WorldWideScience

Sample records for large target size

  1. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  2. Large litter sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Rutherford, K.M.D.; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some key results and conclusions from a review (Rutherford et al. 2011) undertaken regarding the ethical and welfare implications of breeding for large litter size in the domestic pig and about different ways of dealing with these implications. Focus is primarily on the direct...... possible to achieve a drop in relative piglet mortality and the related welfare problems. However, there will be a growing problem with the need to use foster or nurse sows which may have negative effects on both sows and piglets. This gives rise to new challenges for management....

  3. The large sample size fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Björn

    2013-06-01

    Significance in the statistical sense has little to do with significance in the common practical sense. Statistical significance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for practical significance. Hence, results that are extremely statistically significant may be highly nonsignificant in practice. The degree of practical significance is generally determined by the size of the observed effect, not the p-value. The results of studies based on large samples are often characterized by extreme statistical significance despite small or even trivial effect sizes. Interpreting such results as significant in practice without further analysis is referred to as the large sample size fallacy in this article. The aim of this article is to explore the relevance of the large sample size fallacy in contemporary nursing research. Relatively few nursing articles display explicit measures of observed effect sizes or include a qualitative discussion of observed effect sizes. Statistical significance is often treated as an end in itself. Effect sizes should generally be calculated and presented along with p-values for statistically significant results, and observed effect sizes should be discussed qualitatively through direct and explicit comparisons with the effects in related literature. © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  5. Implosion of the small cavity and large cavity cannonball targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Katsunobu; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.

    1984-01-01

    Recent results of cannonball target implosion research are briefly reviewed with theoretical predictions for GEKKO XII experiments. The cannonball targets are classified into two types according to the cavity size ; small cavity and large cavity. The compression mechanisms of the two types are discussed. (author)

  6. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, M; Baum, G; Doshita, N; Finger, M Jr; Gautheron, F; Goertz, St; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Hess, Ch; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Y; Koivuniemi, J; Kondo, K; Le Goff, J-M; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Srnka, A

    2006-01-01

    The spin structure of the nucleons is investigated in deep inelastic scattering of a polarized muon beam and a polarized nucleon target in the COMPASS experiment at CERN since 2001. To achieve high luminosities a large solid polarized target is used. The COMPASS polarized target consists of a high cooling power $^{3}$He/$^{4}$He dilution refrigerator capable to maintain working temperature of the target material at about 50mK, a superconducting solenoid and dipole magnet system for longitudinal and transversal magnetic field on the target material, respectively, target cells containing polarizable material, microwave cavities and high power microwave radiation systems for dynamic nuclear polarization and the nuclear magnetic resonance system for nuclear spin polarization measurements. During 2001–2004 experiments superconducting magnet system with opening angle $\\pm$69 mrad, polarized target holder with two target cells and corresponding microwave and NMR systems have been used. For the data taking from 200...

  7. Computational scalability of large size image dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooper, Rob; Bajcsy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the computational scalability of image pyramid building needed for dissemination of very large image data. The sources of large images include high resolution microscopes and telescopes, remote sensing and airborne imaging, and high resolution scanners. The term 'large' is understood from a user perspective which means either larger than a display size or larger than a memory/disk to hold the image data. The application drivers for our work are digitization projects such as the Lincoln Papers project (each image scan is about 100-150MB or about 5000x8000 pixels with the total number to be around 200,000) and the UIUC library scanning project for historical maps from 17th and 18th century (smaller number but larger images). The goal of our work is understand computational scalability of the web-based dissemination using image pyramids for these large image scans, as well as the preservation aspects of the data. We report our computational benchmarks for (a) building image pyramids to be disseminated using the Microsoft Seadragon library, (b) a computation execution approach using hyper-threading to generate image pyramids and to utilize the underlying hardware, and (c) an image pyramid preservation approach using various hard drive configurations of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) drives for input/output operations. The benchmarks are obtained with a map (334.61 MB, JPEG format, 17591x15014 pixels). The discussion combines the speed and preservation objectives.

  8. Large area solid target neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, J.C.; Bauer, W.

    1974-01-01

    A potentially useful neutron source may result from the combination of a solid deuterium-tritium loaded target with the large area, high energy ion beams from ion sources being developed for neutral beam injection. The resulting neutron source would have a large radiating area and thus produce the sizable experimental volume necessary for future studies of bulk and synergistic surface radiation effects as well as experiments on engineering samples and small components. With a 200 keV D + T + beam and 40 kW/cm 2 power dissipation on a 200 cm 2 target spot, a total neutron yield of about 4 x 10 15 n/sec may be achieved. Although the useable neutron flux from this source is limited to 1 to 2 x 10 13 n/cm 2 /sec, this flux can be produced 3 cm in front of the target and over about 300 cm 3 of experimental volume. Problems of total power dissipation, sputtering, isotopic flushing and thermal dissociation are reviewed. Neutron flux profiles and potential experimental configurations are presented and compared to other neutron source concepts. (U.S.)

  9. CLUSTER DYNAMICS LARGELY SHAPES PROTOPLANETARY DISK SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincke, Kirsten; Pfalzner, Susanne, E-mail: kvincke@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    To what degree the cluster environment influences the sizes of protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars is still an open question. This is particularly true for the short-lived clusters typical for the solar neighborhood, in which the stellar density and therefore the influence of the cluster environment change considerably over the first 10 Myr. In previous studies, the effect of the gas on the cluster dynamics has often been neglected; this is remedied here. Using the code NBody6++, we study the stellar dynamics in different developmental phases—embedded, expulsion, and expansion—including the gas, and quantify the effect of fly-bys on the disk size. We concentrate on massive clusters (M {sub cl} ≥ 10{sup 3}–6 ∗ 10{sup 4} M {sub Sun}), which are representative for clusters like the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) or NGC 6611. We find that not only the stellar density but also the duration of the embedded phase matters. The densest clusters react fastest to the gas expulsion and drop quickly in density, here 98% of relevant encounters happen before gas expulsion. By contrast, disks in sparser clusters are initially less affected, but because these clusters expand more slowly, 13% of disks are truncated after gas expulsion. For ONC-like clusters, we find that disks larger than 500 au are usually affected by the environment, which corresponds to the observation that 200 au-sized disks are common. For NGC 6611-like clusters, disk sizes are cut-down on average to roughly 100 au. A testable hypothesis would be that the disks in the center of NGC 6611 should be on average ≈20 au and therefore considerably smaller than those in the ONC.

  10. Targeted sequencing of large genomic regions with CATCH-Seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Day

    Full Text Available Current target enrichment systems for large-scale next-generation sequencing typically require synthetic oligonucleotides used as capture reagents to isolate sequences of interest. The majority of target enrichment reagents are focused on gene coding regions or promoters en masse. Here we introduce development of a customizable targeted capture system using biotinylated RNA probe baits transcribed from sheared bacterial artificial chromosome clone templates that enables capture of large, contiguous blocks of the genome for sequencing applications. This clone adapted template capture hybridization sequencing (CATCH-Seq procedure can be used to capture both coding and non-coding regions of a gene, and resolve the boundaries of copy number variations within a genomic target site. Furthermore, libraries constructed with methylated adapters prior to solution hybridization also enable targeted bisulfite sequencing. We applied CATCH-Seq to diverse targets ranging in size from 125 kb to 3.5 Mb. Our approach provides a simple and cost effective alternative to other capture platforms because of template-based, enzymatic probe synthesis and the lack of oligonucleotide design costs. Given its similarity in procedure, CATCH-Seq can also be performed in parallel with commercial systems.

  11. Macrophages recognize size and shape of their targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishit Doshi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recognition by macrophages is a key process in generating immune response against invading pathogens. Previous studies have focused on recognition of pathogens through surface receptors present on the macrophage's surface. Here, using polymeric particles of different geometries that represent the size and shape range of a variety of bacteria, the importance of target geometry in recognition was investigated. The studies reported here reveal that attachment of particles of different geometries to macrophages exhibits a strong dependence on size and shape. For all sizes and shapes studied, particles possessing the longest dimension in the range of 2-3 microm exhibited highest attachment. This also happens to be the size range of most commonly found bacteria in nature. The surface features of macrophages, in particular the membrane ruffles, might play an important role in this geometry-based target recognition by macrophages. These findings have significant implications in understanding the pathogenicity of bacteria and in designing drug delivery carriers.

  12. Large-sized seaweed monitoring based on MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Lan, Guo-xin; Li, Chuan-long

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, large-sized seaweed, such as ulva lactuca, blooms frequently in coastal water in China, which threatens marine eco-environment. In order to take effective measures, it is important to make operational surveillance. A case of large-sized seaweed blooming (i.e. enteromorpha), occurred in June, 2008, in the sea near Qingdao city, is studied. Seaweed blooming is dynamically monitored using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After analyzing imaging spectral characteristics of enteromorpha, MODIS band 1 and 2 are used to create a band ratio algorithm for detecting and mapping large-sized seaweed blooming. In addition, chlorophyll-α concentration is inversed based on an empirical model developed using MODIS. Chlorophyll-α concentration maps are derived using multitemporal MODIS data, and chlorophyll-α concentration change is analyzed. Results show that the presented methods are useful to get the dynamic distribution and the growth of large-sized seaweed, and can support contingency planning.

  13. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Doshita, N.; Finger Jr., M.; Finger, M.; Gautheron, F.; Goertz, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hess, C.; Horikawa, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kisselev, Y.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kondo, K.; Le Goff, J.M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Srnka, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. F (2006), F295-F305 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : COMPASS * polarized target * Dilution refrigerator Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  14. Experimental study on propagation properties of large size TEM antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guowei; Wang Haiyang; Chen Weiqing; Wang Wei; Zhu Xiangqin; Xie Linshen

    2014-01-01

    The propagation properties of large size TEM antennas were studied by experiment. The size of the TEM antennas is 60 m × 20 m × 10 m and the character Impedance is 120 Ω. A kind of dielectric foil switch is designed compactly with TEM antennas which can generate double exponential waveform with altitude of 10 kV and rise time of l.2 ns. The radiated field distribution was measured. The relationship between rise time/altitude and distance were provided, and the propagation properties of large size TEM antennas were summarized. (authors)

  15. Estimated spatial requirements of the medium- to large-sized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation planning in the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a recognised world plant diversity hotspot, required information on the estimated spatial requirements of selected medium- to large-sized mammals within each of 102 Broad Habitat Units (BHUs) delineated according to key biophysical parameters.

  16. Large exon size does not limit splicing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I T; Chasin, L A

    1994-03-01

    Exon sizes in vertebrate genes are, with a few exceptions, limited to less than 300 bases. It has been proposed that this limitation may derive from the exon definition model of splice site recognition. In this model, a downstream donor site enhances splicing at the upstream acceptor site of the same exon. This enhancement may require contact between factors bound to each end of the exon; an exon size limitation would promote such contact. To test the idea that proximity was required for exon definition, we inserted random DNA fragments from Escherichia coli into a central exon in a three-exon dihydrofolate reductase minigene and tested whether the expanded exons were efficiently spliced. DNA from a plasmid library of expanded minigenes was used to transfect a CHO cell deletion mutant lacking the dhfr locus. PCR analysis of DNA isolated from the pooled stable cotransfectant populations displayed a range of DNA insert sizes from 50 to 1,500 nucleotides. A parallel analysis of the RNA from this population by reverse transcription followed by PCR showed a similar size distribution. Central exons as large as 1,400 bases could be spliced into mRNA. We also tested individual plasmid clones containing exon inserts of defined sizes. The largest exon included in mRNA was 1,200 bases in length, well above the 300-base limit implied by the survey of naturally occurring exons. We conclude that a limitation in exon size is not part of the exon definition mechanism.

  17. Impact of Target Distance, Target Size, and Visual Acuity on the Video Head Impulse Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Paul D; Rodriguez, Amanda I; Barin, Kamran; Janky, Kristen L

    2018-05-01

    The video head impulse test (vHIT) assesses the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Few have evaluated whether environmental factors or visual acuity influence the vHIT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of target distance, target size, and visual acuity on vHIT outcomes. Thirty-eight normal controls and 8 subjects with vestibular loss (VL) participated. vHIT was completed at 3 distances and with 3 target sizes. Normal controls were subdivided on the basis of visual acuity. Corrective saccade frequency, corrective saccade amplitude, and gain were tabulated. In the normal control group, there were no significant effects of target size or visual acuity for any vHIT outcome parameters; however, gain increased as target distance decreased. The VL group demonstrated higher corrective saccade frequency and amplitude and lower gain as compared with controls. In conclusion, decreasing target distance increases gain for normal controls but not subjects with VL. Preliminarily, visual acuity does not affect vHIT outcomes.

  18. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto

    2018-01-04

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  19. Large-scale ocean connectivity and planktonic body size

    KAUST Repository

    Villarino, Ernesto; Watson, James R.; Jö nsson, Bror; Gasol, Josep M.; Salazar, Guillem; Acinas, Silvia G.; Estrada, Marta; Massana, Ramó n; Logares, Ramiro; Giner, Caterina R.; Pernice, Massimo C.; Olivar, M. Pilar; Citores, Leire; Corell, Jon; Rodrí guez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Acuñ a, José Luis; Molina-Ramí rez, Axayacatl; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Có zar, André s; Martí , Elisa; Cuesta, José A.; Agusti, Susana; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Irigoien, Xabier; Chust, Guillem

    2018-01-01

    Global patterns of planktonic diversity are mainly determined by the dispersal of propagules with ocean currents. However, the role that abundance and body size play in determining spatial patterns of diversity remains unclear. Here we analyse spatial community structure - β-diversity - for several planktonic and nektonic organisms from prokaryotes to small mesopelagic fishes collected during the Malaspina 2010 Expedition. β-diversity was compared to surface ocean transit times derived from a global circulation model, revealing a significant negative relationship that is stronger than environmental differences. Estimated dispersal scales for different groups show a negative correlation with body size, where less abundant large-bodied communities have significantly shorter dispersal scales and larger species spatial turnover rates than more abundant small-bodied plankton. Our results confirm that the dispersal scale of planktonic and micro-nektonic organisms is determined by local abundance, which scales with body size, ultimately setting global spatial patterns of diversity.

  20. Accuracy of the photogrametric measuring system for large size elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grzelka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methods of estimating and guidelines for verifying the accuracy of optical photogrammetric measuringsystems, using for measurement of large size elements. Measuring systems applied to measure workpieces of a large size which oftenreach more than 10000mm require use of appropriate standards. Those standards provided by the manufacturer of photogrammetricsystems are certified and are inspected annually. To make sure that these systems work properly there was developed a special standardVDI / VDE 2634, "Optical 3D measuring systems. Imaging systems with point - by - point probing. " According to recommendationsdescribed in this standard research on accuracy of photogrametric measuring system was conducted using K class gauge blocks dedicatedto calibrate and test accuracy of classic CMMs. The paper presents results of research of estimation the actual error of indication for sizemeasurement MPEE for photogrammetric coordinate measuring system TRITOP.

  1. Processing and properties of large-sized ceramic slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimondo, M.; Dondi, M.; Zanelli, C.; Guarini, G.; Gozzi, A.; Marani, F.; Fossa, L.

    2010-07-01

    Large-sized ceramic slabs with dimensions up to 360x120 cm{sup 2} and thickness down to 2 mm are manufactured through an innovative ceramic process, starting from porcelain stoneware formulations and involving wet ball milling, spray drying, die-less slow-rate pressing, a single stage of fast drying-firing, and finishing (trimming, assembling of ceramic-fiberglass composites). Fired and unfired industrial slabs were selected and characterized from the technological, compositional (XRF, XRD) and microstructural (SEM) viewpoints. Semi-finished products exhibit a remarkable microstructural uniformity and stability in a rather wide window of firing schedules. The phase composition and compact microstructure of fired slabs are very similar to those of porcelain stoneware tiles. The values of water absorption, bulk density, closed porosity, functional performances as well as mechanical and tribological properties conform to the top quality range of porcelain stoneware tiles. However, the large size coupled with low thickness bestow on the slab a certain degree of flexibility, which is emphasized in ceramic-fiberglass composites. These outstanding performances make the large-sized slabs suitable to be used in novel applications: building and construction (new floorings without dismantling the previous paving, ventilated facades, tunnel coverings, insulating panelling), indoor furnitures (table tops, doors), support for photovoltaic ceramic panels. (Author) 24 refs.

  2. Processing and properties of large-sized ceramic slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondo, M.; Dondi, M.; Zanelli, C.; Guarini, G.; Gozzi, A.; Marani, F.; Fossa, L.

    2010-01-01

    Large-sized ceramic slabs with dimensions up to 360x120 cm 2 and thickness down to 2 mm are manufactured through an innovative ceramic process, starting from porcelain stoneware formulations and involving wet ball milling, spray drying, die-less slow-rate pressing, a single stage of fast drying-firing, and finishing (trimming, assembling of ceramic-fiberglass composites). Fired and unfired industrial slabs were selected and characterized from the technological, compositional (XRF, XRD) and microstructural (SEM) viewpoints. Semi-finished products exhibit a remarkable microstructural uniformity and stability in a rather wide window of firing schedules. The phase composition and compact microstructure of fired slabs are very similar to those of porcelain stoneware tiles. The values of water absorption, bulk density, closed porosity, functional performances as well as mechanical and tribological properties conform to the top quality range of porcelain stoneware tiles. However, the large size coupled with low thickness bestow on the slab a certain degree of flexibility, which is emphasized in ceramic-fiberglass composites. These outstanding performances make the large-sized slabs suitable to be used in novel applications: building and construction (new floorings without dismantling the previous paving, ventilated facades, tunnel coverings, insulating panelling), indoor furnitures (table tops, doors), support for photovoltaic ceramic panels. (Author) 24 refs.

  3. Influence of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser-irradiated metallic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ziyu; Li Jianfeng; Yu Yong; Li Xiaoya; Peng Qixian; Zhu Wenjun; Wang Jiaxiang

    2012-01-01

    The influences of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser interaction with metallic targets have been investigated. Particle-in-cell simulations at high laser intensities show that the yield of hot electrons tends to increase with lateral target size, because the larger surface area reduces the electrostatic field on the target, owing to its expansion along the target surface. At lower laser intensities and longer time scales, experimental data characterizing electromagnetic pulse emission as a function of lateral target size also show target-size effects. Charge separation and a larger target tending to have a lower target potential have both been observed. The increase in radiation strength and downshift in radiation frequency with increasing lateral target size can be interpreted using a simple model of the electrical capacity of the target.

  4. Influence of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser-irradiated metallic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ziyu; Li Jianfeng; Yu Yong; Li Xiaoya; Peng Qixian; Zhu Wenjun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Wang Jiaxiang [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2012-11-15

    The influences of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser interaction with metallic targets have been investigated. Particle-in-cell simulations at high laser intensities show that the yield of hot electrons tends to increase with lateral target size, because the larger surface area reduces the electrostatic field on the target, owing to its expansion along the target surface. At lower laser intensities and longer time scales, experimental data characterizing electromagnetic pulse emission as a function of lateral target size also show target-size effects. Charge separation and a larger target tending to have a lower target potential have both been observed. The increase in radiation strength and downshift in radiation frequency with increasing lateral target size can be interpreted using a simple model of the electrical capacity of the target.

  5. Technological Aspects of Creating Large-size Optical Telescopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of the telescope creation, first of all, depends both on a choice of the optical scheme to form optical radiation and images with minimum losses of energy and information and on a choice of design to meet requirements for strength, stiffness, and stabilization characteristics in real telescope operation conditions. Thus, the concept of creating large-size telescopes, certainly, involves the use of adaptive optics methods and means.The level of technological capabilities to realize scientific and engineering ideas define a successful development of large-size optical telescopes in many respects. All developers pursue the same aim that is to raise an amount of information by increasing a main mirror diameter of the telescope.The article analyses the adaptive telescope designs developed in our country. Using a domestic ACT-25 telescope as an example, it considers creation of large-size optical telescopes in terms of technological aspects. It also describes the telescope creation concept features, which allow reaching marginally possible characteristics to ensure maximum amount of information.The article compares a wide range of large-size telescopes projects. It shows that a domestic project to create the adaptive ACT-25 super-telescope surpasses its foreign counterparts, and there is no sense to implement Euro50 (50m and OWL (100m projects.The considered material gives clear understanding on a role of technological aspects in development of such complicated optic-electronic complexes as a large-size optical telescope. The technological criteria of an assessment offered in the article, namely specific informational content of the telescope, its specific mass, and specific cost allow us to reveal weaknesses in the project development and define a reserve regarding further improvement of the telescope.The analysis of results and their judgment have shown that improvement of optical largesize telescopes in terms of their maximum

  6. Higher albedos and size distribution of large transneptunian objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykawka, Patryk Sofia; Mukai, Tadashi

    2005-11-01

    Transneptunian objects (TNOs) orbit beyond Neptune and do offer important clues about the formation of our solar system. Although observations have been increasing the number of discovered TNOs and improving their orbital elements, very little is known about elementary physical properties such as sizes, albedos and compositions. Due to TNOs large distances (>40 AU) and observational limitations, reliable physical information can be obtained only from brighter objects (supposedly larger bodies). According to size and albedo measurements available, it is evident the traditionally assumed albedo p=0.04 cannot hold for all TNOs, especially those with approximately absolute magnitudes H⩽5.5. That is, the largest TNOs possess higher albedos (generally >0.04) that strongly appear to increase as a function of size. Using a compilation of published data, we derived empirical relations which can provide estimations of diameters and albedos as a function of absolute magnitude. Calculations result in more accurate size/albedo estimations for TNOs with H⩽5.5 than just assuming p=0.04. Nevertheless, considering low statistics, the value p=0.04 sounds still convenient for H>5.5 non-binary TNOs as a group. We also discuss about physical processes (e.g., collisions, intrinsic activity and the presence of tenuous atmospheres) responsible for the increase of albedo among large bodies. Currently, all big TNOs (>700 km) would be capable to sustain thin atmospheres or icy frosts composed of CH 4, CO or N 2 even for body bulk densities as low as 0.5 g cm -3. A size-dependent albedo has important consequences for the TNOs size distribution, cumulative luminosity function and total mass estimations. According to our analysis, the latter can be reduced up to 50% if higher albedos are common among large bodies. Lastly, by analyzing orbital properties of classical TNOs ( 42AUbodies. For both populations, distinct absolute magnitude distributions are maximized for an inclination threshold

  7. Phased array inspection of large size forged steel parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Marillia, Frederic; Jahazi, Mohammad; Belanger, Pierre

    2018-04-01

    High strength forged steel requires uncompromising quality to warrant advance performance for numerous critical applications. Ultrasonic inspection is commonly used in nondestructive testing to detect cracks and other defects. In steel blocks of relatively small dimensions (at least two directions not exceeding a few centimetres), phased array inspection is a trusted method to generate images of the inside of the blocks and therefore identify and size defects. However, casting of large size forged ingots introduces changes of mechanical parameters such as grain size, the Young's modulus, the Poisson's ratio, and the chemical composition. These heterogeneities affect the wave propagation, and consequently, the reliability of ultrasonic inspection and the imaging capabilities for these blocks. In this context, a custom phased array transducer designed for a 40-ton bainitic forged ingot was investigated. Following a previous study that provided local mechanical parameters for a similar block, two-dimensional simulations were made to compute the optimal transducer parameters including the pitch, width and number of elements. It appeared that depending on the number of elements, backwall reconstruction can generate high amplitude artefacts. Indeed, the large dimensions of the simulated block introduce numerous constructive interferences from backwall reflections which may lead to important artefacts. To increase image quality, the reconstruction algorithm was adapted and promising results were observed and compared with the scattering cone filter method available in the CIVA software.

  8. Target size matters: target errors contribute to the generalization of implicit visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenthal, Maayan; Avraham, Guy; Karniel, Amir; Shmuelof, Lior

    2016-08-01

    The process of sensorimotor adaptation is considered to be driven by errors. While sensory prediction errors, defined as the difference between the planned and the actual movement of the cursor, drive implicit learning processes, target errors (e.g., the distance of the cursor from the target) are thought to drive explicit learning mechanisms. This distinction was mainly studied in the context of arm reaching tasks where the position and the size of the target were constant. We hypothesize that in a dynamic reaching environment, where subjects have to hit moving targets and the targets' dynamic characteristics affect task success, implicit processes will benefit from target errors as well. We examine the effect of target errors on learning of an unnoticed perturbation during unconstrained reaching movements. Subjects played a Pong game, in which they had to hit a moving ball by moving a paddle controlled by their hand. During the game, the movement of the paddle was gradually rotated with respect to the hand, reaching a final rotation of 25°. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: The high-target error group played the Pong with a small ball, and the low-target error group played with a big ball. Before and after the Pong game, subjects performed open-loop reaching movements toward static targets with no visual feedback. While both groups adapted to the rotation, the postrotation reaching movements were directionally biased only in the small-ball group. This result provides evidence that implicit adaptation is sensitive to target errors. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Contingent orienting or contingent capture: a size singleton matching the target-distractor size relation cannot capture attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Yin, Yue; Qi, Yue; Zhang, Kan

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we examined whether a peripheral size-singleton distractor that matches the target-distractor size relation can capture attention and disrupt central target identification. Three experiments consistently showed that a size singleton that matches the target-distractor size relation cannot capture attention when it appears outside of the attentional window, even though the same size singleton produces a cuing effect. In addition, a color singleton that matches the target color, instead of a size singleton that matches the target-distractor size relation, captures attention when it is outside of the attentional window. Thus, a size-relation-matched distractor is much weaker than a color-matched distractor in capturing attention and cannot capture attention when the distractor appears outside of the attentional window.

  10. Reliable pipeline repair system for very large pipe size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John N.; Sousa, Alexandre Barreto de [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas industry worldwide has been mainly depending on the long-term reliability of rigid pipelines to ensure the transportation of hydrocarbons, crude oil, gas, fuel, etc. Many other methods are also utilized onshore and offshore (e.g. flexible lines, FPSO's, etc.), but when it comes to the underwater transportation of very high volumes of oil and gas, the industry commonly uses large size rigid pipelines (i.e. steel pipes). Oil and gas operators learned to depend on the long-lasting integrity of these very large pipelines and many times they forget or disregard that even steel pipelines degrade over time and more often that that, they are also susceptible to various forms of damage (minor or major, environmental or external, etc.). Over the recent years the industry had recognized the need of implementing an 'emergency repair plan' to account for such unforeseen events and the oil and gas operators have become 'smarter' by being 'pro-active' in order to ensure 'flow assurance'. When we consider very large diameter steel pipelines such as 42' and 48' nominal pipe size (NPS), the industry worldwide does not provide 'ready-made', 'off-the-shelf' repair hardware that can be easily shipped to the offshore location and effect a major repair within acceptable time frames and avoid substantial profit losses due to 'down-time' in production. The typical time required to establish a solid repair system for large pipe diameters could be as long as six or more months (depending on the availability of raw materials). This paper will present in detail the Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) that Oceaneering successfully designed, manufactured, tested and provided to two major oil and gas operators, located in two different continents (Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. and Arabian Gulf, U.A.E.), for two different very large pipe sizes (42'' and 48'' Nominal Pipe Sizes

  11. Effects of 'target' plant species body size on neighbourhood species richness and composition in old-field vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S Schamp

    Full Text Available Competition is generally regarded as an important force in organizing the structure of vegetation, and evidence from several experimental studies of species mixtures suggests that larger mature plant size elicits a competitive advantage. However, these findings are at odds with the fact that large and small plant species generally coexist, and relatively smaller species are more common in virtually all plant communities. Here, we use replicates of ten relatively large old-field plant species to explore the competitive impact of target individual size on their surrounding neighbourhoods compared to nearby neighbourhoods of the same size that are not centred by a large target individual. While target individuals of the largest of our test species, Centaurea jacea L., had a strong impact on neighbouring species, in general, target species size was a weak predictor of the number of other resident species growing within its immediate neighbourhood, as well as the number of resident species that were reproductive. Thus, the presence of a large competitor did not restrict the ability of neighbouring species to reproduce. Lastly, target species size did not have any impact on the species size structure of neighbouring species; i.e. they did not restrict smaller, supposedly poorer competitors, from growing and reproducing close by. Taken together, these results provide no support for a size-advantage in competition restricting local species richness or the ability of small species to coexist and successfully reproduce in the immediate neighbourhood of a large species.

  12. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Wilson

    Full Text Available Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not.

  13. Vertebral Adaptations to Large Body Size in Theropod Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John P; Woodruff, D Cary; Gardner, Jacob D; Flora, Holley M; Horner, John R; Organ, Chris L

    2016-01-01

    Rugose projections on the anterior and posterior aspects of vertebral neural spines appear throughout Amniota and result from the mineralization of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments via metaplasia, the process of permanent tissue-type transformation. In mammals, this metaplasia is generally pathological or stress induced, but is a normal part of development in some clades of birds. Such structures, though phylogenetically sporadic, appear throughout the fossil record of non-avian theropod dinosaurs, yet their physiological and adaptive significance has remained unexamined. Here we show novel histologic and phylogenetic evidence that neural spine projections were a physiological response to biomechanical stress in large-bodied theropod species. Metaplastic projections also appear to vary between immature and mature individuals of the same species, with immature animals either lacking them or exhibiting smaller projections, supporting the hypothesis that these structures develop through ontogeny as a result of increasing bending stress subjected to the spinal column. Metaplastic mineralization of spinal ligaments would likely affect the flexibility of the spinal column, increasing passive support for body weight. A stiff spinal column would also provide biomechanical support for the primary hip flexors and, therefore, may have played a role in locomotor efficiency and mobility in large-bodied species. This new association of interspinal ligament metaplasia in Theropoda with large body size contributes additional insight to our understanding of the diverse biomechanical coping mechanisms developed throughout Dinosauria, and stresses the significance of phylogenetic methods when testing for biological trends, evolutionary or not.

  14. BAND STRUCTURE OF NON-STEIOCHIOMETRIC LARGE-SIZED NANOCRYSTALLITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V.Kityk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A band structure of large-sized (from 20 to 35nm non-steichiometric nanocrystallites (NC of the Si2-xCx (1.04 < x < 1.10 has been investigated using different band energy approaches and a modified Car-Parinello molecular dynamics structure optimization of the NC interfaces. The non-steichiometric excess of carbon favors the appearance of a thin prevailingly carbon-contained layer (with thickness of about 1 nm covering the crystallites. As a consequence, one can observe a substantial structure reconstruction of boundary SiC crystalline layers. The numerical modeling has shown that these NC can be considered as SiC reconstructed crystalline films with thickness of about 2 nm covering the SiC crystallites. The observed data are considered within the different one-electron band structure methods. It was shown that the nano-sized carbon sheet plays a key role in a modified band structure. Independent manifestation of the important role played by the reconstructed confined layers is due to the experimentally discovered excitonic-like resonances. Low-temperature absorption measurements confirm the existence of sharp-like absorption resonances originating from the reconstructed layers.

  15. An alternative method for determining particle-size distribution of forest road aggregate and soil with large-sized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakjun Rhee; Randy B. Foltz; James L. Fridley; Finn Krogstad; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of particle-size distribution (PSD) of soil with large-sized particles (e.g., 25.4 mm diameter) requires a large sample and numerous particle-size analyses (PSAs). A new method is needed that would reduce time, effort, and cost for PSAs of the soil and aggregate material with large-sized particles. We evaluated a nested method for sampling and PSA by...

  16. New Sequences with Low Correlation and Large Family Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanxin

    In direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) communication systems and direct-sequence ultra wideband (DS-UWB) radios, sequences with low correlation and large family size are important for reducing multiple access interference (MAI) and accepting more active users, respectively. In this paper, a new collection of families of sequences of length pn-1, which includes three constructions, is proposed. The maximum number of cyclically distinct families without GMW sequences in each construction is φ(pn-1)/n·φ(pm-1)/m, where p is a prime number, n is an even number, and n=2m, and these sequences can be binary or polyphase depending upon choice of the parameter p. In Construction I, there are pn distinct sequences within each family and the new sequences have at most d+2 nontrivial periodic correlation {-pm-1, -1, pm-1, 2pm-1,…,dpm-1}. In Construction II, the new sequences have large family size p2n and possibly take the nontrivial correlation values in {-pm-1, -1, pm-1, 2pm-1,…,(3d-4)pm-1}. In Construction III, the new sequences possess the largest family size p(d-1)n and have at most 2d correlation levels {-pm-1, -1,pm-1, 2pm-1,…,(2d-2)pm-1}. Three constructions are near-optimal with respect to the Welch bound because the values of their Welch-Ratios are moderate, WR_??_d, WR_??_3d-4 and WR_??_2d-2, respectively. Each family in Constructions I, II and III contains a GMW sequence. In addition, Helleseth sequences and Niho sequences are special cases in Constructions I and III, and their restriction conditions to the integers m and n, pm≠2 (mod 3) and n≅0 (mod 4), respectively, are removed in our sequences. Our sequences in Construction III include the sequences with Niho type decimation 3·2m-2, too. Finally, some open questions are pointed out and an example that illustrates the performance of these sequences is given.

  17. Sizing the star cluster population of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2018-04-01

    The number of star clusters that populate the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) at deprojected distances knowledge of the LMC cluster formation and dissolution histories, we closely revisited such a compilation of objects and found that only ˜35 per cent of the previously known catalogued clusters have been included. The remaining entries are likely related to stellar overdensities of the LMC composite star field, because there is a remarkable enhancement of objects with assigned ages older than log(t yr-1) ˜ 9.4, which contrasts with the existence of the LMC cluster age gap; the assumption of a cluster formation rate similar to that of the LMC star field does not help to conciliate so large amount of clusters either; and nearly 50 per cent of them come from cluster search procedures known to produce more than 90 per cent of false detections. The lack of further analyses to confirm the physical reality as genuine star clusters of the identified overdensities also glooms those results. We support that the actual size of the LMC main body cluster population is close to that previously known.

  18. Cryogenic control system of the large COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Gautheron, F; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Görtz, S; Gustafsson, K K; Horikawa, N; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Kondo, K; Meyer, Werner T; Reicherz, G

    2004-01-01

    The dilution refrigerator used to cool the large COMPASS polarized target is monitored through a PC running LabVIEW trademark 6.1 under Windows 2000 trademark . About 60 parameters of the target (temperatures, pressures, flow rates) are continuously plotted and checked. They are periodically recorded in an Oracle trademark database and in a data file. An alarm for every parameter can be individually activated and optionally connected to a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) delivery message system. A web server receives and publishes the online status of the target with online tables and graphics on a dedicated COMPASS polarized target information web site. A Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC) powered by an uninterruptable source keeps the cryogenic system safe and stable during the long beam periods by controlling valves and interlocks. This safety feature protects the dilution refrigerator against potential damages in case of power failure.

  19. Processing and properties of large-sized ceramic slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossa, L.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Large-sized ceramic slabs – with dimensions up to 360x120 cm2 and thickness down to 2 mm – are manufactured through an innovative ceramic process, starting from porcelain stoneware formulations and involving wet ball milling, spray drying, die-less slow-rate pressing, a single stage of fast drying-firing, and finishing (trimming, assembling of ceramic-fiberglass composites. Fired and unfired industrial slabs were selected and characterized from the technological, compositional (XRF, XRD and microstructural (SEM viewpoints. Semi-finished products exhibit a remarkable microstructural uniformity and stability in a rather wide window of firing schedules. The phase composition and compact microstructure of fired slabs are very similar to those of porcelain stoneware tiles. The values of water absorption, bulk density, closed porosity, functional performances as well as mechanical and tribological properties conform to the top quality range of porcelain stoneware tiles. However, the large size coupled with low thickness bestow on the slab a certain degree of flexibility, which is emphasized in ceramic-fiberglass composites. These outstanding performances make the large-sized slabs suitable to be used in novel applications: building and construction (new floorings without dismantling the previous paving, ventilated façades, tunnel coverings, insulating panelling, indoor furnitures (table tops, doors, support for photovoltaic ceramic panels.

    Se han fabricado piezas de gran formato, con dimensiones de hasta 360x120 cm, y menos de 2 mm, de espesor, empleando métodos innovadores de fabricación, partiendo de composiciones de gres porcelánico y utilizando, molienda con bolas por vía húmeda, atomización, prensado a baja velocidad sin boquilla de extrusión, secado y cocción rápido en una sola etapa, y un acabado que incluye la adhesión de fibra de vidrio al soporte cerámico y el rectificado de la pieza final. Se han

  20. High voltage distribution scheme for large size GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, J.; Kumar, A.; Dubey, A.K.; Negi, V.S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors will be used for Muon tracking in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the Facility for Anti-proton Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt, Germany. The sizes of the detector modules in the Muon chambers are of the order of 1 metre x 0.5 metre. For construction of these chambers, three GEM foils are used per chamber. These foils are made by two layered 50μm thin kapton foil. Each GEM foil has millions of holes on it. In such a large scale manufacturing of the foils, even after stringent quality controls, some of the holes may still have defects or defects might develop over the time with operating conditions. These defects may result in short-circuit of the entire GEM foil. A short even in a single hole will make entire foil un-usable. To reduce such occurrences, high voltage (HV) segmentation within the foils has been introduced. These segments are powered either by individual HV supply per segment or through an active HV distribution to manage such a large number of segments across the foil. Individual supplies apart from being costly, are highly complex to implement. Additionally, CBM will have high intensity of particles bombarding on the detector causing the change of resistive chain current feeding the GEM detector with the variation in the intensity. This leads to voltage fluctuations across the foil resulting in the gain variation with the particle intensity. Hence, a low cost active HV distribution is designed to take care of the above discussed issues

  1. Effects of target size on the comparison of photon and charged particle dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.H.; Frankel, K.A.; Tjoa, T.; Lyman, J.T.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Levy, R.P.

    1989-12-01

    The work presented here is part of an ongoing project to quantify and evaluate the differences in the use of different radiation types and irradiation geometries in radiosurgery. We are examining dose distributions for photons using the ''Gamma Knife'' and the linear accelerator arc methods, as well as different species of charged particles from protons to neon ions. A number of different factors need to be studied to accurately compare the different modalities such as target size, shape and location, the irradiation geometry, and biological response. This presentation focuses on target size, which has a large effect on the dose distributions in normal tissue surrounding the lesion. This work concentrates on dose distributions found in radiosurgery, as opposed to those usually found in radiotherapy. 5 refs., 2 figs

  2. Large-size space debris flyby in low earth orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, A. A.; Grishko, D. A.; Razoumny, Y. N.

    2017-09-01

    the analysis of NORAD catalogue of space objects executed with respect to the overall sizes of upper-stages and last stages of carrier rockets allows the classification of 5 groups of large-size space debris (LSSD). These groups are defined according to the proximity of orbital inclinations of the involved objects. The orbits within a group have various values of deviations in the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN). It is proposed to use the RAANs deviations' evolution portrait to clarify the orbital planes' relative spatial distribution in a group so that the RAAN deviations should be calculated with respect to the concrete precessing orbital plane of the concrete object. In case of the first three groups (inclinations i = 71°, i = 74°, i = 81°) the straight lines of the RAAN relative deviations almost do not intersect each other. So the simple, successive flyby of group's elements is effective, but the significant value of total Δ V is required to form drift orbits. In case of the fifth group (Sun-synchronous orbits) these straight lines chaotically intersect each other for many times due to the noticeable differences in values of semi-major axes and orbital inclinations. The intersections' existence makes it possible to create such a flyby sequence for LSSD group when the orbit of one LSSD object simultaneously serves as the drift orbit to attain another LSSD object. This flyby scheme requiring less Δ V was called "diagonal." The RAANs deviations' evolution portrait built for the fourth group (to be studied in the paper) contains both types of lines, so the simultaneous combination of diagonal and successive flyby schemes is possible. The value of total Δ V and temporal costs were calculated to cover all the elements of the 4th group. The article is also enriched by the results obtained for the flyby problem solution in case of all the five mentioned LSSD groups. The general recommendations are given concerned with the required reserve of total

  3. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.; Rogers, Peter J.; Hardman, Charlotte A.

    2016-01-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study ...

  4. SCF(SAP) controls organ size by targeting PPD proteins for degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Na; Jiang, Shan; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Inzé, Dirk; Li, Yunhai

    2016-04-06

    Control of organ size by cell proliferation and growth is a fundamental process, but the mechanisms that determine the final size of organs are largely elusive in plants. We have previously revealed that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 regulates organ size by repressing cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that a mutant allele of STERILE APETALA (SAP) suppresses the da1-1 mutant phenotype. We show that SAP is an F-box protein that forms part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and controls organ size by promoting the proliferation of meristemoid cells. Genetic analyses suggest that SAP may act in the same pathway with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, which are negative regulators of meristemoid proliferation, to control organ size, but does so independently of DA1. Further results reveal that SAP physically associates with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, and targets them for degradation. These findings define a molecular mechanism by which SAP and PEAPOD control organ size.

  5. Estimation of the sizes of hot nuclear systems from particle-particle large angle kinematical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Ville, J.L.; Bizard, G.; Durand, D.; Jin, G.M.; Rosato, E.

    1990-06-01

    Light fragment emission, when triggered by large transverse momentum protons shows specific kinematical correlations due to recoil effects of the excited emitting source. Such effects have been observed in azimuthal angular distributions of He-particles produced in collisions induced by 94 MeV/u 16 0 ions on Al, Ni and Au targets. A model calculation assuming a two-stage mechanism (formation and sequential decay of a hot source) gives a good description of these whole data. From this succesfull confrontation, it is possible to estimate the size of the emitting system

  6. Visual exposure to large and small portion sizes and perceptions of portion size normality: Three experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Cuckson, Imogen; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2016-03-01

    Portion sizes of many foods have increased in recent times. In three studies we examined the effect that repeated visual exposure to larger versus smaller food portion sizes has on perceptions of what constitutes a normal-sized food portion and measures of portion size selection. In studies 1 and 2 participants were visually exposed to images of large or small portions of spaghetti bolognese, before making evaluations about an image of an intermediate sized portion of the same food. In study 3 participants were exposed to images of large or small portions of a snack food before selecting a portion size of snack food to consume. Across the three studies, visual exposure to larger as opposed to smaller portion sizes resulted in participants considering a normal portion of food to be larger than a reference intermediate sized portion. In studies 1 and 2 visual exposure to larger portion sizes also increased the size of self-reported ideal meal size. In study 3 visual exposure to larger portion sizes of a snack food did not affect how much of that food participants subsequently served themselves and ate. Visual exposure to larger portion sizes may adjust visual perceptions of what constitutes a 'normal' sized portion. However, we did not find evidence that visual exposure to larger portions altered snack food intake. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Size-controlled synthesis of biodegradable nanocarriers for targeted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research for synthesis of size-controlled carriers is currently challenging one. In this research paper, a ... There are many methods available for the prepara- tion of drug-loaded ... 2.3 Characterization of nanoparticles. 2.3a FT-IR spectral ...

  8. Embrittlement and decrease of apparent strength in large-sized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In fact, the dimensional disparity between tensile stress σ([F][L]. −2) and ..... they work only in a limited range. This is the case of the ...... ACI 1992 American Concrete Institute: Building Code 318R-89 (Detroit: ACI Press). Ba˘zant Z P 1984 Size ...

  9. Size matters: large objects capture attention in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Michael J

    2010-12-23

    Can objects or events ever capture one's attention in a purely stimulus-driven manner? A recent review of the literature set out the criteria required to find stimulus-driven attentional capture independent of goal-directed influences, and concluded that no published study has satisfied that criteria. Here visual search experiments assessed whether an irrelevantly large object can capture attention. Capture of attention by this static visual feature was found. The results suggest that a large object can indeed capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner and independent of displaywide features of the task that might encourage a goal-directed bias for large items. It is concluded that these results are either consistent with the stimulus-driven criteria published previously or alternatively consistent with a flexible, goal-directed mechanism of saliency detection.

  10. Aerodynamic Limits on Large Civil Tiltrotor Sizing and Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C W.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor (2nd generation, or LCTR2) is a useful reference design for technology impact studies. The present paper takes a broad view of technology assessment by examining the extremes of what aerodynamic improvements might hope to accomplish. Performance was analyzed with aerodynamically idealized rotor, wing, and airframe, representing the physical limits of a large tiltrotor. The analysis was repeated with more realistic assumptions, which revealed that increased maximum rotor lift capability is potentially more effective in improving overall vehicle efficiency than higher rotor or wing efficiency. To balance these purely theoretical studies, some practical limitations on airframe layout are also discussed, along with their implications for wing design. Performance of a less efficient but more practical aircraft with non-tilting nacelles is presented.

  11. Development of large size NC trepanning and horning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoshiei; Aono, Fumiaki; Siga, Toshihiko; Sudo, Eiichi; Takasa, Seiju; Fukuyama, Masaaki; Sibukawa, Koichi; Nakagawa, Hirokatu

    2010-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in world energy demand, construction of considerable number of nuclear and fossil power plant has been proceeded and is further planned. High generating capacity plant requires large forged components such as monoblock turbine rotor shafts and the dimensions of them tend to increase. Some of these components have center bore for material test, NDE and other use. In order to cope with the increase in production of these large forgings with center bores, a new trepanning machine, which exclusively bore a deep hole, was developed in JSW taking account of many accumulated experiences and know-how of experts. The machine is the world largest 400t trepanning and horning machine with numerical control and has many advantage in safety, the machining precision, machining efficiency, operability, labor-saving, and energy saving. Furthermore, transfer of the technical skill became easy through concentrated monitoring system based on numerically analysed experts' know-how. (author)

  12. Remote aerosol testing of large size HEPA filter banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, B.; Pasha, M.; Bronger, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Different methods of testing HEPA filter banks are described. Difficulties in remote testing of large banks of HEPA filters in series with minimum distances between banks, and with no available access upstream and downstream of the filter house, are discussed. Modifications incorporated to make the filter system suitable for remote testing without personnel re-entry into the filter house are described for a 51,000 m/sup 3//hr filter unit at the WIPP site

  13. Quantifying the Ebbinghaus figure effect: Target size, context size, and target-context distance determine the presence and direction of the illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester eKnol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, visual illusions, like the Ebbinghaus figure, have become widespread to investigate functional segregation of the visual system. This segregation reveals itself, so it is claimed, in the insensitivity of movement to optical illusions. This claim, however, faces contradictory results (and interpretations in the literature. These contradictions may be due to methodological weaknesses in, and differences across studies, some of which may hide a lack of perceptual illusion effects. Indeed, despite the long history of research with the Ebbinghaus figure, standardized configurations to predict the illusion effect are missing. Here, we present a complete geometrical description of the Ebbinghaus figure with three target sizes compatible with Fitts’ task. Each trial consisted of a stimulus and an isolated probe. The probe was controlled by the participant’s response through a staircase procedure. The participant was asked whether the probe or target appeared bigger. The factors target size, context size, target-context distance, and a control condition resulted in a 3×3×3+3 factorial design. The results indicate that the illusion magnitude, the perceptual distinctiveness, and the response time depend on the context size, distance, and especially, target size. In 33% of the factor combinations there was no illusion effect. The illusion magnitude ranged from zero to (exceptionally ten percent of the target size. The small (or absent illusion effects on perception and its possible influence on motor tasks might have been overlooked or misinterpreted in previous studies. Our results provide a basis for the application of the Ebbinghaus figure in psychophysical and motor control studies.

  14. Contrast, size, and orientation-invariant target detection in infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Tong; Crawshaw, Richard D.

    1991-08-01

    Automatic target detection in IR imagery is a very difficult task due to variations in target brightness, shape, size, and orientation. In this paper, the authors present a contrast, size, and orientation invariant algorithm based on Gabor functions for detecting targets from a single IR image frame. The algorithms consists of three steps. First, it locates potential targets by using low-resolution Gabor functions which resist noise and background clutter effects, then, it removes false targets and eliminates redundant target points based on a similarity measure. These two steps mimic human vision processing but are different from Zeevi's Foveating Vision System. Finally, it uses both low- and high-resolution Gabor functions to verify target existence. This algorithm has been successfully tested on several IR images that contain multiple examples of military vehicles with different size and brightness in various background scenes and orientations.

  15. The large size straw drift chambers of the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bychkov, V N; Dünnweber, W; Faessler, Martin A; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Geyer, R; Gousakov, Yu V; Grünemaier, A; Heinsius, F H; Ilgner, C; Ivanchenko, I M; Kekelidze, G D; Königsmann, K C; Livinski, V V; Lysan, V M; Marzec, J; Matveev, D A; Mishin, S V; Mialkovski, V V; Novikov, E A; Peshekhonov, V D; Platzer, K; San, M; Schmid, T; Shokin, V I; Sissakian, A N; Viriasov, K S; Wiedner, U; Zaremba, K; Zhukov, I A; Zlobin, Y L; Zvyagin, A

    2005-01-01

    Straw drift chambers are used for the Large Area Tracking (LAT) of the Common Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) at CERN. An active area of 130 m2 in total is covered by 12 440 straw tubes, which are arranged in 15 double layers. The design has been optimized with respect to spatial resolution, rate capability, low material budget and compactness of the detectors. Mechanical and electrical design considerations of the chambers are discussed as well as new production techniques. The mechanical precision of the chambers has been determined using a CCD X-ray scanning apparatus. Results about the performance during data taking in COMPASS are described.

  16. Small size modular fast reactors in large scale nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrodnikov, A.V.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Komlev, O.G.; Dragunov, U.G.; Stepanov, V.S.; Klimov, N.N.; Kopytov, I.I.; Krushelnitsky, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    The report presents an innovative nuclear power technology (NPT) based on usage of modular type fast reactors (FR) (SVBR-75/100) with heavy liquid metal coolant (HLMC) i. e. eutectic lead-bismuth alloy mastered for Russian nuclear submarines' (NS) reactors. Use of this NPT makes it possible to eliminate a conflict between safety and economic requirements peculiar to the traditional reactors. Physical features of FRs, an integral design of the reactor and its small power (100 MWe), as well as natural properties of lead-bismuth coolant assured realization of the inherent safety properties. This made it possible to eliminate a lot of safety systems necessary for the reactor installations (RI) of operating NPPs and to design the modular NPP which technical and economical parameters are competitive not only with those of the NPP based on light water reactors (LWR) but with those of the steam-gas electric power plant. Multipurpose usage of transportable reactor modules SVBR-75/100 of entirely factory manufacture assures their production in large quantities that reduces their fabrication costs. The proposed NPT provides economically expedient change over to the closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). When the uranium-plutonium fuel is used, the breeding ratio is over one. Use of proposed NPT makes it possible to considerably increase the investment attractiveness of nuclear power (NP) with fast neutron reactors even today at low costs of natural uranium. (authors)

  17. Large size self-assembled quantum rings: quantum size effect and modulation on the surface diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Cunzhu; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Wang, Lijun

    2012-09-24

    We demonstrate experimentally the submicron size self-assembled (SA) GaAs quantum rings (QRs) by quantum size effect (QSE). An ultrathin In0.1 Ga0.9As layer with different thickness is deposited on the GaAs to modulate the surface nucleus diffusion barrier, and then the SA QRs are grown. It is found that the density of QRs is affected significantly by the thickness of inserted In0.1 Ga0.9As, and the diffusion barrier modulation reflects mainly on the first five monolayer . The physical mechanism behind is discussed. The further analysis shows that about 160 meV decrease in diffusion barrier can be achieved, which allows the SA QRs with density of as low as one QR per 6 μm2. Finally, the QRs with diameters of 438 nm and outer diameters of 736 nm are fabricated using QSE.

  18. Formation of large target residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveland, W.; Aleklett, K.; Sihver, L.; Xu, Z.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1987-04-01

    We have used radiochemical techniques to measure the yields, angular distributions and velocity spectra of the large (A/sub frag/ ≥ 2/3 A/sub tgt/) target residues from the fragmentation of 197 Au by intermediate energy 12 C, 20 Ne, 32 S, 40 Ar, 84 Kr, and 139 La projectiles. The fragment moving frame angular distributions are asymmetric for the lighter projectiles (C-Ar). The fragment velocity spectra are Maxwellian for the Kr induced reactions and non-Maxwellian for the reactions induced by the lighter ions. We interpret these results in terms of a change in the dominant fragment production mechanism(s) from one(s) involving a fast non-equilibrium process for the lighter ions to a slow, equilibrium process for Kr. Comparison of the measured yields and angular distributions with calculations made using a Boltzmann transport equation with appropriate modifications for Pauli blocking, etc., show excellent agreement between data and theory. 12 refs., 12 figs

  19. Scrapie prion liposomes and rods exhibit target sizes of 55,000 Da

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellinger-Kawahara, C.G.; Kempner, E.; Groth, D.; Gabizon, R.; Prusiner, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Scrapie is a degenerative neurologic disease in sheep and goats which can be experimentally transmitted to laboratory rodents. Considerable evidence suggests that the scrapie agent is composed largely, if not entirely, of an abnormal isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc). Inactivation of scrapie prions by ionizing radiation exhibited single-hit kinetics and gave a target size of 55,000 +/- 9000 mol wt. The inactivation profile was independent of the form of the prion. Scrapie agent infectivity in brain homogenates, microsomal fractions, detergent-extracted microsomes, purified amyloid rods, and liposomes exhibited the same inactivation profile. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that the infectious particle causing scrapie contains approximately 2 PrPSc molecules

  20. Size, Albedo, and Taxonomy of the Don Quijote Space Mission Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan; Mueller, Michael; Fitzsimmons, Alan

    2006-03-01

    Rendezvous and lander missions are a very effective but very expensive way of investigating Solar-System bodies. The planning, optimization and success of space missions depends crucially on prior remotely-sensed knowledge of target bodies. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), which are mainly fragments of main-belt asteroids, are seen as important goals for investigation by space missions, mainly due to the role their forebears played in planet formation and the evolution of the Solar System, but also for the pragmatic reason that these objects can collide with the Earth with potentially devastating consequences. The European Space Agency is currently planning the Don Quijote mission to a NEA, which includes a rendezvous (and perhaps a lander) spacecraft and an impactor vehicle. The aim is to study the physical properties of the target asteroid and the effects of the impact on its dynamical state, as a first step in considering realistic mitigation measures against an eventual hazardous NEA. Two potential targets have been selected for the mission, the preferred one being (10302) 1989 ML, which is energetically easier to reach and is possibly a scientifically interesting primitive asteroid. However, due to the ambiguity of available spectral data, it is currently not possible to confidently determine the taxonomic type and mineralogy of this object. Crucially, the albedo is uncertain by a factor of 10, which leads to large uncertainties in the size and mass and hence the planned near-surface operations of Don Quijote. Thermal-infrared observations are urgently required for accurate size and albedo determination. These observations, which can only be carried out by Spitzer and would require only a modest amount of observing time, would enable an accurate diameter to be derived for the first time and the resulting albedo would remove the taxonomic ambiguity. The proposed Spitzer observations are critical for effective mission planning and would greatly increase our

  1. Effects of diffraction and target finite size on coherent transition radiation spectra in bunch length measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, M.; Cianchi, A.; Verzilov, V.A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Orlandi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy)]|[Rome Univ., Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    Effects of diffraction and the size of the target on TR in the context of CTR-based bunch length measurements are studied on the basis of Kirchhoff diffraction theory. Spectra of TR from the finite-size target for several schemes of measurements are calculated in the far-infrared region showing strong distortion at low frequencies. Influence of the effect on the accuracy of bunch length measurements is estimated.

  2. Radiation inactivation analysis of enzymes. Effect of free radical scavengers on apparent target sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, D.C.; Solomonson, L.P.; Barber, M.J.; McCreery, M.J.; Ness, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    In most cases the apparent target size obtained by radiation inactivation analysis corresponds to the subunit size or to the size of a multimeric complex. In this report, we examined whether the larger than expected target sizes of some enzymes could be due to secondary effects of free radicals. To test this proposal we carried out radiation inactivation analysis on Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, Torula yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Chlorella vulgaris nitrate reductase, and chicken liver sulfite oxidase in the presence and absence of free radical scavengers (benzoic acid and mannitol). In the presence of free radical scavengers, inactivation curves are shifted toward higher radiation doses. Plots of scavenger concentration versus enzyme activity showed that the protective effect of benzoic acid reached a maximum at 25 mM then declined. Mannitol alone had little effect, but appeared to broaden the maximum protective range of benzoic acid relative to concentration. The apparent target size of the polymerase activity of DNA polymerase I in the presence of free radical scavengers was about 40% of that observed in the absence of these agents. This is considerably less than the minimum polypeptide size and may reflect the actual size of the polymerase functional domain. Similar effects, but of lesser magnitude, were observed for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase, and sulfite oxidase. These results suggest that secondary damage due to free radicals generated in the local environment as a result of ionizing radiation can influence the apparent target size obtained by this method

  3. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    OpenAIRE

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning n...

  4. Membrane-bound Na,K-ATPase: target size and radiation inactivation size of some of its enzymatic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.; Norby, J.G.

    1988-12-05

    Frozen samples of membrane-bound pig kidney Na,K-ATPase were subjected to target size analysis by radiation inactivation with 10-MeV electrons at -15 degrees C. The various properties investigated decreased monoexponentially with radiation dose, and the decay constants, gamma, were independent of the presence of other proteins and of sucrose concentrations above 0.25 M. The temperature factor was the same as described by others. Irradiation of four proteins of known molecular mass, m, showed that gamma for protein integrity was proportional to m with a proportionality factor about 20% higher than that conventionally used. By this standard curve, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity used as internal standard gave a radiation inactivation size of 110 +/- 5 kDa, very close to m = 104-108 kDa for the dimer, as expected. For Na+/K+-transporting ATPase the following target sizes and radiation inactivation size values were very close to m = 112 kDa for the alpha-peptide: peptide integrity of alpha, 115 kDa; unmodified binding sites for ATP and vanadate, 108 kDa; K+-activated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity, 106 kDa. There was thus no sign of dimerization of the alpha-peptide or involvement of the beta-peptide. In contrast, optimal Na+/K+-transporting ATPase activity had a radiation inactivation size = 189 +/- 7 kDa, and total nucleotide binding capacity corresponded to 72 +/- 3 kDa. These latter results will be extended and discussed in a forthcoming paper.

  5. Membrane-bound Na,K-ATPase: target size and radiation inactivation size of some of its enzymatic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Norby, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Frozen samples of membrane-bound pig kidney Na,K-ATPase were subjected to target size analysis by radiation inactivation with 10-MeV electrons at -15 degrees C. The various properties investigated decreased monoexponentially with radiation dose, and the decay constants, gamma, were independent of the presence of other proteins and of sucrose concentrations above 0.25 M. The temperature factor was the same as described by others. Irradiation of four proteins of known molecular mass, m, showed that gamma for protein integrity was proportional to m with a proportionality factor about 20% higher than that conventionally used. By this standard curve, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity used as internal standard gave a radiation inactivation size of 110 +/- 5 kDa, very close to m = 104-108 kDa for the dimer, as expected. For Na+/K+-transporting ATPase the following target sizes and radiation inactivation size values were very close to m = 112 kDa for the alpha-peptide: peptide integrity of alpha, 115 kDa; unmodified binding sites for ATP and vanadate, 108 kDa; K+-activated p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity, 106 kDa. There was thus no sign of dimerization of the alpha-peptide or involvement of the beta-peptide. In contrast, optimal Na+/K+-transporting ATPase activity had a radiation inactivation size = 189 +/- 7 kDa, and total nucleotide binding capacity corresponded to 72 +/- 3 kDa. These latter results will be extended and discussed in a forthcoming paper

  6. Impedance modulation and feedback corrections in tracking targets of variable size and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selen, Luc P J; van Dieën, Jaap H; Beek, Peter J

    2006-11-01

    Humans are able to adjust the accuracy of their movements to the demands posed by the task at hand. The variability in task execution caused by the inherent noisiness of the neuromuscular system can be tuned to task demands by both feedforward (e.g., impedance modulation) and feedback mechanisms. In this experiment, we studied both mechanisms, using mechanical perturbations to estimate stiffness and damping as indices of impedance modulation and submovement scaling as an index of feedback driven corrections. Eight subjects tracked three differently sized targets (0.0135, 0.0270, and 0.0405 rad) moving at three different frequencies (0.20, 0.25, and 0.33 Hz). Movement variability decreased with both decreasing target size and movement frequency, whereas stiffness and damping increased with decreasing target size, independent of movement frequency. These results are consistent with the theory that mechanical impedance acts as a filter of noisy neuromuscular signals but challenge stochastic theories of motor control that do not account for impedance modulation and only partially for feedback control. Submovements during unperturbed cycles were quantified in terms of their gain, i.e., the slope between their duration and amplitude in the speed profile. Submovement gain decreased with decreasing movement frequency and increasing target size. The results were interpreted to imply that submovement gain is related to observed tracking errors and that those tracking errors are expressed in units of target size. We conclude that impedance and submovement gain modulation contribute additively to tracking accuracy.

