered by the typically modest size of yeast libraries (approximately 10(7)) due to the limited yeast transformation efficiency, and the full potential of the yeast display technology for antibody discovery and engineering can only be realized if it can be coupled with a mean to generate very large yeast libraries. We describe here a yeast transformation method by electroporation that allows for the efficient generation of large antibody libraries up to 10(10) in size. Multiple components and conditions including CaCl(2), MgCl(2), sucrose, sorbitol, lithium acetate, dithiothreitol, electroporation voltage, DNA input and cell volume have been tested to identify the best combination. By applying this developed protocol, we have constructed a 1.4 x 10(10) human spleen antibody library essentially in 1 day with a transformation efficiency of 1-1.5 x 10(8) transformants/microg vector DNA. Taken together, we have developed a highly efficient yeast transformation method that enables the generation of very large and productive human antibody libraries for antibody discovery, and we are now routinely making 10(9) libraries in a day for antibody engineering purposes.

  9. A large-area glass-resistive plate chamber with multistrip readout

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovici, M; Hildenbrand, K D; Augustinski, G; Ciobanu, M; Cruceru, I; Duma, M; Hartmann, O; Koczón, P; Kress, T; Marquardt, M; Moisa, D; Petris, M; Schröder, C; Simion, V; Stoicea, G; Weinert, J

    2002-01-01

    A completely new configuration of a glass resistive-plate chamber (GRPC) was built and tested. It consists of a double two-gap structure of electrodes with an active area of about 400 cm sup 2 and is read out via a central multistrip printed circuit board. In measurements with a sup 6 sup 0 Co source and p, d particles of 1.5 A GeV time resolutions better than 80 ps, position resolution along the strips of 5-6 mm and efficiencies larger than 95% were obtained using available fast standard electronics. These results open the possibility of constructing compact TOF detectors of high resolution and high granularity.

  10. Playing jigsaw with Large Igneous Provinces—A plate tectonic reconstruction of Ontong Java Nui, West Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmuth, Katharina; Gohl, Karsten; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    The three largest Large Igneous Provinces (LIP) of the western Pacific—Ontong Java, Manihiki, and Hikurangi Plateaus—were emplaced during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron and show strong similarities in their geochemistry and petrology. The plate tectonic relationship between those LIPs, herein referred to as Ontong Java Nui, is uncertain, but a joined emplacement was proposed by Taylor (2006). Since this hypothesis is still highly debated and struggles to explain features such as the strong differences in crustal thickness between the different plateaus, we revisited the joined emplacement of Ontong Java Nui in light of new data from the Manihiki Plateau. By evaluating seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data along with seismic reflection records of the margins of the proposed "Super"-LIP, a detailed scenario for the emplacement and the initial phase of breakup has been developed. The LIP is a result of an interaction of the arriving plume head with the Phoenix-Pacific spreading ridge in the Early Cretaceous. The breakup of the LIP shows a complicated interplay between multiple microplates and tectonic forces such as rifting, shearing, and rotation. Our plate kinematic model of the western Pacific incorporates new evidence from the breakup margins of the LIPs, the tectonic fabric of the seafloor, as well as previously published tectonic concepts such as the rotation of the LIPs. The updated rotation poles of the western Pacific allow a detailed plate tectonic reconstruction of the region during the Cretaceous Normal Superchron and highlight the important role of LIPs in the plate tectonic framework.

  11. Transformation of environmental conditions in large former Soviet countries: regional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bityukova, V. R.; Borovikov, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    The article studies changes in the structure of environmental conditions of regions in the large former Soviet countries (case study of Russia and Kazakhstan) that have formed considerable contrasts in the placement of industrial complex and population settlement during the previous development stages. The changes related to the transition to market economy have led to essential transformation of environmental conditions. A complex index allowing to assess changes at the regional level in Kazakhstan and Russia and to reveal main similarities and differences between those changes is applied to studying the transformation of regional and industry structure. The article examines both industry-specific and spatial patterns forming environmental conditions at the regional level.

  12. Performance Analysis of a Wind Turbine Driven Swash Plate Pump for Large Scale Offshore Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhagiar, D; Sant, T

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance modelling and analysis of offshore wind turbine-driven hydraulic pumps. The concept consists of an open loop hydraulic system with the rotor main shaft directly coupled to a swash plate pump to supply pressurised sea water. A mathematical model is derived to cater for the steady state behaviour of entire system. A simplified model for the pump is implemented together with different control scheme options for regulating the rotor shaft power. A new control scheme is investigated, based on the combined use of hydraulic pressure and pitch control. Using a steady-state analysis, the study shows how the adoption of alternative control schemes in a the wind turbine-hydraulic pump system may result in higher energy yields than those from a conventional system with an electrical generator and standard pitch control for power regulation. This is in particular the case with the new control scheme investigated in this study that is based on the combined use of pressure and rotor blade pitch control

  13. Research on mechanism of the large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration of a flexible flat plate in the rectangular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lifang, E-mail: liu_lifang1106@yahoo.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, Building 1, Compound No. 29, North Third Ring Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100029 (China); Lu Daogang [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The large amplitude and narrow-band vibration experiment was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The added mass theory was used to analyze the test plates' natural vibration characteristics in static water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The occurring condition of the large amplitude and narrow band vibration was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The large amplitude and narrow-band vibration mechanism was investigated. - Abstract: Further experiments and theoretical analysis were performed to investigate mechanism of the large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration behavior of a flexible flat plate in a rectangular channel. Test plates with different thicknesses were adopted in the FIV experiments. The natural vibration characteristics of the flexible flat plates in air were tested, and the added mass theory of column was used to analyze the flexible flat plates' natural vibration characteristics in static water. It was found that the natural vibration frequency of a certain test plate in static water is approximately within the main vibration frequency band of the plate when it was induced to vibrate with the large-amplitude and narrow-band in the rectangular channel. It can be concluded that the harmonic between the flowing fluid and the vibrating plate is one of the key reasons to induce the large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration phenomenon. The occurring condition of the phenomenon and some important narrow-band vibration characteristics of a foursquare fix-supported flexible flat plate were investigated.

  14. Large-eddy simulation of separation and reattachment of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, W.

    2015-11-11

    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of separation and reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow. Instead of resolving the near wall region, we develop a two-dimensional virtual wall model which can calculate the time- and space-dependent skin-friction vector field at the wall, at the resolved scale. By combining the virtual-wall model with the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale (SGS) model, we construct a self-consistent framework for the LES of separating and reattaching turbulent wall-bounded flows at large Reynolds numbers. The present LES methodology is applied to two different experimental flows designed to produce separation/reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer at medium Reynolds number Reθ based on the momentum boundary-layer thickness θ. Comparison with data from the first case at demonstrates the present capability for accurate calculation of the variation, with the streamwise co-ordinate up to separation, of the skin friction coefficient, Reθ, the boundary-layer shape factor and a non-dimensional pressure-gradient parameter. Additionally the main large-scale features of the separation bubble, including the mean streamwise velocity profiles, show good agreement with experiment. At the larger Reθ = 11000 of the second case, the LES provides good postdiction of the measured skin-friction variation along the whole streamwise extent of the experiment, consisting of a very strong adverse pressure gradient leading to separation within the separation bubble itself, and in the recovering or reattachment region of strongly-favourable pressure gradient. Overall, the present two-dimensional wall model used in LES appears to be capable of capturing the quantitative features of a separation-reattachment turbulent boundary-layer flow at low to moderately large Reynolds numbers.

  15. A Study on the compensation margin on butt welding joint of Large Steel plates during Shipbuilding construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J; Jeong, K; Chung, H; Jeong, H; Ji, M; Yun, C; Lee, J

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the characteristics of butt welding joint shrinkage for shipbuilding and marine structures main plate. The shrinkage strain of butt welding joint which is caused by the process of heat input and cooling, results in the difference between dimensions of the actual parent metal and the dimensions of design. This, in turn, leads to poor quality in the production of ship blocks and reworking through period of correction brings about impediment on improvement of productivity. Through experiments on butt welding joint's shrinkage strain on large structures main plate, the deformation of welding residual stress in the form of I, Y, V was obtained. In addition, the results of experiments indicate that there is limited range of shrinkage in the range of 1 ∼ 2 mm in 11t ∼ 21.5t thickness and the effect of heat transfer of weld appears to be limited within 1000 mm based on one side of seam line so there was limited impact of weight of parent metal on the shrinkage. Finally, it has been learned that Shrinkage margin needs to be applied differently based on groove phenomenon in the design phase in order to minimize shrinkage. (paper)

  16. Transformation of graphite by tectonic and hydrothermal processes in an active plate boundary fault zone, Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Matina; Toy, Virginia; Timms, Nicholas; Halfpenny, Angela; Menzies, Catriona; Craw, Dave; Rooney, Jeremy; Giorgetti, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Graphite is a material with one of the lowest frictional strengths, with coefficient of friction of 0.1 and thus in natural fault zones it may act as a natural solid lubricant. Graphitization, or the transformation of organic matter (carbonaceous material, or CM) into crystalline graphite, is induced by compositional and structural changes during diagenesis and metamorphism. The supposed irreversible nature of this process has allowed the degree of graphite crystallinity to be calibrated as an indicator of the peak temperatures reached during progressive metamorphism. We examine processes of graphite emplacement and deformation in the Alpine Fault Zone, New Zealand's active continental tectonic plate boundary. Raman spectrometry indicates that graphite in the distal, amphibolite-facies Alpine Schist, which experienced peak metamorphic temperatures up to 640 ◦C, is highly crystalline and occurs mainly along grain boundaries within quartzo-feldspathic domains. The subsequent mylonitisation in the Alpine Fault Zone resulted in progressive reworking of CM under lower temperature conditions (500◦C-600◦C) in a structurally controlled environment, resulting in spatial clustering in lower-strain protomylonites, and further foliation-alignment in higher-strain mylonites. Subsequent brittle deformation of the mylonitised schists resulted in cataclasites that contain over three-fold increase in the abundance of graphite than mylonites. Furthermore, cataclasites contain graphite with two different habits: highly-crystalline, foliated forms that are inherited mylonitic graphite; and lower-crystallinity, less mature patches of finer-grained graphite. The observed graphite enrichment and the occurrence of poorly-organised graphite in the Alpine Fault cataclasites could result from: i) hydrothermal precipitation from carbon-supersaturated fluids; and/or ii) mechanical degradation by structural disordering of mylonitic graphite combined with strain-induced graphite

  17. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Lars Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  18. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  19. Features of the Calculation Deployment Large Transformable Structures of Different Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zimin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant progress achieved in the design of space transformable structures to ensure a smooth and reliable deployment remains an important task. This type of construction can consist of dozens, hundreds or even thousands of interconnected elements. Deployment transformable space structures in orbit to test their performance in orbital conditions are associated with high material costs. Full deploy: experimental development process transformable structures involve a number of fundamental difficulties: It is impossible to eliminate the influence of gravity and resistance forces conditions. Thus, to calculate deploy of large transformable structures of various configurations is an important stage of their creation. Simulation provides an opportunity to analyze various schemes of deploy, to reveal their advantages and possible disadvantages. For numerical analysis of deploy of such structures is necessary to use modern software modeling of the dynamics of multi-component of mechanical systems such as EULER and Adams. Simulation of deployment space transformable structures was performed taking as example folding flat antenna contours diameter of 5 m and 20 m, foldable spatial calibration reflector diameter of 3 m, deployable antenna reflector truss-type aperture 3×6 m.The results of the calculations represent following characteristics: the time of adoption of the working position structures; form intermediate positions structures during deployment; dependence of opening angles and angular velocities of the design links on the time. The parameters of these calculations can be used as input in the development of structural elements providing deployment. They can also be used to prepare stands for experimental testing of disclosure designs in ground conditions. It should be noted that the theoretical models are the only way to analyze the deployment of such structures for possible emergency situations.

  20. Large-scale dynamics in the flow around a finite cylinder with a ground plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederich, Octavian; Scouten, Jon; Luchtenburg, Dirk M; Thiele, Frank

    2011-01-01

    To date, physically meaningful representations of the nonstationarity in complex 3D flows with converged turbulent statistics are scarce and shed little light on the nonlinear processes in turbulent motion. This study attempts to address part of this deficit by concentrating on the kinematics of larger scales of motion. Two methods are utilized to describe the kinematics of large-scale unsteady motion in the flow around a wall-mounted finite circular cylinder at Reynolds number Re D = 200 000. The first, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), is a global method resulting in spatial modes defined over the whole domain and their corresponding temporal coefficients. The second, Coherent Structure Tracking (CST), belongs to a class of local methods that extracts connected domains in the flow data. Modes specific for distinct harmonics are extracted by temporal harmonic filtering. Based on time coefficients of the dominant mode pairs provided by POD or harmonic filtering, phase-averaging has been performed. A scalar-field version of CST is proposed, yielding an intuitively more accessible description of the flow. The extent to which POD and CST are complementary is discussed, as well as the extent to which they partially overlap. The combination of POD, filtering, phase-averaging and CST allowed for identification and quantification of important flow patterns in a complex turbulent flow field.

  1. Long term performance studies of large oil-free bakelite resistive plate chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganai, R.; Roy, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Choudhury, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Shiroya, M.K.; Agarwal, K.

    2016-01-01

    Several high energy physics and neutrino physics experiments worldwide require large-size RPCs to cover wide acceptances. The muon tracking systems in the Iron calorimeter (ICAL) experiment in the India based Neutrino Observatory (INO), India and the near detector in Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at Fermilab are two such examples. A single gap bakelite RPC of dimension 240 cm × 120 cm, with gas gap of 0.2 cm, has been built and tested at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, using indigenous materials procured from the local market. No additional lubricant, like oil has been used on the electrode surfaces for smoothening. The chamber is in operation for > 365 days. We have tested the chamber for its long term operation. The leakage current, bulk resistivity, efficiency, noise rate and time resolution of the chamber have been found to be quite stable during the testing peroid. It has shown an efficiency > 95% with an average time resolution of ∼ 0.83 ns at the point of measurement at ∼ 8700 V throughout the testing period. Details of the long term performance of the chamber have been discussed.

  2. Long term performance studies of large oil-free bakelite resistive plate chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganai, R.; Roy, A.; Shiroya, M. K.; Agarwal, K.; Ahammed, Z.; Choudhury, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-09-01

    Several high energy physics and neutrino physics experiments worldwide require large-size RPCs to cover wide acceptances. The muon tracking systems in the Iron calorimeter (ICAL) experiment in the India based Neutrino Observatory (INO), India and the near detector in Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at Fermilab are two such examples. A single gap bakelite RPC of dimension 240 cm × 120 cm, with gas gap of 0.2 cm, has been built and tested at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, using indigenous materials procured from the local market. No additional lubricant, like oil has been used on the electrode surfaces for smoothening. The chamber is in operation for > 365 days. We have tested the chamber for its long term operation. The leakage current, bulk resistivity, efficiency, noise rate and time resolution of the chamber have been found to be quite stable during the testing peroid. It has shown an efficiency > 95% with an average time resolution of ~ 0.83 ns at the point of measurement at ~ 8700 V throughout the testing period. Details of the long term performance of the chamber have been discussed.

  3. Large Eddy Simulation of Supersonic Boundary Layer Transition over a Flat-Plate Based on the Spatial Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suozhu Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The large eddy simulation (LES of spatially evolving supersonic boundary layer transition over a flat-plate with freestream Mach number 4.5 is performed in the present work. The Favre-filtered Navier-Stokes equations are used to simulate large scales, while a dynamic mixed subgrid-scale (SGS model is used to simulate subgrid stress. The convective terms are discretized with a fifth-order upwind compact difference scheme, while a sixth-order symmetric compact difference scheme is employed for the diffusive terms. The basic mean flow is obtained from the similarity solution of the compressible laminar boundary layer. In order to ensure the transition from the initial laminar flow to fully developed turbulence, a pair of oblique first-mode perturbation is imposed on the inflow boundary. The whole process of the spatial transition is obtained from the simulation. Through the space-time average, the variations of typical statistical quantities are analyzed. It is found that the distributions of turbulent Mach number, root-mean-square (rms fluctuation quantities, and Reynolds stresses along the wall-normal direction at different streamwise locations exhibit self-similarity in fully developed turbulent region. Finally, the onset and development of large-scale coherent structures through the transition process are depicted.

  4. TRANSFORMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  5. 3D movies for teaching seafloor bathymetry, plate tectonics, and ocean circulation in large undergraduate classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. D.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Gebbie, G.; Hamann, B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Kreylos, O.; Kronenberger, M.; Spero, H. J.; Streletz, G. J.; Weber, C.

    2015-12-01

    Geologic problems and datasets are often 3D or 4D in nature, yet projected onto a 2D surface such as a piece of paper or a projection screen. Reducing the dimensionality of data forces the reader to "fill in" that collapsed dimension in their minds, creating a cognitive challenge for the reader, especially new learners. Scientists and students can visualize and manipulate 3D datasets using the virtual reality software developed for the immersive, real-time interactive 3D environment at the KeckCAVES at UC Davis. The 3DVisualizer software (Billen et al., 2008) can also operate on a desktop machine to produce interactive 3D maps of earthquake epicenter locations and 3D bathymetric maps of the seafloor. With 3D projections of seafloor bathymetry and ocean circulation proxy datasets in a virtual reality environment, we can create visualizations of carbon isotope (δ13C) records for academic research and to aid in demonstrating thermohaline circulation in the classroom. Additionally, 3D visualization of seafloor bathymetry allows students to see features of seafloor most people cannot observe first-hand. To enhance lessons on mid-ocean ridges and ocean basin genesis, we have created movies of seafloor bathymetry for a large-enrollment undergraduate-level class, Introduction to Oceanography. In the past four quarters, students have enjoyed watching 3D movies, and in the fall quarter (2015), we will assess how well 3D movies enhance learning. The class will be split into two groups, one who learns about the Mid-Atlantic Ridge from diagrams and lecture, and the other who learns with a supplemental 3D visualization. Both groups will be asked "what does the seafloor look like?" before and after the Mid-Atlantic Ridge lesson. Then the whole class will watch the 3D movie and respond to an additional question, "did the 3D visualization enhance your understanding of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge?" with the opportunity to further elaborate on the effectiveness of the visualization.

  6. Numerical Investigation of Wall Cooling and Suction Effects on Supersonic Flat-Plate Boundary Layer Transition Using Large Eddy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suozhu Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reducing friction resistance and aerodynamic heating has important engineering significance to improve the performances of super/hypersonic aircraft, so the purpose of transition control and turbulent drag reduction becomes one of the cutting edges in turbulence research. In order to investigate the influences of wall cooling and suction on the transition process and fully developed turbulence, the large eddy simulation of spatially evolving supersonic boundary layer transition over a flat-plate with freestream Mach number 4.5 at different wall temperature and suction intensity is performed in the present work. It is found that the wall cooling and suction are capable of changing the mean velocity profile within the boundary layer and improving the stability of the flow field, thus delaying the onset of the spatial transition process. The transition control will become more effective as the wall temperature decreases, while there is an optimal wall suction intensity under the given conditions. Moreover, the development of large-scale coherent structures can be suppressed effectively via wall cooling, but wall suction has no influence.

  7. Development of ultrasonic testing technique with the large transducer to inspect the containment vessel plates of nuclear power plant embedded in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi; Kurozumi, Yasuo; Kaneshima, Yoshiari

    2004-01-01

    The containment vessel plates embedded in concrete on Pressurized Water Reactors are inaccessible to inspect directly. Therefore, it is advisable to prepare inspection technology to detect existence and a location of corrosion on the embedded plates indirectly. In order to establish ultrasonic testing technique to be able to inspect the containment vessel plates embedded in concrete widely at the accessible point, experiments to detect artificial hollows simulating corrosion on a surface of a carbon steel plate mock-up covered with concrete simulating the embedded containment vessel plates were carried out with newly made ultrasonic transducers. We made newly low frequency (0.3 MHz and 0.5 MHz) surface shear horizontal (SH) wave transducers combined with three large active elements, which were equivalent to a 120mm width element. As a result of the experiments, the surface SH transducers could detect clearly the echo from the hollows with a depth of 9.5 mm and 19 mm at a distance of 1500mm from the transducers on the surface of the mock-up covered with concrete. Therefore, we evaluate that it is possible to detect the defects such as corrosion on the plates embedded in concrete with the newly made low frequency surface SH transducers with large elements. (author)

  8. Large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration phenomenon of a foursquare fix-supported flexible plate in a rigid narrow channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lifang, E-mail: liu_lifang1106@yahoo.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); Lu Daogang, E-mail: ludaogang@ncepu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: qinxiuyi@sina.com [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhang Pan, E-mail: zhangpan@ncepu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); Niu Fenglei, E-mail: niufenglei@ncepu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > FIV of a foursquare fix-supported flexible plate exposed to axial flow was studied. > Special designed test section and advanced measuring equipments were adopted. > The narrow-band vibration phenomenon with large amplitude was observed. > Line of plate's vibration amplitude and flow rate was investigated. > The phenomenon and the measurement error were analyzed. - Abstract: An experiment was performed to analyze the flow-induced vibration behavior of a foursquare fix-supported flexible plate exposed to the axial flow within a rigid narrow channel. The large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration phenomenon was observed in the experiment when the flow velocity varied with the range of 0-5 m/s. The occurring condition and some characteristics of the large-amplitude and narrow-band vibrations were investigated.

  9. Transformations of large technical systems : a multi-level analysis of the Dutch highway system (1950-2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    The transformation of existing systems is an underexposed topic in large technical systems (LTS) research. Most LTS research has focused on the emergence and stabilization of systems, ending with momentum. But how is momentum overcome, and how do transformations come about? This article presents a

  10. Large Scale Screening of Southern African Plant Extracts for the Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Microtitre-Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M. Elbagory

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs involves a variety of chemical and physical methods. These methods use toxic and environmentally harmful chemicals. Consequently, the synthesis of AuNPs using green chemistry has been under investigation to develop eco-friendly nanoparticles. One approach to achieve this is the use of plant-derived phytochemicals that are capable of reducing gold ions to produce AuNPs. The aim of this study was to implement a facile microtitre-plate method to screen a large number of aqueous plant extracts to determine the optimum concentration (OC for the bio-synthesis of the AuNPs. Several AuNPs of different sizes and shapes were successfully synthesized and characterized from 17 South African plants. The characterization was done using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. We also studied the effects of temperature on the synthesis of the AuNPs and showed that changes in temperatures affect the size and dispersity of the generated AuNPs. We also evaluated the stability of the synthesized AuNPs and showed that some of them are stable in biological buffer solutions.

  11. Modification of the Rappaport rapid test in large-scale testing for syphilis. Evaluation of the rapid plate and rapid card tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinsberg, R; Meir, E; Blumstein, G; Kafeman, R

    1975-11-01

    The Rappaport rapid (RR) plate and card tests were developed as modifications of the RR tube test to permit rapid and inexpensive screening of large numbers of subjects for the diagnosis of syphilis. More than 2,000 sera were examined in parallel by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test, the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test and the RR plate and card tests. There was complete agreement between the RR plate and card tests and the VDRL slide and RPR card tests in 96.6% of sera. In a selected group of 1,530 sera examined, in addition, by the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, there was agreement between the RR plate and card tests and the FTA-ABS test in 74.3% of sera and between the VDRL and RPR tests and the FTA-ABS test in 73.7% of sera. The RR plate test was found to be sufficiently sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of syphilis, although the VDRL slide test is perhaps more sensitive in primary and late latent syphilis. Since the antigen used in the RR tests is colored and stable and the sera do not require inactivation before the test, the tests are easier to perform than the VDRL slide test: the RR plate and card tests could therefore replace the VDRL test as a screening test, with hardly any loss of accuracy.

  12. Large-scale chromosome folding versus genomic DNA sequences: A discrete double Fourier transform technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechetkin, V R; Lobzin, V V

    2017-08-07

    Using state-of-the-art techniques combining imaging methods and high-throughput genomic mapping tools leaded to the significant progress in detailing chromosome architecture of various organisms. However, a gap still remains between the rapidly growing structural data on the chromosome folding and the large-scale genome organization. Could a part of information on the chromosome folding be obtained directly from underlying genomic DNA sequences abundantly stored in the databanks? To answer this question, we developed an original discrete double Fourier transform (DDFT). DDFT serves for the detection of large-scale genome regularities associated with domains/units at the different levels of hierarchical chromosome folding. The method is versatile and can be applied to both genomic DNA sequences and corresponding physico-chemical parameters such as base-pairing free energy. The latter characteristic is closely related to the replication and transcription and can also be used for the assessment of temperature or supercoiling effects on the chromosome folding. We tested the method on the genome of E. coli K-12 and found good correspondence with the annotated domains/units established experimentally. As a brief illustration of further abilities of DDFT, the study of large-scale genome organization for bacteriophage PHIX174 and bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was also added. The combined experimental, modeling, and bioinformatic DDFT analysis should yield more complete knowledge on the chromosome architecture and genome organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The assessment of the transformation of global tectonic plate models and the global terrestrial reference frames using the Velocity Decomposition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; König, Rolf; Glaser, Susanne; Heinkelmann, Robert; Schuh, Harald; Flechtner, Frank; Nilsson, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    The aim of our study is to assess the classical Helmert similarity transformation using the Velocity Decomposition Analysis (VEDA). The VEDA is a new methodology, developed by GFZ for the assessment of the reference frames' temporal variation and it is based on the separation of the velocities into two specified parts: The first is related to the reference system choice (the so called datum effect) and the latter one which refers to the real deformation of the terrestrial points. The advantage of the VEDA is its ability to detect the relative biases and reference system effects between two different frames or two different realizations of the same frame, respectively. We apply the VEDA for the assessment between several modern tectonic plate models and the recent global terrestrial reference frames.

  14. Monitoring a large number of pesticides and transformation products in water samples from Spain and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousis, Nikolaos I; Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Zuccato, Ettore; Sancho, Juan V; Hernandez, Felix; Castiglioni, Sara

    2017-07-01

    Assessing the presence of pesticides in environmental waters is particularly challenging because of the huge number of substances used which may end up in the environment. Furthermore, the occurrence of pesticide transformation products (TPs) and/or metabolites makes this task even harder. Most studies dealing with the determination of pesticides in water include only a small number of analytes and in many cases no TPs. The present study applied a screening method for the determination of a large number of pesticides and TPs in wastewater (WW) and surface water (SW) from Spain and Italy. Liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was used to screen a database of 450 pesticides and TPs. Detection and identification were based on specific criteria, i.e. mass accuracy, fragmentation, and comparison of retention times when reference standards were available, or a retention time prediction model when standards were not available. Seventeen pesticides and TPs from different classes (fungicides, herbicides and insecticides) were found in WW in Italy and Spain, and twelve in SW. Generally, in both countries more compounds were detected in effluent WW than in influent WW, and in SW than WW. This might be due to the analytical sensitivity in the different matrices, but also to the presence of multiple sources of pollution. HRMS proved a good screening tool to determine a large number of substances in water and identify some priority compounds for further quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemorrhagic Transformation After Large Cerebral Infarction in Rats Pretreated With Dabigatran or Warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Il; An, Sunho; Kim, Jayoung; Yang, Seung-Hee; Yoo, Joonsang; Baek, Jang-Hyun; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hye Sun; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2017-10-01

    It is uncertain whether hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after large cerebral infarction is less frequent in dabigatran users than warfarin users. We compared the occurrence of HT after large cerebral infarction among rats pretreated with dabigatran, warfarin, or placebo. This was a triple-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled experiment. After treatment with warfarin (0.2 mg/kg), dabigatran (20 mg/kg), or saline for 7 days, Wistar rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. As the primary outcome, HT was determined by gradient-recalled echo imaging. For the secondary outcome, intracranial hemorrhage was assessed via gradient-recalled echo imaging in surviving rats and via autopsy for dead rats. Of 62 rats, there were 33 deaths (53.2%, 17 technical reasons). Of the intention-to-treat population, 33 rats underwent brain imaging. HT was less frequent in the dabigatran group than the warfarin group (placebo 2/14 [14%], dabigatran 0/10 [0%], and warfarin 9/9 [100%]; dabigatran versus warfarin; P warfarin group (19/29 [65.5%]; P =0.003), but not in the dabigatran group (6/19 [31.6%]; P =0.420). Mortality was significantly higher in the warfarin group than the dabigatran group (79.3% versus 47.4%; P =0.022), but not related to the hemorrhage frequency. The risk of HT after a large cerebral infarction was significantly increased in rats pretreated with warfarin than those with dabigatran. However, the results here may not have an exact clinical translation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Upscaling of Large-Scale Transport in Spatially Heterogeneous Porous Media Using Wavelet Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, M.; de Barros, F.; Ebrahimi, F.; Sahimi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling flow and solute transport in large-scale heterogeneous porous media involves substantial computational burdens. A common approach to alleviate this complexity is to utilize upscaling methods. These processes generate upscaled models with less complexity while attempting to preserve the hydrogeological properties comparable to the original fine-scale model. We use Wavelet Transformations (WT) of the spatial distribution of aquifer's property to upscale the hydrogeological models and consequently transport processes. In particular, we apply the technique to a porous formation with broadly distributed and correlated transmissivity to verify the performance of the WT. First, transmissivity fields are coarsened using WT in such a way that the high transmissivity zones, in which more important information is embedded, mostly remain the same, while the low transmissivity zones are averaged out since they contain less information about the hydrogeological formation. Next, flow and non-reactive transport are simulated in both fine-scale and upscaled models to predict both the concentration breakthrough curves at a control location and the large-scale spreading of the plume around its centroid. The results reveal that the WT of the fields generates non-uniform grids with an average of 2.1% of the number of grid blocks in the original fine-scale models, which eventually leads to a significant reduction in the computational costs. We show that the upscaled model obtained through the WT reconstructs the concentration breakthrough curves and the spreading of the plume at different times accurately. Furthermore, the impacts of the Hurst coefficient, size of the flow domain and the orders of magnitude difference in transmissivity values on the results have been investigated. It is observed that as the heterogeneity and the size of the domain increase, better agreement between the results of fine-scale and upscaled models can be achieved. Having this framework at hand aids

  17. Limits of transforming competence of SV40 nuclear and cytoplasmic large T mutants with altered Rb binding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Fischer-Fantuzzi, L; Vesco, C

    1993-03-01

    Multiple amino acid substitutions were introduced into the SV40 large T region that harbors the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) binding site and the nuclear transport signal, changing either one or both of these determinants. Mutant activities were examined in a set of assays allowing different levels of transforming potential to be distinguished; phenotypic changes in established and pre-crisis rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) were detected under isogenic cell conditions, and comparisons made with other established rodent cells. The limit of the transforming ability of mutants with important substitutions in the Rb binding site fell between two transformation levels of the same established rat cells. Such cells could be induced to form dense foci but not agar colonies (their parental pre-crises REFs, as expected, were untransformed either way). Nonetheless, agar colony induction was possible in other cell lines, such as mouse NIH3T3 and (for one of the mutants) rat F2408. All these mutants efficiently immortalized pre-crisis REFs. The transforming ability of cytoplasmic mutants appeared to depend on the integrity of the Rb-binding sequence to approximately the same extent as that of the wild-type large T, although evidence of in vivo Rb-cytoplasmic large T complexes was not found. The presence or absence of small t was critical when the transforming task of mutants was near the limit of their abilities.

  18. Failure of large transformation projects from the viewpoint of complex adaptive systems: Management principles for dealing with project dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Voort, H. van der; Veenstra, A.F.E. van

    2015-01-01

    Many large transformation projects do not result in the outcomes desired or envisioned by the stakeholders. This type of project is characterised by dynamics which are both caused by and result of uncertainties and unexpected behaviour. In this paper a complex adaptive system (CAS) view was adopted

  19. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  20. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  1. Reconstruction of large upper eyelid defects with a free tarsal plate graft and a myocutaneous pedicle flap plus a free skin graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    To review and present the results of a one-step method employing a free tarsal plate graft and a myocutaneous pedicle flap plus a free skin graft for reconstruction of large upper eyelid defects after tumour surgery. This was a retrospective case-series of 8 patients who underwent reconstruction of the upper eyelid after tumour removal. The horizontal defect involved 50-75% of the lid (3 pts.), more than 75% (3 pts.), and more than 75% plus the lateral canthus (2 pts.). The posterior lamella was reconstructed with contralateral upper eyelid tarsal plate. The anterior lamella was reconstructed with a laterally based myocutaneous pedicle flap in 7 patients, leaving a raw surface under the brow which was covered with a free skin graft. In 1 patient with little skin left under the brow, the anterior lamella was reconstructed with a bi-pedicle orbicularis muscle flap together with a free skin graft. All patients healed without necrosis, did not suffer from lagophthalmos, achieved reasonable cosmesis, and did not need lubricants. In one patient, a contact lens was necessary for three weeks because of corneal erosion. One patient still needs a contact lens 3 months after excision to avoid eye discomfort. Large upper eyelid defects can be reconstructed with a free tarsal plate graft and a laterally based myocutaneous pedicle flap in combination with a free skin graft. Two-step procedures can probably be avoided in most cases.

  2. Hydrological simulation of flood transformations in the upper Danube River: Case study of large flood events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitková Veronika Bačová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of understand natural processes as factors that restrict, limit or even jeopardize the interests of human society is currently of great concern. The natural transformation of flood waves is increasingly affected and disturbed by artificial interventions in river basins. The Danube River basin is an area of high economic and water management importance. Channel training can result in changes in the transformation of flood waves and different hydrographic shapes of flood waves compared with the past. The estimation and evolution of the transformation of historical flood waves under recent river conditions is only possible by model simulations. For this purpose a nonlinear reservoir cascade model was constructed. The NLN-Danube nonlinear reservoir river model was used to simulate the transformation of flood waves in four sections of the Danube River from Kienstock (Austria to Štúrovo (Slovakia under relatively recent river reach conditions. The model was individually calibrated for two extreme events in August 2002 and June 2013. Some floods that occurred on the Danube during the period of 1991–2002 were used for the validation of the model. The model was used to identify changes in the transformational properties of the Danube channel in the selected river reach for some historical summer floods (1899, 1954 1965 and 1975. Finally, a simulation of flood wave propagation of the most destructive Danube flood of the last millennium (August 1501 is discussed.

  3. Overvoltage Protection of Large Power Transformers - A Real-Life Study Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Einarsdottir, K. E.; Andresson, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the results from a detailed study of the overvoltage protection of a particular 400/150-kV 400-MVA power transformer. The work presented here is based on a real-life power system substation design and data and initiated by Danish TSO Energinet.dk as a consequence of serious...... transformer overvoltage damage. A simulation model for the entire system consisting of overhead line, transformer, surge arrester, and earth grid has been created in PSCAD/EMTDC. The main focus has been put on the earth grid, which has been submodeled in detail in MATLAB using an electromagnetic transient...... exceeded. It is clearly illustrated that the transient performance of the earth grid plays an important role in the overall overvoltage protection system design....

  4. Flexibility of three differential constitutive models evaluated by large amplitude oscillatory shear and Fourier transform rheology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Radek; Filip, Petr; Zelenková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 8 (2016), s. 171-178 ISSN 0032-3861 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : LAOS * fourier transform rheology * Giesekus model * PTT model * modified XPP model * poly(ethylene oxide) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  5. Validating the extract, transform, load process used to populate a large clinical research database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Michael J; Long, Dustin M; Armistead, Matthew G; Anderson, Jamie L; Conway, Baqiyyah N

    2016-10-01

    Informaticians at any institution that are developing clinical research support infrastructure are tasked with populating research databases with data extracted and transformed from their institution's operational databases, such as electronic health records (EHRs). These data must be properly extracted from these source systems, transformed into a standard data structure, and then loaded into the data warehouse while maintaining the integrity of these data. We validated the correctness of the extract, load, and transform (ETL) process of the extracted data of West Virginia Clinical and Translational Science Institute's Integrated Data Repository, a clinical data warehouse that includes data extracted from two EHR systems. Four hundred ninety-eight observations were randomly selected from the integrated data repository and compared with the two source EHR systems. Of the 498 observations, there were 479 concordant and 19 discordant observations. The discordant observations fell into three general categories: a) design decision differences between the IDR and source EHRs, b) timing differences, and c) user interface settings. After resolving apparent discordances, our integrated data repository was found to be 100% accurate relative to its source EHR systems. Any institution that uses a clinical data warehouse that is developed based on extraction processes from operational databases, such as EHRs, employs some form of an ETL process. As secondary use of EHR data begins to transform the research landscape, the importance of the basic validation of the extracted EHR data cannot be underestimated and should start with the validation of the extraction process itself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thirteen years test experience with short-circuit withstand capability of large power transformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.P.P.; Paske, te L.H.; Leufkens, P.P.; Fogelberg, T.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to withstand a short circuit is recognised more and more as an essential characteristic of power transformers. IEC and IEEE Standards, as well as other national standards specify short-circuit testing and how to check the withstand capability. Unfortunately, however, there is extensive

  7. An integral wall model for Large Eddy Simulation (iWMLES) and applications to developing boundary layers over smooth and rough plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Sadique, Jasim; Mittal, Rajat; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    A new wall model for Large-Eddy-Simulations is proposed. It is based on an integral boundary layer method that assumes a functional form for the local mean velocity profile. The method, iWMLES, evaluates required unsteady and advective terms in the vertically integrated boundary layer equations analytically. The assumed profile contains a viscous or roughness sublayer, and a logarithmic layer with an additional linear term accounting for inertial and pressure gradient effects. The iWMLES method is tested in the context of a finite difference LES code. Test cases include developing turbulent boundary layers on a smooth flat plate at various Reynolds numbers, over flat plates with unresolved roughness, and a sample application to boundary layer flow over a plate that includes resolved roughness elements. The elements are truncated cones acting as idealized barnacle-like roughness elements that often occur in biofouling of marine surfaces. Comparisons with data show that iWMLES provides accurate predictions of near-wall velocity profiles in LES while, similarly to equilibrium wall models, its cost remains independent of Reynolds number and is thus significantly lower compared to standard zonal or hybrid wall models. This work is funded by ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0582 (Dr. R. Joslin, program manager).

