WorldWideScience

Sample records for large storage caverns

  1. Long term storage of finished gasolines in large salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, J.W.J. [German Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-05-01

    Strategic oil stocking requires large low cost storage facilities. Crude oil has been held in very large salt mines and/or artificially made salt caverns for many years, notably in Europe and the USA. Following crude oil, gasoils and refinery light feed stocks have been tried also. Military organisations tried jet fuel and early cases of underground aviation gasoline storage in steel tanks have been reported.

  2. Study of mined storage caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    All available information concerning 75 mined storage caverns as well as the investigative techniques utilized to determine the feasibility of a cavern site is presented. Potential new storage caverns may be for products such as high or low vapor pressure petroleum products, other chemical products, aid industrial or nuclear waste

  3. Hydrocarbon storage caverns overhaul: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, N. [Bayer Inc., Sarnia, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Case studies of four hydrocarbon storage cavern overhauls by Bayer Inc., of Sarnia during the period 1993 to 1997 were reviewed and the lessons learned were discussed. Discussions included inspection requirements for each of the caverns, the logistics and planning plant production around the cavern outages, site and cavern preparation, including removal of the casing slips from the well heads. It was emphasized that cavern overhauls can be expensive operations, unless preceded by proper planning. The largest variable cost is likely to be rig time at about $ 2,000 per day. Planning for the unexpected with thoughtful contingencies can reduce costs and avoid expensive delays.

  4. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  5. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine [KBB Underground Technologies GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, peak shaving, seasonal balancing, etc. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil fuels. This is one important reason why the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% related to natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind based electricity production this ''outsourcing'' of storage services to fossil fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage. The present discussion for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focuses primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) in addition to existing pumped hydro plants. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally not suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power or even seasonal fluctuations. Underground hydrogen storages, however, provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond - standard practice since many years. The first part of the article describes the present status and performance of grid scale energy storages in geological formations, mainly salt caverns. It is followed by a compilation of generally suitable locations in Europe and particularly Germany. The second part deals with first results of preliminary investigations in possibilities and limits of offshore CAES power stations. (orig.)

  6. Saline Cavern Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage Using Sand as Heat Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Haemmerle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adiabatic compressed air energy storage systems offer large energy storage capacities and power outputs beyond 100MWel. Salt production in Austria produces large caverns which are able to hold pressure up to 100 bar, thus providing low cost pressurized air storage reservoirs for adiabatic compressed air energy storage plants. In this paper the results of a feasibility study is presented, which was financed by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, with the objective to determine the adiabatic compressed air energy storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns. The study contains designs of realisable plants with capacities between 10 and 50 MWel, applying a high temperature energy storage system currently developed at the Institute for Energy Systems and Thermodynamics in Vienna. It could be shown that the overall storage potential of Austria’s salt caverns exceeds a total of 4GWhel in the year 2030 and, assuming an adequate performance of the heat exchanger, that a 10MWel adiabatic compressed air energy storage plant in Upper Austria is currently feasible using state of the art thermal turbomachinery which is able to provide a compressor discharge temperature of 400 °C.

  7. Lined rock caverns for the storage of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semprich, S.; Speidel, S.R.; Schneider, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    For reasons of environmental protection the storage of hazardous waste in unlined rock caverns is possible to a very limited extent only. Therefore, the authors have recently developed technologies for the lining and sealing of rock caverns. In the process, sealing systems of synthetic materials or metals have proved suitable. Synthetic materials can be used in the form of either sheets or coatings with various materials such as epoxy resins, polyethylenes etc. being used. Metal sealings consist of thin sheets or foils which are either welded or bonded. In either case, the structural design must provide for a leakage control possibility. The article describes the design principles, the structural and operational aspects as well as the control measures with regard to the planning and execution of lined rock caverns for the storage of hazardous waste

  8. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, F.; Donadei, S.

    2011-05-15

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, cold winter supply, peak shaving, seasonal swing, load management and energy trading. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil and nuclear fuels. This is one important reason why e.g. the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% compared to 20% for natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind-and to a lesser extent PV-based electricity production this 'outsourcing' of storage services to fossil and nuclear fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage in geological formations. The present discussion, research projects and plans for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focus primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) if the capacity of existing pumped hydro plants cannot be expanded, e.g. because of environmental issues or lack of suitable topography. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally less suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power, wind flaws or even seasonal fluctuations. One important way out are large underground hydrogen storages which provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond. Underground hydrogen storage is state of the art since many years in Great Britain and in the USA for the (petro-) chemical industry. (Author)