  7. Angle dependent focal spot size of a conical X-ray target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed Raza, Hamid; Jin Kim, Hyun; Nam Kim, Hyun; Oh Cho, Sung

    2015-01-01

    Misaligned phantoms may severely affect the focal spot calculations. A method is proposed to determine the geometry of the X-ray target and the position of the image radiograph around the X-ray target to get a relatively smaller focal spot size. Results reveal that the focal spot size is not always isotropic around the target but it decreases as the point of observation shifts radially away from the center line of the conical X-ray target. This research will help in producing high quality X-ray images in multi-directions by properly aligning the phantoms and the radiograph tallies. - Highlights: • Misaligned phantoms may severely affect the focal spot calculations. • The aim of this research is to analyze systematically the angle dependent behavior of the focal spot size around a conical shaped X-ray target. • A general purpose Monte Carlo (MCNP5) computer code is used to achieve a relatively small focal spot size. • Angular distribution of the X-ray focal spot size mainly depends on the angular orientation of the phantom and its aligned FIR tally. • This research will help in producing high quality X-ray images in multi-directions

  8. Investigations of internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minah; Choi, Shinkook; Baek, Jongduk

    2014-03-01

    To describe internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, Gaussian targets with four different sizes (i.e., standard deviation of 2,4,6 and 8) and three different noise structures(i.e., white, low-pass, and highpass) were generated. The generated noise images were scaled to have standard deviation of 0.15. For each noise type, target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability based on NPW, and the detectability of CHO was calculated accordingly. For human observer study, 3 trained observers performed 2AFC detection tasks, and correction rate, Pc, was calculated for each task. By adding proper internal noise level to numerical observer (i.e., NPW and CHO), detectability of human observer was matched with that of numerical observers. Even though target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability of NPW observer, detectability of human observer decreases as the target size increases. The internal noise level varies for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, demonstrating different internal noise levels should be considered in numerical observer to predict the detection performance of human observer.

  9. Smaller Fixation Target Size Is Associated with More Stable Fixation and Less Variance in Threshold Sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    Full Text Available The aims of this randomized observational case control study were to quantify fixation behavior during standard automated perimetry (SAP with different fixation targets and to evaluate the relationship between fixation behavior and threshold variability at each test point in healthy young participants experienced with perimetry. SAP was performed on the right eyes of 29 participants using the Octopus 900 perimeter, program 32, dynamic strategy. The fixation targets of Point, Cross, and Ring were used for SAP. Fixation behavior was recorded using a wearable eye-tracking glass. All participants underwent SAP twice with each fixation target in a random fashion. Fixation behavior was quantified by calculating the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA and the frequency of deviation from the fixation target. The BCEAs (deg2 of Point, Cross, and Ring targets were 1.11, 1.46, and 2.02, respectively. In all cases, BCEA increased significantly with increasing fixation target size (p < 0.05. The logarithmic value of BCEA demonstrated the same tendency (p < 0.05. A positive correlation was identified between fixation behavior and threshold variability for the Point and Cross targets (ρ = 0.413-0.534, p < 0.05. Fixation behavior increased with increasing fixation target size. Moreover, a larger fixation behavior tended to be associated with a higher threshold variability. A small fixation target is recommended during the visual field test.

  10. Large- and small-size advantages in sneaking behaviour in the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Sneaking tactic, a male alternative reproductive tactic involving sperm competition, is generally adopted by small individuals because of its inconspicuousness. However, large size has an advantage when competition occurs between sneakers for fertilization of eggs. Here, we suggest that both large- and small-size advantages of sneaker males are present within the same species. Large sneaker males of the dusky frillgoby Bathygobius fuscus showed a high success rate in intruding into spawning nests because of their advantage in competition among sneaker males in keeping a suitable position to sneak, whereas small sneakers had few chances to sneak. However, small sneaker males were able to stay in the nests longer than large sneaker males when they succeeded in sneak intrusion. This suggests the possibility of an increase in their paternity. The findings of these size-specific behavioural advantages may be important in considering the evolution of size-related reproductive traits.

  11. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutherford, K.M.D; Baxter, E.M.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing litter size has long been a goal of pig breeders and producers, and may have implications for pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) welfare. This paper reviews the scientific evidence on biological factors affecting sow and piglet welfare in relation to large litter size. It is concluded that, i...

  12. Semi-empirical formula for large pore-size estimation from o-Ps annihilation lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Thanh; Tran Quoc Dung; Luu Anh Tuyen; Khuong Thanh Tuan

    2007-01-01

    The o-Ps annihilation rate in large pore was investigated by the semi-classical approach. The semi-empirical formula that simply correlates between the pore size and the o-Ps lifetime was proposed. The calculated results agree well with experiment in the range from some angstroms to several ten nanometers size of pore. (author)

  13. Fission gas release during post irradiation annealing of large grain size fuels from Hinkley point B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    A series of post-irradiation anneals has been carried out on fuel taken from an experimental stringer from Hinkley Point B AGR. The stringer was part of an experimental programme in the reactor to study the effect of large grain size fuel. Three differing fuel types were present in separate pins in the stringer. One variant of large grain size fuel had been prepared by using an MgO dopant during fuel manufactured, a second by high temperature sintering of standard fuel and the third was a reference, 12μm grain size fuel. Both large grain size variants had similar grain sizes around 35μm. The present experiments took fuel samples from highly rated pins from the stringer with local burn-up in excess of 25GWd/tU and annealed these to temperature of up to 1535 deg. C under reducing conditions to allow a comparison of fission gas behaviour at high release levels. The results demonstrate the beneficial effect of large grain size on release rate of 85 Kr following interlinkage. At low temperatures and release rates there was no difference between the fuel types, but at temperatures in excess of 1400 deg. C the release rate was found to be inversely dependent on the fuel grain size. The experiments showed some differences between the doped and undoped large grains size fuel in that the former became interlinked at a lower temperature, releasing fission gas at an increased rate at this temperature. At higher temperatures the grain size effect was dominant. The temperature dependence for fission gas release was determined over a narrow range of temperature and found to be similar for all three types and for both pre-interlinkage and post-interlinkage releases, the difference between the release rates is then seen to be controlled by grain size. (author). 4 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Fission gas release during post irradiation annealing of large grain size fuels from Hinkley point B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killeen, J C [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    A series of post-irradiation anneals has been carried out on fuel taken from an experimental stringer from Hinkley Point B AGR. The stringer was part of an experimental programme in the reactor to study the effect of large grain size fuel. Three differing fuel types were present in separate pins in the stringer. One variant of large grain size fuel had been prepared by using an MgO dopant during fuel manufactured, a second by high temperature sintering of standard fuel and the third was a reference, 12{mu}m grain size fuel. Both large grain size variants had similar grain sizes around 35{mu}m. The present experiments took fuel samples from highly rated pins from the stringer with local burn-up in excess of 25GWd/tU and annealed these to temperature of up to 1535 deg. C under reducing conditions to allow a comparison of fission gas behaviour at high release levels. The results demonstrate the beneficial effect of large grain size on release rate of {sup 85}Kr following interlinkage. At low temperatures and release rates there was no difference between the fuel types, but at temperatures in excess of 1400 deg. C the release rate was found to be inversely dependent on the fuel grain size. The experiments showed some differences between the doped and undoped large grains size fuel in that the former became interlinked at a lower temperature, releasing fission gas at an increased rate at this temperature. At higher temperatures the grain size effect was dominant. The temperature dependence for fission gas release was determined over a narrow range of temperature and found to be similar for all three types and for both pre-interlinkage and post-interlinkage releases, the difference between the release rates is then seen to be controlled by grain size. (author). 4 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs.

  15. Radiation inactivation target size of rat adipocyte glucose transporters in the plasma membrane and intracellular pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.B.; Berenski, C.J.; Spangler, R.A.; Jung, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The in situ assembly states of the glucose transport carrier protein in the plasma membrane and in the intracellular (microsomal) storage pool of rat adipocytes were assessed by studying radiation-induced inactivation of the D-glucose-sensitive cytochalasin B binding activities. High energy radiation inactivated the glucose-sensitive cytochalasin B binding of each of these membrane preparations by reducing the total number of the binding sites without affecting the dissociation constant. The reduction in total number of binding sites was analyzed as a function of radiation dose based on target theory, from which a radiation-sensitive mass (target size) was calculated. When the plasma membranes of insulin-treated adipocytes were used, a target size of approximately 58,000 daltons was obtained. For adipocyte microsomal membranes, we obtained target sizes of approximately 112,000 and 109,000 daltons prior to and after insulin treatment, respectively. In the case of microsomal membranes, however, inactivation data showed anomalously low radiation sensitivities at low radiation doses, which may be interpreted as indicating the presence of a radiation-sensitive inhibitor. These results suggest that the adipocyte glucose transporter occurs as a monomer in the plasma membrane while existing in the intracellular reserve pool either as a homodimer or as a stoichiometric complex with a protein of an approximately equal size

  16. Classification of video sequences into chosen generalized use classes of target size and lighting level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczuk, Mikołaj; Dudek, Łukasz; Witkowski, Marcin

    The VQiPS (Video Quality in Public Safety) Working Group, supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, has been developing a user guide for public safety video applications. According to VQiPS, five parameters have particular importance influencing the ability to achieve a recognition task. They are: usage time-frame, discrimination level, target size, lighting level, and level of motion. These parameters form what are referred to as Generalized Use Classes (GUCs). The aim of our research was to develop algorithms that would automatically assist classification of input sequences into one of the GUCs. Target size and lighting level parameters were approached. The experiment described reveals the experts' ambiguity and hesitation during the manual target size determination process. However, the automatic methods developed for target size classification make it possible to determine GUC parameters with 70 % compliance to the end-users' opinion. Lighting levels of the entire sequence can be classified with an efficiency reaching 93 %. To make the algorithms available for use, a test application has been developed. It is able to process video files and display classification results, the user interface being very simple and requiring only minimal user interaction.

  17. Interlayer catalytic exfoliation realizing scalable production of large-size pristine few-layer graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xiumei; Guo, Yufen; Li, Dongfang; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Chao; Wei, Xiangfei; Chen, Mingliang; Gao, Song; Qiu, Shengqiang; Gong, Youpin; Wu, Liqiong; Long, Mingsheng; Sun, Mengtao; Pan, Gebo; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of reduced graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets has recently been achieved. However, a great challenge still remains in realizing large-quantity and high-quality production of large-size thin few-layer graphene (FLG). Here, we create a novel route to solve the issue by employing one-time-only interlayer catalytic exfoliation (ICE) of salt-intercalated graphite. The typical FLG with a large lateral size of tens of microns and a thickness less than 2?nm have been obtained b...

  18. Granule size control and targeting in pulsed spray fluid bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Henrik; Liu, Anchang; Räikkönen, Heikki; Hatara, Juha; Antikainen, Osmo; Airaksinen, Sari; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Lou, Honxiang; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2009-07-30

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate the effects of pulsed liquid feed on granule size. The secondary aim was to increase knowledge of this technique in granule size targeting. Pulsed liquid feed refers to the pump changing between on- and off-positions in sequences, called duty cycles. One duty cycle consists of one on- and off-period. The study was performed with a laboratory-scale top-spray fluid bed granulator with duty cycle length and atomization pressure as studied variables. The liquid feed rate, amount and inlet air temperature were constant. The granules were small, indicating that the powder has only undergone ordered mixing, nucleation and early growth. The effect of atomizing pressure on granule size depends on inlet air relative humidity, with premature binder evaporation as a reason. The duty cycle length was of critical importance to the end product attributes, by defining the extent of intermittent drying and rewetting. By varying only the duty cycle length, it was possible to control granule nucleation and growth, with a wider granule size target range in increased relative humidity. The present study confirms that pulsed liquid feed in fluid bed granulation is a useful tool in end product particle size targeting.

  19. ALK signaling and target therapy in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio eTabbo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery by Morris SW et al. in 1994 of the genes contributing to the t(2;5(p23;q35 translocation has put the foundation for a molecular based recognition of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL and pointed out the need for a further stratification of T-cell neoplasia. Likewise the detection of ALK genetic lesions among many human cancers has defined unique subsets of cancer patients, providing new opportunities for innovative therapeutic interventions. The objective of this review is to appraise the molecular mechanisms driving ALK-mediated transformation, and to maintain the neoplastic phenotype. The understanding of these events will allow the design and implementation of novel tailored strategies for a well-defined subset of cancer patients.

  20. ALK Signaling and Target Therapy in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbó, Fabrizio; Barreca, Antonella; Piva, Roberto; Inghirami, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    The discovery by Morris et al. (1994) of the genes contributing to the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation has laid the foundation for a molecular based recognition of anaplastic large cell lymphoma and highlighted the need for a further stratification of T-cell neoplasia. Likewise the detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genetic lesions among many human cancers has defined unique subsets of cancer patients, providing new opportunities for innovative therapeutic interventions. The objective of this review is to appraise the molecular mechanisms driving ALK-mediated transformation, and to maintain the neoplastic phenotype. The understanding of these events will allow the design and implementation of novel tailored strategies for a well-defined subset of cancer patients.

  1. Fatigue-crack propagation in gamma-based titanium aluminide alloys at large and small crack sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruzic, J.J.; Campbell, J.P.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1999-01-01

    Most evaluations of the fracture and fatigue-crack propagation properties of γ+α 2 titanium aluminide alloys to date have been performed using standard large-crack samples, e.g., compact-tension specimens containing crack sizes which are on the order of tens of millimeters, i.e., large compared to microstructural dimensions. However, these alloys have been targeted for applications, such as blades in gas-turbine engines, where relevant crack sizes are much smaller ( 5 mm) and (c ≅ 25--300 microm) cracks in a γ-TiAl based alloy, of composition Ti-47Al-2Nb-2Cr-0.2B (at.%), specifically for duplex (average grain size approximately17 microm) and refined lamellar (average colony size ≅150 microm) microstructures. It is found that, whereas the lamellar microstructure displays far superior fracture toughness and fatigue-crack growth resistance in the presence of large cracks, in small-crack testing the duplex microstructure exhibits a better combination of properties. The reasons for such contrasting behavior are examined in terms of the intrinsic and extrinsic (i.e., crack bridging) contributions to cyclic crack advance

  2. miR-11 regulates pupal size of Drosophila melanogaster via directly targeting Ras85D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Li, Shengjie; Jin, Ping; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs play diverse roles in various physiological processes during Drosophila development. In the present study, we reported that miR-11 regulates pupal size during Drosophila metamorphosis via targeting Ras85D with the following evidences: pupal size was increased in the miR-11 deletion mutant; restoration of miR-11 in the miR-11 deletion mutant rescued the increased pupal size phenotype observed in the miR-11 deletion mutant; ectopic expression of miR-11 in brain insulin-producing cells (IPCs) and whole body shows consistent alteration of pupal size; Dilps and Ras85D expressions were negatively regulated by miR-11 in vivo; miR-11 targets Ras85D through directly binding to Ras85D 3'-untranslated region in vitro; removal of one copy of Ras85D in the miR-11 deletion mutant rescued the increased pupal size phenotype observed in the miR-11 deletion mutant. Thus, our current work provides a novel mechanism of pupal size determination by microRNAs during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Spin-torque oscillation in large size nano-magnet with perpendicular magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Linqiang, E-mail: LL6UK@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Kabir, Mehdi [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Dao, Nam; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Cyberey, Michael [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Institute of Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311 (United States); Stan, Mircea [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • 500 nm size nano-pillar device was fabricated by photolithography techniques. • A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved with perpendicular magnetic fields. • Spin torque switching and oscillation was demonstrated in the large sized device. • Micromagnetic simulations accurately reproduced the experimental results. • Simulations demonstrated the synchronization of magnetic inhomogeneities. - Abstract: DC current induced magnetization reversal and magnetization oscillation was observed in 500 nm large size Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}/Cu/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} pillars. A perpendicular external field enhanced the coercive field separation between the reference layer (Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}) and free layer (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) in the pseudo spin valve, allowing a large window of external magnetic field for exploring the free-layer reversal. A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved for the study of spin torque oscillation by applying a perpendicular field >3 kOe. The magnetization precession was manifested in terms of the multiple peaks on the differential resistance curves. Depending on the bias current and applied field, the regions of magnetic switching and magnetization precession on a dynamical stability diagram has been discussed in details. Micromagnetic simulations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results and provide insight for synchronization of inhomogeneities in large sized device. The ability to manipulate spin-dynamics on large size devices could be proved useful for increasing the output power of the spin-transfer nano-oscillators (STNOs).

  4. Large Dog Relinquishment to Two Municipal Facilities in New York City and Washington, D.C.: Identifying Targets for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Emily; Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Drain, Natasha; Dolan, Emily; Scarlett, Janet M.; Zawistowski, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other-sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized that one way to increase the lives saved with regard to large dogs in shelters is to keep them home in the first place when possible. Our research is the first to collect data in New York City and Washington, D.C., identifying the process leading to the owner relinquishment of large dogs. We found that targets for interventions to decrease large dog relinquishment are likely different in each community. Abstract While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized one way to increase the lives saved with respect to these large dogs is to keep them home when possible. In order to develop solutions to decrease relinquishment, a survey was developed to learn more about the reasons owners relinquish large dogs. The survey was administered to owners relinquishing their dogs at two large municipal facilities, one in New York City and one in Washington, D.C. There were 157 responses between the two facilities. We found both significant similarities and differences between respondents and their dogs from the two cities. We identified opportunities to potentially support future relinquishers and found that targets for interventions are likely different in each community. PMID:26480315

  5. Effective source size, yield and beam profile from multi-layered bremsstrahlung targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, R.; Brahme, A.

    1996-01-01

    Modern conformal radiotherapy benefits from heterogeneous dose delivery using scanned narrow bremsstrahlung beams of high energy in combination with dynamic double focused multi-leaf collimation and purging magnets. When using a purging magnet to remove electrons and positrons the target space is limited and unorthodox thin multi-layered targets are needed. A computational technique has therefore been developed to determine the forward yield and the angular distributions of the bremsstrahlung beam as well as the size and location of the effective and the virtual photon point source for arbitrary multi-layer bremsstrahlung targets. The Gaussian approximation of the diffusion equation for the electrons has been used and convolved with the bremsstrahlung production process. For electrons with arbitrary emittance impinging on targets of any multi-layer and atomic number combination, the model is well applicable, at least for energies in the range 1-100 MeV. The intrinsic bremsstrahlung photon profile has been determined accurately by deconvolving the electron multiple scattering process from thin experimental beryllium target profiles. For electron pencil beams incident on a target of high density and atomic number such as tungsten, the size of the effective photon source stays at around a tenth of a millimetre. The effective photon source for low-Z materials such as Be, C and Al is located at depths from 3-7 mm in the target, decreasing with increasing atomic number. The effective photon source at off-axis positions then moves out considerably from the central axis, which should be considered when aligning collimators. For high-Z materials such as tungsten, the location of the effective photon source is at a few tenths of a millimetre deep. The virtual photon point source is located only a few tenths of a millimetre upstream of the effective photon source both for high- and low-Z materials. For 50 MeV electrons incident on multi-layered full range targets the radial

  6. Damage threshold from large retinal spot size repetitive-pulse laser exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Brian J; Lund, David J; Edsall, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    The retinal damage thresholds for large spot size, multiple-pulse exposures to a Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm wavelength, 7 ns pulses) have been measured for 100 μm and 500 μm retinal irradiance diameters. The ED50, expressed as energy per pulse, varies only weakly with the number of pulses, n, for these extended spot sizes. The previously reported threshold for a multiple-pulse exposure for a 900 μm retinal spot size also shows the same weak dependence on the number of pulses. The multiple-pulse ED50 for an extended spot-size exposure does not follow the n dependence exhibited by small spot size exposures produced by a collimated beam. Curves derived by using probability-summation models provide a better fit to the data.

  7. Classification of large-sized hyperspectral imagery using fast machine learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junshi; Yokoya, Naoto; Iwasaki, Akira

    2017-07-01

    We present a framework of fast machine learning algorithms in the context of large-sized hyperspectral images classification from the theoretical to a practical viewpoint. In particular, we assess the performance of random forest (RF), rotation forest (RoF), and extreme learning machine (ELM) and the ensembles of RF and ELM. These classifiers are applied to two large-sized hyperspectral images and compared to the support vector machines. To give the quantitative analysis, we pay attention to comparing these methods when working with high input dimensions and a limited/sufficient training set. Moreover, other important issues such as the computational cost and robustness against the noise are also discussed.

  8. Genome size variation affects song attractiveness in grasshoppers: evidence for sexual selection against large genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielzeth, Holger; Streitner, Corinna; Lampe, Ulrike; Franzke, Alexandra; Reinhold, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Genome size is largely uncorrelated to organismal complexity and adaptive scenarios. Genetic drift as well as intragenomic conflict have been put forward to explain this observation. We here study the impact of genome size on sexual attractiveness in the bow-winged grasshopper Chorthippus biguttulus. Grasshoppers show particularly large variation in genome size due to the high prevalence of supernumerary chromosomes that are considered (mildly) selfish, as evidenced by non-Mendelian inheritance and fitness costs if present in high numbers. We ranked male grasshoppers by song characteristics that are known to affect female preferences in this species and scored genome sizes of attractive and unattractive individuals from the extremes of this distribution. We find that attractive singers have significantly smaller genomes, demonstrating that genome size is reflected in male courtship songs and that females prefer songs of males with small genomes. Such a genome size dependent mate preference effectively selects against selfish genetic elements that tend to increase genome size. The data therefore provide a novel example of how sexual selection can reinforce natural selection and can act as an agent in an intragenomic arms race. Furthermore, our findings indicate an underappreciated route of how choosy females could gain indirect benefits. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Origin of discrepancies between crater size-frequency distributions of coeval lunar geologic units via target property contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Dundas, C. M.; Krüger, T.; McEwen, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent work on dating Copernican-aged craters, using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Camera data, re-encountered a curious discrepancy in crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements that was observed, but not understood, during the Apollo era. For example, at Tycho, Copernicus, and Aristarchus craters, CSFDs of impact melt deposits give significantly younger relative and absolute model ages (AMAs) than impact ejecta blankets, although these two units formed during one impact event, and would ideally yield coeval ages at the resolution of the CSFD technique. We investigated the effects of contrasting target properties on CSFDs and their resultant relative and absolute model ages for coeval lunar impact melt and ejecta units. We counted craters with diameters through the transition from strength- to gravity-scaling on two large impact melt deposits at Tycho and King craters, and we used pi-group scaling calculations to model the effects of differing target properties on final crater diameters for five different theoretical lunar targets. The new CSFD for the large King Crater melt pond bridges the gap between the discrepant CSFDs within a single geologic unit. Thus, the observed trends in the impact melt CSFDs support the occurrence of target property effects, rather than self-secondary and/or field secondary contamination. The CSFDs generated from the pi-group scaling calculations show that targets with higher density and effective strength yield smaller crater diameters than weaker targets, such that the relative ages of the former are lower relative to the latter. Consequently, coeval impact melt and ejecta units will have discrepant apparent ages. Target property differences also affect the resulting slope of the CSFD, with stronger targets exhibiting shallower slopes, so that the final crater diameters may differ more greatly at smaller diameters. Besides their application to age dating, the CSFDs may provide additional information about the

  10. Uncertainty budget in internal monostandard NAA for small and large size samples analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, K.B.; Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Total uncertainty budget evaluation on determined concentration value is important under quality assurance programme. Concentration calculation in NAA or carried out by relative NAA and k0 based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method. IM-NAA method has been used for small and large sample analysis of clay potteries. An attempt was made to identify the uncertainty components in IM-NAA and uncertainty budget for La in both small and large size samples has been evaluated and compared. (author)

  11. Small-sized pump for the target chamber of the E-SUVI accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borts, B.V.; Kravchenko, S.F.; Pisarev, G.V.; Rubashko, V.G.; Khorenko, V.K.

    1980-01-01

    The target chamber of the accelerator ESUVI is located at the high voltage end of the accelerating tube under the electrostatic generator conductor. The pumping out from the target chamber region has been performed through the accelerating tube its rate constituting 1.5 l/s which resulted in oxidation and contamination of the surface of irradiated targets in the course of the irradiation of chemically active materials. For obtaining high vacuum in a target chamber a small-size gettering-ionic pump of the ORBITRON type has been developed which operates in the autonomous mode. The pump pumping out rate in the pressure range 10 -5 -10 -7 mm Hg constitutes for air and nitrogen 20-25 l/s, ffor oxygen 30-40 l/s, for hydrogen 100-120 l/s. The pump weight without supply units is 2 kg. The pumps permits performing pressure indicator in the target chamber. Using the developed pump makes possible to decrease the target chamber pressure to 1x10 -6 mm Hg for active gases to 10 -8 -10 -9 mm Hg

  12. Comparison of silicon strip tracker module size using large sensors from 6 inch wafers

    CERN Multimedia

    Honma, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Two large silicon strip sensor made from 6 inch wafers are placed next to each other to simulate the size of a CMS outer silicon tracker module. On the left is a prototype 2 sensor CMS inner endcap silicon tracker module made from 4 inch wafers.

  13. Synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanoparticles with large and tunable pore sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Yu, Meihua; Li, Yang; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Jing; Yu, Chengzhong; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-07-01

    Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m2 g-1). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and small particle sizes may have excellent potential in drug/gene delivery.Mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs) with large and adjustable pores have been synthesized by using poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) as a template and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) as a carbon precursor. The resulting MCNs possess small diameters (100-126 nm) and high BET surface areas (up to 646 m2 g-1). By using home-designed block copolymers, the pore size of MCNs can be tuned in the range of 13-32 nm. Importantly, the pore size of 32 nm is the largest among the MCNs prepared by the soft-templating route. The formation mechanism and structure evolution of MCNs were studied by TEM and DLS measurements, based on which a soft-templating/sphere packing mechanism was proposed. Because of the large pores and small particle sizes, the resulting MCNs were excellent nano-carriers to deliver biomolecules into cancer cells. MCNs were further demonstrated with negligible toxicity. It is anticipated that this carbon material with large pores and

  14. Large Time Asymptotics for a Continuous Coagulation-Fragmentation Model with Degenerate Size-Dependent Diffusion

    KAUST Repository

    Desvillettes, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    We study a continuous coagulation-fragmentation model with constant kernels for reacting polymers (see [M. Aizenman and T. Bak, Comm. Math. Phys., 65 (1979), pp. 203-230]). The polymers are set to diffuse within a smooth bounded one-dimensional domain with no-flux boundary conditions. In particular, we consider size-dependent diffusion coefficients, which may degenerate for small and large cluster-sizes. We prove that the entropy-entropy dissipation method applies directly in this inhomogeneous setting. We first show the necessary basic a priori estimates in dimension one, and second we show faster-than-polynomial convergence toward global equilibria for diffusion coefficients which vanish not faster than linearly for large sizes. This extends the previous results of [J.A. Carrillo, L. Desvillettes, and K. Fellner, Comm. Math. Phys., 278 (2008), pp. 433-451], which assumes that the diffusion coefficients are bounded below. © 2009 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  15. Small-size pedestrian detection in large scene based on fast R-CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengke; Yang, Na; Duan, Lianghua; Liu, Lu; Dong, Junyu

    2018-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is a canonical sub-problem of object detection with high demand during recent years. Although recent deep learning object detectors such as Fast/Faster R-CNN have shown excellent performance for general object detection, they have limited success for small size pedestrian detection in large-view scene. We study that the insufficient resolution of feature maps lead to the unsatisfactory accuracy when handling small instances. In this paper, we investigate issues involving Fast R-CNN for pedestrian detection. Driven by the observations, we propose a very simple but effective baseline for pedestrian detection based on Fast R-CNN, employing the DPM detector to generate proposals for accuracy, and training a fast R-CNN style network to jointly optimize small size pedestrian detection with skip connection concatenating feature from different layers to solving coarseness of feature maps. And the accuracy is improved in our research for small size pedestrian detection in the real large scene.

  16. Prospecting direction and favourable target areas for exploration of large and super-large uranium deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingzhong

    1993-01-01

    A host of large uranium deposits have been successively discovered abroad by means of geological exploration, metallogenetic model studies and the application of new geophysical and geochemical methods since 1970's. Thorough undertaking geological research relevant to prospecting for super large uranium deposits have attracted great attention of the worldwide geological circle. The important task for the vast numbers of uranium geological workers is to make an afford to discover more numerous large and super large uranium deposits in China. The author comprehensively analyses the regional geological setting and geological metallogenetic conditions for the super large uranium deposits in the world. Comparative studies have been undertaken and the prospecting direction and favourable target areas for the exploration of super large uranium deposits in China have been proposed

  17. Validation Of Intermediate Large Sample Analysis (With Sizes Up to 100 G) and Associated Facility Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; Koster-Ammerlaan, M.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    Pragmatic rather than physical correction factors for neutron and gamma-ray shielding were studied for samples of intermediate size, i.e. up to the 10-100 gram range. It was found that for most biological and geological materials, the neutron self-shielding is less than 5 % and the gamma-ray self-attenuation can easily be estimated. A trueness control material of 1 kg size was made based on use of left-overs of materials, used in laboratory intercomparisons. A design study for a large sample pool-side facility, handling plate-type volumes, had to be stopped because of a reduction in human resources, available for this CRP. The large sample NAA facilities were made available to guest scientists from Greece and Brazil. The laboratory for neutron activation analysis participated in the world’s first laboratory intercomparison utilizing large samples. (author)

  18. Size Reduction Techniques for Large Scale Permanent Magnet Generators in Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazdozian, Helena; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2015-03-01

    Increased wind penetration is necessary to reduce U.S. dependence on fossil fuels, combat climate change and increase national energy security. The U.S Department of Energy has recommended large scale and offshore wind turbines to achieve 20% wind electricity generation by 2030. Currently, geared doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) are typically employed in the drivetrain for conversion of mechanical to electrical energy. Yet, gearboxes account for the greatest downtime of wind turbines, decreasing reliability and contributing to loss of profit. Direct drive permanent magnet generators (PMGs) offer a reliable alternative to DFIGs by eliminating the gearbox. However, PMGs scale up in size and weight much more rapidly than DFIGs as rated power is increased, presenting significant challenges for large scale wind turbine application. Thus, size reduction techniques are needed for viability of PMGs in large scale wind turbines. Two size reduction techniques are presented. It is demonstrated that 25% size reduction of a 10MW PMG is possible with a high remanence theoretical permanent magnet. Additionally, the use of a Halbach cylinder in an outer rotor PMG is investigated to focus magnetic flux over the rotor surface in order to increase torque. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1069283 and a Barbara and James Palmer Endowment at Iowa State University.

  19. Evaluation of Kirkwood-Buff integrals via finite size scaling: a large scale molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dednam, W.; Botha, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Solvation of bio-molecules in water is severely affected by the presence of co-solvent within the hydration shell of the solute structure. Furthermore, since solute molecules can range from small molecules, such as methane, to very large protein structures, it is imperative to understand the detailed structure-function relationship on the microscopic level. For example, it is useful know the conformational transitions that occur in protein structures. Although such an understanding can be obtained through large-scale molecular dynamic simulations, it is often the case that such simulations would require excessively large simulation times. In this context, Kirkwood-Buff theory, which connects the microscopic pair-wise molecular distributions to global thermodynamic properties, together with the recently developed technique, called finite size scaling, may provide a better method to reduce system sizes, and hence also the computational times. In this paper, we present molecular dynamics trial simulations of biologically relevant low-concentration solvents, solvated by aqueous co-solvent solutions. In particular we compare two different methods of calculating the relevant Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The first (traditional) method computes running integrals over the radial distribution functions, which must be obtained from large system-size NVT or NpT simulations. The second, newer method, employs finite size scaling to obtain the Kirkwood-Buff integrals directly by counting the particle number fluctuations in small, open sub-volumes embedded within a larger reservoir that can be well approximated by a much smaller simulation cell. In agreement with previous studies, which made a similar comparison for aqueous co-solvent solutions, without the additional solvent, we conclude that the finite size scaling method is also applicable to the present case, since it can produce computationally more efficient results which are equivalent to the more costly radial distribution

  20. Evaluation of Kirkwood-Buff integrals via finite size scaling: a large scale molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dednam, W; Botha, A E

    2015-01-01

    Solvation of bio-molecules in water is severely affected by the presence of co-solvent within the hydration shell of the solute structure. Furthermore, since solute molecules can range from small molecules, such as methane, to very large protein structures, it is imperative to understand the detailed structure-function relationship on the microscopic level. For example, it is useful know the conformational transitions that occur in protein structures. Although such an understanding can be obtained through large-scale molecular dynamic simulations, it is often the case that such simulations would require excessively large simulation times. In this context, Kirkwood-Buff theory, which connects the microscopic pair-wise molecular distributions to global thermodynamic properties, together with the recently developed technique, called finite size scaling, may provide a better method to reduce system sizes, and hence also the computational times. In this paper, we present molecular dynamics trial simulations of biologically relevant low-concentration solvents, solvated by aqueous co-solvent solutions. In particular we compare two different methods of calculating the relevant Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The first (traditional) method computes running integrals over the radial distribution functions, which must be obtained from large system-size NVT or NpT simulations. The second, newer method, employs finite size scaling to obtain the Kirkwood-Buff integrals directly by counting the particle number fluctuations in small, open sub-volumes embedded within a larger reservoir that can be well approximated by a much smaller simulation cell. In agreement with previous studies, which made a similar comparison for aqueous co-solvent solutions, without the additional solvent, we conclude that the finite size scaling method is also applicable to the present case, since it can produce computationally more efficient results which are equivalent to the more costly radial distribution

  1. A hybrid adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm applied to a lot-sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt; Spoorendonk, Simon

    This paper presents a hybrid of a general heuristic framework that has been successfully applied to vehicle routing problems and a general purpose MIP solver. The framework uses local search and an adaptive procedure which choses between a set of large neighborhoods to be searched. A mixed integer...... of a solution and to investigate the feasibility of elements in such a neighborhood. The hybrid heuristic framework is applied to the multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with dynamic lot sizes, where experiments have been conducted on a series of instances from the literature. On average the heuristic...

  2. Sizing and scaling requirements of a large-scale physical model for code validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaleel, R.; Legore, T.

    1990-01-01

    Model validation is an important consideration in application of a code for performance assessment and therefore in assessing the long-term behavior of the engineered and natural barriers of a geologic repository. Scaling considerations relevant to porous media flow are reviewed. An analysis approach is presented for determining the sizing requirements of a large-scale, hydrology physical model. The physical model will be used to validate performance assessment codes that evaluate the long-term behavior of the repository isolation system. Numerical simulation results for sizing requirements are presented for a porous medium model in which the media properties are spatially uncorrelated

  3. Study on external reactor vessel cooling capacity for advanced large size PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Di; Liu Xiaojing; Cheng Xu; Li Fei

    2014-01-01

    External reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) is widely adopted as a part of in- vessel retention (IVR) in severe accident management strategies. In this paper, some flow parameters and boundary conditions, eg., inlet and outlet area, water inlet temperature, heating power of the lower head, the annular gap size at the position of the lower head and flooding water level, were considered to qualitatively study the effect of them on natural circulation capacity of the external reactor vessel cooling for an advanced large size PWR by using RELAP5 code. And the calculation results provide some basis of analysis for the structure design and the following transient response behavior of the system. (authors)

  4. Statistical characteristics and stability index (si) of large-sized landslide dams around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, J.; Dai, F.; Raja, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades, landslide dams have received greater attention of researchers, as they have caused loss to property and human lives. Over 261 large-sized landslide dams from different countries of the world with volume greater than 1 x 105 m have been reviewed for this study. The data collected for this study shows that 58% of the catastrophic landslides were triggered by earthquakes and 21 % by rainfall, revealing that earthquake and rainfall are the two major triggers, accounting for 75% of large-sized landslide dams. These land-slides were most frequent during last two decades (1990-2010) throughout the world. The mean landslide dam volume of the studied cases was 53.39 x 10 m with mean dam height of 71.98 m, while the mean lake volume was found to be 156.62 x 10 m. Failure of these large landslide dams pose a severe threat to the property and people living downstream, hence immediate attention is required to deal with this problem. A stability index (SI) has been derived on the basis on 59 large-sized landslide dams (out of the 261 dams) with complete parametric information. (author)

  5. Effect of pore size on performance of monolithic tube chromatography of large biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornik, Ales; Hamachi, Masataka; Isakari, Yu; Yoshimoto, Noriko; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2017-11-01

    Effect of pore size on the performance of ion-exchange monolith tube chromatography of large biomolecules was investigated. Radial flow 1 mL polymer based monolith tubes of different pore sizes (1.5, 2, and 6 μm) were tested with model samples such as 20 mer poly T-DNA, basic proteins, and acidic proteins (molecular weight 14 000-670 000). Pressure drop, pH transient, the number of binding site, dynamic binding capacity, and peak width were examined. Pressure drop-flow rate curves and dynamic binding capacity values were well correlated with the nominal pore size. While duration of the pH transient curves depends on the pore size, it was found that pH duration normalized on estimated surface area was constant, indicating that the ligand density is the same. This was also confirmed by the constant number of binding site values being independent of pore size. The peak width values were similar to those for axial flow monolith chromatography. These results showed that it is easy to scale up axial flow monolith chromatography to radial flow monolith tube chromatography by choosing the right pore size in terms of the pressure drop and capacity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Large-sized and highly radioactive 3H and 109Cd Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, S.; Kawakami, H.; Kato, S.

    1994-02-01

    A device for the deposition of a radioactive Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film was developed with the use of: (1) a modified horizontal lifting method, (2) an extremely shallow trough, and (3) a surface pressure-generating system without piston oil. It made a precious radioactive subphase solution repeatedly usable while keeping its radioactivity concentration as high as possible. Any large-size thin films can be prepared by just changing the trough size. Two monomolecular-layers of Y-type films of cadmium [ 3 H] icosanoate and 109 Cd icosanoate were built up as 3 H and 109 Cd β-sources for electron spectroscopy with intensities of 1.5 GBq (40 mCi) and 7.4 MBq (200 μCi), respectively, and a size of 65x200 mm 2 . Excellent uniformity of the distribution of deposited radioactivity was confirmed by autoradiography and photometry. (author)

  7. Targeting Triple Negative Breast Cancer with a Small-sized Paramagnetic Nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Gang, Zhang Z.; Ewing, James R.; Arbab, Ali S; Ali, Meser M

    2016-01-01

    There is no available targeted therapy or imaging agent for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We developed a small-sized dendrimer-based nanoparticle containing a clinical relevant MRI contrast agent, GdDOTA and a NIR fluorescent dye, DL680. Systemic delivery of dual-modal nanoparticles led to accumulation of the agents in a flank mouse model of TNBC that were detected by both optical and MR imaging. In-vivo fluorescence images, as well as ex-vivo fluorescence images of individual organs, demonstrated that nanoparticles accumulated into tumor selectively. A dual modal strategy resulted in a selective delivery of a small-sized (GdDOTA)42-G4-DL680 dendrimeric agent to TNBC tumors, avoiding other major organs. PMID:28018751

  8. Particle size, magnetic field, and blood velocity effects on particle retention in magnetic drug targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Erica M; Maxim, Peter G; Eaton, John K

    2010-01-01

    A physics-based model of a general magnetic drug targeting (MDT) system was developed with the goal of realizing the practical limitations of MDT when electromagnets are the source of the magnetic field. The simulation tracks magnetic particles subject to gravity, drag force, magnetic force, and hydrodynamic lift in specified flow fields and external magnetic field distributions. A model problem was analyzed to determine the effect of drug particle size, blood flow velocity, and magnetic field gradient strength on efficiency in holding particles stationary in a laminar Poiseuille flow modeling blood flow in a medium-sized artery. It was found that particle retention rate increased with increasing particle diameter and magnetic field gradient strength and decreased with increasing bulk flow velocity. The results suggest that MDT systems with electromagnets are unsuitable for use in small arteries because it is difficult to control particles smaller than about 20 microm in diameter.

  9. Detection of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers with radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyaev, V. F.; Skliarov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper is devoted to non-destructive control of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW). The aim of this work is to model an active neutron interrogation facility for detection of fissile ma-terials inside NZK type containers with RAW and determine the minimal detectable mass of U-235 as a function of various param-eters: matrix type, nonuniformity of container filling, neutron gen-erator parameters (flux, pulse frequency, pulse duration), meas-urement time. As a result the dependence of minimal detectable mass on fissile materials location inside container is shown. Nonu-niformity of the thermal neutron flux inside a container is the main reason of the space-heterogeneity of minimal detectable mass in-side a large-sized container. Our experiments with tiny amounts of uranium-235 (<1 g) confirm the detection of fissile materials in NZK containers by using active neutron interrogation technique.

  10. Mock-up test of remote controlled dismantling apparatus for large-sized vessels (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myodo, Masato; Miyajima, Kazutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Okane, Shogo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The Remote dismantling apparatus, which is equipped with multi-units for functioning of washing, cutting, collection of cut pieces and so on, has been constructed to dismantle the large-sized vessels in the JAERI's Reprocessing Test Facility (JRTF). The apparatus has five-axis movement capability and its operation is performed remotely. The mock-up tests were performed to evaluate the applicability of the apparatus to actual dismantling activities by using the mock-ups of LV-3 and LV-5 in the facility. It was confirmed that each unit was satisfactory functioned by remote operation. Efficient procedures for dismantling the large-sized vessel was studied and various date was obtained in the mock-up tests. This apparatus was found to be applicable for the actual dismantling activity in JRTF. (author)

  11. Mock-up test of remote controlled dismantling apparatus for large-sized vessels (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myodo, Masato; Miyajima, Kazutoshi; Okane, Shogo

    2001-03-01

    The Remote dismantling apparatus, which is equipped with multi-units for functioning of washing, cutting, collection of cut pieces and so on, has been constructed to dismantle the large-sized vessels in the JAERI's Reprocessing Test Facility (JRTF). The apparatus has five-axis movement capability and its operation is performed remotely. The mock-up tests were performed to evaluate the applicability of the apparatus to actual dismantling activities by using the mock-ups of LV-3 and LV-5 in the facility. It was confirmed that each unit was satisfactory functioned by remote operation. Efficient procedures for dismantling the large-sized vessel was studied and various date was obtained in the mock-up tests. This apparatus was found to be applicable for the actual dismantling activity in JRTF. (author)

  12. Influence Factors of Sports Bra Evaluation and Design Based on Large Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lingxi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to find the main influence factors of sports bra evaluation by the subjective assessment of different styles commercial sports bra, and to summarize the design elements of sports bra for large size. 10 women in large size (>C80 were chosen to evaluate 9 different sports bras. The main influence factors were extracted by factor analysis and all the product samples were classified by Q-cluster analysis. The conclusions show that breast stability, wearing comfort and bust modelling are the three key factors for sports bra evaluation. And a classification-positioning model of sports bra products was established. The findings can provide theoretical basis and guidance for the research and design of sports bras both for academic and sports or underwear enterprises, and also provide reference value for women customers.

  13. Comparative analysis of non-destructive methods to control fissile materials in large-size containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyaev V.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of various non-destructive methods to control fissile materials (FM in large-size containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW has been carried out. The difficulty of applying passive gamma-neutron monitoring FM in large containers filled with concreted RAW is shown. Selection of an active non-destructive assay technique depends on the container contents; and in case of a concrete or iron matrix with very low activity and low activity RAW the neutron radiation method appears to be more preferable as compared with the photonuclear one.

  14. Comparative analysis of non-destructive methods to control fissile materials in large-size containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyaev, V. F.; Sklyarov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of various non-destructive methods to control fissile materials (FM) in large-size containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW) has been carried out. The difficulty of applying passive gamma-neutron monitoring FM in large containers filled with concreted RAW is shown. Selection of an active non-destructive assay technique depends on the container contents; and in case of a concrete or iron matrix with very low activity and low activity RAW the neutron radiation method appears to be more preferable as compared with the photonuclear one. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  15. Development of superconducting poloidal field coils for medium and large size tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, H.-G.; Forster, S.; Hofmann, A.

    1983-01-01

    Large long pulse tokamak fusion experiments require the use of superconducting poloidal field (PF) coils. In the past not much attention has been paid to the development of such coils. Therefore a development programme has been initiated recently at KfK. In this report start with summarizing the relevant PF coil parameters of some medium and large size tokamaks presently under construction or design, respectively. The most important areas of research and development work are deduced from these parameters. Design considerations and first experimental results concerning low loss conductors, cooling concepts and structural components are given

  16. Scrum of scrums solution for large size teams using scrum methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Qurashi, Saja Al; Qureshi, M. Rizwan Jameel

    2014-01-01

    Scrum is a structured framework to support complex product development. However, Scrum methodology faces a challenge of managing large teams. To address this challenge, in this paper we propose a solution called Scrum of Scrums. In Scrum of Scrums, we divide the Scrum team into teams of the right size, and then organize them hierarchically into a Scrum of Scrums. The main goals of the proposed solution are to optimize communication between teams in Scrum of Scrums; to make the system work aft...

  17. A procedure to detect flaws inside large size marble blocks by ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Bramanti, Mauro; Bozzi, Edoardo

    1999-01-01

    In stone and marble industry there is considerable interest in the possibility of using ultrasound diagnostic techniques for non-destructive testing of large size blocks in order to detect internal flaws such as faults, cracks and fissures. In this paper some preliminary measurements are reported in order to acquire basic knowledge of the fundamental properties of ultrasound, such as propagation velocity and attenuation, in the media here considered. We then outline a particular diagnostic pr...

  18. Mechanical properties of duplex steel welded joints in large-size constructions

    OpenAIRE

    J. Nowacki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of sources and own experiments, the analysis of mechanical properties, applications as well as material and technological problems of ferritic-austenitic steel welding were carried out. It was shown the area of welding applications, particularly welding of large-size structures, on the basis of example of the FCAW method of welding of the UNS S3 1803 duplex steel in construction of chemical cargo ships.Design/methodology/approach: Welding tests were carried out for duple...

  19. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LARGE SIZE NON-TRACKING SOLAR COOKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. NAHAR

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A large size novel non-tracking solar cooker has been designed, developed and tested. The cooker has been designed in such a way that the width to length ratio for reflector and glass window is about 4 so that maximum radiation falls on the glass window. This has helped in eliminating azimuthal tracking that is required in simple hot box solar cooker towards the Sun every hour because the width to length ratio of reflector is 1. It has been found that stagnation temperatures were 118.5oC and 108oC in large size non-tracking solar cooker and hot box solar cooker respectively. It takes about 2 h for soft food and 3 h for hard food. The cooker is capable of cooking 4.0 kg of food at a time. The efficiency of the large size non-tracking solar cooker has been found to be 27.5%. The cooker saves 5175 MJ of energy per year. The cost of the cooker is Rs. 10000.00 (1.0 US$ = Rs. 50.50. The payback period has been calculated by considering 10% annual interest, 5% maintenance cost and 5% inflation in fuel prices and maintenance cost. The payback period is least, i.e. 1.58 yr., with respect to electricity and maximum, i.e. 4.89 yr., with respect to kerosene. The payback periods are in increasing order with respect to fuel: electricity, coal, firewood, liquid petroleum gas, and kerosene. The shorter payback periods suggests that the use of large size non-tracking solar cooker is economical.

  20. Preparation and provisional validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9931

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, G.; Zoigner, A.; Doubek, N.; Grabmueller, G.; Bagliano, G.

    1990-05-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing about 2 mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 98%) and 40 mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 19%) have been prepared and verified by SAL to be used to spike samples of concentrated spent fuel solutions with a high burn-up and a low 235 U enrichment. The advantages of such a Large Size Dried (LSD) Spike have been pointed out elsewhere and proof of the usefulness in the field reported. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBS-960 and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing 1.8 mg/ml of Pu and 37.3 mg/ml of 19.4% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution are dried to give Large Size Dried Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of a Large Size Dried Spike which is intended to be used as a common spike by the plant operator, the national and the IAEA inspectorates. 6 refs, 7 tabs

  1. Large Dog Relinquishment to Two Municipal Facilities in New York City and Washington, D.C.: Identifying Targets for Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Weiss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While the overall trend in euthanasia has been decreasing nationally, large dogs are at a higher risk of euthanasia than other sized dogs in most animal shelters in the United States. We hypothesized one way to increase the lives saved with respect to these large dogs is to keep them home when possible. In order to develop solutions to decrease relinquishment, a survey was developed to learn more about the reasons owners relinquish large dogs. The survey was administered to owners relinquishing their dogs at two large municipal facilities, one in New York City and one in Washington, D.C. There were 157 responses between the two facilities. We found both significant similarities and differences between respondents and their dogs from the two cities. We identified opportunities to potentially support future relinquishers and found that targets for interventions are likely different in each community.

  2. Folding and unfolding of large-size shell construction for application in Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Pestrenina, Irena; Pestrenin, Valery; Rusakov, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    A future exploration of space requires a technology of large module for biological, technological, logistic and other applications in Earth orbits [1-3]. This report describes the possibility of using large-sized shell structures deployable in space. Structure is delivered to the orbit in the spaceship container. The shell is folded for the transportation. The shell material is either rigid plastic or multilayer prepreg comprising rigid reinforcements (such as reinforcing fibers). The unfolding process (bringing a construction to the unfolded state by loading the internal pressure) needs be considered at the presence of both stretching and bending deformations. An analysis of the deployment conditions (the minimum internal pressure bringing a construction from the folded state to the unfolded state) of large laminated CFRP shell structures is formulated in this report. Solution of this mechanics of deformable solids (MDS) problem of the shell structure is based on the following assumptions: the shell is made of components whose median surface has a reamer; in the separate structural element relaxed state (not stressed and not deformed) its median surface coincides with its reamer (this assumption allows choose the relaxed state of the structure correctly); structural elements are joined (sewn together) by a seam that does not resist rotation around the tangent to the seam line. The ways of large shell structures folding, whose median surface has a reamer, are suggested. Unfolding of cylindrical, conical (full and truncated cones), and large-size composite shells (cylinder-cones, cones-cones) is considered. These results show that the unfolding pressure of such large-size structures (0.01-0.2 atm.) is comparable to the deploying pressure of pneumatic parts (0.001-0.1 atm.) [3]. It would be possible to extend this approach to investigate the unfolding process of large-sized shells with ruled median surface or for non-developable surfaces. This research was

  3. Communication target object recognition for D2D connection with feature size limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Jiheon; Kim, Soochang; Kim, Young-hoon; Lee, Chulhee

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a new concept of device-to-device (D2D) communication, which is called "point-and-link communication" has attracted great attentions due to its intuitive and simple operation. This approach enables user to communicate with target devices without any pre-identification information such as SSIDs, MAC addresses by selecting the target image displayed on the user's own device. In this paper, we present an efficient object matching algorithm that can be applied to look(point)-and-link communications for mobile services. Due to the limited channel bandwidth and low computational power of mobile terminals, the matching algorithm should satisfy low-complexity, low-memory and realtime requirements. To meet these requirements, we propose fast and robust feature extraction by considering the descriptor size and processing time. The proposed algorithm utilizes a HSV color histogram, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) features and object aspect ratios. To reduce the descriptor size under 300 bytes, a limited number of SIFT key points were chosen as feature points and histograms were binarized while maintaining required performance. Experimental results show the robustness and the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Interlayer catalytic exfoliation realizing scalable production of large-size pristine few-layer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiumei; Guo, Yufen; Li, Dongfang; Li, Weiwei; Zhu, Chao; Wei, Xiangfei; Chen, Mingliang; Gao, Song; Qiu, Shengqiang; Gong, Youpin; Wu, Liqiong; Long, Mingsheng; Sun, Mengtao; Pan, Gebo; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    Mass production of reduced graphene oxide and graphene nanoplatelets has recently been achieved. However, a great challenge still remains in realizing large-quantity and high-quality production of large-size thin few-layer graphene (FLG). Here, we create a novel route to solve the issue by employing one-time-only interlayer catalytic exfoliation (ICE) of salt-intercalated graphite. The typical FLG with a large lateral size of tens of microns and a thickness less than 2 nm have been obtained by a mild and durative ICE. The high-quality graphene layers preserve intact basal crystal planes owing to avoidance of the degradation reaction during both intercalation and ICE. Furthermore, we reveal that the high-quality FLG ensures a remarkable lithium-storage stability (>1,000 cycles) and a large reversible specific capacity (>600 mAh g-1). This simple and scalable technique acquiring high-quality FLG offers considerable potential for future realistic applications.

  5. SU-F-T-574: MLC Based SRS Beam Commissioning - Minimum Target Size Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakikhani, R [Florida Cancer Specialists - Largo, Largo, FL (United States); Able, C [Florida Cancer Specialists - New Port Richey, New Port Richey, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To implement a MLC accelerator based SRS program using small fields down to 1 cm × 1 cm and to determine the smallest target size safe for clinical treatment. Methods: Computerized beam scanning was performed in water using a diode detector and a linac-head attached transmission ion chamber to characterize the small field dosimetric aspects of a 6 MV photon beam (Trilogy-Varian Medical Systems, Inc.). The output factors, PDD and profiles of field sizes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10 cm{sup 2} were measured and utilized to create a new treatment planning system (TPS) model (AAA ver 11021). Static MLC SRS treatment plans were created and delivered to a homogeneous phantom (Cube 20, CIRS, Inc.) for a 1.0 cm and 1.5 cm “PTV” target. A 12 field DMLC plan was created for a 2.1 cm target. Radiochromic film (EBT3, Ashland Inc.) was used to measure the planar dose in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes. A micro ion chamber (0.007 cc) was used to measure the dose at isocenter for each treatment delivery. Results: The new TPS model was validated by using a tolerance criteria of 2% dose and 2 mm distance to agreement. For fields ≤ 3 cm{sup 2}, the max PDD, Profile and OF difference was 0.9%, 2%/2mm and 1.4% respectively. The measured radiochromic film planar dose distributions had gamma scores of 95.3% or higher using a 3%/2mm criteria. Ion chamber measurements for all 3 test plans effectively met our goal of delivering the dose accurately to within 5% when compared to the expected dose reported by the TPS (1 cm plan Δ= −5.2%, 1.5 cm plan Δ= −2.0%, 2 cm plan Δ= 1.5%). Conclusion: End to end testing confirmed that MLC defined SRS for target sizes ≥ 1.0 cm can be safely planned and delivered.

  6. Gas-filled targets for large scalelength plasma interaction experiments on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.V.; Berger, R.L.; Munro, D.H.

    1994-11-01

    Stimulated Brillouin backscatter from large scale length gas-filled targets has been measured on Nova. These targets were designed to approximate conditions in indirect drive ignition target designs in underdense plasma electron density (n e ∼10 21 /cm 3 ), temperature (T e >3 keV), and gradient scale lengths (L n ∼ mm, L v >6 mm) as well as calculated gain for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). The targets used in these experiments were gas-filled balloons with polyimide walls (gasbags) and gas-filled hohlraums. Detailed characterization using x-ray imaging and x-ray and optical spectroscopy verifies that the calculated plasma conditions are achieved. Time-resolved SBS backscatter from these targets is <3% for conditions similar to ignition target designs

  7. Ultra-large size austenitic stainless steel forgings for fast breeder reactor 'Monju'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Hisashi; Suzuki, Komei; Sato, Ikuo; Miura, Ritsu.

    1988-01-01

    The large SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel forgings for the reactor vessel of the prototype FBR 'Monju' of 280 MWe output were successfully manufactured. The reactor vessel contains the heart of the reactor and sodium coolant at 530 deg C, and its inside diameter is about 7 m, and height is about 18 m. It is composed of 12 large forgings, that is, very thick flanges and shalls made by ring forging and an end plate made by disk forging and hot forming, using a special press machine. The manufacture of these large forgings utilized the results of the basic test on the material properties in high temperature environment and the effect that the manufacturing factors exert on the material properties and the results of the development of manufacturing techniques for superlarge forgings. The problems were the manufacturing techniques for the large ingots of 250 t class of high purity, the hot working techniques for stainless steel of fine grain size, the forging techniques for superlarge rings and disks, and the machining techniques of high precision for particularly large diameter, thin wall rings. The manufacture of these large stainless steel forgings is reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Large Scale Behavior and Droplet Size Distributions in Crude Oil Jets and Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph; Murphy, David; Morra, David

    2013-11-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout introduced several million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Injected initially as a turbulent jet containing crude oil and gas, the spill caused formation of a subsurface plume stretching for tens of miles. The behavior of such buoyant multiphase plumes depends on several factors, such as the oil droplet and bubble size distributions, current speed, and ambient stratification. While large droplets quickly rise to the surface, fine ones together with entrained seawater form intrusion layers. Many elements of the physics of droplet formation by an immiscible turbulent jet and their resulting size distribution have not been elucidated, but are known to be significantly influenced by the addition of dispersants, which vary the Weber Number by orders of magnitude. We present experimental high speed visualizations of turbulent jets of sweet petroleum crude oil (MC 252) premixed with Corexit 9500A dispersant at various dispersant to oil ratios. Observations were conducted in a 0.9 m × 0.9 m × 2.5 m towing tank, where large-scale behavior of the jet, both stationary and towed at various speeds to simulate cross-flow, have been recorded at high speed. Preliminary data on oil droplet size and spatial distributions were also measured using a videoscope and pulsed light sheet. Sponsored by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  9. From nanoparticles to large aerosols: Ultrafast measurement methods for size and concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, Lothar; Spielvogel, Juergen; Grimm, Hans

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge in aerosol technology is the fast measurement of number size distributions with good accuracy and size resolution. The dedicated instruments are frequently based on particle charging and electric detection. Established fast systems, however, still feature a number of shortcomings. We have developed a new instrument that constitutes of a high flow Differential Mobility Analyser (high flow DMA) and a high sensitivity Faraday Cup Electrometer (FCE). The system enables variable flow rates of up to 150 lpm, and the scan time for size distribution can be shortened considerably due to the short residence time of the particles in the DMA. Three different electrodes can be employed in order to cover a large size range. First test results demonstrate that the scan time can be reduced to less than 1 s for small particles, and that the results from the fast scans feature no significant difference to the results from established slow method. The fields of application for the new instrument comprise the precise monitoring of fast processes with nanoparticles, including monitoring of engine exhaust in automotive research.

  10. From nanoparticles to large aerosols: Ultrafast measurement methods for size and concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Lothar; Spielvogel, Jürgen; Grimm, Hans

    2009-05-01

    A major challenge in aerosol technology is the fast measurement of number size distributions with good accuracy and size resolution. The dedicated instruments are frequently based on particle charging and electric detection. Established fast systems, however, still feature a number of shortcomings. We have developed a new instrument that constitutes of a high flow Differential Mobility Analyser (high flow DMA) and a high sensitivity Faraday Cup Electrometer (FCE). The system enables variable flow rates of up to 150 lpm, and the scan time for size distribution can be shortened considerably due to the short residence time of the particles in the DMA. Three different electrodes can be employed in order to cover a large size range. First test results demonstrate that the scan time can be reduced to less than 1 s for small particles, and that the results from the fast scans feature no significant difference to the results from established slow method. The fields of application for the new instrument comprise the precise monitoring of fast processes with nanoparticles, including monitoring of engine exhaust in automotive research.

  11. Targeted Therapy for Acute Autoimmune Myocarditis with Nano-Sized Liposomal FK506 in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Okuda

    Full Text Available Immunosuppressive agents are used for the treatment of immune-mediated myocarditis; however, the need to develop a more effective therapeutic approach remains. Nano-sized liposomes may accumulate in and selectively deliver drugs to an inflammatory lesion with enhanced vascular permeability. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of liposomal FK506, an immunosuppressive drug encapsulated within liposomes, and the drug's effects on cardiac function in a rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM model. We prepared polyethylene glycol-modified liposomal FK506 (mean diameter: 109.5 ± 4.4 nm. We induced EAM by immunization with porcine myosin and assessed the tissue distribution of the nano-sized beads and liposomal FK506 in this model. After liposomal or free FK506 was administered on days 14 and 17 after immunization, the cytokine expression in the rat hearts along with the histological findings and hemodynamic parameters were determined on day 21. Ex vivo fluorescent imaging revealed that intravenously administered fluorescent-labeled nano-sized beads had accumulated in myocarditic but not normal hearts on day 14 after immunization and thereafter. Compared to the administration of free FK506, FK506 levels were increased in both the plasma and hearts of EAM rats when liposomal FK506 was administered. The administration of liposomal FK506 markedly suppressed the expression of cytokines, such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, and reduced inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium on day 21 compared to free FK506. The administration of liposomal FK506 also markedly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction on day 21 compared to free FK506. Nano-sized liposomes may be a promising drug delivery system for targeting myocarditic hearts with cardioprotective agents.