  8. How can healthcare organizations implement patient-centered care? Examining a large-scale cultural transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhour, Barbara G; Fix, Gemmae M; Mueller, Nora M; Barker, Anna M; Lavela, Sherri L; Hill, Jennifer N; Solomon, Jeffrey L; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen

    2018-03-07

    Healthcare organizations increasingly are focused on providing care which is patient-centered rather than disease-focused. Yet little is known about how best to transform the culture of care in these organizations. We sought to understand key organizational factors for implementing patient-centered care cultural transformation through an examination of efforts in the US Department of Veterans Affairs. We conducted multi-day site visits at four US Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers designated as leaders in providing patient-centered care. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 108 employees (22 senior leaders, 42 middle managers, 37 front-line providers and 7 staff). Transcripts of audio recordings were analyzed using a priori codes based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. We used constant comparison analysis to synthesize codes into meaningful domains. Sites described actions taken to foster patient-centered care in seven domains: 1) leadership; 2) patient and family engagement; 3) staff engagement; 4) focus on innovations; 5) alignment of staff roles and priorities; 6) organizational structures and processes; 7) environment of care. Within each domain, we identified multi-faceted strategies for implementing change. These included efforts by all levels of organizational leaders who modeled patient-centered care in their interactions and fostered willingness to try novel approaches to care amongst staff. Alignment and integration of patient centered care within the organization, particularly surrounding roles, priorities and bureaucratic rules, remained major challenges. Transforming healthcare systems to focus on patient-centered care and better serve the "whole" patient is a complex endeavor. Efforts to transform healthcare culture require robust, multi-pronged efforts at all levels of the organization; leadership is only the beginning. Challenges remain for incorporating patient-centered approaches in the

  9. Development of ultrasonic testing technique with a large transducer to inspect the containment vessel plates embedded in concrete for corrosion on nuclear power plant (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The containment vessel plates embedded in concrete on Pressurized Water Reactors are inaccessible to inspect directly. Therefore, it is advisable to prepare inspection technology to detect existence and a location of corrosion on the embedded plates indirectly. The purpose of this study is establishment of ultrasonic testing technique to be able to inspect the containment vessel plates embedded in concrete widely from the accessible point. Experiments to detect artificial hollows simulating corrosion and stud bolts which hold the mold of concrete on a surface of a carbon steel plate mock-up covered with concrete were carried out with newly made low frequency (0.3MHz and 0.5MHz) 90 degrees refraction angle shear horizontal (SH) wave transducers combined with three active elements, which were equivalent to a 120 mm width element. As the results: (1) The echoes from the artificial hollows with a depth of 19 mm and 9.5mm at a distance of 1.5 m and the stud bolts with a diameter of 8mm at a distance of 0.7 - 1.7m could be discriminated clearly. (2) The multiple echoes bouncing three times between the front side and the back side of the plate, which was equivalent to a distance of about 12m, could be discriminated. (3) A divergence angle and a -6dB divergence angle of the large element (combined three elements) transducer were about 7 degrees and about 3 degrees. (4) The echoes from the hollows with a depth of 9.5m could be detected at a distance of 3.6 m with a reflection at the side wall of the mock-up. (5) It was estimated that the maximum distance of detection of the echo from the stud bolt with a diameter of 8mm was about 2.9 ∼ 3.6 m. Therefore we evaluate that the large element transducer can propagate the SH wave to about a half of a distance to the bottom of the embedded containment vessel and it is possible to detect the defects such as corrosion to a distance of 3.6 m. (author)

  10. Observations of seafloor fluid venting along the transform margin between the North American and Pacific plates in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Gwiazda, R.; Herguera, J.; McGann, M. L.; Edwards, B. D.; Hinojosa, A.; Mejia Mercado, B.; Sanchez, A.; Conlin, D.; Thompson, D.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed surveys of the seafloor morphology at nine representative sections of the North American - Pacific Plate boundary on the floor of the Gulf of California were conducted by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) during a two ship expedition in March and April 2012. One of the objectives of this program was to better understand the distribution and impact of seafloor fluid venting along an active transform fault. At issue is whether the fault itself forms an active fluid flow conduit. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) provided detailed bathymetry of the seafloor, and a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) allowed ground-truth observations and sampling of the surveyed area. The AUV surveys provide high-resolution multibeam bathymetry with a vertical precision of 0.15 m, horizontal resolution of 1.0 and 2-10 kHz CHIRP seismic reflection profiles. The nine surveys captured the morphology of a highly active fault zone in unprecedented detail. Among the features highlighted by these surveys are areas of distinctive seafloor textures. This distinctive morphology commonly occurs on the surface of elevated features that are up to 10 m higher than the surrounding seafloor and is characterized by considerable fine scale surface topography observed in both the AUV and ROV surveys. The surface topography is made up of broken and irregular blocks of methane-derived carbonates, separated by seafloor craters and open cracks that are 1 to 2 m deep and up to 10 m across. Individual patches of this distinctive morphology which are commonly ~100 m across occur within two of the nine survey areas. The presence of active chemosynthetic biological communities in open karst-like cracks show many of these sites are areas of active fluid seepage. In some places methane bubble venting was observed. Seepage was only observed where truncated strata exposed permeable layers adjacent to the fault rather than directly along the fault trace.

  11. Reconstruction of large upper eyelid defects with a free tarsal plate graft and a myocutaneous pedicle flap plus a free skin graft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    skin graft. RESULTS: All patients healed without necrosis, did not suffer from lagophthalmos, achieved reasonable cosmesis, and did not need lubricants. In one patient, a contact lens was necessary for three weeks because of corneal erosion. One patient still needs a contact lens 3 months after...... excision to avoid eye discomfort. CONCLUSION: Large upper eyelid defects can be reconstructed with a free tarsal plate graft and a laterally based myocutaneous pedicle flap in combination with a free skin graft. Two-step procedures can probably be avoided in most cases....

  12. Transformation of a Cutaneous Follicle Center Lymphoma to a Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma—An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dias Coelho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL is characterized by a proliferation of follicle center cells in the skin. A definitive diagnosis is frequently delayed because of difficulties in interpretation of the histopathologic findings. It has an excellent prognosis with a 5-year survival over 95% and its risk of transformation has not been established. We describe a case report of man with a gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL referred to our clinic because of nodules in the back that had gradually developed over a period of 10 years. A biopsy performed 3 years before was interpreted as reactive follicular hyperplasia. A new skin biopsy revealed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements from the initial skin biopsy (PCBCL and the DLBCL gastric biopsy were studied by polymerase chain reaction and an identical clonal rearrangement was detected which was highly suggestive of a transformation lymphoma.

  13. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  14. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  15. Online Monitoring Technical Basis and Analysis Framework for Large Power Transformers; Interim Report for FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy J. Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal; Binh T. Pham; Heather D. Medema; Kirk Fitzgerald

    2012-09-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is actively conducting research to develop and demonstrate online monitoring (OLM) capabilities for active components in existing Nuclear Power Plants. A pilot project is currently underway to apply OLM to Generator Step-Up Transformers (GSUs) and Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs). INL and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are working jointly to implement the pilot project. The EPRI Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Software Suite will be used to implement monitoring in conjunction with utility partners: the Shearon Harris Nuclear Generating Station (owned by Duke Energy for GSUs, and Braidwood Generating Station (owned by Exelon Corporation) for EDGs. This report presents monitoring techniques, fault signatures, and diagnostic and prognostic models for GSUs. GSUs are main transformers that are directly connected to generators, stepping up the voltage from the generator output voltage to the highest transmission voltages for supplying electricity to the transmission grid. Technical experts from Shearon Harris are assisting INL and EPRI in identifying critical faults and defining fault signatures associated with each fault. The resulting diagnostic models will be implemented in the FW-PHM Software Suite and tested using data from Shearon-Harris. Parallel research on EDGs is being conducted, and will be reported in an interim report during the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  16. Structure Transformation and Coherent Interface in Large Lattice-Mismatched Nanoscale Multilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale Al/W multilayers were fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy. Despite the large lattice mismatch and significantly different lattice structures between Al and W, a structural transition from face-centered cubic to body-centered cubic in Al layers was observed when the individual layer thickness was reduced from 5 nm to 1 nm, forming coherent Al/W interfaces. For potential mechanisms underlying the observed structure transition and forming of coherent interfaces, it was suggested that the reduction of interfacial energy and high stresses induced by large lattice-mismatch play a crucial role.

  17. Large-surface-area diamond (111) crystal plates for applications in high-heat-load wavefront-preserving X-ray crystal optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Antipov, Sergey; Butler, James E; Kolyadin, Alexander V; Katrusha, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    Fabrication and results of high-resolution X-ray topography characterization of diamond single-crystal plates with large surface area (10 mm × 10 mm) and (111) crystal surface orientation for applications in high-heat-load X-ray crystal optics are reported. The plates were fabricated by laser-cutting of the (111) facets of diamond crystals grown using high-pressure high-temperature methods. The intrinsic crystal quality of a selected 3 mm × 7 mm crystal region of one of the studied samples was found to be suitable for applications in wavefront-preserving high-heat-load crystal optics. Wavefront characterization was performed using sequential X-ray diffraction topography in the pseudo plane wave configuration and data analysis using rocking-curve topography. The variations of the rocking-curve width and peak position measured with a spatial resolution of 13 µm × 13 µm over the selected region were found to be less than 1 µrad.

  18. Ecosystem transformation by emerging infectious disease: loss of large tanoak from California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cobb; Joao A.N. Filipe; Ross K. Meentemeyer; Christopher A. Gilligan; David M. Rizzo

    2012-01-01

    1. Few pathogens are the sole or primary cause of species extinctions, but forest disease has caused spectacular declines in North American overstorey trees and restructured forest ecosystems at large spatial scales over the past 100 years. These events threaten biodiversity associated with impacted host trees and other resources valued by human societies even when...

  19. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei; Wang Mei; Wang Dalun; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin

    2007-06-01

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  20. Tuning martensitic transformation, large magnetoresistance and strain in Ni50-xFexMn36Sn14 Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pan; Jing, Chao; Zheng, Dong; Li, Zhe; Kang, Baojuan; Deng, Dongmei; Cao, Shixun; Lu, Bo; Zhang, Jincang

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the martensitic transformation, exchange bias, magnetoresistance (MR) and strain in Ni50-xFexMn36Sn14 (x=1, 2, 3, 4) Heusler alloys. With the increase of Fe content, the austenite phase could be stabilized with L21 structure and hence the martensitic transition shifts to a lower temperature and finally disappears. This behavior can be understood by the weakening of Ni-Mn hybridization to suppress AFM interactions and enhancement of Fe-Fe ferromagnetic exchange interactions. The same reason can account for the slight decrease of exchange bias field (HEB) with the increase of the Fe content from x=1 to 2 and the disappearance of HEB for x=3. We observed MR effect for x=3, and a maximum MR value of -52% was achieved, which can be explained by the change in the electronic structure during martensitic transformation induced by the magnetic field. In addition, a large strain of 0.207% in Ni49Fe1Mn36Sn14 was observed due to the changes of lattice parameters during the martensitic transformation induced by temperature.

  1. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  2. A high-speed data-collection system for large-unit-cell crystals using an imaging plate as a detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Masaki; Imada, Katsumi; Katsube, Yukiteru; Tanaka, Nobuo; Higashi, Tsuneyuki

    1992-01-01

    A high-speed data-collection system for large-unit-cell crystals is presented, using the Fuji Imaging Plate as an X-ray detector and a rotating-anode generator as the X-ray source. It is an automatic data-acquisition system that requires almost no manual intervention. The quality of data collected on the system is discussed. Merging R values ranged from 0.04 to 0.05. Compared with a four-circle diffractometer, data reproducibility was better, isomorphous/anomalous Patterson maps were almost identical in quality and data from a small-molecule crystal, cytidine, were of almost the same quality. Protein structures were refinable using the data measured on the system, the final crystallographic R value of the 2.2 A 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase structure being 0.185 and that of the 1.88 A Flammulina veltipes agglutinin structure being 0.199. (orig.)

  3. Primary Breast Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT Lymphoma Transformation to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Hülya Arslan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL of the breast constitutes 0.04%-0.53% of all malignancies and 2.2% of extra nodal lymphomas. In total, 7%-8% of all B-cell lymphomas are the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT type, of which up to 50% of primary gastric MALT lymphoma. Herein we present a patient with breast MALT lymphoma that transformed to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. A 69-year-old female presented with a mass on her left breast. Physical examination showed a 3 × 3-cm mass located 1 cm from the areola on the upper lateral quadrant of the breast at the 1 o’clock position, which was fixed and firm. Excisional biopsy was performed and pathologic examination of the specimen showed MALT lymphoma transformation to DLBCL. The patient was staged as II-EA. The rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP protocol was scheduled as treatment. Following 6 courses of R-CHOP, 2 additional courses of rituximab were administered. Positron emission tomography (PET-CT was done at the end of the treatment. PET showed that the patient was in complete remission. At the time this report was written, the patient was being followed-up at the outpatient clinic on a regular basis. Lymphoma of the breast is a rarity among malignant tumors of the breast. The most common type of lymphoma is DLBCL. Breast MALT lymphoma is extremely rare. Primary MALT lymphoma of the breast can transform from low grade to high grade and recurrence is possible; therefore, such patients should be monitored carefully for transformation.

  4. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  5. Assessment of long-term and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan effects on urban air quality and its implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suping; Yu, Ye; Qin, Dahe; Yin, Daiying; He, Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    To solve traffic congestion and to improve urban air quality, long-lasting and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan was implemented by local government during 20 November to 26 December 2016 in urban Lanzhou, a semi-arid valley city of northwest China. The traffic control measures provided an invaluable opportunity to evaluate its effects on urban air quality in less developed cities of northwest China. Based on measured simultaneously air pollutants and meteorological parameters, the abatement of traffic-related pollutants induced by the implemented control measures such as CO, PM2.5 and PM10 (the particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm) concentrations were firstly quantified by comparing the air quality data in urban areas with those in rural areas (uncontrolled zones). The concentrations of CO, NO2 from motor vehicles and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were shown to have significant decreases of 15%-23% during traffic control period from those measured before control period with hourly maximum CO, PM2.5, and NO2/SO2 reduction of 43%, 35% and 141.4%, respectively. The influence of the control measures on AQI (air quality index) and ozone was less as compared to its effect on other air pollutants. Therefore, to alleviate serious winter haze pollution in China and to protect human health, the stringent long-term and large-scale even-odd license plate controlled plan should be implemented aperiodically in urban areas, especially for the periods with poor diffusion conditions.

  6. Bend compensated large-mode-area fibers: achieving robust single-modedness with transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, John M; Nicholson, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-12

    Fibers with symmetric bend compensated claddings are proposed, and demonstrate performance much better than conventional designs. These fibers can simultaneously achieve complete HOM suppression, negligible bend loss, and mode area >1000 square microns. The robust single-modedness of these fibers offers a path to overcoming mode instability limits on high-power amplifiers and lasers. The proposed designs achieve many of the advantages of our previous (asymmetric) bend compensation strategy in the regime of moderately large area, and are much easier to fabricate and utilize.

  7. Long-Term Fault Memory: A New Time-Dependent Recurrence Model for Large Earthquake Clusters on Plate Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salditch, L.; Brooks, E. M.; Stein, S.; Spencer, B. D.; Campbell, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    A challenge for earthquake hazard assessment is that geologic records often show large earthquakes occurring in temporal clusters separated by periods of quiescence. For example, in Cascadia, a paleoseismic record going back 10,000 years shows four to five clusters separated by approximately 1,000 year gaps. If we are still in the cluster that began 1700 years ago, a large earthquake is likely to happen soon. If the cluster has ended, a great earthquake is less likely. For a Gaussian distribution of recurrence times, the probability of an earthquake in the next 50 years is six times larger if we are still in the most recent cluster. Earthquake hazard assessments typically employ one of two recurrence models, neither of which directly incorporate clustering. In one, earthquake probability is time-independent and modeled as Poissonian, so an earthquake is equally likely at any time. The fault has no "memory" because when a prior earthquake occurred has no bearing on when the next will occur. The other common model is a time-dependent earthquake cycle in which the probability of an earthquake increases with time until one happens, after which the probability resets to zero. Because the probability is reset after each earthquake, the fault "remembers" only the last earthquake. This approach can be used with any assumed probability density function for recurrence times. We propose an alternative, Long-Term Fault Memory (LTFM), a modified earthquake cycle model where the probability of an earthquake increases with time until one happens, after which it decreases, but not necessarily to zero. Hence the probability of the next earthquake depends on the fault's history over multiple cycles, giving "long-term memory". Physically, this reflects an earthquake releasing only part of the elastic strain stored on the fault. We use the LTFM to simulate earthquake clustering along the San Andreas Fault and Cascadia. In some portions of the simulated earthquake history, events would

  8. High rate resistive plate chambers: An inexpensive, fast, large area detector of energetic charged particles for accelerator and non-accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, C.R.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.; Clamp, O.; Haro, M.; Mauger, G.J.; Miller, K.; Olson, H.; Ramsey, P.

    1993-05-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers, or RPCs, have been used until recently as large detectors of cosmic ray muons. They are now finding use as fast large-area trigger and muon detection systems for different high energy physics detectors such the L3 Detector at LEP and future detectors to be built at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. RPC systems at these accelerators must operate with high efficiency, providing nanosecond timing resolution in particle fluences up to a few tens of kHz/cm 2 -- with thousands of square meters of active area. RPCs are simple and cheap to construct. The authors report here recent work on RPCs using new materials that exhibit a combination of desirable RPC features such as low bulk resistivity, high dielectric strength, low mass, and low cost. These new materials were originally developed for use in electronics assembly areas and other applications, where static electric charge buildup can damage sensitive electrical systems

  9. Templated synthesis of cyclic [4]rotaxanes consisting of two stiff rods threaded through two bis-macrocycles with a large and rigid central plate as spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jean-Paul; Durola, Fabien; Frey, Julien; Heitz, Valérie; Reviriego, Felipe; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre; Trolez, Yann; Rissanen, Kari

    2010-05-19

    Two related cyclic [4]rotaxanes consisting of double macrocycles and rigid rods incorporating two bidentate chelates have each been prepared in high yield. The first step is a multigathering and threading reaction driven by coordination of two different bidentate chelates (part of either the rings or the rods) to each copper(I) center so as to afford the desired precursor. In both cases, the assembly step is done under very mild conditions, and it is quantitative. The second key reaction is the stopper-attaching reaction, based on click chemistry. Even if the quadruple stoppering reaction is not quantitative, it is relatively high-yielding (60% and 95%), and the copper-driven assembly process is carried out at room temperature without any aggressive reagent. The final copper-complexed [4]rotaxanes obtained contain two aromatic plates roughly parallel to one another located at the center of each bis-macrocycle. In the most promising case in terms of host-guest properties, the plates are zinc(II) porphyrins of the tetra-aryl series. The compounds have been fully characterized by various spectroscopic techniques ((1)H NMR, mass spectrometry, and electronic absorption spectroscopy). Unexpectedly, the copper-complexed porphyrinic [4]rotaxane could be crystallized as its 4PF(6)(-) salt to afford X-ray quality crystals. The structure obtained is in perfect agreement with the postulated chemical structure of the compound. It is particularly attractive in terms of symmetry and molecular aesthetics. The distance between the zinc atoms of the two porphyrins is 8.673 A, which is sufficient to allow insertion between the two porphyrinic plates of small ditopic basic substrates able to interact with the central porphyrinic Zn atoms. This prediction has been confirmed by absorption spectroscopy measurements in the presence of various organic substrates. However, large substrates cannot be introduced in the corresponding recognition site and are thus complexed mostly in an exo

  10. Large-scale performance studies of the Resistive Plate Chamber fast tracker for the ATLAS 1st-level muon trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Cattani, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    In the ATLAS experiment, Resistive Plate Chambers provide the first-level muon trigger and bunch crossing identification over large area of the barrel region, as well as being used as a very fast 2D tracker. To achieve these goals a system of about ~4000 gas gaps operating in avalanche mode was built (resulting in a total readout surface of about 16000 m2 segmented into 350000 strips) and is now fully operational in the ATLAS pit, where its functionality has been widely tested up to now using cosmic rays. Such a large scale system allows to study the performance of RPCs (both from the point of view of gas gaps and readout electronics) with unprecedented sensitivity to rare effects, as well as providing the means to correlate (in a statistically significant way) characteristics at production sites with performance during operation. Calibrating such a system means fine tuning thousands of parameters (involving both front-end electronics and gap voltage), as well as constantly monitoring performance and environm...

  11. Using value stream mapping technique through the lean production transformation process: An implementation in a large-scaled tractor company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Rıza Adalı

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world, manufacturing industries have to continue their development and continuity in more competitive environment via decreasing their costs. As a first step in the lean production process transformation is to analyze the value added activities and non-value adding activities. This study aims at applying the concepts of Value Stream Mapping (VSM in a large-scaled tractor company in Sakarya. Waste and process time are identified by mapping the current state in the production line of platform. The future state was suggested with improvements for elimination of waste and reduction of lead time, which went from 13,08 to 4,35 days. Analysis are made using current and future states to support the suggested improvements and cycle time of the production line of platform is improved 8%. Results showed that VSM is a good alternative in the decision-making for change in production process.

  12. A Paleoseismic Record of Earthquakes for the Dead Sea Transform Fault between the First and Seventh Centuries C.E.: Nonperiodic Behavior of a Plate Boundary Fault

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wechsler, N.; Rockwell, T.K.; Klinger, Y.; Štěpančíková, Petra; Kanari, M.; Marco, S.; Agnon, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 3 (2014), s. 1329-1347 ISSN 0037-1106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/0573 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : active tectonics * paleoseismology * paleoearthquake * Dead Sea Transform fault * Jordan Gorge fault Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.322, year: 2014

  13. Is colposcopy necessary at twelve months after large loop excision of the transformation zone? A clinical audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Valerie; Marin, Raymond

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to review outcomes from LLETZ (large loop excision of the transformation zone) procedures carried out for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), in particular findings at colposcopy, cytology and HR-HPV(high-risk human papilloma virus) result to assess whether colposcopy provides any additional information in the management of women at 12 months. We retrospectively analysed 252 patients who had a LLETZ procedure for a HSIL (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) between January 2005 and December 2010. Eighty per cent of women who had a LLETZ procedure for HSIL were reviewed in our colposcopy clinic at 12 months after the procedure. Colposcopy at 12 months after LLETZ was documented as unsatisfactory for 30% of these women. The sensitivity of colposcopy at 12 months after LLETZ was 0.47, and the specificity was 0.95. Colposcopy examination is an insensitive tool for detection of persisting HPV-related change after excision of high-grade CIN. Its usefulness to investigate persistent or recurrent HSIL is further reduced by the high rate of unsatisfactory colposcopy examinations after a LLETZ procedure. Papanicolaou smear and HRHPV tests may be adequate follow-up at 12 months after LLETZ for women at low risk of recurrence of HSIL. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Similar prognosis of transformed and de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in patients treated with immunochemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorigue, Marc; Garcia, Olga; Baptista, Maria Joao; Sancho, Juan-Manuel; Tapia, Gustavo; Mate, José Luis; Feliu, Evarist; Navarro, José-Tomás; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2017-03-22

    The prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) transformed from indolent lymphoma (TL) has been considered poorer than that of de novo DLBCL. However, it seems to have improved since the introduction of rituximab. We compared the characteristics (including the cell-of-origin), and the prognosis of 29 patients with TL and 101 with de novo DLBCL treated with immunochemotherapy. Patients with TL and de novo DLBCL had similar characteristics. All TL cases evolving from follicular lymphoma were germinal-center B-cell-like, while those TL from marginal zone lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia were non-germinal-center B-cell-like. The complete response rate was similar in TL and de novo DLBCL (62 vs. 66%, P=.825). The 5-year overall and progression-free survival probabilities (95% CI) were 59% (40-78) and 41% (22-60) for TL and 63% (53-73) and 60% (50-70) for de novo DLBCL, respectively (P=.732 for overall survival and P=.169 for progression-free survival). In this study, the prognosis of TL and de novo DLBCL treated with immunochemotherapy was similar. The role of intensification with stem cell transplantation in the management of TL may be questionable in the rituximab era. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared imaging of large areas using inverted prism crystals and combining imaging and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2008-10-01

    Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) imaging is a very useful tool for capturing chemical images of various materials due to the simple sample preparation and the ability to measure wet samples or samples in an aqueous environment. However, the size of the array detector used for image acquisition is often limited and there is usually a trade off between spatial resolution and the field of view (FOV). The combination of mapping and imaging can be used to acquire images with a larger FOV without sacrificing spatial resolution. Previous attempts have demonstrated this using an infrared microscope and a Germanium hemispherical ATR crystal to achieve images of up to 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm but with varying spatial resolution and depth of penetration across the imaged area. In this paper, we demonstrate a combination of mapping and imaging with a different approach using an external optics housing for large ATR accessories and inverted ATR prisms to achieve ATR-FT-IR images with a large FOV and reasonable spatial resolution. The results have shown that a FOV of 10 mm x 14 mm can be obtained with a spatial resolution of approximately 40-60 microm when using an accessory that gives no magnification. A FOV of 1.3 mm x 1.3 mm can be obtained with spatial resolution of approximately 15-20 microm when using a diamond ATR imaging accessory with 4x magnification. No significant change in image quality such as spatial resolution or depth of penetration has been observed across the whole FOV with this method and the measurement time was approximately 15 minutes for an image consisting of 16 image tiles.

  16. The Performance and Scientific Rationale for an Infrared Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrograph on a Large Space Telescope

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham, James R; Abrams, Mark; Bennett, C; Carr, J; Cook, K; Dey, A; Najita, J; Wishnow, E

    1998-01-01

    .... We consider the relationship between pixel size, spectral resolution, and diameter of the beam splitter for imaging and nonimaging Fourier transform spectrographs and give the condition required...

  17. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winands, G. J. J.; Liu, Z.; Pemen, A. J. M.; van Heesch, E. J. M.; Yan, K.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of the discharge streamers is recorded using an ICCD camera with a shortest exposure time of 5 ns. The camera can be triggered at any moment starting from the time the voltage pulse arrives on the reactor, with an accuracy of less than 1 ns. Measurements were performed on an industrial size wire-plate reactor. The influence of pulse parameters like pulse voltage, DC bias voltage, rise-time and pulse repetition rate on plasma generation was monitored. It was observed that for higher peak voltages, an increase could be seen in the primary streamer velocity, the growth of the primary streamer diameter, the light intensity and the number of streamers per unit length of corona wire. No significant separate influence of DC bias voltage level was observed as long as the total reactor voltage (pulse + DC bias) remained constant and the DC bias voltage remained below the DC corona onset. For those situations in which the plasma appearance changed (e.g. different streamer velocity, diameter, intensity), a change in ozone production was also observed. The best chemical yields were obtained for low voltage (55 kV), low energetic pulses (0.4 J/pulse): 60 g (kWh)-1. For high voltage (86 kV), high energetic pulses (2.3 J/pulse) the yield decreased to approximately 45 g (kWh)-1, still a high value for ozone production in ambient air (RH 42%). The pulse repetition rate has no influence on plasma generation and on chemical efficiency up to 400 pulses per second.

  18. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winands, G J J [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Liu, Z [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pemen, A J M [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Heesch, E J M van [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yan, K [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Veldhuizen, E M van [EPG Group, Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-07-21

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of the discharge streamers is recorded using an ICCD camera with a shortest exposure time of 5 ns. The camera can be triggered at any moment starting from the time the voltage pulse arrives on the reactor, with an accuracy of less than 1 ns. Measurements were performed on an industrial size wire-plate reactor. The influence of pulse parameters like pulse voltage, DC bias voltage, rise-time and pulse repetition rate on plasma generation was monitored. It was observed that for higher peak voltages, an increase could be seen in the primary streamer velocity, the growth of the primary streamer diameter, the light intensity and the number of streamers per unit length of corona wire. No significant separate influence of DC bias voltage level was observed as long as the total reactor voltage (pulse + DC bias) remained constant and the DC bias voltage remained below the DC corona onset. For those situations in which the plasma appearance changed (e.g. different streamer velocity, diameter, intensity), a change in ozone production was also observed. The best chemical yields were obtained for low voltage (55 kV), low energetic pulses (0.4 J/pulse): 60 g (kWh){sup -1}. For high voltage (86 kV), high energetic pulses (2.3 J/pulse) the yield decreased to approximately 45 g (kWh){sup -1}, still a high value for ozone production in ambient air (RH 42%). The pulse repetition rate has no influence on plasma generation and on chemical efficiency up to 400 pulses per second.

  19. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winands, G J J; Liu, Z; Pemen, A J M; Heesch, E J M van; Yan, K; Veldhuizen, E M van

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of the discharge streamers is recorded using an ICCD camera with a shortest exposure time of 5 ns. The camera can be triggered at any moment starting from the time the voltage pulse arrives on the reactor, with an accuracy of less than 1 ns. Measurements were performed on an industrial size wire-plate reactor. The influence of pulse parameters like pulse voltage, DC bias voltage, rise-time and pulse repetition rate on plasma generation was monitored. It was observed that for higher peak voltages, an increase could be seen in the primary streamer velocity, the growth of the primary streamer diameter, the light intensity and the number of streamers per unit length of corona wire. No significant separate influence of DC bias voltage level was observed as long as the total reactor voltage (pulse + DC bias) remained constant and the DC bias voltage remained below the DC corona onset. For those situations in which the plasma appearance changed (e.g. different streamer velocity, diameter, intensity), a change in ozone production was also observed. The best chemical yields were obtained for low voltage (55 kV), low energetic pulses (0.4 J/pulse): 60 g (kWh) -1 . For high voltage (86 kV), high energetic pulses (2.3 J/pulse) the yield decreased to approximately 45 g (kWh) -1 , still a high value for ozone production in ambient air (RH 42%). The pulse repetition rate has no influence on plasma generation and on chemical efficiency up to 400 pulses per second

  20. Scale-up and large-scale production of Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta) for CO2 mitigation: from an agar plate to 100-m3 industrial photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Hugo; Páramo, Jaime; Silva, Joana; Marques, Ana; Barros, Ana; Maurício, Dinis; Santos, Tamára; Schulze, Peter; Barros, Raúl; Gouveia, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João

    2018-03-23

    Industrial production of novel microalgal isolates is key to improving the current portfolio of available strains that are able to grow in large-scale production systems for different biotechnological applications, including carbon mitigation. In this context, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 was successfully scaled up from an agar plate to 35- and 100-m 3 industrial scale tubular photobioreactors (PBR). Growth was performed semi-continuously for 60 days in the autumn-winter season (17 th October - 14 th December). Optimisation of tubular PBR operations showed that improved productivities were obtained at a culture velocity of 0.65-1.35 m s -1 and a pH set-point for CO 2 injection of 8.0. Highest volumetric (0.08 ± 0.01 g L -1 d -1 ) and areal (20.3 ± 3.2 g m -2 d -1 ) biomass productivities were attained in the 100-m 3 PBR compared to those of the 35-m 3 PBR (0.05 ± 0.02 g L -1 d -1 and 13.5 ± 4.3 g m -2 d -1 , respectively). Lipid contents were similar in both PBRs (9-10% of ash free dry weight). CO 2 sequestration was followed in the 100-m 3 PBR, revealing a mean CO 2 mitigation efficiency of 65% and a biomass to carbon ratio of 1.80. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 is thus a robust candidate for industrial-scale production with promising biomass productivities and photosynthetic efficiencies up to 3.5% of total solar irradiance.

  1. Transformation of SV40-immortalized human uroepithelial cells by 3-methylcholanthrene increases IFN- and Large T Antigen-induced transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easton Marilyn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simian Virus 40 (SV40 immortalization followed by treatment of cells with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC has been used to elicit tumors in athymic mice. 3-MC carcinogenesis has been thoroughly studied, however gene-level interactions between 3-MC and SV40 that could have produced the observed tumors have not been explored. The commercially-available human uroepithelial cell lines were either SV40-immortalized (HUC or SV40-immortalized and then 3-MC-transformed (HUC-TC. Results To characterize the SV40 - 3MC interaction, we compared human gene expression in these cell lines using a human cancer array and confirmed selected changes by RT-PCR. Many viral Large T Antigen (Tag expression-related changes occurred in HUC-TC, and it is concluded that SV40 and 3-MC may act synergistically to transform cells. Changes noted in IFP 9-27, 2'-5' OAS, IF 56, MxA and MxAB were typical of those that occur in response to viral exposure and are part of the innate immune response. Because interferon is crucial to innate immune host defenses and many gene changes were interferon-related, we explored cellular growth responses to exogenous IFN-γ and found that treatment impeded growth in tumor, but not immortalized HUC on days 4 - 7. Cellular metabolism however, was inhibited in both cell types. We conclude that IFN-γ metabolic responses were functional in both cell lines, but IFN-γ anti-proliferative responses functioned only in tumor cells. Conclusions Synergism of SV40 with 3-MC or other environmental carcinogens may be of concern as SV40 is now endemic in 2-5.9% of the U.S. population. In addition, SV40-immortalization is a generally-accepted method used in many research materials, but the possibility of off-target effects in studies carried out using these cells has not been considered. We hope that our work will stimulate further study of this important phenomenon.

  2. Transient electromagnetic simulations of substation earth grid for improving lightning withstand performance of a large power transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Einarsdottir, Kristin E.; Andresson, Einar

    connections are analyzed with respect to lightning overvoltage at the transformer bushings and it is shown clearly that the layout of the grounding system in the vicinity of the surge arrester down conductors plays an important role for the magnitude of the transformer bushing overvoltage during lightnings...

  3. Measurement of profile and intensity of proton beam by an integrating current transformer and a segmented parallel-plate ion chamber for the AGS-spallation target experiment (ASTE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takada, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    Profile and intensity of proton beams incident to a mercury target were measured for the experiments under AGS-spallation Target Experiment (ASTE) collaboration. Protons of 1.94, 12 and 24 GeV energy were measured for a temperature, pressure wave and neutronics in the mercury target. For the beam profile measurement, segmented parallel-plate ion chamber (CHIDORI) was used as the online detector. Imaging plates (IP) were also used for the profile measurement with aluminum activation foils as the image converter. An integrating current transformer (ICT) and activation method by Cu foil were used for the measurement of beam intensity. The beam profile obtained by CHIDORI gives a good agreement with the results with the IP. The beam intensity obtained by ICT agrees with the data obtained by the activation technique within ±3% for 12 and 24 GeV cases. Furthermore, these results show in good agreement with those obtained by the monitor of segmented wire ionization chamber (SWIC) and secondary emission chamber (SEC) installed by the AGS team. Therefore, a reliable beam monitor technique was established, so that the analysis of the experiment such as temperature and pressure wave can be normalized by the number of incident protons. (author)

  4. Inverse models of plate coupling and mantle rheology: Towards a direct link between large-scale mantle flow and mega thrust earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnis, M.; Ratnaswamy, V.; Stadler, G.; Rudi, J.; Liu, X.; Ghattas, O.