  9. Tightness and suitability evaluation of abandoned salt caverns served as hydrocarbon energies storage under adverse geological conditions (AGC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Liu; Jie, Chen; Deyi, Jiang; Xilin, Shi; Yinping, Li; Daemen, J.J.K.; Chunhe, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tightness conditions are set to assess use of old caverns for hydrocarbons storage. • Gas seepage and tightness around caverns are numerically simulated under AGC. • κ of interlayers act as a key factor to affect the tightness and use of salt cavern. • The threshold upper permeability of interlayers is proposed for storing oil and gas. • Three types of real application are introduced by using the tightness conditions. - Abstract: In China, the storage of hydrocarbon energies is extremely insufficient partially due to the lack of storage space, but on the other side the existence of a large number of abandoned salt caverns poses a serious threat to safety and geological environments. Some of these caverns, defined as abandoned caverns under adverse geological conditions (AGC), are expected to store hydrocarbon energies (natural gas or crude oil) to reduce the risk of potential disasters and simultaneously support the national strategic energy reserve of China. Herein, a series of investigations primarily related to the tightness and suitability of the caverns under AGC is performed. Laboratory measurements to determine the physical and mechanical properties as well as porosity and permeability of bedded salt cores from a near target cavern are implemented to determine the petro-mechanical properties and basic parameters for further study. The results show that the mechanical properties of the bedded rock salts are satisfactory for the stability of caverns. The interface between the salt and interlayers exhibits mechanical properties that are between those of rock salt and interlayers and in particular is not a weak zone. The silty mudstone interlayers have relatively high porosity and permeability, likely due to their low content of clay minerals and the presence of halite-filled cracks. The conditions for evaluating the tightness and suitability of a cavern for storing hydrocarbons are proposed, including “No tensile stress,”

  10. A new shape design method of salt cavern used as underground gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tongtao; Yan, Xiangzhen; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Xiujuan; Jiang, Tingting; Zhao, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Safety factor contours of four salt cavern gas storages after running 10 years. Highlights: ► We propose a new model to design the shape of salt cavern gas storage. ► The concepts of slope instability and pressure arch are introduced into the shape design. ► The max. gas pressure determines the shapes and dimensions of cavern lower structure. ► The min. gas pressure decides the shapes and dimensions of cavern upper structure. - Abstract: A new model used to design the shape and dimension of salt cavern gas storage is proposed in the paper. In the new model, the cavern is divided into two parts, namely the lower and upper structures, to design. The concepts of slope instability and pressure arch are introduced into the shape design of the lower and upper structures respectively. Calculating models are established according to the concepts. Field salt cavern gas storage in China is simulated as examples, and its shape and dimension are proposed. The effects of gas pressure, friction angle and cohesion of rock salt on the cavern stability are discussed. Moreover, the volume convergence, displacement, plastic volume rate, safety factor, and effective strain are compared with that of three other existing shapes salt caverns to validate the performance of newly proposed cavern. The results show that the max. gas pressure determines the shape and dimension of cavern lower structure, while the min. gas pressure decides that of cavern upper structure. With the increase of friction angle and cohesion of rock salt, the stability of salt cavern is increased. The newly proposed salt cavern gas storage has more notable advantages than the existing shapes of salt cavern in volume convergence, displacement, plastic volume rate, safety factor, and effective strain under the same conditions

  11. Gas hydrates in gas storage caverns; Gashydrate bei der Gaskavernenspeicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenefeld, P. [Kavernen Bau- und Betriebs-GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Given appropriate pressure and temperature conditions the storage of natural gas in salt caverns can lead to the formation of gas hydrates in the producing well or aboveground operating facilities. This is attributable to the stored gas becoming more or less saturated with water vapour. The present contribution describes the humidity, pressure, and temperature conditions conducive to gas hydrate formation. It also deals with the reduction of the gas removal capacity resulting from gas hydrate formation, and possible measures for preventing hydrate formation such as injection of glycol, the reduction of water vapour absorption from the cavern sump, and dewatering of the cavern sump. (MSK) [Deutsch] Bei der Speicherung von Erdgas in Salzkavernen kann es unter entsprechenden Druck- und Temperaturverhaeltnissen zur Gashydratbildung in den Foerdersonden oder obertaegigen Betriebseinrichtungen kommen, weil sich das eingelagerte Gas mehr oder weniger mit Wasserdampf aufsaettigt. Im Folgenden werden die Feuchtigkeits-, Druck- und Temperaturbedingungen, die zur Hydratbildung fuehren erlaeutert. Ebenso werden die Verringerung der Auslagerungskapazitaet durch die Hydratbildung, Massnahmen zur Verhinderung der Hydratbildung wie die Injektion von Glykol, die Verringerung der Wasserdampfaufnahme aus dem Kavernensumpf und die Entwaesserung der Kavernensumpfs selbst beschrieben.