  12. Targeted Therapy for Acute Autoimmune Myocarditis with Nano-Sized Liposomal FK506 in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Keiji; Fu, Hai Ying; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Araki, Ryo; Tsuchida, Shota; Thanikachalam, Punniyakoti V; Fukuta, Tatsuya; Asai, Tomohiro; Yamato, Masaki; Sanada, Shoji; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asano, Yoshihiro; Asakura, Masanori; Hanawa, Haruo; Hao, Hiroyuki; Oku, Naoto; Takashima, Seiji; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Sakata, Yasushi; Minamino, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are used for the treatment of immune-mediated myocarditis; however, the need to develop a more effective therapeutic approach remains. Nano-sized liposomes may accumulate in and selectively deliver drugs to an inflammatory lesion with enhanced vascular permeability. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of liposomal FK506, an immunosuppressive drug encapsulated within liposomes, and the drug's effects on cardiac function in a rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model. We prepared polyethylene glycol-modified liposomal FK506 (mean diameter: 109.5 ± 4.4 nm). We induced EAM by immunization with porcine myosin and assessed the tissue distribution of the nano-sized beads and liposomal FK506 in this model. After liposomal or free FK506 was administered on days 14 and 17 after immunization, the cytokine expression in the rat hearts along with the histological findings and hemodynamic parameters were determined on day 21. Ex vivo fluorescent imaging revealed that intravenously administered fluorescent-labeled nano-sized beads had accumulated in myocarditic but not normal hearts on day 14 after immunization and thereafter. Compared to the administration of free FK506, FK506 levels were increased in both the plasma and hearts of EAM rats when liposomal FK506 was administered. The administration of liposomal FK506 markedly suppressed the expression of cytokines, such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, and reduced inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium on day 21 compared to free FK506. The administration of liposomal FK506 also markedly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction on day 21 compared to free FK506. Nano-sized liposomes may be a promising drug delivery system for targeting myocarditic hearts with cardioprotective agents.

  13. Impact basins on Ganymede and Callisto and implications for the large-projectile size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.; Neukum, G.; Wolf, U.; Greeley, R.; Klemaszewski, J. E.

    2003-04-01

    It has been conjectured that the projectile family which impacted the Galilean Satellites of Jupiter was depleted in large projectiles, concluded from a ''dearth'' in large craters (> 60 km) (e.g. [1]). Geologic mapping, aided by spatial filtering of new Galileo as well as older Voyager data shows, however, that large projectiles have left an imprint of palimpsests and multi-ring structures on both Ganymede and Callisto (e. g. [2]). Most of these impact structures are heavily degraded and hence difficult to recognize. In this paper, we present (1) maps showing the outlines of these basins, and (2) derive updated crater size-frequency diagrams of the two satellites. The crater diameter from a palimpsest diameter was reconstructed using a formula derived by [3]. The calculation of the crater diameter Dc from the outer boundary Do of a multi-ring structure is much less constrained and on the order of Dc = k \\cdot Do , with k ≈ 0.25-0.3 [4]. Despite the uncertainties in locating the ''true'' crater rims, the resulting shape of the distribution in the range from kilometer-sized craters to sizes of ≈ 500 km is lunar-like and strongly suggests a collisionally evolved projectile family, very likely of asteroidal origin. An alternative explanation for this shape could be that comets are collisionally evolved bodies in a similar way as are asteroids, which as of yet is still uncertain and in discussion. Also, the crater size distributions on Ganymede and Callisto are shifted towards smaller crater sizes compared to the Moon, caused by a much lower impact velocity of impactors which preferentially were in planetocentric orbits [5]. References: [1] Strom et al., JGR 86, 8659-8674, 1981. [2] J. E. Klemaszewski et al., Ann. Geophys. 16, suppl. III, 1998. [3] Iaquinta-Ridolfi &Schenk, LPSC XXVI (abstr.), 651-652, 1995. [4] Schenk &Moore, LPSC XXX, abstr. No. 1786 [CD-Rom], 1999. [5] Horedt & Neukum, JGR 89, 10,405-10,410, 1984.

  14. Verification measurements of the IRMM-1027 and the IAEA large-sized dried (LSD) spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakopic, R.; Aregbe, Y.; Richter, S.

    2017-01-01

    In the frame of the accountancy measurements of the fissile materials, reliable determinations of the plutonium and uranium content in spent nuclear fuel are required to comply with international safeguards agreements. Large-sized dried (LSD) spikes of enriched "2"3"5U and "2"3"9Pu for isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) analysis are routinely applied in reprocessing plants for this purpose. A correct characterisation of these elements is a pre-requirement for achieving high accuracy in IDMS analyses. This paper will present the results of external verification measurements of such LSD spikes performed by the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  15. RESOURCE SAVING TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF LARGE-SIZE DIE THERMAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Glazkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The given paper presents a development of a technological process pertaining to hardening large-size parts made of die steel. The proposed process applies a water-air mixture instead of a conventional hardening medium that is industrial oil.While developing this new technological process it has been necessary to solve the following problems: reduction of thermal treatment duration, reduction of power resource expense (natural gas and mineral oil, elimination of fire danger and increase of process ecological efficiency. 

  16. Introduction to Large-sized Test Facility for validating Containment Integrity under Severe Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Young Su; Hong, Seongwan; Hong, Seongho; Min, Beongtae

    2014-01-01

    An overall assessment of containment integrity can be conducted properly by examining the hydrogen behavior in the containment building. Under severe accidents, an amount of hydrogen gases can be generated by metal oxidation and corium-concrete interaction. Hydrogen behavior in the containment building strongly depends on complicated thermal hydraulic conditions with mixed gases and steam. The performance of a PAR can be directly affected by the thermal hydraulic conditions, steam contents, gas mixture behavior and aerosol characteristics, as well as the operation of other engineering safety systems such as a spray. The models in computer codes for a severe accident assessment can be validated based on the experiment results in a large-sized test facility. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is now preparing a large-sized test facility to examine in detail the safety issues related with hydrogen including the performance of safety devices such as a PAR in various severe accident situations. This paper introduces the KAERI test facility for validating the containment integrity under severe accidents. To validate the containment integrity, a large-sized test facility is necessary for simulating complicated phenomena induced by an amount of steam and gases, especially hydrogen released into the containment building under severe accidents. A pressure vessel 9.5 m in height and 3.4 m in diameter was designed at the KAERI test facility for the validating containment integrity, which was based on the THAI test facility with the experimental safety and the reliable measurement systems certified for a long time. This large-sized pressure vessel operated in steam and iodine as a corrosive agent was made by stainless steel 316L because of corrosion resistance for a long operating time, and a vessel was installed in at KAERI in March 2014. In the future, the control systems for temperature and pressure in a vessel will be constructed, and the measurement system

  17. Investigation of Low-Cost Surface Processing Techniques for Large-Size Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yuang-Tung; Ho, Jyh-Jier; Lee, William J.; Tsai, Song-Yeu; Lu, Yung-An; Liou, Jia-Jhe; Chang, Shun-Hsyung; Wang, Kang L.

    2010-01-01

    The subject of the present work is to develop a simple and effective method of enhancing conversion efficiency in large-size solar cells using multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafer. In this work, industrial-type mc-Si solar cells with area of 125×125 mm2 were acid etched to produce simultaneously POCl3 emitters and silicon nitride deposition by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD). The study of surface morphology and reflectivity of different mc-Si etched surfaces has also been d...

  18. Development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romashko, N.I.; Moshnin, E.N.; Timokhin, V.S.; Bryukhanov, Yu.V.; Lebedev, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of development and introduction of stamping technique for large-size laterals of NPP high-pressure pipelines are presented. The main experimental data characterizing technological possibilities of the process are given. The technological process and design of the stamp assure production of laterals from ovalized bars per one heating of the bar and per one running of the press cronnhead. Introduction of new technology decreased labour input of lateral production, reliability and serviceability of pipelines increased in this case. Introduction of this technology gives a considerable benefit

  19. A simple, compact, and rigid piezoelectric step motor with large step size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Lu, Qingyou

    2009-08-01

    We present a novel piezoelectric stepper motor featuring high compactness, rigidity, simplicity, and any direction operability. Although tested in room temperature, it is believed to work in low temperatures, owing to its loose operation conditions and large step size. The motor is implemented with a piezoelectric scanner tube that is axially cut into almost two halves and clamp holds a hollow shaft inside at both ends via the spring parts of the shaft. Two driving voltages that singly deform the two halves of the piezotube in one direction and recover simultaneously will move the shaft in the opposite direction, and vice versa.

  20. Temperature Uniformity of Wafer on a Large-Sized Susceptor for a Nitride Vertical MOCVD Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhi-Ming; Jiang Hai-Ying; Han Yan-Bin; Li Jin-Ping; Yin Jian-Qin; Zhang Jin-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    The effect of coil location on wafer temperature is analyzed in a vertical MOCVD reactor by induction heating. It is observed that the temperature distribution in the wafer with the coils under the graphite susceptor is more uniform than that with the coils around the outside wall of the reactor. For the case of coils under the susceptor, we find that the thickness of the susceptor, the distance from the coils to the susceptor bottom and the coil turns significantly affect the temperature uniformity of the wafer. An optimization process is executed for a 3-inch susceptor with this kind of structure, resulting in a large improvement in the temperature uniformity. A further optimization demonstrates that the new susceptor structure is also suitable for either multiple wafers or large-sized wafers approaching 6 and 8 inches

  1. Accelerating inference for diffusions observed with measurement error and large sample sizes using approximate Bayesian computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picchini, Umberto; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2016-01-01

    a nonlinear stochastic differential equation model observed with correlated measurement errors and an application to protein folding modelling. An approximate Bayesian computation (ABC)-MCMC algorithm is suggested to allow inference for model parameters within reasonable time constraints. The ABC algorithm......In recent years, dynamical modelling has been provided with a range of breakthrough methods to perform exact Bayesian inference. However, it is often computationally unfeasible to apply exact statistical methodologies in the context of large data sets and complex models. This paper considers...... applications. A simulation study is conducted to compare our strategy with exact Bayesian inference, the latter resulting two orders of magnitude slower than ABC-MCMC for the considered set-up. Finally, the ABC algorithm is applied to a large size protein data. The suggested methodology is fairly general...

  2. Prospects for the domestic production of large-sized cast blades and vanes for industrial gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanskiy, D. A.; Grin, E. A.; Klimov, A. N.; Berestevich, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    Russian experience in the production of large-sized cast blades and vanes for industrial gas turbines is analyzed for the past decades. It is noted that the production of small- and medium-sized blades and vanes made of Russian alloys using technologies for aviation, marine, and gas-pumping turbines cannot be scaled for industrial gas turbines. It is shown that, in order to provide manufacturability under large-scale casting from domestic nickel alloys, it is necessary to solve complex problems in changing their chemical composition, to develop new casting technologies and to optimize the heat treatment modes. An experience of PAO NPO Saturn in manufacturing the blades and vanes made of ChS88U-VI and IN738-LC foundry nickel alloys for the turbines of the GTE-110 gas turbine unit is considered in detail. Potentialities for achieving adopted target parameters for the mechanical properties of working blades cast from ChS88UM-VI modified alloy are established. For the blades made of IN738-LC alloy manufactured using the existing foundry technology, a complete compliance with the requirements of normative and technical documentation has been established. Currently, in Russia, the basis of the fleet of gas turbine plants is composed by foreign turbines, and, for the implementation of the import substitution program, one can use the positive experience of PAO NPO Saturn in casting blades from IN738-LC alloy based on a reverse engineering technique. A preliminary complex of studies of the original manufacturer's blades should be carried out, involving, first of all, the determination of geometric size using modern measurement methods as well as the studies on the chemical compositions of the used materials (base metal and protective coatings). Further, verifying the constructed calculation models based on the obtained data, one could choose available domestic materials that would meet the operating conditions of the blades according to their heat resistance and corrosion

  3. Application of electron beam welding to large size pressure vessels made of thick low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuri, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Aoki, S.; Kimura, M.; Nayama, M.; Takano, G.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the results of studies for application of the electron beam welding to the large size pressure vessels made of thick low alloy steel (ASME A533 Gr.B cl.2 and A533 Gr.A cl.1). Two major problems for applying the EBW, the poor toughness of weld metal and the equipment to weld huge pressure vessels are focused on. For the first problem, the effects of Ni content of weld metal, welding conditions and post weld heat treatment are investigated. For the second problem, an applicability of the local vacuum EBW to a large size pressure vessel made of thick plate is qualified by the construction of a 120 mm thick, 2350 mm outside diameter cylindrical model. The model was electron beam welded using local vacuum chamber and the performance of the weld joint is investigated. Based on these results, the electron beam welding has been applied to the production of a steam generator for a PWR. (author). 3 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  4. A new type of intelligent wireless sensing network for health monitoring of large-size structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Liu, Ch.; Wu, D. T.; Tang, Y. L.; Wang, J. X.; Wu, L. J.; Jiang, X. D.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, some innovative wireless sensing systems have been proposed. However, more exploration and research on wireless sensing systems are required before wireless systems can substitute for the traditional wire-based systems. In this paper, a new type of intelligent wireless sensing network is proposed for the heath monitoring of large-size structures. Hardware design of the new wireless sensing units is first studied. The wireless sensing unit mainly consists of functional modules of: sensing interface, signal conditioning, signal digitization, computational core, wireless communication and battery management. Then, software architecture of the unit is introduced. The sensing network has a two-level cluster-tree architecture with Zigbee communication protocol. Important issues such as power saving and fault tolerance are considered in the designs of the new wireless sensing units and sensing network. Each cluster head in the network is characterized by its computational capabilities that can be used to implement the computational methodologies of structural health monitoring; making the wireless sensing units and sensing network have "intelligent" characteristics. Primary tests on the measurement data collected by the wireless system are performed. The distributed computational capacity of the intelligent sensing network is also demonstrated. It is shown that the new type of intelligent wireless sensing network provides an efficient tool for structural health monitoring of large-size structures.

  5. Detection of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers with radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batyaev V.F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to non-destructive control of tiny amounts of fissile materials in large-sized containers filled with radioactive waste (RAW. The aim of this work is to model an active neutron interrogation facility for detection of fissile ma-terials inside NZK type containers with RAW and determine the minimal detectable mass of U-235 as a function of various param-eters: matrix type, nonuniformity of container filling, neutron gen-erator parameters (flux, pulse frequency, pulse duration, meas-urement time. As a result the dependence of minimal detectable mass on fissile materials location inside container is shown. Nonu-niformity of the thermal neutron flux inside a container is the main reason of the space-heterogeneity of minimal detectable mass in-side a large-sized container. Our experiments with tiny amounts of uranium-235 (<1 g confirm the detection of fissile materials in NZK containers by using active neutron interrogation technique.

  6. An automated system for the preparation of Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, A.; Bauwens, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Eykens, R.; Wellum, R.; Aregbe, Y. [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 211, B2440 Geel (Belgium); Van De Steene, N. [Nucomat, Mercatorstraat 206, B9100 Sint Niklaas (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    Large size dried (LSD) spikes have been produced to fulfill the existing requirement for reliable and traceable isotopic reference materials for nuclear safeguards. A system to produce certified nuclear isotopic reference material as a U/Pu mixture in the form of large size dried spikes, comparable to those produced using traditional methods has been installed in collaboration with Nucomat, a company with a recognized reputation in design and development of integrated automated systems. The major components of the system are a robot, two balances, a dispenser and a drying unit fitted into a glove box. The robot is software driven and designed to control all movements inside the glove-box, to identify unambiguously the penicillin vials with a bar-code reader, to dispense the LSD batch solution into the vials and to weigh the amount dispensed. The system functionality has been evaluated and the performance validated by comparing the results from a series of samples dispensed and weighed by the automated system with the results by manual substitution weighing. After applying the proper correction factors to the data from the automated system balance no significant difference was observed between the two. However, an additional component of uncertainty of 3*10{sup -4} is introduced in the uncertainty budget for the certified weights provided by the automatic system. (authors)

  7. An automated system for the preparation of Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, A.; Bauwens, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Eykens, R.; Wellum, R.; Aregbe, Y.; Van De Steene, N.

    2008-01-01

    Large size dried (LSD) spikes have been produced to fulfill the existing requirement for reliable and traceable isotopic reference materials for nuclear safeguards. A system to produce certified nuclear isotopic reference material as a U/Pu mixture in the form of large size dried spikes, comparable to those produced using traditional methods has been installed in collaboration with Nucomat, a company with a recognized reputation in design and development of integrated automated systems. The major components of the system are a robot, two balances, a dispenser and a drying unit fitted into a glove box. The robot is software driven and designed to control all movements inside the glove-box, to identify unambiguously the penicillin vials with a bar-code reader, to dispense the LSD batch solution into the vials and to weigh the amount dispensed. The system functionality has been evaluated and the performance validated by comparing the results from a series of samples dispensed and weighed by the automated system with the results by manual substitution weighing. After applying the proper correction factors to the data from the automated system balance no significant difference was observed between the two. However, an additional component of uncertainty of 3*10 -4 is introduced in the uncertainty budget for the certified weights provided by the automatic system. (authors)

  8. Q0000-398 is a high-redshift quasar with a large angular size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gearhart, M.R.; Pacht, E.

    1977-01-01

    A study is described, using the three-element interferrometer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, West Virginia, to investigate whether any quasars exist that might be radio sources. It was found that Q0000-398 appeared to be a quasar of high red shift and large angular size. The interferrometer was operated with a 300-1200-1500 m baseline configuration at 2695 MHz. The radio map for Q0000-398 is shown, and has two weak components separated by 134 +- 40 arc s. If these components are associated with the optical object this quasar has the largest known angular size for its red shift value. The results reported for Q0000-398 and other quasars having considerable angular extent demonstrate the importance of considering radio selection effects in the angular diameter-red shift relationship, and since any radio selection effects are removed when quasars are selected optically, more extensive mapping programs should be undertaken, looking particularly for large scale structure around optically selected high-z quasars. (U.K.)

  9. Toxicological relationships between proteins obtained from protein target predictions of large toxicity databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigsch, Florian; Mitchell, John B.O.

    2008-01-01

    The combination of models for protein target prediction with large databases containing toxicological information for individual molecules allows the derivation of 'toxiclogical' profiles, i.e., to what extent are molecules of known toxicity predicted to interact with a set of protein targets. To predict protein targets of drug-like and toxic molecules, we built a computational multiclass model using the Winnow algorithm based on a dataset of protein targets derived from the MDL Drug Data Report. A 15-fold Monte Carlo cross-validation using 50% of each class for training, and the remaining 50% for testing, provided an assessment of the accuracy of that model. We retained the 3 top-ranking predictions and found that in 82% of all cases the correct target was predicted within these three predictions. The first prediction was the correct one in almost 70% of cases. A model built on the whole protein target dataset was then used to predict the protein targets for 150 000 molecules from the MDL Toxicity Database. We analysed the frequency of the predictions across the panel of protein targets for experimentally determined toxicity classes of all molecules. This allowed us to identify clusters of proteins related by their toxicological profiles, as well as toxicities that are related. Literature-based evidence is provided for some specific clusters to show the relevance of the relationships identified

  10. Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape and Color on Stable Fly (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable fly management has been challenging. Insecticide-treated targets made from blue and black fabric, developed in Africa, were evaluated in Louisiana and Florida to determine if they would attract and kill stable flies. Untreated targets were used to answer questions about configuration, size an...

  11. Are large farms more efficient? Tenure security, farm size and farm efficiency: evidence from northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no

  12. —Does Demand Fall When Customers Perceive That Prices Are Unfair? The Case of Premium Pricing for Large Sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Eric T. Anderson; Duncan I. Simester

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a large-scale field test conducted with a mail-order catalog firm to investigate how customers react to premium prices for larger sizes of women's apparel. We find that customers who demand large sizes react unfavorably to paying a higher price than customers for small sizes. Further investigation suggests that these consumers perceive that the price premium is unfair. Overall, premium pricing led to a 6% to 8% decrease in gross profits.

  13. Ulysses: accurate detection of low-frequency structural variations in large insert-size sequencing libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet-Markowska, Alexandre; Richard, Hugues; Fischer, Gilles; Lafontaine, Ingrid

    2015-03-15

    The detection of structural variations (SVs) in short-range Paired-End (PE) libraries remains challenging because SV breakpoints can involve large dispersed repeated sequences, or carry inherent complexity, hardly resolvable with classical PE sequencing data. In contrast, large insert-size sequencing libraries (Mate-Pair libraries) provide higher physical coverage of the genome and give access to repeat-containing regions. They can thus theoretically overcome previous limitations as they are becoming routinely accessible. Nevertheless, broad insert size distributions and high rates of chimerical sequences are usually associated to this type of libraries, which makes the accurate annotation of SV challenging. Here, we present Ulysses, a tool that achieves drastically higher detection accuracy than existing tools, both on simulated and real mate-pair sequencing datasets from the 1000 Human Genome project. Ulysses achieves high specificity over the complete spectrum of variants by assessing, in a principled manner, the statistical significance of each possible variant (duplications, deletions, translocations, insertions and inversions) against an explicit model for the generation of experimental noise. This statistical model proves particularly useful for the detection of low frequency variants. SV detection performed on a large insert Mate-Pair library from a breast cancer sample revealed a high level of somatic duplications in the tumor and, to a lesser extent, in the blood sample as well. Altogether, these results show that Ulysses is a valuable tool for the characterization of somatic mosaicism in human tissues and in cancer genomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Targeted tandem duplication of a large chromosomal segment in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tadashi; Sato, Atsushi; Ogawa, Masahiro; Hanya, Yoshiki; Oguma, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    We describe here the first successful construction of a targeted tandem duplication of a large chromosomal segment in Aspergillus oryzae. The targeted tandem chromosomal duplication was achieved by using strains that had a 5'-deleted pyrG upstream of the region targeted for tandem chromosomal duplication and a 3'-deleted pyrG downstream of the target region. Consequently,strains bearing a 210-kb targeted tandem chromosomal duplication near the centromeric region of chromosome 8 and strains bearing a targeted tandem chromosomal duplication of a 700-kb region of chromosome 2 were successfully constructed. The strains bearing the tandem chromosomal duplication were efficiently obtained from the regenerated protoplast of the parental strains. However, the generation of the chromosomal duplication did not depend on the introduction of double-stranded breaks(DSBs) by I-SceI. The chromosomal duplications of these strains were stably maintained after five generations of culture under nonselective conditions. The strains bearing the tandem chromosomal duplication in the 700-kb region of chromosome 2 showed highly increased protease activity in solid-state culture, indicating that the duplication of large chromosomal segments could be a useful new breeding technology and gene analysis method.

  15. Flat ended steel wires, backscattering targets for calibrating over a large dynamic range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, Jaap; Graaff, Reindert

    2006-01-01

    A series of flat ended stainless steel wires was constructed and experimentally evaluated as point targets giving a calibrated backscattering over a large range (up to 72 dB) for ultrasound frequencies in the range 2 to 10 MHz. Over a range of 36 dB, theory was strictly followed (within 1 dB),

  16. In situ assembly states of (Na+,K+)-pump ATPase in human erythrocytes. Radiation target size analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hah, J.; Goldinger, J.M.; Jung, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The in situ assembly state of the (Na+,K+)-pump ATPase of human erythrocytes was studied by applying the classical target theory to radiation inactivation data of the ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux and ATP hydrolysis. Erythrocytes and their extensively washed white ghosts were irradiated at -45 to -50 degrees C with an increasing dose of 1.5-MeV electron beam, and after thawing, the Na+-pump flux and/or enzyme activities were assayed. Each activity measured was reduced as a simple exponential function of radiation dose, from which a radiation sensitive mass (target size) was calculated. When intact cells were used, the target sizes for the pump and for the ATPase activities were equal and approximately 620,000 daltons. The target size for the ATPase activity was reduced to approximately 320,000 daltons if the cells were pretreated with digitoxigenin. When ghosts were used, the target size for the ATPase activity was again approximately 320,000 daltons. Our target size measurements together with other information available in literature suggest that (Na+,K+)-pump ATPase may exist in human erythrocytes either as a tetramer of alpha beta or as a dimer of alpha beta in tight association with other protein mass, probably certain glycolytic enzymes, and that this tetrameric or heterocomplex association is dissociable by digitoxigenin treatment or by extensive wash during ghost preparation

  17. Statistical characterization of a large geochemical database and effect of sample size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Manheim, F.T.; Hinde, J.; Grossman, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    smaller numbers of data points showed that few elements passed standard statistical tests for normality or log-normality until sample size decreased to a few hundred data points. Large sample size enhances the power of statistical tests, and leads to rejection of most statistical hypotheses for real data sets. For large sample sizes (e.g., n > 1000), graphical methods such as histogram, stem-and-leaf, and probability plots are recommended for rough judgement of probability distribution if needed. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analyzing Damping Vibration Methods of Large-Size Space Vehicles in the Earth's Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shcheglov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that most of today's space vehicles comprise large antennas, which are bracket-attached to the vehicle body. Dimensions of reflector antennas may be of 30 ... 50 m. The weight of such constructions can reach approximately 200 kg.Since the antenna dimensions are significantly larger than the size of the vehicle body and the points to attach the brackets to the space vehicles have a low stiffness, conventional dampers may be inefficient. The paper proposes to consider the damping antenna in terms of its interaction with the Earth's magnetic field.A simple dynamic model of the space vehicle equipped with a large-size structure is built. The space vehicle is a parallelepiped to which the antenna is attached through a beam.To solve the model problems, was used a simplified model of Earth's magnetic field: uniform, with intensity lines parallel to each other and perpendicular to the plane of the antenna.The paper considers two layouts of coils with respect to the antenna, namely: a vertical one in which an axis of magnetic dipole is perpendicular to the antenna plane, and a horizontal layout in which an axis of magnetic dipole lies in the antenna plane. It also explores two ways for magnetic damping of oscillations: through the controlled current that is supplied from the power supply system of the space vehicle, and by the self-induction current in the coil. Thus, four objectives were formulated.In each task was formulated an oscillation equation. Then a ratio of oscillation amplitudes and their decay time were estimated. It was found that each task requires the certain parameters either of the antenna itself, its dimensions and moment of inertia, or of the coil and, respectively, the current, which is supplied from the space vehicle. In each task for these parameters were found the ranges, which allow us to tell of efficient damping vibrations.The conclusion can be drawn based on the analysis of tasks that a specialized control system

  19. Flow induced vibration of the large-sized sodium valve for MONJU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements have been made on the hydraulic characteristics of the large-sized sodium valves in the hydraulic simulation test loop with water as fluid. The following three prototype sodium valves were tested; (1) 22-inch wedge gate type isolation valve, (2) 22-inch butterfly type isolation valve, and (3) 16-inch butterfly type control valve. In the test, accelerations of flow induced vibrations were measured as a function of flow velocity and disk position. The excitation mechanism of the vibrations is not fully interpreted in these tests due to the complexity of the phenomena, but the experimental results suggest that it closely depends on random pressure fluctuations near the valve disk and flow separation at the contracted cross section between the valve seat and the disk. The intensity of flow induced vibrations suddenly increases at a certain critical condition, which depends on the type of valve and is proportional to fluid velocity. (author)

  20. Flow induced vibration of the large-sized sodium valve for MONJU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K [Sodium Engineering Division, O-arai Engineering Centre, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Nariata-cho, O-arai Machi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1977-12-01

    Measurements have been made on the hydraulic characteristics of the large-sized sodium valves in the hydraulic simulation test loop with water as fluid. The following three prototype sodium valves were tested; (1) 22-inch wedge gate type isolation valve, (2) 22-inch butterfly type isolation valve, and (3) 16-inch butterfly type control valve. In the test, accelerations of flow induced vibrations were measured as a function of flow velocity and disk position. The excitation mechanism of the vibrations is not fully interpreted in these tests due to the complexity of the phenomena, but the experimental results suggest that it closely depends on random pressure fluctuations near the valve disk and flow separation at the contracted cross section between the valve seat and the disk. The intensity of flow induced vibrations suddenly increases at a certain critical condition, which depends on the type of valve and is proportional to fluid velocity. (author)

  1. A Novel Read Scheme for Large Size One-Resistor Resistive Random Access Memory Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackriya, Mohammed; Kittur, Harish M; Chin, Albert

    2017-02-10

    The major issue of RRAM is the uneven sneak path that limits the array size. For the first time record large One-Resistor (1R) RRAM array of 128x128 is realized, and the array cells at the worst case still have good Low-/High-Resistive State (LRS/HRS) current difference of 378 nA/16 nA, even without using the selector device. This array has extremely low read current of 9.7 μA due to both low-current RRAM device and circuit interaction, where a novel and simple scheme of a reference point by half selected cell and a differential amplifier (DA) were implemented in the circuit design.

  2. Study on growth techniques and macro defects of large-size Nd:YAG laser crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Jiliang; Yang, Xin; Yang, Mingming; Ma, Decai; Huang, Jinqiang; Zhu, Yunzhong; Wang, Biao

    2018-02-01

    Large-size neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. The extinction ratio and wavefront distortion of the crystal were tested to determine the optical homogeneity. Moreover, under different growth conditions, the macro defects of inclusion, striations, and cracking in the as-grown Nd:YAG crystals were analyzed. Specifically, the inclusion defects were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The stresses of growth striations and cracking were studied via a parallel plane polariscope. These results demonstrate that improper growth parameters and temperature fields can enhance defects significantly. Thus, by adjusting the growth parameters and optimizing the thermal environment, high-optical-quality Nd:YAG crystals with a diameter of 80 mm and a total length of 400 mm have been obtained successfully.

  3. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  4. Preparation and validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9924

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliano, G.; Cappis, J.; Doubek, N.; Jammet, G.; Raab, W.; Zoigner, A.

    1989-12-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing 2 to 4 mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 97%) and 40 to 200 mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 18%) can be advantageously used to spike a concentrated spent fuel solution with a high burn up and with a low 235 U enrichment. This will simplify the conditioning of the sample by 1) reduced time of preparation (from more than one day used for the conventional technique to 2-3 hours); 2) reduced burden for the operator with a clear easiness for the inspector to witness the entire procedure (accurate dilution of the spent fuel sample before spiking being no longer necessary). Furthermore this type of spike could be used as a common spike for the operator and the inspector. The source materials are available in sufficient quantity and are enough cheaper than the commonly used 233 U and 242 Pu or 244 Pu tracer that the costs of the overall Operator-Inspector procedures will be reduced. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBS-960 and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing 1.7 mg/ml of Pu and 68 mg/ml of 17.5% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution must be dried to give Large Size Dried Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of the Large Size Dried Spike. Proof of usefulness in the field will be done at a later date in parallel with analysis by the conventional technique. Refs and tabs

  5. Fiber-chip edge coupler with large mode size for silicon photonic wire waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papes, Martin; Cheben, Pavel; Benedikovic, Daniel; Schmid, Jens H; Pond, James; Halir, Robert; Ortega-Moñux, Alejandro; Wangüemert-Pérez, Gonzalo; Ye, Winnie N; Xu, Dan-Xia; Janz, Siegfried; Dado, Milan; Vašinek, Vladimír

    2016-03-07

    Fiber-chip edge couplers are extensively used in integrated optics for coupling of light between planar waveguide circuits and optical fibers. In this work, we report on a new fiber-chip edge coupler concept with large mode size for silicon photonic wire waveguides. The coupler allows direct coupling with conventional cleaved optical fibers with large mode size while circumventing the need for lensed fibers. The coupler is designed for 220 nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. It exhibits an overall coupling efficiency exceeding 90%, as independently confirmed by 3D Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) and fully vectorial 3D Eigenmode Expansion (EME) calculations. We present two specific coupler designs, namely for a high numerical aperture single mode optical fiber with 6 µm mode field diameter (MFD) and a standard SMF-28 fiber with 10.4 µm MFD. An important advantage of our coupler concept is the ability to expand the mode at the chip edge without leading to high substrate leakage losses through buried oxide (BOX), which in our design is set to 3 µm. This remarkable feature is achieved by implementing in the SiO 2 upper cladding thin high-index Si 3 N 4 layers. The Si 3 N 4 layers increase the effective refractive index of the upper cladding near the facet. The index is controlled along the taper by subwavelength refractive index engineering to facilitate adiabatic mode transformation to the silicon wire waveguide while the Si-wire waveguide is inversely tapered along the coupler. The mode overlap optimization at the chip facet is carried out with a full vectorial mode solver. The mode transformation along the coupler is studied using 3D-FDTD simulations and with fully-vectorial 3D-EME calculations. The couplers are optimized for operating with transverse electric (TE) polarization and the operating wavelength is centered at 1.55 µm.

  6. Development of high sensitivity and high speed large size blank inspection system LBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shinobu; Yoshida, Akinori; Hirai, Mitsuo; Kato, Takenori; Moriizumi, Koichi; Kusunose, Haruhiko

    2017-07-01

    The production of high-resolution flat panel displays (FPDs) for mobile phones today requires the use of high-quality large-size photomasks (LSPMs). Organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays use several transistors on each pixel for precise current control and, as such, the mask patterns for OLED displays are denser and finer than the patterns for the previous generation displays throughout the entire mask surface. It is therefore strongly demanded that mask patterns be produced with high fidelity and free of defect. To enable the production of a high quality LSPM in a short lead time, the manufacturers need a high-sensitivity high-speed mask blank inspection system that meets the requirement of advanced LSPMs. Lasertec has developed a large-size blank inspection system called LBIS, which achieves high sensitivity based on a laser-scattering technique. LBIS employs a high power laser as its inspection light source. LBIS's delivery optics, including a scanner and F-Theta scan lens, focus the light from the source linearly on the surface of the blank. Its specially-designed optics collect the light scattered by particles and defects generated during the manufacturing process, such as scratches, on the surface and guide it to photo multiplier tubes (PMTs) with high efficiency. Multiple PMTs are used on LBIS for the stable detection of scattered light, which may be distributed at various angles due to irregular shapes of defects. LBIS captures 0.3mμ PSL at a detection rate of over 99.5% with uniform sensitivity. Its inspection time is 20 minutes for a G8 blank and 35 minutes for G10. The differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope on the inspection head of LBIS captures high-contrast review images after inspection. The images are classified automatically.

  7. Complexity analysis on public transport networks of 97 large- and medium-sized cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhanwei; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Hongfei; Ma, Li

    2018-04-01

    The traffic situation in Chinese urban areas is continuing to deteriorate. To make a better planning and designing of the public transport system, it is necessary to make profound research on the structure of urban public transport networks (PTNs). We investigate 97 large- and medium-sized cities’ PTNs in China, construct three types of network models — bus stop network, bus transit network and bus line network, then analyze the structural characteristics of them. It is revealed that bus stop network is small-world and scale-free, bus transit network and bus line network are both small-world. Betweenness centrality of each city’s PTN shows similar distribution pattern, although these networks’ size is various. When classifying cities according to the characteristics of PTNs or economic development level, the results are similar. It means that the development of cities’ economy and transport network has a strong correlation, PTN expands in a certain model with the development of economy.

  8. Technical trends of large-size photomasks for flat panel displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Koichiro

    2017-06-01

    Currently, flat panel displays (FPDs) are one of the main parts for information technology devices and sets. From 1990's to 2000's, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and plasma displays had been mainstream FPDs. In the middle of 2000's, demand of plasma displays declined and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) newly came into FPD market. And today, major technology of FPDs are LCDs and OLEDs. Especially for mobile devices, the penetration of OLEDs is remarkable. In FPDs panel production, photolithography is the key technology as same as LSI. Photomasks for FPDs are used not only as original master of circuit pattern, but also as a tool to form other functional structures of FPDs. Photomasks for FPDs are called as "Large Size Photomasks(LSPMs)", since the remarkable feature is " Size" which reaches over 1- meter square and over 100kg. In this report, we discuss three LSPMs technical topics with FPDs technical transition and trend. The first topics is upsizing of LSPMs, the second is the challenge for higher resolution patterning, and the last is "Multi-Tone Mask" for "Half -Tone Exposure".

  9. Resonant atom-field interaction in large-size coupled-cavity arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccarello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We consider an array of coupled cavities with staggered intercavity couplings, where each cavity mode interacts with an atom. In contrast to large-size arrays with uniform hopping rates where the atomic dynamics is known to be frozen in the strong-hopping regime, we show that resonant atom-field dynamics with significant energy exchange can occur in the case of staggered hopping rates even in the thermodynamic limit. This effect arises from the joint emergence of an energy gap in the free photonic dispersion relation and a discrete frequency at the gap's center. The latter corresponds to a bound normal mode stemming solely from the finiteness of the array length. Depending on which cavity is excited, either the atomic dynamics is frozen or a Jaynes-Cummings-like energy exchange is triggered between the bound photonic mode and its atomic analog. As these phenomena are effective with any number of cavities, they are prone to be experimentally observed even in small-size arrays.

  10. New target for high-intensity laser-matter interaction: Gravitational flow of micrometer-sized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servol, M.; Quere, F.; Bougeard, M.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.; Faenov, A.Ya; Pikuz, T.A.; Audebert, P.; Francucci, M.; Petrocelli, G.

    2005-01-01

    The design of efficient targets for high-intensity laser-matter interaction is essential to fully exploit the advantages of laser-induced photons or particles sources. We present an advantageous kind of target, consisting in a free gravitational flow of micrometer-sized powder, and describe its main technical characteristics. We demonstrate a laser-induced keV x-ray source using this target, and show that the photon flux obtained for the Kα line of Si by irradiating different silica powders is comparable to the one obtained with a bulk silica target

  11. The limits of weak selection and large population size in evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Allen, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a mathematical approach to studying how social behaviors evolve. In many recent works, evolutionary competition between strategies is modeled as a stochastic process in a finite population. In this context, two limits are both mathematically convenient and biologically relevant: weak selection and large population size. These limits can be combined in different ways, leading to potentially different results. We consider two orderings: the [Formula: see text] limit, in which weak selection is applied before the large population limit, and the [Formula: see text] limit, in which the order is reversed. Formal mathematical definitions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits are provided. Applying these definitions to the Moran process of evolutionary game theory, we obtain asymptotic expressions for fixation probability and conditions for success in these limits. We find that the asymptotic expressions for fixation probability, and the conditions for a strategy to be favored over a neutral mutation, are different in the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] limits. However, the ordering of limits does not affect the conditions for one strategy to be favored over another.

  12. Study of large size fiber reinforced cement containers for solid wastes from dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.

    1990-01-01

    The production of large-sized metallic waste by dismantling operations, and the evolution of the specifications of the waste to be stored in the different European countries will create a need for large standard containers for the transport and final disposal of the corresponding waste. The research conducted during the 1984-1988 programme, supported by the Commission of European Communities, and based on a comparative study of high-grade concrete materials, reinforced with organic or metallic fibres, led to the development of a high performance container meeting international transport recommendations as well as French requirements for shallow-ground disposal. The material selected, consisting of high-performance mortar with metal fibre reinforcement, was the subject of an intensive programme of characterization tests conducted in close cooperation with LAFARGE Company, demonstrating the achievement of mechanical and physical properties comfortably above the regulatory requirements. The construction of an industrial prototype and the subsequent economic analysis served to guarantee the industrial feasibility and cost of this system, in which attempts were made to optimize the finished package product, including its closure system

  13. The prevalence of two ‘commonly’ encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Ray; Burnett, Elisabeth; Luff, Natalie; Wagner, Craig; Stinga, Georgia; Carney, Clare; Sheridan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation.\\ud \\ud Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), ...

  14. NMR signal analysis in the large COMPASS $^{14}$NH$_{3}$ target

    CERN Document Server

    Koivuniemi, J; Hess, C; Kisselev, Y U; Meyer, W; Radtke, E; Reicherz, G; Doshita, N; Iwata, T; Kondo, K; Michigami, T

    2009-01-01

    In the large COMPASS polarized proton target the 1508 cm$^{3}$ of irradiated granular ammonia is polarized with dynamic nuclear polarization method using 4 mm microwaves in 2.5 T eld. The nuclear polarization up to 90 - 93 % is determined with cw NMR. The properties of the observed ammonia proton signals are described and spin thermodynamics in high elds is presented. Also the second moment of the NMR line is estimated.

  15. Malware Analysis: From Large-Scale Data Triage to Targeted Attack Recognition (Dagstuhl Seminar 17281)

    OpenAIRE

    Zennou, Sarah; Debray, Saumya K.; Dullien, Thomas; Lakhothia, Arun

    2018-01-01

    This report summarizes the program and the outcomes of the Dagstuhl Seminar 17281, entitled "Malware Analysis: From Large-Scale Data Triage to Targeted Attack Recognition". The seminar brought together practitioners and researchers from industry and academia to discuss the state-of-the art in the analysis of malware from both a big data perspective and a fine grained analysis. Obfuscation was also considered. The meeting created new links within this very diverse community.

  16. Blue and Black Cloth Targets: Effects of Size, Shape, and Color on Stable Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Foil, Lane D

    2018-04-02

    Stable fly management is challenging because of the fly's dispersal behavior and its tendency to remain on the host only while feeding. Optically attractive traps have been used to survey and sometimes reduce adult populations. Insecticide-treated blue and black cloth targets developed for tsetse fly management in Africa were found to be attractive to stable flies in the United States, and various evaluations were conducted in Louisiana and Florida. Tests using untreated targets were designed to answer questions about configuration, size, and color relative to efficacy and stability in high winds. Studies with electric grid targets and with targets paired with Olson traps showed cloth target color attraction in the following decreasing order: black > blue-black > blue. A solid black target is easier to make than a blue-black target because no sewing is involved. Attraction was not affected when flat 1-m2 targets were formed into cylinders, despite the limited view of the blue and black colors together. There was no reduction in attraction when the 1-m2 cylindrical targets were compared with smaller (63 × 30 cm high) cylindrical targets. In addition, there was no difference in attraction between the small blue-black, blue, and black targets. Significance of findings and implications of potential uses for treated targets are discussed. Target attraction was indicated by the numbers of stable flies captured on an Olson sticky trap placed 30 cm from the target. Although this system is adequate for field research, it greatly underestimates the actual numbers of stable flies attracted to treated targets.

  17. Resolution 8.069/12. It approve the regulations for the large size structures installation, destined for wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This resolution approve the regulations for the large size structures installation, destined to wind power generation. The objective of this rule is to regulate the urban conditions of the facilities and the environmental guarantees, safety and inhabitants wholesomeness

  18. Technology for Obtaining Large Size Complex Oxide Crystals for Experiments on Muon-Electron Conversion Registration in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasymov, Ya.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Technological approaches for qualitative large size scintillation crystals growing based on rare-earth silicates are proposed. A method of iridium crucibles charging using eutectic phase instead of a oxyorthosilicate was developed.

  19. Body size evolution in an old insect order: No evidence for Cope's Rule in spite of fitness benefits of large size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, John T; Svensson, Erik I

    2017-09-01

    We integrate field data and phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate causes of body size evolution and stasis in an old insect order: odonates ("dragonflies and damselflies"). Fossil evidence for "Cope's Rule" in odonates is weak or nonexistent since the last major extinction event 65 million years ago, yet selection studies show consistent positive selection for increased body size among adults. In particular, we find that large males in natural populations of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens) over several generations have consistent fitness benefits both in terms of survival and mating success. Additionally, there was no evidence for stabilizing or conflicting selection between fitness components within the adult life-stage. This lack of stabilizing selection during the adult life-stage was independently supported by a literature survey on different male and female fitness components from several odonate species. We did detect several significant body size shifts among extant taxa using comparative methods and a large new molecular phylogeny for odonates. We suggest that the lack of Cope's rule in odonates results from conflicting selection between fitness advantages of large adult size and costs of long larval development. We also discuss competing explanations for body size stasis in this insect group. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Large increase in nest size linked to climate change: an indicator of life history, senescence and condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup

    2015-11-01

    Many animals build extravagant nests that exceed the size required for successful reproduction. Large nests may signal the parenting ability of nest builders suggesting that nests may have a signaling function. In particular, many raptors build very large nests for their body size. We studied nest size in the goshawk Accipiter gentilis, which is a top predator throughout most of the Nearctic. Both males and females build nests, and males provision their females and offspring with food. Nest volume in the goshawk is almost three-fold larger than predicted from their body size. Nest size in the goshawk is highly variable and may reach more than 600 kg for a bird that weighs ca. 1 kg. While 8.5% of nests fell down, smaller nests fell down more often than large nests. There was a hump-shaped relationship between nest volume and female age, with a decline in nest volume late in life, as expected for senescence. Clutch size increased with nest volume. Nest volume increased during 1977-2014 in an accelerating fashion, linked to increasing spring temperature during April, when goshawks build and start reproduction. These findings are consistent with nest size being a reliable signal of parental ability, with large nest size signaling superior parenting ability and senescence, and also indicating climate warming.

  1. Cybele: a large size ion source of module construction for Tore-Supra injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonin, A.; Garibaldi, P.

    2005-01-01

    A 70 keV 40 A hydrogen beam injector has been developed at Cadarache for plasma diagnostic purpose (MSE diagnostic and Charge exchange) on the Tore-Supra Tokamak. This injector daily operates with a large size ions source (called Pagoda) which does not completely fulfill all the requirements necessary for the present experiment. As a consequence, the development of a new ion source (called Cybele) has been underway whose objective is to meet high proton rate (>80%), current density of 160 mA/cm 2 within 5% of uniformity on the whole extraction surface for long shot operation (from 1 to 100 s). Moreover, the main particularity of Cybele is the module construction concept: it is composed of five source modules vertically juxtaposed, with a special orientation which fits the curved extraction surface of the injector; this curvature ensures a geometrical focalization of the neutral beam 7 m downstream in the Tore-Supra chamber. Cybele will be tested first in positive ion production for the Tore-Supra injector, and afterward in negative ion production mode; its modular concept could be advantageous to ensure plasma uniformity on the large extraction surface (about 1 m 2 ) of the ITER neutral beam injector. A module prototype (called the Drift Source) has already been developed in the past and optimized in the laboratory both for positive and negative ion production, where it has met the ITER ion source requirements in terms of D-current density (200 A/m 2 ), source pressure (0.3 Pa), uniformity and arc efficiency (0.015 A D-/kW). (authors)

  2. Large explosive basaltic eruptions at Katla volcano, Iceland: Fragmentation, grain size and eruption dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmith, Johanne; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Holm, Paul Martin; Larsen, Guðrún

    2018-04-01

    Katla volcano in Iceland produces hazardous large explosive basaltic eruptions on a regular basis, but very little quantitative data for future hazard assessments exist. Here details on fragmentation mechanism and eruption dynamics are derived from a study of deposit stratigraphy with detailed granulometry and grain morphology analysis, granulometric modeling, componentry and the new quantitative regularity index model of fragmentation mechanism. We show that magma/water interaction is important in the ash generation process, but to a variable extent. By investigating the large explosive basaltic eruptions from 1755 and 1625, we document that eruptions of similar size and magma geochemistry can have very different fragmentation dynamics. Our models show that fragmentation in the 1755 eruption was a combination of magmatic degassing and magma/water-interaction with the most magma/water-interaction at the beginning of the eruption. The fragmentation of the 1625 eruption was initially also a combination of both magmatic and phreatomagmatic processes, but magma/water-interaction diminished progressively during the later stages of the eruption. However, intense magma/water interaction was reintroduced during the final stages of the eruption dominating the fine fragmentation at the end. This detailed study of fragmentation changes documents that subglacial eruptions have highly variable interaction with the melt water showing that the amount and access to melt water changes significantly during eruptions. While it is often difficult to reconstruct the progression of eruptions that have no quantitative observational record, this study shows that integrating field observations and granulometry with the new regularity index can form a coherent model of eruption evolution.

  3. Strength and fatigue testing of large size wind turbines rotors. Vol. II: Full size natural vibration and static strength test, a reference case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, F.; Soria, E.

    1996-12-01

    This report shows the methods and procedures selected to define a strength test for large size wind turbine, anyway in particular it application on a 500 kW blade and it results obtained in the test carried out in july of 1995 in Asinel`s test plant (Madrid). Henceforth, this project is designed in an abbreviate form whit the acronym SFAT. (Author)

  4. Strength and fatigue testing of large size wind turbines rotors. Volume II. Full size natural vibration and static strength test, a reference case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, F.; Soria, E.

    1996-01-01

    This report shows the methods and procedures selected to define a strength test for large size wind turbine, anyway in particularly it application on a 500 kW blade and it results obtained in the test carried out in july of 1995 in Asinel test plant (Madrid). Henceforth, this project is designed in an abbreviate form whit the acronym SFAT. (Author)

  5. Prototyping a large field size IORT applicator for a mobile linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rogier W J; Dries, Wim J F [Catharina-Hospital Eindhoven, PO Box 1350, 5602 ZA, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Faddegon, Bruce A [University of California San Francisco Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, CA 94115-1708 (United States)], E-mail: rogier.janssen@mac.com

    2008-04-21

    The treatment of large tumors such as sarcomas with intra-operative radiotherapy using a Mobetron (registered) is often complicated because of the limited field size of the primary collimator and the available applicators (max Oe100 mm). To circumvent this limitation a prototype rectangular applicator of 80 x 150 mm{sup 2} was designed and built featuring an additional scattering foil located at the top of the applicator. Because of its proven accuracy in modeling linear accelerator components the design was based on the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code BEAMnrc. First, the Mobetron (registered) treatment head was simulated both without an applicator and with a standard 100 mm applicator. Next, this model was used to design an applicator foil consisting of a rectangular Al base plate covering the whole beam and a pyramid of four stacked cylindrical slabs of different diameters centered on top of it. This foil was mounted on top of a plain rectangular Al tube. A prototype was built and tested with diode dosimetry in a water tank. Here, the prototype showed clinically acceptable 80 x 150 mm{sup 2} dose distributions for 4 MeV, 6 MeV and 9 MeV, obviating the use of complicated multiple irradiations with abutting field techniques. In addition, the measurements agreed well with the MC simulations, typically within 2%/1 mm.

  6. Prototyping a large field size IORT applicator for a mobile linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Rogier W J; Dries, Wim J F; Faddegon, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of large tumors such as sarcomas with intra-operative radiotherapy using a Mobetron (registered) is often complicated because of the limited field size of the primary collimator and the available applicators (max Oe100 mm). To circumvent this limitation a prototype rectangular applicator of 80 x 150 mm 2 was designed and built featuring an additional scattering foil located at the top of the applicator. Because of its proven accuracy in modeling linear accelerator components the design was based on the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code BEAMnrc. First, the Mobetron (registered) treatment head was simulated both without an applicator and with a standard 100 mm applicator. Next, this model was used to design an applicator foil consisting of a rectangular Al base plate covering the whole beam and a pyramid of four stacked cylindrical slabs of different diameters centered on top of it. This foil was mounted on top of a plain rectangular Al tube. A prototype was built and tested with diode dosimetry in a water tank. Here, the prototype showed clinically acceptable 80 x 150 mm 2 dose distributions for 4 MeV, 6 MeV and 9 MeV, obviating the use of complicated multiple irradiations with abutting field techniques. In addition, the measurements agreed well with the MC simulations, typically within 2%/1 mm

  7. Preferential enrichment of large-sized very low density lipoprotein populations with transferred cholesteryl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of lipid transfer proteins on the exchange and transfer of cholesteryl esters from rat plasma HDL2 to human very low (VLDL) and low density (LDL) lipoprotein populations was studied. The use of a combination of radiochemical and chemical methods allowed separate assessment of [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester exchange and of cholesteryl ester transfer. VLDL-I was the preferred acceptor for transferred cholesteryl esters, followed by VLDL-II and VLDL-III. LDL did not acquire cholesteryl esters. The contribution of exchange of [ 3 H]cholesteryl esters to total transfer was highest for LDL and decreased in reverse order along the VLDL density range. Inactivation of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and heating the HDL2 for 60 min at 56 degrees C accelerated transfer and exchange of [ 3 H]cholesteryl esters. Addition of lipid transfer proteins increased cholesterol esterification in all systems. The data demonstrate that large-sized, triglyceride-rich VLDL particles are preferred acceptors for transferred cholesteryl esters. It is suggested that enrichment of very low density lipoproteins with cholesteryl esters reflects the triglyceride content of the particles

  8. Investigation of Low-Cost Surface Processing Techniques for Large-Size Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuang-Tung Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the present work is to develop a simple and effective method of enhancing conversion efficiency in large-size solar cells using multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si wafer. In this work, industrial-type mc-Si solar cells with area of 125×125 mm2 were acid etched to produce simultaneously POCl3 emitters and silicon nitride deposition by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD. The study of surface morphology and reflectivity of different mc-Si etched surfaces has also been discussed in this research. Using our optimal acid etching solution ratio, we are able to fabricate mc-Si solar cells of 16.34% conversion efficiency with double layers silicon nitride (Si3N4 coating. From our experiment, we find that depositing double layers silicon nitride coating on mc-Si solar cells can get the optimal performance parameters. Open circuit (Voc is 616 mV, short circuit current (Jsc is 34.1 mA/cm2, and minority carrier diffusion length is 474.16 μm. The isotropic texturing and silicon nitride layers coating approach contribute to lowering cost and achieving high efficiency in mass production.

  9. Reparation and validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9951

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubek, N.; Jammet, G.; Zoigner, A.

    1991-02-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing about 2mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 98%) and 37mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 19%) have been prepared by the IAEA-SAL and verified by three analytical laboratories: NMCC-SAL, OEFZS, IAEA-SAL; they will be used to spike samples of concentrated spent fuel solutions with a high burnup and a low 235 U enrichment. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBL-112A and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing about 3.2 mg/ml of Pu and 64.3 mg/ml of 18.7% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution are dried to give Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of a fifth batch of LSD-spike which is intended to be used as a common spike by the plant operator, the national and the IAEA inspectorates. 7 refs, 6 tabs

  10. Hydrophobic polymers modification of mesoporous silica with large pore size for drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Shenmin, E-mail: smzhu@sjtu.edu.c [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites (China); Zhang Di; Yang Na [Fudan University, Ministry of Education, Key Lab of Molecular Engineering of Polymers (China)

    2009-04-15

    Mesostructure cellular foam (MCF) materials were modified with hydrophobic polyisoprene (PI) through free radical polymerization in the pores network, and the resulting materials (MCF-PI) were investigated as matrices for drug storage. The successful synthesis of PI inside MCF was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. It was interesting to find the resultant system held a relatively large pore size (19.5 nm) and pore volume (1.02 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}), which would benefit for drug storage. Ibuprofen (IBU) and vancomycin were selected as model drugs and loaded onto unmodified MCF and modified MCF (MCF-PI). The adsorption capacities of these model drugs on MCF-PI were observed increase as compared to that of on pure MCF, due to the trap effects induced by polyisoprene chains inside the pores. The delivery system of MCF-PI was found to be more favorable for the adsorption of IBU (31 wt%, IBU/silica), possibly attributing to the hydrophobic interaction between IBU and PI formed on the internal surface of MCF matrix. The release of drug through the porous network was investigated by measuring uptake and release of IBU.

  11. Measurement of the thickness of the sprayed nickel coatings on large-sized cast iron products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Сясько

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern industries increasingly use automatic spraying of heat-resistant Nickel  coating with a thickness  of      T = 1-3 mm for large-size parts made of cast iron with nodular graphite. The process of coating application is characterized by time-dependent behavior of its relative magnetic permeability, μс , that is a function of relaxation time, which can be as long as 24 hours, and by μс deviation from point to point on the surface. Aspects of eddy-current phase method for measuring the T value are considered. The structure of four- winding eddy current transformer transducers is described and results of calculation and optimization of their parameters are presented. The influence of controlled and interfering parameters is considered. Based  on the above results, a two-channel combined transducer is developed  providing measurement  error  of ΔТ ≤ ±(0.03T + 0.02 mm  in the shop environment in the process of coating application and in the final product check. Results of tests on reference specimens and of application in production processes are presented.

  12. Key Supplier Relationship Management: The Case of Croatian Medium-Sized and Large Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Miočević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The key supplier relationship management represents a vital organizational process. Companies should pay attention not only to managing customer relationships but also to managing relationships with suppliers in order to perform well. They should identify the extent to which a certain supplier adds value through the procurement process. In this line of reasoning, both theory and practice make a distinction between strategic (key and non-strategic (transactional suppliers. By employing the segmentation of the supply market, companies balance their supplier portfolio and are capable of identifying the key suppliers. They can also develop specific programs and initiatives that are aimed at preserving these relationships. In the empirical part of the paper, a survey was conducted on a sample of 123 medium-sized and large Croatian manufacturing companies. The structural model involving the relationship between the key supplier relationship management and value-oriented purchasing was tested. The results indicate that there is a statistically direct, positive and significant relationship between these two constructs. Likewise, the results stress that a theoretical conceptualization and operationalization of the key supplier relationship management construct is both valid and justified. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications and limitations of this study are offered.

  13. Trees of unusual size: biased inference of early bursts from large molecular phylogenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Pennell

    Full Text Available An early burst of speciation followed by a subsequent slowdown in the rate of diversification is commonly inferred from molecular phylogenies. This pattern is consistent with some verbal theory of ecological opportunity and adaptive radiations. One often-overlooked source of bias in these studies is that of sampling at the level of whole clades, as researchers tend to choose large, speciose clades to study. In this paper, we investigate the performance of common methods across the distribution of clade sizes that can be generated by a constant-rate birth-death process. Clades which are larger than expected for a given constant-rate branching process tend to show a pattern of an early burst even when both speciation and extinction rates are constant through time. All methods evaluated were susceptible to detecting this false signature when extinction was low. Under moderate extinction, both the [Formula: see text]-statistic and diversity-dependent models did not detect such a slowdown but only because the signature of a slowdown was masked by subsequent extinction. Some models which estimate time-varying speciation rates are able to detect early bursts under higher extinction rates, but are extremely prone to sampling bias. We suggest that examining clades in isolation may result in spurious inferences that rates of diversification have changed through time.

  14. Fabrication of large size alginate beads for three-dimensional cell-cluster culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengtao; Ruan, Meilin; Liu, Hongni; Cao, Yiping; He, Rongxiang

    2017-08-01

    We fabricated large size alginate beads using a simple microfluidic device under a co-axial injection regime. This device was made by PDMS casting with a mold formed by small diameter metal and polytetrafluorothylene tubes. Droplets of 2% sodium alginate were generated in soybean oil through the device and then cross-linked in a 2% CaCl2 solution, which was mixed tween80 with at a concentration of 0.4 to 40% (w/v). Our results showed that the morphology of the produced alginate beads strongly depends on the tween80 concentration. With the increase of concentration of tween80, the shape of the alginate beads varied from semi-spherical to tailed-spherical, due to the decrease of interface tension between oil and cross-link solution. To access the biocompatibility of the approach, MCF-7 cells were cultured with the alginate beads, showing the formation of cancer cells clusters which might be useful for future studies.

  15. Preparation and provisional validation of a large size dried spike: Batch SAL-9934

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, G.; Zoigner, A.; Doubek, N.; Aigner, H.; Deron, S.; Bagliano, G.

    1990-05-01

    To determine uranium and plutonium concentration using isotope dilution mass spectrometry, weighed aliquands of a synthetic mixture containing about 2 mg of Pu (with a 239 Pu abundance of about 98%) and 40 mg of U (with a 235 U enrichment of about 19%) have been prepared and verified by SAL to be used to spike samples of concentrated spent fuel solutions with a high burn-up and a low 235 U enrichment. Certified Reference Materials Pu-NBL-126, natural U-NBS-960 and 93% enriched U-NBL-116 were used to prepare a stock solution containing 3.2 mg/ml of Pu and 64.3 mg/ml of 18.8% enriched U. Before shipment to the Reprocessing Plant, aliquands of the stock solution are dried to give Large Size Dried (LSD) Spikes which resist shocks encountered during transportation, so that they can readily be recovered quantitatively at the plant. This paper describes the preparation and the validation of a third batch of LSD-Spike which is intended to be used as a common spike by the plant operator, the national and the IAEA inspectorates. 6 refs, 6 tabs

  16. Size and targeting to PECAM vs ICAM control endothelial delivery, internalization and protective effect of multimolecular SOD conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Muro, Silvia; Arguiri, Evguenia; Khoshnejad, Makan; Tliba, Samira; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2016-07-28

    Controlled endothelial delivery of SOD may alleviate abnormal local surplus of superoxide involved in ischemia-reperfusion, inflammation and other disease conditions. Targeting SOD to endothelial surface vs. intracellular compartments is desirable to prevent pathological effects of external vs. endogenous superoxide, respectively. Thus, SOD conjugated with antibodies to cell adhesion molecule PECAM (Ab/SOD) inhibits pro-inflammatory signaling mediated by endogenous superoxide produced in the endothelial endosomes in response to cytokines. Here we defined control of surface vs. endosomal delivery and effect of Ab/SOD, focusing on conjugate size and targeting to PECAM vs. ICAM. Ab/SOD enlargement from about 100 to 300nm enhanced amount of cell-bound SOD and protection against extracellular superoxide. In contrast, enlargement inhibited endocytosis of Ab/SOD and diminished mitigation of inflammatory signaling of endothelial superoxide. In addition to size, shape is important: endocytosis of antibody-coated spheres was more effective than that of polymorphous antibody conjugates. Further, targeting to ICAM provides higher endocytic efficacy than targeting to PECAM. ICAM-targeted Ab/SOD more effectively mitigated inflammatory signaling by intracellular superoxide in vitro and in animal models, although total uptake was inferior to that of PECAM-targeted Ab/SOD. Therefore, both geometry and targeting features of Ab/SOD conjugates control delivery to cell surface vs. endosomes for optimal protection against extracellular vs. endosomal oxidative stress, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Large discrepancies observed in theoretical studies of ion-impact ionization of the atomic targets at large momentum transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Omid; Ghanbari-Adivi, Ebrahim

    2017-12-01

    A full quantum mechanical version of the three-body distorted wave-eikonal initial state (3DW-EIS) theory is developed to study of the single ionization of the atomic targets by ion impact at different momentum transfers. The calculations are performed both with and without including the internuclear interaction in the transition amplitude. For 16 \\text{Mev} \\text{O}7+ \\text{-He}~(1s2 ) and 24 \\text{Mev} \\text{O}8+\\text{-Li}~(2s ) collisions, the emission of the active electron into the scattering plane is considered and the fully differential cross-sections (FDCSs) are calculated for a fixed value of the ejected electron energy and a variety of momentum transfers. For both the specified collision systems, the obtained results are compared with the experimental data and with the cross-sections obtained using the semi-classical continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) approach. For 16 \\text{Mev} \\text{O}7+ \\text{-He}~(1s^2) , we also compared the results with those of a four-body three-Coulomb-wave (3CW) model. In general, we find some large discrepancies between the results obtained by different theories. These discrepancies are much more significant at larger momentum transfers. Also, for some ranges of the electron emission angles the results are much more sensitive to the internuclear interaction to be either turned on or off.