    2017-12-01

    We are developing high-resolution inverse models for plate motions and mantle flow to recover the degree of mechanical coupling between plates and the non-linear and plastic parameters governing viscous flow within the lithosphere and mantle. We have developed adjoint versions of the Stokes equations with fully non-linear viscosity with a cost function that measures the fit with plate motions and with regional constrains on effective upper mantle viscosity (from post-glacial rebound and post seismic relaxation). In our earlier work, we demonstrate that when the temperature field is known, the strength of plate boundaries, the yield stress and strain rate exponent in the upper mantle are recoverable. As the plate boundary coupling drops below a threshold, the uncertainty of the inferred parameters increases due to insensitivity of plate motion to plate coupling. Comparing the trade-offs between inferred rheological parameters found from a Gaussian approximation of the parameter distribution and from MCMC sampling, we found that the Gaussian approximation—which is significantly cheaper to compute—is often a good approximation. We have extended our earlier method such that we can recover normal and shear stresses within the zones determining the interface between subducting and over-riding plates determined through seismic constraints (using the Slab1.0 model). We find that those subduction zones with low seismic coupling correspond with low inferred values of mechanical coupling. By fitting plate motion data in the optimization scheme, we find that Tonga and the Marianas have the lowest values of mechanical coupling while Chile and Sumatra the highest, among the subduction zones we have studies. Moreover, because of the nature of the high-resolution adjoint models, the subduction zones with the lowest coupling have back-arc extension. Globally we find that the non-linear stress-strain exponent, n, is about 3.0 +/- 0.25 (in the upper mantle and lithosphere) and a

  5. Bipolar Plates for PEM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lædre, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The Bipolar Plate (BPP) is an important component in both Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers (PEMWEs). Bipolar plate material and processing constitutes for a large fraction of the cost and weight of a PEM cell stack. The main tasks for the bipolar plates in both systems are to separate single cell in a stack, conduct current between single cells and remove heat from active areas. In addition, the BPPs distribu...

  6. Removal of antibiotics in a parallel-plate thin-film-photocatalytic reactor: Process modeling and evolution of transformation by-products and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkal, Can Burak; Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Meriç, Süreyya

    2017-10-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) antibiotic has been studied under recycling batch and homogeneous flow conditions in a thin-film coated immobilized system namely parallel-plate (PPL) reactor. Experimentally designed, statistically evaluated with a factorial design (FD) approach with intent to provide a mathematical model takes into account the parameters influencing process performance. Initial antibiotic concentration, UV energy level, irradiated surface area, water matrix (ultrapure and secondary treated wastewater) and time, were defined as model parameters. A full of 2 5 experimental design was consisted of 32 random experiments. PPL reactor test experiments were carried out in order to set boundary levels for hydraulic, volumetric and defined defined process parameters. TTIP based thin-film with polyethylene glycol+TiO 2 additives were fabricated according to pre-described methodology. Antibiotic degradation was monitored by High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis while the degradation products were specified by LC-TOF-MS analysis. Acute toxicity of untreated and treated SMX solutions was tested by standard Daphnia magna method. Based on the obtained mathematical model, the response of the immobilized PC system is described with a polynomial equation. The statistically significant positive effects are initial SMX concentration, process time and the combined effect of both, while combined effect of water matrix and irradiated surface area displays an adverse effect on the rate of antibiotic degradation by photocatalytic oxidation. Process efficiency and the validity of the acquired mathematical model was also verified for levofloxacin and cefaclor antibiotics. Immobilized PC degradation in PPL reactor configuration was found capable of providing reduced effluent toxicity by simultaneous degradation of SMX parent compound and TBPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A Plate Tectonic Model for the Neoproterozoic with Evolving Plate Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdith, Andrew; Collins, Alan; Williams, Simon; Pisarevsky, Sergei; Müller, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic was dominated by the formation of the supercontinent Rodinia, its break-up and the subsequent amalgamation of Gondwana, during which, the planet experienced large climatic variations and the emergence of complex life. Here we present a topological plate model of the Neoproterozoic based on a synthesis of available geological and palaeomagnetic data. Subduction zones, which are well preserved in the geological record, are used as a proxy for convergent margins; evidence for mid-ocean ridges and transform motion is less clearly preserved, though passive margins are used as a proxy for spreading centres, and evidence for strike-slip motions are used to model transform boundaries. We find that the model presented here only predicts 70% of the total length of subduction active today, though it models similar lengths of both transform and divergent boundaries, suggesting that we have produced a conservative model and are probably underestimating the amount of subduction. Where evidence for convergent, divergent or transform motion is not preserved, we interpret the locations of plate boundaries based on the relative motions of cratonic crust as suggested through either palaeomagnetic data or the geological record. Using GPlates, we tie these boundaries together to generate a plate model that depicts the motion of tectonic plates through the Neoproterozoic. We omit India and South China from Rodinia completely, due to long-lived subduction preserved on margins of India and conflicting palaeomagnetic data for the Cryogenian, but tie them together due to similar Tonian aged accretionary patterns along their respective (present-day) north-western and northern margins, such that these two cratons act as a "lonely wanderer" for much of the Neoproterozoic, and form their own tectonic plate. We also introduce a Tonian-Cryogenian aged rotation of the Congo-São Francisco Craton relative to Rodinia to better fit palaeomagnetic data and account for thick passive

  8. MyPlate Food Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español MyPlate Food Guide KidsHealth / For Teens / MyPlate Food Guide What's ... and other sugary drinks. Avoid large portions . Five Food Groups Different food groups have different nutrients and ...

  9. LICENSE PLATE LOCALIZATION USING GABOR FILTERS AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Ktata; Faouzi Benzarti; Hamid Amiri

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle License Plate Detection (LPD) is an important step for the vehicle plate recognition which can be used in the intelligent transport systems. Many methods have been proposed for the detection of license plates based on: Mathematical morphology, Discrete Wavelet Transform, Hough Transform and others. In general, an LPR system includes four main parts: Vehicle image acquisition, license plate detection, character segmentation and character recognition. In this study, we present a robust ...

  10. Dissolved Gas Analysis Principle-Based Intelligent Approaches to Fault Diagnosis and Decision Making for Large Oil-Immersed Power Transformers: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefeng Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared with conventional methods of fault diagnosis for power transformers, which have defects such as imperfect encoding and too absolute encoding boundaries, this paper systematically discusses various intelligent approaches applied in fault diagnosis and decision making for large oil-immersed power transformers based on dissolved gas analysis (DGA, including expert system (EPS, artificial neural network (ANN, fuzzy theory, rough sets theory (RST, grey system theory (GST, swarm intelligence (SI algorithms, data mining technology, machine learning (ML, and other intelligent diagnosis tools, and summarizes existing problems and solutions. From this survey, it is found that a single intelligent approach for fault diagnosis can only reflect operation status of the transformer in one particular aspect, causing various degrees of shortcomings that cannot be resolved effectively. Combined with the current research status in this field, the problems that must be addressed in DGA-based transformer fault diagnosis are identified, and the prospects for future development trends and research directions are outlined. This contribution presents a detailed and systematic survey on various intelligent approaches to faults diagnosing and decisions making of the power transformer, in which their merits and demerits are thoroughly investigated, as well as their improvement schemes and future development trends are proposed. Moreover, this paper concludes that a variety of intelligent algorithms should be combined for mutual complementation to form a hybrid fault diagnosis network, such that avoiding these algorithms falling into a local optimum. Moreover, it is necessary to improve the detection instruments so as to acquire reasonable characteristic gas data samples. The research summary, empirical generalization and analysis of predicament in this paper provide some thoughts and suggestions for the research of complex power grid in the new environment, as

  11. Wideband Precision Current Transformer for the Magnet Current of the Beam Extraction Kicker Magnet of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Gräwer, G

    2004-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction system is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn of the collider and to safely dispose them on external absorbers. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The generator produces a magnet current pulse with 3 us rise time, 20 kA amplitude and 1.8 ms fall time, of which 90 us are needed to dump the beam. The beam extraction system requires a high level of reliability. To detect any change in the magnet current characteristics, which might indicate a slow degradation of the pulse generator, a high precision wideband current transformer will be installed. For redundancy reasons, the results obtained with this device will be cross-checked with a Rogowski coil, installed adjacent to the transformer. A prototype transformer has been successfully tested at nominal current levels and showed satisfactory results compared with the output of a high frequency resistive coaxial shunt. The annular core of the ring type transformer is composed of...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  13. Economic and agricultural transformation through large-scale farming : impacts of large-scale farming on local economic development, household food security and the environment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined impacts of large-scale farming in Ethiopia on local economic development, household food security, incomes, employment, and the environment. The study adopted a mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative data were generated from secondary and primary

  14. Seismic gaps and plate tectonics: seismic potential for major boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, W R; Nishenko, S P; Sykes, L R; Krause, J

    1979-01-01

    The theory of plate tectonics provides a basic framework for evaluating the potential for future great earthquakes to occur along major plate boundaries. Along most of the transform and convergent plate boundaries considered in this paper, the majority of seismic slip occurs during large earthquakes, i.e., those of magnitude 7 or greater. The concepts that rupture zones, as delineated by aftershocks, tend to abut rather than overlap, and large events occur in regions with histories of both long-and short-term seismic quiescence are used in this paper to delineate major seismic gaps. The term seismic gap is taken to refer to any region along an active plate boundary that has not experienced a large thrust or strike-slip earthquake for more than 30 years. A region of high seismic potential is a seismic gap that, for historic or tectonic reasons, is considered likely to produce a large shock during the next few decades. The seismic gap technique provides estimates of the location, size of future events and origin time to within a few tens of years at best. The accompanying map summarizes six categories of seismic potential for major plate boundaries in and around the margins of the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean, South Sandwich and Sunda (Indonesia) regions for the next few decades. These six categories are meant to be interpreted as forecasts of the location and size of future large shocks and should not be considered to be predictions in which a precise estimate of the time of occurrence is specified. The categories of potential assigned here provide a rationale for assigning priorities for instrumentation, for future studies aimed at predicting large earthquakes and for making estimates of tsunami potential.

  15. Energisation of Wind Turbine Transformers with an Auxiliary Generator in a Large Offshore Wind Farm Under Islanded Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thumm, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    of the farm was carried out by an auxiliary diesel-driven synchronous generator placed on the offshore platform. The available information from all of the components and excitation control was implemented in PSCAD-EMTDC. The results from the simulations were compared with the capability curves and current...... limits of the synchronous generator. Based on the worst possible transformer energization scenario, an optimized procedure to reduce the loading of the auxiliary generator during transient conditions has been proposed based on the reduced generator terminal voltage, automatic voltage regulator parameters...

  16. Semiclassical theory of plate vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.; Hugues, E.

    1996-11-01

    The bi-harmonic equation of flexural vibrations of elastic plates is studied by a semiclassical method which can easily be generalized for other models of wave propagation. The surface and perimeter terms of the asymptotic number of levels are derived exactly. The next constant term is also derived. A semiclassical approximation of the quantization condition is obtained. A Berry-Tabor formula and a Gutzwiller trace formula are deduced for the integrable and chaotic cases respectively. From 600 eigenvalues of a clamped stadium plate obtained by a specially developed numerical algorithm, the trace formula is assessed, looking at its Fourier transform compared with the membrane case. (author)

  17. High temperature co-axial winding transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Novotny, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis and design of co-axial winding transformers is presented. The design equations are derived and the different design approaches are discussed. One of the most important features of co-axial winding transformers is the fact that the leakage inductance is well controlled and can be made low. This is not the case in conventional winding transformers. In addition, the power density of co-axial winding transformers is higher than conventional ones. Hence, using co-axial winding transformers in a certain converter topology improves the power density of the converter. The design methodology used in meeting the proposed specifications of the co-axial winding transformer specifications are presented and discussed. The final transformer design was constructed in the lab. Co-axial winding transformers proved to be a good choice for high power density and high frequency applications. They have a more predictable performance compared with conventional transformers. In addition, the leakage inductance of the transformer can be controlled easily to suit a specific application. For space applications, one major concern is the extraction of heat from power apparatus to prevent excessive heating and hence damaging of these units. Because of the vacuum environment, the only way to extract heat is by using a cold plate. One advantage of co-axial winding transformers is that the surface area available to extract heat from is very large compared to conventional transformers. This stems from the unique structure of the co-axial transformer where the whole core surface area is exposed and can be utilized for cooling effectively. This is a crucial issue here since most of the losses are core losses.

  18. Generation of a restriction minus enteropathogenic Escherichia coli E2348/69 strain that is efficiently transformed with large, low copy plasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Jordan D

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many microbes possess restriction-modification systems that protect them from parasitic DNA molecules. Unfortunately, the presence of a restriction-modification system in a given microbe also hampers genetic analysis. Although plasmids can be successfully conjugated into the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain E2348/69 and optimized protocols for competent cell preparation have been developed, we found that a large, low copy (~15 bioluminescent reporter plasmid, pJW15, that we modified for use in EPEC, was exceedingly difficult to transform into E2348/69. We reasoned that a restriction-modification system could be responsible for the low transformation efficiency of E2348/69 and sought to identify and inactivate the responsible gene(s, with the goal of creating an easily transformable strain of EPEC that could complement existing protocols for genetic manipulation of this important pathogen. Results Using bioinformatics, we identified genes in the unfinished enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC strain E2348/69 genome whose predicted products bear homology to the HsdM methyltransferases, HsdS specificity subunits, and HsdR restriction endonucleases of type I restriction-modification systems. We constructed a strain carrying a deletion of the conserved enzymatic domain of the EPEC HsdR homologue, NH4, and showed that its transformation efficiency was up to four orders of magnitude higher than that of the parent strain. Further, the modification capacity of NH4 remained intact, since plasmids that were normally recalcitrant to transformation into E2348/69 could be transformed upon passage through NH4. NH4 was unaffected in virulence factor production, since bundle forming pilus (BFP subunits and type III secreted (T3S proteins were present at equivalent levels to those seen in E2348/69. Further, NH4 was indistinguishable from E2348/69 in tissue culture infection model assays of localized adherence and T3S. Conclusion We

  19. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, G.J.J.; Liu, Zhen; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Yan, K.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of

  20. A paleomagnetic investigation of vertical-axis rotations in coastal Sonora, Mexico: Evidence for distributed transtensional deformation during the Proto-Gulf shift from a subduction-dominated to transform-dominated plate boundary in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Scott William

    The history of late Miocene (Proto-Gulf) deformation on the Sonoran margin of the Gulf of California is key to understanding how Baja California was captured by the Pacific plate and how strain was partitioned during the Proto-Gulf period (12.5-6 Ma). The Sierra el Aguaje and Sierra Tinajas del Carmen are located in southwestern coastal Sonora, Mexico, and represent the eastern rifted margin of the central Gulf of California. The ranges are composed of volcanic units and their corresponding volcaniclastic units which are the result of persistent magmatic activity between 20 and 8.8 Ma, including three packages of basalt and andesite that make excellent paleomagnetic recorders. Based on cross cutting relations and geochronologic data for pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic volcanic units, most of the faulting and tilting in the Sierra El Aguaje is bracketed between 11.9 and 9.0 Ma, thus falling entirely within Proto-Gulf time. A paleomagnetic investigation into possible vertical axis rotations in the Sierra el Aguaje has uncovered evidence of clockwise rotations between ~13º and ~105º with possible translations. These results are consistent with existing field relations, which suggest the presence of large (>45°) vertical axis rotations in this region. This evidence includes: a) abrupt changes in the strike of tilted strata in different parts of the range, including large domains characterized by E-W strikes b) ubiquitous NE-SW striking faults with left lateral-normal oblique slip, that terminate against major NW-trending right lateral faults, and c) obliquity between the general strike of tilted strata and the strike of faults. These rotations occurred after 12 Ma and largely prior to 9 Ma, thus falling into the Proto-Gulf period. Such large-scale rotations lend credence to the theory that the area inboard of Baja California was experiencing transtension during the Proto-Gulf period, rather than the pure extension that would be the result of strain partitioning

  1. A MODIFIED PROJECTIVE TRANSFORMATION SCHEME FOR MOSAICKING MULTI-CAMERA IMAGING SYSTEM EQUIPPED ON A LARGE PAYLOAD FIXED-WING UAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS has been applied to collect aerial images for mapping, disaster investigation, vegetation monitoring and etc. It is a higher mobility and lower risk platform for human operation, but the low payload and short operation time reduce the image collection efficiency. In this study, one nadir and four oblique consumer grade DSLR cameras composed multiple camera system is equipped on a large payload UAS, which is designed to collect large ground coverage images in an effective way. The field of view (FOV is increased to 127 degree, which is thus suitable to collect disaster images in mountainous area. The synthetic acquired five images are registered and mosaicked as larger format virtual image for reducing the number of images, post processing time, and for easier stereo plotting. Instead of traditional image matching and applying bundle adjustment method to estimate transformation parameters, the IOPs and ROPs of multiple cameras are calibrated and derived the coefficients of modified projective transformation (MPT model for image mosaicking. However, there are some uncertainty of indoor calibrated IOPs and ROPs since the different environment conditions as well as the vibration of UAS, which will cause misregistration effect of initial MPT results. Remaining residuals are analysed through tie points matching on overlapping area of initial MPT results, in which displacement and scale difference are introduced and corrected to modify the ROPs and IOPs for finer registration results. In this experiment, the internal accuracy of mosaic image is better than 0.5 pixels after correcting the systematic errors. Comparison between separate cameras and mosaic images through rigorous aerial triangulation are conducted, in which the RMSE of 5 control and 9 check points is less than 5 cm and 10 cm in planimetric and vertical directions, respectively, for all cases. It proves that the designed imaging system and the

  2. a Modified Projective Transformation Scheme for Mosaicking Multi-Camera Imaging System Equipped on a Large Payload Fixed-Wing Uas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhan, J. P.; Li, Y. T.; Rau, J. Y.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) has been applied to collect aerial images for mapping, disaster investigation, vegetation monitoring and etc. It is a higher mobility and lower risk platform for human operation, but the low payload and short operation time reduce the image collection efficiency. In this study, one nadir and four oblique consumer grade DSLR cameras composed multiple camera system is equipped on a large payload UAS, which is designed to collect large ground coverage images in an effective way. The field of view (FOV) is increased to 127 degree, which is thus suitable to collect disaster images in mountainous area. The synthetic acquired five images are registered and mosaicked as larger format virtual image for reducing the number of images, post processing time, and for easier stereo plotting. Instead of traditional image matching and applying bundle adjustment method to estimate transformation parameters, the IOPs and ROPs of multiple cameras are calibrated and derived the coefficients of modified projective transformation (MPT) model for image mosaicking. However, there are some uncertainty of indoor calibrated IOPs and ROPs since the different environment conditions as well as the vibration of UAS, which will cause misregistration effect of initial MPT results. Remaining residuals are analysed through tie points matching on overlapping area of initial MPT results, in which displacement and scale difference are introduced and corrected to modify the ROPs and IOPs for finer registration results. In this experiment, the internal accuracy of mosaic image is better than 0.5 pixels after correcting the systematic errors. Comparison between separate cameras and mosaic images through rigorous aerial triangulation are conducted, in which the RMSE of 5 control and 9 check points is less than 5 cm and 10 cm in planimetric and vertical directions, respectively, for all cases. It proves that the designed imaging system and the proposed scheme

  3. Large-scale symmetry-adapted perturbation theory computations via density fitting and Laplace transformation techniques: investigating the fundamental forces of DNA-intercalator interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Edward G; Parrish, Robert M; Sherrill, C David; Turney, Justin M; Schaefer, Henry F

    2011-11-07

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) provides a means of probing the fundamental nature of intermolecular interactions. Low-orders of SAPT (here, SAPT0) are especially attractive since they provide qualitative (sometimes quantitative) results while remaining tractable for large systems. The application of density fitting and Laplace transformation techniques to SAPT0 can significantly reduce the expense associated with these computations and make even larger systems accessible. We present new factorizations of the SAPT0 equations with density-fitted two-electron integrals and the first application of Laplace transformations of energy denominators to SAPT. The improved scalability of the DF-SAPT0 implementation allows it to be applied to systems with more than 200 atoms and 2800 basis functions. The Laplace-transformed energy denominators are compared to analogous partial Cholesky decompositions of the energy denominator tensor. Application of our new DF-SAPT0 program to the intercalation of DNA by proflavine has allowed us to determine the nature of the proflavine-DNA interaction. Overall, the proflavine-DNA interaction contains important contributions from both electrostatics and dispersion. The energetics of the intercalator interaction are are dominated by the stacking interactions (two-thirds of the total), but contain important contributions from the intercalator-backbone interactions. It is hypothesized that the geometry of the complex will be determined by the interactions of the intercalator with the backbone, because by shifting toward one side of the backbone, the intercalator can form two long hydrogen-bonding type interactions. The long-range interactions between the intercalator and the next-nearest base pairs appear to be negligible, justifying the use of truncated DNA models in computational studies of intercalation interaction energies.

  4. Bright-Emitting Perovskite Films by Large-Scale Synthesis and Photoinduced Solid-State Transformation of CsPbBr3 Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, Javad; Rastogi, Prachi; Caligiuri, Vincenzo; Abdelhady, Ahmed L; Spirito, Davide; Manna, Liberato; Krahne, Roman

    2017-10-24

    Lead halide perovskite nanocrystals are an emerging class of materials that have gained wide interest due to their facile color tuning and high photoluminescence quantum yield. However, the lack of techniques to translate the high performance of nanocrystals into solid films restricts the successful exploitation of such materials in optoelectronics applications. Here, we report a heat-up and large-scale synthesis of quantum-confined, blue-emitting CsPbBr 3 nanoplatelets (NPLs) that self-assemble into stacked lamellar structures. Spin-coated films fabricated from these NPLs show a stable blue emission with a photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of 25%. The morphology and the optoelectronic properties of such films can be dramatically modified by UV-light irradiation under ambient conditions at a high power, which transforms the self-assembled stacks of NPLs into much larger structures, such as square-shaped disks and nanobelts. The emission from the transformed thin films falls within the green spectral region with a record PLQY of 65%, and they manifest an amplified spontaneous emission with a sharp line width of 4 nm at full-width at half-maximum under femtosecond-pulsed excitation. The transformed films show stable photocurrents with a responsivity of up to 15 mA/W and response times of tens of milliseconds and are robust under treatment with different solvents. We exploit their insolubility in ethanol to fabricate green-emitting, all-solution-processed light-emitting diodes with an external quantum efficiency of 1.1% and a luminance of 590 Cd/m 2 .

  5. Synchronous Microscopic Epstein-Barr Virus-Positive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Adrenal and Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma: De Novo Disease or Transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonim, Mufaddal T; Nasir, Alia; Hubbard, Jonathan; Ketley, Nicholas; Fields, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Lymphomas arising in the adrenal are rare, and to our knowledge, 2 cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) in an adrenal pseudocyst have been reported. We report an incidental EBV-positive DLBCL arising in an adrenal pseudocyst in a 58-year-old man with a 7-year history of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL). The DLBCL was present in the fibrinous exudate, while the LPL resided in the cyst wall. The patient underwent de-roofing of the same cyst 3 years previously; review of histology revealed foci of LPL in the cyst wall, but not of DLBCL. There have been reports of similar microscopic EBV-positive DLBCLs within enclosed cystic spaces. However, all these cases were incidental extranodal primary DLBCLs. Since residual LPL was present alongside DLBCL, with similar light chain restriction, we propose that this may represent transformation, rather than a de novo primary EBV-driven lymphoma.

  6. How broad and deep is the region of chemical alteration of oceanic plates at trenches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranero, C. R.; Grevemeyer, I.; Barckhausen, U.

    2017-12-01

    Different lines of evidence indicate that oceanic plates are affected by pervasive bending-related deformation approaching ocean trenches. Results from active-seismic work support that deformation provides paths for exchange between hydrosphere and lithosphere, possibly causing chemical alteration of the incoming lithosphere. Much work focused on the potential transformation of peridotite to serpentine in the uppermost mantle of incoming plates, but there is no consensus on the region where it may occur or the intensity of alteration, let alone on limiting factors for the process. Teleseismic (large-great) earthquakes with normal-fault mechanism in the outer rise region have been often called to speculate on the depth of penetration of plate hydration. However, large-great outer-rise earthquakes may be related to stress changes due to slab pull after decoupling along the inter-plate boundary, and not necessarily controlled by bending stresses only. If so, the majority of the time the depth of water percolation may be related to local bending stresses expressed by micro-earthquakes rather than large events. Seismic images and multibeam bathymetry from lithosphere of similar thermal thickness from different trenches display a remarkable variability of the intensity of bending-related deformation along the subduction zones where plate age does not change significantly indicating that the intensity of deformation (not the depth) and perhaps hydration is very variable in space and not controlled by plate age. Seismic images showing hundreds of kilometers perpendicular to the trench into the incoming plate show that the bending-related deformation reaches mantle under the outer rise, well before the lithosphere plunges into the trench and develops the marked bend-faulting fabric observable in bathymetric maps. Thus, alteration occurs in a hundreds-of-km wide area, with deformation intensity related to local characteristics, and deformation depth to plate age.

  7. Pulse plating

    CERN Document Server

    Hansal, Wolfgang E G; Green, Todd; Leisner, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The electrodeposition of metals using pulsed current has achieved practical importance in recent years. Although it has long been known that changes in potential, with or without polarity reversal, can significantly affect the deposition process, the practical application of this has been slow to be adopted. This can largely be explained in terms of the complex relationship between the current regime and its effect on the electrodeposition process. In order to harness these effects, an understanding of the anodic and cathodic electrochemical processes is necessary, together with the effects of polarity reversal and the rate of such reversals. In this new monograph, the basics of metal electrodeposition from solution are laid out in great detail in seven distinct chapters. With this knowledge, the reader is able to predict how a given pulse train profile can be adopted to achieve a desired outcome. Equally important is the choice of a suitable rectifier and the ancillary control circuits to enable pulse platin...

  8. Comparison of Different Analytic Solutions to Axisymmetric Squeezing Fluid Flow between Two Infinite Parallel Plates with Slip Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate squeezing flow between two large parallel plates by transforming the basic governing equations of the first grade fluid to an ordinary nonlinear differential equation using the stream functions ur(r,z,t=(1/r(∂ψ/∂z and uz(r,z,t=−(1/r(∂ψ/∂r and a transformation ψ(r,z=r2F(z. The velocity profiles are investigated through various analytical techniques like Adomian decomposition method, new iterative method, homotopy perturbation, optimal homotopy asymptotic method, and differential transform method.

  9. Improved Student Learning through a Faculty Learning Community: How Faculty Collaboration Transformed a Large-Enrollment Course from Lecture to Student Centered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Emily R.; Reason, Robert D.; Coffman, Clark R.; Gangloff, Eric J.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne; Ogilvie, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate introductory biology courses are changing based on our growing understanding of how students learn and rapid scientific advancement in the biological sciences. At Iowa State University, faculty instructors are transforming a second-semester large-enrollment introductory biology course to include active learning within the lecture setting. To support this change, we set up a faculty learning community (FLC) in which instructors develop new pedagogies, adapt active-learning strategies to large courses, discuss challenges and progress, critique and revise classroom interventions, and share materials. We present data on how the collaborative work of the FLC led to increased implementation of active-learning strategies and a concurrent improvement in student learning. Interestingly, student learning gains correlate with the percentage of classroom time spent in active-learning modes. Furthermore, student attitudes toward learning biology are weakly positively correlated with these learning gains. At our institution, the FLC framework serves as an agent of iterative emergent change, resulting in the creation of a more student-centered course that better supports learning. PMID:27252298

  10. Hydroelasticity of a Floating Plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Cui, W.

    2003-01-01

    The membrane forces are included in the hydroelastic analysis of a floating plate undergoing large vertical deflections in regular monochromatic multidirectional waves. The first-order vertical displacements induced by the linear wave exciting forces are calculated by the mode expansion method in...

  11. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. Resiliency of the Nation's Power Grid: Assessing Risks of Premature Failure of Large Power Transformers Under Climate Warming and Increased Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, C. A.; Gao, X.; Morgan, E.

    2017-12-01

    The aging pieces of our nation's power grid - the largest machine ever built - are at a critical time. Key assets in the transmission system, including large power transformers (LPTs), are approaching their originally designed lifetimes. Moreover, extreme weather and climate events upon which these design lifetimes are partially based are expected to change. In particular, more frequent and intense heat waves can accelerate the degradation of LPTs' insulation/cooling system. Thus, there are likely thousands of LPTs across the United States under increasing risk of premature failure - yet this risk has not been assessed. In this study, we investigate the impact of climate warming and corresponding shifts in heat waves for critical LPTs located in the Northeast corridor of the United States to assess: To what extent do changes in heat waves/events present a rising threat to the transformer network over the Northeast U.S. and to what extent can climate mitigation reduce this risk? This study focuses on a collection of LPTs with a high degree of "betweenness" - while recognizing other factors such as: connectivity, voltage rating, MVA rating, approximate price, weight, location/proximity to major transportation routes, and age. To assess the risk of future change in heat wave occurrence we use an analogue method, which detects the occurrence of heat waves based on associated large-scale atmospheric conditions. This method is compared to the more conventional approach that uses model-simulated daily maximum temperature. Under future climate warming scenarios, multi-model medians of both methods indicate strong increases in heat wave frequency during the latter half of this century. Under weak climate mitigation - the risks imposed from heat wave occurrence could quadruple, but a modest mitigation scenario cuts the increasing threat in half. As important, the analogue method substantially improves the model consensus through reduction of the interquartile range by a

  13. Prediction of residual stresses in electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lianyong; Ge, Keke; Jing, Hongyang; Zhao, Lei; Lv, Xiaoqing [Tianjin Univ. (China); Han, Yongdian [Tianjin Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Advanced Joining Technology

    2017-05-01

    A thermo-metallurgical procedure based on the SYSWELD code was developed to predict welding temperature field, microstructure and residual stress in butt-welded Ti-6Al-4V plate taking into account phase transformation. The formation of martensite was confirmed by the CCT diagram and microstructure in the weld joint, which significantly affects the magnitude of residual stress. The hole drilling procedure was utilized to measure the values of residual stress at the top surface of the specimen, which are in well agreement with the numerical results. Both simulated and test results show that the magnitude and distribution of residual stress on the surface of the plate present a large gradient feature from the weld joint to the base metal. Moreover, the distribution law of residual stresses in the plate thickness was further analyzed for better understanding of its generation and evolution.

  14. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy ... plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. ...

  15. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate at home, remember that half of ... effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods ...

  16. Create Your Plate

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  17. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  18. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  19. Return to work for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and transformed indolent lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arboe, Bente; Olsen, Maja Halgren; Goerloev, Jette Soenderskov

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the standard treatment for patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or transformed indolent lymphoma (TIL). The treatment is mainly considered for younger patients still available for the work market. In this study...... to work. The rate of returning to work in the first year following ASCT was decreased for patients being on sick leave at the time of relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.3 [0.2;0.5]) and increased for patients aged ≥55 years (HR 1.9 [1.1;3.3]). In all, 56 (27%) patients were granted disability pension. Being...... on sick leave at the time of relapse was positively associated with receiving a disability pension in the first 2 years after ASCT (HR 3.7 [1.8;7.7]). CONCLUSION: Patients on sick leave at the time of relapse have a poorer prognosis regarding RTW and have a higher rate of disability pension. Furthermore...

  20. Finite element analysis of a solar collector plate using two plate geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Manuel Medina Carril

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of an absorber plate in a solar collector is investigated using finite element analysis. The thermal behavior and efficiency of two absorber plate geometries are studied, using a typical solar collector with a rectangular profile as reference, and a proposed absorber plate with curved geometry. An analysis of the most important parameters involved in the design of the absorber plate was carried out, indicating that the curved geometry of the absorber plate yields an average efficiency ~25% higher than the conventional rectangular geometry. The results suggest that a curved profile made of materials such as aluminum with thermal conductivity higher than 200W/m°C, plate thickness of the order of 2-3mm and with a large density of tubes per unit area of the collector´s plate greatly benefits the thermal efficiency of the solar collector.

  1. A broad-application microchannel-plate detector system for advanced particle or photon detection tasks large area imaging, precise multi-hit timing information and high detection rate

    CERN Document Server

    Jagutzki, O; Mergel, V; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Spielberger, L; Spillmann, U; Ullmann-Pfleger, K

    2002-01-01

    New applications for single particle and photon detection in many fields require both large area imaging performance and precise time information on each detected particle. Moreover, a very high data acquisition rate is desirable for most applications and eventually the detection and imaging of more than one particle arriving within a microsecond is required. Commercial CCD systems lack the timing information whereas other electronic microchannel plate (MCP) read-out schemes usually suffer from a low acquisition rate and complicated and sometimes costly read-out electronics. We have designed and tested a complete imaging system consisting of an MCP position readout with helical wire delay-lines, single-unit amplifier box and PC-controlled time-to-digital converter (TDC) readout. The system is very flexible and can detect and analyse position and timing information at single particle rates beyond 1 MHz. Alternatively, multi-hit events can be collected and analysed at about 20 kHz rate. We discuss the advantage...

  2. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  3. Power density of piezoelectric transformers improved using a contact heat transfer structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei Wei; Chen, Li Juan; Pan, Cheng Liang; Liu, Yong Bin; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2012-01-01

    Based on contact heat transfer, a novel method to increase power density of piezoelectric transformers is proposed. A heat transfer structure is realized by directly attaching a dissipater to the piezoelectric transformer plate. By maintaining the vibration mode of the transformer and limiting additional energy losses from the contact interface, an appropriate design can improve power density of the transformer on a large scale, resulting from effective suppression of its working temperature rise. A prototype device was fabricated from a rectangular piezoelectric transformer, a copper heat transfer sheet, a thermal grease insulation pad, and an aluminum heat radiator. The experimental results show the transformer maintains a maximum power density of 135 W/cm(3) and an efficiency of 90.8% with a temperature rise of less than 10 °C after more than 36 h, without notable changes in performance. © 2012 IEEE

  4. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  5. Limited Impact of Music Therapy on Patient Anxiety with the Large Loop Excision of Transformation Zone Procedure - a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsawatvorakul, Chompunoot; Charakorn, Chuenkamon; Paiwattananupant, Krissada; Lekskul, Navamol; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Lertkhachonsuk, Arb-Aroon

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have pointed to strategies to cope with patient anxiety in colposcopy. Evidence shows that patients experienced considerable distress with the large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) procedure and suitable interventions should be introduced to reduce anxiety. This study aimed to investigate the effects of music therapy in patients undergoing LLETZ. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with patients undergoing LLETZ performed under local anesthesia in an out patient setting at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, from February 2015 to January 2016. After informed consent and demographic data were obtained, we assessed the anxiety level using State Anxiety Inventory pre and post procedures. Music group patients listened to classical songs through headphones, while the control group received the standard care. Pain score was evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS). Statistical analysis was conducted using Pearson Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and T-Test and p-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. A total of 73 patients were enrolled and randomized, resulting in 36 women in the music group and 37 women in the non-music control group. The preoperative mean anxiety score was higher in the music group (46.8 VS 45.8 points). The postoperative mean anxiety scores in the music and the non-music groups were 38.7 and 41.3 points, respectively. VAS was lower in music group (2.55 VS 3.33). The percent change of anxiety was greater in the music group, although there was no significant difference between two groups. Music therapy did not significantly reduce anxiety in patients undergoing the LLETZ procedure. However, different interventions should be developed to ease the patients' apprehension during this procedure.

  6. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  7. Cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone significantly increase the risk for spontaneous preterm birth: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jančar, Nina; Mihevc Ponikvar, Barbara; Tomšič, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to explore the association between cold-knife conisation and large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ) with spontaneous preterm birth in a large 10-year national sample. We wanted to explore further the association of these procedures with preterm birth according to gestation. We conducted a population based retrospective cohort study, using data from national Medical Birth Registry. The study population consisted of all women giving birth to singletons in the period 2003-2012 in Slovenia, excluding all induced labors and elective cesarean sections before 37 weeks of gestation (N=192730). We compared the prevalence of spontaneous preterm births (before 28 weeks, before 32 weeks, before 34 weeks and before 37 weeks of gestation) in women with cold-knife conisation or LLETZ compared to women without history of conisation, calculating odds ratios (OR), adjusted for potential confounders. Chi-square test was used for descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) with two-sided probability (p) values. A total of 8420 (4.4%) women had a preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation, 2250 (1.2%) before 34 weeks of gestation, 1333 (0.7%) before 32 weeks of gestation and 603 (0.3%) before 28 weeks of gestation. A total of 4580 (2.4%) women had some type of conisation in their medical history: 2083 (1.1%) had cold-knife conisation and 2498 (1.3%) had LLETZ. In women with history of cold-knife conisation, the adjusted OR for preterm birth before 37 weeks of gestation was 3.13 (95% CI; 2.74-3.57) and for preterm birth before 28 weeks of gestation 5.96 (95% CI; 4.3-8.3). In women with history of LLETZ, the adjusted OR was 1.95 (95% CI; 1.68-2.25) and 2.88 (95% CI; 1.87-4.43), respectively. Women with cervical excision procedure of any kind have significantly increased odds for preterm birth, especially for preterm birth before 28

  8. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

  9. A Possible Differentially Shortened Strike-slip Plate Boundary: the Okhotsk Plate Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Egorov, V.; Mackey, K. G.; Fujita, K.