  18. Locally Targeted Delivery of a Micron-Size Radiation Therapy Source Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yusung, E-mail: yusung-kim@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Seol, Dong Rim [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Mohapatra, Sucheta [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Sunderland, John J. [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Schultz, Michael K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Domann, Frederick E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Lim, Tae-Hong [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To propose a novel radiation therapy (RT) delivery modality: locally targeted delivery of micron-size RT sources by using temperature-sensitive hydrogel (RT-GEL) as an injectable vehicle. Methods and Materials: Hydrogel is a water-like liquid at room temperature but gels at body temperature. Two US Food and Drug Administration-approved polymers were synthesized. Indium-111 (In-111) was used as the radioactive RT-GEL source. The release characteristics of In-111 from polymerized RT-GEL were evaluated. The injectability and efficacy of RT-GEL delivery to human breast tumor were tested using animal models with control datasets of RT-saline injection. As proof-of-concept studies, a total of 6 nude mice were tested by injecting 4 million tumor cells into their upper backs after a week of acclimatization. Three mice were injected with RT-GEL and 3 with RT-saline. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and CT scans were performed on each mouse at 0, 24, and 48 h after injection. The efficacy of RT-GEL was determined by comparison with that of the control datasets by measuring kidney In-111 accumulation (mean nCi/cc), representing the distant diffusion of In-111. Results: RT-GEL was successfully injected into the tumor by using a 30-gauge needle. No difficulties due to polymerization of hydrogel during injection and intratumoral pressure were observed during RT-GEL injection. No back flow occurred for either RT-GEL or RT-saline. The residual tumor activities of In-111 were 49% at 24 h (44% at 48 h, respectively) for RT-GEL and 29% (22%, respectively) for RT-saline. Fused SPECT-CT images of RT-saline showed considerable kidney accumulation of In-111 (2886%, 261%, and 262% of RT-GEL at 0, 24, and 48 h, respectively). Conclusions: RT-GEL was successfully injected and showed much higher residual tumor activity: 170% (200%, respectively), than that of RT-saline at 24 h (48 h, respectively) after injection with a minimal accumulation of In-111 to the

  19. Large-size deployable construction heated by solar irradiation in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestrenina, Irena; Kondyurin, Alexey; Pestrenin, Valery; Kashin, Nickolay; Naymushin, Alexey

    Large-size deployable construction in free space with subsequent direct curing was invented more than fifteen years ago (Briskman et al., 1997 and Kondyurin, 1998). It caused a lot of scientific problems, one of which is a possibility to use the solar energy for initiation of the curing reaction. This paper is devoted to investigate the curing process under sun irradiation during a space flight in Earth orbits. A rotation of the construction is considered. This motion can provide an optimal temperature distribution in the construction that is required for the polymerization reaction. The cylindrical construction of 80 m length with two hemispherical ends of 10 m radius is considered. The wall of the construction of 10 mm carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composite is irradiated by heat flux from the sun and radiates heat from the external surface by the Stefan- Boltzmann law. A stage of polymerization reaction is calculated as a function of temperature/time based on the laboratory experiments with certified composite materials for space exploitation. The curing kinetics of the composite is calculated for different inclination Low Earth Orbits (300 km altitude) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (40000 km altitude). The results show that • the curing process depends strongly on the Earth orbit and the rotation of the construction; • the optimal flight orbit and rotation can be found to provide the thermal regime that is sufficient for the complete curing of the considered construction. The study is supported by RFBR grant No.12-08-00970-a. 1. Briskman V., A.Kondyurin, K.Kostarev, V.Leontyev, M.Levkovich, A.Mashinsky, G.Nechitailo, T.Yudina, Polymerization in microgravity as a new process in space technology, Paper No IAA-97-IAA.12.1.07, 48th International Astronautical Congress, October 6-10, 1997, Turin Italy. 2. Kondyurin A.V., Building the shells of large space stations by the polymerisation of epoxy composites in open space, Int. Polymer Sci. and Technol., v.25, N4

  20. Neurogenomics and the role of a large mutational target on rapid behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Craig E; Kulathinal, Rob J

    2016-11-08

    Behavior, while complex and dynamic, is among the most diverse, derived, and rapidly evolving traits in animals. The highly labile nature of heritable behavioral change is observed in such evolutionary phenomena as the emergence of converged behaviors in domesticated animals, the rapid evolution of preferences, and the routine development of ethological isolation between diverging populations and species. In fact, it is believed that nervous system development and its potential to evolve a seemingly infinite array of behavioral innovations played a major role in the successful diversification of metazoans, including our own human lineage. However, unlike other rapidly evolving functional systems such as sperm-egg interactions and immune defense, the genetic basis of rapid behavioral change remains elusive. Here we propose that the rapid divergence and widespread novelty of innate and adaptive behavior is primarily a function of its genomic architecture. Specifically, we hypothesize that the broad diversity of behavioral phenotypes present at micro- and macroevolutionary scales is promoted by a disproportionately large mutational target of neurogenic genes. We present evidence that these large neuro-behavioral targets are significant and ubiquitous in animal genomes and suggest that behavior's novelty and rapid emergence are driven by a number of factors including more selection on a larger pool of variants, a greater role of phenotypic plasticity, and/or unique molecular features present in large genes. We briefly discuss the origins of these large neurogenic genes, as they relate to the remarkable diversity of metazoan behaviors, and highlight key consequences on both behavioral traits and neurogenic disease across, respectively, evolutionary and ontogenetic time scales. Current approaches to studying the genetic mechanisms underlying rapid phenotypic change primarily focus on identifying signatures of Darwinian selection in protein-coding regions. In contrast

  1. The research of the quantitative prediction of the deposits concentrated regions of the large and super-large sized mineral deposits in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhenyu; Wang Shicheng

    2003-01-01

    By the general theory and method of mineral resources prognosis of synthetic information, the locative and quantitative prediction of the large and super-large sized mineral deposits of solid resources of 1 : 5,000,000 are developed in china. The deposit concentrated regions is model unit, the anomaly concentrated regions is prediction unit. The mineral prognosis of synthetic information is developed on GIS platform. The technical route and work method of looking for the large and super-large sized mineral resources and basic principle of compiling attribute table of the variables and the response variables are mentioned. In research of prediction of resources quantity, the locative and quantitative prediction are processed by separately the quantification theory Ⅲ and the corresponding characteristic analysis, two methods are compared. It is very important for resources prediction of western ten provinces in china, it is helpful. (authors)

  2. Mapsembler, targeted and micro assembly of large NGS datasets on a desktop computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterlongo Pierre

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of next-generation sequencing data from large genomes is a timely research topic. Sequencers are producing billions of short sequence fragments from newly sequenced organisms. Computational methods for reconstructing whole genomes/transcriptomes (de novo assemblers are typically employed to process such data. However, these methods require large memory resources and computation time. Many basic biological questions could be answered targeting specific information in the reads, thus avoiding complete assembly. Results We present Mapsembler, an iterative micro and targeted assembler which processes large datasets of reads on commodity hardware. Mapsembler checks for the presence of given regions of interest that can be constructed from reads and builds a short assembly around it, either as a plain sequence or as a graph, showing contextual structure. We introduce new algorithms to retrieve approximate occurrences of a sequence from reads and construct an extension graph. Among other results presented in this paper, Mapsembler enabled to retrieve previously described human breast cancer candidate fusion genes, and to detect new ones not previously known. Conclusions Mapsembler is the first software that enables de novo discovery around a region of interest of repeats, SNPs, exon skipping, gene fusion, as well as other structural events, directly from raw sequencing reads. As indexing is localized, the memory footprint of Mapsembler is negligible. Mapsembler is released under the CeCILL license and can be freely downloaded from http://alcovna.genouest.org/mapsembler/.

  3. Design of large size segmented GEM foils and Drift PCB for CBM MUCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, J.; Dubey, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-01-01

    Triple GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier), sector shaped detectors will be used for Muon tracking in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at Anti-proton Ion Research (FAIR) facility at Darmstadt, Germany. The sizes of the detectors modules in the Muon Chambers (MUCH) are of the order of 1 meter with active area of about 75cms. Progressive pad geometry is chosen for the readout from these detectors. In construction of these chambers, three GEM foils are stacked on top of each other in a 3/2/2/2 gap configuration. The GEM foils are double layered copper clad 50μm thin Kapton foil. Each GEM foil has millions of holes on it. Foils of large surface area are prone to damages due to discharges owing to the high capacitance of the foil. Hence, these foils have their top surfaces divided into segments of about 100 sq.cm. Further segmentation may be necessary when there are high rate requirements, as in the case of CBM. For the GEM foils of CBM MUCH, a 24 segment layout has been adopted. Short-circuit in any of the GEM-holes will make entire foil un-usable. To reduce such occurrences, segment to segment isolation using opto-coupler in series with the GEM-foil segments has been introduced. Hence, a novel design for GEM chamber drift-PCB and foils has been made. In this scheme, each segment is powered and controlled individually. At the same time, the design takes into account, the space constraints, not only in x-y plane, but also in the z, due to compact assembly of MUCH detector layers

  4. Growth of large-size-two-dimensional crystalline pentacene grains for high performance organic thin film transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Du

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available New approach is presented for growth of pentacene crystalline thin film with large grain size. Modification of dielectric surfaces using a monolayer of small molecule results in the formation of pentacene thin films with well ordered large crystalline domain structures. This suggests that pentacene molecules may have significantly large diffusion constant on the modified surface. An average hole mobility about 1.52 cm2/Vs of pentacene based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs is achieved with good reproducibility.

  5. Biological functionalization of drug delivery carriers to bypass size restrictions of receptor-mediated endocytosis independently from receptor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Maria; Serrano, Daniel; Papademetriou, Iason; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Muro, Silvia

    2013-12-23

    Targeting of drug carriers to cell-surface receptors involved in endocytosis is commonly used for intracellular drug delivery. However, most endocytic receptors mediate uptake via clathrin or caveolar pathways associated with ≤200-nm vesicles, restricting carrier design. We recently showed that endocytosis mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which differs from clathrin- and caveolae-mediated pathways, allows uptake of nano- and microcarriers in cell culture and in vivo due to recruitment of cellular sphingomyelinases to the plasmalemma. This leads to ceramide generation at carrier binding sites and formation of actin stress-fibers, enabling engulfment and uptake of a wide size-range of carriers. Here we adapted this paradigm to enhance uptake of drug carriers targeted to receptors associated with size-restricted pathways. We coated sphingomyelinase onto model (polystyrene) submicro- and microcarriers targeted to clathrin-associated mannose-6-phosphate receptor. In endothelial cells, this provided ceramide enrichment at the cell surface and actin stress-fiber formation, modifying the uptake pathway and enhancing carrier endocytosis without affecting targeting, endosomal transport, cell-associated degradation, or cell viability. This improvement depended on the carrier size and enzyme dose, and similar results were observed for other receptors (transferrin receptor) and cell types (epithelial cells). This phenomenon also enhanced tissue accumulation of carriers after intravenous injection in mice. Hence, it is possible to maintain targeting toward a selected receptor while bypassing natural size restrictions of its associated endocytic route by functionalization of drug carriers with biological elements mimicking the ICAM-1 pathway. This strategy holds considerable promise to enhance flexibility of design of targeted drug delivery systems.

  6. Gastro-oesophageal reflux in large-sized, deep-chested versus small-sized, barrel-chested dogs undergoing spinal surgery in sternal recumbency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Tilemahos L; Kazakos, George M; Savvas, Ioannis; Kostakis, Charalampos; Papadopoulou, Paraskevi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increased frequency of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is more common in large-sized, deep-chested dogs undergoing spinal surgery in sternal recumbency than in small-sized, barrelchested dogs. Prospective, cohort study. Nineteen small-sized, barrel-chested dogs (group B) and 26 large-sized, deep-chested dogs (group D). All animals were premedicated with intramuscular (IM) acepromazine (0.05 mg kg -1 ) and pethidine (3 mg kg -1 ) IM. Anaesthesia was induced with intravenous sodium thiopental and maintained with halothane in oxygen. Lower oesophageal pH was monitored continuously after induction of anaesthesia. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was considered to have occurred whenever pH values > 7.5 or < 4 were recorded. If GOR was detected during anaesthesia, measures were taken to avoid aspiration of gastric contents into the lungs and to prevent the development of oesophagitis/oesophageal stricture. The frequency of GOR during anaesthesia was significantly higher in group D (6/26 dogs; 23.07%) than in group B (0/19 dogs; 0%) (p = 0.032). Signs indicative of aspiration pneumonia, oesophagitis or oesophageal stricture were not reported in any of the GOR cases. In large-sized, deep-chested dogs undergoing spinal surgery in sternal recumbency, it would seem prudent to consider measures aimed at preventing GOR and its potentially devastating consequences (oesophagitis/oesophageal stricture, aspiration pneumonia). Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Size and shape characteristics of drumlins, derived from a large sample, and associated scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Chris D.; Hughes, Anna L. C.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Ng, Felix S. L.

    2009-04-01

    Ice sheets flowing across a sedimentary bed usually produce a landscape of blister-like landforms streamlined in the direction of the ice flow and with each bump of the order of 10 2 to 10 3 m in length and 10 1 m in relief. Such landforms, known as drumlins, have mystified investigators for over a hundred years. A satisfactory explanation for their formation, and thus an appreciation of their glaciological significance, has remained elusive. A recent advance has been in numerical modelling of the land-forming process. In anticipation of future modelling endeavours, this paper is motivated by the requirement for robust data on drumlin size and shape for model testing. From a systematic programme of drumlin mapping from digital elevation models and satellite images of Britain and Ireland, we used a geographic information system to compile a range of statistics on length L, width W, and elongation ratio E (where E = L/ W) for a large sample. Mean L, is found to be 629 m ( n = 58,983), mean W is 209 m and mean E is 2.9 ( n = 37,043). Most drumlins are between 250 and 1000 metres in length; between 120 and 300 metres in width; and between 1.7 and 4.1 times as long as they are wide. Analysis of such data and plots of drumlin width against length reveals some new insights. All frequency distributions are unimodal from which we infer that the geomorphological label of 'drumlin' is fair in that this is a true single population of landforms, rather than an amalgam of different landform types. Drumlin size shows a clear minimum bound of around 100 m (horizontal). Maybe drumlins are generated at many scales and this is the minimum, or this value may be an indication of the fundamental scale of bump generation ('proto-drumlins') prior to them growing and elongating. A relationship between drumlin width and length is found (with r2 = 0.48) and that is approximately W = 7 L 1/2 when measured in metres. A surprising and sharply-defined line bounds the data cloud plotted in E- W

  8. Size of lethality target in mouse immature oocytes determined with accelerated heavy ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, T; Dobson, R L; Kwan, T C

    1989-01-01

    Mouse immature oocytes were irradiated in vivo with highly charged, heavy ions from the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The particles used were 670-MeV/nucleon Si14+, 570-MeV/nucleon Ar18+, and 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+. The cross-sectional area of the lethality target in these extremely radiosensitive cells was determined from fluence-response curves and information on energy deposition by delta rays. Results indicate a target cross-section larger than that of the nucleus, one which closely approximates the cross-sectional area of the entire oocyte. For 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+ particles, the predicted target cross-sectional area is 120 +/- 16 microns2, comparing well with the microscopically determined cross-sectional area of 111 +/- 12 microns2 for these cells. The present results are in agreement with our previous target studies which implicate the oocyte plasma membrane.

  9. Safety requirements and options for a large size fast neutron reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogne, F.; Megy, J.; Robert, E.; Benmergui, A.; Villeneuve, J.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from the experience gained in the safety evaluation of the PHENIX reactor, and from results already obtained in the safety studies on fast neutron reactors, the French regulatory bodies have defined since 1973 what could be the requirements and the recommendations in the matter of safety for the first large size ''prototype'' fast neutron power plant of 1200 MWe. Those requirements and recommendations, while not being compulsory due to the evolution of this type of reactors, will be used as a basis for the technical regulation that will be established in France in this field. They define particularly the care to be taken in the following areas which are essential for safety: the protection systems, the primary coolant system, the prevention of accidents at the core level, the measures to be taken with regard to the whole core accident and to the containment, the protection against sodium fires, and the design as a function of external aggressions. In applying these recommendations, the CREYS-MALVILLE plant designers have tried to achieve redundancy in the safety related systems and have justified the safety of the design with regard to the various involved phenomena. In particular, the extensive research made at the levels of the fuel and of the core instrumentation makes it possible to achieve the best defence to avoid the development of core accidents. The overall examination of the measures taken, from the standpoint of prevention and surveyance as well as from the standpoint of means of action led the French regulatory bodies to propose the construction permit of the CREYS MALVILLE plant, provided that additional examinations by the regulatory bodies be made during the construction of the plant on some technological aspects not fully clarified at the authorization time. The conservatism of the corresponding requirements should be demonstrated prior to the commissioning of the power plant. To pursue a programme on reactors of this type, or even more

  10. The prevalence of two 'commonly' encountered synthetic target fibres within a large urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R; Burnett, E; Luff, N; Wagner, C; Stinga, G; Carney, C; Sheridan, K

    2015-03-01

    A target fibre study was carried out to assess the random prevalence of two ostensibly commonly encountered synthetic fibre types; black acrylic and blue polyester. The study was performed in an environment which maximised the number of random contacts between textile garments in the population and specific surfaces, namely; seating relating to buses, public houses and cinemas found within a large urban conurbation. Surface debris tapings were collected from samples of bus seats (30), pub seats (54) and cinema seats (53). Using low power stereomicroscopy, a total of 114 and 68 fibres, superficially similar to the respective black acrylic and blue polyester target fibres, were recovered from these tapings. The full range of comparative microscopical and instrumental analysis used in operational forensic laboratories was performed on the recovered fibres. No matches were found with either of the target fibres. These findings are in accordance with similar studies which show that the probability of an 'adventitious' match with a particular fibre type/colour combination is extremely low. In addition, the findings demonstrate that the current techniques and instrumentation employed by operational forensic laboratories are fit for purpose. Importantly, the findings demonstrate that databases and surveys (e.g. fibre population studies) which do not consider the analytical/comparison processes, must not be used in isolation when evaluating fibre evidence at source level. Copyright © 2015 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeted therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma: focus on brentuximab vedotin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xueyan Chen, Lorinda A Soma, Jonathan R FrommDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Despite the relative success of chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, novel therapeutic agents are needed for refractory or relapsed patients. Targeted immunotherapy has emerged as a novel treatment option for these patients. Although unconjugated anti-cluster of differentiation (CD30 antibodies showed minimal antitumor activity in early clinical trials, development of antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs appears promising. Brentuximab vedotin is an ADC composed of an anti-CD30 antibody linked to a potent microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE. It has the ability to target CD30-positive tumor cells and, once bound to CD30, brentuximab vedotin is internalized and MMAE is released to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In two phase II trials, objective response was reported in 75% and 86% of patients with refractory or relapsed HL and systemic ALCL, respectively, with an acceptable toxicity profile. Based on these studies, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA granted accelerated approval of brentuximab vedotin in August 2011 for the treatment of refractory and relapsed HL and ALCL. We review the key characteristics of brentuximab vedotin, clinical data supporting its therapeutic efficacy, and current ongoing trials to explore its utility in other CD30-positive malignancies.Keywords: classical Hodgkin lymphoma, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, CD30, brentuximab vedotin, SGN-35

  12. Effect of crowd size on patient volume at a large, multipurpose, indoor stadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, R A; Gray, B C; Bennett, P C; Lamparella, V J

    1989-01-01

    A prediction of patient volume expected at "mass gatherings" is desirable in order to provide optimal on-site emergency medical care. While several methods of predicting patient loads have been suggested, a reliable technique has not been established. This study examines the frequency of medical emergencies at the Syracuse University Carrier Dome, a 50,500-seat indoor stadium. Patient volume and level of care at collegiate basketball and football games as well as rock concerts, over a 7-year period were examined and tabulated. This information was analyzed using simple regression and nonparametric statistical methods to determine level of correlation between crowd size and patient volume. These analyses demonstrated no statistically significant increase in patient volume for increasing crowd size for basketball and football events. There was a small but statistically significant increase in patient volume for increasing crowd size for concerts. A comparison of similar crowd size for each of the three events showed that patient frequency is greatest for concerts and smallest for basketball. The study suggests that crowd size alone has only a minor influence on patient volume at any given event. Structuring medical services based solely on expected crowd size and not considering other influences such as event type and duration may give poor results.

  13. When bigger is not better: selection against large size, high condition and fast growth in juvenile lemon sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibattista, J D; Feldheim, K A; Gruber, S H; Hendry, A P

    2007-01-01

    Selection acting on large marine vertebrates may be qualitatively different from that acting on terrestrial or freshwater organisms, but logistical constraints have thus far precluded selection estimates for the former. We overcame these constraints by exhaustively sampling and repeatedly recapturing individuals in six cohorts of juvenile lemon sharks (450 age-0 and 255 age-1 fish) at an enclosed nursery site (Bimini, Bahamas). Data on individual size, condition factor, growth rate and inter-annual survival were used to test the 'bigger is better', 'fatter is better' and 'faster is better' hypotheses of life-history theory. For age-0 sharks, selection on all measured traits was weak, and generally acted against large size and high condition. For age-1 sharks, selection was much stronger, and consistently acted against large size and fast growth. These results suggest that selective pressures at Bimini may be constraining the evolution of large size and fast growth, an observation that fits well with the observed small size and low growth rate of juveniles at this site. Our results support those of some other recent studies in suggesting that bigger/fatter/faster is not always better, and may often be worse.

  14. A Novel Method for Proximity Detection of Moving Targets Using a Large-Scale Planar Capacitive Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for proximity detection of moving targets (with high dielectric constants using a large-scale (the size of each sensor is 31 cm × 19 cm planar capacitive sensor system (PCSS is proposed. The capacitive variation with distance is derived, and a pair of electrodes in a planar capacitive sensor unit (PCSU with a spiral shape is found to have better performance on sensitivity distribution homogeneity and dynamic range than three other shapes (comb shape, rectangular shape, and circular shape. A driving excitation circuit with a Clapp oscillator is proposed, and a capacitance measuring circuit with sensitivity of 0.21 V p − p / pF is designed. The results of static experiments and dynamic experiments demonstrate that the voltage curves of static experiments are similar to those of dynamic experiments; therefore, the static data can be used to simulate the dynamic curves. The dynamic range of proximity detection for three projectiles is up to 60 cm, and the results of the following static experiments show that the PCSU with four neighboring units has the highest sensitivity (the sensitivities of other units are at least 4% lower; when the attack angle decreases, the intensity of sensor signal increases. This proposed method leads to the design of a feasible moving target detector with simple structure and low cost, which can be applied in the interception system.

  15. Micron-size hydrogen cluster target for laser-driven proton acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, S.; Kanasaki, M.; Uno, M.; Matsui, R.; Uesaka, M.; Kishimoto, Y.; Fukuda, Y.

    2018-04-01

    As a new laser-driven ion acceleration technique, we proposed a way to produce impurity-free, highly reproducible, and robust proton beams exceeding 100 MeV using a Coulomb explosion of micron-size hydrogen clusters. In this study, micron-size hydrogen clusters were generated by expanding the cooled high-pressure hydrogen gas into a vacuum via a conical nozzle connected to a solenoid valve cooled by a mechanical cryostat. The size distributions of the hydrogen clusters were evaluated by measuring the angular distribution of laser light scattered from the clusters. The data were analyzed mathematically based on the Mie scattering theory combined with the Tikhonov regularization method. The maximum size of the hydrogen cluster at 25 K and 6 MPa in the stagnation state was recognized to be 2.15 ± 0.10 μm. The mean cluster size decreased with increasing temperature, and was found to be much larger than that given by Hagena’s formula. This discrepancy suggests that the micron-size hydrogen clusters were formed by the atomization (spallation) of the liquid or supercritical fluid phase of hydrogen. In addition, the density profiles of the gas phase were evaluated for 25 to 80 K at 6 MPa using a Nomarski interferometer. Based on the measurement results and the equation of state for hydrogen, the cluster mass fraction was obtained. 3D particles-in-cell (PIC) simulations concerning the interaction processes of micron-size hydrogen clusters with high power laser pulses predicted the generation of protons exceeding 100 MeV and accelerating in a laser propagation direction via an anisotropic Coulomb explosion mechanism, thus demonstrating a future candidate in laser-driven proton sources for upcoming multi-petawatt lasers.

  16. The potential distributions, and estimated spatial requirements and population sizes, of the medium to large-sized mammals in the planning domain of the Greater Addo Elephant National Park project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Boshoff

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Addo Elephant National Park project (GAENP involves the establishment of a mega biodiversity reserve in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Conservation planning in the GAENP planning domain requires systematic information on the potential distributions and estimated spatial requirements, and population sizes of the medium to largesized mammals. The potential distribution of each species is based on a combination of literature survey, a review of their ecological requirements, and consultation with conservation scientists and managers. Spatial requirements were estimated within 21 Mammal Habitat Classes derived from 43 Land Classes delineated by expert-based vegetation and river mapping procedures. These estimates were derived from spreadsheet models based on forage availability estimates and the metabolic requirements of the respective mammal species, and that incorporate modifications of the agriculture-based Large Stock Unit approach. The potential population size of each species was calculated by multiplying its density estimate with the area of suitable habitat. Population sizes were calculated for pristine, or near pristine, habitats alone, and then for these habitats together with potentially restorable habitats for two park planning domain scenarios. These data will enable (a the measurement of the effectiveness of the GAENP in achieving predetermined demographic, genetic and evolutionary targets for mammals that can potentially occur in selected park sizes and configurations, (b decisions regarding acquisition of additional land to achieve these targets to be informed, (c the identification of species for which targets can only be met through metapopulation management,(d park managers to be guided regarding the re-introduction of appropriate species, and (e the application of realistic stocking rates. Where possible, the model predictions were tested by comparison with empirical data, which in general corroborated the

  17. Prey size and availability limits maximum size of rainbow trout in a large tailwater: insights from a drift-foraging bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Michael J.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Haye, John W

    2016-01-01

    The cold and clear water conditions present below many large dams create ideal conditions for the development of economically important salmonid fisheries. Many of these tailwater fisheries have experienced declines in the abundance and condition of large trout species, yet the causes of these declines remain uncertain. Here, we develop, assess, and apply a drift-foraging bioenergetics model to identify the factors limiting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) growth in a large tailwater. We explored the relative importance of temperature, prey quantity, and prey size by constructing scenarios where these variables, both singly and in combination, were altered. Predicted growth matched empirical mass-at-age estimates, particularly for younger ages, demonstrating that the model accurately describes how current temperature and prey conditions interact to determine rainbow trout growth. Modeling scenarios that artificially inflated prey size and abundance demonstrate that rainbow trout growth is limited by the scarcity of large prey items and overall prey availability. For example, shifting 10% of the prey biomass to the 13 mm (large) length class, without increasing overall prey biomass, increased lifetime maximum mass of rainbow trout by 88%. Additionally, warmer temperatures resulted in lower predicted growth at current and lower levels of prey availability; however, growth was similar across all temperatures at higher levels of prey availability. Climate change will likely alter flow and temperature regimes in large rivers with corresponding changes to invertebrate prey resources used by fish. Broader application of drift-foraging bioenergetics models to build a mechanistic understanding of how changes to habitat conditions and prey resources affect growth of salmonids will benefit management of tailwater fisheries.

  18. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of thermomechanical processing on the recrystallization texture and grain size of Al-1%Si sputtering target material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.R.; Xu, C.L.; Huang, T.L.

    2015-01-01

    An Al-1%Si alloy was solution treated and deformed by conventional cold rolling to different strains, followed by annealing at various temperatures until complete recrystallization. The microstructures of annealed samples were characterized by electron backscatter diffraction. It is found that un...... that under optimal conditions of cold rolling and annealing, the microstructure desired for sputtering target materials with fine, uniformly sized and randomly textured grains can be obtained for the Al-1%Si alloy....

  20. Estimation of body-size traits by photogrammetry in large mammals to inform conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel

    2012-10-01

    Photography, including remote imagery and camera traps, has contributed substantially to conservation. However, the potential to use photography to understand demography and inform policy is limited. To have practical value, remote assessments must be reasonably accurate and widely deployable. Prior efforts to develop noninvasive methods of estimating trait size have been motivated by a desire to answer evolutionary questions, measure physiological growth, or, in the case of illegal trade, assess economics of horn sizes; but rarely have such methods been directed at conservation. Here I demonstrate a simple, noninvasive photographic technique and address how knowledge of values of individual-specific metrics bears on conservation policy. I used 10 years of data on juvenile moose (Alces alces) to examine whether body size and probability of survival are positively correlated in cold climates. I investigated whether the presence of mothers improved juvenile survival. The posited latter relation is relevant to policy because harvest of adult females has been permitted in some Canadian and American jurisdictions under the assumption that probability of survival of young is independent of maternal presence. The accuracy of estimates of head sizes made from photographs exceeded 98%. The estimates revealed that overwinter juvenile survival had no relation to the juvenile's estimated mass (p < 0.64) and was more strongly associated with maternal presence (p < 0.02) than winter snow depth (p < 0.18). These findings highlight the effects on survival of a social dynamic (the mother-young association) rather than body size and suggest a change in harvest policy will increase survival. Furthermore, photographic imaging of growth of individual juvenile muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) over 3 Arctic winters revealed annual variability in size, which supports the idea that noninvasive monitoring may allow one to detect how some environmental conditions ultimately affect body growth.

  1. Nano-sized metabolic precursors for heterogeneous tumor-targeting strategy using bioorthogonal click chemistry in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Jung, Seulhee; Koo, Heebeom; Na, Jin Hee; Yoon, Hong Yeol; Shim, Man Kyu; Park, Jooho; Kim, Jong-Ho; Lee, Seulki; Pomper, Martin G; Kwon, Ick Chan; Ahn, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2017-12-01

    Herein, we developed nano-sized metabolic precursors (Nano-MPs) for new tumor-targeting strategy to overcome the intrinsic limitations of biological ligands such as the limited number of biological receptors and the heterogeneity in tumor tissues. We conjugated the azide group-containing metabolic precursors, triacetylated N-azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine to generation 4 poly(amidoamine) dendrimer backbone. The nano-sized dendrimer of Nano-MPs could generate azide groups on the surface of tumor cells homogeneously regardless of cell types via metabolic glycoengineering. Importantly, these exogenously generated 'artificial chemical receptors' containing azide groups could be used for bioorthogonal click chemistry, regardless of phenotypes of different tumor cells. Furthermore, in tumor-bearing mice models, Nano-MPs could be mainly localized at the target tumor tissues by the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, and they successfully generated azide groups on tumor cells in vivo after an intravenous injection. Finally, we showed that these azide groups on tumor tissues could be used as 'artificial chemical receptors' that were conjugated to bioorthogonal chemical group-containing liposomes via in vivo click chemistry in heterogeneous tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, overall results demonstrated that our nano-sized metabolic precursors could be extensively applied to new alternative tumor-targeting technique for molecular imaging and drug delivery system, regardless of the phenotype of heterogeneous tumor cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps...). (ii) A report explaining the test methods used by the water system to evaluate the corrosion control...

  3. Does company size matter? Validation of an integrative model of safety behavior across small and large construction companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Brian H W; Yiu, Tak Wing; González, Vicente A

    2018-02-01

    Previous safety climate studies primarily focused on either large construction companies or the construction industry as a whole, while little is known about whether company size has significant effects on workers' understanding of safety climate measures and relationships between safety climate factors and safety behavior. Thus, this study aims to: (a) test the measurement equivalence (ME) of a safety climate measure across workers from small and large companies; (b) investigate if company size alters the causal structure of the integrative model developed by Guo, Yiu, and González (2016). Data were collected from 253 construction workers in New Zealand using a safety climate measure. This study used multi-group confirmatory factor analyses (MCFA) to test the measurement equivalence of the safety climate measure and structure invariance of the integrative model. Results indicate that workers from small and large companies understood the safety climate measure in a similar manner. In addition, it was suggested that company size does not change the causal structure and mediational processes of the integrative model. Both measurement equivalence of the safety climate measure and structural invariance of the integrative model were supported by this study. Practical applications: Findings of this study provided strong support for a meaningful use of the safety climate measure across construction companies in different sizes. Safety behavior promotion strategies designed based on the integrative model may be well suited for both large and small companies. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. First shock tuning and backscatter measurements for large case-to-capsule ratio beryllium targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Eric; Yi, Austin; Kline, John; Kyrala, George; Simakov, Andrei; Wilson, Doug; Ralph, Joe; Dewald, Eduard; Strozzi, David; Celliers, Peter; Millot, Marius; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    The current under performance of target implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has necessitated scaling back from high convergence ratio to access regimes of reduced physics uncertainties. These regimes, we expect, are more predictable by existing radiation hydrodynamics codes giving us a better starting point for isolating key physics questions. One key question is the lack of predictable in-flight and hot spot shape due to a complex hohlraum radiation environment. To achieve more predictable, shape tunable implosions we have designed and fielded a large 4.2 case-to-capsule ratio (CCR) target at the NIF using 6.72 mm diameter Au hohlraums and 1.6 mm diameter Cu-doped Be capsules. Simulations show that at these dimensions during a 10 ns 3-shock laser pulse reaching 270 eV hohlraum temperatures, the interaction between hohlraum and capsule plasma, which at lower CCR lead to beam propagation impedance by artificial plasma stagnation, are reduced. In this talk we will present measurements of early time drive symmetry using two-axis line-imaging velocimetry (VISAR) and streaked radiography measuring velocity of the imploding shell and their comparisons to post-shot calculations using the code HYDRA (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory).

  5. Automated selected reaction monitoring data analysis workflow for large-scale targeted proteomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surinova, Silvia; Hüttenhain, Ruth; Chang, Ching-Yun; Espona, Lucia; Vitek, Olga; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2013-08-01

    Targeted proteomics based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry is commonly used for accurate and reproducible quantification of protein analytes in complex biological mixtures. Strictly hypothesis-driven, SRM assays quantify each targeted protein by collecting measurements on its peptide fragment ions, called transitions. To achieve sensitive and accurate quantitative results, experimental design and data analysis must consistently account for the variability of the quantified transitions. This consistency is especially important in large experiments, which increasingly require profiling up to hundreds of proteins over hundreds of samples. Here we describe a robust and automated workflow for the analysis of large quantitative SRM data sets that integrates data processing, statistical protein identification and quantification, and dissemination of the results. The integrated workflow combines three software tools: mProphet for peptide identification via probabilistic scoring; SRMstats for protein significance analysis with linear mixed-effect models; and PASSEL, a public repository for storage, retrieval and query of SRM data. The input requirements for the protocol are files with SRM traces in mzXML format, and a file with a list of transitions in a text tab-separated format. The protocol is especially suited for data with heavy isotope-labeled peptide internal standards. We demonstrate the protocol on a clinical data set in which the abundances of 35 biomarker candidates were profiled in 83 blood plasma samples of subjects with ovarian cancer or benign ovarian tumors. The time frame to realize the protocol is 1-2 weeks, depending on the number of replicates used in the experiment.

  6. PERSPECTIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF THERMAL HARDENING OF LARGE-SIZE ARTICLES OF TWO-PHASE TITANIUM ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development and industrial assimilation of the fundamentally new methods of thermal strengthening of large articles out of hardenable titanic alloys.

  7. A Large Size Chimeric Highly Immunogenic Peptide Presents Multistage Plasmodium Antigens as a Vaccine Candidate System against Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, José Manuel; Varela, Yahson; Silva, Yolanda; Ardila, Karen; Forero, Martha; Guasca, Laura; Guerrero, Yuly; Bermudez, Adriana; Alba, Patricia; Vanegas, Magnolia; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2017-11-01

    Rational strategies for obtaining malaria vaccine candidates should include not only a proper selection of target antigens for antibody stimulation, but also a versatile molecular design based on ordering the right pieces from the complex pathogen molecular puzzle towards more active and functional immunogens. Classical Plasmodium falciparum antigens regarded as vaccine candidates have been selected as model targets in this study. Among all possibilities we have chosen epitopes of Pf CSP, STARP; MSA1 and Pf 155/RESA from pre- and erythrocyte stages respectively for designing a large 82-residue chimeric immunogen. A number of options aimed at diminishing steric hindrance for synthetic procedures were assessed based on standard Fmoc chemistry such as building block orthogonal ligation; pseudo-proline and microwave-assisted procedures, therefore the large-chimeric target was produced, characterized and immunologically tested. Antigenicity and functional in vivo efficacy tests of the large-chimera formulations administered alone or as antigen mixtures have proven the stimulation of high antibody titers, showing strong correlation with protection and parasite clearance of vaccinated BALB/c mice after being lethally challenged with both P. berghei -ANKA and P. yoelii 17XL malaria strains. Besides, 3D structure features shown by the large-chimera encouraged as to propose using these rational designed large synthetic molecules as reliable vaccine candidate-presenting systems.

  8. A Large Size Chimeric Highly Immunogenic Peptide Presents Multistage Plasmodium Antigens as a Vaccine Candidate System against Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Lozano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Rational strategies for obtaining malaria vaccine candidates should include not only a proper selection of target antigens for antibody stimulation, but also a versatile molecular design based on ordering the right pieces from the complex pathogen molecular puzzle towards more active and functional immunogens. Classical Plasmodium falciparum antigens regarded as vaccine candidates have been selected as model targets in this study. Among all possibilities we have chosen epitopes of PfCSP, STARP; MSA1 and Pf155/RESA from pre- and erythrocyte stages respectively for designing a large 82-residue chimeric immunogen. A number of options aimed at diminishing steric hindrance for synthetic procedures were assessed based on standard Fmoc chemistry such as building block orthogonal ligation; pseudo-proline and microwave-assisted procedures, therefore the large-chimeric target was produced, characterized and immunologically tested. Antigenicity and functional in vivo efficacy tests of the large-chimera formulations administered alone or as antigen mixtures have proven the stimulation of high antibody titers, showing strong correlation with protection and parasite clearance of vaccinated BALB/c mice after being lethally challenged with both P. berghei-ANKA and P. yoelii 17XL malaria strains. Besides, 3D structure features shown by the large-chimera encouraged as to propose using these rational designed large synthetic molecules as reliable vaccine candidate-presenting systems.

  9. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Flexible Multi-Bit Feedback Design for HARQ Operation of Large-Size Data Packets in 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosravirad, Saeed; Mudolo, Luke; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2017-01-01

    large-size data packet thanks to which the transmitter node can reduce the retransmission size to only include the initially failed segments of the packet. We study the effect of feedback size on retransmission efficiency through extensive link-level simulations over realistic channel models. Numerical......A reliable feedback channel is vital to report decoding acknowledgments in retransmission mechanisms such as the hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ). While the feedback bits are known to be costly for the wireless link, a feedback message more informative than the conventional single......-bit feedback can increase resource utilization efficiency. Considering the practical limitations for increasing feedback message size, this paper proposes a framework for the design of flexible-content multi-bit feedback. The proposed design is capable of efficiently indicating the faulty segments of a failed...

  11. Early Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Survival Is Dependent on Size: Positive Implications for Future Targeted Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Chin; Tramontano, Angela C; Dowling, Emily C; Brooks, Gabriel A; Jeon, Alvin; Brugge, William R; Gazelle, G Scott; Kong, Chung Yin; Pandharipande, Pari V

    2016-08-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has not experienced a meaningful mortality improvement for the past few decades. Successful screening is difficult to accomplish because most PDACs present late in their natural history, and current interventions have not provided significant benefit. Our goal was to identify determinants of survival for early PDAC to help inform future screening strategies. Early PDACs from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database (2000-2010) were analyzed. We stratified by size and included carcinomas in situ (Tis). Overall cancer-specific survival was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards model was developed and the significance of key covariates for survival prediction was evaluated. A Kaplan-Meier plot demonstrated significant differences in survival by size at diagnosis; these survival benefits persisted after adjustment for key covariates in the Cox proportional hazards analysis. In addition, relatively weaker predictors of worse survival included older age, male sex, black race, nodal involvement, tumor location within the head of the pancreas, and no surgery or radiotherapy. For early PDAC, we found tumor size to be the strongest predictor of survival, even after adjustment for other patient characteristics. Our findings suggest that early PDAC detection can have clinical benefit, which has positive implications for future screening strategies.

  12. Target size analysis of bioactive substances by radiation inactivation. Comparison with electron beam and. gamma. -ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Watanabe, Yuhei; Ishigaki, Isao; Hirose, Shigehisa

    1988-11-01

    The molecular sizes of various bioactive substances can be measured by the radiation inactivation method. The high energy electron beam (10 MeV) and /sup 60/Co-..gamma.. ray are mainly used for radiation inactivation method. When the practical electron accelerator (/similar to/ 3 MeV) is used for the method, the problems such as penetration and increase of temperature will arise. In this paper the radiation inactivation using 3MeV electron beam is investigated by comparison with ..gamma..-ray. When the plate type glass ampules (glass thickness 1 +- 0.1 mm) were used as the irradiation vessels, relatively uniform dose distribution was obtained. The temperature increased only from 21 degC to 35 degC by irradiation (0.77 mA, 100 passes, 100 kGy). Under the irradiation condition mentioned above, the molecular size of three enzymes were calculated from D/sub 37/ doses. The molecular sizes obtained by electron beam and ..gamma..-ray were 14,000 and 17,000 respectively for lysozyme, 33,000 for pepsin, and 191,000 and 164,000 for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase. These values agreed closely with the reported molecular weight, suggesting that the 3 MeV electron beam can also be used for the radiation inactivation under limited conditions.

  13. The maximum sizes of large scale structures in alternative theories of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Sourav [IUCAA, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune, 411 007 India (India); Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 Italy (Italy); Romano, Antonio Enea [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52–21, Medellín (Colombia); Skordis, Constantinos [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, 1 Panepistimiou Street, Nicosia, 2109 Cyprus (Cyprus); Tomaras, Theodore N., E-mail: sbhatta@iitrpr.ac.in, E-mail: kdialekt@gmail.com, E-mail: aer@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: skordis@ucy.ac.cy, E-mail: tomaras@physics.uoc.gr [Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics and Department of Physics, University of Crete, 70013 Heraklion (Greece)

    2017-07-01

    The maximum size of a cosmic structure is given by the maximum turnaround radius—the scale where the attraction due to its mass is balanced by the repulsion due to dark energy. We derive generic formulae for the estimation of the maximum turnaround radius in any theory of gravity obeying the Einstein equivalence principle, in two situations: on a spherically symmetric spacetime and on a perturbed Friedman-Robertson-Walker spacetime. We show that the two formulae agree. As an application of our formula, we calculate the maximum turnaround radius in the case of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We find that for this theory, such maximum sizes always lie above the ΛCDM value, by a factor 1 + 1/3ω, where ω>> 1 is the Brans-Dicke parameter, implying consistency of the theory with current data.

  14. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that the handling of heavy loads during pregnancy is associated with impaired fetal growth. We examined the association between quantity and frequency of maternal occupational lifting and the child's size at birth, measured by weight, length, ponderal index, small......-for-gestational-age (SGA), abdominal circumference, head circumference, and placental weight. METHODS: We analyzed birth size from the Danish Medical Birth Registry of 66 693 live-born children in the Danish National Birth Cohort according to the mother's self-reported information on occupational lifting from telephone...... women with occupational lifting versus women with no lifting, but the differences were very small, and there was a statistically significant trend only for placental weight showing lighter weight with increasing number of kilos lifted per day. In jobs likely to include person-lifting, we found increased...

  15. High-efficiency targeted editing of large viral genomes by RNA-guided nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yanwei; Sun, Le; Gao, Dandan; Ding, Chen; Li, Zhihua; Li, Yadong; Cun, Wei; Li, Qihan

    2014-05-01

    A facile and efficient method for the precise editing of large viral genomes is required for the selection of attenuated vaccine strains and the construction of gene therapy vectors. The type II prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas)) RNA-guided nuclease system can be introduced into host cells during viral replication. The CRISPR-Cas9 system robustly stimulates targeted double-stranded breaks in the genomes of DNA viruses, where the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR) pathways can be exploited to introduce site-specific indels or insert heterologous genes with high frequency. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 can specifically inhibit the replication of the original virus, thereby significantly increasing the abundance of the recombinant virus among progeny virus. As a result, purified recombinant virus can be obtained with only a single round of selection. In this study, we used recombinant adenovirus and type I herpes simplex virus as examples to demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas9 system is a valuable tool for editing the genomes of large DNA viruses.

  16. High-efficiency targeted editing of large viral genomes by RNA-guided nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Bi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile and efficient method for the precise editing of large viral genomes is required for the selection of attenuated vaccine strains and the construction of gene therapy vectors. The type II prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-associated (Cas RNA-guided nuclease system can be introduced into host cells during viral replication. The CRISPR-Cas9 system robustly stimulates targeted double-stranded breaks in the genomes of DNA viruses, where the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ and homology-directed repair (HDR pathways can be exploited to introduce site-specific indels or insert heterologous genes with high frequency. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 can specifically inhibit the replication of the original virus, thereby significantly increasing the abundance of the recombinant virus among progeny virus. As a result, purified recombinant virus can be obtained with only a single round of selection. In this study, we used recombinant adenovirus and type I herpes simplex virus as examples to demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas9 system is a valuable tool for editing the genomes of large DNA viruses.

  17. An analysis of Australia's large scale renewable energy target: Restoring market confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Tim; Nelson, James; Ariyaratnam, Jude; Camroux, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, Australia introduced legislation requiring investment in new renewable electricity generating capacity. The legislation was significantly expanded in 2009 to give effect to a 20% Renewable Energy Target (RET). Importantly, the policy was introduced with bipartisan support and is consistent with global policy trends. In this article, we examine the history of the policy and establish that the ‘stop/start’ nature of renewable policy development has resulted in investors withholding new capital until greater certainty is provided. We utilise the methodology from Simshauser and Nelson (2012) to examine whether capital market efficiency losses would occur under certain policy scenarios. The results show that electricity costs would increase by between $51 million and $119 million if the large-scale RET is abandoned even after accounting for avoided renewable costs. Our conclusions are clear: we find that policymakers should be guided by a high level public policy principle in relation to large-scale renewable energy policy: constant review is not reform. -- Highlights: •We examine the history of Australian renewable energy policy. •We examine whether capital market efficiency losses occur under certain policy scenarios. •We find electricity prices increase by up to $119 million due to renewable policy uncertainty. •We conclude that constant review of policy is not reform and should be avoided

  18. Reactive sputtering of TiN films at large substrate to target distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musil, J.; Kadlec, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of the present status of the magnetron ion sputter plating of thin CiN films. Thus different possibilities of extracting high ion currents 1 s from the magnetron discharge to substrates located not only at standard target to substrate distances d S-T of about 50 mm but also at larger distances d S-T are discussed in detail. Special attention is devoted to magnetron sputtering systems with enhanced ionization, to plasma confinement in the magnetron sputtering systems and to the discharge characteristics of an unbalanced magnetron (UM). It is shown that a UM can be operated in the regime of a double-site-sustained discharge (DSSD) and in this case large 1 s can be extracted to substrates located in large D S-T of about 200 mm and even at high pressures p = 5 Pa. A physical comparison of the conventional magnetron (CM), UM and DSSD is also given. Considerable attention is also devoted to the effect of ion bombardment on properties of TiN films created in the sputtering system using DSSD. (author)

  19. A test of the mean density approximation for Lennard-Jones mixtures with large size ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The mean density approximation for mixture radial distribution functions plays a central role in modern corresponding-states theories. This approximation is reasonably accurate for systems that do not differ widely in size and energy ratios and which are nearly equimolar. As the size ratio increases, however, or if one approaches an infinite dilution of one of the components, the approximation becomes progressively worse, especially for the small molecule pair. In an attempt to better understand and improve this approximation, isothermal molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on a series of Lennard-Jones mixtures. Thermodynamic properties, including the mixture radial distribution functions, have been obtained at seven compositions ranging from 5 to 95 mol%. In all cases the size ratio was fixed at two and three energy ratios were investigated, 22 / 11 =0.5, 1.0, and 1.5. The results of the simulations are compared with the mean density approximation and a modification to integrals evaluated with the mean density approximation is proposed

  20. Sediment size of surface floodplain sediments along a large lowland river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, K. M.; Day, G.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2007-12-01

    Data on size distribution of surface sediment across a floodplain should place important constraints of modeling of floodplain deposition. Diffusive or advective models would predict that, generally, grain size should decrease away from channel banks. Variations in grain size downstream along floodplains may depend on downstream fining of river bed material, exchange rate with river banks and net deposition onto the floodplain. Here we report detailed grain size analyses taken from 17 floodplain transects along 450 km (along channel distance) reach of the middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea. Field studies have documented a systematic change in floodplain characteristics downstream from forested, more topographically elevated and topography bounded by an actively shifting mainstem channel to a downstream swamp grass, low elevation topography along which the river meanders are currently stagnant. Frequency and duration of flooding increase downstream. Flooding occurs both by overbank flows and by injections of floodwaters up tributary and tie channels connected to the mainstem. Previous studies show that about 40% of the total discharge of water passes across the floodplain, and, correspondingly, about 40% of the total load is deposited on the plain - decreasing exponentially from channel bank. We find that floodplain sediment is most sandy at the channel bank. Grain size rapidly declines away from the bank, but surprisingly two trends were also observed. A relatively short distance from the bank the surface material is finest, but with further distance from the bank (out to greater than 1 km from the 250 m wide channel) clay content decreases and silt content increases. The changes are small but repeated at most of the transects. The second trend is that bank material fines downstream, corresponding to a downstream finding bed material, but once away from the bank, there is a weak tendency for a given distance away from the bank the floodplain surface deposits to

  1. Sodium modulates opioid receptors through a membrane component different from G-proteins. Demonstration by target size analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.; Costa, T.; Herz, A.

    1988-01-01

    The target size for opioid receptor binding was studied after manipulations known to affect the interactions between receptor and GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins). Addition of GTP or its analogs to the binding reaction, exposure of intact cells to pertussis toxin prior to irradiation, or treatment of irradiated membranes with N-ethylmaleimide did not change the target size (approximately equal to 100 kDa) for opioid receptors in NG 108-15 cells and rat brain. These data suggest that the 100-kDa species does not include an active subunit of a G-protein or alternatively that GTP does not promote the dissociation of the receptor-G-protein complex. The presence of Na+ (100 mM) in the radioligand binding assay induced a biphasic decay curve for agonist binding and a flattening of the monoexponential decay curve for a partial agonist. In both cases the effect was explained by an irradiation-induced loss of the low affinity state of the opioid receptor produced by the addition of Na+. This suggests that an allosteric inhibitor that mediates the effect of sodium on the receptor is destroyed at low doses of irradiation, leaving receptors which are no longer regulated by sodium. The effect of Na+ on target size was slightly increased by the simultaneous addition of GTP but was not altered by pertussis toxin treatment. Thus, the sodium unit is distinct from G-proteins and may represent a new component of the opioid receptor complex. Assuming a simple bimolecular model of one Na+ unit/receptor, the size of this inhibitor can be measured as 168 kDa

  2. One size fits all? Policy instruments should fit the segments of target groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, Cees; Lulofs, Kris

    2005-01-01

    In order to meet the Kyoto CO 2 reduction targets, technical innovations in the field of energy-efficiency must be diffused more rapidly and on a larger market scale. Markets develop gradually however, especially if innovations are involved. Diffusion starts with the innovators and early adopters (the early market), followed by the mainstream market (the early and late majority), and ends with the laggards. The actors in these markets differ in their willingness to adopt innovations: the early market actors have a visionary attitude, and the mainstream actors are more pragmatic. In order to choose policy instruments that will most effectively influence these two markets within the target group of housing association, we addressed the following two questions. (1) What are the differences between the early and mainstream markets actors from a behavioural change point of view, and (2) in what way do existing policy instruments differ in influencing the behaviour of these actors? We analysed early market and mainstream decision-making behaviour, and how the active ingredients in policy instruments specifically target the characteristics of the two markets. Mainstream instruments should intervene as early as possible in the decision-making process and emphasise communication about advantages such as comfort and quality in addition to money and energy savings, and present energy conservation as a solution to an actual problem. Instead of bureaucratic subsidy systems for the mainstream, the motto should be 'cash on the barrelhead'. Early market actors are highly internally motivated, implying that early market interventions have to be challenging and facilitating

  3. One size fits all? Policy instruments should fit the segments of target groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, C.; Jonkers, R.; Kok, G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the Kyoto CO 2 reduction targets, technical innovations in the field of energy-efficiency must diffuse more rapidly into a larger market. However, markets develop gradually, especially if innovations are involved. Diffusion starts with the early market (innovators and early adopters), followed by the mainstream market (the early and late majority), and ends with the laggards. The actors in these markets differ in their willingness to adopt innovations; the early market actors have a visionary attitude, and the mainstream market actors are more pragmatic. In order to choose policy instruments that will most effectively influence these two markets within the target group of housing association, we addressed the following two questions. (1) What are the differences between the early and mainstream market actors from a behavioural-change point of view? (2) In what way do existing policy instruments differ in influencing the behaviour of these actors? We analyzed early market and mainstream decision-making behaviours, and how the active ingredients in policy instruments specifically target the characteristics of the two markets. Mainstream instruments should intervene as early as possible in the decision-making process and emphasize communication about advantages such as comfort and quality in addition to money and energy savings. Furthermore, they should present energy conservation as a solution to an actual problem. Instead of bureaucratic subsidy systems for the mainstream, the motto should be 'cash on the barrel-head'. Early market actors are highly internally motivated, implying that early market interventions have to be challenging and facilitating

  4. One size does not fit all: Establishing the need for targeted eco-feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosrowpour, Ardalan; Xie, Yimeng; Taylor, John E.; Hong, Yili

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We examined occupants’ responses to an eco-feedback system in a commercial building. • We analyzed the impact of notifications on the level of engagement of participants. • We found notification effectiveness to be highly dependent on the type of feedback. • Occupant response to uniform normative comparison eco-feedback varied substantially. • This highlights the need for targeted eco-feedback based on consumption patterns. - Abstract: Despite all improvements in buildings shell, equipment, and design, CO_2 emissions from buildings are increasing. Since occupants spend more than 87% of their time indoors, they are inseparable and significant elements of building system dynamics. Hence, there is a great potential for energy efficiency in buildings using a wide range of programs such as intervention and eco-feedback. Despite the high level of individual differences and intra-class variability of occupants’ behaviors, the current state-of-the-art eco-feedback programs treat all the occupants uniformly and do not target and tailor the feedback. Therefore, it leaves an opportunity to increase the efficacy of eco-feedback systems through the designing of tailored and targeted programs. In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive analysis and tested hypotheses on occupants’ behavioral responses to a normative comparison feedback program, in addition to the impact of notifications on the level of engagement of each group of occupants. We categorized occupants who participated in the normative comparison feedback program into three groups (i.e. low, medium, and high energy consumers) based on their baseline energy consumption, and tested 9 hypotheses. A mixed-effect regression model (MRM) and a paired t-test was implemented to evaluate the proposed hypotheses. The hypotheses examine the variability of occupants’ responses under the same eco-feedback program, and the effectiveness of notifications on reinforcing occupants’ engagement in

  5. Highly crystallized nanometer-sized zeolite a with large Cs adsorption capability for the decontamination of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torad, Nagy L; Naito, Masanobu; Tatami, Junichi; Endo, Akira; Leo, Sin-Yen; Ishihara, Shinsuke; Wu, Kevin C-W; Wakihara, Toru; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    Nanometer-sized zeolite A with a large cesium (Cs) uptake capability is prepared through a simple post-milling recrystallization method. This method is suitable for producing nanometer-sized zeolite in large scale, as additional organic compounds are not needed to control zeolite nucleation and crystal growth. Herein, we perform a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) study to evaluate the uptake ability of Cs ions by zeolite, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. In comparison to micrometer-sized zeolite A, nanometer-sized zeolite A can rapidly accommodate a larger amount of Cs ions into the zeolite crystal structure, owing to its high external surface area. Nanometer-sized zeolite is a promising candidate for the removal of radioactive Cs ions from polluted water. Our QCM study on Cs adsorption uptake behavior provides the information of adsorption kinetics (e.g., adsorption amounts and rates). This technique is applicable to other zeolites, which will be highly valuable for further consideration of radioactive Cs removal in the future. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Estimation of the target stem-cell population size in chronic myeloid leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radivoyevitch, T.; Ramsey, M.J.; Tucker, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Estimation of the number of hematopoietic stem cells capable of causing chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is relevant to the development of biologically based risk models of radiation-induced CML. Through a comparison of the age structure of CML incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and the age structure of chromosomal translocations found in healthy subjects, the number of CML target stem cells is estimated for individuals above 20 years of age. The estimation involves three steps. First, CML incidence among adults is fit to an exponentially increasing function of age. Next, assuming a relatively short waiting time distribution between BCR-ABL induction and the appearance of CML, an exponential age function with rate constants fixed to the values found for CML is fitted to the translocation data. Finally, assuming that translocations are equally likely to occur between any two points in the genome, the parameter estimates found in the first two steps are used to estimate the number of target stem cells for CML. The population-averaged estimates of this number are found to be 1.86 x 10 8 for men and 1.21 x 10 8 for women; the 95% confidence intervals of these estimates are (1.34 x 10 8 , 2.50 x 10 8 ) and (0.84 x 10 8 , 1.83 x 10 8 ), respectively. (orig.)

  7. Neonatal L-glutamine modulates anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression, and microglial immunoreactivity: analysis in developing rats suckled on normal size- and large size litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Denise Sandrelly Cavalcanti; Francisco, Elian da Silva; Lima, Cássia Borges; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2017-02-01

    In mammals, L-glutamine (Gln) can alter the glutamate-Gln cycle and consequently brain excitability. Here, we investigated in developing rats the effect of treatment with different doses of Gln on anxiety-like behavior, cortical spreading depression (CSD), and microglial activation expressed as Iba1-immunoreactivity. Wistar rats were suckled in litters with 9 and 15 pups (groups L 9 and L 15 ; respectively, normal size- and large size litters). From postnatal days (P) 7-27, the animals received Gln per gavage (250, 500 or 750 mg/kg/day), or vehicle (water), or no treatment (naive). At P28 and P30, we tested the animals, respectively, in the elevated plus maze and open field. At P30-35, we measured CSD parameters (velocity of propagation, amplitude, and duration). Fixative-perfused brains were processed for microglial immunolabeling with anti-IBA-1 antibodies to analyze cortical microglia. Rats treated with Gln presented an anxiolytic behavior and accelerated CSD propagation when compared to the water- and naive control groups. Furthermore, CSD velocity was higher (p litter sizes, and for microglial activation in the L 15 groups. Besides confirming previous electrophysiological findings (CSD acceleration after Gln), our data demonstrate for the first time a behavioral and microglial activation that is associated with early Gln treatment in developing animals, and that is possibly operated via changes in brain excitability.

  8. Participation and Collaborative Learning in Large Class Sizes: Wiki, Can You Help Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Collaborative learning has a long tradition within higher education. However, its application in classes with a large number of students is complicated, since it is a teaching method that requires a high level of participation from the students and careful monitoring of the process by the educator. This article presents an experience in…

  9. Organizing Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Large Firms: Size Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann-Pauly, D.; Wickert, C.M.J.; Spence, L.; Scherer, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the findings of a qualitative empirical study of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Swiss MNCs and SMEs, we suggest that smaller firms are not necessarily less advanced in organizing CSR than large firms. Results according to theoretically derived assessment frameworks illustrate the

  10. Determining an Estimate of an Equivalence Relation for Moderate and Large Sized Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Klukowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two approaches to determining estimates of an equivalence relation on the basis of pairwise comparisons with random errors. Obtaining such an estimate requires the solution of a discrete programming problem which minimizes the sum of the differences between the form of the relation and the comparisons. The problem is NP hard and can be solved with the use of exact algorithms for sets of moderate size, i.e. about 50 elements. In the case of larger sets, i.e. at least 200 comparisons for each element, it is necessary to apply heuristic algorithms. The paper presents results (a statistical preprocessing, which enable us to determine the optimal or a near-optimal solution with acceptable computational cost. They include: the development of a statistical procedure producing comparisons with low probabilities of errors and a heuristic algorithm based on such comparisons. The proposed approach guarantees the applicability of such estimators for any size of set. (original abstract

  11. Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Cazacu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus. Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data series and its usefulness for non-normal distributed data. The trend was tested at three spatial scales: game management units (n=1565, biogeographical region (n=5 and national. Trends depicted for each game management unit were plotted using ArcGIS, resulting species trend distribution maps. For the studied period increasing population trends were observed for Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Canis aureus and Lynx lynx, while for Felis silvestris there was no trend recorded. Such an analysis in especially useful for conservation proposes, game management and reporting obligations under article 17 of the EC Habitat Directive, using population trend as a proxy for population dynamics. We conclude that the status of the five carnivore species is favourable during the study period.

  12. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider (LHC is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%–20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect. It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS, to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle

  13. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Sancho, J. Blanco; Shutov, A.; Schmidt, R.; Piriz, A. R.

    2012-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of the target that leads to a reduction in the density. The modified density distribution is used in FLUKA to calculate new energy loss distribution and the two codes are thus run iteratively. A suitable iteration step is considered to be the time interval during which the target density along the axis decreases by 15%-20%. Our simulations suggest that the full LHC proton beam penetrates up to 25 m in solid carbon whereas the range of the shower from a single proton in solid carbon is just about 3 m (hydrodynamic tunneling effect). It is planned to perform experiments at the experimental facility HiRadMat (High Radiation Materials) at CERN using the proton beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), to compare experimental results with the theoretical predictions. Therefore simulations of the response of a solid copper cylindrical target hit by the SPS beam were performed. The particle energy in the SPS beam is 440

  14. THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. VI. EROSION OF LARGE AGGREGATES AS A SOURCE OF MICROMETER-SIZED PARTICLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraepler, Rainer; Blum, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Observed protoplanetary disks consist of a large amount of micrometer-sized particles. Dullemond and Dominik pointed out for the first time the difficulty in explaining the strong mid-infrared excess of classical T Tauri stars without any dust-retention mechanisms. Because high relative velocities in between micrometer-sized and macroscopic particles exist in protoplanetary disks, we present experimental results on the erosion of macroscopic agglomerates consisting of micrometer-sized spherical particles via the impact of micrometer-sized particles. We find that after an initial phase, in which an impacting particle erodes up to 10 particles of an agglomerate, the impacting particles compress the agglomerate's surface, which partly passivates the agglomerates against erosion. Due to this effect, the erosion halts for impact velocities up to ∼30 m s -1 within our error bars. For higher velocities, the erosion is reduced by an order of magnitude. This outcome is explained and confirmed by a numerical model. In a next step, we build an analytical disk model and implement the experimentally found erosive effect. The model shows that erosion is a strong source of micrometer-sized particles in a protoplanetary disk. Finally, we use the stationary solution of this model to explain the amount of micrometer-sized particles in the observational infrared data of Furlan et al.

  15. Development of large size Micromegas detectors for the upgrade of the ATLAS experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bianco, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN f oresees a luminosity increase by a factor 3 compared to the LHC luminosity design value. To c ope with the corresponding rate increase, the Muon System of the ATLAS experiment at CER N needs to be upgraded. In the first station of the high rapidity region, micromegas det ectors have been chosen as the main tracking chambers but will, at the same time, also contribut e to the trigger. We describe the R&D; efforts that led to the construction of the first (1 × 2.4 m 2 ) large micromegas detectors at CERN and outline the next steps towards the construction of the 12 00 m 2 of micromegas detectors for the ATLAS upgrade. The technical solutions, adopted in the c onstruction of the chamber as well as results on the detector performance with cosmic rays are s hown.

  16. Post-mastectomy radiation in large node-negative breast tumors: Does size really matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, Scott R.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment decisions regarding local control can be particularly challenging for T3N0 breast tumors because of difficulty in estimating rates of local failure after mastectomy. Reports in the literature detailing the rates of local failure vary widely, likely owing to the uncommon incidence of this clinical situation. The literature regarding this clinical scenario is reviewed, including recent reports that specifically address the issue of local failure rates after mastectomy in the absence of radiation for large node-negative breast tumors.

  17. Large-size high-performance transparent amorphous silicon sensors for laser beam position detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Koehler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M.B.; Werner, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparent amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30x30mm 2 ) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20mA/W), an intrinsic position resolution better than 3μm, a spatial-point reconstruction precision better than 10μm, deflection angles smaller than 10μrad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%

  18. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  19. Azimuthal coil size and field quality in the main CERN Large Hadron Collider dipoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ferracin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Field quality in superconducting magnets strongly depends on the geometry of the coil. Fiberglass spacers (shims placed between the coil and the collars have been used to optimize magnetic and mechanical performances of superconducting magnets in large accelerators. A change in the shim thickness affects both the geometry of the coil and its state of compression (prestress under operational conditions. In this paper we develop a coupled magnetomechanical model of the main Large Hadron Collider dipole. This model allows us to evaluate the prestress dependence on the shim thickness and the map of deformations of the coil and the collars. Results of the model are compared to experimental measurements carried out in a dedicated experiment, where a magnet model has been reassembled 5 times with different shims. A good agreement is found between simulations and experimental data both on the mechanical behavior and on the field quality. We show that this approach allows us to improve this agreement with respect to models previously used in the literature. We finally evaluate the range of tunability that will be provided by shims during the production of the Large Hadron Collider main dipoles.

  20. Structural impact of armor monoblock dimensions on the failure behavior of ITER-type divertor target components: Size matters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Muyuan; You, Jeong-Ha, E-mail: you@ipp.mpg.de

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of size effects was conducted numerically for W monoblock. • Decreasing the width of W monoblock leads to a lower risk of failure. • The Cu interlayer was not affected significantly by varying armor thickness. • The predicted trends were in line with the experimental observations. - Abstract: Plenty of high-heat-flux tests conducted on tungsten monoblock type divertor target mock-ups showed that the threshold heat flux density for cracking and fracture of tungsten armor seems to be related to the dimension of the monoblocks. Thus, quantitative assessment of such size effects is of practical importance for divertor target design. In this paper, a computational study about the thermal and structural impact of monoblock size on the plastic fatigue and fracture behavior of an ITER-type tungsten divertor target is reported. As dimensional parameters, the width and thickness of monoblock, the thickness of sacrificial armor, and the inner diameter of cooling tube were varied. Plastic fatigue lifetime was estimated for the loading surface of tungsten armor and the copper interlayer by use of a cyclic-plastic constitutive model. The driving force of brittle crack growth through the tungsten armor was assessed in terms of J-integral at the crack tip. Decrease of the monoblock width effectively reduced accumulation of plastic strain at the armor surface and the driving force of brittle cracking. Decrease of sacrificial armor thickness led to decrease of plastic deformation at the loading surface due to lower surface temperature, but the thermal and mechanical response of the copper interlayer was not affected by the variation of armor thickness. Monoblock with a smaller tube diameter but with the same armor thickness and shoulder thickness experienced lower fatigue load. The predicted trends were in line with the experimental observations.

  1. Early outcome in renal transplantation from large donors to small and size-matched recipients - a porcine experimental model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravlo, Kristian; Chhoden, Tashi; Søndergaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in small recipients within 60 min after reperfusion. Interestingly, this was associated with a significant reduction in medullary RPP, while there was no significant change in the size-matched recipients. No difference was observed in urinary NGAL excretion between the groups. A significant higher level......Kidney transplantation from a large donor to a small recipient, as in pediatric transplantation, is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis and DGF. We established a porcine model for renal transplantation from an adult donor to a small or size-matched recipient with a high risk of DGF...... and studied GFR, RPP using MRI, and markers of kidney injury within 10 h after transplantation. After induction of BD, kidneys were removed from ∼63-kg donors and kept in cold storage for ∼22 h until transplanted into small (∼15 kg, n = 8) or size-matched (n = 8) recipients. A reduction in GFR was observed...

  2. Salt-assisted direct exfoliation of graphite into high-quality, large-size, few-layer graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Liyong; Li, Mingjian; Tao, Xiaoming; Xie, Zhuang; Zhou, Xuechang; Raju, Arun P A; Young, Robert J; Zheng, Zijian

    2013-08-21

    We report a facile and low-cost method to directly exfoliate graphite powders into large-size, high-quality, and solution-dispersible few-layer graphene sheets. In this method, aqueous mixtures of graphite and inorganic salts such as NaCl and CuCl2 are stirred, and subsequently dried by evaporation. Finally, the mixture powders are dispersed into an orthogonal organic solvent solution of the salt by low-power and short-time ultrasonication, which exfoliates graphite into few-layer graphene sheets. We find that the as-made graphene sheets contain little oxygen, and 86% of them are 1-5 layers with lateral sizes as large as 210 μm(2). Importantly, the as-made graphene can be readily dispersed into aqueous solution in the presence of surfactant and thus is compatible with various solution-processing techniques towards graphene-based thin film devices.

  3. Optimal integrated sizing and planning of hubs with midsize/large CHP units considering reliability of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Saeed; Ghaffarpour, Reza; Ranjbar, Ali Mohammad; Mozaffari, Babak

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New hub planning formulation is proposed to exploit assets of midsize/large CHPs. • Linearization approaches are proposed for two-variable nonlinear CHP fuel function. • Efficient operation of addressed CHPs & hub devices at contingencies are considered. • Reliability-embedded integrated planning & sizing is formulated as one single MILP. • Noticeable results for costs & reliability-embedded planning due to mid/large CHPs. - Abstract: Use of multi-carrier energy systems and the energy hub concept has recently been a widespread trend worldwide. However, most of the related researches specialize in CHP systems with constant electricity/heat ratios and linear operating characteristics. In this paper, integrated energy hub planning and sizing is developed for the energy systems with mid-scale and large-scale CHP units, by taking their wide operating range into consideration. The proposed formulation is aimed at taking the best use of the beneficial degrees of freedom associated with these units for decreasing total costs and increasing reliability. High-accuracy piecewise linearization techniques with approximation errors of about 1% are introduced for the nonlinear two-dimensional CHP input-output function, making it possible to successfully integrate the CHP sizing. Efficient operation of CHP and the hub at contingencies is extracted via a new formulation, which is developed to be incorporated to the planning and sizing problem. Optimal operation, planning, sizing and contingency operation of hub components are integrated and formulated as a single comprehensive MILP problem. Results on a case study with midsize CHPs reveal a 33% reduction in total costs, and it is demonstrated that the proposed formulation ceases the need for additional components/capacities for increasing reliability of supply.

  4. Novel disease targets and management approaches for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wyndham H; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco J; Dunleavy, Kieron; Little, Richard F; O'Connor, Owen A

    2010-08-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) responds well to treatment with CHOP and the R-CHOP regimen, but a subset of patients still fail to achieve complete or durable responses. Recent advances in gene expression profiling have led to the identification of three different subtypes of DLBCL, and confirmed that patients with the activated B-cell (ABC) disease subtype are less likely to respond well to CHOP-based regimens than those with germinal centre B-cell-type (GCB) disease. This discovery could herald the use of gene expression profiling to aid treatment decisions in DLBCL, and help identify the most effective management strategies for patients. Treatment options for patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL are limited and several novel agents are being developed to address this unmet clinical need. Novel agents developed to treat plasma cell disorders such as multiple myeloma have shown promising activity in patients with NHL. Indeed, the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide and the proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib, as single agents or in combination with chemotherapy, have already demonstrated promising activity in patients with the ABC subtype of DLBCL. One should not be complacent however when applying these agents to new disease types, because dose and drug scheduling can have marked effects on the responses achieved with investigational agents. As more targeted agents are developed, the timing of administration with other agents in clinical trials will become increasingly important to ensure maximal efficacy while minimizing side effects.

  5. Large Size High Performance Transparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors for Laser Beam Position Detection and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Kohler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M. B.

    2006-09-04

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparente amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30 x 30 mm2) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20 mA/W), an intinsic position resolution better than 3 m, a spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 m, deflection angles smaller than 10 rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition, multipoint alignment monitoring, using up to five sensors lined along a light path of about 5 meters, can be achieved with a resolution better than 20m. (Author)

  6. Large-size high-performance transparent amorphous silicon sensors for laser beam position detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Rivero, C. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Matorras, F. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodrigo, T. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Sobron, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Virto, A.L. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria. CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Alberdi, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Arce, P. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Barcala, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ferrando, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: antonio.ferrando@ciemat.es; Josa, M.I. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Luque, J.M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Molinero, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Navarrete, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Oller, J.C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Yuste, C. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Koehler, C. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Lutz, B. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Schubert, M.B. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany); Werner, J.H. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik und Duennschichttechnik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparent amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30x30mm{sup 2}) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20mA/W), an intrinsic position resolution better than 3{mu}m, a spatial-point reconstruction precision better than 10{mu}m, deflection angles smaller than 10{mu}rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%.

  7. Large Size High Performance Transparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors for Laser Beam Position Detection and Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, A.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto; Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Luque, J. M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Kohler, C.; Lutz, B.; Schubert, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    We present the measured performance of a new generation of semitransparente amorphous silicon position detectors. They have a large sensitive area (30 x 30 mm2) and show good properties such as a high response (about 20 mA/W), an intinsic position resolution better than 3 m, a spatial point reconstruction precision better than 10 m, deflection angles smaller than 10 rad and a transmission power in the visible and NIR higher than 70%. In addition, multipoint alignment monitoring, using up to five sensors lined along a light path of about 5 meters, can be achieved with a resolution better than 20m. (Author)

  8. The welfare implications of large litter size in the domestic pig II: management factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, E.M.; Rutherford, K.M.D.; D'Eath, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    routinely exceeds the ability of individual sows to successfully rear all the piglets (ie viable piglets outnumber functional teats). Such interventions include: tooth reduction; split suckling; cross-fostering; use of nurse sow systems and early weaning, including split weaning; and use of artificial...... rearing systems. These practices raise welfare questions for both the piglets and sow and are described and discussed in this review. In addition, possible management approaches which might mitigate health and welfare issues associated with large litters are identified. These include early intervention...

  9. A hybrid adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for lot-sizing with setup times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt; Spoorendonk, Simon; Pisinger, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid of a general heuristic framework and a general purpose mixed-integer programming (MIP) solver. The framework is based on local search and an adaptive procedure which chooses between a set of large neighborhoods to be searched. A mixed integer programming solver and its......, and the upper bounds found by the commercial MIP solver ILOG CPLEX using state-of-the-art MIP formulations. Furthermore, we improve the best known solutions on 60 out of 100 and improve the lower bound on all 100 instances from the literature...

  10. Numerical modeling of deformation and vibrations in the construction of large-size fiberglass cooling tower fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanisovich Shmakov Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of numerical modeling of deformation processes and the analysis of the fundamental frequencies of the construction of large-size fiberglass cooling tower fan. Obtain the components of the stress-strain state structure based on imported gas dynamic and thermal loads and the form of fundamental vibrations. The analysis of fundamental frequencies, the results of which have been proposed constructive solutions to reduce the probability of failure of the action of aeroelastic forces.

  11. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  12. Microstructural Control via Copious Nucleation Manipulated by In Situ Formed Nucleants: Large-Sized and Ductile Metallic Glass Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenli; Wu, Yuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiongjun; Chen, Houwen; Guo, Zhenxi; Lu, Zhaoping

    2016-10-01

    A novel strategy to control the precipitation behavior of the austenitic phase, and to obtain large-sized, transformation-induced, plasticity-reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites, with good tensile properties, is proposed. By inducing heterogeneous nucleation of the transformable reinforcement via potent nucleants formed in situ, the characteristics of the austenitic phase are well manipulated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Vacuum system for applying reflective coatings on large-size optical components using the method of magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerbaev, Alexander A.; Abdulkadyrov, Magomed A.; Belousov, Sergey P.; Ignatov, Aleksandr N.; Mukhammedzyanov, Timur R.

    2016-10-01

    Vacuum system for reflective coatings deposition on large-size optical components up to 4.0 m diameter using the method of magnetron sputtering was built at JSC LZOS. The technological process for deposition of reflective Al coating with protective SiO2 layer was designed and approved. After climatic tests the lifetime of such coating was estimated as 30 years. Uniformity of coating thickness ±5% was achieved on maximum diameter 4.0 m.

  14. IMPACTS OF OWN BRANDS STRATEGY ON MANUFACTURER – RETAILER RELATIONSHIP: CASE STUDIES IN LARGE SIZE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Telles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of marketing and production strategy of own brand products requires an understanding of both the benefits gained by retailers and manufacturers involved in this activity and also the effects of this strategy on the relationship between these companies. According to this idea, a qualitative and descriptive work was conducted, based on six case studies, three of them on large product manufacturers and three on large retailers. The aim of this study is defined is threefold: (1 to analyze the expectations of manufacturers and retailers with their own brands’ current operations, (2 to analyze the expectations of manufacturers and retailers with their own brands’ future operations, and (3 to analyze the influence of the own brands adoption on the relationship between manufacturers and retailers. The results indicate that (a current operations are primarily based on economic reasons (market share, and use of spare capacity, (b future operations are perceived from a marketing perspective (survival, and (c the adoption of own brand strategy does not harm the relationship between the parties – both manufacturers and retailers –, unlike the earlier studies indicated.

  15. Hierarchical imaging: a new concept for targeted imaging of large volumes from cells to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Irene; Spomer, Waldemar; Hofmann, Andreas; Thaler, Marlene; Hillmer, Stefan; Gengenbach, Ulrich; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2016-12-12

    Imaging large volumes such as entire cells or small model organisms at nanoscale resolution seemed an unrealistic, rather tedious task so far. Now, technical advances have lead to several electron microscopy (EM) large volume imaging techniques. One is array tomography, where ribbons of ultrathin serial sections are deposited on solid substrates like silicon wafers or glass coverslips. To ensure reliable retrieval of multiple ribbons from the boat of a diamond knife we introduce a substrate holder with 7 axes of translation or rotation specifically designed for that purpose. With this device we are able to deposit hundreds of sections in an ordered way in an area of 22 × 22 mm, the size of a coverslip. Imaging such arrays in a standard wide field fluorescence microscope produces reconstructions with 200 nm lateral resolution and 100 nm (the section thickness) resolution in z. By hierarchical imaging cascades in the scanning electron microscope (SEM), using a new software platform, we can address volumes from single cells to complete organs. In our first example, a cell population isolated from zebrafish spleen, we characterize different cell types according to their organelle inventory by segmenting 3D reconstructions of complete cells imaged with nanoscale resolution. In addition, by screening large numbers of cells at decreased resolution we can define the percentage at which different cell types are present in our preparation. With the second example, the root tip of cress, we illustrate how combining information from intermediate resolution data with high resolution data from selected regions of interest can drastically reduce the amount of data that has to be recorded. By imaging only the interesting parts of a sample considerably less data need to be stored, handled and eventually analysed. Our custom-designed substrate holder allows reproducible generation of section libraries, which can then be imaged in a hierarchical way. We demonstrate, that EM

  16. Desorption of large molecules with light-element clusters: Effects of cluster size and substrate nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcorte, Arnaud, E-mail: arnaud.delcorte@uclouvain.be [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences - Bio and Soft Matter, Universite catholique de Louvain, Croix du Sud, 1 bte 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Garrison, Barbara J. [Department of Chemistry, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This contribution focuses on the conditions required to desorb a large hydrocarbon molecule using light-element clusters. The test molecule is a 7.5 kDa coil of polystyrene (PS61). Several projectiles are compared, from C{sub 60} to 110 kDa organic droplets and two substrates are used, amorphous polyethylene and mono-crystalline gold. Different aiming points and incidence angles are examined. Under specific conditions, 10 keV nanodrops can desorb PS61 intact from a gold substrate and from a soft polyethylene substrate. The prevalent mechanism for the desorption of intact and 'cold' molecules is one in which the molecules are washed away by the projectile constituents and entrained in their flux, with an emission angle close to {approx}70 deg. The effects of the different parameters on the dynamics and the underlying physics are discussed in detail and the predictions of the model are compared with other published studies.

  17. Desorption of large molecules with light-element clusters: Effects of cluster size and substrate nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcorte, Arnaud; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the conditions required to desorb a large hydrocarbon molecule using light-element clusters. The test molecule is a 7.5 kDa coil of polystyrene (PS61). Several projectiles are compared, from C 60 to 110 kDa organic droplets and two substrates are used, amorphous polyethylene and mono-crystalline gold. Different aiming points and incidence angles are examined. Under specific conditions, 10 keV nanodrops can desorb PS61 intact from a gold substrate and from a soft polyethylene substrate. The prevalent mechanism for the desorption of intact and 'cold' molecules is one in which the molecules are washed away by the projectile constituents and entrained in their flux, with an emission angle close to ∼70 deg. The effects of the different parameters on the dynamics and the underlying physics are discussed in detail and the predictions of the model are compared with other published studies.

  18. Size matters: the ethical, legal, and social issues surrounding large-scale genetic biobank initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Lindgaard Hoeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years the complex ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI typically surrounding large-scale genetic biobank research initiatives have been intensely debated in academic circles. In many ways genetic epidemiology has undergone a set of changes resembling what in physics has been called a transition into Big Science. This article outlines consequences of this transition and suggests that the change in scale implies challenges to the roles of scientists and public alike. An overview of key issues is presented, and it is argued that biobanks represent not just scientific endeavors with purely epistemic objectives, but also political projects with social implications. As such, they demand clever maneuvering among social interests to succeed.

  19. MMSW. A large-size micromegas quadruplet prototype. Design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuger, Fabian; Sidiropoulou, Ourania [Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Wuerzburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Bianco, Michele; Danielsson, Hans; Degrange, Jordan; Oliveira, Rui de; Farina, Eduardo; Iengo, Paolo; Perez Gomez, Francisco; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sforza, Federico; Vergain, Maurice; Wotschack, Joerg [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Duedder, Andreas; Lin, Tai-Hua; Schott, Matthias [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Two micromegas detector quadruplets with an area of 0.5 m{sup 2} (MMSW) have been recently constructed and tested at CERN and University of Mainz. They serve as prototypes for the planned upgrade project of the ATLAS muon system. Their design is based on the resistive-strip technology and thus renders the detectors spark tolerant. The applied 'mechanically floating' mesh design allows for large area Micromegas construction and facilitates detector cleaning before assembly. Each quadruplet comprises four detection layers with 1024 readout strips and a strip pitch of 415 μm. In two out of the four layers the strips are inclined by ± 1.5 to allow for the measurement of a second coordinate. We present the detector concept and report on the experience gained during the detector construction.

  20. A polymer, random walk model for the size-distribution of large DNA fragments after high linear energy transfer radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Brenner, D.; Hlatky, L. R.; Sachs, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) produced by densely ionizing radiation are not located randomly in the genome: recent data indicate DSB clustering along chromosomes. Stochastic DSB clustering at large scales, from > 100 Mbp down to simulations and analytic equations. A random-walk, coarse-grained polymer model for chromatin is combined with a simple track structure model in Monte Carlo software called DNAbreak and is applied to data on alpha-particle irradiation of V-79 cells. The chromatin model neglects molecular details but systematically incorporates an increase in average spatial separation between two DNA loci as the number of base-pairs between the loci increases. Fragment-size distributions obtained using DNAbreak match data on large fragments about as well as distributions previously obtained with a less mechanistic approach. Dose-response relations, linear at small doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, are obtained. They are found to be non-linear when the dose becomes so large that there is a significant probability of overlapping or close juxtaposition, along one chromosome, for different DSB clusters from different tracks. The non-linearity is more evident for large fragments than for small. The DNAbreak results furnish an example of the RLC (randomly located clusters) analytic formalism, which generalizes the broken-stick fragment-size distribution of the random-breakage model that is often applied to low-LET data.

  1. INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN MANAGEMENT OF REMOTE HANDLED AND LARGE SIZED MIXED WASTE FORMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACKFORD LT

    2008-01-01

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) plays a critical role in Hanford Site cleanup for the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP). CH2M HILL is responsible for the management of 177 tanks containing 53 million gallons of highly radioactive wastes generated from weapons production activities from 1943 through 1990. In that time, 149 single-shell tanks, ranging in capacity from 50,000 gallons to 500,000 gallons, and 28 double-shell tanks with a capacity of 1 million gallons each, were constructed and filled with toxic liquid wastes and sludges. The cleanup mission includes removing these radioactive waste solids from the single-shell tanks to double-shell tanks for staging as feed to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site for vitrification of the wastes and disposal on the Hanford Site and Yucca Mountain repository. Concentrated efforts in retrieving residual solid and sludges from the single-shell tanks began in 2003; the first tank retrieved was C-106 in the 200 East Area of the site. The process for retrieval requires installation of modified sluicing systems, vacuum systems, and pumping systems into existing tank risers. Inherent with this process is the removal of existing pumps, thermo-couples, and agitating and monitoring equipment from the tank to be retrieved. Historically, these types of equipment have been extremely difficult to manage from the aspect of radiological dose, size, and weight of the equipment, as well as their attendant operating and support systems such as electrical distribution and control panels, filter systems, and mobile retrieval systems. Significant effort and expense were required to manage this new waste stream and resulted in several events over time that were both determined to be unsafe for workers and potentially unsound for protection of the environment. Over the last four years, processes and systems have been developed that reduce worker exposures to these hazards, eliminate violations

  2. Study of the pressing operation of large-sized tiles using X-ray absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoros, J. L.; Mallol, G.; Llorens, D.; Boix, J.; Arnau, J. M.; Feliu, C.; Cerisuelo, J. A.; Gargallo, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus for X-Ray non destructive inspection of bulk density distribution in large ceramic tiles has been designed, built and patented. This technique has many advantages compared with other methods: it allows tile bulk density distribution to be mapped and is neither destructive nor toxic, provided the X-ray tube and detector area are shielded to prevent leakage. In the present study, this technique, whose technical feasibility and accuracy had been verified in previous studies, has been used to scan ceramic tiles formed under different industrial conditions, modifying press working parameters. The use of high-precision laser telemeters allows tile thicknesses to be mapped, facilitating the interpretation of manufacturing defects produced in pressing, which cannot be interpreted by just measuring bulk density. The bulk density distributions obtained in the same unfired and fired tiles are also compared, a possibility afforded only by this measurement method, since it is non-destructive. The comparison of both unfired and fired tile bulk density distributions allows the influence of the pressing and firing stages on tile end porosity to be individually identified. (Author) 12 refs.

  3. Theory of resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities excited by energetic trapped particles in large-size tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biglari, H.

    1987-01-01

    A theory describing excitation of resistive magnetohydrodynamic instabilities due to a population of energetic particles, trapped in region of adverse curvature on energetic particles, trapped in region of adverse curvature in tokamaks, is presented. Theory's principal motivation is observation that high magnetic-field strengths and large geometric dimensions characteristic of present-generation thermonuclear fusion devices, places them in a frequency regime whereby processional drift frequency of auxiliary hot-ion species, in order of magnitude, falls below a typical inverse resistive interchange time scale, so that inclusion of resistive dissipation effects becomes important. Destabilization of the resistive internal kink mode by these suprathermal particles is first investigated. Using variational techniques, a generalized dispersion relation governing such modes, which recovers ideal theory in its appropriate limit, is derived and analyzed using Nyquist-diagrammatic techniques. An important implication of theory for present-generation fusion devices is that they will be stable to fishbone activity. Interaction of energetic particles with resistive interchange-ballooning modes is taken up. A population of hot particles, deeply trapped on adverse curvature side in tokamaks, can resonantly destabilize resistive interchange mode, which is stable in their absence because of favorable average curvature. Both modes are different from their usual resistive magnetohydrodynamic counterparts in their destabilization mechanism

  4. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00380308; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface area of about 150 m$^2$ of the forward regions (pseudo-rapidity coverage -- 1.3 $\\boldsymbol{< |\\eta| <}$ 2.7) of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m$^2$ for a total active area of 1200 m$^2$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels (NSW), which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15\\% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic position resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be $\\boldsymbol{30{\\mu}m}$ along the precision coordinate and $\\boldsymbol{80{\\mu}m}$ perpendicular to the chamber. All readout planes are segmented into strips with a pitch of $\\bold...

  5. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneau, Fabien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m2 of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m2 for a total active area of 1200 m2. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 μm along the precision coordinate and 80 μm perpendicular to the chamber. In the prototyping towards the final configuration two similar quadruplets with dimensions 1.2×0.5 m2 have been built with the same structure as foreseen for the NSW upgrade. It represents ...

  6. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneau, Fabien; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m2 of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m2 for a total active area of 1200 m2. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 μm along the precision coordinate and 80 μm perpendicular to the chamber. All readout planes are segmented into strips with a pitch of 400 μm for a total of 4096 strips. In two of the four planes the strips are inclined by 1.5 ◦ and provide a measurement of the...

  7. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the Upgrade of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Lösel, Philipp; Müller, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about $\\mathbf{150~m^2}$ of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each layer covers more than $\\mathbf{2~m^2}$ for a total active area of $\\mathbf{1200~m^2}$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15$\\mathbf{\\%}$ transverse momentum resolution for $\\mathbf{1~TeV}$ muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as $\\mathbf{30~\\mu m}$ along the precision coordinate and $\\mathbf{80~\\mu m}$ perpendicular to the chamber. The design and construction procedure of the Micromegas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly ...

  8. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Losel, Philipp Jonathan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed fo r the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m$^2$ of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m$^2$ for a total active area of 1200 m$^2$. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS endcap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resol ution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical prec ision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 $\\mu$m along the precision coordi nate and 80 $\\mu$m perpendicular to the chamber. The design and construction procedure of the microm egas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly of modules onto the New Small Wheel. Emphasis wi...

  9. Simulation of reflecting surface deviations of centimeter-band parabolic space radiotelescope (SRT) with the large-size mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotik, A.; Usyukin, V.; Vinogradov, I.; Arkhipov, M.

    2017-11-01

    he realization of astrophysical researches requires the development of high-sensitive centimeterband parabolic space radiotelescopes (SRT) with the large-size mirrors. Constructively such SRT with the mirror size more than 10 m can be realized as deployable rigid structures. Mesh-structures of such size do not provide the reflector reflecting surface accuracy which is necessary for the centimeter band observations. Now such telescope with the 10 m diameter mirror is developed in Russia in the frame of "SPECTR - R" program. External dimensions of the telescope is more than the size of existing thermo-vacuum chambers used to prove SRT reflecting surface accuracy parameters under the action of space environment factors. That's why the numerical simulation turns out to be the basis required to accept the taken designs. Such modeling should be based on experimental working of the basic constructive materials and elements of the future reflector. In the article computational modeling of reflecting surface deviations of a centimeter-band of a large-sized deployable space reflector at a stage of his orbital functioning is considered. The analysis of the factors that determines the deviations - both determined (temperatures fields) and not-determined (telescope manufacturing and installation faults; the deformations caused by features of composite materials behavior in space) is carried out. The finite-element model and complex of methods are developed. They allow to carry out computational modeling of reflecting surface deviations caused by influence of all factors and to take into account the deviations correction by space vehicle orientation system. The results of modeling for two modes of functioning (orientation at the Sun) SRT are presented.

  10. When David beats Goliath: the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive contests declines over evolutionary time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Martin

    Full Text Available Body size has long been recognized to play a key role in shaping species interactions. For example, while small species thrive in a diversity of environments, they typically lose aggressive contests for resources with larger species. However, numerous examples exist of smaller species dominating larger species during aggressive interactions, suggesting that the evolution of traits can allow species to overcome the competitive disadvantage of small size. If these traits accumulate as lineages diverge, then the advantage of large size in interspecific aggressive interactions should decline with increased evolutionary distance. We tested this hypothesis using data on the outcomes of 23,362 aggressive interactions among 246 bird species pairs involving vultures at carcasses, hummingbirds at nectar sources, and antbirds and woodcreepers at army ant swarms. We found the advantage of large size declined as species became more evolutionarily divergent, and smaller species were more likely to dominate aggressive contests when interacting with more distantly-related species. These results appear to be caused by both the evolution of traits in smaller species that enhanced their abilities in aggressive contests, and the evolution of traits in larger species that were adaptive for other functions, but compromised their abilities to compete aggressively. Specific traits that may provide advantages to small species in aggressive interactions included well-developed leg musculature and talons, enhanced flight acceleration and maneuverability, novel fighting behaviors, and traits associated with aggression, such as testosterone and muscle development. Traits that may have hindered larger species in aggressive interactions included the evolution of morphologies for tree trunk foraging that compromised performance in aggressive contests away from trunks, and the evolution of migration. Overall, our results suggest that fundamental trade-offs, such as those

  11. Use of methods for specifying the target difference in randomised controlled trial sample size calculations: Two surveys of trialists' practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jonathan A; Hislop, Jennifer M; Altman, Doug G; Briggs, Andrew H; Fayers, Peter M; Norrie, John D; Ramsay, Craig R; Harvey, Ian M; Vale, Luke D

    2014-06-01

    the most recent trial, the target difference was usually one viewed as important by a stakeholder group, mostly also viewed as a realistic difference given the interventions under evaluation, and sometimes one that led to an achievable sample size. The response rates achieved were relatively low despite the surveys being short, well presented, and having utilised reminders. Substantial variations in practice exist with awareness, use, and willingness to recommend methods varying substantially. The findings support the view that sample size calculation is a more complex process than would appear to be the case from trial reports and protocols. Guidance on approaches for sample size estimation may increase both awareness and use of appropriate formal methods. © The Author(s), 2014.

  12. Separation of large DNA molecules by applying pulsed electric field to size exclusion chromatography-based microchip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Naoki; Itoh, Shintaro; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Zhang, Hedong

    2018-02-01

    Through electrophoresis driven by a pulsed electric field, we succeeded in separating large DNA molecules with an electrophoretic microchip based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC), which was proposed in our previous study. The conditions of the pulsed electric field required to achieve the separation were determined by numerical analyses using our originally proposed separation model. From the numerical results, we succeeded in separating large DNA molecules (λ DNA and T4 DNA) within 1600 s, which was approximately half of that achieved under a direct electric field in our previous study. Our SEC-based electrophoresis microchip will be one of the effective tools to meet the growing demand of faster and more convenient separation of large DNA molecules, especially in the field of epidemiological research of infectious diseases.

  13. Multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) for normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin

    2017-12-20

    In this paper, a multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) is proposed for the normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules. The multiscale virtual particle (MVP) model is proposed for the discretization of biomolecular density data. With this model, large-sized biomolecular structures can be coarse-grained into virtual particles such that a balance between model accuracy and computational cost can be achieved. An elastic network is constructed by assuming "connections" between virtual particles. The connection is described by a special harmonic potential function, which considers the influence from both the mass distributions and distance relations of the virtual particles. Two independent models, i.e., the multiscale virtual particle based Gaussian network model (MVP-GNM) and the multiscale virtual particle based anisotropic network model (MVP-ANM), are proposed. It has been found that in the Debye-Waller factor (B-factor) prediction, the results from our MVP-GNM with a high resolution are as good as the ones from GNM. Even with low resolutions, our MVP-GNM can still capture the global behavior of the B-factor very well with mismatches predominantly from the regions with large B-factor values. Further, it has been demonstrated that the low-frequency eigenmodes from our MVP-ANM are highly consistent with the ones from ANM even with very low resolutions and a coarse grid. Finally, the great advantage of MVP-ANM model for large-sized biomolecules has been demonstrated by using two poliovirus virus structures. The paper ends with a conclusion.

  14. Investigating the Variability in Cumulus Cloud Number as a Function of Subdomain Size and Organization using large-domain LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, R.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in supercomputing have introduced a "grey zone" in the representation of cumulus convection in general circulation models, in which this process is partially resolved. Cumulus parameterizations need to be made scale-aware and scale-adaptive to be able to conceptually and practically deal with this situation. A potential way forward are schemes formulated in terms of discretized Cloud Size Densities, or CSDs. Advantages include i) the introduction of scale-awareness at the foundation of the scheme, and ii) the possibility to apply size-filtering of parameterized convective transport and clouds. The CSD is a new variable that requires closure; this concerns its shape, its range, but also variability in cloud number that can appear due to i) subsampling effects and ii) organization in a cloud field. The goal of this study is to gain insight by means of sub-domain analyses of various large-domain LES realizations of cumulus cloud populations. For a series of three-dimensional snapshots, each with a different degree of organization, the cloud size distribution is calculated in all subdomains, for a range of subdomain sizes. The standard deviation of the number of clouds of a certain size is found to decrease with the subdomain size, following a powerlaw scaling corresponding to an inverse-linear dependence. Cloud number variability also increases with cloud size; this reflects that subsampling affects the largest clouds first, due to their typically larger neighbor spacing. Rewriting this dependence in terms of two dimensionless groups, by dividing by cloud number and cloud size respectively, yields a data collapse. Organization in the cloud field is found to act on top of this primary dependence, by enhancing the cloud number variability at the smaller sizes. This behavior reflects that small clouds start to "live" on top of larger structures such as cold pools, favoring or inhibiting their formation (as illustrated by the attached figure of cloud mask

  15. Targeting high value metals in lithium-ion battery recycling via shredding and size-based separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Babbitt, Callie W

    2016-05-01

    Development of lithium-ion battery recycling systems is a current focus of much research; however, significant research remains to optimize the process. One key area not studied is the utilization of mechanical pre-recycling steps to improve overall yield. This work proposes a pre-recycling process, including mechanical shredding and size-based sorting steps, with the goal of potential future scale-up to the industrial level. This pre-recycling process aims to achieve material segregation with a focus on the metallic portion and provide clear targets for subsequent recycling processes. The results show that contained metallic materials can be segregated into different size fractions at different levels. For example, for lithium cobalt oxide batteries, cobalt content has been improved from 35% by weight in the metallic portion before this pre-recycling process to 82% in the ultrafine (6mm). However, size fractions across multiple battery chemistries showed significant variability in material concentration. This finding indicates that sorting by cathode before pre-treatment could reduce the uncertainty of input materials and therefore improve the purity of output streams. Thus, battery labeling systems may be an important step towards implementation of any pre-recycling process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inferring Population Size History from Large Samples of Genome-Wide Molecular Data - An Approximate Bayesian Computation Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boitard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the ancestral dynamics of effective population size is a long-standing question in population genetics, which can now be tackled much more accurately thanks to the massive genomic data available in many species. Several promising methods that take advantage of whole-genome sequences have been recently developed in this context. However, they can only be applied to rather small samples, which limits their ability to estimate recent population size history. Besides, they can be very sensitive to sequencing or phasing errors. Here we introduce a new approximate Bayesian computation approach named PopSizeABC that allows estimating the evolution of the effective population size through time, using a large sample of complete genomes. This sample is summarized using the folded allele frequency spectrum and the average zygotic linkage disequilibrium at different bins of physical distance, two classes of statistics that are widely used in population genetics and can be easily computed from unphased and unpolarized SNP data. Our approach provides accurate estimations of past population sizes, from the very first generations before present back to the expected time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample, as shown by simulations under a wide range of demographic scenarios. When applied to samples of 15 or 25 complete genomes in four cattle breeds (Angus, Fleckvieh, Holstein and Jersey, PopSizeABC revealed a series of population declines, related to historical events such as domestication or modern breed creation. We further highlight that our approach is robust to sequencing errors, provided summary statistics are computed from SNPs with common alleles.

  17. Design and Construction of Large Size Micromegas Chambers for the ATLAS Upgrade of the Muon Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    Large area Micromegas detectors will be employed for the first time in high-energy physics experiments. A total surface of about 150 m{sup 2} of the forward regions of the Muon Spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at LHC will be equipped with 8-layer Micromegas modules. Each module extends over a surface from 2 to 3 m{sup 2} for a total active area of 1200 m{sup 2}. Together with the small strip Thin Gap Chambers they will compose the two New Small Wheels, which will replace the innermost stations of the ATLAS end-cap muon tracking system in the 2018/19 shutdown. In order to achieve a 15% transverse momentum resolution for 1 TeV muons, in addition to an excellent intrinsic resolution, the mechanical precision of each plane of the assembled module must be as good as 30 μm along the precision coordinate and 80 μm perpendicular to the chamber. In the prototyping towards the final configuration two similar quadruplets with dimensions 1.2 x 0.5 m{sup 2} have been built with the same structure as foreseen for the NSW upgrade. It represents the first example of a Micromegas quadruplet ever built, realized using the resistive-strip technology and decoupling the amplification mesh from the readout structure. All readout planes are segmented into strips with a pitch of 400 μm for a total of 4096 strips. In two of the four planes the strips are inclined by 1.5 deg. and provide a measurement of the second coordinate. The design and construction procedure of the Micromegas modules will be presented, as well as the design for the assembly of modules onto the New Small Wheel. Emphasis will be given on the methods developed to achieve the challenging mechanical precision. Measurements of deformation on chamber prototypes as a function of thermal gradients, gas over-pressure and internal stress (mesh tension and module fixation on supports) will be also shown in comparison to simulation. These tests were essential in the development of the final design in order to minimize the

  18. Efficient inference of population size histories and locus-specific mutation rates from large-sample genomic variation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Wang, Y X Rachel; Song, Yun S

    2015-02-01

    With the recent increase in study sample sizes in human genetics, there has been growing interest in inferring historical population demography from genomic variation data. Here, we present an efficient inference method that can scale up to very large samples, with tens or hundreds of thousands of individuals. Specifically, by utilizing analytic results on the expected frequency spectrum under the coalescent and by leveraging the technique of automatic differentiation, which allows us to compute gradients exactly, we develop a very efficient algorithm to infer piecewise-exponential models of the historical effective population size from the distribution of sample allele frequencies. Our method is orders of magnitude faster than previous demographic inference methods based on the frequency spectrum. In addition to inferring demography, our method can also accurately estimate locus-specific mutation rates. We perform extensive validation of our method on simulated data and show that it can accurately infer multiple recent epochs of rapid exponential growth, a signal that is difficult to pick up with small sample sizes. Lastly, we use our method to analyze data from recent sequencing studies, including a large-sample exome-sequencing data set of tens of thousands of individuals assayed at a few hundred genic regions. © 2015 Bhaskar et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávnícek, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    Aesculus L. (horse chestnut, buckeye) is a genus of 12-19 extant woody species native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. This genus is known for unusually large seeds among angiosperms. While chromosome counts are available for many Aesculus species, only one has had its genome size measured. The aim of this study is to provide more genome size data and analyse the relationship between genome size and seed mass in this genus. Chromosome numbers in root tip cuttings were confirmed for four species and reported for the first time for three additional species. Flow cytometric measurements of 2C nuclear DNA values were conducted on eight species, and mean seed mass values were estimated for the same taxa. The same chromosome number, 2 n = 40, was determined in all investigated taxa. Original measurements of 2C values for seven Aesculus species (eight taxa), added to just one reliable datum for A. hippocastanum , confirmed the notion that the genome size in this genus with relatively large seeds is surprisingly low, ranging from 0·955 pg 2C -1 in A. parviflora to 1·275 pg 2C -1 in A. glabra var. glabra. The chromosome number of 2 n = 40 seems to be conclusively the universal 2 n number for non-hybrid species in this genus. Aesculus genome sizes are relatively small, not only within its own family, Sapindaceae, but also within woody angiosperms. The genome sizes seem to be distinct and non-overlapping among the four major Aesculus clades. These results provide an extra support for the most recent reconstruction of Aesculus phylogeny. The correlation between the 2C values and seed masses in examined Aesculus species is slightly negative and not significant. However, when the four major clades are treated separately, there is consistent positive association between larger genome size and larger seed mass within individual lineages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  20. A Large-Acceptance Detector System for Electron Scattering from Polarized Internal targets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, E.; Bouwhuis, M.; Choi, S.; Zhou, Z.L.; Alarcon, R.; Anghinolfi, M.; Botto, T.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Dimitroyannis, D.; Doets, M.; Ent, R.; Ferro Luzzi, M.M.E.; Higinbotham, D.W.; de Jager, C.W.; Lang, J.; de Lange, D.J.; Nikolenko, D.; Nooren, G.J.; Papadakis, N.; Passchier, I.; Popov, S.G.; Rachek, I.; Ripani, M.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Taiuti, M.; Vodinas, N.; de Vries, H.

    1997-01-01

    The design and the performance of a non-magnetic detector setup for internal target physics at the NIKHEF electron-scattering facility is described. The detector setup, used in the first internal-target experiment at the AmPS ring, measures the spin dependence in the elastic and break-up reaction

  1. Fabrication and testing of gas filled targets for large scale plasma experiments on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Spragge, M.; Wallace, R.J.; Rivers, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental campaign on the Nova laser was started in July 1993 to study one st of target conditions for the point design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The targets were specified to investigate the current NIF target conditions--a plasma of ∼3 keV electron temperature and an electron density of ∼1.0 E + 21 cm -3 . A gas cell target design was chosen to confine as gas of ∼0.01 cm 3 in volume at ∼ 1 atmosphere. This paper will describe the major steps and processes necessary in the fabrication, testing and delivery of these targets for shots on the Nova Laser at LLNL

  2. Large-scale prediction of drug–target interactions using protein sequences and drug topological structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dongsheng; Liu Shao; Xu Qingsong; Lu Hongmei; Huang Jianhua; Hu Qiannan; Liang Yizeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Drug–target interactions are predicted using an extended SAR methodology. ► A drug–target interaction is regarded as an event triggered by many factors. ► Molecular fingerprint and CTD descriptors are used to represent drugs and proteins. ► Our approach shows compatibility between the new scheme and current SAR methodology. - Abstract: The identification of interactions between drugs and target proteins plays a key role in the process of genomic drug discovery. It is both consuming and costly to determine drug–target interactions by experiments alone. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new in silico prediction approaches capable of identifying these potential drug–target interactions in a timely manner. In this article, we aim at extending current structure–activity relationship (SAR) methodology to fulfill such requirements. In some sense, a drug–target interaction can be regarded as an event or property triggered by many influence factors from drugs and target proteins. Thus, each interaction pair can be represented theoretically by using these factors which are based on the structural and physicochemical properties simultaneously from drugs and proteins. To realize this, drug molecules are encoded with MACCS substructure fingerings representing existence of certain functional groups or fragments; and proteins are encoded with some biochemical and physicochemical properties. Four classes of drug–target interaction networks in humans involving enzymes, ion channels, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and nuclear receptors, are independently used for establishing predictive models with support vector machines (SVMs). The SVM models gave prediction accuracy of 90.31%, 88.91%, 84.68% and 83.74% for four datasets, respectively. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the ability of our proposed method to predict the drug–target interactions, and show a general compatibility between the new scheme and current SAR

  3. The computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in Northern Xinjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhengbang, Wang; Mingkuan, Qin; Ruiquan, Zhao; Shenghuang, Tang [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology, CNNC (China); Baoqun, Wang; Shuangxing, Lin [Geo-prospecting Team No. 216, CNNC (China)

    2001-08-01

    The process of establishment of the model includes following steps: (1) Systematically studying a known typical in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit--Deposit No. 512 in Yili basin, analyzing its controlling factors and establishing its metallogenetic model; (2) Establishing the metallogenetic models of this type of uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area on the basis of comparison study on the deposit No. 512 with the same type uranium deposits in the world; (3) Creating the computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in northern Xinjiang; (4) Determining the standards of giving a evaluation-mark for each controlling factor of in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area; (5) Evaluating uranium potential and prospect of the unknown objective target.

  4. The computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in Northern Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengbang; Qin Mingkuan; Zhao Ruiquan; Tang Shenghuang; Wang Baoqun; Lin Shuangxing

    2001-01-01

    The process of establishment of the model includes following steps: (1) Systematically studying a known typical in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit--Deposit No. 512 in Yili basin, analyzing its controlling factors and establishing its metallogenetic model; (2) Establishing the metallogenetic models of this type of uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area on the basis of comparison study on the deposit No. 512 with the same type uranium deposits in the world; (3) Creating the computerized semi-quantitative comprehensive identification-evaluation model for the large-sized in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposits in northern Xinjiang; (4) Determining the standards of giving a evaluation-mark for each controlling factor of in-situ leachable sandstone type uranium deposit and uranium-bearing area; (5) Evaluating uranium potential and prospect of the unknown objective target

  5. Hypopigmentation Induced by Frequent Low-Fluence, Large-Spot-Size QS Nd:YAG Laser Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yisheng; Lee, Siong See Joyce; Goh, Chee Leok

    2015-12-01

    The Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG) laser is increasingly used for nonablative skin rejuvenation or "laser toning" for melasma. Multiple and frequent low-fluence, large-spot-size treatments are used to achieve laser toning, and these treatments are associated with the development of macular hypopigmentation as a complication. We present a case series of three patients who developed guttate hypomelanotic macules on the face after receiving laser toning treatment with QS 1064-nm Nd:YAG.

  6. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Energy Storage System for Power Systems with Large-scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for optimal sitingand sizing of Energy Storage System (ESS) for the operationplanning of power systems with large scale wind power integration.The ESS in this study aims to mitigate the wind powerfluctuations during the interval between two rolling Economic......Dispatches (EDs) in order to maintain generation-load balance.The charging and discharging of ESS is optimized consideringoperation cost of conventional generators, capital cost of ESSand transmission losses. The statistics from simulated systemoperations are then coupled to the planning process to determinethe...

  7. Insulin alters the target size of the peripheral cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase but not the integral cyclic GMP-stimulated cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in liver plasma membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.V.; Martin, B.R.; Houslay, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inactivation of the two high affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterases (PDE) found in liver plasma membranes afforded an estimation of their molecular target sizes in situ. The activity of the peripheral plasma membrane PDE decayed as a single exponential with a target size corresponding to a monomer of circa 54 kDa. The integral, cyclic GMP-stimulated PDE decayed as a dimer of circa 125 kDa. Preincubation of plasma membranes with insulin (10nM), prior to irradiation, caused the target size of only the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to increase. We suggest that insulin addition causes the peripheral plasma membrane PDE to alter its coupling to an integral plasma membrane protein with a target size of circa 90 kDa

  8. Can interface features affect aggression resulting from violent video game play? An examination of realistic controller and large screen size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Joon; Sundar, S Shyam

    2013-05-01

    Aggressiveness attributed to violent video game play is typically studied as a function of the content features of the game. However, can interface features of the game also affect aggression? Guided by the General Aggression Model (GAM), we examine the controller type (gun replica vs. mouse) and screen size (large vs. small) as key technological aspects that may affect the state aggression of gamers, with spatial presence and arousal as potential mediators. Results from a between-subjects experiment showed that a realistic controller and a large screen display induced greater aggression, presence, and arousal than a conventional mouse and a small screen display, respectively, and confirmed that trait aggression was a significant predictor of gamers' state aggression. Contrary to GAM, however, arousal showed no effects on aggression; instead, presence emerged as a significant mediator.

  9. Measurement of liquid mixing characteristics in large-sized ion exchange column for isotope separation by stepwise response method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Saito, Keiichiro; Iwamoto, Kazumi; Itoi, Toshiaki.

    1981-07-01

    Liquid mixing in a large-sized ion exchange column for isotope separation was measured by the step-wise response method, using NaCl solution as tracer. A 50 cm diameter column was packed with an ion exchange resin of 200 μm in mean diameter. Experiments were carried out for several types of distributor and collector, which were attached to each end of the column. The smallest mixing was observed for the perforated plate type of the collector, coupled with a minimum stagnant volume above the ion exchange resin bed. The 50 cm diameter column exhibited the better characteristics of liquid mixing than the 2 cm diameter column for which the good performance of lithium isotope separation had already been confirmed. These results indicate that a large increment of throughput is attainable by the scale-up of column diameter with the same performance of isotope separation as for the 2 cm diameter column. (author)

  10. Large-size, high-uniformity, random silver nanowire networks as transparent electrodes for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shouyi; Ouyang, Zi; Jia, Baohua; Gu, Min

    2013-05-06

    Metal nanowire networks are emerging as next generation transparent electrodes for photovoltaic devices. We demonstrate the application of random silver nanowire networks as the top electrode on crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. The dependence of transmittance and sheet resistance on the surface coverage is measured. Superior optical and electrical properties are observed due to the large-size, highly-uniform nature of these networks. When applying the nanowire networks on the solar cells with an optimized two-step annealing process, we achieved as large as 19% enhancement on the energy conversion efficiency. The detailed analysis reveals that the enhancement is mainly caused by the improved electrical properties of the solar cells due to the silver nanowire networks. Our result reveals that this technology is a promising alternative transparent electrode technology for crystalline silicon wafer solar cells.

  11. Large-scale prediction of drug-target interactions using protein sequences and drug topological structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Dongsheng [Research Center of Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Shao [Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Xu Qingsong [School of Mathematical Sciences and Computing Technology, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lu Hongmei; Huang Jianhua [Research Center of Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hu Qiannan [Key Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery (Wuhan University), Ministry of Education, and Wuhan University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Liang Yizeng, E-mail: yizeng_liang@263.net [Research Center of Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicines, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Drug-target interactions are predicted using an extended SAR methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A drug-target interaction is regarded as an event triggered by many factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular fingerprint and CTD descriptors are used to represent drugs and proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our approach shows compatibility between the new scheme and current SAR methodology. - Abstract: The identification of interactions between drugs and target proteins plays a key role in the process of genomic drug discovery. It is both consuming and costly to determine drug-target interactions by experiments alone. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new in silico prediction approaches capable of identifying these potential drug-target interactions in a timely manner. In this article, we aim at extending current structure-activity relationship (SAR) methodology to fulfill such requirements. In some sense, a drug-target interaction can be regarded as an event or property triggered by many influence factors from drugs and target proteins. Thus, each interaction pair can be represented theoretically by using these factors which are based on the structural and physicochemical properties simultaneously from drugs and proteins. To realize this, drug molecules are encoded with MACCS substructure fingerings representing existence of certain functional groups or fragments; and proteins are encoded with some biochemical and physicochemical properties. Four classes of drug-target interaction networks in humans involving enzymes, ion channels, G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and nuclear receptors, are independently used for establishing predictive models with support vector machines (SVMs). The SVM models gave prediction accuracy of 90.31%, 88.91%, 84.68% and 83.74% for four datasets, respectively. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the ability of our proposed method to predict the drug-target

  12. Study of steady-state heat transfer with various large beam intensities in ADS windowless spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Gao, Lei; Tong, Jian-fei; Mehmood, Irfan; Lu, Wen-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Thermal hydraulics of spallation target, which is regarded as the ‘heart’ of the accelerator driven system (ADS), is very complicated due to the flow of the heavy liquid metal, spallation reaction and the coupling. In this paper, the steady-state temperature distribution, based on the flow pattern and the heat deposition, in the windowless spallation target with various large beam intensities from 10 mA to 40 mA is obtained to be in line with the development of ADS in China. The results show that the shape of temperature distribution is the same as broken wing of the butterfly but the temperature gradient and the maximum temperature vary in proportion with beam intensity. The variation of temperature gradient in different zones is also used to figure out the effect of large beam intensity. It has been found that large radial and axial temperature gradient leads to large temperature gradient on the wall. This may cause extremely large thermal stresses which leads to structural material damage. The results may be applied to the future design and optimization of ADS in China. - Highlights: • Shape of temperature distribution is the same but temperature gradient and maximum temperature vary with intensity. • The variation of temperature gradient in different zones reveals the effect of large beam intensity. • Large radial and axial temperature gradient leads to large temperature gradient on the wall

  13. Eco-friendly preparation of large-sized graphene via short-circuit discharge of lithium primary battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shaohong; Yu, Tao; Liu, Tingting; Guan, Shiyou

    2018-02-15

    We proposed a large-sized graphene preparation method by short-circuit discharge of the lithium-graphite primary battery for the first time. LiC x is obtained through lithium ions intercalation into graphite cathode in the above primary battery. Graphene was acquired by chemical reaction between LiC x and stripper agents with dispersion under sonication conditions. The gained graphene is characterized by Raman spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic force microscope (AFM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the as-prepared graphene has a large size and few defects, and it is monolayer or less than three layers. The quality of graphene is significant improved compared to the reported electrochemical methods. The yield of graphene can reach 8.76% when the ratio of the H 2 O and NMP is 3:7. This method provides a potential solution for the recycling of waste lithium ion batteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, A., E-mail: ahahn@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Mazin, D., E-mail: mazin@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277–8582 (Japan); Bangale, P., E-mail: priya@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Dettlaff, A., E-mail: todettl@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Fink, D., E-mail: fink@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Grundner, F., E-mail: grundner@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Haberer, W., E-mail: haberer@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Maier, R., E-mail: rma@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); and others

    2017-02-11

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges. - Highlights: • The design of the first SiPM large-size IACT pixel is described. • The simulation of the light concentrators is presented. • The temperature stability of the detector module is demonstrated. • The calibration procedure of SiPM device in the field is described.

  15. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An Examination of Teachers' Perceptions and Practice when Teaching Large and Reduced-Size Classes: Do Teachers Really Teach Them in the Same Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfitt, Gary James

    2012-01-01

    Class size research suggests that teachers do not vary their teaching strategies when moving from large to smaller classes. This study draws on interviews and classroom observations of three experienced English language teachers working with large and reduced-size classes in Hong Kong secondary schools. Findings from the study point to subtle…

  17. Combinatorial support vector machines approach for virtual screening of selective multi-target serotonin reuptake inhibitors from large compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z; Ma, X H; Qin, C; Jia, J; Jiang, Y Y; Tan, C Y; Chen, Y Z

    2012-02-01

    Selective multi-target serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance antidepressant efficacy. Their discovery can be facilitated by multiple methods, including in silico ones. In this study, we developed and tested an in silico method, combinatorial support vector machines (COMBI-SVMs), for virtual screening (VS) multi-target serotonin reuptake inhibitors of seven target pairs (serotonin transporter paired with noradrenaline transporter, H(3) receptor, 5-HT(1A) receptor, 5-HT(1B) receptor, 5-HT(2C) receptor, melanocortin 4 receptor and neurokinin 1 receptor respectively) from large compound libraries. COMBI-SVMs trained with 917-1951 individual target inhibitors correctly identified 22-83.3% (majority >31.1%) of the 6-216 dual inhibitors collected from literature as independent testing sets. COMBI-SVMs showed moderate to good target selectivity in misclassifying as dual inhibitors 2.2-29.8% (majority virtual hits correlate with the reported effects of their predicted targets. COMBI-SVM is potentially useful for searching selective multi-target agents without explicit knowledge of these agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. From mantle to critical zone: A review of large and giant sized deposits of the rare earth elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Smith

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rare earth elements are unusual when defining giant-sized ore deposits, as resources are often quoted as total rare earth oxide, but the importance of a deposit may be related to the grade for individual, or a limited group of the elements. Taking the total REE resource, only one currently known deposit (Bayan Obo would class as giant (>1.7 × 107 tonnes contained metal, but a range of others classify as large (>1.7 × 106 tonnes. With the exception of unclassified resource estimates from the Olympic Dam IOCG deposit, all of these deposits are related to alkaline igneous activity – either carbonatites or agpaitic nepheline syenites. The total resource in these deposits must relate to the scale of the primary igneous source, but the grade is a complex function of igneous source, magmatic crystallisation, hydrothermal modification and supergene enrichment during weathering. Isotopic data suggest that the sources conducive to the formation of large REE deposits are developed in subcontinental lithospheric mantle, enriched in trace elements either by plume activity, or by previous subduction. The reactivation of such enriched mantle domains in relatively restricted geographical areas may have played a role in the formation of some of the largest deposits (e.g. Bayan Obo. Hydrothermal activity involving fluids from magmatic to meteoric sources may result in the redistribution of the REE and increases in grade, depending on primary mineralogy and the availability of ligands. Weathering and supergene enrichment of carbonatite has played a role in the formation of the highest grade deposits at Mount Weld (Australia and Tomtor (Russia. For the individual REE with the current highest economic value (Nd and the HREE, the boundaries for the large and giant size classes are two orders of magnitude lower, and deposits enriched in these metals (agpaitic systems, ion absorption deposits may have significant economic impact in the near future.

  19. THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF VERY LARGE IRREGULAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs): OBSERVATIONAL PROBES OF ASTRONOMICAL PAH GEOMETRY, SIZE, AND CHARGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Peeters, Els; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    The mid-infrared (IR) spectra of six large, irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with formulae (C 84 H 24 -C 120 H 36 ) have been computed using density functional theory (DFT). Trends in the dominant band positions and intensities are compared to those of large, compact PAHs as a function of geometry, size, and charge. Irregular edge moieties that are common in terrestrial PAHs, such as bay regions and rings with quartet hydrogens, are shown to be uncommon in astronomical PAHs. As for all PAHs comprised solely of C and H reported to date, mid-IR emission from irregular PAHs fails to produce a strong CC str band at 6.2 μm, the position characteristic of the important, class A astronomical PAH spectra. Earlier studies showed that inclusion of nitrogen within a PAH shifts this to 6.2 μm for PAH cations. Here we show that this band shifts to 6.3 μm in nitrogenated PAH anions, close to the position of the CC stretch in class B astronomical PAH spectra. Thus, nitrogenated PAHs may be important in all sources and the peak position of the CC stretch near 6.2 μm appears to directly reflect the PAH cation to anion ratio. Large irregular PAHs exhibit features at 7.8 μm but lack them near 8.6 μm. Hence, the 7.7 μm astronomical feature is produced by a mixture of small and large PAHs while the 8.6 μm band can only be produced by large compact PAHs. As with the CC str , the position and profile of these bands reflect the PAH cation to anion ratio.