    2004-12-01

    The Okhotsk plate has been postulated based on a combination of GPS geodetic inversions (REVEL1), seimsicity, geologic and lineament data. Lying between the North American and Eurasian plates, its northwestern corner would appear to be undergoing compression in a scissors motion between the two bounding plates. Extrusion tectonics along multiple, large strike-slip faults within the Okhotsk plate itself have been suggested to allow the escape of material away from the apex of Eurasia-North America. The plate boundary between Okhotsk and North America has been suggested to be diffuse, based on widely scattered minor seismicity. However, the large, left lateral, Ulakhan fault has also been suggested as a candidate plate boundary. We present field geological and geomorphological evidence of the partitioning of deformation between the Ulakhan fault, and several parallel and oblique, linked faults. The Ulakhan fault strand appears to have a maximum displacement of 24 km based on river valley offsets and closing large pull apart basins. Some of the displacement from the Ulakhan fault appears relayed into the plate margin along oblique trending, thrust/oblique slip faults. Estimated shortening over these faults is equivalent to the amount of shortening relayed into the plate margin from the plate boundary. There may be several thrust/oblique slip faults along the Ulakhan fault, which leads to the interesting situation of a segmented, strike-slip plate boundary being actively shortened in a margin parallel direction. This may be the result of postulated extrusion of the Okhotsk plate due to North America/Eurasia convergence. Such a situation would have important consequences for the interpretation of GPS data in a plate tectonic context.

  10. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  11. Pyramidal approach to license plate segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolache, Alexandru; Trecat, Jacques C.

    1996-07-01

    Car identification is a goal in traffic control, transport planning, travel time measurement, managing parking lot traffic and so on. Most car identification algorithms contain a standalone plate segmentation process followed by a plate contents reading. A pyramidal algorithm for license plate segmentation, looking for textured regions, has been developed on a PC based system running Unix. It can be used directly in applications not requiring real time. When input images are relatively small, real-time performance is in fact accomplished by the algorithm. When using large images, porting the algorithm to special digital signal processors can easily lead to preserving real-time performance. Experimental results, for stationary and moving cars in outdoor scenes, showed high accuracy and high scores in detecting the plate. The algorithm also deals with cases where many character strings are present in the image, and not only the one corresponding to the plate. This is done by the means of a constrained texture regions classification.

  12. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Know Your Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  13. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday ... Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs ...

  14. Return to work for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and transformed indolent lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arboe B

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bente Arboe,1,2 Maja Halgren Olsen,2 Jette Soenderskov Goerloev,1 Anne Katrine Duun-Henriksen,2 Christoffer Johansen,2,3 Susanne Oksbjerg Dalton,2 Peter de Nully Brown1 1Department of Hematology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, 2Unit of Survivorship Research, The Danish Cancer Society Research Center, 3Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT is the standard treatment for patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL or transformed indolent lymphoma (TIL. The treatment is mainly considered for younger patients still available for the work market. In this study, social outcomes after ASCT in terms of return to work (RTW are described.Patients and methods: Information from national administrative registers was combined with clinical information on patients, who received ASCT for relapse of DLBCL or TIL between 2000 and 2012. A total of 164 patients were followed until RTW, disability or old-age pension, death, or December 31, 2015, whichever came first. A total of 205 patients were followed with disability pension as the event of interest. Cox models were used to determine cause-specific hazards. Results: During follow-up, 82 (50% patients returned to work. The rate of returning to work in the first year following ASCT was decreased for patients being on sick leave at the time of relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.3 [0.2;0.5] and increased for patients aged ≥55 years (HR 1.9 [1.1;3.3]. In all, 56 (27% patients were granted disability pension. Being on sick leave at the time of relapse was positively associated with receiving a disability pension in the first 2 years after ASCT (HR 3.7 [1.8;7.7]. Conclusion: Patients on sick leave at the time of relapse have a poorer prognosis regarding RTW and have a higher rate of disability pension. Furthermore, patients >55 are more likely to RTW compared to younger patients. These

  15. Modeling and Simulation of Nonlinear Micro-electromechanical Circular Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chia Liu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hybrid differential transformation and finite difference method is applied to analyze the dynamic behavior of the nonlinear micro-electromechanical circular plate actuated by combined DC / AC loading schemes. The analysis takes account of the axial residual stress and hydrostatic pressure acting on micro circular plate upper surface. The dynamic response of the plate as a function of the magnitude of the AC driving voltage is explored. Moreover, the effect of the initial gap height on the pull-in voltage of the plate is systematically explored.

  16. Documenting human transformation and establishing the reference condition of large river systems using Corona images: a case study from the Ganga River basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajiv; Pipil, Shobhit; Carbonneau, Patrice; Galiatsatos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    The Ganga basin in northern India is one of the most populous river basin in the world with nearly half a billion inhabitants. In the post-independence era, population expansion and human interventions have left the ecosystem of the Ganga in a severely damaged state with dwindling water levels, pollution due to human activity and natural sediment transport severely perturbed by dams and barrages. Fortunately, there is a growing recognition by the policy managers in India that the restoration of the Ganga to a healthier status, closer to its original unperturbed state, would set a strong foundation to future, greener, economic growth in Northern India. However, given the past six decades of fast development, efforts to restore the Ganga to its original condition are faced with a fundamental question: What was the original state of the Ganga? Answering this question will require some knowledge of the former course of the Ganga and of the farming and urban density of the surrounding plains before the impacts of human disturbance could be felt. We have made use of the Corona spy satellite program that collected a large number of earth observation photos in the 1960s. These photos, now declassified, offer us a unique view of the Ganga at the very early stages of intense development and thus before the worst ecological damages occurred. However, actual usage of these images poses significant technical challenges. In the design of the Corona cameras, very high resolution comes at the cost of complex distortions. Furthermore, we have no information on the exact position and orientation of the satellite at the time of image acquisition so an accurate reprojection of the image into conventional map coordinates is not straightforward. We have developed a georectification process based on polynomial transformation to achieve a positional accuracy of ±20m for the area of our interest. Further, We have developed an object-based classification method that uses both texture and

  17. Image simulation for automatic license plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Raja; Zhao, Yonghui; Burry, Aaron; Kozitsky, Vladimir; Fillion, Claude; Saunders, Craig; Rodríguez-Serrano, José

    2012-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) is an important capability for traffic surveillance applications, including toll monitoring and detection of different types of traffic violations. ALPR is a multi-stage process comprising plate localization, character segmentation, optical character recognition (OCR), and identification of originating jurisdiction (i.e. state or province). Training of an ALPR system for a new jurisdiction typically involves gathering vast amounts of license plate images and associated ground truth data, followed by iterative tuning and optimization of the ALPR algorithms. The substantial time and effort required to train and optimize the ALPR system can result in excessive operational cost and overhead. In this paper we propose a framework to create an artificial set of license plate images for accelerated training and optimization of ALPR algorithms. The framework comprises two steps: the synthesis of license plate images according to the design and layout for a jurisdiction of interest; and the modeling of imaging transformations and distortions typically encountered in the image capture process. Distortion parameters are estimated by measurements of real plate images. The simulation methodology is successfully demonstrated for training of OCR.

  18. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your Plate Create Your Plate is a ...

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    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal Planning ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  20. Create Your Plate

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  1. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... ready, you can try new foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put a line down the middle of the plate. Then on one side, cut it ... and starchy foods. See this list of grains and starchy foods . ...

  2. Heavy gauge plates for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheviet, A.; Roux, J.-H.

    1977-01-01

    The production of energy from nuclear sources leads to the building of very large vessels working under pressure at elevated temperatures, requiring very thick steel plate (from 50 mm to 300 mm). The plates necessary for the production of these vessels have to be as large as possible in order to reduce the length of welds on the vessels. Those two requirements lead to the manufacture of heavy products from 10 to 80 tons unit weight. These products are special, because their fabrication requires very big facilities and also extremely high quality of the steel. The main points are: high cleanliness; properties as homogeneous as possible. The tests carried out on industrially produced plates (especially on a plate of 200 mm thick show the level of quality that can be reached [fr

  3. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  4. The Effect of Material Property on the Critical Velocity of Randomly Excited Nonlinear Axially Travelling Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abedi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the critical axial speeds of three types of sigmoid, power law and exponential law functionally graded plates for both isotropic and orthotropic cases are obtained via a completely analytic method. The plates are subjected to lateral white noise excitation and show evidence of large deformations. Due to randomness, the conventional deterministic methods fail and a statistical approach must be selected. Here, the probability density function is evaluated analytically for prescribed plates and used to investigate the critical axial velocity of them. Specifically the effect of in-plane forces, mean value of lateral load and the material property on the critical axial speed are studied and discussed for both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates. Since the governing equation is transformed to a non dimensional format, the results can be used for a wide range of plate dimensions. It is shown that the material heterogeneity palys an essential and significant role in increasing or decreasing the critical speed of both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates.

  5. An improved method for preparing Agrobacterium cells that simplifies the Arabidopsis transformation protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülker Bekir

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Agrobacterium vacuum (Bechtold et al 1993 and floral-dip (Clough and Bent 1998 are very efficient methods for generating transgenic Arabidopsis plants. These methods allow plant transformation without the need for tissue culture. Large volumes of bacterial cultures grown in liquid media are necessary for both of these transformation methods. This limits the number of transformations that can be done at a given time due to the need for expensive large shakers and limited space on them. Additionally, the bacterial colonies derived from solid media necessary for starting these liquid cultures often fail to grow in such large volumes. Therefore the optimum stage of plant material for transformation is often missed and new plant material needs to be grown. Results To avoid problems associated with large bacterial liquid cultures, we investigated whether bacteria grown on plates are also suitable for plant transformation. We demonstrate here that bacteria grown on plates can be used with similar efficiency for transforming plants even after one week of storage at 4°C. This makes it much easier to synchronize Agrobacterium and plants for transformation. DNA gel blot analysis was carried out on the T1 plants surviving the herbicide selection and demonstrated that the surviving plants are indeed transgenic. Conclusion The simplified method works as efficiently as the previously reported protocols and significantly reduces the workload, cost and time. Additionally, the protocol reduces the risk of large scale contaminations involving GMOs. Most importantly, many more independent transformations per day can be performed using this modified protocol.

  6. Basic Characterization of Natural Transformation in a Highly Transformable Haemophilus parasuis Strain SC1401

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ke; He, Lvqin; Chang, Yung-Fu; Cao, Sanjie; Zhao, Qin; Huang, Xiaobo; Wu, Rui; Huang, Yong; Yan, Qigui; Han, Xinfeng; Ma, Xiaoping; Wen, Xintian; Wen, Yiping

    2018-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis causes Glässer's disease and pneumonia, incurring serious economic losses in the porcine industry. In this study, natural competence was investigated in H. parasuis. We found competence genes in H. parasuis homologous to ones in Haemophilus influenzae and a high consensus battery of Sxy-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP-S) regulons using bioinformatics. High rates of natural competence were found from the onset of stationary-phase growth condition to mid-stationary phase (OD600 from 0.29 to 1.735); this rapidly dropped off as cells reached mid-stationary phase (OD600 from 1.735 to 1.625). As a whole, bacteria cultured in liquid media were observed to have lower competence levels than those grown on solid media plates. We also revealed that natural transformation in this species is stable after 200 passages and is largely dependent on DNA concentration. Transformation competition experiments showed that heterogeneous DNA cannot outcompete intraspecific natural transformation, suggesting an endogenous uptake sequence or other molecular markers may be important in differentiating heterogeneous DNA. We performed qRT-PCR targeting multiple putative competence genes in an effort to compare bacteria pre-cultured in TSB++ vs. TSA++ and SC1401 vs. SH0165 to determine expression profiles of the homologs of competence-genes in H. influenzae. Taken together, this study is the first to investigate natural transformation in H. parasuis based on a highly naturally transformable strain SC1401. PMID:29473023

  7. Transformation language integration based on profiles and higher order transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gorp, P.M.E.; Keller, A.; Janssens, D.; Gaševic, D.; Lämmel, R.; Van Wyk, Eric

    2009-01-01

    For about two decades, researchers have been constructing tools for applying graph transformations on large model transformation case studies. Instead of incrementally extending a common core, these competitive tool builders have repeatedly reconstructed mechanisms that were already supported by

  8. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  9. High loading uranium plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pari of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat hiving a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process

  10. Large bandgap narrowing in rutile TiO2 aimed towards visible light applications and its correlation with vacancy-type defects history and transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Radhika V.; Gayathri, P. K.; Siva Gummaluri, Venkata; Nambissan, P. M. G.; Vijayan, C.

    2018-01-01

    Extension of photoactivity of TiO2 to the visible region is achievable via effective control over the intrinsic defects such as oxygen and Ti vacancies, which has several applications in visible photocatalysis and sensing. We present here the first observation of an apparent bandgap narrowing and bandgap tuning effect due to vacancy cluster transformation in rutile TiO2 structures to 1.84 eV from the bulk bandgap of 3 eV. A gradual transformation of divacancies (V Ti-O) to tri vacancies ({{V}Ti-O-T{{i-}}} ) achieved through a controlled solvothermal scheme appears to result in an apparent narrowing bandgap and tunability, as supported by positron annihilation lifetime and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. Visible photocatalytic activity of the samples is demonstrated in terms of photodegradation of rhodamine B dye molecules.

  11. Crystallographic texture and microstructural changes in fusion welds of recrystallized Zry-4 rolled plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya Riffo, A.; Vicente Alvarez, M.A.; Santisteban, J.R.; Vizcaino, P.; Limandri, S.; Daymond, M.R.; Kerr, D.; Okasinski, J.; Almer, J.; Vogel, S.C.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a detailed characterization of the microstructural and crystallographic texture changes observed in the transition region in a weld between two Zircaloy-4 cold rolled and recrystallized plates. The microstructural study was performed by optical microscopy under polarized light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Texture changes were characterized at different lengthscales: in the micrometric size, orientation imaging maps (OIM) were constructed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), in the millimetre scale, high energy XRD experiments were done at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) and compared to neutron diffraction texture determinations performed in the HIPPO instrument at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In the heat affected zone (HAZ) we observed the development of Widmanstätten microstructures, typical of the α(hcp) to β(bcc) phase transformation. Associated with these changes a rotation of the c-poles is found in the HAZ and fusion zone. While the base material shows the typical texture of a cold rolled plate, with their c-poles pointing 35° apart from the normal direction of the plate in the normal-transversal line, in the HAZ, c-poles align along the transversal direction of the plate and then re-orient along different directions, all of these changes occurring within a lengthscale in the order of mm. The evolution of texture in this narrow region was captured by both OIM and XRD, and is consistent with previous measurements done by Neutron Diffraction in the HIPPO diffractometer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. The microstructural and texture changes along the HAZ were interpreted as arising due to the effect of differences in the cooling rate and β grain size on the progress of the different α variants during transformation. Fast cooling rates and large β grains are associated to weak variant selection during the β−>α transformation, while slow cooling rates and fine β grains result in strong variant selection.

  12. Crystallographic texture and microstructural changes in fusion welds of recrystallized Zry-4 rolled plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya Riffo, A., E-mail: alvaromoya@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Neutron Physics Department, Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA-CONICET (Argentina); Vicente Alvarez, M.A.; Santisteban, J.R. [Neutron Physics Department, Centro Atómico Bariloche, CNEA-CONICET (Argentina); Vizcaino, P. [Zirconium Technology Department, Centro Atómico Ezeiza, CNEA-CONICET (Argentina); Limandri, S. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Daymond, M.R.; Kerr, D. [Dept. Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Okasinski, J.; Almer, J. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States); Vogel, S.C. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-15

    This work presents a detailed characterization of the microstructural and crystallographic texture changes observed in the transition region in a weld between two Zircaloy-4 cold rolled and recrystallized plates. The microstructural study was performed by optical microscopy under polarized light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Texture changes were characterized at different lengthscales: in the micrometric size, orientation imaging maps (OIM) were constructed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), in the millimetre scale, high energy XRD experiments were done at the Advanced Photon Source (USA) and compared to neutron diffraction texture determinations performed in the HIPPO instrument at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In the heat affected zone (HAZ) we observed the development of Widmanstätten microstructures, typical of the α(hcp) to β(bcc) phase transformation. Associated with these changes a rotation of the c-poles is found in the HAZ and fusion zone. While the base material shows the typical texture of a cold rolled plate, with their c-poles pointing 35° apart from the normal direction of the plate in the normal-transversal line, in the HAZ, c-poles align along the transversal direction of the plate and then re-orient along different directions, all of these changes occurring within a lengthscale in the order of mm. The evolution of texture in this narrow region was captured by both OIM and XRD, and is consistent with previous measurements done by Neutron Diffraction in the HIPPO diffractometer at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA. The microstructural and texture changes along the HAZ were interpreted as arising due to the effect of differences in the cooling rate and β grain size on the progress of the different α variants during transformation. Fast cooling rates and large β grains are associated to weak variant selection during the β−>α transformation, while slow cooling rates and fine β grains result in strong variant selection.

  13. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  14. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With ... been easier. It can be a challenge to manage portion control wherever you are. Now, our best- ...

  15. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a- ...

  16. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart- ...

  17. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets ...

  18. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... diabetes. Other Ways to Give Become a Member Vehicle Donation Planned Giving Options Memorial Giving Brochures & Envelopes ... to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with ...

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    Full Text Available ... breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get closer to curing diabetes and ... on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. Fill the ...

  1. Create Your Plate

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  3. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events Advocacy News Call ... Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create Your ...

  6. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... Close www.diabetes.org > Food and Fitness > Food > Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text ...

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    Full Text Available ... 800-342-2383) Give by Mail Close ... your plate with more non-starchy veggies and smaller portions of starchy foods and protein—no special tools or counting required! You can ...

  9. Humvee Armor Plate Drilling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    When drilling holes in hard steel plate used in up-armor kits for Humvee light trucks, the Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama, requested the assistance of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM...

  10. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... Easy Advocacy Checklists for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  11. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can Help Enroll in the Living WIth ...

  12. Create Your Plate

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    Full Text Available ... blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ... today and help fund grants supporting next generation scientists. Donate Today We Can Help - we-can-help. ...

  13. BAO Plate Archive Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Gigoyan, K. S.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Azatyan, N. M.; Kostandyan, G. R.; Samsonyan, A. L.; Mikayelyan, G. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Harutyunyan, V. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) Plate Archive Project that is aimed at digitization, extraction and analysis of archival data and building an electronic database and interactive sky map. BAO Plate Archive consists of 37,500 photographic plates and films, obtained with 2.6m telescope, 1m and 0.5m Schmidt telescopes and other smaller ones during 1947-1991. The famous Markarian Survey (or the First Byurakan Survey, FBS) 2000 plates were digitized in 2002-2005 and the Digitized FBS (DFBS, www.aras.am/Dfbs/dfbs.html) was created. New science projects have been conducted based on this low-dispersion spectroscopic material. Several other smaller digitization projects have been carried out as well, such as part of Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) plates, photographic chain plates in Coma, where the blazar ON 231 is located and 2.6m film spectra of FBS Blue Stellar Objects. However, most of the plates and films are not digitized. In 2015, we have started a project on the whole BAO Plate Archive digitization, creation of electronic database and its scientific usage. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) database will accommodate all new data. The project runs in collaboration with the Armenian Institute of Informatics and Automation Problems (IIAP) and will continues during 4 years in 2015-2018. The final result will be an Electronic Database and online Interactive Sky map to be used for further research projects. ArVO will provide all standards and tools for efficient usage of the scientific output and its integration in international databases.

  14. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under

  15. Divertor plate for thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Sato, Keisuke; Nishio, Satoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a divertor plate for a thermonuclear reactor, adjacent cooling pipes are electrically insulated from each other and pipes made of a gradient functional material prepared by compositing ceramics having an insulation property and metals are metallurgically joined to at least one portion of each of the cooling pipes. Electric current caused upon occurrence of plasma disruption is interrupted by the insulation portion, so that a large circuit is not formed and electromagnetic force is decreased to such a extent that the divertor plate is not ruptured. Since a header of the cooling pipes can be installed at any optional position, the installation space can be reduced. Further, since inlet and exit collection headers can be disposed on both ends of the cooling pipes, it is possible to shorten the length of the cooling pipe of the divertor plate corresponded to high heat fluxes and reduce the pressure loss on the side of coolants to about 1/2. Further, turn back portions of small radius of curvature of the cooling pipes are eliminated to reduce the cost and extend the lifetime and, in addition, protection tiles can be attached easily. (N.H.)

  16. Neutron imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    Imaging plates have been used in the field of medical diagnosis since long ago, but their usefulness was verified as the two-dimensional detector for analyzing the X-ray crystalline structure of high bio molecules like protein, and they have contributed to the remarkable progress in this field. The great contribution is due to the excellent features, such as the detection efficiency of about 100%, the positional resolution smaller than 0.2 mm, the dynamic range of five digits, and the area of several hundreds mm square. The neutron imaging plates have not yet obtained the sufficient results. It was planned to construct the neutron diffractometer for biological matters, and to put imaging plate neutron detectors (IP-ND) to practical use as the detector. The research on the development of IP-NDs was carried out, and the IPp-NDs having the performance comparable with that for X-ray were able to be produced. Imaging plates are the integral type two-dimensional radiation detector using photostimulated luminescence matters, and their principle is explained. As to neutron imaging plates, the converter, neutron detection efficiency and the flight of secondary particles in photo-stimulated luminescence matters are described. As for the present state of development of neutron imaging plates, the IP-NDs made for trial, the dynamic range, the positional resolution, the detection efficiency and the kinds of converters, and the application of IP-NDs are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Flaw behavior in mechanically loaded clad plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, S.K.; Robinson, G.C.; Oland, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    A small crack near the inner surface of clad nuclear reactor pressure vessels is an important consideration in the safety assessment of the structural integrity of the vessel. Four-point bend tests on large plate specimens, conforming to ASTM specification for pressure vessel plates, alloy steels, quenched and tempered, Mn-Mo and Mn-Mo-Ni (A533) grade B six clad and two unclad with stainless steels 308, 309 and 312 weld wires, were performed to determine the effect of cladding upon the propagation of small surface cracks subjected to stress states. Results indicated that the tough surface layer composed of cladding and/or heat-affected zone has enhanced the load-bearing capacity of plates under conditions where unclad plates have ruptured. The results are interpreted in terms of fracture mechanics. The behavior of flaws in clad reactor pressure vessels is examined in the light of the test results. 11 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Modeling the hydrodynamics of Phloem sieve plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Mullendore, Daniel Leroy; Holbrook, Noel Michele

    2012-01-01

    Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play...... understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species...... a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly...

  19. Determination of copper in liquid and solid insulation for large electrical equipment by ICP-OES. Application to copper contamination assessment in power transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Sarzanini, Corrado; Maina, Riccardo; Tumiatti, Vander

    2012-09-15

    Copper is one of the main constituents of the components in power transformers and its presence both in liquid (mineral oil) and in solid (Kraft paper) insulators can lead to enhanced dielectric losses and to the subsequent deterioration of their insulating properties. Recently the latter have been correlated to plant failures which in turn may have severe impact on the environment. This paper describes the direct analysis of copper in insulating mineral oil by ICP-OES and how it was first optimized compared to the official American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D7151 method. Detection and quantification limits of 8.8 μg kg(-1) and 29.3 μg kg(-1) were obtained. Secondly, copper determination was improved by coupling a microwave assisted dissolution procedure of the mineral oil which avoided the problems, in the real samples, due to the presence of solid species of copper which cannot be nebulized following traditional methods described in literature. Sixteen mineral insulating oils sampled from transformers in service were analyzed before and after dissolution. In order to evaluate copper speciation, size fractionation was performed by filtration on PTFE filters (0.45, 1 and 5 μm). This test was performed on all the oil samples. Finally, because of the key role of the solid insulator in failed transformers, the Authors applied the developed method to study the copper deposition tendency onto the insulating Kraft paper tapes exerted by two unused oils (a corrosive and a non-corrosive one) under defined ageing conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SEM and TEM Characterization of As-Fabricated U-7Mo Disperson Fuel Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.; Yao, B.; Perez, E.; Sohn, Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    The starting microstructure of a dispersion fuel plate can have a dramatic impact on the overall performance of the plate during irradiation. To improve the understanding of the as-fabricated microstructures of dispersion fuel plates, SEM and TEM analysis have been performed on RERTR-9A archive fuel plates, which went through an additional hot isostatic procsssing (HIP) step during fabrication. The fuel plates had depleted U-7Mo fuel particles dispersed in either Al-2Si or 4043 Al alloy matrix. For the characterized samples, it was observed that a large fraction of the ?-phase U-7Mo alloy particles had decomposed during fabrication, and in areas near the fuel/matrix interface where the transformation products were present significant fuel/matrix interaction had occurred. Relatively thin Si-rich interaction layers were also observed around the U-7Mo particles. In the thick interaction layers, (U)(Al,Si)3 and U6Mo4Al43 were identified, and in the thin interaction layers U(Al,Si)3, U3Si3Al2, U3Si5, and USi1.88-type phases were observed. The U3Si3Al2 phase contained some Mo. Based on the results of this work, exposure of dispersion fuel plates to relatively high temperatures during fabrication impacts the overall microstructure, particularly the nature of the interaction layers around the fuel particles. The time and temperature of fabrication should be carefully controlled in order to produce the most uniform Si-rich layers around the U-7Mo particles.

  1. Radiation transformation in differentiated human cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.; Moriarty, M.; Malone, J.; Byrne, P.; Hennessy, T.

    1986-01-01

    A tissue culture technique is described for human thyroid tissue as an approach to studying mechanisms of human radiation carcinogenesis. Normal human tissue obtained from surgery is treated in one of two ways, depending upon size of specimen. Large pieces are completely digested in trypsin/ collagenase solution to a single cell suspension. Small pieces of tissue are plated as explants following partial digestion in trypsin/collagenase solution. Following irradiation of the primary differentiated monolayers (normally 10 days after plating), the development of transformed characteristics is monitored in the subsequent subcultures. A very high level of morphological and functional differentiation is apparent in the primary cultures. Over a period of approx. 6 months, the irradiated surviving cells continue to grow in culture, unlike the unirradiated controls which senesce after 2-3 subcultures. (UK)

  2. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  3. Local unitary transformation method for large-scale two-component relativistic calculations: case for a one-electron Dirac Hamiltonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2012-06-28

    An accurate and efficient scheme for two-component relativistic calculations at the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) level is presented. The present scheme, termed local unitary transformation (LUT), is based on the locality of the relativistic effect. Numerical assessments of the LUT scheme were performed in diatomic molecules such as HX and X(2) (X = F, Cl, Br, I, and At) and hydrogen halide clusters, (HX)(n) (X = F, Cl, Br, and I). Total energies obtained by the LUT method agree well with conventional IODKH results. The computational costs of the LUT method are drastically lower than those of conventional methods since in the former there is linear-scaling with respect to the system size and a small prefactor.

  4. Polar plate theory for orthogonal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michelle D.

    1998-11-01

    The following paper discusses the derivation and evaluation of the plate equations for a circular composite disk with orthogonal anisotropy. The work will be on a macromechanical level and include buckling, static and dynamic load applications. Necessary to a complete examination of the circular disk is the conversion of the stiffness matrix to cylindrical coordinates. In the transformed state, these coefficients are no longer constant, adding to the complexity of the proposed differential equations. Laminated fiber-reinforced (or filamentary) composites are used today for their high strength-to weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. However, because of the typical anisotropic behavior of composites, determining the material properties on a microscopic level and the mechanics on a macroscopic level is much more difficult. This difficulty manifests itself particularly well in the evaluation of material properties and governing differential equations of a circular disk with the fibers of the lamina oriented orthogonally. One could encounter such a situation in space structures that require a circular geometry. For example, determining fastener pull through in a circular composite plate would best be performed in a polar coordinate system. In order to calculate the strain (which is a function of the angle, θ) from the displacements, the stiffness matrix and boundary conditions would need to be expressed in cylindrical coordinates. Naturally the composite would be constructed with fibers in orthogonal directions, then the necessary geometry would be cut out, thus the required lengthy transformation of coordinate systems. To bypass this derivation, numerical methods have been used and finite element models have been attempted. FEM over predicts plate stiffness by 20% and underpredicts failure by 70%. Obviously there is a need to transform classical plate theory to a cylindrical coordinate system.

  5. Transformative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Victor C. X.; Cranton, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The theory of transformative learning has been explored by different theorists and scholars. However, few scholars have made an attempt to make a comparison between transformative learning and Confucianism or between transformative learning and andragogy. The authors of this article address these comparisons to develop new and different insights…

  6. Modeling the hydrodynamics of phloem sieve plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Hartvig Jensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sieve plates have an enormous impact on the efficiency of the phloem vascular system of plants, responsible for the distribution of photosynthetic products. These thin plates, which separate neighboring phloem cells, are perforated by a large number of tiny sieve pores and are believed to play a crucial role in protecting the phloem sap from intruding animals by blocking flow when the phloem cell is damaged. The resistance to the flow of viscous sap in the phloem vascular system is strongly affected by the presence of the sieve plates, but the hydrodynamics of the flow through them remains poorly understood. We propose a theoretical model for quantifying the effect of sieve plates on the phloem in the plant, thus unifying and improving previous work in the field. Numerical simulations of the flow in real and idealized phloem channels verify our model, and anatomical data from 19 plant species are investigated. We find that the sieve plate resistance is correlated to the cell lumen resistance, and that the sieve plate and the lumen contribute almost equally to the total hydraulic resistance of the phloem translocation pathway.

  7. Vibration modes of a single plate with general boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phamová L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with free flexural vibration modes and natural frequencies of a thin plate with general boundary conditions — a simply supported plate connected to its surroundings with torsional springs. Vibration modes were derived on the basis of the Rajalingham, Bhat and Xistris approach. This approach was originally used for a clamped thin plate, so its adaptation was needed. The plate vibration function was usually expressed as a single partial differential equation. This partial differential equation was transformed into two ordinary differential equations that can be solved in the simpler way. Theoretical background of the computations is briefly described. Vibration modes of the supported plate with torsional springs are presented graphically and numerically for three different values of stiffness of torsional springs.

  8. Plating on Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.; Jones, A.

    1979-03-01

    Zircaloy-2 is a difficult alloy to coat with an adherent electroplate because it easily forms a tenacious oxide film in air and aqueous solutions. Procedures reported in the literature and those developed at SLL for surmounting this problem were investigated. The best results were obtained when specimens were first etched in either an ammonium bifluoride/sulfuric acid or an ammonium bifluoride solution, plated, and then heated at 700 0 C for 1 hour in a constrained condition. Machining threads in the Zircaloy-2 for the purpose of providing sites for mechanical interlocking of the plating also proved satisfactory

  9. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  10. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  11. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhengdong; He Wuliang; Zheng Xiaodong; Cheng Jiayuan; Peng Wen; Pei Chunlan; Song Chen

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  12. Backlund transformations as canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, A.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Toda and Wadati as well as Kodama and Wadati have shown that the Backlund transformations, for the exponential lattice equation, sine-Gordon equation, K-dV (Korteweg de Vries) equation and modifies K-dV equation, are canonical transformation. It is shown that the Backlund transformation for the Boussinesq equation, for a generalized K-dV equation, for a model equation for shallow water waves and for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation are also canonical transformations [pt

  13. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  14. Broadband Planar 5:1 Impedence Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Negar; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Samuel H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a broadband Guanella-type planar impedance transformer that transforms so 50 omega to 10 omega with a 10 dB bandwidth of 1-14GHz. The transformer is designed on a flexible 50 micrometer thick polyimide substrate in microstrip and parallel-plate transmission line topologies, and is Inspired by the traditional 4:1 Guanella transformer. Back-to-back transformers were designed and fabricated for characterization in a 50 omega system. Simulated and measured results are in excellent agreement.

  15. Local unitary transformation method for large-scale two-component relativistic calculations. II. Extension to two-electron Coulomb interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2012-10-14

    The local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme at the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) level [J. Seino and H. Nakai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 244102 (2012)], which is based on the locality of relativistic effects, has been extended to a four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. In the previous study, the LUT scheme was applied only to a one-particle IODKH Hamiltonian with non-relativistic two-electron Coulomb interaction, termed IODKH/C. The current study extends the LUT scheme to a two-particle IODKH Hamiltonian as well as one-particle one, termed IODKH/IODKH, which has been a real bottleneck in numerical calculation. The LUT scheme with the IODKH/IODKH Hamiltonian was numerically assessed in the diatomic molecules HX and X(2) and hydrogen halide molecules, (HX)(n) (X = F, Cl, Br, and I). The total Hartree-Fock energies calculated by the LUT method agree well with conventional IODKH/IODKH results. The computational cost of the LUT method is reduced drastically compared with that of the conventional method. In addition, the LUT method achieves linear-scaling with respect to the system size and a small prefactor.

  16. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... meal-planning, . In this section Food Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans and a Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future ...

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tool is not to scale because of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate ... function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('.survey-form .form-group .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == ' ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods donate en -- A Future Without Diabetes - a-future-without-diabetes-2.html A Future Without Diabetes Donate towards research today and your gift will be matched. Donate ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning Meals > Create Your Plate Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Create ... Type 2 Education Series Hear audio clips and full recordings of past Q&A events at your ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community Meal Planning Sign In Search: Search More Sites Search ≡ Are ... Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor Recipes Association Cookbook Recipes Planning Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the ... effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and lose weight. With this method, you fill your plate with more non-starchy ...

  2. Microchannel plate photodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majka, R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given the status of development work on photodetectors using microchannel plates (MCP) as the electron gain element. Projections are made and opinions are presented on what might be available in the next few years. Several uses for these devices at ISABELLE are mentioned

  3. Parallel plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Volkov, P.

    1981-01-01

    A 5x3cm 2 (timing only) and a 15x5cm 2 (timing and position) parallel plate avalanche counters (PPAC) are considered. The theory of operation and timing resolution is given. The measurement set-up and the curves of experimental results illustrate the possibilities of the two counters [fr

  4. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  5. Scaling Behavior of Dilute Polymer Solutions Confined between Parallel Plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, J.H. van; Luyten, M.C.; Brinke, G. ten

    1992-01-01

    The average size and shape of a polymer coil confined in a slit between two parallel plates depends on the distance L between the plates. On the basis of numerical results, four different regimes can be distingubhed. For large values of L the coil is essentially unconfined. For intermediate values

  6. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  7. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  8. Sound Scattering by a Flexible Plate Embedded on Free Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldad J. Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sound wave scattering by a flexible plate embedded on water surface is considered. Linear acoustics and plate elasticity are assumed. The aim is to assess the effect of the plate’s flexibility on sound scattering and the potential in using that flexibility for this purpose. A combined sound-structure solution is used, which is based on a Fourier transform of the sound field and a finite-difference numerical-solution of the plate’s dynamics. The solution is implemented for a circular plate subject to a perpendicular incoming monochromatic sound wave. A very good agreement is achieved with a finite-difference solution of the sound field. It is shown that the flexibility of the plate dampens its scattered sound wave regardless of the type of the plate’s edge support. A hole in the plate is shown to further scatter the sound wave to form maxima in the near sound field. It is suggested that applying an external oscillatory pressure on the plate can reduce significantly and even eliminate its scattered wave, thus making the plate close to acoustically invisible. A uniformly distributed external pressure is found capable of achieving that aim as long as the plate is free edged or is not highly acoustically noncompact.

  9. A nonlinear plate control without linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Kenan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optimal vibration control problem for a nonlinear plate is considered. In order to obtain the optimal control function, wellposedness and controllability of the nonlinear system is investigated. The performance index functional of the system, to be minimized by minimum level of control, is chosen as the sum of the quadratic 10 functional of the displacement. The velocity of the plate and quadratic functional of the control function is added to the performance index functional as a penalty term. By using a maximum principle, the nonlinear control problem is transformed to solving a system of partial differential equations including state and adjoint variables linked by initial-boundary-terminal conditions. Hence, it is shown that optimal control of the nonlinear systems can be obtained without linearization of the nonlinear term and optimal control function can be obtained analytically for nonlinear systems without linearization.

  10. Thermal shock problems in a plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuti, Y.; Furukawa, T.

    1981-01-01

    The problems considered are coupled dynamic thermoelastic analysis in a plate. First we try to examine a problem of the coupled dynamic thermal stress problem with small time approximation for the finite region. Next, we treatise both effects individually by pursuing rigorous anaylsis without small time approximation. Finally we consider thermal shock problems in a plate against different values of heat transfer coefficient (Biot's number) for the time. In conclusion, for usual materials, the inertia effect may be disregarded in the pure thermal problems in contrast to the coupling effect which brings small lags in the temperature and thermal stress distributions. For the consideration of the maximum thermal stress problems, Manson's uncoupled quasi-static results give enough approximation to the thermal shock problems without significant error from our numerical results. The analysis is developed by the use of Laplace transforms and several useful graphical illustrations are given. (orig./HP)

  11. On numerical Bessel transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, B.; Zabolitzky, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present a computer program to calculate the three dimensional Fourier or Bessel transforms and definite integrals with Bessel functions. Numerical integration of systems containing Bessel functions occurs in many physical problems, e.g. electromagnetic form factor of nuclei, all transitions involving multipole expansions at high momenta. Filon's integration rule is extended to spherical Bessel functions. The numerical error is of the order of the Simpson error term of the function which has to be transformed. Thus one gets a stable integral even at large arguments of the transformed function. (Auth.)