  20. Large area isotopic silicon targets for astrophysical reaction rate studies in Si-26

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greene, JP; Berg, GPA

    2005-01-01

    For measurements of stellar reaction rates of proton rich nuclei involving resonance levels just above threshold, targets of Si-28 were used in studies of the Si-21(He-4, He-6)Si-26 reaction using the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) Ring Cyclotron at Osaka University. Resonance structure

  1. Scaling of the Urban Water Footprint: An Analysis of 65 Mid- to Large-Sized U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjabin, T.; Garcia, S.; Grady, C.; Mejia, A.

    2017-12-01

    Scaling laws have been shown to be relevant to a range of disciplines including biology, ecology, hydrology, and physics, among others. Recently, scaling was shown to be important for understanding and characterizing cities. For instance, it was found that urban infrastructure (water supply pipes and electrical wires) tends to scale sublinearly with city population, implying that large cities are more efficient. In this study, we explore the scaling of the water footprint of cities. The water footprint is a measure of water appropriation that considers both the direct and indirect (virtual) water use of a consumer or producer. Here we compute the water footprint of 65 mid- to large-sized U.S. metropolitan areas, accounting for direct and indirect water uses associated with agricultural and industrial commodities, and residential and commercial water uses. We find that the urban water footprint, computed as the sum of the water footprint of consumption and production, exhibits sublinear scaling with an exponent of 0.89. This suggests the possibility of large cities being more water-efficient than small ones. To further assess this result, we conduct additional analysis by accounting for international flows, and the effects of green water and city boundary definition on the scaling. The analysis confirms the scaling and provides additional insight about its interpretation.

  2. Virus-mimetic polyplex particles for systemic and inflammation-specific targeted delivery of large genetic contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S; Lu, K; Leelawattanachai, J; Hu, X; Park, S; Park, T; Min, I M; Jin, M M

    2013-11-01

    Systemic and target-specific delivery of large genetic contents has been difficult to achieve. Although viruses effortlessly deliver kilobase-long genome into cells, its clinical use has been hindered by serious safety concerns and the mismatch between native tropisms and desired targets. Nonviral vectors, in contrast, are limited by low gene transfer efficiency and inherent cytotoxicity. Here we devised virus-mimetic polyplex particles (VMPs) based on electrostatic self-assembly among polyanionic peptide (PAP), cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) and nucleic acids. We fused PAP to the engineered ligand-binding domain of integrin αLβ2 to target intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an inducible marker of inflammation. Fully assembled VMPs packaged large genetic contents, bound specifically to target molecules, elicited receptor-mediated endocytosis and escaped endosomal pathway, resembling intracellular delivery processes of viruses. Unlike conventional PEI-mediated transfection, molecular interaction-dependent gene delivery of VMPs was unaffected by the presence of serum and achieved higher efficiency without toxicity. By targeting overexpressed ICAM-1, VMPs delivered genes specifically to inflamed endothelial cells and macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. Simplicity and versatility of the platform and inflammation-specific delivery may open up opportunities for multifaceted gene therapy that can be translated into the clinic and treat a broad range of debilitating immune and inflammatory diseases.

  3. Experimental results from a large volume active target made of glass capillaries and liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Buontempo, S.; Brunner, J.; De Jong, M.; Fabre, J.P.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Golovkin, S.; Gregoire, G.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Kushnirenko, A.; Martellotti, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Medvedkov, A.; Michel, L.; Mondardini, M.R.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Y.; Riccardi, F.; Siegmund, W.P.; Strack, R.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.; Zymin, K.

    1995-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of high-resolution tracking with an active target made of glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator. This technique allows real time detection of short-lived particle decays. In this paper, we report on experimental results obtained from an active target having 2 x 2 cm 2 cross section and 180 cm length, installed in front of the CHORUS detector and exposed to the CERN Wide Band Neutrino Beam. The detector consists of 5.1 x 10 5 capillaries with 20 μm inner diameter, read out by a single optoelectronic chain and a Megapixel CCD. Details on tests in the neutrino beam will be reported. First neutrino interactions have been detected. (orig.)

  4. Theoretical simulation and analysis of large size BMP-LSC by 3D Monte Carlo ray tracing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng; Zhang Ning-Ning; Yan Sen; Song Sun; Jun Bao; Chen Gao; Zhang Yi

    2017-01-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSC) can reduce the area of solar cells by collecting light from a large area and concentrating the captured light onto relatively small area photovoltaic (PV) cells, and thereby reducing the cost of PV electricity generation. LSCs with bottom-facing cells (BMP-LSC) can collect both direct light and indirect light, so further improving the efficiency of the PV cells. However, it is hard to analyze the effect of each parameter by experiment because there are too many parameters involved in the BMP-LSC. In this paper, all the physical processes of the light transmission and collection in the BMP-LSC were analyzed. A three-dimensional Monte Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transmission of photons in the LSC. A larger-size LSC was simulated, and the effects of dye concentration, the LSC thickness, the cell area, and the cell distance were systematically analyzed. (paper)

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of hexaploid large-sized barbs (genus Labeobarbus, Cyprinidae) based on mtDNA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigenopoulos, Costas S; Kasapidis, Panagiotis; Berrebi, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among species of the Labeobarbus genus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) which comprises large body-sized hexaploid taxa were inferred using complete cytochrome b mitochondrial gene sequences. Molecular data suggest two main evolutionary groups which roughly correspond to a Northern (Middle East and Northwest Africa) and a sub-Saharan lineage. The splitting of the African hexaploids from their Asian ancestors and their subsequent diversification on the African continent occurred in the Late Miocene, a period in which other cyprinins also invaded Africa and radiated in the Mediterranean region. Finally, systematic implications of these results to the taxonomic validity of genera or subgenera such as Varicorhinus, Kosswigobarbus, Carasobarbus and Capoeta are further discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How do low dispersal species establish large range sizes? The case of the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars Lønsmann; Rannap, Riinu; Thomsen, Philip Francis

    2013-01-01

    important than species phylogeny or local spatial attributes. In this study we used the water beetle Graphoderus bilineatus a philopatric species of conservation concern in Europe as a model to explain large range size and to support effective conservation measures for such species that also have limited...... systems and wetlands which used to be highly connected throughout the central plains of Europe. Our data suggest that a broad habitat niche can prevent landscape elements from becoming barriers for species like G. bilineatus. Therefore, we question the usefulness of site protection as conservation...... measures for G. bilineatus and similar philopatric species. Instead, conservation actions should be focused at the landscape level to ensure a long-term viability of such species across their range....

  7. Chemical and electrochemical synthesis of nano-sized TiO{sub 2} anatase for large-area photon conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babasaheb, Raghunath Sankapal; Shrikrishna, Dattatraya Sartale; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Div. of Solar Energy Research, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    We report on the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films and powders by chemical and electrochemical deposition methods. Both methods are simple, inexpensive and suitable for large-scale production. Air-annealing of the films and powders at T = 500 C leads to densely packed nanometer sized anatase TiO{sub 2} particles. The obtained layers are characterized by different methods such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Titanium dioxide TiO{sub 2} (anatase) phase with (101) preferred orientation has been obtained for the films deposited on glass; indium doped tin oxide (ITO) and quartz substrates. The powder obtained as the byproduct consists of TiO{sub 2} with anatase-phase as well. (authors)

  8. Chemical and electrochemical synthesis of nano-sized TiO2 anatase for large-area photon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babasaheb, Raghunath Sankapal; Shrikrishna, Dattatraya Sartale; Lux-Steiner, M.Ch.; Ennaoui, A.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin films and powders by chemical and electrochemical deposition methods. Both methods are simple, inexpensive and suitable for large-scale production. Air-annealing of the films and powders at T = 500 C leads to densely packed nanometer sized anatase TiO 2 particles. The obtained layers are characterized by different methods such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Titanium dioxide TiO 2 (anatase) phase with (101) preferred orientation has been obtained for the films deposited on glass; indium doped tin oxide (ITO) and quartz substrates. The powder obtained as the byproduct consists of TiO 2 with anatase-phase as well. (authors)

  9. Growth of large size lithium niobate single crystals of high quality by tilting-mirror-type floating zone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, E-mail: razzaque_ru2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

    2016-05-15

    Large size high quality LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals were grown successfully by tilting-mirror-type floating zone (TMFZ) technique. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, etch pits density measurement, Impedance analysis, Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The effect of mirror tilting during growth on the structural, electrical, optical properties and defect density of the LiNbO{sub 3} crystals were investigated. It was found that the defect density in the crystals reduced for tilting the mirror in the TMFZ method. The chemical analysis revealed that the grown crystals were of high quality with uniform composition. The single crystals grown by TMFZ method contains no low-angle grain boundaries, indicating that they can be used for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. (author)

  10. Synthesis of a large-sized mesoporous phosphosilicate thin film through evaporation-induced polymeric micelle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Suzuki, Norihiro; Jiang, Xiangfen; Ohki, Shinobu; Deguchi, Kenzo; Suzuki, Madoka; Arai, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    A triblock copolymer, poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) was used as a soft template to synthesize large-sized mesoporous phosphosilicate thin films. The kinetically frozen PS core stabilizes the micelles. The strong interaction of the inorganic precursors with the P2VP shell enables the fabrication of highly robust walls of phosphosilicate and the PEO helps orderly packing of the micelles during solvent evaporation. The molar ratio of phosphoric acid and tetraethyl orthosilicate is crucial to achieve the final mesostructure. The insertion of phosphorus species into the siloxane network is studied by (29) Si and (31) P MAS NMR spectra. The mesoporous phosphosilicate films exhibit steady cell adhesion properties and show great promise as excellent materials in bone-growth engineering applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Easy and General Synthesis of Large-Sized Mesoporous Rare-Earth Oxide Thin Films by 'Micelle Assembly'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Dai, Pengcheng; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-12-01

    Large-sized (ca. 40 nm) mesoporous Er2O3 thin films are synthesized by using a triblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) as a pore directing agent. Each block makes different contributions and the molar ratio of PVP/Er(3+) is crucial to guide the resultant mesoporous structure. An easy and general method is proposed and used to prepare a series of mesoporous rare-earth oxide (Sm2O3, Dy2O3, Tb2O3, Ho2O3, Yb2O3, and Lu2O3) thin films with potential uses in electronics and optical devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Long-term resource variation and group size: A large-sample field test of the Resource Dispersion Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morecroft Michael D

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Resource Dispersion Hypothesis (RDH proposes a mechanism for the passive formation of social groups where resources are dispersed, even in the absence of any benefits of group living per se. Despite supportive modelling, it lacks empirical testing. The RDH predicts that, rather than Territory Size (TS increasing monotonically with Group Size (GS to account for increasing metabolic needs, TS is constrained by the dispersion of resource patches, whereas GS is independently limited by their richness. We conducted multiple-year tests of these predictions using data from the long-term study of badgers Meles meles in Wytham Woods, England. The study has long failed to identify direct benefits from group living and, consequently, alternative explanations for their large group sizes have been sought. Results TS was not consistently related to resource dispersion, nor was GS consistently related to resource richness. Results differed according to data groupings and whether territories were mapped using minimum convex polygons or traditional methods. Habitats differed significantly in resource availability, but there was also evidence that food resources may be spatially aggregated within habitat types as well as between them. Conclusions This is, we believe, the largest ever test of the RDH and builds on the long-term project that initiated part of the thinking behind the hypothesis. Support for predictions were mixed and depended on year and the method used to map territory borders. We suggest that within-habitat patchiness, as well as model assumptions, should be further investigated for improved tests of the RDH in the future.

  13. The potential of natural gas use including cogeneration in large-sized industry and commercial sector in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales Palomino, Raul; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there have been several discussions on a greater use of natural gas nationwide. Moreover, there have been several announcements by the private and public sectors regarding the construction of new pipelines to supply natural gas to the Peruvian southern and central-north markets. This paper presents future scenarios for the use of natural gas in the large-sized industrial and commercial sectors of the country based on different hypotheses on developments in the natural gas industry, national economic growth, energy prices, technological changes and investment decisions. First, the paper estimates the market potential and characterizes the energy consumption. Then it makes a selection of technological alternatives for the use of natural gas, and it makes an energetic and economic analysis and economic feasibility. Finally, the potential use of natural gas is calculated through nine different scenarios. The natural gas use in cogeneration systems is presented as an alternative to contribute to the installed power capacity of the country. Considering the introduction of the cogeneration in the optimistic–advanced scenario and assuming that all of their conditions would be put into practice, in 2020, the share of the cogeneration in electricity production in Peru would be 9.9%. - Highlights: ► This paper presents future scenarios for the use of natural gas in the large-sized industrial and commercial sectors of Peru. ► The potential use of natural gas is calculated through nine different scenarios.► The scenarios were based on different hypotheses on developments in the natural gas industry, national economic growth, energy prices, technological changes and investment decisions. ► We estimated the market potential and characterized the energy consumption, and made a selection of technological alternatives for the use of natural gas.

  14. FR-type radio sources in COSMOS: relation of radio structure to size, accretion modes and large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulaki, Eleni; Faustino Jimenez Andrade, Eric; Delvecchio, Ivan; Karim, Alexander; Smolčić, Vernesa; Magnelli, Benjamin; Bertoldi, Frank; Schinnener, Eva; Sargent, Mark; Finoguenov, Alexis; VLA COSMOS Team

    2018-01-01

    The radio sources associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN) can exhibit a variety of radio structures, from simple to more complex, giving rise to a variety of classification schemes. The question which still remains open, given deeper surveys revealing new populations of radio sources, is whether this plethora of radio structures can be attributed to the physical properties of the host or to the environment. Here we present an analysis on the radio structure of radio-selected AGN from the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (JVLA-COSMOS; Smolčić et al.) in relation to: 1) their linear projected size, 2) the Eddington ratio, and 3) the environment their hosts lie within. We classify these as FRI (jet-like) and FRII (lobe-like) based on the FR-type classification scheme, and compare them to a sample of jet-less radio AGN in JVLA-COSMOS. We measure their linear projected sizes using a semi-automatic machine learning technique. Their Eddington ratios are calculated from X-ray data available for COSMOS. As environmental probes we take the X-ray groups (hundreds kpc) and the density fields (~Mpc-scale) in COSMOS. We find that FRII radio sources are on average larger than FRIs, which agrees with literature. But contrary to past studies, we find no dichotomy in FR objects in JVLA-COSMOS given their Eddington ratios, as on average they exhibit similar values. Furthermore our results show that the large-scale environment does not explain the observed dichotomy in lobe- and jet-like FR-type objects as both types are found on similar environments, but it does affect the shape of the radio structure introducing bents for objects closer to the centre of an X-ray group.

  15. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A.; Mazin, D.; Bangale, P.; Dettlaff, A.; Fink, D.; Grundner, F.; Haberer, W.; Maier, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Podkladkin, S.; Teshima, M.; Wetteskind, H.

    2017-02-01

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges.

  16. Out-coupling membrane for large-size organic light-emitting panels with high efficiency and improved uniformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Lei, E-mail: dinglei@sust.edu.cn [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Wang, Lu-Wei [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710021 (China); Zhou, Lei, E-mail: zhzhlei@gmail.com [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai' an 223003 (China); Zhang, Fang-hui [College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710021 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • An out-coupling membrane embedded with a scattering film of SiO{sub 2} spheres and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic was successfully developed for 150 × 150 mm{sup 2} OLEDs. • Remarkable enhancement in efficiency was achieved from the OLEDs with out- coupling membrane. • The uniformity of large-size GOLED lighting panel is remarkably improved. - Abstract: An out-coupling membrane embedded with a scattering film of SiO{sub 2} spheres and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic was successfully developed for 150 × 150 mm{sup 2} green OLEDs. Comparing with a reference OLED panel, an approximately 1-fold enhancement in the forward emission was obtained with an out-coupling membrane adhered to the surface of the external glass substrate of the panel. Moreover, it was verified that the emission color at different viewing angles can be stabilized without apparent spectral distortion. Particularly, the uniformity of the large-area OLEDs was greatly improved. Theoretical calculation clarified that the improved performance of the lighting panels is primarily attributed to the effect of particle scattering.

  17. Facile synthesis of uniform large-sized InP nanocrystal quantum dots using tris(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)phosphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal III-V semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots [NQDs] have attracted interest because they have reduced toxicity compared with II-VI compounds. However, the study and application of III-V semiconductor nanocrystals are limited by difficulties in their synthesis. In particular, it is difficult to control nucleation because the molecular bonds in III-V semiconductors are highly covalent. A synthetic approach of InP NQDs was presented using newly synthesized organometallic phosphorus [P] precursors with different functional moieties while preserving the P-Si bond. Introducing bulky side chains in our study improved the stability while facilitating InP formation with strong confinement at a readily low temperature regime (210°C to 300°C). Further shell coating with ZnS resulted in highly luminescent core-shell materials. The design and synthesis of P precursors for high-quality InP NQDs were conducted for the first time, and we were able to control the nucleation by varying the reactivity of P precursors, therefore achieving uniform large-sized InP NQDs. This opens the way for the large-scale production of high-quality Cd-free nanocrystal quantum dots. PMID:22289352

  18. Statistical process control charts for attribute data involving very large sample sizes: a review of problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Panesar, Jagdeep S; Laney, David B; Wilson, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The use of statistical process control (SPC) charts in healthcare is increasing. The primary purpose of SPC is to distinguish between common-cause variation which is attributable to the underlying process, and special-cause variation which is extrinsic to the underlying process. This is important because improvement under common-cause variation requires action on the process, whereas special-cause variation merits an investigation to first find the cause. Nonetheless, when dealing with attribute or count data (eg, number of emergency admissions) involving very large sample sizes, traditional SPC charts often produce tight control limits with most of the data points appearing outside the control limits. This can give a false impression of common and special-cause variation, and potentially misguide the user into taking the wrong actions. Given the growing availability of large datasets from routinely collected databases in healthcare, there is a need to present a review of this problem (which arises because traditional attribute charts only consider within-subgroup variation) and its solutions (which consider within and between-subgroup variation), which involve the use of the well-established measurements chart and the more recently developed attribute charts based on Laney's innovative approach. We close by making some suggestions for practice.

  19. Large superconducting conductors and joints for fusion magnets: From conceptual design to test at full size scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J.L.; Decool, P.; Libeyre, P.; Turck, B.

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of superconducting conductor, using the so-called cable-in-conduit concept, is emerging mainly involving fusion activity. It is to be noted that at present time no large Nb 3 Sn magnet in the world is operating using this concept. The difficulty of this technology which has now been studied for 20 years, is that it has to integrate major progresses in multiple interconnected new fields such as: large number (1000) of superconducting strands, high current conductors (50 kA), forced flow cryogenics, Nb 3 Sn technology, low loss conductors in pulsed operation, high current connections, high voltage insulation (10 kV), economical and industrial feasibility. CEA was very involved during these last 10 years in this development which took place in the frame of the NET and ITER technological programs. One major milestone was reached in 1998-1999 with the successful tests by our Association of three full size conductor and connection samples in the Sultan facility (Villigen, Switzerland). (author)

  20. Effects of loading frequency on fatigue crack growth mechanisms in α/β Ti microstructure with large colony size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoz, F.; Ghonem, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with crack tip/microstructure interactions at 520 deg. C in lamellar Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.1Si (Ti6242) alloy under different fatigue loading frequencies. A series of heat treatments were performed in order to produce large colony microstructures that vary in their lamellar and colony size. Fatigue crack growth (FCG) experiments were conducted on these microstructures at loading frequencies of 10 and 0.05 Hz. The lower frequency was explored with and without imposing a 5 min hold-time at the peak stress level during each loading cycle. Results show that the crack growth behavior is sensitive to the loading frequency. For the same microstructure, the crack growth rate is found to be lower at 10 than at 0.05 Hz. The addition of a hold-time, however, did not alter the FCG rate indicating that creep strain during one loading cycle does not contribute significantly in the crack growth process. It is also shown that variations in lamella and colony size have no effects on the FCG rate except for the early stage of crack propagation. Scanning Electron Microscope examinations are performed on the fracture surface in order to identify the relevant crack growth mechanisms with respect to the loading frequency and the microstructure details. Quasi-cleavage of the α/β colonies along strong planar shear bands is shown to be a major mode of failure under all test condition. At a loading frequency of 10 Hz, the crack path proceeds arbitrary along planes either perpendicular or parallel to the long axis of α lamellae, while at 0.05 Hz, parallel-to-lamellae crack paths become favored. Corresponding differences of crack growth behavior are examined in terms of slip emission at the crack tip and interactions with the microstructure details

  1. Accelerating solidification process simulation for large-sized system of liquid metal atoms using GPU with CUDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie, Liang [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Li, KenLi, E-mail: lkl@hnu.edu.cn [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); National Supercomputing Center in Changsha, 410082 (China); Shi, Lin [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Liu, RangSu [School of Physics and Micro Electronic, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Mei, Jing [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Molecular dynamics simulation is a powerful tool to simulate and analyze complex physical processes and phenomena at atomic characteristic for predicting the natural time-evolution of a system of atoms. Precise simulation of physical processes has strong requirements both in the simulation size and computing timescale. Therefore, finding available computing resources is crucial to accelerate computation. However, a tremendous computational resource (GPGPU) are recently being utilized for general purpose computing due to its high performance of floating-point arithmetic operation, wide memory bandwidth and enhanced programmability. As for the most time-consuming component in MD simulation calculation during the case of studying liquid metal solidification processes, this paper presents a fine-grained spatial decomposition method to accelerate the computation of update of neighbor lists and interaction force calculation by take advantage of modern graphics processors units (GPU), enlarging the scale of the simulation system to a simulation system involving 10 000 000 atoms. In addition, a number of evaluations and tests, ranging from executions on different precision enabled-CUDA versions, over various types of GPU (NVIDIA 480GTX, 580GTX and M2050) to CPU clusters with different number of CPU cores are discussed. The experimental results demonstrate that GPU-based calculations are typically 9∼11 times faster than the corresponding sequential execution and approximately 1.5∼2 times faster than 16 CPU cores clusters implementations. On the basis of the simulated results, the comparisons between the theoretical results and the experimental ones are executed, and the good agreement between the two and more complete and larger cluster structures in the actual macroscopic materials are observed. Moreover, different nucleation and evolution mechanism of nano-clusters and nano-crystals formed in the processes of metal solidification is observed with large-sized

  2. Large protein as a potential target for use in rabies diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Katz, I S; Dias, M H; Lima, I F; Chaves, L B; Ribeiro, O G; Scheffer, K C; Iwai, L K

    Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that remains a serious threat to public health worldwide. The rabies lyssavirus (RABV) genome encodes five structural proteins, multifunctional and significant for pathogenicity. The large protein (L) presents well-conserved genomic regions, which may be a good alternative to generate informative datasets for development of new methods for rabies diagnosis. This paper describes the development of a technique for the identification of L protein in several RABV strains from different hosts, demonstrating that MS-based proteomics is a potential method for antigen identification and a good alternative for rabies diagnosis.

  3. Growing vertical ZnO nanorod arrays within graphite: efficient isolation of large size and high quality single-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; E, Yifeng; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

    2013-07-18

    We report a unique strategy for efficiently exfoliating large size and high quality single-layer graphene directly from graphite into DMF dispersions by growing ZnO nanorod arrays between the graphene layers in graphite.

  4. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection of Unresectable Medium-to-Large-Sized Hepatomas Using a Multipronged Needle: Efficacy and Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.S.; Kachura, J.R.; Gallinger, S.; Grant, D.; Greig, P.; McGilvray, I.; Knox, J.; Sherman, M.; Wong, F.; Wong, D.

    2007-01-01

    Fine needles with an end hole or multiple side holes have traditionally been used for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) of hepatomas. This study retrospectively evaluates the safety and efficacy of PEI of unresectable medium-to-large (3.5-9 cm) hepatomas using a multipronged needle and with conscious sedation. Twelve patients, eight men and four women (age 51-77 years; mean: 69) received PEI for hepatomas, mostly subcapsular or exophytic in location with average tumor size of 5.6 cm (range: 3.5-9.0 cm). Patients were consciously sedated and an 18G retractable multipronged needle (Quadrafuse needle; Rex Medical, Philadelphia, PA) was used for injection under real-time ultrasound guidance. By varying the length of the prongs and rotating the needle, the alcohol was widely distributed within the tumor. The progress of ablation was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after each weekly injection and within a month after the final (third) injection and 3 months thereafter. An average total of 63 mL (range: 20-154 ml) of alcohol was injected per patient in an average of 2.3 sessions. Contrast-enhanced CT, ultrasound, or MRI was used to determine the degree of necrosis. Complete necrosis was noted in eight patients (67%), near-complete necrosis (90-99%) in two (16.7%), and partial success (50-89%) in two (16.7%). Follow-up in the first 9 months showed local recurrence in two patients and new lesions in another. There was no mortality. One patient developed renal failure, liver failure, and localized perforation of the stomach. He responded to medical treatment and surgery was not required for the perforation. One patient had severe postprocedural abdominal pain and fever, and another had transient hyperbilirubinemia; both recovered with conservative treatment. PEI with a multipronged needle is a new, safe, and efficacious method in treating medium-to-large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma under conscious

  5. Influence of tumour size on the efficacy of targeted alpha therapy with (213)Bi-[DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]-octreotate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ho Sze; Konijnenberg, Mark W; de Blois, Erik; Koelewijn, Stuart; Baum, Richard P; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Breeman, Wouter A; de Jong, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Targeted alpha therapy has been postulated to have great potential for the treatment of small clusters of tumour cells as well as small metastases. (213)Bismuth, an α-emitter with a half-life of 46 min, has shown to be effective in preclinical as well as in clinical applications. In this study, we evaluated whether (213)Bi-[DOTA(0), Tyr(3)]-octreotate ((213)Bi-DOTATATE), a (213)Bi-labelled somatostatin analogue with high affinity for somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), is suitable for the treatment of larger neuroendocrine tumours overexpressing SSTR2 in comparison to its effectiveness for smaller tumours. We performed a preclinical targeted radionuclide therapy study with (213)Bi-DOTATATE in animals bearing tumours of different sizes (50 and 200 mm(3)) using two tumour models: H69 (human small cell lung carcinoma) and CA20948 (rat pancreatic tumour). Pharmacokinetics was determined for calculation of dosimetry in organs and tumours. H69- or CA20948-xenografted mice with tumour volumes of approximately 120 mm(3) were euthanized at 10, 30, 60 and 120 min post injection of a single dose of (213)Bi-DOTATATE (1.5-4.8 MBq). To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of (213)Bi-DOTATATE, xenografted H69 and CA20948 tumour-bearing mice with tumour sizes of 50 and 200 mm(3) were administered daily with a therapeutic dose of (213)Bi-DOTATATE (0.3 nmol, 2-4 MBq) for three consecutive days. The animals were followed for 90 days after treatment. At day 90, mice were injected with 25 MBq (99m)Tc-DMSA and imaged by SPECT/CT to investigate possible renal dysfunction due to (213)Bi-DOTATATE treatment. Higher tumour uptakes were found in CA20948 tumour-bearing animals compared to those in H69 tumour-bearing mice with the highest tumour uptake of 19.6 ± 6.6 %IA/g in CA20948 tumour-bearing animals, while for H69 tumour-bearing mice, the highest tumour uptake was found to be 9.8 ± 2.4 %IA/g. Nevertheless, as the anti-tumour effect was more pronounced in H69

  6. Precise large deviations of aggregate claims in a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process. In this model, we do not make any assumption on the dependence structure of claim sizes and inter-arrival times. We study large deviations of the aggregate amount of claims. For the subexponential heavy-tailed case, we obtain a precise large-deviation formula; our method substantially relies on a martingale for the structure of our models.

  7. Evolution of A-Type Macrosegregation in Large Size Steel Ingot After Multistep Forging and Heat Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucif, Abdelhalim; Ben Fredj, Emna; Harris, Nathan; Shahriari, Davood; Jahazi, Mohammad; Lapierre-Boire, Louis-Philippe

    2018-06-01

    A-type macrosegregation refers to the channel chemical heterogeneities that can be formed during solidification in large size steel ingots. In this research, a combination of experiment and simulation was used to study the influence of open die forging parameters on the evolution of A-type macrosegregation patterns during a multistep forging of a 40 metric ton (MT) cast, high-strength steel ingot. Macrosegregation patterns were determined experimentally by macroetch along the longitudinal axis of the forged and heat-treated ingot. Mass spectroscopy, on more than 900 samples, was used to determine the chemical composition map of the entire longitudinal sectioned surface. FORGE NxT 1.1 finite element modeling code was used to predict the effect of forging sequences on the morphology evolution of A-type macrosegregation patterns. For this purpose, grain flow variables were defined and implemented in a large scale finite element modeling code to describe oriented grains and A-type segregation patterns. Examination of the A-type macrosegregation showed four to five parallel continuous channels located nearly symmetrical to the axis of the forged ingot. In some regions, the A-type patterns became curved or obtained a wavy form in contrast to their straight shape in the as-cast state. Mass spectrometry analysis of the main alloying elements (C, Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo, Cu, P, and S) revealed that carbon, manganese, and chromium were the most segregated alloying elements in A-type macrosegregation patterns. The observed differences were analyzed using thermodynamic calculations, which indicated that changes in the chemical composition of the liquid metal can affect the primary solidification mode and the segregation intensity of the alloying elements. Finite element modeling simulation results showed very good agreement with the experimental observations, thereby allowing for the quantification of the influence of temperature and deformation on the evolution of the shape of the

  8. How great white sharks nourish their embryos to a large size: evidence of lipid histotrophy in lamnoid shark reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiichi; Nakamura, Masaru; Tomita, Taketeru; Toda, Minoru; Miyamoto, Kei; Nozu, Ryo

    2016-09-15

    The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) exhibits viviparous and oophagous reproduction. A 4950 mm total length (TL) gravid female accidentally caught by fishermen in the Okinawa Prefecture, Southern Japan carried six embryos (543-624 mm TL, three in each uterus). Both uteri contained copious amounts of yellowish viscous uterine fluid (over 79.2 litres in the left uterus), nutrient eggs and broken egg cases. The embryos had yolk stomachs that had ruptured, the mean volume of which was approximately 197.9 ml. Embryos had about 20 rows of potentially functional teeth in the upper and lower jaws. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive substances were observed on the surface and in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells, and large, secretory, OsO4-oxidized lipid droplets of various sizes were distributed on the surface of the villous string epithelium on the uterine wall. Histological examination of the uterine wall showed it to consist of villi, similar to the trophonemata of Dasyatidae rays, suggesting that the large amount of fluid found in the uterus of the white shark was likely required for embryo nutrition. We conclude that: (1) the lipid-rich fluid is secreted from the uterine epithelium only in early gestation before the onset of oophagy, (2) the embryos probably use the abundant uterine fluid and encased nutrient eggs for nutrition at this stage of their development, and (3) the uterine fluid is the major source of embryonic nutrition before oophagy onset. This is the first record of the lipid histotrophy of reproduction among all shark species. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. How great white sharks nourish their embryos to a large size: evidence of lipid histotrophy in lamnoid shark reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Sato

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias exhibits viviparous and oophagous reproduction. A 4950 mm total length (TL gravid female accidentally caught by fishermen in the Okinawa Prefecture, Southern Japan carried six embryos (543-624 mm TL, three in each uterus. Both uteri contained copious amounts of yellowish viscous uterine fluid (over 79.2 litres in the left uterus, nutrient eggs and broken egg cases. The embryos had yolk stomachs that had ruptured, the mean volume of which was approximately 197.9 ml. Embryos had about 20 rows of potentially functional teeth in the upper and lower jaws. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS-positive substances were observed on the surface and in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells, and large, secretory, OsO4-oxidized lipid droplets of various sizes were distributed on the surface of the villous string epithelium on the uterine wall. Histological examination of the uterine wall showed it to consist of villi, similar to the trophonemata of Dasyatidae rays, suggesting that the large amount of fluid found in the uterus of the white shark was likely required for embryo nutrition. We conclude that: (1 the lipid-rich fluid is secreted from the uterine epithelium only in early gestation before the onset of oophagy, (2 the embryos probably use the abundant uterine fluid and encased nutrient eggs for nutrition at this stage of their development, and (3 the uterine fluid is the major source of embryonic nutrition before oophagy onset. This is the first record of the lipid histotrophy of reproduction among all shark species.

  10. Long‐term creep rates on the Hayward Fault: evidence for controls on the size and frequency of large earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienkaemper, James J.; McFarland, Forrest S.; Simpson, Robert W.; Bilham, Roger; Ponce, David A.; Boatwright, John; Caskey, S. John

    2012-01-01

    The Hayward fault (HF) in California exhibits large (Mw 6.5–7.1) earthquakes with short recurrence times (161±65 yr), probably kept short by a 26%–78% aseismic release rate (including postseismic). Its interseismic release rate varies locally over time, as we infer from many decades of surface creep data. Earliest estimates of creep rate, primarily from infrequent surveys of offset cultural features, revealed distinct spatial variation in rates along the fault, but no detectable temporal variation. Since the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake (LPE), monitoring on 32 alinement arrays and 5 creepmeters has greatly improved the spatial and temporal resolution of creep rate. We now identify significant temporal variations, mostly associated with local and regional earthquakes. The largest rate change was a 6‐yr cessation of creep along a 5‐km length near the south end of the HF, attributed to a regional stress drop from the LPE, ending in 1996 with a 2‐cm creep event. North of there near Union City starting in 1991, rates apparently increased by 25% above pre‐LPE levels on a 16‐km‐long reach of the fault. Near Oakland in 2007 an Mw 4.2 earthquake initiated a 1–2 cm creep event extending 10–15 km along the fault. Using new better‐constrained long‐term creep rates, we updated earlier estimates of depth to locking along the HF. The locking depths outline a single, ∼50‐km‐long locked or retarded patch with the potential for an Mw∼6.8 event equaling the 1868 HF earthquake. We propose that this inferred patch regulates the size and frequency of large earthquakes on HF.

  11. Impact of target mRNA structure on siRNA silencing efficiency: A large-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredell, Joseph A; Berger, Angela K; Walton, S Patrick

    2008-07-01

    The selection of active siRNAs is generally based on identifying siRNAs with certain sequence and structural properties. However, the efficiency of RNA interference has also been shown to depend on the structure of the target mRNA, primarily through studies using exogenous transcripts with well-defined secondary structures in the vicinity of the target sequence. While these studies provide a means for examining the impact of target sequence and structure independently, the predicted secondary structures for these transcripts are often not reflective of structures that form in full-length, native mRNAs where interactions can occur between relatively remote segments of the mRNAs. Here, using a combination of experimental results and analysis of a large dataset, we demonstrate that the accessibility of certain local target structures on the mRNA is an important determinant in the gene silencing ability of siRNAs. siRNAs targeting the enhanced green fluorescent protein were chosen using a minimal siRNA selection algorithm followed by classification based on the predicted minimum free energy structures of the target transcripts. Transfection into HeLa and HepG2 cells revealed that siRNAs targeting regions of the mRNA predicted to have unpaired 5'- and 3'-ends resulted in greater gene silencing than regions predicted to have other types of secondary structure. These results were confirmed by analysis of gene silencing data from previously published siRNAs, which showed that mRNA target regions unpaired at either the 5'-end or 3'-end were silenced, on average, approximately 10% more strongly than target regions unpaired in the center or primarily paired throughout. We found this effect to be independent of the structure of the siRNA guide strand. Taken together, these results suggest minimal requirements for nucleation of hybridization between the siRNA guide strand and mRNA and that both mRNA and guide strand structure should be considered when choosing candidate si

  12. Small size today, aquarium dumping tomorrow: sales of juvenile non-native large fish as an important threat in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. B. Magalhães

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Informal sales of large-bodied non-native aquarium fishes (known as “tankbusters” is increasing among Brazilian hobbyists. In this study, we surveyed this non-regulated trade on Facebook® from May 2012 to September 2016, systematically collecting information about the fishes available for trading: species, family, common/scientific names, native range, juvenile length, behavior, number of specimens available in five geographical regions from Brazil. We also assessed the invasion risk of the most frequently sold species using the Fish Invasiveness Screening Test (FIST. We found 93 taxa belonging to 35 families. Cichlidae was the dominant family, and most species were native to South America. All species are sold at very small sizes (< 10.0 cm, and most display aggressive behavior. The hybrid Amphilophus trimaculatus × Amphilophus citrinellus, Astronotus ocellatus, Uaru amphiacanthoides, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Cichla piquiti, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Datnioides microlepis and Cichla kelberi were the main species available. The southeast region showed the greatest trading activity. Based on biological traits, the FIST indicated that Arapaima gigas, C. kelberi and C. temensis are high-risk species in terms of biological invasions via aquarium dumping. We suggest management strategies such as trade regulations, monitoring, euthanasia and educational programs to prevent further introductions via aquarium dumping.

  13. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, E.; Araujo, M.F.; Silva, R.J.C.; Senna-Martinez, J.C.; Ines Vaz, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction. - Highlights: → EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography in cultural heritage studies. → Archaeometallurgical study of a Late Bronze Age artefact collection from Portugal. → Practise of a specific and traditional bronze metallurgy. → Appearance of technological innovations as the casting-on technique.

  14. Boys who pee the farthest have a large hollow head, a thin skin, and medium-size manhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attinger, Daniel; Lee, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    Following a recent trend of scientific studies on artwork, we study here the thermodynamics of a jetting thermometer made of ceramic, related to the Chinese tea culture. The thermometer represents a boy who "urinates" shortly after hot water is poured onto his head. Long jetting distance indicates if the water temperature is hot enough to brew tea. Here, a thermofluid model describes the jetting phenomenon of that pee-pee boy. The study demonstrates how thermal expansion of an interior air pocket causes jetting. The validity of assumptions underlying the Hagen-Poiseuille flow is discussed for urethra of finite length. A thermodynamic potential is shown to define maximum jetting velocity. Seven optimization criteria to maximize jetting distance are provided, including two dimensionless numbers. The dimensionless numbers are obtained by comparing the time scales of the internal pressure buildup due to heating, with that of pressure relief due to jetting. Optimization results show that longer jets are produced by large individuals, with low body mass index, with a boyhood of medium size inclined at an angle π/4. Analogies are drawn with pissing contests among humans and lobsters. The study ends by noting similitudes of working principle between that politically incorrect thermometer and Galileo Galilei's thermoscope.

  15. Ni foam assisted synthesis of high quality hexagonal boron nitride with large domain size and controllable thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Hao; Li, Xiuting; Li, Deshuai; Huang, Mingqiang; Wan, Wen; Yao, Qian; Chen, Xiangping; Wang, Zhiwei; Wu, Yanqing; Wang, Le; Chen, Shanshan

    2018-04-01

    The scalable synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is of great interest for its numerous applications in novel electronic devices. Highly-crystalline h-BN films, with single-crystal sizes up to hundreds of microns, are demonstrated via a novel Ni foam assisted technique reported here for the first time. The nucleation density of h-BN domains can be significantly reduced due to the high boron solubility, as well as the large specific surface area of the Ni foam. The crystalline structure of the h-BN domains is found to be well aligned with, and therefore strongly dependent upon, the underlying Pt lattice orientation. Growth-time dependent experiments confirm the presence of a surface mediated self-limiting growth mechanism for monolayer h-BN on the Pt substrate. However, utilizing remote catalysis from the Ni foam, bilayer h-BN films can be synthesized breaking the self-limiting effect. This work provides further understanding of the mechanisms involved in the growth of h-BN and proposes a facile synthesis technique that may be applied to further applications in which control over the crystal alignment, and the numbers of layers is crucial.

  16. Theoretical simulation and analysis of large size BMP-LSC by 3D Monte Carlo ray tracing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhang; Ning-Ning Zhang; Yi Zhang; Sen Yan; Song Sun; Jun Bao; Chen Gao

    2017-01-01

    Luminescent solar concentrators (LSC) can reduce the area of solar cells by collecting light from a large area and concentrating the captured light onto relatively small area photovoltaic (PV) cells,and thereby reducing the cost of PV electricity generation.LSCs with bottom-facing cells (BMP-LSC) can collect both direct light and indirect light,so further improving the efficiency of the PV cells.However,it is hard to analyze the effect of each parameter by experiment because there are too many parameters involved in the BMP-LSC.In this paper,all the physical processes of the light transmission and collection in the BMP-LSC were analyzed.A three-dimensional Monte Carlo ray tracing program was developed to study the transmission of photons in the LSC.A larger-size LSC was simulated,and the effects of dye concentration,the LSC thickness,the cell area,and the cell distance were systematically analyzed.

  17. Depletion of trophy large-sized sharks populations of the Argentinean coast, south-western Atlantic: insights from fishers' knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo Irigoyen

    Full Text Available Abstract Globally, sharks are impacted by a wide range of human activities, resulting in many populations being depleted. Trophy large-sized sharks of the Argentinean coast, the sand-tiger Carcharias taurus , the copper Carcharhinus brachyurus and the sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus are under intense sport and artisanal fishing since the 50's decade. However, the current and historical information for the assessment of its populations status is scarce. The aim of this work was to analyze the status of conservation of these species through the gathering of expert fishermen knowledge (FK on semi-structured interviews. Abundance variation perception between the beginning and the end of fishermen careers revealed a critical status for the species study (means variation between -77 and -90 %. Furthermore, a best day's catch analysis reinforce this result in the case of the sand tiger shark. The school shark Galeorhinus galeus was included on this work with the objective of contrast FK with formal information available of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE time series. Both sources of information, despite are not comparable, shows declines ~ - 80%. The critical conservation situation of study species needs urgent management action, particularly for the san tiger shark which could became regionally extinct before the reaction of stakeholders occurs.

  18. Mammals of medium and large size in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of Brazilian vertebrates is regarded among the highest in the world. However, the biologicaldiversity is still mostly unknown and a good part of it is seriously threatened by human activities. This study aimed toinventory the medium and large size mammals present in the Reserva Biológica de Santa Rita do Sapucaí, an Atlanticforest reserve located in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, southeastern Brazil. Sand-plots, photographic traps and searches foranimal tracks on pre-existent trails in the area, were carried out once every two months between May 2006 andFebruary 2007. The sand-plots and tracks were inspected during five consecutive days per sampling. We obtained 108records of 15 species, mostly of carnivorans. Two confirmed species are threatened with extinction in Brazil (Callithrixaurita and Leopardus pardalis. The results suggest that the sampled reserve has high species richness and plays animportant role in conservation of mammals in this landscape, including species threatened with extinction.

  19. Development of 3D Visualization Technology for Medium-and Large-sized Radioactive Metal Wastes from Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Gyongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The most important point of decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants is to spend less money and do this process safely. In order to perform a better decommissioning nuclear facilities and nuclear power plants, a data base of radioactive waste from decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities should be constructed. This data base is described herein, from the radioactive nuclide to the shape of component of nuclear facilities, and representative results of the status and analysis are presented. With the increase in number of nuclear facilities at the end of their useful life, the demand of decommissioning technologies will continue to grow for years to come. This analysis of medium-and large-sized radioactive metal wastes and 3D visualization technology of the radioactive metal wastes using the 3D-SCAN are planned to be used for constructing data bases. The data bases are expected to be used on development of the basic technologies for decommissioning nuclear facilities 4 session.

  20. Consecutive Short-Scan CT for Geological Structure Analog Models with Large Size on In-Situ Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Zhang, Wen; Wu, Xiaojun; Wei, Dongtao; Zhao, Yixin; Zhao, Gang; Han, Xu; Zhang, Shunli

    2016-01-01

    For the analysis of interior geometry and property changes of a large-sized analog model during a loading or other medium (water or oil) injection process with a non-destructive way, a consecutive X-ray computed tomography (XCT) short-scan method is developed to realize an in-situ tomography imaging. With this method, the X-ray tube and detector rotate 270° around the center of the guide rail synchronously by switching positive and negative directions alternately on the way of translation until all the needed cross-sectional slices are obtained. Compared with traditional industrial XCTs, this method well solves the winding problems of high voltage cables and oil cooling service pipes during the course of rotation, also promotes the convenience of the installation of high voltage generator and cooling system. Furthermore, hardware costs are also significantly decreased. This kind of scanner has higher spatial resolution and penetrating ability than medical XCTs. To obtain an effective sinogram which matches rotation angles accurately, a structural similarity based method is applied to elimination of invalid projection data which do not contribute to the image reconstruction. Finally, on the basis of geometrical symmetry property of fan-beam CT scanning, a whole sinogram filling a full 360° range is produced and a standard filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm is performed to reconstruct artifacts-free images.

  1. Large-scale identification of microRNA targets in murine Dgcr8-deficient embryonic stem cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P A Davis

    Full Text Available Small RNAs such as microRNAs play important roles in embryonic stem cell maintenance and differentiation. A broad range of microRNAs is expressed in embryonic stem cells while only a fraction of their targets have been identified. We have performed large-scale identification of embryonic stem cell microRNA targets using a murine embryonic stem cell line deficient in the expression of Dgcr8. These cells are heavily depleted for microRNAs, allowing us to reintroduce specific microRNA duplexes and identify refined target sets. We used deep sequencing of small RNAs, mRNA expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis of microRNA seed matches in 3' UTRs to identify target transcripts. Consequently, we have identified a network of microRNAs that converge on the regulation of several important cellular pathways. Additionally, our experiments have revealed a novel candidate for Dgcr8-independent microRNA genesis and highlighted the challenges currently facing miRNA annotation.

  2. Synthesis and in vitro experiments of carcinoma vascular endothelial targeting polymeric nano-micelles combining small particle size and supermagnetic sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Pan, Jielin; Xu, Qilan; Li, Hao; Wang, Jianhao; Zhang, Chao; Hong, Guobin

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To construct carcinoma vascular endothelial-targeted polymeric nanomicelles with high magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sensitivity and to evaluate their biological safety and in vitro tumor-targeting effect, and to monitor their feasibility using clinical MRI scanner. Method: Amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)- b -poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL) was synthesized via the ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone (CL) initiated by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), in which cyclic pentapeptide Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) was conjugated with the terminal of hydrophilic PEG block. During the self-assembly of PEG-PCL micelles, superparamagnetic γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles (11 nm) was loaded into the hydrophobic core. The cRGD-terminated γ-Fe 2 O 3 -loaded polymeric micelles targeting to carcinoma vascular endothelial cells, were characterized in particle size, morphology, loading efficiency and so on, especially high MRI sensitivity in vitro. Normal hepatic vascular endothelial cells (ED25) were incubated with the resulting micelles for assessing their safety. Human hepatic carcinoma vascular endothelial cells (T3A) were cultured with the resulting micelles to assess the micelle uptake using Prussian blue staining and the cell signal intensity using MRI. Results: All the polymeric micelles exhibited ultra-small particle sizes with approximately 50 nm, high relaxation rate, and low toxicity even at high iron concentrations. More blue-stained iron particles were present in the targeting group than the non-targeting and competitive inhibition groups. In vitro MRI showed T 2 WI and T 2 relaxation times were significantly lower in the targeting group than in the other two groups. Conclusion: γ-Fe 2 O 3 -loaded PEG-PCL micelles not only possess ultra-small size and high superparamagnetic sensitivity, also can be actively targeted to carcinoma vascular endothelial cells by tumor-targeted cRGD. It appears to be a promising contrast agent for tumor-targeted

  3. Signal formation processes in Micromegas detectors and quality control for large size detector construction for the ATLAS new small wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuger, Fabian

    2017-07-31

    and production feasibility resulted in the selection of the proposed mesh by the NSW community and its full scale industrial manufacturing. The successful completion of both tasks were important milestones towards the construction of large size Micromegas detectors clearing the path for NSW series production.

  4. Signal formation processes in Micromegas detectors and quality control for large size detector construction for the ATLAS new small wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuger, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    and production feasibility resulted in the selection of the proposed mesh by the NSW community and its full scale industrial manufacturing. The successful completion of both tasks were important milestones towards the construction of large size Micromegas detectors clearing the path for NSW series production.

  5. Study on the Matching Relationship between Polymer Hydrodynamic Characteristic Size and Pore Throat Radius of Target Block S Based on the Microporous Membrane Filtration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the hydrodynamic characteristic size of polymer was proposed in this study, to characterize the size of aggregates of many polymer molecules in the polymer percolation process. The hydrodynamic characteristic sizes of polymers used in the target block S were examined by employing microporous membrane filtration method, and the factors were studied. Natural core flow experiments were conducted in order to set up the flow matching relationship plate. According to the flow matching plate, the relationship between the hydrodynamic characteristic size of polymer and pore throat radius obtained from core mercury injection data was found. And several suitable polymers for different reservoirs permeability were given. The experimental results of microporous membrane filtration indicated that the hydrodynamic characteristic size of polymer maintained a good nonlinear relationship with polymer viscosity; the value increased as the molecular weight and concentration of the polymer increased and increased as the salinity of dilution water decreased. Additionally, the hydrodynamic characteristic size decreased as the pressure increased, so the hydrodynamic characteristic size ought to be determined based on the pressure of the target block. In the core flow studies, good matching of polymer and formation was identified as polymer flow pressure gradient lower than the fracture pressure gradient of formation. In this case, good matching that was the pore throat radius should be larger than 10 times the hydrodynamic characteristic size of polymer in this study. Using relationship, more matching relationship between the hydrodynamic characteristic sizes of polymer solutions and the pore throat radius of target block was determined.

  6. Contribution of large-sized primary sensory neuronal sensitization to mechanical allodynia by upregulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels via cyclooxygenase 1 cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yang, Fei; Wang, Yan; Fu, Han; Yang, Yan; Li, Chun-Li; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Lin, Qing; Chen, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Under physiological state, small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are believed to mediate nociceptive behavioral responses to painful stimuli. However, recently it has been found that a number of large-sized neurons are also involved in nociceptive transmission under neuropathic conditions. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms that large-sized DRG neurons mediate nociception are poorly understood. In the present study, the role of large-sized neurons in bee venom (BV)-induced mechanical allodynia and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Behaviorally, it was found that mechanical allodynia was still evoked by BV injection in rats in which the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-positive DRG neurons were chemically deleted. Electrophysiologically, in vitro patch clamp recordings of large-sized neurons showed hyperexcitability in these neurons. Interestingly, the firing pattern of these neurons was changed from phasic to tonic under BV-inflamed state. It has been suggested that hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels (HCN) expressed in large-sized DRG neurons contribute importantly to repeatedly firing. So we examined the roles of HCNs in BV-induced mechanical allodynia. Consistent with the overexpression of HCN1/2 detected by immunofluorescence, HCNs-mediated hyperpolarization activated cation current (I h ) was significantly increased in the BV treated samples. Pharmacological experiments demonstrated that the hyperexcitability and upregulation of I h in large-sized neurons were mediated by cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)-prostaglandin E2 pathway. This is evident by the fact that the COX-1 inhibitor significantly attenuated the BV-induced mechanical allodynia. These results suggest that BV can excite the large-sized DRG neurons at least in part by increasing I h through activation of COX-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dosimetric Comparison of Split Field and Fixed Jaw Techniques for Large IMRT Target Volumes in the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Shiv P.; Das, Indra J.; Kumar, Arvind; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Some treatment planning systems (TPSs), when used for large-field (>14 cm) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), create split fields that produce excessive multiple-leaf collimator segments, match-line dose inhomogeneity, and higher treatment times than nonsplit fields. A new method using a fixed-jaw technique (FJT) forces the jaw to stay at a fixed position during optimization and is proposed to reduce problems associated with split fields. Dosimetric comparisons between split-field technique (SFT) and FJT used for IMRT treatment is presented. Five patients with head and neck malignancies and regional target volumes were studied and compared with both techniques. Treatment planning was performed on an Eclipse TPS using beam data generated for Varian 2100C linear accelerator. A standard beam arrangement consisting of nine coplanar fields, equally spaced, was used in both techniques. Institutional dose-volume constraints used in head and neck cancer were kept the same for both techniques. The dosimetric coverage for the target volumes between SFT and FJT for head and neck IMRT plan is identical within ±1% up to 90% dose. Similarly, the organs at risk (OARs) have dose-volume coverage nearly identical for all patients. When the total monitor unit (MU) and segments were analyzed, SFT produces statistically significant higher segments (17.3 ± 6.3%) and higher MU (13.7 ± 4.4%) than the FJT. There is no match line in FJT and hence dose uniformity in the target volume is superior to the SFT. Dosimetrically, SFT and FJT are similar for dose-volume coverage; however, the FJT method provides better logistics, lower MU, shorter treatment time, and better dose uniformity. The number of segments and MU also has been correlated with the whole body radiation dose with long-term complications. Thus, FJT should be the preferred option over SFT for large target volumes.

  8. The main postulates of adaptive correction of distortions of the wave front in large-size optical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sychev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of optical telescopes, striving to increase the penetrating power of a telescope has been always the main trend. A real way to solve this problem is to raise the quality of the image (reduction of the image angular size under real conditions of distorting factor and increase a diameter of the main mirror. This is counteracted by the various distorting factors or interference occurring in realtime use of telescopes, as well as by complicated manufacturing processes of large mirrors.It is shown that the most effective method to deal with the influence of distorting factors on the image quality in the telescope is the minimization (through selecting the place to mount a telescope and choosing the rational optical scheme, creating materials and new technologies, improving a design, unloading the mirrors, mounting choice, etc., and then the adaptive compensation of remaining distortions.It should be noted that a domestic concept to design large-sized telescopes allows us to use, in our opinion, the most efficient ways to do this. It means to abandon the creation of "an absolutely rigid and well-ordered" design, providing the passively aligned state telescope optics under operating conditions. The design must just have such a level of residual deformations that their effect can be efficiently compensated by the adaptive system using the segmented elements of the primary mirror and the secondary mirror as a corrector.It has been found that in the transmission optical systems to deliver laser power to a remote object, it is necessary not only to overcome the distorting effect of factors inherent in optical information systems, but, additionally, find a way to overcome a number of new difficulties. The main ones have been identified to be as follows:• the influence of laser radiation on the structure components and the propagation medium and, as a consequence, the opposite effect of the structure components and the propagation

  9. Assessing the impact of large-scale computing on the size and complexity of first-principles electromagnetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.K.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing need to determine the electromagnetic performance of increasingly complex systems at ever higher frequencies. The ideal approach would be some appropriate combination of measurement, analysis, and computation so that system design and assessment can be achieved to a needed degree of accuracy at some acceptable cost. Both measurement and computation benefit from the continuing growth in computer power that, since the early 1950s, has increased by a factor of more than a million in speed and storage. For example, a CRAY2 has an effective throughput (not the clock rate) of about 10 11 floating-point operations (FLOPs) per hour compared with the approximate 10 5 provided by the UNIVAC-1. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate the computational complexity of modeling large (in wavelengths) electromagnetic problems. In particular the author makes the point that simply relying on faster computers for increasing the size and complexity of problems that can be modeled is less effective than might be anticipated from this raw increase in computer throughput. He suggests that rather than depending on faster computers alone, various analytical and numerical alternatives need development for reducing the overall FLOP count required to acquire the information desired. One approach is to decrease the operation count of the basic model computation itself, by reducing the order of the frequency dependence of the various numerical operations or their multiplying coefficients. Another is to decrease the number of model evaluations that are needed, an example being the number of frequency samples required to define a wideband response, by using an auxiliary model of the expected behavior. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Upper limits to americium concentration in large sized sodium-cooled fast reactors loaded with metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng; Wallenius, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The americium transmutation capability of Integral Fast Reactor was investigated. • The impact from americium introduction was parameterized by applying SERPENT Monte Carlo calculations. • Higher americium content in metallic fuel leads to a power penalty, preserving consistent safety margins. - Abstract: Transient analysis of a large sized sodium-cooled reactor loaded with metallic fuel modified by different fractions of americium have been performed. Unprotected loss-of-offsite power, unprotected loss-of-flow and unprotected transient-over-power accidents were simulated with the SAS4A/SASSYS code based on the geometrical model of an IFR with power rating of 2500 MW th , using safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The Ti-modified austenitic D9 steel, having higher creep rupture strength, was considered as the cladding and structural material apart from the ferritic/martensitic HT9 steel. For the reference case of U–12Pu–1Am–10Zr fuel at EOEC, the margin to fuel melt during a design basis condition UTOP is about 50 K for a maximum linear rating of 30 kW/m. In order to maintain a margin of 50 K to fuel failure, the linear power rating has to be reduced by ∼3% and 6% for 2 wt.% and 3 wt.% Am introduction into the fuel respectively. Hence, an Am concentration of 2–3 wt.% in the fuel would lead to a power penalty of 3–6%, permitting a consumption rate of 3.0–5.1 kg Am/TW h th . This consumption rate is significantly higher than the one previously obtained for oxide fuelled SFRs

  11. Hierarchical self-assembly of magnetic nanoclusters for theranostics: Tunable size, enhanced magnetic resonance imagability, and controlled and targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dai Hai; Lee, Jung Seok; Choi, Jong Hoon; Park, Kyung Min; Lee, Yunki; Park, Ki Dong

    2016-04-15

    Nanoparticle-based imaging and therapy are of interest for theranostic nanomedicine. In particular, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much attention in cancer imaging, diagnostics, and treatment because of their superior imagability and biocompatibility (approved by the Food and Drug Administration). Here, we developed SPIO nanoparticles (NPs) that self-assembled into magnetic nanoclusters (SAMNs) in aqueous environments as a theranostic nano-system. To generate multi-functional SPIO NPs, we covalently conjugated β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to SPIO NPs using metal-adhesive dopamine groups. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and paclitaxel (PTX) were hosted in the β-CD cavity through high affinity complexation. The core-shell structure of the magnetic nanoclusters was elucidated based on the condensed SPIO core and a PEG shell using electron microscopy and the composition was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Our results indicate that nanocluster size could be readily controlled by changing the SPIO/PEG ratio in the assemblies. Interestingly, we observed a significant enhancement in magnetic resonance contrast due to the large cluster size and dense iron oxide core. In addition, tethering a tumor-targeting peptide to the SAMNs enhanced their uptake into tumor cells. PTX was efficiently loaded into β-CDs and released in a controlled manner when exposed to competitive guest molecules. These results strongly indicate that the SAMNs developed in this study possess great potential for application in image-guided cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we developed multi-functional SPIO NPs that self-assembled into magnetic nanoclusters (SAMNs) in aqueous conditions as a theranostic nano-system. The beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was immobilized on the surfaces of SPIO NPs and RGD-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG) and paclitaxel (PTX) were hosted in the β-CD cavity through high affinity complexation. We found that nanocluster size could be

  12. 48 CFR 52.219-21 - Small Business Size Representation for Targeted Industry Categories Under the Small Business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employees for the past 12 months (check this column if size standard stated in solicitation is expressed in terms of number of employees) or Offeror's average annual gross revenue for the last 3 fiscal years (check this column if size standard stated in solicitation is expressed in terms of annual receipts...

  13. Analysis of Large Seeds from Three Different Medicago truncatula Ecotypes Reveals a Potential Role of Hormonal Balance in Final Size Determination of Legume Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Legume seeds are important as protein and oil source for human diet. Understanding how their final seed size is determined is crucial to improve crop yield. In this study, we analyzed seed development of three accessions of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, displaying contrasted seed size. By comparing two large seed accessions to the reference accession A17, we described mechanisms associated with large seed size determination and potential factors modulating the final seed size. We observed that early events during embryogenesis had a major impact on final seed size and a delayed heart stage embryo development resulted to large seeds. We also observed that the difference in seed growth rate was mainly due to a difference in embryo cell number, implicating a role of cell division rate. Large seed accessions could be explained by an extended period of cell division due to a longer embryogenesis phase. According to our observations and recent reports, we observed that auxin (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA ratio could be a key determinant of cell division regulation at the end of embryogenesis. Overall, our study highlights that timing of events occurring during early seed development play decisive role for final seed size determination.

  14. Ecosystem size structure response to 21st century climate projection: large fish abundance decreases in the central North Pacific and increases in the California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth-Jefcoats, Phoebe A; Polovina, Jeffrey J; Dunne, John P; Blanchard, Julia L

    2013-03-01

    Output from an earth system model is paired with a size-based food web model to investigate the effects of climate change on the abundance of large fish over the 21st century. The earth system model, forced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special report on emission scenario A2, combines a coupled climate model with a biogeochemical model including major nutrients, three phytoplankton functional groups, and zooplankton grazing. The size-based food web model includes linkages between two size-structured pelagic communities: primary producers and consumers. Our investigation focuses on seven sites in the North Pacific, each highlighting a specific aspect of projected climate change, and includes top-down ecosystem depletion through fishing. We project declines in large fish abundance ranging from 0 to 75.8% in the central North Pacific and increases of up to 43.0% in the California Current (CC) region over the 21st century in response to change in phytoplankton size structure and direct physiological effects. We find that fish abundance is especially sensitive to projected changes in large phytoplankton density and our model projects changes in the abundance of large fish being of the same order of magnitude as changes in the abundance of large phytoplankton. Thus, studies that address only climate-induced impacts to primary production without including changes to phytoplankton size structure may not adequately project ecosystem responses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Advances in in vivo EPR Tooth Biodosimetry: Meeting the targets for initial triage following a large-scale radiation event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flood, Ann Barry; Schreiber, Wilson; Du, Gaixin; Wood, Victoria A.; Kmiec, Maciej M.; Petryakov, Sergey V.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Swartz, Harold M.; Demidenko, Eugene; Boyle, Holly K.; Dong, Ruhong; Geimer, Shireen; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Kobayashi, Kyo; Nicolalde; Roberto, J.; Crist, Jason; Gupta, Ankit; Raynolds, Timothy; Brugger, Spencer; Budzioh, Pawel; Carr, Brandon; Feldman, Matthew; Gimi, Barjor; Grinberg, Oleg; Krymov, Vladimir; Lesniewski, Piotr; Mariani, Michael; Meaney, Paul M.; Rychert, Kevin M.; Salikhov, Ildar; Tipikin, Dmitriy S.; Tseytlin, Mark; Edwards, Brian R.; Herring, Christopher D.; Lindsay, Catherine; Rosenbaum, Traci; Ali, Arif; Carlson, David; Froncisz, Wojciech; Hirata, Hiroshi; Sidabras, Jason; Swarts, Steven G.

    2016-01-01

    Several important recent advances in the development and evolution of in vivo Tooth Biodosimetry using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) allow its performance to meet or exceed the U.S. targeted requirements for accuracy and ease of operation and throughput in a large-scale radiation event. Ergonomically based changes to the magnet, coupled with the development of rotation of the magnet and advanced software to automate collection of data, have made it easier and faster to make a measurement. From start to finish, measurements require a total elapsed time of 5 min, with data acquisition taking place in less than 3 min. At the same time, the accuracy of the data for triage of large populations has improved, as indicated using the metrics of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. Applying these standards to the intended population, EPR in vivo Tooth Biodosimetry has approximately the same diagnostic accuracy as the purported 'gold standard' (dicentric chromosome assay). Other improvements include miniaturisation of the spectrometer, leading to the creation of a significantly lighter and more compact prototype that is suitable for transporting for Point of Care (POC) operation and that can be operated off a single standard power outlet. Additional advancements in the resonator, including use of a disposable sensing loop attached to the incisor tooth, have resulted in a biodosimetry method where measurements can be made quickly with a simple 5-step workflow and by people needing only a few minutes of training (which can be built into the instrument as a training video). In sum, recent advancements allow this prototype to meet or exceed the US Federal Government's recommended targets for POC biodosimetry in large-scale events. (authors)

  16. Finite-time and finite-size scalings in the evaluation of large-deviation functions: Numerical approach in continuous time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien

    2017-06-01

    Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provides a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to selection rules that favor the rare trajectories of interest. Such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time and finite population size, effects that can render their use delicate. In this paper, we present a numerical approach which uses the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of rare trajectories. The method we propose allows one to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators, which-as shown on the contact process-provides a significant improvement of the large deviation function estimators compared to the standard one.

  17. Finite-time and finite-size scalings in the evaluation of large-deviation functions: Numerical approach in continuous time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien

    2017-06-01

    Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provides a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to selection rules that favor the rare trajectories of interest. Such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time and finite population size, effects that can render their use delicate. In this paper, we present a numerical approach which uses the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of rare trajectories. The method we propose allows one to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators, which—as shown on the contact process—provides a significant improvement of the large deviation function estimators compared to the standard one.

  18. HOW THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE DEVELOPED A NEW WASTE PACKAGE USING A POLYUREA COATING THAT IS SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY ELIMINATING SIZE REDUCTION OF LARGE ITEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Hogue, Richard S.; Kimokeo, Margaret K.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major challenges involved in closing the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is the disposal of extremely large pieces of contaminated production equipment and building debris. Past practice has been to size reduce the equipment into pieces small enough to fit into approved, standard waste containers. Size reducing this equipment is extremely expensive, and exposes workers to high-risk tasks, including significant industrial, chemical, and radiological hazards. RFETS has developed a waste package using a Polyurea coating for shipping large contaminated objects. The cost and schedule savings have been significant

  19. Dendrimer Brain Uptake and Targeted Therapy for Brain Injury in a Large Animal Model of Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of brain injury following circulatory arrest is a challenging health issue with no viable therapeutic options. Based on studies in a clinically relevant large animal (canine) model of hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA)-induced brain injury, neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity have been identified as key players in mediating the brain injury after HCA. Therapy with large doses of valproic acid (VPA) showed some neuroprotection but was associated with adverse side effects. For the first time in a large animal model, we explored whether systemically administered polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers could be effective in reaching target cells in the brain and deliver therapeutics. We showed that, upon systemic administration, hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers are taken up in the brain of injured animals and selectively localize in the injured neurons and microglia in the brain. The biodistribution in other major organs was similar to that seen in small animal models. We studied systemic dendrimer–drug combination therapy with two clinically approved drugs, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (attenuating neuroinflammation) and valproic acid (attenuating excitotoxicity), building on positive outcomes in a rabbit model of perinatal brain injury. We prepared and characterized dendrimer-NAC (D-NAC) and dendrimer-VPA (D-VPA) conjugates in multigram quantities. A glutathione-sensitive linker to enable for fast intracellular release. In preliminary efficacy studies, combination therapy with D-NAC and D-VPA showed promise in this large animal model, producing 24 h neurological deficit score improvements comparable to high dose combination therapy with VPA and NAC, or free VPA, but at one-tenth the dose, while significantly reducing the adverse side effects. Since adverse side effects of drugs are exaggerated in HCA, the reduced side effects with dendrimer conjugates and suggestions of neuroprotection offer promise for these nanoscale drug delivery systems. PMID:24499315

  20. Dendrimer brain uptake and targeted therapy for brain injury in a large animal model of hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Manoj K; Beaty, Claude A; Lesniak, Wojciech G; Kambhampati, Siva P; Zhang, Fan; Wilson, Mary A; Blue, Mary E; Troncoso, Juan C; Kannan, Sujatha; Johnston, Michael V; Baumgartner, William A; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

    2014-03-25

    Treatment of brain injury following circulatory arrest is a challenging health issue with no viable therapeutic options. Based on studies in a clinically relevant large animal (canine) model of hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA)-induced brain injury, neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity have been identified as key players in mediating the brain injury after HCA. Therapy with large doses of valproic acid (VPA) showed some neuroprotection but was associated with adverse side effects. For the first time in a large animal model, we explored whether systemically administered polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers could be effective in reaching target cells in the brain and deliver therapeutics. We showed that, upon systemic administration, hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers are taken up in the brain of injured animals and selectively localize in the injured neurons and microglia in the brain. The biodistribution in other major organs was similar to that seen in small animal models. We studied systemic dendrimer-drug combination therapy with two clinically approved drugs, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (attenuating neuroinflammation) and valproic acid (attenuating excitotoxicity), building on positive outcomes in a rabbit model of perinatal brain injury. We prepared and characterized dendrimer-NAC (D-NAC) and dendrimer-VPA (D-VPA) conjugates in multigram quantities. A glutathione-sensitive linker to enable for fast intracellular release. In preliminary efficacy studies, combination therapy with D-NAC and D-VPA showed promise in this large animal model, producing 24 h neurological deficit score improvements comparable to high dose combination therapy with VPA and NAC, or free VPA, but at one-tenth the dose, while significantly reducing the adverse side effects. Since adverse side effects of drugs are exaggerated in HCA, the reduced side effects with dendrimer conjugates and suggestions of neuroprotection offer promise for these nanoscale drug delivery systems.

  1. Sensing across large-scale cognitive radio networks: Data processing, algorithms, and testbed for wireless tomography and moving target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonior, Jason David

    As the use of wireless devices has become more widespread so has the potential for utilizing wireless networks for remote sensing applications. Regular wireless communication devices are not typically designed for remote sensing. Remote sensing techniques must be carefully tailored to the capabilities of these networks before they can be applied. Experimental verification of these techniques and algorithms requires robust yet flexible testbeds. In this dissertation, two experimental testbeds for the advancement of research into sensing across large-scale cognitive radio networks are presented. System architectures, implementations, capabilities, experimental verification, and performance are discussed. One testbed is designed for the collection of scattering data to be used in RF and wireless tomography research. This system is used to collect full complex scattering data using a vector network analyzer (VNA) and amplitude-only data using non-synchronous software-defined radios (SDRs). Collected data is used to experimentally validate a technique for phase reconstruction using semidefinite relaxation and demonstrate the feasibility of wireless tomography. The second testbed is a SDR network for the collection of experimental data. The development of tools for network maintenance and data collection is presented and discussed. A novel recursive weighted centroid algorithm for device-free target localization using the variance of received signal strength for wireless links is proposed. The signal variance resulting from a moving target is modeled as having contours related to Cassini ovals. This model is used to formulate recursive weights which reduce the influence of wireless links that are farther from the target location estimate. The algorithm and its implementation on this testbed are presented and experimental results discussed.

  2. Impact of the 7 TeV/c Large Hadron Collider proton beam on a copper target

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Goddard, B; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Kain, V; Lomonosov, I V; Piriz, A R; Schmidt, R; Shutov, A; Temporal, M

    2005-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will allow for collision between two 7 TeV/c proton beams, each comprising 2808 bunches with 1.1*10/sup 11 / protons per bunch, traveling in opposite direction. The bunch length is 0.5 ns and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns so that the duration of the entire beam is about 89 mu s. The beam power profile in the transverse direction is a Gaussian with a standard deviation of 0.2 mm. The energy stored in each beam is about 350 MJ that is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In case of a failure in the machine protection systems, the entire beam could impact directly onto an accelerator equipment. A first estimate of the scale of damage resulting from such a failure has been assessed for a solid copper target hit by the beam by carrying out three- dimensional energy deposition calculations and two-dimensional numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of the target. This work has shown that the penetration depth of the LHC protons will be be...

  3. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  4. The underestimated role of temperature-oxygen relationship in large-scale studies on size-to-temperature response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyńska, Aleksandra; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2017-09-01

    The observation that ectotherm size decreases with increasing temperature (temperature-size rule; TSR) has been widely supported. This phenomenon intrigues researchers because neither its adaptive role nor the conditions under which it is realized are well defined. In light of recent theoretical and empirical studies, oxygen availability is an important candidate for understanding the adaptive role behind TSR. However, this hypothesis is still undervalued in TSR studies at the geographical level. We reanalyzed previously published data about the TSR pattern in diatoms sampled from Icelandic geothermal streams, which concluded that diatoms were an exception to the TSR. Our goal was to incorporate oxygen as a factor in the analysis and to examine whether this approach would change the results. Specifically, we expected that the strength of size response to cold temperatures would be different than the strength of response to hot temperatures, where the oxygen limitation is strongest. By conducting a regression analysis for size response at the community level, we found that diatoms from cold, well-oxygenated streams showed no size-to-temperature response, those from intermediate temperature and oxygen conditions showed reverse TSR, and diatoms from warm, poorly oxygenated streams showed significant TSR. We also distinguished the roles of oxygen and nutrition in TSR. Oxygen is a driving factor, while nutrition is an important factor that should be controlled for. Our results show that if the geographical or global patterns of TSR are to be understood, oxygen should be included in the studies. This argument is important especially for predicting the size response of ectotherms facing climate warming.

  5. Evaluating targets and trade-offs among fisheries and conservation objectives using a multispecies size spectrum model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchard, J.L.; Andersen, K.H.; Scott, F.; Hintzen, N.T.; Piet, G.J.; Jennings, S.

    2014-01-01

    Marine environmental management policies seek to ensure that fishing impacts on fished populations and other components of the ecosystem are sustainable, to simultaneously meet objectives for fisheries and conservation. For example, in Europe, targets for (i) biodiversity, (ii) food web structure as

  6. Targets for parathyroid hormone in secondary hyperparathyroidism: is a “one-size-fits-all” approach appropriate? A prospective incident cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Laurain, Emmanuelle; Ayav, Carole; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Kessler, Michèle; Briançon, Serge; Brunaud, Laurent; Frimat, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Background Recommendations for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) consider that a “one-size-fits-all” target enables efficacy of care. In routine clinical practice, SHPT continues to pose diagnosis and treatment challenges. One hypothesis that could explain these difficulties is that dialysis population with SHPT is not homogeneous. Methods EPHEYL is a prospective, multicenter, pharmacoepidemiological study including chronic dialysis patients (≥3 months) with newly SHPT diagnosis, i.e. para...

  7. Earthquake resistance of cracked concrete embedded with large size rebars (D43 and D57) in nuclear containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Y-C. [Chaoyang Univ. of Tech., Taichung, Taiwan (China); Pei, K-C. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    The bond behavior of varying size re-bar (D19, D32, D43 and D57) embedded in concrete, under cyclic load in a pullout test, were investigated through a series of experiments and monitored in real-time by acoustic emission (AE) herein. Parallel tests of specimens with an existing crack were also conducted to observe the behavior of cracked concrete subject to cyclic load. The detailed acoustics information can be used for analyzing and comparing the effects of concrete with varying size re-bar. The results provide useful in formation in evaluating the safety of NPP RC structure subjected to cyclic load. (author)

  8. Quantification of population sizes of large herbivores and their long-term functional role in ecosystems using dung fungal spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Ambroise G.; Cornelissen, Perry; Bhagwat, Shonil A.; Vera, Frans M.W.; Willis, Katherine J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between large herbivore numbers and landscape cover over time is poorly understood. There are two schools of thought: one views large herbivores as relatively passive elements upon the landscape and the other as ecosystem engineers driving vegetation succession. The latter

  9. Systematic Procedure for Generating Operational Policies to Achieve Target Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) in Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    Batch cooling crystallization is one of the important unit operations involving separation of solid-liquid phases. Usually the most common crystal product qualities are directly related to the crystal size distribution (CSD). However the main difficulty in batch crystallization is to obtain a uni...

  10. Size does matter: Cre-mediated somatic deletion efficiency depends on the distance between the target lox-sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppoolse, E.R.; Vroomen, de M.J.; Gennip, van F.; Hersmus, B.J.M.; Haaren, van M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Cre/lox recombination in vivo has become an important tool to induce chromosomal rearrangements like deletions. Using a combination of Ds transposition and Cre/lox recombination in two independent experiments on chromosomes 6 and 7 of tomato, two sets of somatic deletions up to a size of 200 kb were

  11. Extreme value paradigm for the effect of size of target volume on end results in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    In clinical radiation oncology, it is commonly reported that complications of normal tissue occur more readily at larger field sizes for a given dose and recurrence of disease is observed more frequently from the larger tumors for a given dose. Cognate phenomena have long been observed in the study of the strength of materials. That is, the larger specimens will fracture under less applied stress, breakdown under less applied voltage, corrode in a shorter time, etc. The statistical theory of extreme values has provided both a rational explanation and a technique for exploitation of these ''size effects'' on the likelihood of specimen failure. This theory describes the relation which exists between the parameters (in particular, the location parameter) of the frequency distributions of the extreme values [smallest x(1) and largest x(n)] in a sample from a population of observations xi and the sample size n. It is shown in the present paper that the clinical failure phenomena are not inconsistent with the statistical theory of extreme values. The paper presents heuristic comparisons of the predictions of this theory with the received clinical observations of the effect of the size of the volume of irradiated tissues on the likelihood of occurrence of the misadventures of clinical radiation oncology: recurrence of disease and complication of normal tissue. The concordance of observations and predictions is acceptable. The quality and quantity of the currently available data have precluded the construction of any apodictic representations

  12. Superficially porous particles with 1000Å pores for large biomolecule high performance liquid chromatography and polymer size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brian M; Schuster, Stephanie A; Boyes, Barry E; Shields, Taylor J; Miles, William L; Haynes, Mark J; Moran, Robert E; Kirkland, Joseph J; Schure, Mark R

    2017-03-17

    To facilitate mass transport and column efficiency, solutes must have free access to particle pores to facilitate interactions with the stationary phase. To ensure this feature, particles should be used for HPLC separations which have pores sufficiently large to accommodate the solute without restricted diffusion. This paper describes the design and properties of superficially porous (also called Fused-Core ® , core shell or porous shell) particles with very large (1000Å) pores specifically developed for separating very large biomolecules and polymers. Separations of DNA fragments, monoclonal antibodies, large proteins and large polystyrene standards are used to illustrate the utility of these particles for efficient, high-resolution applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a large (n = 107,207 genome-wide association study (GWAS of general cognitive ability (“g”, further enhanced by combining results with a large-scale GWAS of educational attainment. We identified 70 independent genomic loci associated with general cognitive ability. Results showed significant enrichment for genes causing Mendelian disorders with an intellectual disability phenotype. Competitive pathway analysis implicated the biological processes of neurogenesis and synaptic regulation, as well as the gene targets of two pharmacologic agents: cinnarizine, a T-type calcium channel blocker, and LY97241, a potassium channel inhibitor. Transcriptome-wide and epigenome-wide analysis revealed that the implicated loci were enriched for genes expressed across all brain regions (most strongly in the cerebellum. Enrichment was exclusive to genes expressed in neurons but not oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Finally, we report genetic correlations between cognitive ability and disparate phenotypes including psychiatric disorders, several autoimmune disorders, longevity, and maternal age at first birth.

  14. RB1 is the crucial target of the Merkel cell polyomavirus Large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesbacher, Sonja; Pfitzer, Lisa; Wiedorfer, Katharina; Angermeyer, Sabrina; Borst, Andreas; Haferkamp, Sebastian; Scholz, Claus-Jürgen; Wobser, Marion; Schrama, David; Houben, Roland

    2016-05-31

    The pocket protein (PP) family consists of the three members RB1, p107 and p130 all possessing tumor suppressive properties. Indeed, the PPs jointly control the G1/S transition mainly by inhibiting E2F transcription factors. Notably, several viral oncoproteins are capable of binding and inhibiting PPs. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is considered as etiological factor for Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) with expression of the viral Large T antigen (LT) harboring an intact PP binding domain being required for proliferation of most MCC cells. Therefore, we analyzed the interaction of MCPyV-LT with the PPs. Co-IP experiments indicate that MCPyV-LT binds potently only to RB1. Moreover, MCPyV-LT knockdown-induced growth arrest in MCC cells can be rescued by knockdown of RB1, but not by p107 or p130 knockdown. Accordingly, cell cycle arrest and E2F target gene repression mediated by the single PPs can only in the case of RB1 be significantly reverted by MCPyV-LT expression. Moreover, data from an MCC patient indicate that loss of RB1 rendered the MCPyV-positive MCC cells LT independent. Thus, our results suggest that RB1 is the dominant tumor suppressor PP in MCC, and that inactivation of RB1 by MCPyV-LT is largely sufficient for its growth supporting function in established MCPyV-positive MCC cells.

  15. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávníček, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 6 (2017), s. 957-964 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Aesculus * chromosome number * genome size * phylogeny * seed mass Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  16. Autologous chondrocyte implantation: Is it likely to become a saviour of large-sized and full-thickness cartilage defect in young adult knee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Cai, You-Zhi; Lin, Xiang-Jin

    2016-05-01

    A literature review of the first-, second- and third-generation autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) technique for the treatment of large-sized (>4 cm(2)) and full-thickness knee cartilage defects in young adults was conducted, examining the current literature on features, clinical scores, complications, magnetic resonance image (MRI) and histological outcomes, rehabilitation and cost-effectiveness. A literature review was carried out in the main medical databases to evaluate the several studies concerning ACI treatment of large-sized and full-thickness knee cartilage defects in young adults. ACI technique has been shown to relieve symptoms and improve functional assessment in large-sized (>4 cm(2)) and full-thickness knee articular cartilage defect of young adults in short- and medium-term follow-up. Besides, low level of evidence demonstrated its efficiency and durability at long-term follow-up after implantation. Furthermore, MRI and histological evaluations provided the evidence that graft can return back to the previous nearly normal cartilage via ACI techniques. Clinical outcomes tend to be similar in different ACI techniques, but with simplified procedure, low complication rate and better graft quality in the third-generation ACI technique. ACI based on the experience of cell-based therapy, with the high potential to regenerate hyaline-like tissue, represents clinical development in treatment of large-sized and full-thickness knee cartilage defects. IV.

  17. Evidence from a Large Sample on the Effects of Group Size and Decision-Making Time on Performance in a Marketing Simulation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treen, Emily; Atanasova, Christina; Pitt, Leyland; Johnson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Marketing instructors using simulation games as a way of inducing some realism into a marketing course are faced with many dilemmas. Two important quandaries are the optimal size of groups and how much of the students' time should ideally be devoted to the game. Using evidence from a very large sample of teams playing a simulation game, the study…

  18. Do sex, body size and reproductive condition influence the thermal preferences of a large lizard? A study in Tupinambis merianae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Nicolas Rodolfo; Naretto, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Body temperature is a key factor in physiological processes, influencing lizard performances; and life history traits are expected to generate variability of thermal preferences in different individuals. Gender, body size and reproductive condition may impose specific requirements on preferred body temperatures. If these three factors have different physiological functions and thermal requirements, then the preferred temperature may represent a compromise that optimizes these physiological functions. Therefore, the body temperatures that lizards select in a controlled environment may reflect a temperature that maximizes their physiological needs. The tegu lizard Tupinambis merianae is one of the largest lizards in South America and has wide ontogenetic variation in body size and sexual dimorphism. In the present study we evaluate intraspecific variability of thermal preferences of T. merianae. We determined the selected body temperature and the rate at which males and females attain their selected temperature, in relation to body size and reproductive condition. We also compared the behavior in the thermal gradient between males and females and between reproductive condition of individuals. Our study show that T. merianae selected body temperature within a narrow range of temperatures variation in the laboratory thermal gradient, with 36.24±1.49°C being the preferred temperature. We observed no significant differences between sex, body size and reproductive condition in thermal preferences. Accordingly, we suggest that the evaluated categories of T. merianae have similar thermal requirements. Males showed higher rates to obtain heat than females and reproductive females, higher rates than non-reproductive ones females. Moreover, males and reproductive females showed a more dynamic behavior in the thermal gradient. Therefore, even though they achieve the same selected temperature, they do it differentially. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Refractory Inclusion Size Distribution and Fabric Measured in a Large Slab of the Allende CV3 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; Simon, Justin I.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregate textures of chondrites reflect accretion of early-formed particles in the solar nebula. Explanations for the size and density variations of particle populations found among chondrites are debated. Differences could have risen out of formation in different locations in the nebula, and/or they could have been caused by a sorting process [1]. Many ideas on the cause of chondrule sorting have been proposed; some including sorting by mass [2,3], by X-winds [4], turbulent concentration [5], and by photophoresis [6]. However, few similar studies have been conducted for Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). These particles are known to have formed early, and their distribution could attest to the early stages of Solar System (ESS) history. Unfortunately, CAIs are not as common in chondrites as chondrules are, reducing the usefulness of studies restricted to a few thin sections. Furthermore, the largest sizes of CAIs are generally much larger than chondrules, and therefore rarely present in most studied chondrite thin sections. This study attempts to perform a more representative sampling of the CAI population in the Allende chondrite by investigating a two decimeter-sized slab.

  20. Therapeutic brain modulation with targeted large neutral amino acid supplements in the Pah-enu2 phenylketonuria mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Danique; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Mazzola, Priscila N; van Faassen, Martijn Hjr; de Blaauw, Pim; Pascucci, Tiziana; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Kema, Ido P; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van der Zee, Eddy A; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2016-11-01

    Phenylketonuria treatment consists mainly of a Phe-restricted diet, which leads to suboptimal neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes. Supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) has been suggested as an alternative dietary treatment strategy to optimize neurocognitive outcome in phenylketonuria and has been shown to influence 3 brain pathobiochemical mechanisms in phenylketonuria, but its optimal composition has not been established. In order to provide additional pathobiochemical insight and develop optimal LNAA treatment, several targeted LNAA supplements were investigated with respect to all 3 biochemical disturbances underlying brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria. Pah-enu2 (PKU) mice received 1 of 5 different LNAA-supplemented diets beginning at postnatal day 45. Control groups included phenylketonuria mice receiving an isonitrogenic and isocaloric high-protein diet or the AIN-93M diet, and wild-type mice receiving the AIN-93M diet. After 6 wk, brain and plasma amino acid profiles and brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations were measured. Brain Phe concentrations were most effectively reduced by supplementation of LNAAs, such as Leu and Ile, with a strong affinity for the LNAA transporter type 1. Brain non-Phe LNAAs could be restored on supplementation, but unbalanced LNAA supplementation further reduced brain concentrations of those LNAAs that were not (sufficiently) included in the LNAA supplement. To optimally ameliorate brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations, LNAA supplementation should include Tyr and Trp together with LNAAs that effectively reduce brain Phe concentrations. The requirement for Tyr supplementation is higher than it is for Trp, and the relative effect of brain Phe reduction is higher for serotonin than it is for dopamine and norepinephrine. The study shows that all 3 biochemical disturbances underlying brain dysfunction in phenylketonuria can be targeted by specific LNAA supplements. The study thus

  1. Interaction between numbers and size during visual search

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Florian; Bekkering, Harold; Pratt, Jay; Lindemann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates an interaction between numbers and physical size (i.e. size congruity) in visual search. In three experiments, participants had to detect a physically large (or small) target item among physically small (or large) distractors in a search task comprising single-digit numbers. The relative numerical size of the digits was varied, such that the target item was either among the numerically large or small numbers in the search display and the relation between numeric...

  2. Heat-shock protein 40 is the key farnesylation target in meristem size control, abscisic acid signaling, and drought resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghetti, Andrea; Sjögren, Lars; Floris, Maïna; Paredes, Esther Botterweg; Wenkel, Stephan; Brodersen, Peter

    2017-11-15

    Protein farnesylation is central to molecular cell biology. In plants, protein farnesyl transferase mutants are pleiotropic and exhibit defective meristem organization, hypersensitivity to the hormone abscisic acid, and increased drought resistance. The precise functions of protein farnesylation in plants remain incompletely understood because few relevant farnesylated targets have been identified. Here, we show that defective farnesylation of a single factor-heat-shock protein 40 (HSP40), encoded by the J2 and J3 genes-is sufficient to confer ABA hypersensitivity, drought resistance, late flowering, and enlarged meristems, indicating that altered function of chaperone client proteins underlies most farnesyl transferase mutant phenotypes. We also show that expression of an abiotic stress-related microRNA (miRNA) regulon controlled by the transcription factor SPL7 requires HSP40 farnesylation. Expression of a truncated SPL7 form mimicking its activated proteolysis fragment of the membrane-bound SPL7 precursor partially restores accumulation of SPL7-dependent miRNAs in farnesyl transferase mutants. These results implicate the pathway directing SPL7 activation from its membrane-bound precursor as an important target of farnesylated HSP40, consistent with our demonstration that HSP40 farnesylation facilitates its membrane association. The results also suggest that altered gene regulation via select miRNAs contributes to abiotic stress-related phenotypes of farnesyl transferase mutants. © 2017 Barghetti et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Modeling of the evolution of bubble size distribution of gas-liquid flow inside a large vertical pipe. Influence of bubble coalescence and breakup models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yixiang; Lucas, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The range of gas-liquid flow applications in today's technology is immensely wide. Important examples can be found in chemical reactors, boiling and condensation equipments as well as nuclear reactors. In gas-liquid flows, the bubble size distribution plays an important role in the phase structure and interfacial exchange behaviors. It is therefore necessary to take into account the dynamic change of the bubble size distribution to get good predictions in CFD. An efficient 1D Multi-Bubble-Size-Class Test Solver was introduced in Lucas et al. (2001) for the simulation of the development of the flow structure along a vertical pipe. The model considers a large number of bubble classes. It solves the radial profiles of liquid and gas velocities, bubble-size class resolved gas fraction profiles as well as turbulence parameters on basis of the bubble size distribution present at the given axial position. The evolution of the flow along the height is assumed to be solely caused by the progress of bubble coalescence and break-up resulting in a bubble size distribution changing in the axial direction. In this model, the bubble coalescence and breakup models are very important for reasonable predictions of the bubble size distribution. Many bubble coalescence and breakup models have been proposed in the literature. However, some obvious discrepancies exist in the models; for example, the daughter bubble size distributions are greatly different from different bubble breakup models, as reviewed in our previous publication (Liao and Lucas, 2009a; 2010). Therefore, it is necessary to compare and evaluate typical bubble coalescence and breakup models that have been commonly used in the literature. Thus, this work is aimed to make a comparison of several typical bubble coalescence and breakup models and to discuss in detail the ability of the Test Solver to predict the evolution of bubble size distribution. (orig.)

  4. Increasing on-target cleavage efficiency for CRISPR/Cas9-induced large fragment deletion in Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Jie; Wang, Ye; Li, Zhi-Feng; Gong, Ya; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Wen-Chao; Sheng, Duo-Hong; Li, Yue-Zhong

    2017-08-16

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome editing, in which the sgRNA binds and guides the Cas9 protein for the sequence-specific cleavage. The protocol is employable in different organisms, but is often limited by cell damage due to the endonuclease activity of the introduced Cas9 and the potential off-target DNA cleavage from incorrect guide by the 20 nt spacer. In this study, after resolving some critical limits, we have established an efficient CRISPR/Cas9 system for the deletion of large genome fragments related to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in Myxococcus xanthus cells. We revealed that the high expression of a codon-optimized cas9 gene in M. xanthus was cytotoxic, and developed a temporally high expression strategy to reduce the cell damage from high expressions of Cas9. We optimized the deletion protocol by using the tRNA-sgRNA-tRNA chimeric structure to ensure correct sgRNA sequence. We found that, in addition to the position-dependent nucleotide preference, the free energy of a 20 nt spacer was a key factor for the deletion efficiency. By using the developed protocol, we achieved the CRISPR/Cas9-induced deletion of large biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites in M. xanthus DK1622 and its epothilone-producing mutant. The findings and the proposals described in this paper were suggested to be workable in other organisms, for example, other Gram negative bacteria with high GC content.

  5. Does Decision Quality (Always) Increase with the Size of Information Samples? Some Vicissitudes in Applying the Law of Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Klaus; Kareev, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive decision making requires that contingencies between decision options and their relative assets be assessed accurately and quickly. The present research addresses the challenging notion that contingencies may be more visible from small than from large samples of observations. An algorithmic account for such a seemingly paradoxical effect…

  6. Studies on the welding of heavy-section ASTM A542 Cl. 1 steel for large-sized pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shigeki; Aota, Toshiichi; Kasahara, Masayuki

    1977-01-01

    ASTM A 542, Cl. 1 steel was developed and standardized recently, and is excellent in the high temperature strength and toughness as compared with conventionally used A 387, Grade 22 steel, accordingly the application to large pressure vessels is planned. This steel is a low alloy steel, and in case of large thickness, the possibility of cracking in the welded part is large. Also many times of annealing are required for the prevention of welding cracking, the relieving of residual stress, and the softening of hardened portion, but the possibility of cracking during stress-relieving annealing is large. In this study, Tekken type cracking test was carried out by coated electrode welding, and restricted cracking test was carried out by submerged arc welding of the A 542, Cl. 1 steel and A 387, Grade 22 steel, thus the welding cracking property was investigated, and the optimal welding conditions were selected. Also the test of cracking during the stress-relieving annealing of both steels was carried out, and the method of preventing the cracking was studied. The optimal conditions of stress-relieving annealing were selected, and the mechanism of the cracking was clarified. The mechanical properties of the joints welded and stress-relieved under the selected conditions were confirmed. (Kako, I.)

  7. Electrochemical machining of internal built-up surfaces of large-sized vessels for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryabchenko, N N; Pulin, V Ya [Vsesoyuznyj Proektno-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. Atomnogo Mashinostroeniya i Kotlostroeniya, Rostov-na-Donu (USSR)

    1977-01-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) has been employed for finishing of mechanically processed inner surfaces of large lateral parts of construction bodies with welded 0Kh18N10T steel overlayer. The finishing technology developed reduces the surface roughness from 10 mcm to the standard 2.5 mcm at the efficiency of machining of 2-4 m/sup 2/ per hour.

  8. Structure and properties of large-sized forged disk of alloy type KhN73MBTYu-VD(EhI 698-VD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakov, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    Investigation results are presented for structure and mechanical properties of serial large-sized forged disk 1100 mm in diameter produced of alloy type EhI 9698-VD hand tested after standard heat treatment and isothermal ageing at operating temperature. Chemical composition studies have revealed no macroheterogeneity. In a central cross-section macrostructure is free of pores, inclusions, delaminating and variation in grain size. The metal of the disk possesses high values of long-term rupture strength and creep resistance at 650-700 deg C

  9. Fast analysis of wide-band scattering from electrically large targets with time-domain parabolic equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zi; Chen, Ru-Shan

    2016-03-01

    An efficient three-dimensional time domain parabolic equation (TDPE) method is proposed to fast analyze the narrow-angle wideband EM scattering properties of electrically large targets. The finite difference (FD) of Crank-Nicolson (CN) scheme is used as the traditional tool to solve the time-domain parabolic equation. However, a huge computational resource is required when the meshes become dense. Therefore, the alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme is introduced to discretize the time-domain parabolic equation. In this way, the reduced transient scattered fields can be calculated line by line in each transverse plane for any time step with unconditional stability. As a result, less computational resources are required for the proposed ADI-based TDPE method when compared with both the traditional CN-based TDPE method and the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method. By employing the rotating TDPE method, the complete bistatic RCS can be obtained with encouraging accuracy for any observed angle. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  10. Impact of high energy high intensity proton beams on targets: Case studies for Super Proton Synchrotron and Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir, N A; Shutov, A; Schmidt, R; Piriz, A R

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide two proton beams with unprecedented particle energy of 7 TeV. Each beam comprises 2808 bunches and the separation between two neighboring bunches is 25 ns. The energy stored in each beam is 362 MJ, sufficient to melt 500 kg copper. Safety of operation is very important when working with such powerful beams. An accidental release of even a very small fraction of the beam energy can result in severe damage to the equipment. The machine protection system is essential to handle all types of possible accidental hazards; however, it is important to know about possible consequences of failures. One of the critical failure scenarios is when the entire beam is lost at a single point. In this paper we present detailed numerical simulations of the full impact of one LHC beam on a cylindrical solid carbon target. First, the energy deposition by the protons is calculated with the FLUKA code and this energy deposition is used in the BIG2 code to study the corresponding...

  11. Monte Carlo calculated microdosimetric spread for cell nucleus-sized targets exposed to brachytherapy 125I and 192Ir sources and 60Co cell irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Fernanda; Tilly, Nina; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2013-09-07

    The stochastic nature of ionizing radiation interactions causes a microdosimetric spread in energy depositions for cell or cell nucleus-sized volumes. The magnitude of the spread may be a confounding factor in dose response analysis. The aim of this work is to give values for the microdosimetric spread for a range of doses imparted by (125)I and (192)Ir brachytherapy radionuclides, and for a (60)Co source. An upgraded version of the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE was used to obtain frequency distributions of specific energy for each of these radiation qualities and for four different cell nucleus-sized volumes. The results demonstrate that the magnitude of the microdosimetric spread increases when the target size decreases or when the energy of the radiation quality is reduced. Frequency distributions calculated according to the formalism of Kellerer and Chmelevsky using full convolution of the Monte Carlo calculated single track frequency distributions confirm that at doses exceeding 0.08 Gy for (125)I, 0.1 Gy for (192)Ir, and 0.2 Gy for (60)Co, the resulting distribution can be accurately approximated with a normal distribution. A parameterization of the width of the distribution as a function of dose and target volume of interest is presented as a convenient form for the use in response modelling or similar contexts.

  12. MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL IN PLANTS OF MEXICO; A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZE PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Monge; Jesús Cruz

    2015-01-01

    A random and statistically significant sample of 40 medium (12) and large (28) manufacturing plants of Apodaca, Mexico were surveyed using a structured and validated questionnaire to investigate the level of implementation of lean manufacturing, sustainable manufacturing, continuous improvement and operational efficiency and environmental responsibility in them, it is important to mention it was found that performance in the mentioned philosophies, on the two categories of plants is low, howe...

  13. Fabrication of epoxy composites with large-pore sized mesoporous silica and investigation of their thermal expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Norihiro; Kiba, Shosuke; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2012-02-01

    We fabricate epoxy composites with low thermal expansion by using mesoporous silica particles with a large pore diameter (around 10 nm) as inorganic fillers. From a simple calculation, almost all the mesopores are estimated to be completely filled with the epoxy polymer. The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CTE) values of the obtained epoxy composites proportionally decrease with the increase of the mesoporous silica content.

  14. Large-Scale Purification of r28M: A Bispecific scFv Antibody Targeting Human Melanoma Produced in Transgenic Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Spiesberger

    Full Text Available 30 years ago, the potential of bispecific antibodies to engage cytotoxic T cells for the lysis of cancer cells was discovered. Today a variety of bispecific antibodies against diverse cell surface structures have been developed, the majority of them produced in mammalian cell culture systems. Beside the r28M, described here, no such bispecific antibody is known to be expressed by transgenic livestock, although various biologicals for medical needs are already harvested-mostly from the milk-of these transgenics. In this study we investigated the large-scale purification and biological activity of the bispecific antibody r28M, expressed in the blood of transgenic cattle. This tandem single-chain variable fragment antibody is designed to target human CD28 and the melanoma/glioblastoma-associated cell surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4.With the described optimized purification protocol an average yield of 30 mg enriched r28M fraction out of 2 liters bovine plasma could be obtained. Separation of this enriched fraction by size exclusion chromatography into monomers, dimers and aggregates and further testing regarding the biological activity revealed the monomer fraction as being the most appropriate one to continue working with. The detailed characterization of the antibody's activity confirmed its high specificity to induce the killing of CSPG4 positive cells. In addition, first insights into tumor cell death pathways mediated by r28M-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were gained. In consideration of possible applications in vivo we also tested the effect of the addition of different excipients to r28M.Summing up, we managed to purify monomeric r28M from bovine plasma in a large-scale preparation and could prove that its biological activity is unaffected and still highly specific and thus, might be applicable for the treatment of melanoma.

  15. Preliminary approach on early post mortem stress and quality indexes changes in large size bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ugolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is very appreciated on Japan and USA market for the preparation of sushi and sahimi. The market price of the fresh product can vary from 8 to 33 Euro/kg (gate farm/producers prices according to size, shape, fat level, meat colour, consistency and freshness (absence of “hyake”, all parameters strictly connected to feeding quality and quantity, rearing and killing stress factors and refrigeration times and conditions after death. Excessive levels of stress during the slaughtering can affect meat quality, contributing to significantly decrease of tuna’s price. The present trial was carried out to evaluate the possible harvesting/slaughtering stress effect on reared bluefin tuna meat quality, starting from the examination of the most important stress and quality parameters changes during the early post mortem period.

  16. Detection and sizing of large-scale cracks in centrifugally cast stainless steel pipes using Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc, T.D.K.; Avioli, M.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Application of conventional ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) pipes in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) has been limited, mainly due to the anisotropy of the CCSS materials. Phenomena such as beam skewing and distortion are directly attributable to this anisotropy and cause severe difficulties in crack detection and sizing. To improve CCSS inspectability, the feasibility of using Lamb waves as the probing mechanism for detecting and characterizing a surface-breaking crack originating from the pipe interior surface is discussed. A similar research effort has been reported by Rokhlin who investigated the interaction of Lamb waves with delaminations in thin sheets. Rokhlin and Adler also reported recently on the use of Lamb waves for evaluating spot welds. The motivation for using this probing mechanism derives from the recognition that the difficulties introduced by beam skewing, beam distortion, and high attenuation are circumvented, since Lamb waves are not bulk waves, but are resonant vibrational modes of a solid plate

  17. Development of the quality control system of the readout electronics for the large size telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Masuda, S.; Paoletti, R.; Poulios, S.; Rugliancich, A.; Saito, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation VHE γ-ray observatory which will improve the currently available sensitivity by a factor of 10 in the range 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The array consists of different types of telescopes, called large size telescope (LST), medium size telescope (MST) and small size telescope (SST). A LST prototype is currently being built and will be installed at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, island of La Palma, Canary islands, Spain. The readout system for the LST prototype has been designed and around 300 readout boards will be produced in the coming months. In this note we describe an automated quality control system able to measure basic performance parameters and quickly identify faulty boards.

  18. Numerical studies of triplet and Russian quadruplet quadrupole lens systems with the given spot size on the target, for use in a microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazhnik, V A; Lebed, S A; Ponomarev, A G; Storizhko, V E [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sumy (Ukraine). Applied Physics Institute; Dymnikov, A D [University of St Petersburg, Stary (Russian Federation). Institute of Computational Mathematics and Control Processes; Jamieson, D N; Legge, S A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1994-12-31

    In a nuclear microprobe the focusing system is an essential component which determines the beam spot size, i.e. the microprobe resolution. A small beam cross section at the target is the most important of the many conflicting requirements imposed on the beam The second most important factor is the current of the beam which at the given brightness is proportional to the phase volume (or emittance) of the beam. Existing microprobes frequently use a triplet or a Russian quadruplet as the focusing systems. This paper describes the numerical studies of some optimal quadrupole lens systems consisting of three or four lenses suitable for use in a nuclear microprobe taking into account geometrical aberrations of third order. The maximum emittance of changed particle beams for these systems has been found. It is shown how the maximum emittance depends on the spot size. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Numerical studies of triplet and Russian quadruplet quadrupole lens systems with the given spot size on the target, for use in a microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazhnik, V.A.; Lebed, S.A.; Ponomarev, A.G.; Storizhko, V.E. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Sumy (Ukraine). Applied Physics Institute; Dymnikov, A.D. [University of St Petersburg, Stary (Russian Federation). Institute of Computational Mathematics and Control Processes; Jamieson, D.N.; Legge, S.A. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    In a nuclear microprobe the focusing system is an essential component which determines the beam spot size, i.e. the microprobe resolution. A small beam cross section at the target is the most important of the many conflicting requirements imposed on the beam The second most important factor is the current of the beam which at the given brightness is proportional to the phase volume (or emittance) of the beam. Existing microprobes frequently use a triplet or a Russian quadruplet as the focusing systems. This paper describes the numerical studies of some optimal quadrupole lens systems consisting of three or four lenses suitable for use in a nuclear microprobe taking into account geometrical aberrations of third order. The maximum emittance of changed particle beams for these systems has been found. It is shown how the maximum emittance depends on the spot size. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Numerical studies of triplet and Russian quadruplet quadrupole lens systems with the given spot size on the target, for use in a microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazhnik, V.A.; Lebed, S.A.; Ponomarev, A.G.; Storizhko, V.E.; Dymnikov, A.D.; Jamieson, D.N.; Legge, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    In a nuclear microprobe the focusing system is an essential component which determines the beam spot size, i.e. the microprobe resolution. A small beam cross section at the target is the most important of the many conflicting requirements imposed on the beam The second most important factor is the current of the beam which at the given brightness is proportional to the phase volume (or emittance) of the beam. Existing microprobes frequently use a triplet or a Russian quadruplet as the focusing systems. This paper describes the numerical studies of some optimal quadrupole lens systems consisting of three or four lenses suitable for use in a nuclear microprobe taking into account geometrical aberrations of third order. The maximum emittance of changed particle beams for these systems has been found. It is shown how the maximum emittance depends on the spot size. 2 refs., 2 figs

  1. Target size dependence of relativistic hadron emission from S-32 nuclear collisions at 3.7-A-GeV and 200-A-GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abdelsalam, A; Hafiz, M E

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of the relativistic hadron (shower particle) multiplicity for (32)S-nucleus interactions is investigated. The experiment is carried out at 3.7A GeV (Dubna energy) and 200A GeV (SPS energy) to search for the incident energy effect on the interactions inside the different emulsion target nuclei. Data are presented in terms of the number of emitted relativistic hadrons in both forward and backward angular zones. The dependence on the target size is presented. For this purpose the statistical events are separated into groups according to the interactions with H, CNO, Em, and AgBr target nuclei. The separation of events, into these groups, is executed based on predictions of Glauber's multiple scattering theory. Features suggestive of a decay mechanism seem to be a characteristic of the backward emission of relativistic hadrons. The results strongly support the assumption that the relativistic hadrons may already be emitted during the de-excitation of the excited target nucleus, in a behavior like tha...

  2. Bayesian inference of genetic parameters on litter size and gestation length in Hungarian Landrace and Hungarian Large White pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Csörnyei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters of number of piglets born alive (NBA and gestation length (GL were analyzed for 39798 Hungarian Landrace (HLA, 141397 records and 70356 Hungarian Large White (HLW, 246961 records sows. Bivariate repeatability animal models were used, applying a Bayesian statistics. Estimated and heritabilitie repeatabilities (within brackets, were low for NBA, 0.07 (0.14 for HLA and 0.08 (0.17 for HLW, but somewhat higher for GL, 0.18 (0.27 for HLA and 0.26 (0.35 for HLW. Estimated genetic correlations between NBA and GL were low, -0.08 for HLA and -0.05 for HLW.

  3. Dynamic correction of the laser beam coordinate in fabrication of large-sized diffractive elements for testing aspherical mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, R. V.; Poleshchuk, A. G.; Korolkov, V. P.; Cherkashin, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a method of improving the accuracy of a circular laser system in fabrication of large-diameter diffractive optical elements by means of a polar coordinate system and the results of their use. An algorithm for correcting positioning errors of a circular laser writing system developed at the Institute of Automation and Electrometry, SB RAS, is proposed and tested. Highprecision synthesized holograms fabricated by this method and the results of using these elements for testing the 6.5 m diameter aspheric mirror of the James Webb space telescope (JWST) are described..

  4. Influence of eye size and beam entry angle on dose to non-targeted tissues of the eye during stereotactic x-ray radiosurgery of AMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantley, Justin L; Bolch, Wesley E; Hanlon, Justin; Chell, Erik; Lee, Choonsik; Smith, W Clay

    2013-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of vision loss for the elderly population of industrialized nations. The IRay® Radiotherapy System, developed by Oraya® Therapeutics, Inc., is a stereotactic low-voltage irradiation system designed to treat the wet form of the disease. The IRay System uses three robotically positioned 100 kVp collimated photon beams to deliver an absorbed dose of up to 24 Gy to the macula. The present study uses the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX to assess absorbed dose to six non-targeted tissues within the eye—total lens, radiosensitive tissues of the lens, optic nerve, distal tip of the central retinal artery, non-targeted portion of the retina, and the ciliary body-–all as a function of eye size and beam entry angle. The ocular axial length was ranged from 20 to 28 mm in 2 mm increments, with the polar entry angle of the delivery system varied from 18° to 34° in 2° increments. The resulting data showed insignificant variations in dose for all eye sizes. Slight variations in the dose to the optic nerve and the distal tip of the central retinal artery were noted as the polar beam angle changed. An increase in non-targeted retinal dose was noted as the entry angle increased, while the dose to the lens, sensitive volume of the lens, and ciliary body decreased as the treatment polar angle increased. Polar angles of 26° or greater resulted in no portion of the sensitive volume of the lens receiving an absorbed dose of 0.5 Gy or greater. All doses to non-targeted structures reported in this study were less than accepted thresholds for post-procedure complications. (paper)

  5. Influence of eye size and beam entry angle on dose to non-targeted tissues of the eye during stereotactic x-ray radiosurgery of AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Justin L.; Hanlon, Justin; Chell, Erik; Lee, Choonsik; Smith, W. Clay; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of vision loss for the elderly population of industrialized nations. The IRay® Radiotherapy System, developed by Oraya® Therapeutics, Inc., is a stereotactic low-voltage irradiation system designed to treat the wet form of the disease. The IRay System uses three robotically positioned 100 kVp collimated photon beams to deliver an absorbed dose of up to 24 Gy to the macula. The present study uses the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX to assess absorbed dose to six non-targeted tissues within the eye—total lens, radiosensitive tissues of the lens, optic nerve, distal tip of the central retinal artery, non-targeted portion of the retina, and the ciliary body--all as a function of eye size and beam entry angle. The ocular axial length was ranged from 20 to 28 mm in 2 mm increments, with the polar entry angle of the delivery system varied from 18° to 34° in 2° increments. The resulting data showed insignificant variations in dose for all eye sizes. Slight variations in the dose to the optic nerve and the distal tip of the central retinal artery were noted as the polar beam angle changed. An increase in non-targeted retinal dose was noted as the entry angle increased, while the dose to the lens, sensitive volume of the lens, and ciliary body decreased as the treatment polar angle increased. Polar angles of 26° or greater resulted in no portion of the sensitive volume of the lens receiving an absorbed dose of 0.5 Gy or greater. All doses to non-targeted structures reported in this study were less than accepted thresholds for post-procedure complications.

  6. Large breast size as a risk factor for late adverse effects of breast radiotherapy: Is residual dose inhomogeneity, despite 3D treatment planning and delivery, the main explanation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, Christy; Haviland, Joanne; Tsang, Yat; Sydenham, Mark; Yarnold, John

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Large breast size is associated with an increased risk of late adverse effects after breast conservation surgery and radiotherapy, even when 3D dosimetry is used. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that residual dose inhomogeneity is sufficient to explain the association. Methods: Patients previously treated after breast conservation surgery with whole breast radiotherapy using 3D dosimetry and followed up in the UK FAST hypofractionation trial were selected for this analysis. The residual level of dose inhomogeneity across the whole breast treatment volume was used to test for association between residual dosimetry and post-treatment change in breast appearance at 2 years post-radiotherapy. Results: At 2 years, 201/279 (72%) of women had no change in photographic breast appearance, 61 (22%) had mild change and 17 (6%) had marked change. Breast size and dosimetry were both significantly associated with late effects in univariate analyses, but only breast size remained an independent significant risk factor for change in breast appearance when included in a multiple regression model together with other prognostic factors (p = 0.006 for trend). Conclusion: Large-breasted women are more likely to suffer change in breast size and shape after whole breast radiotherapy delivered using 3D dosimetry, but residual dose inhomogeneity is insufficient to explain the association.

  7. Technology of CCS coal utilization (outline of large-size demonstration test for CCS); CCS tan riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, K [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Hironaka, H [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The coal cartridge system (CCS) is a series of the total system, in which coal is processed centrally at a supply base for each unit of consumer areas, supplied as pulverized coal in bulk units, and coal ash after combustion is recovered and treated. The system is expected of advantages resulted from the centralized production, elimination of handling troubles, and cleanliness. Following a small scale demonstration test, a large demonstration test for practically usable scale has begun in 1990, and completed in fiscal 1995. This paper introduces the CCS and reports the result of the test. In the large demonstration test, a supply station (with manufacturing capability of 200,000 tons a year) was installed in the Aichi refinery of Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., and systematization on quality design and system technologies has been carried out. Long-term continuous operation for five years was achieved (operation time of the supply facilities was about 19,000 hours) without a failure and accident, to which every elemental technology was evaluated highly, and convenience and reliability of the system was verified. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Structural evolution of Ti destroyable interlayer in large-size diamond film deposition by DC arc plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianchao; Li, Chengming; Liu, Jinlong; Wei, Junjun; Chen, Liangxian; Hua, Chenyi; Yan, Xiongbo

    2016-05-01

    The addition of titanium (Ti) interlayer was verified to reduce the residual stress of diamond films by self-fracturing and facilitate the harvest of a crack-free free-standing diamond film prepared by direct current (DC) arc plasma jet. In this study, the evolution of the Ti interlayer between large-area diamond film and substrate was studied and modeled in detail. The evolution of the interlayer was found to be relevant to the distribution of the DC arc plasma, which can be divided into three areas (arc center, arc main, and arc edge). The formation rate of titanium carbide (TiC) in the arc main was faster than in the other two areas and resulted in the preferred generation of crack in the diamond film in the arc main during cooling. Sandwich structures were formed along with the growth of TiC until the complete transformation of the Ti interlayer. The interlayer released stress via self-fracture. Avoiding uneven fragile regions that formed locally in the interlayer and achieving cooperatively released stress are crucial for the preparation of large crack-free diamond films.

  9. γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} by sol–gel with large nanoparticles size for magnetic hyperthermia application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemine, O.M., E-mail: leminej@yahoo.com [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Omri, K. [Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Faculty of Sciences in Gabes, Gabes (Tunisia); Iglesias, M.; Velasco, V. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC (Spain); Crespo, P.; Presa, P. de la [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-ADIF-CSIC (Spain); Dpto. Física de Materiales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); El Mir, L. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Laboratory of Physics of Materials and Nanomaterials Applied at Environment (LaPhyMNE), Faculty of Sciences in Gabes, Gabes (Tunisia); Bouzid, Houcine [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Laboratoire des Matériaux Ferroélectriques, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Route Soukra Km 3 5, B.P. 802, F-3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Yousif, A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Code 123, Al Khoud (Oman); Al-Hajry, Ali [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Iron oxides nanoparticles with different sizes are successfully synthesized using sol–gel method. • The obtained nanoparticles are mainly composed of maghemite phase (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). • A non-negligible coercive field suggests that the particles are ferromagnetic. • A mean heating efficiency of 30 W/g is obtained for the smallest particles at 110 kHz and 190 Oe. - Abstract: Iron oxides nanoparticles with different sizes are successfully synthesized using sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy show that the obtained nanoparticles are mainly composed of maghemite phase (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results suggest that the nanoparticles have sizes ranging from 14 to 30 nm, which are indeed confirmed by large magnetic saturation and high blocking temperature. At room temperature, the observation of a non-negligible coercive field suggests that the particles are ferro/ferrimagnetic. The specific absorption rate (SAR) under an alternating magnetic field is investigated as a function of size, frequency and amplitude of the applied magnetic field. A mean heating efficiency of 30 W/g is obtained for the smallest particles at 110 kHz and 190 Oe, whereas further increase of particle size does not improve significantly the heating efficiency.

  10. Signal Formation Processes in Micromegas Detectors and Quality Control for large size Detector Construction for the ATLAS New Small Wheel

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00387450; Rembser, Christoph

    2017-08-04

    The Micromegas technology is one of the most successful modern gaseous detector concepts and widely utilized in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Twenty years of R & D rendered the technology sufficiently mature to be selected as precision tracking detector for the New Small Wheel (NSW) upgrade of the ATLAS Muon spectrometer. This will be the first large scale application of Micromegas in one of the major LHC experiments. However, many of the fundamental microscopic processes in these gaseous detectors are still not fully understood and studies on several detector aspects, like the micromesh geometry, have never been addressed systematically. The studies on signal formation in Micromegas, presented in the first part of this thesis, focuses on the microscopic signal electron loss mechanisms and the amplification processes in electron gas interaction. Based on a detailed model of detector parameter dependencies, these processes are scrutinized in an iterating comparison between exper- imental result...

  11. Genome wide analysis of drug-induced torsades de pointes: lack of common variants with large effect sizes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah R Behr

    Full Text Available Marked prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram associated with the polymorphic ventricular tachycardia Torsades de Pointes is a serious adverse event during treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs and other culprit medications, and is a common cause for drug relabeling and withdrawal. Although clinical risk factors have been identified, the syndrome remains unpredictable in an individual patient. Here we used genome-wide association analysis to search for common predisposing genetic variants. Cases of drug-induced Torsades de Pointes (diTdP, treatment tolerant controls, and general population controls were ascertained across multiple sites using common definitions, and genotyped on the Illumina 610k or 1M-Duo BeadChips. Principal Components Analysis was used to select 216 Northwestern European diTdP cases and 771 ancestry-matched controls, including treatment-tolerant and general population subjects. With these sample sizes, there is 80% power to detect a variant at genome-wide significance with minor allele frequency of 10% and conferring an odds ratio of ≥2.7. Tests of association were carried out for each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP by logistic regression adjusting for gender and population structure. No SNP reached genome wide-significance; the variant with the lowest P value was rs2276314, a non-synonymous coding variant in C18orf21 (p  =  3×10(-7, odds ratio = 2, 95% confidence intervals: 1.5-2.6. The haplotype formed by rs2276314 and a second SNP, rs767531, was significantly more frequent in controls than cases (p  =  3×10(-9. Expanding the number of controls and a gene-based analysis did not yield significant associations. This study argues that common genomic variants do not contribute importantly to risk for drug-induced Torsades de Pointes across multiple drugs.

  12. Effect of high-pressure homogenization preparation on mean globule size and large-diameter tail of oil-in-water injectable emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Dong, Wu-Jun; Li, Ling; Xu, Jia-Ming; Jin, Du-Jia; Xia, Xue-Jun; Liu, Yu-Ling

    2015-12-01

    The effect of different high pressure homogenization energy input parameters on mean diameter droplet size (MDS) and droplets with > 5 μm of lipid injectable emulsions were evaluated. All emulsions were prepared at different water bath temperatures or at different rotation speeds and rotor-stator system times, and using different homogenization pressures and numbers of high-pressure system recirculations. The MDS and polydispersity index (PI) value of the emulsions were determined using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, and large-diameter tail assessments were performed using the light-obscuration/single particle optical sensing (LO/SPOS) method. Using 1000 bar homogenization pressure and seven recirculations, the energy input parameters related to the rotor-stator system will not have an effect on the final particle size results. When rotor-stator system energy input parameters are fixed, homogenization pressure and recirculation will affect mean particle size and large diameter droplet. Particle size will decrease with increasing homogenization pressure from 400 bar to 1300 bar when homogenization recirculation is fixed; when the homogenization pressure is fixed at 1000 bar, the particle size of both MDS and percent of fat droplets exceeding 5 μm (PFAT 5 ) will decrease with increasing homogenization recirculations, MDS dropped to 173 nm after five cycles and maintained this level, volume-weighted PFAT 5 will drop to 0.038% after three cycles, so the "plateau" of MDS will come up later than that of PFAT 5 , and the optimal particle size is produced when both of them remained at plateau. Excess homogenization recirculation such as nine times under the 1000 bar may lead to PFAT 5 increase to 0.060% rather than a decrease; therefore, the high-pressure homogenization procedure is the key factor affecting the particle size distribution of emulsions. Varying storage conditions (4-25°C) also influenced particle size, especially the PFAT 5 . Copyright

  13. Study on the temperature gradient evolution of large size nonlinear crystal based on the fluid-solid coupling theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F. Z.; Zhang, P.; Liang, Y. C.; Lu, L. H.

    2014-09-01

    In the non-critical phase-matching (NCPM) along the Θ =90° direction, ADP and DKDP crystals which have many advantages, including a large effective nonlinear optical coefficient, a small PM angular sensitivity and non beam walk-off, at the non-critical phase-matching become the competitive candidates in the inertial confinement fusion(ICF) facility, so the reasonable temperature control of crystals has become more and more important .In this paper, the fluid-solid coupling models of ADP crystal and DKDP crystal which both have anisotropic thermal conductivity in the states of vacuum and non-vacuum were established firstly, and then simulated using the fluid analysis software Fluent. The results through the analysis show that the crystal surface temperature distribution is a ring shape, the temperature gradients in the direction of the optical axis both the crystals are 0.02°C and 0.01°C due to the air, the lowest temperature points of the crystals are both at the center of surface, and the temperatures are lower than 0.09°C and 0.05°C compared in the vacuum and non-vacuum environment, then propose two designs for heating apparatus.

  14. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae in the Brazilian Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leuchtenberger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland. We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1 considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2 through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  15. Activity pattern of medium and large sized mammals and density estimates of Cuniculus paca (Rodentia: Cuniculidae) in the Brazilian Pampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchtenberger, C; de Oliveira, Ê S; Cariolatto, L P; Kasper, C B

    2018-02-22

    Between July 2014 and April 2015, we conducted weekly inventories of the circadian activity patterns of mammals in Passo Novo locality, municipality of Alegrete, southern Brazil. The vegetation is comprised by a grassy-woody steppe (grassland). We used two camera traps alternately located on one of four 1 km transects, each separated by 1 km. We classified the activity pattern of species by the percentage of photographic records taken in each daily period. We identify Cuniculus paca individuals by differences in the patterns of flank spots. We then estimate the density 1) considering the area of riparian forest present in the sampling area, and 2) through capture/recapture analysis. Cuniculus paca, Conepatus chinga and Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris were nocturnal, Cerdocyon thous had a crepuscular/nocturnal pattern, while Mazama gouazoubira was cathemeral. The patterns of circadian activity observed for medium and large mammals in this Pampa region (southern grasslands) may reflect not only evolutionary, biological and ecological affects, but also human impacts not assessed in this study. We identified ten individuals of C. paca through skin spot patterns during the study period, which were recorded in different transects and months. The minimum population density of C. paca was 3.5 individuals per km2 (resident animals only) and the total density estimates varied from 7.1 to 11.8 individuals per km2, when considering all individuals recorded or the result of the capture/recapture analysis, respectively.

  16. Towards large size substrates for III-V co-integration made by direct wafer bonding on Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Daix

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the first demonstration of 200 mm InGaAs-on-insulator (InGaAs-o-I fabricated by the direct wafer bonding technique with a donor wafer made of III-V heteroepitaxial structure grown on 200 mm silicon wafer. The measured threading dislocation density of the In0.53Ga0.47As (InGaAs active layer is equal to 3.5 × 109 cm−2, and it does not degrade after the bonding and the layer transfer steps. The surface roughness of the InGaAs layer can be improved by chemical-mechanical-polishing step, reaching values as low as 0.4 nm root-mean-square. The electron Hall mobility in 450 nm thick InGaAs-o-I layer reaches values of up to 6000 cm2/Vs, and working pseudo-MOS transistors are demonstrated with an extracted electron mobility in the range of 2000–3000 cm2/Vs. Finally, the fabrication of an InGaAs-o-I substrate with the active layer as thin as 90 nm is achieved with a Buried Oxide of 50 nm. These results open the way to very large scale production of III-V-o-I advanced substrates for future CMOS technology nodes.