  12. Energy Transformation of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2014-01-01

    Due to obvious climate change, caused mainly by combustion of the fossil fuels, as well as to their modest reserves, energy transformation is under way. It is the transition from the fossil fuels to improved energy efficiency (ENEF) and renewable energy sources (RES). Leading role in the energy transformation has Germany with 'Energiewende', which among other includes closing of existing nuclear power plants until 2022. Croatia has very limited proven fossil fuels reserves, which cover 3/4 of primary energy in consumption. Croatia also has large potential for improvements in ENEF and RES. Therefore, energy transformation of Croatia is justified. (author).

  13. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  14. Effect of plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The study of unusual plate shapes in orifice plate type flowmeters is presented, with a view to providing data for the substitution of the plate with one centered circular orifice in those applications where its use is not possible. For this purpose, six pairs of plates with different forms, with and without chamfered edges, were made and tested in a closed water loop. Results show that, generally, the use of chamfers improves the results and, in the case of perforated and slotlike orificed plates, the narrow-ness of the fluid passage tends to make unnecessary its use. (Author) [pt

  15. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W; Grillo, I; Phipps, J; Gittins, D I

    2011-01-01

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  16. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Grillo, I [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Phipps, J [Imerys Minerals Ltd, Par Moor Centre, Par Moor Road, Par, Cornwall PL24 2SQ (United Kingdom); Gittins, D I, E-mail: Giorgio.Cinacchi@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: J.S.van-Duijneveldt@bristol.ac.uk [Imerys Performance and Filtration Minerals Ltd, 130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2011-05-18

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  17. Gentilly-2 and Point Lepreau divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; McClellan, G.; Weston, S.

    1996-01-01

    The steam generators at Hydro Quebec's Gentilly-2 and New Brunswick Power's Point Lepreau Nuclear Plants have been in operation since 1983, and were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection at Gentilly-2, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider plate and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. Upon evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type divider plates would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider plate itself was to be of one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat was was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider plate is fitted with erosion resistant inserts of weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider plate strength during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider plate to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. Subsequently, Point Lepreau decided to replace their divider plates to address LOCA concerns. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design. manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  18. Plate removal following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Mhairi; Langford, Richard Julian; Bhanji, Adam; Farr, David

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine the removal rates of orthognathic plates used during orthognathic surgery at James Cook University Hospital and describe the reasons for plate removal. 202 consecutive orthognathic cases were identified between July 2004 and July 2012. Demographics and procedure details were collected for these patients. Patients from this group who returned to theatre for plate removal between July 2004 and November 2012 were identified and their notes were analysed for data including reason for plate removal, age, smoking status, sex and time to plate removal. 3.2% of plates were removed with proportionally more plates removed from the mandible than the maxilla. 10.4% of patients required removal of one or more plate. Most plates were removed within the first post-operative year. The commonest reasons for plate removal were plate exposure and infection. The plate removal rates in our study are comparable to those seen in the literature. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1997-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisaton of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force....

  20. Normal and abnormal growth plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Madewell, J.E.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Skeletal growth is a dynamic process. A knowledge of the structure and function of the normal growth plate is essential in order to understand the pathophysiology of abnormal skeletal growth in various diseases. In this well-illustrated article, the authors provide a radiographic classification of abnormal growth plates and discuss mechanisms that lead to growth plate abnormalities

  1. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book The Transformer written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation, the project...

  2. Large self-biased and multi-peak magnetoelectric coupling in transducer of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 plates and H-type magnetization-graded ferromagnetic fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yongchun; Ling, Zhihao; Lu, Caijiang

    2015-12-01

    This paper develops a self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) composite Metglas/H-type-FeNi/PZT (MHFP) of H-type magnetization-graded Metglas/H-type-FeNi fork and piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) plate. By using the magnetization-graded magnetostrictive layer and symmetrical H-type structure, giant self-biased ME coupling and multi-peak phenomenon are observed. The zero-biased ME voltage coefficient of MHFP composite reaches ˜63.8 V/cm Oe, which is ˜37.5 times higher than that of traditional FeNi/PZT laminate. The output ME voltage has a good near linear relation with Hac and is determined to be ˜5.1 V/Oe and ˜10.6 mV/Oe at ˜65 kHz and 1 kHz, respectively. These indicate that the proposed composite show promising applications for ME transducers and high-sensitivity self-biased magnetic sensors.

  3. Dynamics of subduction and continental collision: Influence of the nature of the plate contact. Geologica Ultraiectina (284)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Franco, R.

    2008-01-01

    At convergent plate boundaries, the properties of the actual plate contact are important for the overall dynamics. Convergent plate boundaries both mechanically decouple and link tectonic plates and accommodate large amounts of strain. We investigate two fundamental physical states of the subduction

  4. Caramel, uranium oxide fuel plates for water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussy, Pierre; Delafosse, Jacques; Lestiboudois, Guy; Cerles, J.-M.; Schwartz, J.-P.

    1979-01-01

    The fuel is composed of thin plates assembled parallel to each other to form bundles or assemblies. Each plate is composed of a pavement of uranium oxide pellets, insulated from each other by a zircaloy cladding. The 235 U enrichment does not exceed 8%. The range of uses for this fuel extends from electric power generating reactors to irradiation reactors for research work. A parametric study in test loops has made it possible to determine the operating limits of this thick fuel, without bursting. The resulting diagram gives the permissible power densities, with and without cycling for specific burn-ups beyond 50,000 MWd/t. The thinnest plates were also irradiated in total in the form of advance assemblies irradiated in the core of the OSIRIS pile prior to its transformation. This transformation and the operation of this reactor with a core of 'Caramel' elements is the main trial experiment of this fuel [fr

  5. Large-scale and patternable graphene: direct transformation of amorphous carbon film into graphene/graphite on insulators via Cu mediation engineering and its application to all-carbon based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ze; Medina, Henry; Lin, Hung-Chiao; Tsai, Hung-Wei; Su, Teng-Yu; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Chemical vapour deposition of graphene was the preferred way to synthesize graphene for multiple applications. However, several problems related to transfer processes, such as wrinkles, cleanness and scratches, have limited its application at the industrial scale. Intense research was triggered into developing alternative synthesis methods to directly deposit graphene on insulators at low cost with high uniformity and large area. In this work, we demonstrate a new concept to directly achieve growth of graphene on non-metal substrates. By exposing an amorphous carbon (a-C) film in Cu gaseous molecules after annealing at 850 °C, the carbon (a-C) film surprisingly undergoes a noticeable transformation to crystalline graphene. Furthermore, the thickness of graphene could be controlled, depending on the thickness of the pre-deposited a-C film. The transformation mechanism was investigated and explained in detail. This approach enables development of a one-step process to fabricate electrical devices made of all carbon material, highlighting the uniqueness of the novel approach for developing graphene electronic devices. Interestingly, the carbon electrodes made directly on the graphene layer by our approach offer a good ohmic contact compared with the Schottky barriers usually observed on graphene devices using metals as electrodes.Chemical vapour deposition of graphene was the preferred way to synthesize graphene for multiple applications. However, several problems related to transfer processes, such as wrinkles, cleanness and scratches, have limited its application at the industrial scale. Intense research was triggered into developing alternative synthesis methods to directly deposit graphene on insulators at low cost with high uniformity and large area. In this work, we demonstrate a new concept to directly achieve growth of graphene on non-metal substrates. By exposing an amorphous carbon (a-C) film in Cu gaseous molecules after annealing at 850 °C, the carbon (a

  6. Normal-Mode Analysis of Circular DNA at the Base-Pair Level. 2. Large-Scale Configurational Transformation of a Naturally Curved Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Atsushi; Tobias, Irwin; Olson, Wilma K

    2005-01-01

    Fine structural and energetic details embedded in the DNA base sequence, such as intrinsic curvature, are important to the packaging and processing of the genetic material. Here we investigate the internal dynamics of a 200 bp closed circular molecule with natural curvature using a newly developed normal-mode treatment of DNA in terms of neighboring base-pair "step" parameters. The intrinsic curvature of the DNA is described by a 10 bp repeating pattern of bending distortions at successive base-pair steps. We vary the degree of intrinsic curvature and the superhelical stress on the molecule and consider the normal-mode fluctuations of both the circle and the stable figure-8 configuration under conditions where the energies of the two states are similar. To extract the properties due solely to curvature, we ignore other important features of the double helix, such as the extensibility of the chain, the anisotropy of local bending, and the coupling of step parameters. We compare the computed normal modes of the curved DNA model with the corresponding dynamical features of a covalently closed duplex of the same chain length constructed from naturally straight DNA and with the theoretically predicted dynamical properties of a naturally circular, inextensible elastic rod, i.e., an O-ring. The cyclic molecules with intrinsic curvature are found to be more deformable under superhelical stress than rings formed from naturally straight DNA. As superhelical stress is accumulated in the DNA, the frequency, i.e., energy, of the dominant bending mode decreases in value, and if the imposed stress is sufficiently large, a global configurational rearrangement of the circle to the figure-8 form takes place. We combine energy minimization with normal-mode calculations of the two states to decipher the configurational pathway between the two states. We also describe and make use of a general analytical treatment of the thermal fluctuations of an elastic rod to characterize the

  7. From Plate Tectonic to Continental Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    By the early 1970s, the basics of plate tectonics were known. Although much understanding remained to be gained, as a topic of research, plate tectonics no longer defined the forefront of earth science. Not only had it become a foundation on which to build, but also the methods used to reveal it became tools to take in new directions. For me as a seismologist studying earthquakes and active processes, the deformation of continents offered an obvious topic to pursue. Obviously examining the deformation of continents and ignoring the widespread geologic evidence of both ongoing and finite deformation of crust would be stupid. I was blessed with the opportunity to learn from and collaborate with two of the best, Paul Tapponnier and Clark Burchfiel. Continental deformation differed from plate tectonics both because deformation was widespread but more importantly because crust shortens (extends) horizontally and thickens (thins), processes that can be ignored where plate tectonics - the relative motion of rigid plates - occurs. Where a plate boundary passes into a continent, not only must the forces that move plates do work against friction or other dissipative processes, but where high terrain is created, they must also do work against gravity, to create gravitational potential energy in high terrain. Peter Bird and Kenneth Piper and Philip England and Dan McKenzie showed that a two-dimensional thin viscous sheet with vertically averaged properties enabled both sources of resistance to be included without introducing excessive complexity and to be scaled by one dimensionless number, what the latter pair called the Argand number. Increasingly over the past thirty years, emphasis has shifted toward the role played by the mantle lithosphere, because of both its likely strength and its negative buoyancy, which makes it gravitationally unstable. Despite progress since realizing that rigid plates (the essence of plate tectonics) provides a poor description of continental

  8. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  9. A Malaysian Vehicle License Plate Localization and Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Velappa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Technological intelligence is a highly sought after commodity even in traffic-based systems. These intelligent systems do not only help in traffic monitoring but also in commuter safety, law enforcement and commercial applications. In this paper, a license plate localization and recognition system for vehicles in Malaysia is proposed. This system is developed based on digital images and can be easily applied to commercial car park systems for the use of documenting access of parking services, secure usage of parking houses and also to prevent car theft issues. The proposed license plate localization algorithm is based on a combination of morphological processes with a modified Hough Transform approach and the recognition of the license plates is achieved by the implementation of the feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural network. Experimental results show an average of 95% successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of 589 images captured from a complex outdoor environment.

  10. [Conventional plate osteosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaue, K

    2010-02-01

    Consolidation of bone is an essential clinical problem when treating fractures, fixing osteotomies and fusing joints. In most cases, the means of fixation are plates and screws. The goal is functional postoperative therapy by moving the adjacent joints and thus avoiding the deleterious disadvantages of long-lasting articular immobilization. Pre-operative planning, surgical approach, a good understanding of the precise mechanics of the structure and the biological answer for the various tissues are prerequisites of successful osteosynthesis. The choice of implants and the application of their versatility, as well as their adaptation to individual cases are the key to good results.

  11. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  12. Security Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    ... adjustment. With American military forces engaged around the world in both combat and stabilization operations, the need for rigorous and critical analysis of security transformation has never been greater...

  13. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  14. Covariant Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H_2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others. Keywords: Wavelets, cohe...

  15. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  16. The Importance of Lower Mantle Structure to Plate Stresses and Plate Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, W. E.; Wang, X.; Ghosh, A.

    2016-12-01

    Plate motions and plate stresses are widely assumed as the surface expression of mantle convection. The generation of plate tectonics from mantle convection has been studied for many years. Lithospheric thickening (or ridge push) and slab pull forces are commonly accepted as the major driving forces for the plate motions. However, the importance of the lower mantle to plate stresses and plate motions remains less clear. Here, we use the joint modeling of lithosphere and mantle dynamics approach of Wang et al. (2015) to compute the tractions originating from deeper mantle convection and follow the method of Ghosh et al. (2013) to calculate gravitational potential energy per unit area (GPE) based on Crust 1.0 (Laske et al., 2013). Absolute values of deviatoric stresses are determined by the body force distributions (GPE gradients and traction magnitudes applied at the base of the lithosphere). We use the same relative viscosity model that Ghosh et al. (2013) used, and we solve for one single adjustable scaling factor that multiplies the entire relative viscosity field to provide absolute values of viscosity throughout the lithosphere. This distribution of absolute values of lithosphere viscosities defines the magnitudes of surface motions. In this procedure, the dynamic model first satisfies the internal constraint of no-net-rotation of motions. The model viscosity field is then scaled by the single factor until we achieve a root mean square (RMS) minimum between computed surface motions and the kinematic no-net-rotation (NNR) model of Kreemer et al. (2006). We compute plate stresses and plate motions from recently published global tomography models (over 70 based on Wang et al., 2015). We find that RMS misfits are significantly reduced when details of lower mantle structure from the latest tomography models are added to models that contain only upper and mid-mantle density distributions. One of the key reasons is that active upwelling from the Large Low Shear

  17. Dynamical instability produces transform faults at mid-ocean ridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerya, Taras

    2010-08-27

    Transform faults at mid-ocean ridges--one of the most striking, yet enigmatic features of terrestrial plate tectonics--are considered to be the inherited product of preexisting fault structures. Ridge offsets along these faults therefore should remain constant with time. Here, numerical models suggest that transform faults are actively developing and result from dynamical instability of constructive plate boundaries, irrespective of previous structure. Boundary instability from asymmetric plate growth can spontaneously start in alternate directions along successive ridge sections; the resultant curved ridges become transform faults within a few million years. Fracture-related rheological weakening stabilizes ridge-parallel detachment faults. Offsets along the transform faults change continuously with time by asymmetric plate growth and discontinuously by ridge jumps.

  18. Investigating wake patterns and propulsive frequencies of a flat plate under pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubogha Moubogha, Joseph; Astolfi, Jacques Andre

    Fundamental mechanisms of swimming are explored using a simple geometry device - flat plate - in pure-pitching motion in a hydrodynamic tunnel. The experiments are carried out at different Reynolds numbers based on the plate length c. Pitching motion is generated for reduced frequencies k between 0 and 2 and for an angular amplitude of 10 deg. Velocity fields are obtained in the wake of the plate using Particle Image Velocimetry and measurements of drag coefficients are estimated from mean velocity profiles. This study confirms the occurrence of a threshold oscillation frequency beyond which the plate enters a propulsive regime and the wake features organized structures. In this case an inversion of the typical Karman vortex street is observed. The evolution of mean transverse velocity profiles in the wake of the plate shows that the usual wake profile with velocity deficit - plate with drag - can be transformed into a jet - plate with thrust - above a certain reduced frequency. Phd Student Mechanical Engineering Departement.

  19. Viscoelastic Plate Analysis Based on Gâteaux Differential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadıoğlu Fethi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to analyze the quasi-static response of viscoelastic Kirchhoff plates with mixed finite element formulation based on the Gâteaux differential. Although the static response of elastic plate, beam and shell structures is a widely studied topic, there are few studies that exist in the literature pertaining to the analysis of the viscoelastic structural elements especially with complex geometries, loading conditions and constitutive relations. The developed mixed finite element model in transformed Laplace-Carson space has four unknowns as displacement, bending and twisting moments in addition to the dynamic and geometric boundary condition terms. Four-parameter solid model is employed for modelling the viscoelastic behaviour. For transformation of the solutions obtained in the Laplace-Carson domain to the time domain, different numerical inverse transform techniques are employed. The developed solution technique is applied to several quasi-static example problems for the verification of the suggested numerical procedure.

  20. Imaging plates for nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Ken; Takebe, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The imaging plate (IP, hereafter) is a new opto-electronic X-ray film developed by Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd., formed with a large area of thin flexible plastic plate coated with photo-estimulable storage phosphor (e.g. Ba F Br: Eu 2+ ). Recently, it has been found highly sensitive to soft X-ray (SR), soft electrons, and also usual alpha, beta, gamma rays and others, e.g. cosmic rays, energy heavy ions, and moreover neutrons through suitable converters inside or outside of the IP. Many types of IP are now used in various fields, such as medical examinations, auto-radiography in vivo/ in situ/ in vitro, X-ray/neutron diffraction/ radiography, electron microscopy. RI contamination, assay of ore. The IP has other striking performances, e.e. extremely low intrinsic noises, a high position resolution, high detection efficiency (100-1000 times) as high as an X-ray film), extremely wide dynamic range of dose (more than 10 5 ). Besides the thermal fading yet left unresolved materially, the only feature lacking and that one has ben longing for is the radiation identification by itself. We found out that the IP has a full potential ability of radiation identification in itself. One evidence found is that the ratio of the twin peaks of the PSL (photo-stimulated luminescence) excitation spectra indicates simply the particle energies, studied and now established. Another is that the photo-beaching provides the fluorescent responses different enough to discriminate the radiations, yet in progress with cyclotron experiments, into the usage of double labeled bio tracers

  1. Plating on difficult-to-plate metals: what's new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the changes since 1970 in procedures for plating on such materials as titanium, molybdenum, silicon, aluminum, and gallium arsenide are summarized. While basic procedures for plating some of these materials were developed as many as 30 to 40 years ago, changes in the end uses of the plated products have necessitated new plating processes. In some cases, vacuum techniques - such as ion bombardment, ion implantation, and vacuum metallization - have been introduced to improve the adhesion of electrodeposits. In other cases, these techniques have been used to deposit materials upon which electrodeposits are required

  2. Plate Tearing by a Cone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    1998-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with steady-state plate tearing by a cone. This is a scenario where a cone is forced through a ductile metal plate with a constant lateral tip penetration in a motion in the plane of the plate. The considered process could be an idealisation of the damage, which...... as for the out-of-plane reaction force. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. THE EFFECT OF SUPPORT PLATE ON DRILLING-INDUCED DELAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Zarif Karimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Delamination is considered as a major problem in drilling of composite materials, which degrades the mechanical properties of these materials. The thrust force exerted by the drill is considered as the major cause of delamination; and one practical approach to reduce delamination is to use a back-up plate under the specimen. In this paper, the effect of exit support plate on delamination in twist drilling of glass fiber reinforced composites is studied. Firstly, two analytical models based on linear fracture mechanics and elastic bending theory of plates are described to find critical thrust forces at the beginning of crack growth for drilling with and without back-up plate. Secondly, two series of experiments are carried out on glass fiber reinforced composites to determine quantitatively the effect of drilling parameters on the amount of delamination. Experimental findings verify a large reduction in the amount of delaminated area when a back-up plate is placed under the specimen.

  4. Scintillator plate calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimetry using scintillator plates or tiles alternated with sheets of (usually heavy) passive absorber has been proven over multiple generations of collider detectors. Recent detectors including UA1, CDF, and ZEUS have shown good results from such calorimeters. The advantages offered by scintillator calorimetry for the SSC environment, in particular, are speed (<10 nsec), excellent energy resolution, low noise, and ease of achieving compensation and hence linearity. On the negative side of the ledger can be placed the historical sensitivity of plastic scintillators to radiation damage, the possibility of nonuniform response because of light attenuation, and the presence of cracks for light collection via wavelength shifting plastic (traditionally in sheet form). This approach to calorimetry is being investigated for SSC use by a collaboration of Ames Laboratory/Iowa State University, Argonne National Laboratory, Bicron Corporation, Florida State University, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and University of Wisconsin

  5. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  6. Reviewing metallic PEMFC bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A bipolar plate is one of the most important components in a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and has multiple functions. Metallic bipolar plate candidates have advantages over composite rivals in excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good mechanical strength, high chemical stability, very wide alloy choices, low cost and, most importantly, existing pathways for high-volume, high-speed mass production. The challenges with metallic bipolar plates are the higher contact resistance and possible corrosion products, which may contaminate the membrane electrode assembly. This review evaluates the candidate metallic and coating materials for bipolar plates and gives the perspective of the research trends. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt......, that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...... theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  8. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  9. Numerical modeling of intraplate seismicity with a deformable loading plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, B. D.; Capitanio, F. A.

    2017-12-01

    We use finite element modeling to investigate on the stress loading-unloading cycles and earthquakes occurrence in the plate interiors, resulting from the interactions of tectonic plates along their boundary. We model a visco-elasto-plastic plate embedding a single or multiple faults, while the tectonic stress is applied along the plate boundary by an external loading visco-elastic plate, reproducing the tectonic setting of two interacting lithospheres. Because the two plates deform viscously, the timescale of stress accumulation and release on the faults is self-consistently determined, from the boundary to the interiors, and seismic recurrence is an emerging feature. This approach overcomes the constraints on recurrence period imposed by stress (stress-drop) and velocity boundary conditions, while here it is unconstrained. We illustrate emerging macroscopic characteristics of this system, showing that the seismic recurrence period τ becomes shorter as Γ and Θ decreases, where Γ = ηI/ηL the viscosity ratio of the viscosities of the internal fault-embedded to external loading plates, respectively, and Θ = σY/σL the stress ratio of the elastic limit of the fault to far-field loading stress. When the system embeds multiple, randomly distributed faults, stress transfer results in recurrence period deviations, however the time-averaged recurrence period of each fault show the same dependence on Γ and Θ, illustrating a characteristic collective behavior. The control of these parameters prevails even when initial pre-stress was randomly assigned in terms of the spatial arrangement and orientation on the internal plate, mimicking local fluctuations. Our study shows the relevance of macroscopic rheological properties of tectonic plates on the earthquake occurrence in plate interiors, as opposed to local factors, proposing a viable model for the seismic behavior of continent interiors in the context of large-scale, long-term deformation of interacting tectonic

  10. Closure of the Africa-Eurasia-North America plate motion circuit and tectonics of the Gloria fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Donald F.; Gordon, Richard G.; Demets, Charles; Stein, Seth

    1989-01-01

    The current motions of the African, Eurasian, and North American plates are examined. The problems addressed include whether there is resolvable motion of a Spitsbergen microplate, the direction of motion between the African and North American plates, whether the Gloria fault is an active transform fault, and the implications of plate circuit closures for rates of intraplate deformation. Marine geophysical data and magnetic profiles are used to construct a model which predicts about 4 mm/yr slip across the Azores-Gibraltar Ridge, and west-northwest convergence near Gibraltar. The analyzed data are consistent with a rigid plate model with the Gloria fault being a transform fault.

  11. A computed microtomography method for understanding epiphyseal growth plate fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Katherine A.; Madi, Kamel; Javaheri, Behzad; Lee, Peter D.; Pitsillides, Andrew A.

    2017-12-01

    The epiphyseal growth plate is a developmental region responsible for linear bone growth, in which chondrocytes undertake a tightly regulated series of biological processes. Concomitant with the cessation of growth and sexual maturation, the human growth plate undergoes progressive narrowing, and ultimately disappears. Despite the crucial role of this growth plate fusion ‘bridging’ event, the precise mechanisms by which it is governed are complex and yet to be established. Progress is likely hindered by the current methods for growth plate visualisation; these are invasive and largely rely on histological procedures. Here we describe our non-invasive method utilising synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography for the examination of growth plate bridging, which ultimately leads to its closure coincident with termination of further longitudinal bone growth. We then apply this method to a dataset obtained from a benchtop microcomputed tomography scanner to highlight its potential for wide usage. Furthermore, we conduct finite element modelling at the micron-scale to reveal the effects of growth plate bridging on local tissue mechanics. Employment of these 3D analyses of growth plate bone bridging is likely to advance our understanding of the physiological mechanisms that control growth plate fusion.

  12. Ultrasonic Testing of NIF Amplifier FAU Top Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinn, D.J.; Huber, R.D.; Haskins, J.J.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Souza, P.R.; Le, T.V.

    2002-01-01

    A key component in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser optic system is the amplifier frame assembly unit (FAU). The cast aluminum top plate that supports the FAU is required to withstand loads that would occur during an earthquake with a recurrence period of 1000 years. The stringent seismic requirements placed on the FAU top plate induced a study of the cast aluminum material used in the top plate. Ultrasonic testing was used to aid in characterizing the aluminum material used in the plates. This report documents the work performed using contact ultrasonic testing to characterize the FAU top plate material. The ultrasonic work reported here had 3 objectives: (1) inspect the plate material before cyclic testing conducted at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER); (2) determine the overall quality of individual plates; and (3) detect large defects in critical areas of individual plates. Section III, ''Pre-cyclic test inspection'', describes work performed in support of Objective 1. Section IV, ''Ultrasonic field measurements'', describes work performed in support of Objectives 2 and 3

  13. Modeling particulate removal in plate-plate and wire-plate electrostatic precipitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramechecandane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the modeling of electrically charged particles in a model plate-plate and a single wire-plate electrostatic precipitator (ESP. The particle concentration distributions for both a plate-plate and a wire-plate ESP are calculated using a modified drift flux model. Numerical investigations are performed using the modified drift flux model for particle number concentration, in addition to the RNG k - ε model for the mean turbulent flow field and the Poisson equation for the electric field. The proposed model and the outlined methodology for coupling the flow field, electric field, charging kinetics and particle concentration is applied to two model precipitators that are truly representative of a wide class of commercialized ESPs. The present investigation is quite different from the earlier studies as it does not make assumptions like a homogeneous electric field or an infinite turbulent diffusivity. The electric field calculated is a strong function of position and controls the migration velocity of particles. Hence, the proposed model can be implemented in a flow solver to obtain a full-fledged solution for any kind of ESP with no limitations on the particle number concentration, as encountered in a Lagrangian approach. The effect of turbulent diffusivity on particle number concentration in a plate-plate ESP is investigated in detail and the results obtained are compared with available experimental data. Similarly, the effect of particle size/diameter and applied electric potential on the accumulative collection performance in the case of a wire-plate ESP is studied and the results obtained are compared with available numerical data. The numerical results obtained using the modified drift flux model for both the plate-plate and wire-plate ESP are in close agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  14. Pressures of Partial Crystallization of Magmas Along Transforms: Implications for Crustal Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. L.; Zerda, C.; Brown, D.; Ciaramitaro, S. C.; Barton, M.

    2016-12-01

    Plate spreading at mid-ocean ridges is responsible for the creation of most of the crust on earth. The ridge system is very complex and many questions remain unresolved. Among these is the nature of magma plumbing systems beneath transform faults. Pervious workers have suggested that increased conductive cooling along transforms promotes higher pressures of partial crystallization, and that this explains the higher partial pressures of crystallization inferred for magmas erupted along slow spreading ridges compared to magmas erupted along faster spreading ridges. To test this hypothesis, we undertook a detailed analysis of pressures of partial crystallization for magmas erupted at 3 transforms along the fast to intermediate spreading East Pacific Rise(Blanco, Clipperton, and Siqueiros) and 3 transforms along the slow spreading Mid Atlantic Ridge(Famous Transform B, Kane, and 15°20'N). Pressures of partial crystallization were calculated from the compositions of glasses (quenched liquids) lying along the P (and T) dependent olivine, plagioclase, and augite cotectic using the method described by Kelley and Barton (2008). Published analyses of mid-ocean ridge basalt glasses sampled from these transforms and surrounding ridge segments were used as input data. Samples with anomalous chemical compositions and samples that yielded pressures associated with unrealistically large uncertainties were filtered out of the database. The pressures of partial crystallization for the remaining 916 samples ranged from 0 to 520 MPa with the great majority ( 95%) of sample returning pressures of less than 300 MPa. Pressures of 300 MPa) are associated with a small number of samples from the Pacific segments. Except for the Blanco, pressures of partial crystallization do not increase as transforms are approached. These observations contrast with those of previous workers, who reported anomalously high pressures (up to 1000 MPa) for a large number of samples erupted near both Atlantic

  15. Towards Transformative Leadership in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oord, Lodewijk

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that an educational organization's type of leadership will to a very large extent determine the quality of personal transformation it instigates among its stakeholders. Focusing on the importance of transformative leadership, such leadership will be viewed as a critical and collaborative process in which school-based…

  16. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    , the evolution of large technological systems and theories about organisational and technological transformationprocesses. The empirical work consist of three analysis at three different levels: socio-technical descriptions of each sector, an envestigation of one municipality and envestigations of one workshop......The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...

  17. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuil...

  18. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  19. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  20. Transforming Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Dahl Højgaard, Pia

    2017-01-01

    , was a result of transforming society from a feudal system to a capitalistic and market based economy. This story is interesting in itself - but it also provides a key to understanding the cadastral system of today. The system has evolved over time and now serves a whole range of functions in society. The paper...

  1. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  2. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  3. Fundamental processes in ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ion plating is a generic term applied to film deposition processes in which the substrate surface and/or the depositing film is subjected to a flux of high energy particles sufficient to cause changes in the interfacial region of film properties compared to a nonbombarded deposition. Ion plating is being accepted as an alternative coating technique to sputter deposition, vacuum evaporation and electroplating. In order to intelligently choose between the various deposition techniques, the fundamental mechanisms, relating to ion plating, must be understood. This paper reviews the effects of low energy ion bombardment on surfaces, interface formation and film development as they apply to ion plating and the implementation and applications of the ion plating process

  4. Acoustic excitation of containment insulation cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenech, H.; Rao, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical program has been implemented by NRC-BNL since 1975 at the University of California, Santa Barbara to assess the reliability of the PCRV thermal insulation cover plate and the possible safety problem caused by the failure of this plate. A typical large HTGR PCRV unit [1160 MW(e)] and thermal insulation class A were selected. The upper core cavity is estimated to be the most critical volume where the noise pressure levels are expected to reach 110 to 130 dB (rel. to 2 x 10 -4 dynes/cm 2 ). The noise spectrum in that cavity is a composite of circulator noise, vortex shedding boundary layer turbulence, and flow impingement. Some anticipated safety related problems associated with the thermal insulation failure are examined

  5. The Golosyiv plate archive digitisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, T. P.; Sergeev, A. V.; Pakuliak, L. K.; Yatsenko, A. I.

    2007-08-01

    The plate archive of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Golosyiv, Kyiv) includes about 85 000 plates which have been taken in various observational projects during 1950-2005. Among them are about 25 000 of direct northern sky area plates and more than 600 000 plates containing stellar, planetary and active solar formations spectra. Direct plates have a limiting magnitude of 14.0-16.0 mag. Since 2002 we have been organising the storage, safeguarding, cataloguing and digitization of the plate archive. The very initial task was to create the automated system for detection of astronomical objects and phenomena, search of optical counterparts in the directions of gamma-ray bursts, research of long period, flare and other variable stars, search and rediscovery of asteroids, comets and other Solar System bodies to improve the elements of their orbits, informational support of CCD observations and space projects, etc. To provide higher efficiency of this work we have prepared computer readable catalogues and database for 250 000 direct wide field plates. Now the catalogues have been adapted to Wide Field Plate Database (WFPDB) format and integrated into this world database. The next step will be adaptation of our catalogues, database and images to standards of the IVOA. Some magnitude and positional accuracy estimations for Golosyiv archive plates have been done. The photometric characteristics of the images of NGC 6913 cluster stars on two plates of the Golosyiv's double wide angle astrograph have been determined. Very good conformity of the photometric characteristics obtained with external accuracies of 0.13 and 0.15 mag. has been found. The investigation of positional accuracy have been made with A3± format fixed bed scanner (Microtek ScanMaker 9800XL TMA). It shows that the scanner has non-detectable systematic errors on the X-axis, and errors of ± 15 μm on the Y-axis. The final positional errors are about ± 2 μm (

  6. Indonesian Landforms and Plate Tectonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Th. Verstappen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i3.103The horizontal configuration and vertical dimension of the landforms occurring in the tectonically unstable parts of Indonesia were resulted in the first place from plate tectonics. Most of them date from the Quaternary and endogenous forces are ongoing. Three major plates – the northward moving Indo-Australian Plate, the south-eastward moving SE-Asian Plate and the westward moving Pacific Plate - meet at a plate triple-junction situated in the south of New Guinea’s Bird’s Head. The narrow North-Moluccan plate is interposed between the Asia and Pacific. It tapers out northward in the Philippine Mobile Belt and is gradually disappearing. The greatest relief amplitudes occur near the plate boundaries: deep ocean trenches are associated with subduction zones and mountain ranges with collision belts. The landforms of the more stable areas of the plates date back to a more remote past and, where emerged, have a more subdued relief that is in the first place related to the resistance of the rocks to humid tropical weathering Rising mountain ranges and emerging island arcs are subjected to rapid humid-tropical river erosions and mass movements. The erosion products accumulate in adjacent sedimentary basins where their increasing weight causes subsidence by gravity and isostatic compensations. Living and raised coral reefs, volcanoes, and fault scarps are important geomorphic indicators of active plate tectonics. Compartmental faults may strongly affect island arcs stretching perpendicular to the plate movement. This is the case on Java. Transcurrent faults and related pull-apart basins are a leading factor where plates meet at an angle, such as on Sumatra. The most complicated situation exists near the triple-junction and in the Moluccas. Modern research methods, such as GPS measurements of plate movements and absolute dating of volcanic outbursts and raised coral reefs are important tools. The mega-landforms resulting

  7. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  8. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  9. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  10. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  11. Mass transfer effects on vertical oscillating plate with heat flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical solution of unsteady viscous incompressible flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate with uniform heat flux and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account of the homogeneous chemical reaction of first-order. The temperature from the plate to the fluid at an uniform rate and the mass is diffused uniformly. The dimensionless governing equations has been obtained by the Laplace transform method, when the plate is oscillating harmonically in its own plane. The effects of velocity and concentration are studied for different parameters like phase angle chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number Schmidt number and time are studied. The so­lutions are valid only for small values of time t. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt or chemical reaction parameter.

  12. Plate shell structures of glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne

    to their curved shape. A plate shell structure maintains a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, while facilitating the use of plane structural elements. The study focuses on using laminated glass panes for the load bearing facets. Various methods of generating a plate shell geometry are suggested. Together with Ghent......, such as facet size, imperfections, and connection characteristics. The critical load is compared to that of a similar, but smoothly curved, shell structure. Based on the investigations throughout the study, a set of guidelines for the structural design of plate shells of glass is proposed....

  13. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate

  14. Plastic scintillator-based hodoscope for the characterization of large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plastic scintillator-based hodoscope for the characterization of large-area resistive plate chambers. V K S KASHYAP C YADAV ... Keywords. Plastic scintillators; resistive plate chambers. ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News. © 2017 Indian ...

  15. Electrical transformer handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Horne, D. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This handbook is a valuable user guide intended for electrical engineering and maintenance personnel, electrical contractors and electrical engineering students. It provides current information on techniques and technologies that can help extend the life of transformers. It discusses transformer testing, monitoring, design, commissioning, retrofitting and other elements involved in keeping electrical transformers in safe and efficient operation. It demonstrates how a power transformer can be put to use and common problems faced by owners. In addition to covering control techniques, testing and maintenance procedures, this handbook covers the power transformer; control electrical power transformer; electrical power transformer; electrical theory transformer; used electrical transformer; down electrical step transformer; electrical manufacturer transformer; electrical picture transformer; electrical transformer work; electrical surplus transformer; current transformer; step down transformer; voltage transformer; step up transformer; isolation transformer; low voltage transformer; toroidal transformer; high voltage transformer; and control power transformer. The handbook includes articles from leading experts on overcurrent protection of transformers; ventilated dry-type transformers; metered load factors for low-voltage, and dry-type transformers in buildings. The maintenance of both dry-type or oil-filled transformers was discussed with reference to sealing, gaskets, oils, moisture and testing. The adoption of dynamic load practices was also discussed along with the reclamation or recycling of used lube oil, transformer dielectric fluids and aged solid insulation. A buyer's guide and directory of transformer manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Group analysis for natural convection from a vertical plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, A. S.; Kassem, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    The steady laminar natural convection of a fluid having chemical reaction of order n past a semi-infinite vertical plate is considered. The solution of the problem by means of one-parameter group method reduces the number of independent variables by one leading to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Two different similarity transformations are found. In each case the set of differential equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta and the shooting method. For each transformation different Schmidt numbers and chemical reaction orders are tested.

  17. An experimental study of an explosively driven flat plate launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Philip; Haroz, Erik; Armstrong, Chris; Perry, Lee; M Division Team

    2017-06-01

    For some upcoming experiments it is desired to impact a large explosive assembly with one or more moderate diameter flat metal plates traveling at high velocity (2-3 km s-1). The time of arrival of these plates will need to carefully controlled and delayed (i.e. the time(s) of arrival known to approximately a microsecond). For this reason, producing a flyer plate from more traditional gun assemblies is not possible. Previous researchers have demonstrated the ability to throw reasonably flat metal flyers from the so-called Forest flyer geometry. The defining characteristics of this design are a carefully controlled reduction in explosive area from a larger explosive plane-wave-lens and booster pad to a smaller flyer plate to improve the planarity of the drive available and an air gap between the explosive booster and the plate to reduce the peak tensile stresses generated in the plate to suppress spalling. This experimental series comprised a number of different design variants and plate and explosive drive materials. The aim was to calibrate a predictive computational modeling capability on this kind of system in preparation for later more radical design ideas best tested in a computer before undertaking the expensive business of construction.

  18. Interaction between plate make and protein in protein crystallisation screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein crystallisation screening involves the parallel testing of large numbers of candidate conditions with the aim of identifying conditions suitable as a starting point for the production of diffraction quality crystals. Generally, condition screening is performed in 96-well plates. While previous studies have examined the effects of protein construct, protein purity, or crystallisation condition ingredients on protein crystallisation, few have examined the effect of the crystallisation plate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a statistically rigorous examination of protein crystallisation, and evaluated interactions between crystallisation success and plate row/column, different plates of same make, different plate makes and different proteins. From our analysis of protein crystallisation, we found a significant interaction between plate make and the specific protein being crystallised. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Protein crystal structure determination is the principal method for determining protein structure but is limited by the need to produce crystals of the protein under study. Many important proteins are difficult to crystallize, so that identification of factors that assist crystallisation could open up the structure determination of these more challenging targets. Our findings suggest that protein crystallisation success may be improved by matching a protein with its optimal plate make.

  19. Coupled oscillations of flow along a perforated plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, E.; Rockwell, D.

    2004-01-01

    Turbulent shear flow past a perforated plate bounded by a closed cavity can give rise to highly coherent oscillations, which have a wavelength of the order of the plate length. The present investigation focuses on the coupling between unsteady events on either side of the plate when the oscillations are self-sustaining. A cinema technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry, which provides a space-time representation of the unsteadiness at a large number of locations over entire planes, is employed to characterize the distinctively different patterns of flow structure on the back (low-speed) side of the plate relative to those on the front (high-speed) side. Global cross-spectral analysis leads to patterns of spectral peaks and phase variations, along and across the plate. This approach, along with complementary types of image evaluation, delineates the physics of the oscillations, which include downstream propagating disturbances along either side of the plate and a coherent region of unsteadiness at its trailing-edge. On the backside of the plate, a sequence of upstream-oriented, pulsatile jets are formed, and the time-averaged flow pattern is a counterflow wall jet

  20. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  1. Thin-plate spline analysis of the cranial base in subjects with Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; McNamara, J A; Lozanoff, S

    1997-08-01

    The role of the cranial base in the emergence of Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. This study determines deformations that contribute to a Class III cranial base morphology, employing thin-plate spline analysis on lateral cephalographs. A total of 73 children of European-American descent aged between 5 and 11 years of age with Class III malocclusion were compared with an equivalent group of subjects with a normal, untreated, Class I molar occlusion. The cephalographs were traced, checked and subdivided into seven age- and sex-matched groups. Thirteen points on the cranial base were identified and digitized. The datasets were scaled to an equivalent size, and statistical analysis indicated significant differences between average Class I and Class III cranial base morphologies for each group. Thin-plate spline analysis indicated that both affine (uniform) and non-affine transformations contribute toward the total spline for each average cranial base morphology at each age group analysed. For non-affine transformations, Partial warps 10, 8 and 7 had high magnitudes, indicating large-scale deformations affecting Bolton point, basion, pterygo-maxillare, Ricketts' point and articulare. In contrast, high eigenvalues associated with Partial warps 1-3, indicating localized shape changes, were found at tuberculum sellae, sella, and the frontonasomaxillary suture. It is concluded that large spatial-scale deformations affect the occipital complex of the cranial base and sphenoidal region, in combination with localized distortions at the frontonasal suture. These deformations may contribute to reduced orthocephalization or deficient flattening of the cranial base antero-posteriorly that, in turn, leads to the formation of a Class III malocclusion.

  2. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  3. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  4. Rotary Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  5. MyPlate Daily Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Price Tag Read the Food Label Kitchen Timesavers Cooking for Your Family Tasty & Low-Cost Recipes Sample 2-Week Menus Resources for Professionals MyPlate Tip Sheets Print Materials Infographics 5 Ways ...

  6. License plate recognition (phase B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology has been used for off-line automobile enforcement purposes. The technology has seen mixed success with correct reading rate as high as 60 to 80% depending on the specific application and environment. This li...

  7. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanton, Brian; Coburn, William; Pizzillo, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    ...., surface texture and coatings) that could become important at high frequency. We measure waviness and roughness of various plates to know the parameter range for smooth aluminum and rolled homogenous armor (RHA...

  8. History and Evolution of Precambrian plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ria; Gerya, Taras

    2014-05-01

    Plate tectonics is a global self-organising process driven by negative buoyancy at thermal boundary layers. Phanerozoic plate tectonics with its typical subduction and orogeny is relatively well understood and can be traced back in the geological records of the continents. Interpretations of geological, petrological and geochemical observations from Proterozoic and Archean orogenic belts however (e.g., Brown, 2006), suggest a different tectonic regime in the Precambrian. Due to higher radioactive heat production the Precambrian lithosphere shows lower internal strength and is strongly weakened by percolating melts. The fundamental difference between Precambrian and Phanerozoic tectonics is therefore the upper-mantle temperature, which determines the strength of the upper mantle (Brun, 2002) and the further tectonic history. 3D petrological-thermomechanical numerical modelling experiments of oceanic subduction at an active plate at different upper-mantle temperatures show these different subduction regimes. For upper-mantle temperatures 250 K above the present day value no subduction occurs any more. The whole lithosphere is delaminating and due to strong volcanism and formation of a thicker crust subduction is inhibited. This stage of 200-250 K higher upper mantle temperature which corresponds roughly to the early Archean (Abbott, 1994) is marked by strong volcanism due to sublithospheric decompression melting which leads to an equal thickness for both oceanic and continental plates. As a consequence subduction is inhibited, but a compressional setup instead will lead to orogeny between a continental or felsic terrain and an oceanic or mafic terrain as well as internal crustal convection. Small-scale convection with plume shaped cold downwellings also in the upper mantle is of increased importance compared to the large-scale subduction cycle observed for present temperature conditions. It is also observed that lithospheric downwellings may initiate subduction by

  9. Investing in a Large Stretch Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, M.; Nealson, W.; Jay, G.; Buss, W.

    1986-01-01

    Press for forming large aluminum parts from plates provides substantial economies. Study assessed advantages and disadvantages of investing in large stretch-forming press, and also developed procurement specification for press.

  10. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, R.; Budić, B.; Stamenković, D.; Čolić, M.; Ivanič, A.; Kosec, B.

    2013-01-01

    Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  11. Rhodium platings – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rudolf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern rhodium plating solutions are based on either sulphate or phosphate. Although in theory there are four possible combinations, in practice only three different rhodium electrolytes are used. These are based on dilutions of rhodium sulphate or phosphate concentrates with added sulphuric or phosphoric acid. These processes are be discussed in this paper with a demonstration of Rh platings in the Slovenian firm Zlatarna Celje d.d.

  12. Is plate tectonics needed to evolve technological species on exoplanets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Stern

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As we continue searching for exoplanets, we wonder if life and technological species capable of communicating with us exists on any of them. As geoscientists, we can also wonder how important is the presence or absence of plate tectonics for the evolution of technological species. This essay considers this question, focusing on tectonically active rocky (silicate planets, like Earth, Venus, and Mars. The development of technological species on Earth provides key insights for understanding evolution on exoplanets, including the likely role that plate tectonics may play. An Earth-sized silicate planet is likely to experience several tectonic styles over its lifetime, as it cools and its lithosphere thickens, strengthens, and becomes denser. These include magma ocean, various styles of stagnant lid, and perhaps plate tectonics. Abundant liquid water favors both life and plate tectonics. Ocean is required for early evolution of diverse single-celled organisms, then colonies of cells which specialized further to form guts, appendages, and sensory organisms up to the complexity of fish (central nervous system, appendages, eyes. Large expanses of dry land also begin in the ocean, today produced above subduction zones in juvenile arcs and by their coalescence to form continents, although it is not clear that plate tectonics was required to create continental crust on Earth. Dry land of continents is required for further evolution of technological species, where modification of appendages for grasping and manipulating, and improvement of eyes and central nervous system could be perfected. These bioassets allowed intelligent creatures to examine the night sky and wonder, the beginning of abstract thinking, including religion and science. Technology arises from the exigencies of daily living such as tool-making, agriculture, clothing, and weapons, but the pace of innovation accelerates once it is allied with science. Finally, the importance of plate

  13. Rate effects in resistive plate chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, C.; Riegler, W.; Kalweit, A.

    2006-01-01

    The resistive plates in RPCs cause a drop of the electric field in the gas gap at high particle rates or large gas gain, which affects efficiency and time resolution. This effect is typically estimated by assuming the particle flux to be a DC current that causes a voltage drop when it passes through the resistive plate. In an improved model by Abbrescia (Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 533 (2004) 7), the fluctuation of the field in the gas gap is modelled by assuming that the avalanche partially discharges a small capacitor which gets recharged with a time constant characteristic for the given RPC. In our approach, the effect is calculated by using the exact analytic solution for the time dependent electric field of a point charge sitting on the surface of a resistive plate in an RPC. This is, by definition, the best possible approximation to reality. The solution is obtained using the quasi-static approximation of Maxwell's equations. The formulas are presented as integral representations with 'cured' integrands, which allow easy numerical evaluation for Monte Carlo simulations. The solutions show that the charges in RPCs are 'destroyed' with a continuous distribution of time constants which are related in a very intuitive way to some limiting cases. Using these formulas we present a Monte Carlo simulation of rate effects, proving the applicability of this approach. Finally, we compare the Monte Carlo results to analytical calculations, similar to the ones proposed by Gonzalez-Diaz et al. (see proceedings of this conference)

  14. Hermitian Mindlin Plate Wavelet Finite Element Method for Load Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Hermitian Mindlin plate wavelet element is proposed. The two-dimensional Hermitian cubic spline interpolation wavelet is substituted into finite element functions to construct frequency response function (FRF. It uses a system’s FRF and response spectrums to calculate load spectrums and then derives loads in the time domain via the inverse fast Fourier transform. By simulating different excitation cases, Hermitian cubic spline wavelets on the interval (HCSWI finite elements are used to reverse load identification in the Mindlin plate. The singular value decomposition (SVD method is adopted to solve the ill-posed inverse problem. Compared with ANSYS results, HCSWI Mindlin plate element can accurately identify the applied load. Numerical results show that the algorithm of HCSWI Mindlin plate element is effective. The accuracy of HCSWI can be verified by comparing the FRF of HCSWI and ANSYS elements with the experiment data. The experiment proves that the load identification of HCSWI Mindlin plate is effective and precise by using the FRF and response spectrums to calculate the loads.

  15. Chaos control for the plates subjected to subsonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Hamed; Younesian, Davood

    2016-07-01

    The suppression of chaotic motion in viscoelastic plates driven by external subsonic air flow is studied. Nonlinear oscillation of the plate is modeled by the von-Kármán plate theory. The fluid-solid interaction is taken into account. Galerkin's approach is employed to transform the partial differential equations of the system into the time domain. The corresponding homoclinic orbits of the unperturbed Hamiltonian system are obtained. In order to study the chaotic behavior of the plate, Melnikov's integral is analytically applied and the threshold of the excitation amplitude and frequency for the occurrence of chaos is presented. It is found that adding a parametric perturbation to the system in terms of an excitation with the same frequency of the external force can lead to eliminate chaos. Variations of the Lyapunov exponent and bifurcation diagrams are provided to analyze the chaotic and periodic responses. Two perturbation-based control strategies are proposed. In the first scenario, the amplitude of control forces reads a constant value that should be precisely determined. In the second strategy, this amplitude can be proportional to the deflection of the plate. The performance of each controller is investigated and it is found that the second scenario would be more efficient.

  16. NATURAL TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF A PRESTRESSED ORTHOTROPIC PLATE-STRIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorychev Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a new outlook at the boundary-value problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous pre-stressed orthotropic plate-stripe. In the paper, the motion equation represents a new approximate hyperbolic equation (rather than a parabolic equation used in the majority of papers covering the same problem describing the vibration of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe. The proposed research is based on newly derived boundary conditions describing the pin-edge, rigid, and elastic (vertical types of fixing, as well as the boundary conditions applicable to the unfixed edge of the plate. The paper contemplates the application of the Laplace transformation and a non-standard representation of a homogeneous differential equation with fixed factors. The article proposes a detailed representation of the problem of natural vibrations of a homogeneous orthotropic plate-stripe if rigidly fixed at opposite sides; besides, the article also provides frequency equations (no conclusions describing the plate characterized by the following boundary conditions: rigid fixing at one side and pin-edge fixing at the opposite side; pin-edge fixing at one side and free (unfixed other side; rigid fixing at one side and elastic fixing at the other side. The results described in the article may be helpful if applied in the construction sector whenever flat structural elements are considered. Moreover, specialists in solid mechanics and theory of elasticity may benefit from the ideas proposed in the article.

  17. Heat analysis of the magnetic limiter plate for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Ohta, Mitsuru

    1977-03-01

    Heat analysis has been made of the magnetic limiter plate for JT-60. Test materials of the magnetic limiter plate are molybdenum, graphite, pyrolytic graphite and silicon carbide. It is assumed in calculation of the heat analysis that 10MW is deposited on the 2 cm wide surface of the magnetic limiter plate in about 10 sec. The magnetic limiter plate of pyrolytic graphite is a stack of pyrolytic graphite sheets, heat input is in the deposition plane to take advantage of the large heat conductivity along this plane. Pyrolytic graphite is the best in terms of temperature rise. The temperature of molybdenum and graphite rise up to 1800 0 C and 620 0 C, respectively, in an deposition of 10 MWx10sec. Silicon carbide is not suitable for the magnetic limiter plate. Because the plasma of the JT-60 discharges every 10 min, the average heat flux decreases to 17 w/cm 2 during the each interval. When the magnetic limiter plate has the above heat inflow, a maximum of above 1000 0 C occurs at the edge far from the joint to the thick ring of the vacuum vessel. To reduce heat load of the magnetic limiter plate, an alternating current (2 -- 5Hz) is superposed on the magnetic limiter coil current. The intersection of separatrix line and magnetic limiter plate then moves cyclically more than 10 cm. Concerning temperature distribution of the multi-groove magnetic limiter plate, its dimensions are determined by the limitation in vapor pressure to prevent the impurity inflow. (auth.)

  18. Coupling intensity and isostatic competition between subducting slab and overriding plate control trench motions and tectonics of the overriding plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G.; Moresi, L. N.

    2017-12-01

    Trench motions not only reflect tectonic regimes on the overriding plate but also shed light on the competition between subducting slab and overriding plate, however, major controls over trench advance or retreat and their consequences are still illusive. We use 2D thermo-mechanical experiments to study the problem. We find that the coupling intensity particularly in the uppermost 200 km and the isostatic competition between subducting slab and overriding plate largely determine trench motion and tectonics of in the overriding plate. Coupling intensity is the result of many contributing factors, including frictional coefficient of brittle part of the subducting interface and the viscosity of the ductile part, thermal regime and rheology of the overriding plate, and water contents and magmatic activity in the subducting slab and overriding plate. In this study, we are not concerned with the dynamic evolution of individual controlling parameter but simply use effective media. For instance, we impose simple model parameters such as frictional coefficient and vary the temperature and strain-rate dependent viscosity of the weak layer between the subducting slab and overriding plate. In the coupled end-member case, strong coupling leads to strong corner flow, depth-dependent compression/extension, and mantle return flow on the overriding plate side. It results in fast trench retreat, broad overriding plate extension, and even slab breakoff. In the decoupled end-member case, weak coupling causes much weaker response on the overriding plate side compared with the coupled end-member case, and the subducting slab can be largely viewed as a conveyer belt. We find that the isostatic competition between the subducting slab and overriding plate also has a major control over trench motion, and may better be viewed in 3D models. This is consistent with the findings in previous 3D studies that trench motion is most pronounced close to the slab edge. Here we propose that the

  19. Clinicopathological features of histological transformation from extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an analysis of 467 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Akiko Miyagi; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Toyoda, Kosuke; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Makita, Shinichi; Fukuhara, Suguru; Munakata, Wataru; Maruyama, Dai; Kobayashi, Yukio; Tobinai, Kensei

    2016-09-01

    This study analysed incidence, patient outcome, immunophenotype and prognostic factors of histological transformation (HT) from extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in 467 patients (median age, 61 years). The primary sites of MALT lymphoma were the stomach (43%), ocular adnexa (25%), lung (8%), systemic (8%) and other tissues (16%). HT occurred in 8% of MALT lymphomas. Risk of HT by 15 years was 5%: 4% in limited-stage diseases (n = 385) and 16% in advanced-stage diseases (n = 56) (P = 0·02). The median time to HT was 48 months (range, 4-139). Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates after HT were 80% and 94%, respectively. Immunohistochemical results of DLBCL were as follows: germinal centre B-cell (GCB)/non-GCB, 37%/63%; CD10, 9%; BCL6, 59%; MUM1, 38%; MYC, 42%; BCL2, 35%; Ki67 ≥ 90%, 23%; and CD5, 3%. The majority (75%, 9/12) of GCB-type DLBCLs exhibited CD10(-) , BCL6(+) and MUM1(-) immunophenotypes; the remainder had CD10(+) immunophenotypes. Multivariate analysis revealed that only advanced stage at HT was a significant adverse factor for PFS (P = 0·037). Thus, overall risk of HT was low and prognosis after HT was favourable; however, in advanced-stage cases, risk of HT was relatively high and prognosis was unfavourable. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Silicon Microchannel Plate Large Area UV Detector, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for high-quantum-efficiency, high-resolution, low-cost photodetectors for the far-UV spectral range, Physical Optics Corporation (POC)...

  1. Available: lead plate from COMPASS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    The COMPASS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The COMPASS collaboration would like to offer the possibility to take over a large and thick lead plate, since it is not required anymore in the spectrometer.   It has the following dimensions: thickness 100 mm, width 4.4 m and height 2.0 m, with a square hole in the middle with dimensions of 40 cm x 40 cm. The measured weight including the metal frame it is housed in is 10,180 kg. The CERN stores reference is 44.13.30.100.9. Please contact Erwin Bielert (erwin.bielert@cern.ch or 160539) for further information and details.

  2. Forestry transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2003-01-01

    State forestry company Lesy, s.p., Banska Bystrica have chosen Austrian state forestry company to operate as their restructuring advisor. 20 million Sk (0.142 mn Euro) were assigned to transformation of Lesy SR from a state enterprise to a state-owned joint-stock company. The whole process should take two years. The joint-stock company should be established at the beginning of next year. 'What we have to do first is to define the objectives and perspectives of this restructuring,' claims new director, Karol Vins. The new boss recalled all directors of the 26 branches. They were given a lot of freedom to trade with wood. The new management wants to establish a profit-making company. At the moment the company has total claims of 600 million Sk (14.59 million Eur) it will have to provision for

  3. Transforming vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

    2003-11-01

    Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being.

  4. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  5. A new license plate extraction framework based on fast mean shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luning; Li, Shuguang

    2010-08-01

    License plate extraction is considered to be the most crucial step of Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) system. In this paper, a region-based license plate hybrid detection method is proposed to solve practical problems under complex background in which existing large quantity of disturbing information. In this method, coarse license plate location is carried out firstly to get the head part of a vehicle. Then a new Fast Mean Shift method based on random sampling of Kernel Density Estimate (KDE) is adopted to segment the color vehicle images, in order to get candidate license plate regions. The remarkable speed-up it brings makes Mean Shift segmentation more suitable for this application. Feature extraction and classification is used to accurately separate license plate from other candidate regions. At last, tilted license plate regulation is used for future recognition steps.

  6. A Study on the Saving Method of Plate Jigs in Hull Block Butt Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Eun

    2017-11-01

    A large amount of plate jigs is used for alignment of welding line and control of welding deformations in hull block assembly stage. Besides material cost, the huge working man-hours required for working process of plate jigs is one of the obstacles in productivity growth of shipyard. In this study, analysis method was proposed to simulate the welding deformations of block butt joint with plate jigs setting. Using the proposed analysis method, an example simulation was performed for actual panel block joint to investigate the saving method of plate jigs. Results show that it is possible to achieve two objectives of quality accuracy of the hull block and saving the plate jig usage at the same time by deploying the plate jigs at the right places. And the proposed analysis method can be used in establishing guidelines for the proper use of plate jigs in block assembly stage.

  7. The Symmetric Rudin-Shapiro Transform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour

    2003-01-01

    A method for constructing spread spectrum sequences is presented. The method is based on a linear, orthogonal, and symmetric transform given as the Rudin-Shapiro transform (RST), which is in many respects quite similar to the Haar wavelet packet transform. The RST provides the means for generatin...... large sets of spread spectrum signals. This presentation provides a simple definition of the symmetric RST that leads to a fast N log(N) and numerically stable implementation of the transform....

  8. The Symmetric Rudin-Shapiro Transform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour

    2003-01-01

    A method for constructing spread spectrum sequences is presented. The method is based on a linear, orthogonal, symmetric transform, the Rudin-Shapiro transform (RST), which is in many respects quite similar to the Haar wavelet packet transform. The RST provides the means for generating large sets...... of spread spectrum signals. This presentation provides a simple definition of the symmetric RST that leads to a fast N log(N) and numerically stable implementation of the transform....

  9. Numerical analysis of viscoelastic boundary layers : the case of plate withdrawal in a Maxwellian fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghy, K.; Sharifi, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of a fluid's elasticity on the characteristics of its boundary layer was investigated in this work. A viscoelastic fluid of Maxwellian type was selected for this purpose and the flow induced in this fluid by a plate withdrawing at a constant velocity was studied. Conventional boundary layer assumptions were invoked to reduce the equations of motion to a simple form incorporating an elastic term in addition to the familiar inertial, viscous and pressure terms. It was shown that for elastic effects to be of an importance in a boundary layer, the fluid's relaxation time should be of an order much larger than its kinematic viscosity. By introducing a stream function, the governing equation was transformed into a nonlinear ODE with x-coordinate still appearing in the equation demonstrating that no similarity solution existed for this flow. The resulting equation was then solved numerically for Deborah numbers as large as 1.0. The results showed a marked formation of boundary layer adjacent to a moving wall for a Maxwellian fluid. The boundary layer thickness and the wall shear stress were found to scale with fluid's elasticity - both decreasing the higher the fluid's elasticity. It is thus anticipated that in free coating processes, the force required to impart a constant velocity to a withdrawing belt or plate would be lower if fluid's elasticity is significant. (author)

  10. Modeling RERTR experimental fuel plates using the PLATE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Brazener, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modeling results using the PLATE dispersion fuel performance code are presented for the U-Mo/Al experimental fuel plates from the RERTR-1, -2, -3 and -5 irradiation tests. Agreement of the calculations with experimental data obtained in post-irradiation examinations of these fuels, where available, is shown to be good. Use of the code to perform a series of parametric evaluations highlights the sensitivity of U-Mo dispersion fuel performance to fabrication variables, especially fuel particle shape and size distributions. (author)

  11. Plating on some difficult-to-plate metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1980-02-01

    Electrodeposition of coatings on metals such as beryllium, beryllium-copper, Kovar, lead, magnesium, thorium, titanium, tungsten, uranium, zirconium, and their alloys can be problematic. This is due in most cases to a natural oxide surface film that readily reforms after being removed. The procedures we recommend for plating on these metals rely on replacing the oxide film with a displacement coating, or etching to allow mechanical keying between the substrate and plated deposit. The effectiveness of the procedures is demonstrated by interface bond strengths found in ring-shear and conical-head tensile tests

  12. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    The product of an electroless plating process is described for plating at least one main group metal directly on a surface of a polymeric substrate comprising the steps of forming a nonaqueous solution containing a metallic salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and at least one main group metal in a negative valence state, the main group metal being selected from the group consisting of Ge, Sn, Pb, As, Sb, Bi, Si and Te, selecting an aromatic polymeric substrate reducible by the solublized salt and resistant to degration during the reaction, and carrying out a redox reaction between the salt in solution and the substrate by contacting the solution with the substrate for a sufficient time to oxidize and deposit the main group metal in elemental form to produce a plated substrate. The product is characterized by the plated metal being directly on the surface of the polymeric substrate and the alkali metal being retained in the plated substrate with the substrate being negatively charged with electrons transferred from the main group metal during the redox reaction

  13. Stress analysis of perforated plates and plates with single and clustered nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulbert, L.E.; Hopper, A.T.; Rybicki, E.F.

    1976-01-01

    It is well known that stress distributions around a hole in a plate are drastically increased if there are other holes in the plate sufficiently near. Such stress interaction effects must be analyzed and accounted for in the design of a plate containing multiple perforations. Computer programs have been developed for the accurate analysis of the in-plane stresses of arbitrary multiholed plates. Stress interactions also occur between closely spaced nozzles attached to pressure vessels such as nuclear reactor vessels. Results of the investigations carried out during the second year of the research program are summarized. The first section of the report describes the structures analyzed, the loadings on these structures, and the mathematical statements of these problems. The second section explains the analysis techniques employed. The third section deals with the numerical results obtained for all of the problems solved. This section also gives a complete statement of each problem and the series of trial functions used to solve each nozzle-plate problem. Several appendices are also included. These appendices are intended to be users' manuals for the computer codes used in this research effort but which are not explained in the literature. Appendix A treats program TABLES while Appendix B explains the use of PEBBLES. Appendix C is the users' manual for program INTRTIE which is a large program actually consisting of six individual programs. Appendix D discusses the changes in the input data to program NONLIN to obtain certain input data for INTRTIE. Finally, Appendix E treats a small program called CONVERT which also generates input data for INTRTIE

  14. Heat transfer effects on flow past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate with variable temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An exact solution to the problem of flow past an exponentially accelerated infinite vertical plate with variable temperature is analyzed. The temperature of the plate is raised linearly with time t. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using Laplace-transform technique. The velocity and temperature profiles are studied for different physical parameters like thermal Grashof number Gr, time and an accelerating parameter a. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of a or Gr.

  15. [Non-rigid medical image registration based on mutual information and thin-plate spline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guo-gang; Luo, Li-min

    2009-01-01

    To get precise and complete details, the contrast in different images is needed in medical diagnosis and computer assisted treatment. The image registration is the basis of contrast, but the regular rigid registration does not satisfy the clinic requirements. A non-rigid medical image registration method based on mutual information and thin-plate spline was present. Firstly, registering two images globally based on mutual information; secondly, dividing reference image and global-registered image into blocks and registering them; then getting the thin-plate spline transformation according to the shift of blocks' center; finally, applying the transformation to the global-registered image. The results show that the method is more precise than the global rigid registration based on mutual information and it reduces the complexity of getting control points and satisfy the clinic requirements better by getting control points of the thin-plate transformation automatically.

  16. Group-invariant solutions of nonlinear elastodynamic problems of plates and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhupanov, V.A.; Vassilev, V.M.; Dzhondzhorov, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    Plates and shells are basic structural components in nuclear reactors and their equipment. The prediction of the dynamic response of these components to fast transient loadings (e.g., loadings caused by earthquakes, missile impacts, etc.) is a quite important problem in the general context of the design, reliability and safety of nuclear power stations. Due to the extreme loading conditions a more adequate treatment of the foregoing problem should rest on a suitable nonlinear shell model, which would allow large deflections of the structures regarded to be taken into account. Such a model is provided in the nonlinear Donnell-Mushtari-Vlasov (DMV) theory. The governing system of equations of the DMV theory consists of two coupled nonlinear fourth order partial differential equations in three independent and two dependent variables. It is clear, as the case stands, that the obtaining solutions to this system directly, by using any of the general analytical or numerical techniques, would involve considerable difficulties. In the present paper, the invariance of the governing equations of DMV theory for plates and cylindrical shells relative to local Lie groups of local point transformations will be employed to get some advantages in connection with the aforementioned problem. First, the symmetry of a functional, corresponding to the governing equations of DMV theory for plates and cylindrical shells is studied. Next, the densities in the corresponding conservation laws are determined on the basis of Noether theorem. Finally, we study a class of invariant solutions of the governing equations. As is well known, group-invariant solutions are often intermediate asymptotics for a wider class of solutions of the corresponding equations. When such solutions are considered, the number of the independent variables can be reduced. For the class of invariant solutions studied here, the system of governing equations converts into a system of ordinary differential equations

  17. Effect of bainitic transformation on bake hardening in TRIP assisted steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S., E-mail: sourav.das@tatasteel.com [Research and Development, Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur (India); Timokhina, I. [Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation/Science and Technology, Deakin University (Australia); Singh, S.B. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Kharagpur (India); Pereloma, E. [BlueScope Steel Metallurgy Centre, University of Wollongong (Australia); Mohanty, O.N. [RSB Metaltech, RSB Group, Jamshedpur (India)

    2012-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bainitic transformation in TRIP-assisted steel can lead to a very good bake hardening response as demonstrated by other researchers also. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No extra deformation is needed. Dislocations can be generated in situ during the transformation itself. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detail characterisation and theoretical treatments showed bainite plates are sufficiently enriched with extra carbon atoms which can migrate and lock the dislocations. - Abstract: Bake hardening is a phenomenon where freshly generated dislocations get pinned down by the migrating carbon atoms under the influence of temperature employed in paint baking shop. Experimentally, a minimal 2% deformation is given to generate such new dislocations. On the other hand, after bainitic transformation, steel contains a large number of dislocations as well as excess carbon atoms in bainite, a combination of which is capable of producing bake hardening effect. In the current analysis, one grade of transformation induced plasticity aided steel was chosen to study the effect of isothermal bainitic transformation on subsequent bake hardening response, without giving any deformation assuming that the previous treatment would have generated sufficient dislocations which could be pinned down by the migrating carbon atoms under the influence of thermal treatment of the bake hardening process. The final microstructure was characterised by many techniques, using Thermo-Calc, optical microscopy, XRD analysis and 3-DAP. A good agreement was observed amongst all the techniques employed.

  18. Effect of bainitic transformation on bake hardening in TRIP assisted steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Timokhina, I.; Singh, S.B.; Pereloma, E.; Mohanty, O.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bainitic transformation in TRIP-assisted steel can lead to a very good bake hardening response as demonstrated by other researchers also. ► No extra deformation is needed. Dislocations can be generated in situ during the transformation itself. ► Detail characterisation and theoretical treatments showed bainite plates are sufficiently enriched with extra carbon atoms which can migrate and lock the dislocations. - Abstract: Bake hardening is a phenomenon where freshly generated dislocations get pinned down by the migrating carbon atoms under the influence of temperature employed in paint baking shop. Experimentally, a minimal 2% deformation is given to generate such new dislocations. On the other hand, after bainitic transformation, steel contains a large number of dislocations as well as excess carbon atoms in bainite, a combination of which is capable of producing bake hardening effect. In the current analysis, one grade of transformation induced plasticity aided steel was chosen to study the effect of isothermal bainitic transformation on subsequent bake hardening response, without giving any deformation assuming that the previous treatment would have generated sufficient dislocations which could be pinned down by the migrating carbon atoms under the influence of thermal treatment of the bake hardening process. The final microstructure was characterised by many techniques, using Thermo-Calc, optical microscopy, XRD analysis and 3-DAP. A good agreement was observed amongst all the techniques employed.

  19. Early embryonic demise: no evidence of abnormal spiral artery transformation or trophoblast invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, E; Robson, S C; Ayis, S; Lyall, F; Bulmer, J N

    2006-03-01

    Invasion by extravillous trophoblast of uterine decidua and myometrium and the associated spiral artery 'transformation' are essential for the development of normal pregnancy. Small pilot studies of placental bed and basal plate tissues from miscarriages have suggested that impaired interstitial and endovascular trophoblast invasion may play a role in the pathogenesis of miscarriage. The hypothesis that early miscarriage is associated with reduced extravillous trophoblast invasion and spiral artery transformation was tested in a large series of placental bed biopsies containing decidua and myometrium and at least one spiral artery from early, karyotyped embryonic miscarriages (transformation were assessed histologically in spiral arteries of miscarriages (n = 176) and controls (n = 246) and analysed statistically using a logistic regression model. Trophoblast invasion of uterine tissues and spiral artery transformation did not differ between euploid and aneuploid early miscarriage and also did not differ significantly from normal pregnancy. These findings suggest that failed trophoblast invasion and spiral artery transformation do not have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of early miscarriage.

  20. Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoff, Basil

    In the field of tectonics, most of our ideas are published in journals. This is not true of other fields, such as history, in which ideas are primarily published in books. Within my own field of structural geology, I can recall only one book, Strain Fades by E. Hansen (Springer-Verlag, 1971), which presents a new idea in book form. However, even this book is more useful for its philosophical approach and particular methodology of determining directions of folding, than for its overarching idea.Enter Soft Plate and Impact Tectonics, a new book with an interesting hypothesis that has been informally discussed in the geoscience community: A fundamental tenet of plate tectonics is incorrect—namely, that the plates are rigid. This assertion is evident when looking at any mountain range, and is perhaps most clearly stated in Molnar [1988].

  1. Track plate enclosures: Box designs affecting attractiveness to riparian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukmas, J.J.; Mayack, D.T.; Richmond, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of four track plate enclosure designs for monitoring the abundance of small and medium-sized mammals along 10 streams in New York State. Box size and clarity of view through the box were evaluated as factors affecting visitation. We checked track plate stations weekly from September 1999 to March 2000. Eleven mammalian species or species groups visited the track plate stations. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) (P = 0.020) and feral cats (Felis catus) (P = 0.008) visited large enclosures significantly more than small enclosures. Feral cats visited clear-view enclosures significantly more than obstructed-view enclosures (P = 0.025). Enclosure size and view did not significantly affect visitation by other species; however, a large box with a clear view was the most effective design.

  2. Deformation of the Northwestern Okhotsk Plate: How is it happening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Fujita, K.; Mackey, K.

    2009-09-01

    The Eurasia (EU) - North America (NA) plate boundary zone across Northeast Asia still presents many open questions within the plate tectonic paradigm. Constraining the geometry and number of plates or microplates present in the plate boundary zone is especially difficult because of the location of the EU-NA euler pole close to or even upon the EU-NA boundary. One of the major challenges remains the geometry of the Okhotsk plate (OK). whose northwestern portion terminates on the EU-OK-NA triple junction and is thus caught and compressed between converging EU and NA. We suggest that this leads to a coherent and understandable large scale deformation pattern of mostly northwest-southeast trending strike-slip faults which split Northwest OK into several extruding slivers. When the fault geometry is analysed together with space geodetic and focal mechanism data it suggests a central block which is extruding faster bordered east and west by progressively slower extruding blocks until the OK plate boundary faults are encountered. Taking into account elastic loading from both the intra-OK faults and the OK-Pacific (PA) boundary reconciles geodetic motions with geologic slip rates on at least the OK-NA boundary which corresponds to the Ulakhan fault.

  3. Mechanical properties of F82H plates with different thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakasegawa, Hideo, E-mail: sakasegawa.hideo@jaea.go.jp; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Mass effect, homogeneity, and anisotropy in mechanical properties were studied. • Thickness dependence of tensile property was not observed. • Thickness dependence of Charpy impact property was observed. • Appropriate mechanical properties were obtained using an electric furnace. - Abstract: Fusion DEMO reactor requires over 11,000 tons of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel and it is indispensable to develop the manufacturing technology for producing large-scale components of DEMO blanket with appropriate mechanical properties. This is because mechanical properties are generally degraded with increasing production volume. In this work, we focused mechanical properties of F82H–BA12 heat which was melted in a 20 tons electric arc furnace. Plates with difference thicknesses from 18 to 100 mm{sup t} were made from its ingot through forging and hot-rolling followed by heat treatments. Tensile and Charpy impact tests were then performed on plates focusing on their homogeneity and anisotropy. From the result, their homogeneity and anisotropy were not significant. No obvious differences were observed in tensile properties between the plates with different thicknesses. However, Charpy impact property changed with increasing plate thickness, i.e. the ductile brittle transition temperature of a 100 mm{sup t} thick plate was higher than that of the other thinner plates.