  17. Towards large size substrates for III-V co-integration made by direct wafer bonding on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daix, N., E-mail: dai@zurich.ibm.com; Uccelli, E.; Czornomaz, L.; Caimi, D.; Rossel, C.; Sousa, M.; Siegwart, H.; Marchiori, C.; Fompeyrine, J. [IBM Research - Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Hartmann, J. M. [CEA, LETI 17, rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Shiu, K.-T.; Cheng, C.-W.; Krishnan, M.; Lofaro, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Sadana, D. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Rd., Route 134 Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We report the first demonstration of 200 mm InGaAs-on-insulator (InGaAs-o-I) fabricated by the direct wafer bonding technique with a donor wafer made of III-V heteroepitaxial structure grown on 200 mm silicon wafer. The measured threading dislocation density of the In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (InGaAs) active layer is equal to 3.5 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}, and it does not degrade after the bonding and the layer transfer steps. The surface roughness of the InGaAs layer can be improved by chemical-mechanical-polishing step, reaching values as low as 0.4 nm root-mean-square. The electron Hall mobility in 450 nm thick InGaAs-o-I layer reaches values of up to 6000 cm{sup 2}/Vs, and working pseudo-MOS transistors are demonstrated with an extracted electron mobility in the range of 2000–3000 cm{sup 2}/Vs. Finally, the fabrication of an InGaAs-o-I substrate with the active layer as thin as 90 nm is achieved with a Buried Oxide of 50 nm. These results open the way to very large scale production of III-V-o-I advanced substrates for future CMOS technology nodes.

  18. Towards large size substrates for III-V co-integration made by direct wafer bonding on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daix, N.; Uccelli, E.; Czornomaz, L.; Caimi, D.; Rossel, C.; Sousa, M.; Siegwart, H.; Marchiori, C.; Hartmann, J. M.; Shiu, K.-T.; Cheng, C.-W.; Krishnan, M.; Lofaro, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Sadana, D.; Fompeyrine, J.

    2014-08-01

    We report the first demonstration of 200 mm InGaAs-on-insulator (InGaAs-o-I) fabricated by the direct wafer bonding technique with a donor wafer made of III-V heteroepitaxial structure grown on 200 mm silicon wafer. The measured threading dislocation density of the In0.53Ga0.47As (InGaAs) active layer is equal to 3.5 × 109 cm-2, and it does not degrade after the bonding and the layer transfer steps. The surface roughness of the InGaAs layer can be improved by chemical-mechanical-polishing step, reaching values as low as 0.4 nm root-mean-square. The electron Hall mobility in 450 nm thick InGaAs-o-I layer reaches values of up to 6000 cm2/Vs, and working pseudo-MOS transistors are demonstrated with an extracted electron mobility in the range of 2000-3000 cm2/Vs. Finally, the fabrication of an InGaAs-o-I substrate with the active layer as thin as 90 nm is achieved with a Buried Oxide of 50 nm. These results open the way to very large scale production of III-V-o-I advanced substrates for future CMOS technology nodes.

  19. Long-term clinical evaluation of a 800-nm long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction for hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimi, Omar A; Kilmer, Suzanne L

    2012-06-01

    The long-pulsed diode (800-810-nm) laser is one of the most commonly used and effective lasers for hair removal. Limitations of currently available devices include a small treatment spot size, treatment-associated pain, and the need for skin cooling. To evaluate the long-term hair reduction capabilities of a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum assisted suction. Thirty-five subjects were enrolled in a prospective, self-controlled, single-center study of axillary hair removal. The study consisted of three treatments using a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction at 4- to 6-week intervals with follow-up visits 6 and 15 months after the last treatment. Hair clearance was quantified using macro hair-count photographs taken at baseline and at 6- and 15-month follow-up visits. Changes in hair thickness and color, levels of treatment-associated pain, and adverse events were additional study endpoints. There was statistically significant hair clearance at the 6 (54%) and 15-month (42%) follow-up visits. Remaining hairs were thinner and lighter at the 15-month follow-up visit, and the majority of subjects reported feeling up to mild to moderate pain during treatment without the use of pretreatment anesthesia or skin cooling. A long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction is safe and effective for long-term hair removal. This is the largest prospective study to evaluate long-term hair removal and the first to quantify decreases in hair thickness and darkness with treatment. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Small vs. large dust grains in transitional disks: do different cavity sizes indicate a planet?. SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) in polarized light with VLT/NACO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garufi, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Avenhaus, H.; Buenzli, E.; Dominik, C.; Meru, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Pinilla, P.; Schmid, H. M.; Wolf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Transitional disks represent a short stage of the evolution of circumstellar material. Studies of dust grains in these objects can provide pivotal information on the mechanisms of planet formation. Dissimilarities in the spatial distribution of small (μm-size) and large (mm-size) dust grains have recently been pointed out. Aims: Constraints on the small dust grains can be obtained by imaging the distribution of scattered light at near-infrared wavelengths. We aim at resolving structures in the surface layer of transitional disks (with particular emphasis on the inner 10-50 AU), thus increasing the scarce sample of high-resolution images of these objects. Methods: We obtained VLT/NACO near-IR high-resolution polarimetric differential imaging observations of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). This technique allows one to image the polarized scattered light from the disk without any occulting mask and to reach an inner working angle of ~0.1″. Results: A face-on disk is detected in H and Ks bands between 0.1″ and 0.9″. No significant differences are seen between the H and Ks images. In addition to the spiral arms, these new data allow us to resolve for the first time an inner disk cavity for small dust grains. The cavity size (≃28 AU) is much smaller than what is inferred for large dust grains from (sub-)mm observations (39 to 50 AU). This discrepancy cannot be ascribed to any resolution effect. Conclusions: The interaction between the disk and potential orbiting companion(s) can explain both the spiral arm structure and the discrepant cavity sizes for small and large dust grains. One planet may be carving out the gas (and, thus, the small grains) at 28 AU, and generating a pressure bump at larger radii (39 AU), which holds back the large grains. We analytically estimate that, in this scenario, a single giant planet (with a mass between 5 and 15 MJ) at 17 to 20 AU from the star is consistent with the observed cavity sizes. Based on observations collected at the

  1. Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 is a therapeutic target in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Chao Chang

    Full Text Available Lymphoma-specific biomarkers contribute to therapeutic strategies and the study of tumorigenesis. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common type of malignant lymphoma. However, only 50% of patients experience long-term survival after current treatment; therefore, developing novel therapeutic strategies is warranted. Comparative proteomic analysis of two DLBCL lines with a B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL showed differential expression of Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 (RanGAP1 between them, which was confirmed using immunoblotting. Immunostaining showed that the majority of DLBCLs (92%, 46/50 were RanGAP1(+, while reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (n = 12 was RanGAP1(+ predominantly in germinal centers. RanGAP1 was also highly expressed in other B-cell lymphomas (BCL, n = 180 with brisk mitotic activity (B-lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia: 93%, and Burkitt lymphoma: 95% or cell-cycle dysregulation (mantle cell lymphoma: 83%, and Hodgkin's lymphoma 91%. Interestingly, serum RanGAP1 level was higher in patients with high-grade BCL (1.71 ± 2.28 ng/mL, n = 62 than in low-grade BCL (0.75 ± 2.12 ng/mL, n = 52 and healthy controls (0.55 ± 1.58 ng/mL, n = 75 (high-grade BCL vs. low-grade BCL, p = 0.002; high-grade BCL vs. control, p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test. In vitro, RNA interference of RanGAP1 showed no effect on LCL but enhanced DLBCL cell death (41% vs. 60%; p = 0.035 and cell-cycle arrest (G0/G1: 39% vs. 49%, G2/M: 19.0% vs. 7.5%; p = 0.030 along with decreased expression of TPX2 and Aurora kinases, the central regulators of mitotic cell division. Furthermore, ON 01910.Na (Estybon, a multikinase inhibitor induced cell death, mitotic cell arrest, and hyperphosphorylation of RanGAP1 in DLBCL cell lines but no effects in normal B and T cells. Therefore, RanGAP1 is a promising marker and therapeutic target for aggressive B-cell lymphoma, especially DLBCL.

  2. Texture-Based Differences in Eating Rate Reduce the Impact of Increased Energy Density and Large Portions on Meal Size in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, Keri; Lim, Charlotte Mh; Leong, Claudia; Chia, Edwin M; Forde, Ciaran G

    2017-06-01

    Background: Large portions and high dietary energy density promote overconsumption at meal times. This could be reduced by eating slowly. Objective: Two studies investigated whether texture-based reductions in eating rate and oral processing moderate consumption at breakfast in combination with variations in energy density and portion size. Methods: Adults attended 4 breakfast sessions (2 × 2 repeated-measures design) to consume rice porridge, combining a 45% reduction in eating rate [thin porridge (140 g/min) compared with thick porridge (77 g/min)] with a 77% increase in energy density (0.57 compared with 1.01 kcal/g) in study 1 [ n = 61; aged 21-48 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 16-29] and a 50% increase in portion size (100% compared with 150%) in study 2 ( n = 53; aged 21-42 y; BMI: 16-29). Oral processing behaviors were coded by using webcams. Porridge intake was measured alongside changes in rated appetite. Results: Increases in energy density and portion size led to increases of 80% and 13% in energy intake at breakfast, respectively ( P portion size increased the weight of food consumed (13%). The thicker porridges were consumed at a slower rate and led to 11-13% reductions in food weight and energy intake compared with the thin versions ( P portion ( P portions, and natural variations in food texture to design meals that promote reductions in energy intake while maintaining satiety. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Targeted Enrichment of Large Gene Families for Phylogenetic Inference: Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution of Photosynthesis Genes in the Portullugo Clade (Caryophyllales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Abigail J; Vos, Jurriaan M De; Hancock, Lillian P; Goolsby, Eric; Edwards, Erika J

    2018-05-01

    Hybrid enrichment is an increasingly popular approach for obtaining hundreds of loci for phylogenetic analysis across many taxa quickly and cheaply. The genes targeted for sequencing are typically single-copy loci, which facilitate a more straightforward sequence assembly and homology assignment process. However, this approach limits the inclusion of most genes of functional interest, which often belong to multi-gene families. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of including large gene families in hybrid enrichment protocols for phylogeny reconstruction and subsequent analyses of molecular evolution, using a new set of bait sequences designed for the "portullugo" (Caryophyllales), a moderately sized lineage of flowering plants (~ 2200 species) that includes the cacti and harbors many evolutionary transitions to C$_{\\mathrm{4}}$ and CAM photosynthesis. Including multi-gene families allowed us to simultaneously infer a robust phylogeny and construct a dense sampling of sequences for a major enzyme of C$_{\\mathrm{4}}$ and CAM photosynthesis, which revealed the accumulation of adaptive amino acid substitutions associated with C$_{\\mathrm{4}}$ and CAM origins in particular paralogs. Our final set of matrices for phylogenetic analyses included 75-218 loci across 74 taxa, with ~ 50% matrix completeness across data sets. Phylogenetic resolution was greatly improved across the tree, at both shallow and deep levels. Concatenation and coalescent-based approaches both resolve the sister lineage of the cacti with strong support: Anacampserotaceae $+$ Portulacaceae, two lineages of mostly diminutive succulent herbs of warm, arid regions. In spite of this congruence, BUCKy concordance analyses demonstrated strong and conflicting signals across gene trees. Our results add to the growing number of examples illustrating the complexity of phylogenetic signals in genomic-scale data.

  4. Optical and thermal performance of large-size parabolic-trough solar collectors from outdoor experiments: A test method and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Loreto; López-Martín, Rafael; Zarza, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an outdoor test method to evaluate the optical and thermal performance of parabolic-trough collectors of large size (length ≥ 100 m), similar to those currently installed in solar thermal power plants. Optical performance in line-focus collectors is defined by three parameters, peak-optical efficiency and longitudinal and transversal incidence angle modifiers. In parabolic-troughs, the transversal incidence angle modifier is usually assumed equal to 1, and the incidence angle modifier is referred to the longitudinal incidence angle modifier, which is a factor less than or equal to 1 and must be quantified. These measurements are performed by operating the collector at low fluid temperatures for reducing heat losses. Thermal performance is measured during tests at various operating temperatures, which are defined within the working temperature range of the solar field, and for the condition of maximum optical response. Heat losses are measured from both the experiments performed to measure the overall efficiency and the experiments done by operating the collector to ensure that absorber pipes are not exposed to concentrated solar radiation. The set of parameters describing the performance of a parabolic-trough collector of large size has been measured following the test procedures proposed and explained in the article. - Highlights: • Outdoor test procedures of parabolic-trough solar collector (PTC) of large size working at high temperature are described. • Optical performance measured with cold fluid temperature and thermal performance measured in the complete temperature range. • Experimental data obtained in the testing of a PTC prototype are explained

  5. Portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cards One 3-ounce (84 grams) serving of fish is a checkbook One-half cup (40 grams) ... for the smallest size. By eating a small hamburger instead of a large, you will save about 150 calories. ...

  6. Evidence for density-dependent changes in growth, downstream movement, and size of Chinook salmon subyearlings in a large-river landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, William P.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Plumb, John M.; Moffit, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the growth rate, downstream movement, and size of naturally produced fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha subyearlings (age 0) for 20 years in an 8th-order river landscape with regulated riverine upstream rearing areas and an impounded downstream migration corridor. The population transitioned from low to high abundance in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act and other federally mandated recovery efforts. The mean growth rate of parr in the river did not decline with increasing abundance, but during the period of higher abundance the timing of dispersal from riverine habitat into the reservoir averaged 17 d earlier and the average size at the time of downstream dispersal was smaller by 10 mm and 1.8 g. Changes in apparent abundance, measured by catch per unit effort, largely explained the time of dispersal, measured by median day of capture, in riverine habitat. The growth rate of smolts in the reservoir declined from an average of 0.6 to 0.2 g/d between the abundance periods because the reduction in size at reservoir entry was accompanied by a tendency to migrate rather than linger and by increasing concentrations of smolts in the reservoir. The median date of passage through the reservoir was 14 d earlier on average, and average smolt size was smaller by 38 mm and 22.0 g, in accordance with density-dependent behavioral changes reflected by decreased smolt growth. Unexpectedly, smolts during the high-abundance period had begun to reexpress the migration timing and size phenotypes observed before the river was impounded, when abundance was relatively high. Our findings provide evidence for density-dependent phenotypic change in a large river that was influenced by the expansion of a recovery program. Thus, this study shows that efforts to recover native fishes can have detectable effects in large-river landscapes. The outcome of such phenotypic change, which will be an important area of future research, can only be fully judged by

  7. Fabrication and characterization of large size {sup 6}LiF/CaF{sub 2}:Eu eutectic composites with the ordered lamellar structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Noriaki [Tokuyama Corporation, 3-3-1 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 (Japan); Fukuda, Kentaro, E-mail: ken-fukuda@tokuyama.co.jp [Tokuyama Corporation, 3-3-1 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Suyama, Toshihisa [Tokuyama Corporation, 3-3-1 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8383 (Japan); Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    As alternative candidates for the {sup 3}He neutron detectors, {sup 6}LiF/CaF{sub 2}:Eu eutectic composites were fabricated and their scintillation properties were evaluated. Large size LiF/CaF{sub 2}:Eu eutectic composites of 58 mm diameter and 50 mm thickness were produced by Bridgman method. The composites had a finely ordered lamellar structure along the solidification direction. The lamellar structure was controlled by the direction and the rate of solidification, and it was optimized to improve the scintillation properties. Better results were achieved when thinner lamellar layers were aligned along the scintillation light path.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of large size 6LiF/CaF2:Eu eutectic composites with the ordered lamellar structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Suyama, Toshihisa; Watanabe, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    As alternative candidates for the 3 He neutron detectors, 6 LiF/CaF 2 :Eu eutectic composites were fabricated and their scintillation properties were evaluated. Large size LiF/CaF 2 :Eu eutectic composites of 58 mm diameter and 50 mm thickness were produced by Bridgman method. The composites had a finely ordered lamellar structure along the solidification direction. The lamellar structure was controlled by the direction and the rate of solidification, and it was optimized to improve the scintillation properties. Better results were achieved when thinner lamellar layers were aligned along the scintillation light path.

  9. Helium ion distributions in a 4 kJ plasma focus device by 1 mm-thick large-size polycarbonate detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M.; Habibi, M.; Ramezani, V.

    2014-11-01

    Helium ion beam profile, angular and iso-ion beam distributions in 4 kJ Amirkabir plasma focus (APF) device were effectively observed by the unaided eyes and studied in single 1 mm-thick large-diameter (20 cm) polycarbonate track detectors (PCTD). The PCTDs were processed by 50 Hz-HV electrochemical etching using a large-size ECE chamber. The results show that helium ions produced in the APF device have a ring-shaped angular distribution peaked at an angle of ∼ ± 60 ° with respect to the top of the anode. Some information on the helium ion energy and distributions is also provided. The method is highly effective for ion beam studies.

  10. Design and performance of large-pixel-size high-fill-fraction TES arrays for future X-ray astrophysics missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Bandler, S.R.; Chervenak, J.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.L.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Porter, F.S.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.; White, J.

    2006-01-01

    We have designed, modeled, fabricated and tested a 600μm high-fill-fraction microcalorimeter array that will be a good match to the requirements of future X-ray missions. Our devices use transition-edge sensors coupled to overhanging bismuth/copper absorbers to produce arrays with 97% or higher fill fraction. An extensive modeling effort was undertaken in order to accommodate large pixel sizes (500-1000μm) and maintain the best energy resolution possible. The finite thermalization time of the large absorber and the associated position dependence of the pulse shape on absorption position constrain the time constants of the system given a desired energy-resolution performance. We show the results of our analysis and our new pixel design, consisting of a novel TES-on-the-side architecture which creates a controllable TES-absorber conductance

  11. Large benefits to marine fisheries of meeting the 1.5°C global warming target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, William W L; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Frölicher, Thomas L

    2016-12-23

    Translating the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to 1.5°C above preindustrial level into impact-related targets facilitates communication of the benefits of mitigating climate change to policy-makers and stakeholders. Developing ecologically relevant impact-related targets for marine ecosystem services, such as fisheries, is an important step. Here, we use maximum catch potential and species turnover as climate-risk indicators for fisheries. We project that potential catches will decrease by more than 3 million metric tons per degree Celsius of warming. Species turnover is more than halved when warming is lowered from 3.5° to 1.5°C above the preindustrial level. Regionally, changes in maximum catch potential and species turnover vary across ecosystems, with the biggest risk reduction in the Indo-Pacific and Arctic regions when the Paris Agreement target is achieved. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. The transcription factor Swi4 is target for PKA regulation of cell size at the G1 to S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigoni, Loredana; Colombo, Sonia; Belotti, Fiorella; Alberghina, Lilia; Martegani, Enzo

    2015-08-03

    To investigate the specific target of PKA in the regulation of cell cycle progression and cell size we developed a new approach using the yeast strain GG104 bearing a deletion in adenylate cyclase gene and permeable to cAMP ( cyr1Δ, pde2Δ, msn2Δ, msn4Δ). In this strain the PKA activity is absent and can be activated by addition of cAMP in the medium, without any other change of the growth conditions. In the present work we show that the activation of PKA by exogenous cAMP in the GG104 strain exponentially growing in glucose medium caused a marked increase of cell size and perturbation of cell cycle with a transient arrest of cells in G1, followed by an accumulation of cells in G2/M phase with a minimal change in the growth rate. Deletion of CLN1 gene, but not of CLN2, abolished the transient G1 phase arrest. Consistently we found that PKA activation caused a transcriptional repression of CLN1 gene. Transcription of CLN1 is controlled by SBF and MBF dual-regulated promoter. We found that also the deletion of SWI4 gene abolished the transient G1 arrest suggesting that Swi4 is a target responsible for PKA modulation of G1/S phase transition. We generated a SWI4 allele mutated in the consensus site for PKA (Swi4(S159A)) and we found that expression of Swi4(S159A) protein in the GG104-Swi4Δ strain did not restore the transient G1 arrest induced by PKA activation, suggesting that Swi4 phosphorylation by PKA regulates CLN1 gene expression and G1/S phase transition.

  13. Large-Scale Off-Target Identification Using Fast and Accurate Dual Regularized One-Class Collaborative Filtering and Its Application to Drug Repurposing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansaim Lim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Target-based screening is one of the major approaches in drug discovery. Besides the intended target, unexpected drug off-target interactions often occur, and many of them have not been recognized and characterized. The off-target interactions can be responsible for either therapeutic or side effects. Thus, identifying the genome-wide off-targets of lead compounds or existing drugs will be critical for designing effective and safe drugs, and providing new opportunities for drug repurposing. Although many computational methods have been developed to predict drug-target interactions, they are either less accurate than the one that we are proposing here or computationally too intensive, thereby limiting their capability for large-scale off-target identification. In addition, the performances of most machine learning based algorithms have been mainly evaluated to predict off-target interactions in the same gene family for hundreds of chemicals. It is not clear how these algorithms perform in terms of detecting off-targets across gene families on a proteome scale. Here, we are presenting a fast and accurate off-target prediction method, REMAP, which is based on a dual regularized one-class collaborative filtering algorithm, to explore continuous chemical space, protein space, and their interactome on a large scale. When tested in a reliable, extensive, and cross-gene family benchmark, REMAP outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, REMAP is highly scalable. It can screen a dataset of 200 thousands chemicals against 20 thousands proteins within 2 hours. Using the reconstructed genome-wide target profile as the fingerprint of a chemical compound, we predicted that seven FDA-approved drugs can be repurposed as novel anti-cancer therapies. The anti-cancer activity of six of them is supported by experimental evidences. Thus, REMAP is a valuable addition to the existing in silico toolbox for drug target identification, drug repurposing

  14. Large-Scale Off-Target Identification Using Fast and Accurate Dual Regularized One-Class Collaborative Filtering and Its Application to Drug Repurposing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hansaim; Poleksic, Aleksandar; Yao, Yuan; Tong, Hanghang; He, Di; Zhuang, Luke; Meng, Patrick; Xie, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Target-based screening is one of the major approaches in drug discovery. Besides the intended target, unexpected drug off-target interactions often occur, and many of them have not been recognized and characterized. The off-target interactions can be responsible for either therapeutic or side effects. Thus, identifying the genome-wide off-targets of lead compounds or existing drugs will be critical for designing effective and safe drugs, and providing new opportunities for drug repurposing. Although many computational methods have been developed to predict drug-target interactions, they are either less accurate than the one that we are proposing here or computationally too intensive, thereby limiting their capability for large-scale off-target identification. In addition, the performances of most machine learning based algorithms have been mainly evaluated to predict off-target interactions in the same gene family for hundreds of chemicals. It is not clear how these algorithms perform in terms of detecting off-targets across gene families on a proteome scale. Here, we are presenting a fast and accurate off-target prediction method, REMAP, which is based on a dual regularized one-class collaborative filtering algorithm, to explore continuous chemical space, protein space, and their interactome on a large scale. When tested in a reliable, extensive, and cross-gene family benchmark, REMAP outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, REMAP is highly scalable. It can screen a dataset of 200 thousands chemicals against 20 thousands proteins within 2 hours. Using the reconstructed genome-wide target profile as the fingerprint of a chemical compound, we predicted that seven FDA-approved drugs can be repurposed as novel anti-cancer therapies. The anti-cancer activity of six of them is supported by experimental evidences. Thus, REMAP is a valuable addition to the existing in silico toolbox for drug target identification, drug repurposing, phenotypic screening, and

  15. Evaluation of the combined effects of target size, respiratory motion and background activity on 3D and 4D PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang-June; Ionascu, Dan; Killoran, Joseph; Chin, Lee; Berbeco, Ross; Mamede, Marcelo; Gerbaudo, Victor H

    2008-01-01

    Gated (4D) PET/CT has the potential to greatly improve the accuracy of radiotherapy at treatment sites where internal organ motion is significant. However, the best methodology for applying 4D-PET/CT to target definition is not currently well established. With the goal of better understanding how to best apply 4D information to radiotherapy, initial studies were performed to investigate the effect of target size, respiratory motion and target-to-background activity concentration ratio (TBR) on 3D (ungated) and 4D PET images. Using a PET/CT scanner with 4D or gating capability, a full 3D-PET scan corrected with a 3D attenuation map from 3D-CT scan and a respiratory gated (4D) PET scan corrected with corresponding attenuation maps from 4D-CT were performed by imaging spherical targets (0.5-26.5 mL) filled with 18 F-FDG in a dynamic thorax phantom and NEMA IEC body phantom at different TBRs (infinite, 8 and 4). To simulate respiratory motion, the phantoms were driven sinusoidally in the superior-inferior direction with amplitudes of 0, 1 and 2 cm and a period of 4.5 s. Recovery coefficients were determined on PET images. In addition, gating methods using different numbers of gating bins (1-20 bins) were evaluated with image noise and temporal resolution. For evaluation, volume recovery coefficient, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were calculated as a function of the number of gating bins. Moreover, the optimum thresholds which give accurate moving target volumes were obtained for 3D and 4D images. The partial volume effect and signal loss in the 3D-PET images due to the limited PET resolution and the respiratory motion, respectively were measured. The results show that signal loss depends on both the amplitude and pattern of respiratory motion. However, the 4D-PET successfully recovers most of the loss induced by the respiratory motion. The 5-bin gating method gives the best temporal resolution with acceptable image noise. The results based on the 4D

  16. The episode of genetic drift defining the migration of humans out of Africa is derived from a large east African population size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Elhassan

    Full Text Available Human genetic variation particularly in Africa is still poorly understood. This is despite a consensus on the large African effective population size compared to populations from other continents. Based on sequencing of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase subunit II (MT-CO2, and genome wide microsatellite data we observe evidence suggesting the effective size (Ne of humans to be larger than the current estimates, with a foci of increased genetic diversity in east Africa, and a population size of east Africans being at least 2-6 fold larger than other populations. Both phylogenetic and network analysis indicate that east Africans possess more ancestral lineages in comparison to various continental populations placing them at the root of the human evolutionary tree. Our results also affirm east Africa as the likely spot from which migration towards Asia has taken place. The study reflects the spectacular level of sequence variation within east Africans in comparison to the global sample, and appeals for further studies that may contribute towards filling the existing gaps in the database. The implication of these data to current genomic research, as well as the need to carry out defined studies of human genetic variation that includes more African populations; particularly east Africans is paramount.

  17. Development of the quality control system of the readout electronics for the large size telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Masuda, S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Paoletti, R.; Poulios, S. [SFTA Department, Physics Section, University of Siena and INFN, Siena (Italy); Rugliancich, A., E-mail: andrea.rugliancich@pi.infn.it [SFTA Department, Physics Section, University of Siena and INFN, Siena (Italy); Saito, T. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-07-11

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation VHE γ-ray observatory which will improve the currently available sensitivity by a factor of 10 in the range 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The array consists of different types of telescopes, called large size telescope (LST), medium size telescope (MST) and small size telescope (SST). A LST prototype is currently being built and will be installed at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, island of La Palma, Canary islands, Spain. The readout system for the LST prototype has been designed and around 300 readout boards will be produced in the coming months. In this note we describe an automated quality control system able to measure basic performance parameters and quickly identify faulty boards. - Highlights: • The Dragon Board is part of the DAQ of the LST Cherenkov telescope prototype. • We developed an automated quality control system for the Dragon Board. • We check pedestal, linearity, pulse shape and crosstalk values. • The quality control test can be performed on the production line.

  18. Design study on large-scale mercury loop for engineering test of target of high-intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Haga, Katsuhiro; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Sudo, Yukio; Koiso, Kohji; Kaminaga, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiromichi.

    1997-03-01

    A heavy liquid-metal target has been proposed as a representative target of a 5MW-scale neutron source for a neutron scattering facility coupled with a high-intensity proton accelerator. In the report, about mercury considered to be the best material of the heavy liquid-metal target, its properties needed for the design were formulated, and results of research on mercury treatment and of evaluation of heat removal performance on the basis of generating heat obtained by a numerical calculation of a spallation reaction were presented. From these results, a 1.5MW-scale mercury loop which equals to that for the first stage operation of the neutron science program of JAERI was designed conceptually for obtaining design data of the mercury target, and basic flow diagram of the loop and specifications of components were decided: diameter of pipelines flowing mercury at the velocity below 1m/s, power of an electro-magnet pump and structure of a cooler. Through the design, engineering problems were made clear such as selection and development of mercury-resistant materials and optimization of the loop and components for decreasing mercury inventory. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yang Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and carbonyl compounds (CCs in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches.

  20. A large-sized bubbling appearance of the glomerular basement membrane in a patient with pulmonary limited AL amyloidosis and a past history of lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Norihiro; Miura, Naoto; Uemura, Yuko; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Morita, Hiroyuki; Banno, Shogo; Imai, Hirokazu

    2011-12-01

    We report an unusual pathological finding, a large-sized bubbling appearance of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in a patient with pulmonary limited AL amyloidosis and a past history of lupus nephritis. The first renal biopsy specimen from 10 years ago, when systemic lupus erythematosus was diagnosed, demonstrated mild mesangial proliferation and subepithelial deposits (WHO classification: III + V). Light microscopy of the current biopsy using periodic acid methenamine silver (PAMS) stain demonstrated a large-sized bubbling appearance of the GBM; however, very weak immunoglobulin and complement deposition was observed in immunofluorescence studies. Routine electron microscopy demonstrated partial subendothelial expansion with electron-lucent materials, but no electron-dense deposits or amyloid fibrils. Electron microscopy with PAMS stain revealed electron-lucent endothelial scalloping, including some cellular components and microspheres in the GBM; however, it is not clear if these materials are derived from endothelial cells. One possibility is that these unique findings represent a recovery phase of lupus membranous nephritis; another is that these findings correspond to a new disease entity.

  1. Large-sized SmBCO single crystals with T sub c over 93 K grown in atmospheric ambient by crystal pulling

    CERN Document Server

    Yao Xin; Shiohara, Y

    2003-01-01

    Sm sub 1 sub + sub x Ba sub 2 sub - sub x Cu sub 3 O sub z (SmBCO) single crystals were grown under atmospheric ambient by the top-seeded solution growth method. Inductively coupled plasma results indicate that there is negligible Sm substitution for Ba sites in the grown SmBCO crystals, although they crystallized from different Ba-Cu-O solvents with a wide composition range (Ba/Cu ratio of 0.5-0.6). As a result, these crystals show high superconducting critical transition temperature values (T sub c) of over 93 K with a sharp transition width after oxygenation. A large-sized crystal with an a-b plane of 23 x 22 mm sup 2 and a c-axis of 19 mm was obtained at a high growth rate of nearly 0.13 mm h sup - sup 1. In short, with more controllable thermodynamic parameters, SmBCO single crystals can readily achieve both large size and high superconducting properties. (rapid communication)

  2. Diets high in resistant starch and arabinoxylan modulate digestion processes and SCFA pool size in the large intestine and faecal microbial composition in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tina S; Lærke, Helle N; Theil, Peter K; Sørensen, Jens F; Saarinen, Markku; Forssten, Sofia; Knudsen, Knud E Bach

    2014-12-14

    The effects of a high level of dietary fibre (DF) either as arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) on digestion processes, SCFA concentration and pool size in various intestinal segments and on the microbial composition in the faeces were studied in a model experiment with pigs. A total of thirty female pigs (body weight 63.1 (sem 4.4) kg) were fed a low-DF, high-fat Western-style control diet (WSD), an AX-rich diet (AXD) or a RS-rich diet (RSD) for 3 weeks. Diet significantly affected the digestibility of DM, protein, fat, NSP and NSP components, and the arabinose:xylose ratio, as well as the disappearance of NSP and AX in the large intestine. RS was mainly digested in the caecum. AX was digested at a slower rate than RS. The digesta from AXD-fed pigs passed from the ileum to the distal colon more than twice as fast as those from WSD-fed pigs, with those from RSD-fed pigs being intermediate (PEubacterium rectale, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. in the faeces sampled at week 3 of the experimental period (P< 0.05). In the caecum, proximal and mid colon, AXD feeding resulted in a 3- to 5-fold higher pool size of butyrate compared with WSD feeding, with the RSD being intermediate (P <0.001). In conclusion, the RSD and AXD differently affected digestion processes compared with the WSD, and the AXD most efficiently shifted the microbial composition towards butyrogenic species in the faeces and increased the large-intestinal butyrate pool size.

  3. Larval abundances of rockfishes that were historically targeted by fishing increased over 16 years in association with a large marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Andrew R; Chen, Dustin C; Guo, Lian W; Hyde, John R; Watson, William

    2017-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) can facilitate recovery of diminished stocks by protecting reproductive adults. To effectively augment fisheries, however, reproductive output must increase within the bounds of MPAs so that larvae can be exported to surrounding areas and seed the region. In response to dramatic declines of rockfishes ( Sebastes spp.) in southern California by the late 1990s two large MPAs, the Cowcod Conservation Areas (CCAs), were established in 2001. To evaluate whether the CCAs affected rockfish productivity we evaluated the dynamics of 8 species that were, and 7 that were not, historically targeted by fishing. Abundances of 6/8 targeted and 4/7 non-targeted species increased regionally from 1998 to 2013. These upturns were probably affected by environmental conditions in addition to changes in fishing pressure as the presence of most species correlated negatively with temperature, and temperature was lower than the historic average in 11/15 years. Seventy-five per cent of the targeted, but none of the non-targeted species increased at a greater rate inside than outside the CCAs while controlling for environmental factors. Results indicate that management actions, coupled with favourable environmental conditions, facilitated the resurgence of multiple rockfish species that were targeted by intense fishing effort for decades.

  4. Small Versus Large-Sized Drug-Eluting Beads (DEBIRI) for the Treatment of Hepatic Colorectal Metastases: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinwande, Olaguoke K., E-mail: gokeakin@gmail.com [University of Louisville Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Philips, Prejesh, E-mail: prejesh.philips@louisville.edu [University of Louisville, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery (United States); Duras, Petr, E-mail: durasp@seznam.cz [Fakultní nemocnice Plzeň (Czech Republic); Pluntke, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.pluntke@t-online.de [Onkologe bei Kliniken Essen-Mitte (Germany); Scoggins, Charles, E-mail: charles.scoggins@louisville.edu; Martin, Robert C. G., E-mail: Robert.Martin@louisville.edu [University of Louisville, Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery (United States)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo compare the feasibility, safety, and efficacy with small and large irinotecan drug-eluting beads (DEBIRI) for treating hepatic colorectal metastases.MethodsUsing our prospectively maintained, multi-center, intra-arterial therapy registry, we identified 196 patients treated with a combination of large beads (100–300 to 500–700 μm) and patients treated with a combination of small beads (70–150 to 100–300 μm). To minimize selection bias, a propensity score analysis was performed to compare both groups.ResultsUnadjusted analysis consisted of 196 and 30 patients treated with large and small beads, respectively. The adjusted analysis consisted of 19 patients each. Unadjusted analysis showed decreased all-grade (p = <0.001) and high-grade adverse effects (p = 0.02) in the small bead group, with a persisting trend toward decreased overall side effects in the adjusted analysis favoring small beads (p = 0.09) The adjusted analysis showed the percentage dose delivered (delivered dose/intended dose) was significantly greater in the small bead group compared to the large bead group (96 vs 79 %; p = 0.005). There were also a lower percentage of treatments terminating in complete stasis in the adjusted analysis (0.0035). Adjusted analysis also showed increased objective response rate (ORR) at 12 months (p = 0.04), with a corresponding trend also seen in the unadjusted analysis (0.09).ConclusionSmaller beads result in increased dose delivery probably due to less propensity to reach complete stasis. It may also lead to more durable long-term efficacy. Smaller beads also demonstrate similarly low toxicity compared to large-sized beads with a trend toward less toxicity.

  5. Small Versus Large-Sized Drug-Eluting Beads (DEBIRI) for the Treatment of Hepatic Colorectal Metastases: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinwande, Olaguoke K.; Philips, Prejesh; Duras, Petr; Pluntke, Stefan; Scoggins, Charles; Martin, Robert C. G.

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo compare the feasibility, safety, and efficacy with small and large irinotecan drug-eluting beads (DEBIRI) for treating hepatic colorectal metastases.MethodsUsing our prospectively maintained, multi-center, intra-arterial therapy registry, we identified 196 patients treated with a combination of large beads (100–300 to 500–700 μm) and patients treated with a combination of small beads (70–150 to 100–300 μm). To minimize selection bias, a propensity score analysis was performed to compare both groups.ResultsUnadjusted analysis consisted of 196 and 30 patients treated with large and small beads, respectively. The adjusted analysis consisted of 19 patients each. Unadjusted analysis showed decreased all-grade (p = <0.001) and high-grade adverse effects (p = 0.02) in the small bead group, with a persisting trend toward decreased overall side effects in the adjusted analysis favoring small beads (p = 0.09) The adjusted analysis showed the percentage dose delivered (delivered dose/intended dose) was significantly greater in the small bead group compared to the large bead group (96 vs 79 %; p = 0.005). There were also a lower percentage of treatments terminating in complete stasis in the adjusted analysis (0.0035). Adjusted analysis also showed increased objective response rate (ORR) at 12 months (p = 0.04), with a corresponding trend also seen in the unadjusted analysis (0.09).ConclusionSmaller beads result in increased dose delivery probably due to less propensity to reach complete stasis. It may also lead to more durable long-term efficacy. Smaller beads also demonstrate similarly low toxicity compared to large-sized beads with a trend toward less toxicity

  6. Helium ion distributions in a 4 kJ plasma focus device by 1 mm-thick large-size polycarbonate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrabi, M., E-mail: dr_msohrabi@yahoo.com; Habibi, M.; Ramezani, V.

    2014-11-14

    Helium ion beam profile, angular and iso-ion beam distributions in 4 kJ Amirkabir plasma focus (APF) device were effectively observed by the unaided eyes and studied in single 1 mm-thick large-diameter (20 cm) polycarbonate track detectors (PCTD). The PCTDs were processed by 50 Hz–HV electrochemical etching using a large-size ECE chamber. The results show that helium ions produced in the APF device have a ring-shaped angular distribution peaked at an angle of ∼±60° with respect to the top of the anode. Some information on the helium ion energy and distributions is also provided. The method is highly effective for ion beam studies. - Highlights: • Helium iso-ion beam profile and angular distributions were studied in the 4 kJ APF device. • Large-area 1 mm-thick polycarbonate detectors were processed by 50 Hz-HV ECE. • Helium ion beam profile and distributions were observed by unaided eyes in a single detector. • Helium ion profile has ring-shaped distributions with energies lower at the ring location. • Helium iso-ion track density, diameter and energy distributions are estimated.

  7. AKT Hyperactivation and the Potential of AKT-Targeted Therapy in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinfen; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Jabbar, Kausar J

    2017-01-01

    AKT signaling is important for proliferation and survival of tumor cells. The clinical significance of AKT activation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is not well analyzed. Here, we assessed expression of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) in 522 DLBCL patients. We found that high levels of p-AKT...

  8. Exact results in the large system size limit for the dynamics of the chemical master equation, a one dimensional chain of equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, A; Saakian, David B

    2011-08-01

    We apply the Hamilton-Jacobi equation (HJE) formalism to solve the dynamics of the chemical master equation (CME). We found exact analytical expressions (in large system-size limit) for the probability distribution, including explicit expression for the dynamics of variance of distribution. We also give the solution for some simple cases of the model with time-dependent rates. We derived the results of the Van Kampen method from the HJE approach using a special ansatz. Using the Van Kampen method, we give a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to define the variance in a two-dimensional case. We performed numerics for the CME with stationary noise. We give analytical criteria for the disappearance of bistability in the case of stationary noise in one-dimensional CMEs.

  9. The influence of government targeted procurement strategies on the growth performance of construction small and medium-sized contractors (SMCs in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurauf Adediran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines government targeted procurement (TP strategies in South Africa and whether these strategies have an influence on the growth performance of Small and medium-sized contractors (SMCs in the construction industry. The rationale for this study stems from reports that while TP has been widely used as an instrument to improve the position of SMCs in the South African construction industry, three out of five SMCs do not become established firms. In addition, the nature of the influence of TP strategies on the growth performance of SMCs is not known. Following a review of existing literature, the study mainly adopted a quantitative research approach. Questionnaire surveys were administered to Construction Industry Development Board (cidb Grades 3 to 6 contractors that have executed TP projects within the last 5 years. The collected data was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses – Spearman’s rank order correlation was used as an index of association between the study variables. The study found that tendering equity is the most frequently used TP strategy, closely followed by preferencing and mandatory subcontracting. The study also found that positive significant associations exists among preferencing and turnover; third-party management and company assets; tendering equity, turnover and number of employees; as well as accelerated rotations, turnover and number of employees. The study concluded that government intervention through targeted procurement has the potential to achieve its intended results of improving the position of historically disadvantaged SMCs in the construction industry in South Africa if selected and implemented appropriately.

  10. The direct synthesis of mesoporous structured MnO2/TiO2 nanocomposite: a novel visible-light active photocatalyst with large pore size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Min; Huang Li; Wang Jianqiang; Wang Ying; Zou Zhigang; Gao Ling; Zhu Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    A series of visible-light-driven mesoporous structured MnO 2 /TiO 2 nanocrystal photocatalysts have been synthesized through a modified sol-gel method, and the N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm confirms that the mesoporous materials possess large pore size (up to 9.2 nm) and a narrow pore size distribution. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses and complementary x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that the doping of the transition metal Mn inhibits the growth of TiO 2 anatase nanocrystals and the Mn species are highly dispersed on the surface of TiO 2 . The ultraviolet (UV)-vis spectrum demonstrates the excellent adsorption properties of MnO 2 /TiO 2 over the whole region of visible light, which enables this novel photocatalysis material to possess remarkable activity in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light radiation. Moreover, a 'coating mechanism' based on the nucleation of titania nanocrystals along with the interaction between the dopant precursors and titania clusters has been suggested

  11. The direct synthesis of mesoporous structured MnO2/TiO2 nanocomposite: a novel visible-light active photocatalyst with large pore size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Huang, Li; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Ying; Gao, Ling; Zhu, Jian-hua; Zou, Zhi-Gang

    2008-05-01

    A series of visible-light-driven mesoporous structured MnO2/TiO2 nanocrystal photocatalysts have been synthesized through a modified sol-gel method, and the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm confirms that the mesoporous materials possess large pore size (up to 9.2 nm) and a narrow pore size distribution. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses and complementary x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that the doping of the transition metal Mn inhibits the growth of TiO2 anatase nanocrystals and the Mn species are highly dispersed on the surface of TiO2. The ultraviolet (UV)-vis spectrum demonstrates the excellent adsorption properties of MnO2/TiO2 over the whole region of visible light, which enables this novel photocatalysis material to possess remarkable activity in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light radiation. Moreover, a 'coating mechanism' based on the nucleation of titania nanocrystals along with the interaction between the dopant precursors and titania clusters has been suggested.

  12. Small-Sized Mg–Al LDH Nanosheets Supported on Silica Aerogel with Large Pore Channels: Textural Properties and Basic Catalytic Performance after Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs have been widely used as an important subset of solid base catalysts. However, developing low-cost, small-sized LDH nanoparticles with enhanced surface catalytic sites remains a challenge. In this work, silica aerogel (SA-supported, small-sized Mg–Al LDH nanosheets were successfully prepared by one-pot coprecipitation of Mg and Al ions in an alkaline suspension of crushed silica aerogel. The supported LDH nanosheets were uniformly dispersed in the SA substrate with the smallest average radial diameter of 19.2 nm and the thinnest average thickness of 3.2 nm, both dimensions being significantly less than those of the vast majority of LDH nanoparticles reported. The SA/LDH composites also showed large pore volume (up to 1.3 cm3·g and pore diameter (>9 nm, and therefore allow efficient access of reactants to the edge catalytic sites of LDH nanosheets. In a base-catalyzed Henry reaction of benzaldehyde with nitromethane, the SA/LDH catalysts showed high reactant conversions and favorable stability in 6 successive cycles of reactions. The low cost of the SA carrier and LDH precursors, easy preparation method, and excellent catalytic properties make these SA/LDH composites a competitive example of solid-base catalysts.

  13. When a drip becomes a flood: Lessons learned from Target Corporation's first large-scale business disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Kimberly D; Strawser, Bryan E

    Business continuity practitioners routinely determine which teams in their companies are critical and undertake extensive and rigorous planning processes. But what happens when a business is faced with an unanticipated long-term disruption that primarily affects non-critical teams? How can a company use the essential principles of business continuity and crisis management in order to respond? This paper explores a 2013 business disruption experienced by Target Corporation at one of its headquarters locations caused by a leak in the water line for an ice machine. Challenges encountered and reviewed include supporting non-critical teams, leadership of a multi-week business disruption and how remote work technologies have changed traditional continuity alternative workspace solution planning. Lessons learned from this activation are presented with implications for business continuity and emergency management planning that are applicable to any industry.

  14. Interaction between numbers and size during visual search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, F.; Bekkering, H.; Pratt, J.; Lindemann, O.

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates an interaction between numbers and physical size (i.e. size congruity) in visual search. In three experiments, participants had to detect a physically large (or small) target item among physically small (or large) distractors in a search task comprising single-digit

  15. Efficient internalization of mesoporous silica particles of different sizes by primary human macrophages without impairment of macrophage clearance of apoptotic or antibody-opsonized target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witasp, Erika; Kupferschmidt, Natalia; Bengtsson, Linnea; Hultenby, Kjell; Smedman, Christian; Paulie, Staffan; Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E.; Fadeel, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage recognition and ingestion of apoptotic cell corpses, a process referred to as programmed cell clearance, is of considerable importance for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and in the resolution of inflammation. Moreover, macrophages are the first line of defense against microorganisms and other foreign materials including particles. However, there is sparse information on the mode of uptake of engineered nanomaterials by primary macrophages. In this study, mesoporous silica particles with cubic pore geometries and covalently fluorescein-grafted particles were synthesized through a novel route, and their interactions with primary human monocyte-derived macrophages were assessed. Efficient and active internalization of mesoporous silica particles of different sizes was observed by transmission electron microscopic and flow cytometric analysis and studies using pharmacological inhibitors suggested that uptake occurred through a process of endocytosis. Moreover, uptake of silica particles was independent of serum factors. The silica particles with very high surface areas due to their porous structure did not impair cell viability or function of macrophages, including the ingestion of different classes of apoptotic or opsonized target cells. The current findings are relevant to the development of mesoporous materials for drug delivery and other biomedical applications.

  16. Practice and effectiveness of web-based problem-based learning approach in a large class-size system: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongxia; Zhang, Peili

    2018-06-12

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an effective and highly efficient teaching approach that is extensively applied in education systems across a variety of countries. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of web-based PBL teaching pedagogies in large classes. The cluster sampling method was used to separate two college-level nursing student classes (graduating class of 2013) into two groups. The experimental group (n = 162) was taught using a web-based PBL teaching approach, while the control group (n = 166) was taught using conventional teaching methods. We subsequently assessed the satisfaction of the experimental group in relation to the web-based PBL teaching mode. This assessment was performed following comparison of teaching activity outcomes pertaining to exams and self-learning capacity between the two groups. When compared with the control group, the examination scores and self-learning capabilities were significantly higher in the experimental group (P web-based PBL teaching approach. In a large class-size teaching environment, the web-based PBL teaching approach appears to be more optimal than traditional teaching methods. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of web-based teaching technologies in problem-based learning. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, C C; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Marinho, J R

    2016-02-01

    The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca). Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  18. Medium- and large-sized mammals in a steppic savanna area of the Brazilian Pampa: survey and conservation issues of a poorly known fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Espinosa

    Full Text Available Abstract The wildlife of the Brazilian Pampa is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, due in particular to the expansion of soybean cultivation and the conversion of grasslands areas into extensive areas of silviculture. It is essential to study how the mammal fauna copes with the highly fragmented, human-influenced, non-protected landscape. Our study presents the results of a survey of the large- and medium-sized mammals of a typical human-influenced steppic savanna area of the Pampa biome. The survey was conducted exclusively with the use of camera traps over a period of 16 months. The relative frequencies of species in the area were evaluated. We recorded 18 species, some of them locally threatened (Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta caraya, Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus wiedii, Puma yagouaroundi, Mazama gouazoubira and Cuniculus paca. Several species were found to thrive in the area; however, many species were considered rare, and undoubtedly new species could be recorded if we continued the sampling. Our results contribute to the knowledge of faunal diversity in the Pampa biome and associated habitats, warn about threats and provide support for conservation measures.

  19. Does Choice of Head Size and Neck Geometry Affect Stem Migration in Modular Large-Diameter Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Preliminary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Cs; Evangelou, Kg; Theodorou, Eg; Provatidis, Cg; Megas, Pd

    2012-01-01

    Due to their theoretical advantages, hip systems combining modular necks and large diameter femoral heads have gradually gained popularity. However, among others, concerns regarding changes in the load transfer patterns were raised. Recent stress analyses have indeed shown that the use of modular necks and big femoral heads causes significant changes in the strain distribution along the femur. Our original hypothesis was that these changes may affect early distal migration of a modular stem. We examined the effect of head diameter and neck geometry on migration at two years of follow-up in a case series of 116 patients (125 hips), who have undergone primary Metal-on-Metal total hip arthroplasty with the modular grit-blasted Profemur®E stem combined with large-diameter heads (>36 mm). We found that choice of neck geometry and head diameter has no effect on stem migration. A multivariate regression analysis including the potential confounding variables of the body mass index, bone quality, canal fill and stem positioning revealed only a negative correlation between subsidence and canal fill in midstem area. Statistical analysis, despite its limitations, did not confirm our hypothesis that choice of neck geometry and/or head diameter affects early distal migration of a modular stem. However, the importance of correct stem sizing was revealed.

  20. Coexistence of fish species in a large lowland river: food niche partitioning between small-sized percids, cyprinids and sticklebacks in submersed macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukowska, Małgorzata; Grzybkowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the spring and summer of each year, large patches of submersed aquatic macrophytes overgrow the bottom of the alluvial Warta River downstream of a large dam reservoir owing to water management practices. Environmental variables, macroinvertebrates (zoobenthos and epiphytic fauna, zooplankton) and fish abundance and biomass were assessed at this biologically productive habitat to learn intraseasonal dynamics of food types, and their occurrence in the gut contents of small-sized roach, dace, perch, ruffe and three-spined stickleback. Gut fullness coefficient, niche breadth and niche overlap indicated how the fishes coexist in the macrophytes. Chironomidae dominated in the diet of the percids. However, ruffe consumed mostly benthic chironomids, while perch epiphytic chironomids and zooplankton. The diet of dace resembled that in fast flowing water although this rheophilic species occurred at unusual density there. The generalist roach displayed the lowest gut fullness coefficient values and widest niche breadth; consequently, intraspecific rather than interspecific competition decided the fate of roach. Three-spined stickleback differed from the other fishes by consuming epiphytic simuliids and fish eggs. The diet overlap between fishes reaching higher gut fullness coefficient values was rather low when the food associated with the submersed aquatic macrophytes was most abundant; this is congruent with the niche overlap hypothesis that maximal tolerable niche overlap can be higher in less intensely competitive conditions.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells-seeded bio-ceramic construct for bone regeneration in large critical-size bone defect in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiti SK

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC represent an attractive cell population for tissue engineering purpose. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 to a silica-coated calcium hydroxyapatite (HASi - rabbit bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (rBMSC construct promoted bone healing in a large segmental bone defect beyond standard critical -size radial defects (15mm in rabbits. An extensively large 30mm long radial ostectomy was performed unilaterally in thirty rabbits divided equally in five groups. Defects were filled with a HASi scaffold only (group B; HASi scaffold seeded with rBMSC (group C; HASi scaffold seeded with rBMSC along with rhBMP-2 and IGF-1 in groups D and E respectively. The same number of rBMSC (five million cells and concentration of growth factors rhBMP-2 (50µg and IGF-1 (50µg was again injected at the site of bone defect after 15 days of surgery in their respective groups. An empty defect served as the control group (group A. Radiographically, bone healing was evaluated at 7, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days post implantation. Histological qualitative analysis with microCT (µ-CT, haematoxylin and eosin (H & E and Masson’s trichrome staining were performed 90 days after implantation. All rhBMP-2-added constructs induced the formation of well-differentiated mineralized woven bone surrounding the HASi scaffolds and bridging bone/implant interfaces as early as eight weeks after surgery. Bone regeneration appeared to develop earlier with the rhBMP-2 constructs than with the IGF-1 added construct. Constructs without any rhBMP-2 or IGF-1 showed osteoconductive properties limited to the bone junctions without bone ingrowths within the implantation site. In conclusion, the addition of rhBMP-2 to a HASi scaffold could promote bone generation in a large critical-size-defect.

  2. Three-dimensional visualisation of the large bowel: a potential tool for assessing targeted drug delivery and colonic pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.; Mann, C.; Wilson, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    A study has been undertaken to assess the feasibility of three-dimensional imaging of the dispersion of a non-absorbable tracer released into the colon of normal subjects. Six healthy volunteers were selected who were participating in a scintigraphic study designed to assess the spreading of 1 MBq indium-111 Amberlite resin delivered from a delayed capsule system targeted to release in the ascending colon. In each case subjects were imaged using a rotating gamma camera over a data collection period of approximately 20 min. Three-dimensional volume rendered images demonstrated good visualisation of the dispersion of the tracer throughout the ascending, transverse and descending colon and provided good anatomical visualisation of the shape of the colon, not previously apparent from the planar views. The present study demonstrates for the first time, the successful three-dimensional imaging of a radiolabelled tracer dispersed throughout the colon and opens up the prospects for more detailed study of quantification of the volume and distribution of tracers contained within the colon. (orig.). With 1 fig

  3. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Size Fractionated Atmospheric Aerosols, and, Evaluating Student Attitudes and Learning in Large Lecture General Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory Harold

    Chemical speciation and source apportionment of size fractionated atmospheric aerosols were investigated using laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD TOF-MS) and source apportionment was carried out using carbon-14 accelerator mass spectrometry (14C AMS). Sample collection was carried out using the Davis Rotating-drum Unit for Monitoring impact analyzer in Davis, Colfax, and Yosemite, CA. Ambient atmospheric aerosols collected during the winter of 2010/11 and 2011/12 showed a significant difference in the types of compounds found in the small and large sized particles. The difference was due to the increase number of oxidized carbon species that were found in the small particles size ranges, but not in the large particles size ranges. Overall, the ambient atmospheric aerosols collected during the winter in Davis, CA had and average fraction modern of F14C = 0.753 +/- 0.006, indicating that the majority of the size fractionated particles originated from biogenic sources. Samples collected during the King Fire in Colfax, CA were used to determine the contribution of biomass burning (wildfire) aerosols. Factor analysis was used to reduce the ions found in the LD TOF-MS analysis of the King Fire samples. The final factor analysis generated a total of four factors that explained an overall 83% of the variance in the data set. Two of the factors correlated heavily with increased smoke events during the sample period. The increased smoke events produced a large number of highly oxidized organic aerosols (OOA2) and aromatic compounds that are indicative of biomass burning organic aerosols (WBOA). The signal intensities of the factors generated in the King Fire data were investigated in samples collected in Yosemite and Davis, CA to look at the impact of biomass burning on ambient atmospheric aerosols. In both comparison sample collections the OOA2 and WBOA factors both increased during biomass burning events located near the sampling sites. The correlation

  4. Rational Targeting of Cellular Cholesterol in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) Enabled by Functional Lipoprotein Nanoparticles: A Therapeutic Strategy Dependent on Cell of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Jonathan S; Yang, Shuo; Cen, Osman; Taxter, Tim; McMahon, Kaylin M; Misener, Sol; Behdad, Amir; Longnecker, Richard; Gordon, Leo I; Thaxton, C Shad

    2017-11-06

    Cancer cells have altered metabolism and, in some cases, an increased demand for cholesterol. It is important to identify novel, rational treatments based on biology, and cellular cholesterol metabolism as a potential target for cancer is an innovative approach. Toward this end, we focused on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) as a model because there is differential cholesterol biosynthesis driven by B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in germinal center (GC) versus activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL. To specifically target cellular cholesterol homeostasis, we employed high-density lipoprotein-like nanoparticles (HDL NP) that can generally reduce cellular cholesterol by targeting and blocking cholesterol uptake through the high-affinity HDL receptor, scavenger receptor type B-1 (SCARB1). As we previously reported, GC DLBCL are exquisitely sensitive to HDL NP as monotherapy, while ABC DLBCL are less sensitive. Herein, we report that enhanced BCR signaling and resultant de novo cholesterol synthesis in ABC DLBCL drastically reduces the ability of HDL NPs to reduce cellular cholesterol and induce cell death. Therefore, we combined HDL NP with the BCR signaling inhibitor ibrutinib and the SYK inhibitor R406. By targeting both cellular cholesterol uptake and BCR-associated de novo cholesterol synthesis, we achieved cellular cholesterol reduction and induced apoptosis in otherwise resistant ABC DLBCL cell lines. These results in lymphoma demonstrate that reduction of cellular cholesterol is a powerful mechanism to induce apoptosis. Cells rich in cholesterol require HDL NP therapy to reduce uptake and molecularly targeted agents that inhibit upstream pathways that stimulate de novo cholesterol synthesis, thus, providing a new paradigm for rationally targeting cholesterol metabolism as therapy for cancer.

  5. Colorectal carcinomas with microsatellite instability display a different pattern of target gene mutations according to large bowel site of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, Manuela; Fragoso, Maria; Santos, Lúcio; Henrique, Rui; Lopes, Paula; Lopes, Carlos; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Teixeira, Manuel R; Ahlquist, Terje; Danielsen, Stine A; Lind, Guro E; Veiga, Isabel; Pinto, Carla; Costa, Vera; Afonso, Luís; Sousa, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Only a few studies have addressed the molecular pathways specifically involved in carcinogenesis of the distal colon and rectum. We aimed to identify potential differences among genetic alterations in distal colon and rectal carcinomas as compared to cancers arising elsewhere in the large bowel. Constitutional and tumor DNA from a test series of 37 patients with rectal and 25 patients with sigmoid carcinomas, previously analyzed for microsatellite instability (MSI), was studied for BAX, IGF2R, TGFBR2, MSH3, and MSH6 microsatellite sequence alterations, BRAF and KRAS mutations, and MLH1 promoter methylation. The findings were then compared with those of an independent validation series consisting of 36 MSI-H carcinomas with origin from each of the large bowel regions. Immunohistochemical and germline mutation analyses of the mismatch repair system were performed when appropriate. In the test series, IGFR2 and BAX mutations were present in one and two out of the six distal MSI-H carcinomas, respectively, and no mutations were detected in TGFBR2, MSH3, and MSH6. We confirmed these findings in the validation series, with TGFBR2 and MSH3 microsatellite mutations occurring less frequently in MSI-H rectal and sigmoid carcinomas than in MSI-H colon carcinomas elsewhere (P = 0.00005 and P = 0.0000005, respectively, when considering all MSI-carcinomas of both series). No MLH1 promoter methylation was observed in the MSI-H rectal and sigmoid carcinomas of both series, as compared to 53% found in MSI-H carcinomas from other locations (P = 0.004). KRAS and BRAF mutational frequencies were 19% and 43% in proximal carcinomas and 25% and 17% in rectal/sigmoid carcinomas, respectively. The mechanism and the pattern of genetic changes driving MSI-H carcinogenesis in distal colon and rectum appears to differ from that occurring elsewhere in the colon and further investigation is warranted both in patients with sporadic or hereditary disease

  6. Long-term Comparison of a Large Spot Vacuum Assisted Handpiece vs the Small Spot Size Traditional Handpiece of the 800 nm Diode Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Nour J; Rizk, Alain G; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Tannous, Zeina S

    2017-09-01

    BACKGROUND The 800 nm long-pulsed diode laser machine is safe and effective for permanent hair reduction. Traditionally, most long-pulsed diode lasers used for hair removal had a relatively small spot size. Recently, a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum assisted suction handpiece was introduced. The treatment parameters of each type of handpiece differ. Short and long-term clinical efficacy, treatment associated pain, and patient satisfaction are important factors to be considered. This study aims to conduct a direct head to head comparison of both handpieces of the 800nm long-pulsed diode laser by evaluating long term hair reduction, treatment associated pain and patient satisfaction. Thirteen subjects were enrolled in this prospective, self-controlled, single-center study of axillary laser hair removal. The study involved 4 treatments using a long pulsed diode laser with a large spot size HS handpiece (single pass), HS handpiece (double pass), and a small spot size ET handpiece according to a randomized choice. The treatment sessions were done at 4-8 week intervals with follow up visits taken at 6 and 12 months after the last treatment session. Hair clearance and thickness analysis were assessed using macro hair count photographs taken at baseline visit, at each treatment session visit and at follow up visits. Other factors including pain, treatment duration, and patients' preference wer