  4. Simplified design of flexible expansion anchored plates for nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, N.K.; Hingorani, N.V.; Longlais, T.G.; Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL)

    1984-01-01

    In nuclear power plant construction, expansion anchored plates are used to support pipe, cable tray and HVAC duct hangers, and various structural elements. The expansion anchored plates provide flexibility in the installation of field-routed lines where cast-in-place embedments are not available. General design requirements for expansion anchored plate assemblies are given in ACI 349, Appendix B (1). The manufacturers recommend installation procedures for their products. Recent field testing in response to NRC Bulletin 79-02 (2) indicates that anchors, installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommended procedures, perform satisfactorily under static and dynamic loading conditions. Finite element analysis is a useful tool to correctly analyze the expansion anchored plates subject to axial tension and biaxial moments, but it becomes expensive and time-consuming to apply this tool for a large number of plates. It is, therefore, advantageous to use a simplified method, even though it may be more conservative as compared to the exact method of analysis. This paper presents a design method referred to as the modified rigid plate analysis approach to simplify both the initial design and the review of as-built conditions

  5. Plate with a hole obeys the averaged null energy condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Noah; Olum, Ken D.

    2005-01-01

    The negative energy density of Casimir systems appears to violate general relativity energy conditions. However, one cannot test the averaged null energy condition (ANEC) using standard calculations for perfectly reflecting plates, because the null geodesic would have to pass through the plates, where the calculation breaks down. To avoid this problem, we compute the contribution to ANEC for a geodesic that passes through a hole in a single plate. We consider both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in two and three space dimensions. We use a Babinet's principle argument to reduce the problem to a complementary finite disk correction to the perfect mirror result, which we then compute using scattering theory in elliptical and spheroidal coordinates. In the Dirichlet case, we find that the positive correction due to the hole overwhelms the negative contribution of the infinite plate. In the Neumann case, where the infinite plate gives a positive contribution, the hole contribution is smaller in magnitude, so again ANEC is obeyed. These results can be extended to the case of two plates in the limits of large and small hole radii. This system thus provides another example of a situation where ANEC turns out to be obeyed when one might expect it to be violated

  6. Dynamic temperature field in the ferromagnetic plate induced by moving high frequency inductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević-Mitić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the temperature distribution in the thin metallic ferromagnetic plate influenced by moving linear high frequency induction heater. As a result of high frequency electromagnetic field, conducting currents appear in the part of the plate. Distribution of the eddy-current power across the plate thickness is obtained by use of complex analysis. The influences of the heater frequency, magnetic field intensity and plate thickness on the heat power density were discussed. By treating this power as a moving heat source, differential equations governing distribution of the temperature field are formulated. Temperature across the plate thickness is assumed to be in linear form. Differential equations are analytically solved by using integral-transform technique, Fourier finite-sine and finite-cosine transform and Laplace transform. The influence of the heater velocity to the plate temperature is presented on numerical examples based on theoretically obtained results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 35040 i br. TR 35011

  7. Influence of the wavelet order on proper damage location in plate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Zdzisław; Knitter-Piątkowska, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The rectangular thin plates were analyzed in the paper. The static response in plate structure subjected to the uniform load was derived by applying the finite element method. In the dynamic, experimental tests the accelerations were obtained with the use of modal hammer and DEWEsoft® software. Next, the analysis of the signal was carried out with the use of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), provided that damage exists in the considered plate structure. It was assumed, that in the middle of the structure a certain area of the plate is thinner or there is a crack across the entire plate thickness. The aim of this work was to choose the appropriate wavelet order to reveal the localization of defect. The results of selected numerical example proved the efficiency of proposed approach.

  8. A License Plate Locating Method Based on Tophat-bothat Changing and Line Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, P G; Zhao, J; Liu, M

    2006-01-01

    The automatic license plate recognition is an important technique to obtain traffic information, it mixes computer vision, image processing techniques and pattern recognition techniques, it is an important technique in intelligent traffic system. In a vehicle license plate recognition system, plate region detection is the key step before the final recognition. This article introduces the whole process of plate region detection. Top - hat and bot - hat transformation are used for enhancing the image contrast in this paper, and wavelet threshold method is used as image filter, and a improved line scanning is used for plate region detection at last. This method has strong practicability. The experimental results demonstrate that the method introduced in this paper is effective

  9. The solution of certain loss of contact between a plate and unilateral supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompornjaroensuk Yos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the loss of contact between a square plate and the unilateral supports under uniformly distributed load. Since the plate is rested on the unilateral supports, it will have the regions of lost contact between a plate and the supports due to the absence of restraining corner force at the plate corners. This leads to the mixed boundary conditions and these conditions are then written in the form of dual-series equations which can further be reduced to a Fredholm integral equation by taking advantage of finite Hankel transform technique. Numerical results are given for the deflections of free edge and deflections along the middle line of the plate with deferent values of the Poisson’s ratio. In addition, the deflection surface is also presented. From the investigation, it can be indicated that the loss of contact is decreased upon the increasing Poisson’s ratio.

  10. Mechanics and Partitioning of Deformation of the Northwestern Okhostk Plate, Northeast Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Mackey, K.; Fujita, K.

    2007-12-01

    The tectonic evolution and present day deformation of northeastern Russia remains one of the major challenges in plate tectonics. Arguments over the existence of at least a separate Okhotsk plate between North America and Eurasia appear to be resolved on the basis of the latest GPS studies combined with elastic modeling. The question of the mechanical behaviour of the Okhotsk plate, caught between the slowly, obliquely converging North American and Eurasian plates now becomes important. We present an analysis of geological lineaments, micro-seismicity, total seismic moment release and seismic deformation rate and GPS campaign data and global plate tectonic model data (REVEL) to estimate the likelihood of future seismicity and the relative amount of elastic and viscous deformation of the lithosphere of the northwestern Okhotsk plate. We find that it is likely that the Okhotsk plate is cracked into slivers, but that rates of relative motion of these slivers are close to indistinguishable from the behaviour of a single, rigid plate. The analysis also suggests the upper bound for large earthquakes in the region to be Mw 7-7.5 which we expect to occur only on the plate boundary fault itself. This fits geological evidence for a long term offset rate 5-10 times higher on the major plate boundary fault than other lineaments cutting the Okhotsk plate itself.

  11. Some aspects of thick, soft nickel plating for end shields of atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, R.

    1987-01-01

    Thick (55 Thou) and soft (160 vickers) hardness number nickel plating over SS for RAPP end shields presented unusual problems as the thickness required was extremely large creating adhesion problems and the extremely stringent hardness conditions. A sulfamate bath with nickel anode was found suitable. The problems in thick, soft plating, the chemical and other procedures adopted to monitor the bath and the plated specimen and the other details are presented. (author). 11 refs

  12. Petrologic Aspects of Seamount and Guyot Volcanism on the Ancestral Mesozoic Pacific Plate: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natland, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    Hundreds of large seamounts and guyots are widely scattered almost in a "shotgun-blast" arrangement in an area about the size of the United States west of the Mississippi River on the Mesozoic Pacific plate between the Mariana Trench and the Gilbert Islands. Most of these formed between ~160-100 Ma while the Pacific plate was surrounded by spreading ridges and growing outward in all directions. There is little to no indication that the seamounts and guyots formed along linear seamount chains; existing radiometric-age data show no age progressions. The volcanoes appear to have formed in response to a uniform stress configuration across the plate, which was either not moving or moving very slowly at the time (1, 2), much like the modern Antarctic plate. When the growing plate started to encounter subduction systems in the western Pacific at ~90 Ma, consistent stress patterns began to develop, and the broad linear Gilbert and Line volcanic ridge systems began to form. Even then, however, considerable overlapping of volcanism occurred, and only the most general age progressions are evident in existing data. Petrologic data from samples obtained from dozens of volcanic summits by dredging and beneath several carbonate platforms by drilling reveal considerable diversity in development of differentiated alkalic magmatic lineages rooted in diverse parental basaltic rocks. These include transitional, alkalic and basanitic compositions, with differentiates of hawaiite, mugearite, trachyte and one phonolite. Many of the basaltic rocks are partly to significantly transformed by alteration under oxidative conditions (dredged rocks) and both oxidative and non-oxidative conditions (drilled rocks). This can make estimations of mantle geochemical provenance difficult. Nevertheless, the province has been linked by backtracking techniques to the modern SOPITA region of the South Pacific (3), and its rocks show enrichments in trace elements and isotopic characteristics similar to

  13. Source location in plates based on the multiple sensors array method and wavelet analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong Jun; Shin, Tae Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon

    2014-01-01

    A new method for impact source localization in a plate is proposed based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and wavelet analysis. For source localization, the direction of arrival of the wave caused by an impact on a plate and the distance between impact position and sensor should be estimated. The direction of arrival can be estimated accurately using MUSIC method. The distance can be obtained by using the time delay of arrival and the group velocity of the Lamb wave in a plate. Time delay is experimentally estimated using the continuous wavelet transform for the wave. The elasto dynamic theory is used for the group velocity estimation.

  14. Source location in plates based on the multiple sensors array method and wavelet analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hong Jun; Shin, Tae Jin; Lee, Sang Kwon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A new method for impact source localization in a plate is proposed based on the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and wavelet analysis. For source localization, the direction of arrival of the wave caused by an impact on a plate and the distance between impact position and sensor should be estimated. The direction of arrival can be estimated accurately using MUSIC method. The distance can be obtained by using the time delay of arrival and the group velocity of the Lamb wave in a plate. Time delay is experimentally estimated using the continuous wavelet transform for the wave. The elasto dynamic theory is used for the group velocity estimation.

  15. Study of flow past an exponentially accelerated isothermal vertical plate in the presence of chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical study of unsteady flow past an exponentially accelerated infinite isothermal vertical plate with variable mass diffusion has been presented in the presence of homogeneous chemical reaction of first order. The plate temperature is raised to Tw and species concentration level near the plate is made to rise linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using Laplace-transform technique. The velocity profiles are studied for different physical parameters like chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, a and time. It is observed that the velocity increases with increasing values of a or t. But the trend is just reversed with respect to K.

  16. Heat and mass transfer effects on moving vertical plate in the presence of thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal radiation effects on moving infinite vertical plate in the presence variable temperature and mass diffusion is considered. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate are raised linearly with time. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the Laplace-transform technique. The velocity and skin-friction are studied for different parameters like thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, time and radiation parameter. It is observed that the velocity slightly decreases with increasing value of the radiation parameter.

  17. Influence of rheology on realignment of mantle convective structure with plate motion after a plate reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hunen, J.; Zhong, S.

    2006-08-01

    Small-scale convection (SSC) rolls below the oceanic lithosphere have the tendency to align with the large-scale shearing direction and thus with the plate motion direction relative to the deep mantle. Understanding the timescales of and processes responsible for realignment would contribute significantly to our understanding of the unresolved phenomena in the Pacific such as gravity lineations, small-scale seismic velocity variations, and intraplate volcanism that cannot be explained by hot spots. In this study we examine the evolution of those convection rolls when this relative plate motion direction is suddenly changed, as suggested by the kink in the Hawaii-Emperor seamount chain. Using three-dimensional numerical flow models, we investigate the realignment of SSC rolls after a change in plate motion direction. From the nature of the SSC, it is expected that rheological parameters dominate the characteristics of this realignment. Our results show that this is indeed the case. We find that (1) using constraints from onset timing of SSC, realignment of rolls can occur as fast as within 20 Ma, but might also take much longer, dependent on the rheology; (2) the realignment period is strongly correlated to the sum of large-scale shear stress induced by plate motion and small-scale shear stress from the SSC itself; (3) in a mantle deforming by dislocation creep, realignment occurs faster than by diffusion creep, because dislocation creep SSC is more vigorous; and (4) activation energy has little influence on the realignment time. Possible evidence for the realignment period might come from precise age determination of intraplate volcanism or azimuthal seismic anisotropy.

  18. Mixed convection flow past a horizontal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed convection flow past a horizontal plate being aligned through a small angle of attack to a uniform free stream will be considered in the limit of large Reynolds number and small Richardson number. Even a small angle of inclination of the wake is sufficient for the buoyancy force to accelerate the flow in the wake which causes a velocity overshoot in the wake. Moreover a hydrostatic pressure difference across the wake induces a correction to the potential flow which influences the inclination of the wake. Thus the wake and the correction of the potential flow have to be determined simultaneously. However, it turns out that solutions exist only if the angle of attack is sufficiently large. Solutions are computed numerically and the influence of the buoyancy on the lift coefficient is determined.

  19. Dead sea transform fault system reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Garfunkel, Zvi; Kagan, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea transform is an active plate boundary connecting the Red Sea seafloor spreading system to the Arabian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Its geology and geophysics provide a natural laboratory for investigation of the surficial, crustal and mantle processes occurring along transtensional and transpressional transform fault domains on a lithospheric scale and related to continental breakup. There have been many detailed and disciplinary studies of the Dead Sea transform fault zone during the last?20 years and this book brings them together.This book is an updated comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, based on recent studies of the tectonics, structure, geophysics, volcanism, active tectonics, sedimentology and paleo and modern climate of the Dead Sea transform fault zone. It puts together all this new information and knowledge in a coherent fashion.

  20. Martensitic transformations in titanium nickelide subject to sock wave loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, V.I.; Shorokhov, E.V.; Gundyrev, V.M.; Khejfets, A.Eh.; Frolova, N.Yu.; Khomskaya, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    The plates of titanium nickelide (Ti-50.5 at. % Ni) rolled in an austenitic state and subjected to impact shock with pressure of 10 and 50 GPa are under study. Dilatometric and X-ray diffraction studied show that shock wave loading induces anisotropic martensitic transformations in the plates. The anisotropy of transformations is conditioned by directed motion of the substance of the plate in shock waves. Austenitic memory of specimens prior to loading is changed to martensitic one typical of deformation of martensite. Martensitic memory not preserve after the reserve martensitic transformation, the specimens recall the initial state with austenitic memory. The particles of Ti 3 N 4 precipitated phase and the dislocation structure formed in rolling are the carriers of memory [ru

  1. On the aeroacoustic properties of a beveled plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, W.C.P.; Van Zuijlen, A.H.; De Jong, A.T.; Bijl, H.

    2015-01-01

    The flow around a beveled flat plate model with an asymmetric 25 degrees trailing edge with three rounding radii is analyzed using a Navier-Stokes based open source software package OpenFOAM in order to predict the aeroacoustic properties of the models. A Large Eddy Simulation with a dynamic

  2. The tectonic plates are moving!

    CERN Document Server

    Livermore, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Written in a witty and informal style, this book explains modern plate tectonics in a non-technical manner, showing not only how it accounts for phenomena such as great earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, but also how it controls conditions at the Earth’s surface, including global geography and climate, making it suitable for life. The book presents the advances that have been made since the establishment of plate tectonics in the 1960s, highlighting, on the fiftieth anniversary of the theory, the contributions of a small number of scientists who have never been widely recognized for their discoveries. Beginning with the publication of a short article in Nature by Vine and Matthews, the book traces the development of plate tectonics through two generations of the theory. First-generation plate tectonics covers the exciting scientific revolution of the 1960s, its heroes, and its villains. The second generation includes the rapid expansions in sonar, satellite, and seismic technologies during the 1...

  3. License plate recognition using DTCNNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brugge, M.H; Stevens, J.H; Nijhuis, J.A G; Spaanenburg, L; Tavsanonoglu, V

    1998-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition requires a series of complex image processing steps. For practical use, the amount of data to he processed must be minimized early on. This paper shows that the computationally most intensive steps can be realized by DTCNNs. Moreover; high-level operations like

  4. Stress state in perforated plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visner, J.

    1977-01-01

    The method is described of photoelastic measurement of stress concentration factors (s.c.f) in plates perforated by a square, triangular and diagonal grid of circular holes and loaded by uniaxial or biaxial tensile stress. A loading equipment which was developed and its modifications are described. Stress concentration factors found are compared with theoretical and experimental results given in references. (author)

  5. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  6. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  7. On an integral transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Naylor

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A formula of inversion is established for an integral transform whose kernel is the Bessel function Ju(kr where r varies over the finite interval (0,a and the order u is taken to be the eigenvalue parameter. When this parameter is large the Bessel function behaves for varying r like the power function ru and by relating the Bessel functions to their corresponding power functions the proof of the inversion formula can be reduced to one depending on the Mellin inversion theorem.

  8. Metasurface transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mencagli, M jr; Martini, E; González-Ovejero, D; Maci, S

    2014-01-01

    Transformation optics has been recently proposed as a powerful method to manipulate electromagnetic fields by using anisotropic inhomogeneous volumetric media. This method can be extended to design anisotropic modulated metasurfaces (MTSs) able to control the propagation path of surface waves. In this paper, this extension is formalized by defining a systematic procedure that can be applied to design a large number of planar devices, with a significant technological simplification with respect to the realization based on volumetric media. Practical MTS designs are also presented. (paper)

  9. Global plate boundary evolution and kinematics since the late Paleozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kara J.; Maloney, Kayla T.; Zahirovic, Sabin; Williams, Simon E.; Seton, Maria; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2016-11-01

    Many aspects of deep-time Earth System models, including mantle convection, paleoclimatology, paleobiogeography and the deep Earth carbon cycle, require high-resolution plate motion models that include the evolution of the mosaic of plate boundaries through time. We present the first continuous late Paleozoic to present-day global plate model with evolving plate boundaries, building on and extending two previously published models for the late Paleozoic (410-250 Ma) and Mesozoic-Cenozoic (230-0 Ma). We ensure continuity during the 250-230 Ma transition period between the two models, update the absolute reference frame of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic model and add a new Paleozoic reconstruction for the Baltica-derived Alexander Terrane, now accreted to western North America. This 410-0 Ma open access model provides a framework for deep-time whole Earth modelling and acts as a base for future extensions and refinement. We analyse the model in terms of the number of plates, predicted plate size distribution, plate and continental root mean square (RMS) speeds, plate velocities and trench migration through time. Overall model trends share many similarities to those for recent times, which we use as a first order benchmark against which to compare the model and identify targets for future model refinement. Except for during the period 260-160 Ma, the number of plates (16-46) and ratio of "large" plates (≥ 107.5 km2) to smaller plates ( 2.7-6.6) are fairly similar to present-day values (46 and 6.6, respectively), with lower values occurring during late Paleozoic assembly and growth of Pangea. This temporal pattern may also reflect difficulties in reconstructing small, now subducted oceanic plates further back in time, as well as whether a supercontinent is assembling or breaking up. During the 260-160 Ma timeframe the model reaches a minima in the number of plates, in contrast to what we would expect during initial Pangea breakup and thus highlighting the need for refinement

  10. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosz-Wilkołazka Anna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25. Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other

  11. Seafloor spreading on the Southeast Indian Ridge over the last one million years: a test of the Capricorn plate hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, James A.; Forsyth, Donald W.

    2001-05-01

    Plate motions in the Indian Ocean are inconsistent with a rigid Indo-Australian plate. An equatorial, diffuse boundary dividing the plate into separate Indian and Australian plates significantly improves the fit of kinematic plate models to the spreading rates, transform azimuths, and earthquake slip vectors on the spreading center boundaries. An additional boundary, further dividing the Australian plate into Australian and Capricorn plates has been proposed to account for much of the remaining inconsistency and the pattern of intraplate earthquakes [J.-Y. Royer, R.G. Gordon, Science 277 (1997) 1268-1274]. The proposed boundary is ˜2000 km wide where it intersects the Southeast Indian Ridge. Several recent geophysical cruises to the Southeast Indian Ridge, including a cruise within the proposed boundary, provide many new data for investigating the validity of the Capricorn plate model. These new observations strongly support the hypothesis that the Capricorn plate exists. Statistical tests of the data from the Southeast Indian Ridge alone are not sufficient to confirm it, but motion about the Rodriguez Triple Junction (RTJ) suggests some non-rigidity in the Antarctica-Australia-Somalia circuit. Inferred deformation with enforced closure about the RTJ leads to an estimate of plate motion consistent with the Capricorn plate model. However, the diffuse Capricorn-Australia boundary does not extend south of the St. Paul Fracture Zone, 800 km narrower than the previously proposed boundary.

  12. New terrestrial heat flow measurements on the Nazca Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R N [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY; Langseth, M G; Vacquier, V; Francheteau, J

    1976-03-01

    Sixty-seven new heat flow measurements on the Nazca Plate are reported, and the thermal regimes of three specific areas on the plate are examined. The Nazca Ridge is an aseismic ridge which may have been generated as an ''island trail'' from the Easter Island ''hot spot'' and/or may be a fossil transform fault. The Nazca Ridge has lower heat flow than the surrounding sea floor implying that the ridge might have low ''effective'' thermal conductivity causing heat to preferentially flow or refract to surrounding ocean crust which has higher conductivity, or, the low heat flow values may be caused by hydrothermal circulation on the ridge. The Carnegie Plateau is an elevated region south of the Carnegie Ridge on the northeastern Nazca Plate with high heat flow and shallow topography consistent with an age of less than 20 m.y. B.P. The central Nazca Plate is an area of highly variable heat flow which is possibly related to thin sediment and to rough regional topography.

  13. Progress in thermomechanical control of steel plates and their commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Kiyoshi; Ichikawa, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    The water-cooled thermomechanical control process (TMCP) is a technology for improving the strength and toughness of water-cooled steel plates, while allowing control of the microstructure, phase transformation and rolling. This review describes metallurgical aspects of the microalloying of steel, such as niobium addition, and discusses advantages of TMCP, for example, in terms of weldability, which is reduced upon alloying. Other covered topics include the development of equipment, distortions in steel plates, peripheral technologies such as steel making and casting, and theoretical modeling, as well as the history of property control in steel plate production and some early TMCP technologies. We provide some of the latest examples of applications of TMCP steel in various industries such as shipbuilding, offshore structures, building construction, bridges, pipelines, penstocks and cryogenic tanks. This review also introduces high heat-affected-zone toughness technologies, wherein the microstructure of steel is improved by the addition of fine particles of magnesium-containing sulfides and magnesium- or calcium-containing oxides. We demonstrate that thanks to ongoing developments TMCP has the potential to meet the ever-increasing demands of steel plates. PMID:27877477

  14. Progress in thermomechanical control of steel plates and their commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Nishioka and Kazutoshi Ichikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-cooled thermomechanical control process (TMCP is a technology for improving the strength and toughness of water-cooled steel plates, while allowing control of the microstructure, phase transformation and rolling. This review describes metallurgical aspects of the microalloying of steel, such as niobium addition, and discusses advantages of TMCP, for example, in terms of weldability, which is reduced upon alloying. Other covered topics include the development of equipment, distortions in steel plates, peripheral technologies such as steel making and casting, and theoretical modeling, as well as the history of property control in steel plate production and some early TMCP technologies. We provide some of the latest examples of applications of TMCP steel in various industries such as shipbuilding, offshore structures, building construction, bridges, pipelines, penstocks and cryogenic tanks. This review also introduces high heat-affected-zone toughness technologies, wherein the microstructure of steel is improved by the addition of fine particles of magnesium-containing sulfides and magnesium- or calcium-containing oxides. We demonstrate that thanks to ongoing developments TMCP has the potential to meet the ever-increasing demands of steel plates.

  15. Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.

  16. Tables extracted from Messel and Crawford for electrons incident on 1 radiation length Pb plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, J.

    1977-01-01

    Tables were extracted from the extensive tables of Messel and Crawford. The numbers given should be good for 1 r.1. Ta plates and may be helpful when looking at showers in these plates. The tables should be largely self-explanatory. An example is given of how to use these tables given a 1000-MeV incident electron

  17. A power transformer as a source of noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawieska, Wiktor Marek

    2007-01-01

    This article presents selected results of analyses and simulations carried out as part of research performed at the Central Institute of Labor Protection - the National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB) in connection with the development of a system for active reduction of noise emitted by high power electricity transformers. This analysis covers the transformer as a source of noise as well as a mathematical description of the phenomenon of radiation of vibroacoustic energy through a transformer enclosure modeled as a vibrating rectangular plate. Also described is an acoustic model of the transformer in the form of an array of loudspeakers.

  18. Experimental and numerical study of the wave run-up along a vertical plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Bernard; Kimmoun, O.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Results from experiments on wave interaction with a rigid vertical plate are reported. The 5m long plate is set against the wall of a 30m wide basin, at 100m from the wavemaker. This set-up is equivalent to a 10m plate in the middle of a 60m wide basin. Regular waves are produced, with wavelength...... on extended Boussinesq equations. In most of the experimental tests, despite the large distance from the wavemaker to the plate and the small amplitude of the incident wave, no steady state is attained by the end of the exploitable part of the records....

  19. A model of breakdown in parallel-plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte, P.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC's) have many desirable properties, such as a fast, large area particle detector. However, the maximum gain is limited by a form of violent breakdown that limits the usefulness of this detector, despite its other evident qualities. The exact nature of this phenomenon is not yet sufficiently clear to sustain possible improvements. A previous experimental study is complemented in the present work by a quantitative model of the breakdown phenomenon in PPAC's, based on the streamer theory. The model reproduces well the peculiar behavior of the external current observed in PPAC's and resistive-plate chambers. Other breakdown properties measured in PPAC's are also well reproduced

  20. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNBİLGİN, Güven; KOCAMAN, Çağrı

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

  1. Modeling and simulation of thermally actuated bilayer plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Sören; Bonito, Andrea; Muliana, Anastasia H.; Nochetto, Ricardo H.

    2018-02-01

    We present a mathematical model of polymer bilayers that undergo large bending deformations when actuated by non-mechanical stimuli such as thermal effects. The simple model captures a large class of nonlinear bending effects and can be discretized with standard plate elements. We devise a fully practical iterative scheme and apply it to the simulation of folding of several practically useful compliant structures comprising of thin elastic layers.

  2. EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CAR LICENSE PLATES RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasa Zata Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has increased drastically in recent years. The license plate is an identity card for a vehicle. It can map to the owner and further information about vehicle. License plate information is useful to help traffic management systems. For example, traffic management systems can check for vehicles moving at speeds not permitted by law and can also be installed in parking areas to se-cure the entrance or exit way for vehicles. License plate recognition algorithms have been proposed by many researchers. License plate recognition requires license plate detection, segmentation, and charac-ters recognition. The algorithm detects the position of a license plate and extracts the characters. Various license plate recognition algorithms have been implemented, and each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. In this research, I implement three algorithms for detecting license plates, three algorithms for segmenting license plates, and two algorithms for recognizing license plate characters. I evaluate each of these algorithms on the same two datasets, one from Greece and one from Thailand. For detecting li-cense plates, the best result is obtained by a Haar cascade algorithm. After the best result of license plate detection is obtained, for the segmentation part a Laplacian based method has the highest accuracy. Last, the license plate recognition experiment shows that a neural network has better accuracy than other algo-rithm. I summarize and analyze the overall performance of each method for comparison.

  3. Exponential x-ray transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazou, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    In emission computed tomography one wants to determine the location and intensity of radiation emitted by sources in the presence of an attenuating medium. If the attenuation is known everywhere and equals a constant α in a convex neighborhood of the support of f, then the problem reduces to that of inverting the exponential x-ray transform P/sub α/. The exponential x-ray transform P/sub μ/ with the attenuation μ variable, is of interest mathematically. For the exponential x-ray transform in two dimensions, it is shown that for a large class of approximate δ functions E, convolution kernels K exist for use in the convolution backprojection algorithm. For the case where the attenuation is constant, exact formulas are derived for calculating the convolution kernels from radial point spread functions. From these an exact inversion formula for the constantly attenuated transform is obtained

  4. Buckling and postbuckling behavior of square compression-loaded graphite-epoxy plates with circular cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented for unidirectional (0, 10)(sub s) and (90,10)(sub s) plates, ((0/90)(sub 5)(sub s)) plates, and for aluminum plates. Results are also presented for ((+/- theta)(sub 6)(sub s)) angle-ply plates for values of theta = 30, 45, and 60 degrees. The results indicate that the change in axial stiffness of a plate at buckling is strongly dependent upon cutout size and plate orthotropy. The presence of a cutout gives rise to an internal load distribution that changes, sometimes dramatically, as a function of cutout size coupled with the plate orthotropy. In the buckled state, the role of orthotropy becomes more significant since bending in addition to membrane orthotropy is present. Most of the plates with cutouts exhibited less postbuckling stiffness than the corresponding plate without a cutout, and the postbuckling stiffness decreased with increasing cutout size. However, some of the highly orthotropic plates with cutouts exhibited more postbuckling stiffness than the corresponding plate without a cutout. These results suggest the possibility of tailoring the cutout size and the stacking sequence of a composite plate to optimize postbuckling stiffness. It was found that plates with large radius cutouts do exhibit some postbuckling strength. The results also indicate that a cutout can influence modal interaction in a plate. Specifically, results are presented that show a plate with a relatively small cutout buckling at a higher load than the corresponding plate without a cutout, due to modal interaction. Other results are presented that indicate the presence of nonlinear prebuckling deformations, due to material nonlinearity, in the angle-ply plates with theta = 45 and 60 degrees. The nonlinear prebuckling deformations are more pronounced in the plates with theta = 45 degrees and become even more pronounced as the cutout size increases. Results are also presented that show how load-path eccentricity due to improper machining of the test specimens

  5. A Real-time License Plate Detection System for Parking Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roenadi Koesdijarto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The automatic and real-time license plate detection system can be used as an access control entry of vehicles into the parking area. The problem is how to recognize the vehicles that will go into the parking lot and how to recognize various types of license plates in various light conditions quickly and accurately. In this research, the prototype was developed with a detection system to recognize the vehicles that will enter the parking area, and a license plate recognition system. In the license plate recognition system, the Fourier transform and Hidden Markov model method have proposed to detect location of license plate and as characters segmentation to recognize Indonesia license plates. The research results have shown that the developed prototype system has successfully recognized all Indonesia license plates in several of light condition and camera position. The percentage of plate recognition in the real-time experiment is 84.38%, and the average execution time for all recognition process is 5.834 second.

  6. Characterization of dermal plates from armored catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis reveals sandwich-like nanocomposite structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Donna; Calderon, Carlos; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2015-05-01

    Dermal plates from armored catfish are bony structures that cover their body. In this paper we characterized structural, chemical, and nanomechanical properties of the dermal plates from the Amazonian fish Pterygoplichthys pardalis. Analysis of the morphology of the plates using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the dermal plates have a sandwich-like structure composed of an inner porous matrix surrounded by two external dense layers. This is different from the plywood-like laminated structure of elasmoid fish scales but similar to the structure of osteoderms found in the dermal armour of some reptiles and mammals. Chemical analysis performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed similarities between the composition of P. pardalis plates and the elasmoid fish scales of Arapaima gigas. Reduced moduli of P. pardalis plates measured using nanoindentation were also consistent with reported values for A. gigas scales, but further revealed that the dermal plate is an anisotropic and heterogeneous material, similar to many other fish scales and osteoderms. It is postulated that the sandwich-like structure of the dermal plates provides a lightweight and tough protective layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms

  8. DAFS measurements using the image-plate Weissenberg method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugioka, N.; Matsumoto, K.; Sasaki, S.; Tanaka, M.; Mori, T.

    1998-01-01

    An instrumental technique for DAFS measurements which can provide site-specific information is proposed. The approach uses (i) focusing optics with parabolic mirrors and a double-crystal monochromator, (ii) the Laue and Bragg settings and (iii) data collection by the image-plate Weissenberg method. Six image exposures are recorded per plate at five intrinsic energies and one reference energy. The single-crystal measurements were performed at the Co K-absorption edge, and the 200, 220 and 311 reflections of CoO and 511 and 911 reflections of Co 3 O 4 were used for analysis. The regression analysis of χ(k), Fourier transforms of k 3 χ(k) and back-Fourier filtering have been performed

  9. Detector Physics of Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Lippmann, Christian; Riegler, W

    2003-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are gaseous parallel plate avalanche detectors that implement electrodes made from a material with a high volume resistivity between 10^7 and 10^12 Ohm cm. Large area RPCs with 2mm single gaps operated in avalanche mode provide above 98% efficiency and a time resolution of around 1ns up to a flux of several kHz/cm2. These Trigger RPCs will, as an example, equip the muon detector system of the ATLAS experiment at CERN on an area of 3650m2 and with 355.000 independent read out channels. Timing RPCs with a gas gap of 0.2 to 0.3mm are widely used in multi gap configurations and provide 99% efficiency and time resolution down to 50ps. While their performance is comparable to existing scintillator-based Time-Of-Flight (TOF) technology, Timing RPCs feature a significantly, up to an order of magnitude, lower price per channel. They will for example equip the 176m2 TOF barrel of the ALICE experiment at CERN with 160.000 independent read out cells. RPCs were originally operated in stream...

  10. Femoral fracture repair using a locking plate technique in an adult captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Dawn M; Dew, Terry; Douglass, Michael; Perez, Edward

    2010-02-01

    To report successful femoral fracture repair in a polar bear. Case report. Female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) 5 years and approximately 250 kg. A closed, complete, comminuted fracture of the distal midshaft femur was successfully reduced and stabilized using a compression plating technique with 2 specialized human femur plates offering axial, rotational, and bending support, and allowing the bone to share loads with the implant. Postoperative radiographs were obtained at 11.5 weeks, 11 months, and 24 months. Bone healing characterized by marked periosteal reaction was evident at 11 months with extensive remodeling evident at 24 months. No complications were noted. Distal mid shaft femoral fracture was reduced, stabilized, and healed in an adult polar bear with a locking plate technique using 2 plates. Previously, femoral fractures in polar bears were considered irreparable. Use of 2 plates applied with a locking plate technique can result in successful fracture repair despite large body weight and inability to restrict postoperative activity.

  11. The effect on the multipolar electromagnet for the levitation of thin iron plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osabe, H [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Watada, M [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Torii, S [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Ebihara, D [Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Musashi Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The thin iron plate is needed to be transported without the degradation of the quality of surface, and magnetic levitation technology is one of the solutions to satisfy these requirements. Magnetic saturation in the objective, however, is a severe problem for the levitation of the thin iron plate. Design and evaluation method of the electromagnet is studied to avoid the saturation. In this paper, the shape of the electromagnet is studied to obtain the maximum attractive force without the saturation in the thin iron plate. The magnetic saturation position is investigated first, and it is proved that the saturation occurs in the iron plate especially when it is very thin. Therefore, the preferable shape of electromagnet should be investigated to secure the large cross sectional area of flux path in the plate. The authors propose the Multipolar electromagnet to solve this problem. The relationship between the electromagnet shape and the cross sectional area of flux path in the plate is studied. (orig.)

  12. On the relative significance of lithospheric weakening mechanisms for sustained plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araceli Sanchez-Maes, Sophia

    2018-01-01

    Plate tectonics requires the bending of strong plates at subduction zones, which is difficult to achieve without a secondary weakening mechanism. Two classes of weakening mechanisms have been proposed for the generation of ongoing plate tectonics, distinguished by whether or not they require water. Here we show that the energy budget of global subduction zones offers a simple yet decisive test on their relative significance. Theoretical studies of mantle convection suggest bending dissipation to occupy only 10-20 % of total dissipation in the mantle, and our results indicate that the hydrous mechanism in the shallow part of plates is essential to satisfy the requirement. Thus, surface oceans are required for the long-term operation of plate tectonics on terrestrial worlds. Establishing this necessary and observable condition for sustained plate tectonics carries important implications for planetary habitability at large.

  13. Plane wave diffraction by a finite plate with impedance boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Rab; Ayub, Muhammad; Javaid, Akmal

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have examined a plane wave diffraction problem by a finite plate having different impedance boundaries. The Fourier transforms were used to reduce the governing problem into simultaneous Wiener-Hopf equations which are then solved using the standard Wiener-Hopf procedure. Afterwards the separated and interacted fields were developed asymptotically by using inverse Fourier transform and the modified stationary phase method. Detailed graphical analysis was also made for various physical parameters we were interested in.

  14. Plane wave diffraction by a finite plate with impedance boundary conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rab Nawaz

    Full Text Available In this study we have examined a plane wave diffraction problem by a finite plate having different impedance boundaries. The Fourier transforms were used to reduce the governing problem into simultaneous Wiener-Hopf equations which are then solved using the standard Wiener-Hopf procedure. Afterwards the separated and interacted fields were developed asymptotically by using inverse Fourier transform and the modified stationary phase method. Detailed graphical analysis was also made for various physical parameters we were interested in.

  15. Thin-plate spline (TPS) graphical analysis of the mandible on cephalometric radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H P; Liu, P H; Chang, H F; Chang, C H

    2002-03-01

    We describe two cases of Class III malocclusion with and without orthodontic treatment. A thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs was used to visualize transformations of the mandible. The actual sites of mandibular skeletal change are not detectable with conventional cephalometric analysis. These case analyses indicate that specific patterns of mandibular transformation are associated with Class III malocclusion with or without orthopaedic therapy, and visualization of these deformations is feasible using TPS graphical analysis.

  16. Global Dynamic Numerical Simulations of Plate Tectonic Reorganizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, G.; Quevedo, L.; Butterworth, N.; Matthews, K. J.; Müller, D.

    2010-12-01

    We use a new numerical approach for global geodynamics to investigate the origin of present global plate motion and to identify the causes of the last two global tectonic reorganizations occurred about 50 and 100 million years ago (Ma) [1]. While the 50 Ma event is the most well-known global plate-mantle event, expressed by the bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain, a prominent plate reorganization at about 100 Ma, although presently little studied, is clearly indicated by a major bend in the fracture zones in the Indian Ocean and by a change in Pacific plate motion [2]. Our workflow involves turning plate reconstructions into surface meshes that are subsequently employed as initial conditions for global Boundary Element numerical models. The tectonic setting that anticipates the reorganizations is processed with the software GPlates, combining the 3D mesh of the paleo-plate morphology and the reconstruction of paleo-subducted slabs, elaborated from tectonic history [3]. All our models involve the entire planetary system, are fully dynamic, have free surface, are characterized by a spectacular computational speed due to the simultaneous use of the multi-pole algorithm and the Boundary Element formulation and are limited only by the use of sharp material property variations [4]. We employ this new tool to unravel the causes of plate tectonic reorganizations, producing and comparing global plate motion with the reconstructed ones. References: [1] Torsvik, T., Müller, R.D., Van der Voo, R., Steinberger, B., and Gaina, C., 2008, Global Plate Motion Frames: Toward a unified model: Reviews in Geophysics, VOL. 46, RG3004, 44 PP., 2008 [2] Wessel, P. and Kroenke, L.W. Pacific absolute plate motion since 145 Ma: An assessment of the fixed hot spot hypothesis. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol 113, B06101, 2008 [3] L. Quevedo, G. Morra, R. D. Mueller. Parallel Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method for Crustal Dynamics, Proceeding 9th World Congress and 4th Asian

  17. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  18. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-01-01

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog 2 N rather than N 2 ) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  19. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  20. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  1. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  2. Finite element simulation of piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, T; Kagawa, Y; Wakatsuki, N; Okamura, H

    2001-07-01

    Piezoelectric transformers are nothing but ultrasonic resonators with two pairs of electrodes provided on the surface of a piezoelectric substrate in which electrical energy is carried in the mechanical form. The input and output electrodes are arranged to provide the impedance transformation, which results in the voltage transformation. As they are operated at a resonance, the electrical equivalent circuit approach has traditionally been developed in a rather empirical way and has been used for analysis and design. The present paper deals with the analysis of the piezoelectric transformers based on the three-dimensional finite element modelling. The PIEZO3D code that we have developed is modified to include the external loading conditions. The finite element approach is now available for a wide variety of the electrical boundary conditions. The equivalent circuit of lumped parameters can also be derived from the finite element method (FEM) solution if required. The simulation of the present transformers is made for the low intensity operation and compared with the experimental results. Demonstration is made for basic Rosen-type transformers in which the longitudinal mode of a plate plays an important role; in which the equivalent circuit of lumped constants has been used. However, there are many modes of vibration associated with the plate, the effect of which cannot always be ignored. In the experiment, the double resonances are sometimes observed in the vicinity of the operating frequency. The simulation demonstrates that this is due to the coupling of the longitudinal mode with the flexural mode. Thus, the simulation provides an invaluable guideline to the transformer design.

  3. PLATE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Joyce; Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    Copenhagen Business School (CBS) finds itself needing to address the issue of English-medium instruction for its increasing number of foreign exchange and full degree students. With internationalisation as a main pillar of the institution’s agenda, there are concerns whether the teaching faculty...... of academic teaching and lecturing into account....

  4. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  5. A tandem parallel plate analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.

    1996-11-01

    By a new modification of a parallel plate analyzer the second-order focus is obtained in an arbitrary injection angle. This kind of an analyzer with a small injection angle will have an advantage of small operational voltage, compared to the Proca and Green analyzer where the injection angle is 30 degrees. Thus, the newly proposed analyzer will be very useful for the precise energy measurement of high energy particles in MeV range. (author)

  6. PRETREATING URANIUM FOR METAL PLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmann, R.F.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for anodically treating the surface of uranium articles, prior to metal plating. The metal is electrolyzed in an aqueous solution of about 10% polycarboxylic acid, preferably oxalic acid, from 1 to 5% by weight of glycerine and from 1 to 5% by weight of hydrochloric acid at from 20 to 75 deg C for from 30 seconds to 15 minutes. A current density of from 60 to 100 amperes per square foot is used.

  7. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  8. Army Maintenance System Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbertson, Frank V

    2006-01-01

    .... Used in conjunction with pertinent historical data and developed with Army transformation goals in mind, General Systems thinking can provide the framework for guiding maintenance transformation...

  9. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  10. Posterior coronal plating for tibial fractures: technique and advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montu Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Tibial shaft fractures are straightforward to treat but when associated with soft tissue injury particularly at the nail entry/plate insertion site or there is significant comminution proximally or a large butterfly fragment/a second split component in the posterior coronal plane, it is a challenge to the treating surgeon. The aim of the present report is to describe the technique of posterior coronal plating in such a scenario and its advantages. Methods:Between July 2008 and June 2011, 12 patients were pro spectively treated by this approach using 4.5 mm broad dynamic compression plates. Results:The time of bony consolidation and full weight bearing averaged 21.7 weeks (range, 16-26 weeks. Patients were followed up for at least 24 months (range, 24-48 months. At 1 year postoper atively, no loss in reduction or alignment was observed. Mean Hospital for Lower Extremity Measurement Functional Score was 72.8 (range, 64-78. All patients were satisfied with their treatment outcomes. Conclusion:Direct posterior approach and fixation using prone position helps to visualise the fracture fragments and provide rigid fixation. The approach is simple and extensile easily, apart from advantages of less soft tissue and hardware problems compared to standard medial or lateral plating. Key words: Tibial fractures; Bone plates; Orthopedic procedures

  11. Low velocity impact of 6082-T6 aluminum plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocian, Oana Alexandra; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai; Sandu, Marin; Sorohan, Ştefan

    2018-02-01

    The low velocity domain covers vehicle impacts, ship collisions and even accidentally tool drops. Even though more and more research is needed into these fields, most of the papers concerning impact problems focus on impact at medium and high velocities. Understanding the behavior of structures subjected to low velocity impact is of major importance when referring to impact resistance and damage tolerance. The paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation on the low velocity behavior of 6082-T6 aluminum plates. Impact tests were performed using an Instron Ceast 9340 drop-weight testing machine. In the experimental procedure, square plates were mounted on a circular support, fixed with a pneumatic clamping system and impacted with a hemispherical steel projectile. Specimens were impacted at constant weight and different impact velocities. The effect of different impact energies was investigated. The impact event was then simulated using the nonlinear finite element code LS_DYNA in order to determine the effect of strain rate upon the mechanical behavior of the aluminum plates. Moreover, in order to capture the exact behavior of the material, a special attention has been given to the selection of the correct material model and its parameters, which, in large extent, depend on the observed behavior of the aluminum plate during the test and the actual response of the plate under simulation. The numerical predictions are compared with the experimental observations and the applicability of the numerical model for further researches is analyzed.

  12. Secure matching of Dutch car license plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunil, A.B.; Erkiny, Z.; Veugenyz, T.

    2016-01-01

    License plate matching plays an important role in applications like law enforcement, traffic management and road pricing, where the plate is first recognized and then compared to a database of authorized vehicle registration plates. Unfortunately, there are several privacy related issues that should

  13. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions

  14. Designing a licence plate for memorability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Dongen, C.J.G. van

    2005-01-01

    Good memorability of licence plates is important in those cases where licence plates are viewed for a brief period of time and the information is essential for police investigations. The purpose of the current study was to design a new Dutch licence plate that could be remembered well. A memory

  15. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  16. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  17. Operational test of bonded magnetocaloric plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian; Navickaité, Kristina; Neves Bez, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Bonded plates made by hot pressing La0.85Ce0.15Fe11.25Mn0.25Si1.5Hy particles and resin have been tested as active magnetic regenerators in a small scale magnetocaloric device. Firstly the plates were carefully characterised magnetically and thermally. The plates were prepared with 5 wt% resin...

  18. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  19. Edge effects in four-point direct current potential drop measurements on metal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y; Bowler, N; Bowler, J R; Huang, Y

    2009-01-01

    Four-point direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurements are commonly used to measure the conductivity (or resistivity) of semiconductors and ferrous or non-ferrous metals. The measured electrical potential difference is often interpreted in terms of analytic expressions developed for large plates that are either 'thin' or 'thick' relative to the probe length. It is well known that the presence of the back surface of a plate leads to a solution expressed in terms of an infinite series representing the current source and its images. This approach can be generalized to account for multiple surfaces in order to obtain a solution for a finite plate, but convergence of the series is poor when the plate dimensions are similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Here, Fourier series representations of the infinite sums are obtained. It is shown that the Fourier series converge with many fewer terms than the series obtained from image theory, for plates with dimensions similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Comparing calculated results for the potential drop obtained by a four-point probe centred on finite plates of varying dimension, with those for a probe in contact with a large (laterally infinite) plate, estimates are given of the uncertainty due to edge effects in measurements on small plates interpreted using analytic formulae developed for large plates. It is also shown that these uncertainties due to edge effects are reduced, for a given plate size, if the probe pick-up points are moved closer to the current injection points, rather than adopting the common arrangement in which the four probe points are equally spaced. Calculated values of DCPD are compared with experimental data taken on aluminium and spring-steel plates of various sizes and excellent agreement is obtained.

  20. Edge effects in four-point direct current potential drop measurements on metal plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Bowler, N.; Bowler, J. R.; Huang, Y.

    2009-07-01

    Four-point direct current potential drop (DCPD) measurements are commonly used to measure the conductivity (or resistivity) of semiconductors and ferrous or non-ferrous metals. The measured electrical potential difference is often interpreted in terms of analytic expressions developed for large plates that are either 'thin' or 'thick' relative to the probe length. It is well known that the presence of the back surface of a plate leads to a solution expressed in terms of an infinite series representing the current source and its images. This approach can be generalized to account for multiple surfaces in order to obtain a solution for a finite plate, but convergence of the series is poor when the plate dimensions are similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Here, Fourier series representations of the infinite sums are obtained. It is shown that the Fourier series converge with many fewer terms than the series obtained from image theory, for plates with dimensions similar to or smaller than the separation of the current injection and extraction points. Comparing calculated results for the potential drop obtained by a four-point probe centred on finite plates of varying dimension, with those for a probe in contact with a large (laterally infinite) plate, estimates are given of the uncertainty due to edge effects in measurements on small plates interpreted using analytic formulae developed for large plates. It is also shown that these uncertainties due to edge effects are reduced, for a given plate size, if the probe pick-up points are moved closer to the current injection points, rather than adopting the common arrangement in which the four probe points are equally spaced. Calculated values of DCPD are compared with experimental data taken on aluminium and spring-steel plates of various sizes and excellent agreement is obtained.

  1. An analytical study of the free and forced vibration response of a ribbed plate with free boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tian Ran; Zhang, Kai

    2018-05-01

    An analytical study to predict the vibration response of a ribbed plate with free boundary conditions is presented. The analytical solution was derived using a double cosine integral transform technique and then utilized to study the free and forced vibration of the ribbed plate, as well as the effect of the rib on the modal response of the uniform plate. It is shown that in addition to the three zero-frequency rigid body modes of the plate, the vibration modes of the uniform plate can be classified into four mode groups according to the symmetric properties of the plate with respect to the two orthogonal middle lines parallel to the plate edges. The four mode groups correspond to a double symmetric group, a double anti-symmetric group and two symmetric/anti-symmetric groups. Whilst the inclusion of the rib to the plate is shown to cause distortion to the distribution of vibration modes, most modes can still be traced back to the original modes of the uniform plate. Both the mass and stiffness of the rib are shown to affect the modal vibration of the uniform plate, whereby a dominant effect from the rib mass leads to a decrease in the modal frequency of the plate, whereas a dominant effect from the rib stiffness leads to an increase in plate modal frequency. When the stiffened rib behaves as an effective boundary to the plate vibration, an original plate mode becomes a pair of degenerate modes, whereby one mode has a higher frequency and the other mode has a lower frequency than that of the original mode.

  2. High-throughput screening of cellulase F mutants from multiplexed plasmid sets using an automated plate assay on a functional proteomic robotic workcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Nasib

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The field of plasmid-based functional proteomics requires the rapid assay of proteins expressed from plasmid libraries. Automation is essential since large sets of mutant open reading frames are being cloned for evaluation. To date no integrated automated platform is available to carry out the entire process including production of plasmid libraries, expression of cloned genes, and functional testing of expressed proteins. Results We used a functional proteomic assay in a multiplexed setting on an integrated plasmid-based robotic workcell for high-throughput screening of mutants of cellulase F, an endoglucanase from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces PC-2. This allowed us to identify plasmids containing optimized clones expressing mutants with improved activity at lower pH. A plasmid library of mutagenized clones of the celF gene with targeted variations in the last four codons was constructed by site-directed PCR mutagenesis and transformed into Escherichia coli. A robotic picker integrated into the workcell was used to inoculate medium in a 96-well deep well plate, combining the transformants into a multiplexed set in each well, and the plate was incubated on the workcell. Plasmids were prepared from the multiplexed culture on the liquid handler component of the workcell and used for in vitro transcription/translation. The multiplexed expressed recombinant proteins were screened for improved activity and stability in an azo-carboxymethylcellulose plate assay. The multiplexed wells containing mutants with improved activity were identified and linked back to the corresponding multiplexed cultures stored in glycerol. Spread plates were prepared from the glycerol stocks and the workcell was used to pick single colonies from the spread plates, prepare plasmid, produce recombinant protein, and assay for activity. The screening assay and subsequent deconvolution of the multiplexed wells resulted in identification of improved Cel

  3. Nonlinear dynamics and control of a vibrating rectangular plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, J. V.

    1983-01-01

    The von Karman equations of nonlinear elasticity are solved for the case of a vibrating rectangular plate by meams of a Fourier spectral transform method. The amplification of a particular Fourier mode by nonlinear transfer of energy is demonstrated for this conservative system. The multi-mode system is reduced to a minimal (two mode) system, retaining the qualitative features of the multi-mode system. The effect of a modal control law on the dynamics of this minimal nonlinear elastic system is examined.

  4. Block-like plate movements in eastern Anatolia observed by InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Cavalie, Olivier; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2014-01-01

    The question whether continental plates deform internally or move as rigid blocks has been debated for several decades. To further address this question, we use large-scale interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data sets to study how

  5. Chaotic synchronization of vibrations of a coupled mechanical system consisting of a plate and beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awrejcewicz

    Full Text Available In this paper mathematical model of a mechanical system consisting of a plate and either one or two beams is derived. Obtained PDEs are reduced to ODEs, and then studied mainly using the fast Fourier and wavelet transforms. A few examples of the chaotic synchronizations are illustrated and discussed.

  6. Effects of Unsteady Flow Past An Infinite Vertical Plate With Variable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of unsteady flow past an infinite vertical plate with variable temperature and constant mass flux are investigated. Laplace transform technique is used to obtain velocity and concentration fields. The computation of the results indicates that the velocity profiles increase with increase in Grashof numbers, mass ...

  7. MHD free convection flow past an oscillating plate in the presence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of unsteady magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer in MHD flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate through porous medium, taking account of the presence of free convection and mass transfer. The energy and chemical species equations are solved in closed form by Laplace-transform technique and ...

  8. Investigation of free vibration characteristics for skew multiphase magneto-electro-elastic plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, M. C.; Kattimani, S.

    2018-04-01

    This article presents the investigation of skew multiphase magneto-electro-elastic (MMEE) plate to assess its free vibration characteristics. A finite element (FE) model is formulated considering the different couplings involved via coupled constitutive equations. The transformation matrices are derived to transform local degrees of freedom into the global degrees of freedom for the nodes lying on the skew edges. Effect of different volume fraction (Vf) on the free vibration behavior is explicitly studied. In addition, influence of width to thickness ratio, the aspect ratio, and the stacking arrangement on natural frequencies of skew multiphase MEE plate investigated. Particular attention has been paid to investigate the effect of skew angle on the non-dimensional Eigen frequencies of multiphase MEE plate with simply supported edges.

  9. Crustal deformation and volcanism at active plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, Halldor

    Most of Earth's volcanoes are located near active tectonic plate boundaries, where the tectonic plates move relative to each other resulting in deformation. Likewise, subsurface magma movement and pressure changes in magmatic systems can cause measurable deformation of the Earth's surface. The study of the shape of Earth and therefore studies of surface deformation is called geodesy. Modern geodetic techniques allow precise measurements (˜1 mm accuracy) of deformation of tectonic and magmatic systems. Because of the spatial correlation between tectonic boundaries and volcanism, the tectonic and volcanic deformation signals can become intertwined. Thus it is often important to study both tectonic and volcanic deformation processes simultaneously, when one is trying to study one of the systems individually. In this thesis, I present research on crustal deformation and magmatic processes at active plate boundaries. The study areas cover divergent and transform plate boundaries in south Iceland and convergent and transform plate boundaries in Central America, specifically Nicaragua and El Salvador. The study is composed of four main chapters: two of the chapters focus on the magma plumbing system of Hekla volcano, Iceland and the plate boundary in south Iceland; one chapter focuses on shallow controls of explosive volcanism at Telica volcano, Nicaragua; and the fourth chapter focuses on co- and post-seismic deformation from a Mw = 7.3 earthquake which occurred offshore El Salvador in 2012. Hekla volcano is located at the intersection of a transform zone and a rift zone in Iceland and thus is affected by a combination of shear and extensional strains, in addition to co-seismic and co-rifting deformation. The inter-eruptive deformation signal from Hekla is subtle, as observed by a decade (2000-2010) of GPS data in south Iceland. A simultaneous inversion of this data for parameters describing the geometry and source characteristics of the magma chamber at Hekla, and

  10. Martensitic transformation of pure iron at a grain boundary: Atomistic evidence for a two-step Kurdjumov-Sachs–Pitsch pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiser, Jerome; Urbassek, Herbert M., E-mail: urbassek@rhrk.uni-kl.de [Physics Department and Research Center OPTIMAS, University Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schrödinger-Straße, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations and the Meyer-Entel interaction potential, we study the martensitic transformation pathway in a pure iron bi-crystal containing a symmetric tilt grain boundary. Upon cooling the system from the austenitic phase, the transformation starts with the nucleation of the martensitic phase near the grain boundary in a plate-like arrangement. The Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relations are fulfilled at the plates. During further cooling, the plates expand and merge. In contrast to the orientation relation in the plate structure, the complete transformation proceeds via the Pitsch pathway.

  11. Martensitic transformation of pure iron at a grain boundary: Atomistic evidence for a two-step Kurdjumov-Sachs–Pitsch pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiser, Jerome; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2016-01-01

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations and the Meyer-Entel interaction potential, we study the martensitic transformation pathway in a pure iron bi-crystal containing a symmetric tilt grain boundary. Upon cooling the system from the austenitic phase, the transformation starts with the nucleation of the martensitic phase near the grain boundary in a plate-like arrangement. The Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relations are fulfilled at the plates. During further cooling, the plates expand and merge. In contrast to the orientation relation in the plate structure, the complete transformation proceeds via the Pitsch pathway.

  12. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    OF SELECTED EXISTING BUILDINGS IN AND AROUND COPENHAGEN COVERED WITH MOSAIC TILES, UNGLAZED OR GLAZED CLAY TILES. ITS BUILDINGS WHICH HAVE QUALITIES THAT I WOULD LIKE APPLIED, PERHAPS TRANSFORMED OR MOST PREFERABLY, INTERPRETED ANEW, FOR THE LARGE GLAZED CONCRETE PANELS I AM DEVELOPING. KEYWORDS: COLOR, LIGHT...

  13. Free vibration analysis of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami-Majd, Alireza; Rahbar-Ranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Vibration analysis of unstiffened/stiffened plates has long been studied due to its importance in the design and condition assessments of ship and offshore structures. Corrosion is inevitable in steel structures and has been so far considered in strength analysis of structures. We studied the free vibration of pitted corroded plates with simply supported boundary conditions. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS, was used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of corroded plates. Influential parameters including plate aspect ratio, degree of pit, one-sided/both-sided corroded plate, and different corrosion patterns were investigated. By increasing the degree of corrosion, reduction of natural frequency increases. Plate aspect ratio and plate dimensions have no influence on reduction of natural frequency. Different corrosion patterns on the surface of one-sided corroded plates have little influence on reduction of natural frequency. Ratio of pit depth over plate thickness has no influence on the reduction of natural frequency. The reduction of natural frequency in both-sided corroded plates is higher than one-sided corroded plates with the same amount of total corrosion loss. Mode shapes of vibration would change due to corrosion, except square mode shapes.

  14. Negotiated Grammar Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we study controlled adaptability of metamodel transformations. We consider one of the most rigid metamodel transformation formalisms — automated grammar transformation with operator suites, where a transformation script is built in such a way that it is essentially meant

  15. On Hurwitz transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Hage Hassan, M.

    1991-04-01

    A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the R 4 → R 3 Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its R 8 → R 5 compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory

  16. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  17. Bottom nozzle for nuclear reactor fuel assembly having an adaptor plate and a coupled filtration plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, M.; Mortgat, R.

    1992-01-01

    The bottom nozzle includes an adaptor plate with openings to allow the passage of water and a filtration plate with small holes. The openings in the adaptor plate are symmetrical with regard to medians and diagonals. Within each zone, some of the openings are rectangular and some may be circular. The small holes in the filtration plate coincide with the rectangular openings in the adaptor plate

  18. Explosively free-formed pass partition plate for a nuclear steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A large flow-separating dished plate of a complex shape was manufactured by near-contact explosive forming in which only an edge die was used. The shape of the part, for service in a large, nuclear steam generator, was obtained by careful sizing and placement of the explosive charge. The development of the technique and the manufacture of the plate are described. 4 refs

  19. METHOD OF MAKING AND PLATE CONNECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, P.; Shubert, C.E.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a method of joining, by welding or brazing, a tube to a plate, particularly where the tube and the plate are of different thickness or have different thermal conductivities and are subject to high temperatures. In this method the tube is inserted in the core of a plate containing an annular groove in its back face concentric with the bore and in communication with the bore. One end of the tube is welded substantially flush with the front end of the plate. Brazing alloy is placed in the groove on the back face of the plate and heat is applied to the plate and tube to melt the brazing alloy to permit the alloy to flow into the bore and bond the tube to the plate. (AEC)

  20. PWR integral tie plate and locking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flora, B.S.; Osborne, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A locking mechanism for securing an upper tie plate to the tie rods of a nuclear fuel bundle is described. The mechanism includes an upper tie plate assembly and locking sleeves fixed to the ends of the tie rods. The tie plate is part of the upper tie plate assembly and is secured to the fuel bundle by securing the entire upper tie plate assembly to the locking sleeves fixed to the tie rods. The assembly includes, in addition to the tie plate, locking nuts for engaging the locking sleeves, retaining sleeves to operably connect the locking nuts to the assembly, a spring biased reaction plate to restrain the locking nuts in the locked position and a means to facilitate the removal of the entire assembly as a unit from the fuel bundle

  1. Theoretical study of chemical reaction effects on vertical oscillating plate with variable temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An exact solution to the flow of a viscous incompressible unsteady flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account of the homogeneous chemical reaction of first-order. Both the plate temperature and the concentration level near the plate are raised linearly with respect to time. The dimensionless governing equations has been obtained by the Laplace transform method, when the plate is oscillating harmonically in its own plane. The effects of velocity and concentration are studied for different parameters like phase angle, chemical reaction parameter, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number and time are studied. The solutions are valid only for small values of time t. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt or chemical reaction parameter. .

  2. The interaction of thermal radiation on vertical oscillating plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthucumaraswamy R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal radiation effects on unsteady free convective flow of a viscous incompressible flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate with variable temperature and mass diffusion has been studied. The fluid considered here is a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but a non-scattering medium. The plate temperature is raised linearly with respect to time and the concentration level near the plate is also raised linearly with respect to time. An exact solution to the dimensionless governing equations has been obtained by the Laplace transform method, when the plate is oscillating harmonically in its own plane. The effects of velocity, temperature and concentration are studied for different parameters like phase angle, radiation parameter, Schmidt number, thermal Grashof number, mass Grashof number and time are studied. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing phase angle ωt. .

  3. The influence of finite cavities on the sound insulation of double-plate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2005-06-01

    Lightweight walls are often designed as frameworks of studs with plates on each side--a double-plate structure. The studs constitute boundaries for the cavities, thereby both affecting the sound transmission directly by short-circuiting the plates, and indirectly by disturbing the sound field between the plates. The paper presents a deterministic prediction model for airborne sound insulation including both effects of the studs. A spatial transform technique is used, taking advantage of the periodicity. The acoustic field inside the cavities is expanded by means of cosine-series. The transmission coefficient (angle-dependent and diffuse) and transmission loss are studied. Numerical examples are presented and comparisons with measurement are performed. The result indicates that a reasonably good agreement between theory and measurement can be achieved.

  4. Statistical optimization of synthesis procedure and characterization of europium (III) molybdate nano-plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi [Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Faculty of Material and Manufacturing Technologies, P. O. Box 16765-3454, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi [Imam Hossein University, Nano Science Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fazli, Yousef [Islamic Azad University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Arak Branch, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad [Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Europium (III) molybdate nano-plates were synthesized in this work via chemical precipitation route involving adding of europium (III) ion solution to the aqueous solution of molybdate reagent. Effects of some reaction variables such as concentrations of europium and molybdate ions, flow rate of europium reagent, and reactor temperature on the diameter of the synthesized europium (III) molybdate nano-plates were experimentally investigated by orthogonal array design. The results showed that the size of europium (III) molybdate nano-plates can be optimized by adjusting the concentrations of europium (III) and molybdate ions, as well as the reactional temperature. Europium (III) molybdate nano-plates prepared under the optimum conditions were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (orig.)

  5. Analytical results for post-buckling behaviour of plates in compression and in shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M.

    1985-01-01

    The postbuckling behavior of long rectangular isotropic and orthotropic plates is determined. By assuming trigonometric functions in one direction, the nonlinear partial differential equations of von Karman large deflection plate theory are converted into nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using an available boundary value problem solver which makes use of Newton's method. Results for longitudinal compression show different postbuckling behavior between isotropic and orthotropic plates. Results for shear show that change in inplane edge constraints can cause large change in postbuckling stiffness.

  6. Image encryption with chaotic map and Arnold transform in the gyrator transform domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jun; Luo, Hongling; Zhao, Jun; Alam, Mohammad S.; Cai, Bin

    2017-05-01

    An image encryption method combing chaotic map and Arnold transform in the gyrator transform domains was proposed. Firstly, the original secret image is XOR-ed with a random binary sequence generated by a logistic map. Then, the gyrator transform is performed. Finally, the amplitude and phase of the gyrator transform are permutated by Arnold transform. The decryption procedure is the inverse operation of encryption. The secret keys used in the proposed method include the control parameter and the initial value of the logistic map, the rotation angle of the gyrator transform, and the transform number of the Arnold transform. Therefore, the key space is large, while the key data volume is small. The numerical simulation was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the security analysis was performed in terms of the histogram of the encrypted image, the sensitiveness to the secret keys, decryption upon ciphertext loss, and resistance to the chosen-plaintext attack.

  7. Vortex Dynamics around Pitching Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    electrical signals are A/D converted in an ATI NetBox interface and recorded using a Java application, and are filtered in three steps. The first is a low...the plate while staying attached to the corners of the leading edge. During this process, a second vortex loop, created by the quick angular ...is a spike in CL centered around t = 0 due to non-circulatory6 effects from the angular acceleration of the wing. The amplitude of the peak is

  8. Micro plate fission chamber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mei; Wen Zhongwei; Lin Jufang; Jiang Li; Liu Rong; Wang Dalun

    2014-01-01

    To conduct the measurement of neutron flux and the fission rate distribution at several position in assemblies, the micro plate fission chamber was designed and fabricated. Since the requirement of smaller volume and less structure material was taken into consideration, it is convinient, commercial and practical to use fission chamber to measure neutron flux in specific condition. In this paper, the structure of fission chamber and process of fabrication were introduced and performance test result was presented. The detection efficiency is 91.7%. (authors)

  9. Non-cyanide silver plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc. have entered into a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the presently used silver cyanide plating process. This project has been in place for about six months and results are quite promising. The main objective, that of deposition of deposits as thick as 125 um (5 mils), has been met. Property data such as stress and hardness have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed via metallography and x-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work

  10. Fracture Characteristics Analysis of Double-layer Rock Plates with Both Ends Fixed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to research on the fracture and instability characteristics of double-layer rock plates with both ends fixed, the three-dimension computational model of double-layer rock plates under the concentrated load was built by using PFC3D technique (three-dimension particle flow code, and the mechanical parameters of the numerical model were determined based on the physical model tests. The results showed the instability process of the double-layer rock plates had four mechanical response phases: the elastic deformation stage, the brittle fracture of upper thick plate arching stage, two rock-arch bearing stage and two rock-arch failure stage; moreover, with the rock plate particle radius from small to large change, the maximum vertical force of double rock-arch appeared when the particle size was a certain value. The maximum vertical force showed an upward trend with the increase of the rock plate temperature, and in the case of the same thickness the maximum vertical force increased with the increase of the upper rock plate thickness. When the boundary conditions of double-layer rock plates changed from the hinged support to the fixed support, the maximum horizontal force observably decreased, and the maximum vertical force showed small fluctuations and then tended towards stability with the increase of cohesive strength of double-layer rock plates.

  11. Tunable features of magnetoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuxiang; Zhai, Junyi; Priya, Shashank; Li, Jie-Fang; Viehland, Dwight

    2009-06-01

    We have found that magnetostrictive FeBSiC alloy ribbons laminated with piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) fiber can act as a tunable transformer when driven under resonant conditions. These composites were also found to exhibit the strongest resonant magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of 750 V/cm-Oe. The tunable features were achieved by applying small dc magnetic biases of -5 transformer features can be attributed to large changes in the piezomagnetic coefficient and permeability of the magnetostrictive phase under H(dc).

  12. The γ-ε martensitic transformation: a model for stress induced variant and its interaction with grain boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenin, G.

    1995-01-01

    The γ (f.c.c.) to ε (h.c.p.) martensitic transformation occurs through the Shockley a/6 left angle 211 right angle faulting every second {111} plane of the f.c.c. structure. A stress induced thin single variant corresponds to a single a/6 left angle 211 right angle faulting vector and leads to a large homogeneous shear (0.35) in amplitude. The tip of such a plate is composed of a set of identical Shockley partial dislocations with large mutual interactions. This work is a presentation of a model which describes the martensite morphology of stress induced ε martensite in shape memory Fe-Mn-Si based alloys. The model includes the formation mechanism of the plate (Seeger's like) and its growth inside a limited grain. The mutual interaction of Shockley dislocations and their interaction with the grain boundary is semi quantitatively described; it leads to a lenticular shape of ε martensite thin plates. The model is able to explain the behaviour of this kind of alloys concerning the superelastic effect and the shape memory. (orig.)

  13. Phase zone plates as condensers for the Gottingen scanning x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilkenbach, R.; Thieme

    1987-01-01

    With the Gottingen scanning x-ray microscope the synchrotron source is image by x-ray optics into a monochromatic small scan spot, through which a specimen can be moved. Hereby one part of the optics, the condenser zone plate and a pinhole, works as a linear monochromator in the wavelength region of λ = 2.36 nm to λ = 4.5 nm. The efficiency of such a condenser should be as high as possible to minimize the loss of radiation. Phase zone plates have a four times higher efficiency in the first order of diffraction than amplitude zone plates. Two condenser zone plates, KZP4 and KZP5, have been constructed so that they are well suited for the use in the scanning microscope. These zone plates have been made holographically by superposing two wavefronts of laser light in an specific designed optical arrangement and exposing the zone plate structure into a photoresist. Using reactive ion etching (RIE) the structure has been transformed into Germanium. The thickness of the zone plate has been chosen to show at λ = 2.36 nm a phase effect. The efficiency has been measured at the Berliner Elektronenspeircherring Gesellschaft fur Synchrotronstrahlung m.b.H., Berlin

  14. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of ∼0.5 to ∼25 μm, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented

  15. Ground cross-modal impedance as a tool for analyzing ground/plate interaction and ground wave propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, L; Laulagnet, B

    2015-05-01

    An analytical approach is investigated to model ground-plate interaction based on modal decomposition and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. A finite rectangular plate subjected to flexural vibration is coupled with the ground and modeled with the Kirchhoff hypothesis. A Navier equation represents the stratified ground, assumed infinite in the x- and y-directions and free at the top surface. To obtain an analytical solution, modal decomposition is applied to the structure and a Fourier Transform is applied to the ground. The result is a new tool for analyzing ground-plate interaction to resolve this problem: ground cross-modal impedance. It allows quantifying the added-stiffness, added-mass, and added-damping from the ground to the structure. Similarity with the parallel acoustic problem is highlighted. A comparison between the theory and the experiment shows good matching. Finally, specific cases are investigated, notably the influence of layer depth on plate vibration.

  16. Buckling analysis for axially compressed flat plates, structural sections, and stiffened plates reinforced with laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, A. V.; Soong, T.; Miller, R. E., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A classical buckling analysis is developed for stiffened, flat plates composed of a series of linked plate and beam elements. Plates are idealized as multilayered orthotropic elements. Structural beads and lips are idealized as beams. The loaded edges of the stiffened plate are simply-supported and the conditions at the unloaded edges can be prescribed arbitrarily. The plate and beam elements are matched along their common junctions for displacement continuity and force equilibrium in an exact manner. Offsets between elements are considered in the analysis. Buckling under uniaxial compressive load for plates, sections, and stiffened plates is investigated. Buckling loads are the lowest of all possible general and local failure modes, and the mode shape is used to determine whether buckling is a local or general instability. Numerical correlations with existing analysis and test data for plates, sections, and stiffened plates including boron-reinforced structures are discussed. In general correlations are reasonably good.

  17. Transforming the Way We Teach Function Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkenberry, Eileen Durand; Faulkenberry, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss "function," a well-defined rule that relates inputs to outputs. They have found that by using the input-output definition of "function," they can examine transformations of functions simply by looking at changes to input or output and the respective changes to the graph. Applying transformations to the input…

  18. Bioinspired plate-based fog collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Xin; Luo, Cheng

    2014-09-24

    In a recent work, we explored the feeding mechanism of a shorebird to transport liquid drops by repeatedly opening and closing its beak. In this work, we apply the corresponding results to develop a new artificial fog collector. The collector includes two nonparallel plates. It has three advantages in comparison with existing artificial collectors: (i) easy fabrication, (ii) simple design to scale up, and (iii) active transport of condensed water drops. Two collectors have been built. A small one with dimensions of 4.2 × 2.1 × 0.05 cm(3) (length × width × thickness) was first built and tested to examine (i) the time evolution of condensed drop sizes and (ii) the collection processes and efficiencies on the glass, SiO2, and SU-8 plates. Under similar experimental conditions, the amount of water collected per unit area on the small collector is about 9.0, 4.7, and 3.7 times, respectively, as much as the ones reported for beetles, grasses, and metal wires, and the total amount of water collected is around 33, 18, and 15 times. On the basis of the understanding gained from the tests on the small collector, a large collector with dimensions of 26 × 10 × 0.2 cm(3) was further built and tested, which was capable of collecting 15.8 mL of water during a period of 36 min. The amount of water collected, when it is scaled from 36 to 120 min, is about 878, 479, or 405 times more than what was collected by individual beetles, grasses, or metal wires.

  19. Leverage points for sustainability transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abson, David J; Fischer, Joern; Leventon, Julia; Newig, Jens; Schomerus, Thomas; Vilsmaier, Ulli; von Wehrden, Henrik; Abernethy, Paivi; Ives, Christopher D; Jager, Nicolas W; Lang, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Despite substantial focus on sustainability issues in both science and politics, humanity remains on largely unsustainable development trajectories. Partly, this is due to the failure of sustainability science to engage with the root causes of unsustainability. Drawing on ideas by Donella Meadows, we argue that many sustainability interventions target highly tangible, but essentially weak, leverage points (i.e. using interventions that are easy, but have limited potential for transformational change). Thus, there is an urgent need to focus on less obvious but potentially far more powerful areas of intervention. We propose a research agenda inspired by systems thinking that focuses on transformational 'sustainability interventions', centred on three realms of leverage: reconnecting people to nature, restructuring institutions and rethinking how knowledge is created and used in pursuit of sustainability. The notion of leverage points has the potential to act as a boundary object for genuinely transformational sustainability science.

  20. Three dimensional canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmen, A.

    2010-01-01

    A generic construction of canonical transformations is given in three-dimensional phase spaces on which Nambu bracket is imposed. First, the canonical transformations are defined as based on cannonade transformations. Second, it is shown that determination of the generating functions and the transformation itself for given generating function is possible by solving correspondent Pfaffian differential equations. Generating functions of type are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed as the complementary subject. Finally, it is shown that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase spaces as in the usual two-dimensional ones.