  12. Instability risk analysis and risk assessment system establishment of underground storage caverns in bedded salt rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wenjun; Zhao, Yan

    2018-02-01

    Stability is an important part of geotechnical engineering research. The operating experiences of underground storage caverns in salt rock all around the world show that the stability of the caverns is the key problem of safe operation. Currently, the combination of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are the mainly adopts method of reserve stability analysis. This paper introduces the concept of risk into the stability analysis of underground geotechnical structure, and studies the instability of underground storage cavern in salt rock from the perspective of risk analysis. Firstly, the definition and classification of cavern instability risk is proposed, and the damage mechanism is analyzed from the mechanical angle. Then the main stability evaluating indicators of cavern instability risk are proposed, and an evaluation method of cavern instability risk is put forward. Finally, the established cavern instability risk assessment system is applied to the analysis and prediction of cavern instability risk after 30 years of operation in a proposed storage cavern group in the Huai’an salt mine. This research can provide a useful theoretical base for the safe operation and management of underground storage caverns in salt rock.

  13. Preliminary long-term stability criteria for compressed air energy storage caverns in salt domes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, R.L.; Martinez, J.D.

    1978-08-01

    Air storage caverns, which are an essential and integral component of a CAES plant, should be designed and operated so as to perform satisfactorily over the intended life of the overall facility. It follows that the long-term ''stability'' of air storage caverns must be considered as a primary concern in projecting the satisfactory operation of CAES facilities. As used in the report, ''stability'' of a storage cavern implies the extent to which an acceptable amount of cavern storage volume can be utilized with routine maintenance for a specified time interval, e.g., 35 years. In this context, cavern stability is relative to both planned utilization and time interval of operation. The objective of the study was to review the existing literature and consult knowledgeable workers in the storage industry, and then report state-of-the-art findings relative to long-term stability of compressed air energy storage caverns in salt domes. Further, preliminary cavern stability criteria were to be presented in a form consistent with the amount of information available on cavern performance in salt domes. Another objective of the study was to outline a methodology for determining the long-term stability of site-specific CAES cavern systems in salt domes.

  14. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongkui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years' experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of “filling joints with water” is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles

  15. Simulation of Mechanical Processes in Gas Storage Caverns for Short-Term Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Norbert; Nagel, Thomas; Kolditz, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, Germany's energy management has started to be transferred from fossil fuels to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power are subjected by fluctuations, thus the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. This work is a part of the ANGUS+ Project, funded by the federal ministry of education and research, which investigates the influence of subsurface energy storage on the underground. The utilization of subsurface salt caverns as a long-term storage reservoir for fossil fuels is a common method, since the construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to solution mining. Another advantage of evaporate as host material is the self-healing behaviour of salt rock, thus the cavity can be assumed to be impermeable. In the framework of short-term energy storage (hours to days), caverns can be used as gas storage reservoirs for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or compressed air, where the operation pressures inside the caverns will fluctuate more frequently. This work investigates the influence of changing operation pressures at high frequencies on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. The salt behaviour is described by well-known constitutive material models which are capable of predicting creep, self-healing, and dilatancy processes. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of gas storage process, temperature development and distribution on the cavern boundary, the deformation of the cavern geometry, and the prediction of the dilatancy zone. Based on the numerical results, optimal operation modes can be found for individual caverns, so the risk of host rock damage

  16. Pilot abandonment test of a very deep gas storage salt cavern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durup, J.G.; Vidal, F.; Rolin, C.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of knowledge gained initially from a series of succinct sealed well and cavern field tests performed in the late 1980's and early 1990's by Gaz de France (EZ58; EZ53), issues related to the long term abandonment of salt caverns became more focused. The tests were performed in cooperation with Ecole Polytechnique (France) and were partially funded by the Solution Mining Research Institute (USA). The long-term abandonment (sealing or plugging) of a solution-mined cavern in a salt formation that has been used for mineral production, hydrocarbon storage, or waste disposal has been a contemporary topic for many years. Sealing and abandonment of caverns in salt formations differs from sealing of an oil and gas well principally for two reasons: - cavern wells are generally completed with much larger casings than oil and gas exploration and production wells; - the cavern fluid pressure rises after sealing. The first difference is not a significant deterrent to effective cavern sealing and abandonment. Essentially all of the uncertainties and complexities associated with cavern sealing and abandonment are a direct result of the second difference - the fact that the cavern fluid pressure rises through time. After a short introduction to solution mining of salt caverns and their use as underground gas storages, the paper will first discuss the factors affecting cavern fluid pressure increase after sealing. The second part of the paper will highlight the practical impacts of these factors on a deep salt cavern abandonment experiment (Cavern TE02; 1500 meters deep), currently being performed on the natural gas storage of Tersanne operated for over 35 years by Gaz de France. (authors)

  17. Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Fossum, A.F.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.

  18. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  19. Mechanical stability of a salt cavern submitted to rapid pressure variations: Application to the underground storage of natural gas, compressed air and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djizanne-Djakeun, Hippolyte

    2014-01-01

    Salt caverns used for the underground storage of large volumes of natural gas are in high demand given the ever-increasing energy needs. The storage of renewable energy is also envisaged in these salt caverns for example, storage of compressed air and hydrogen mass storage. In both cases, salt caverns are more solicited than before because they are subject to rapid injection and withdrawal rates. These new operating modes raise new mechanical problems, illustrated in particular by sloughing, and falling of overhanging blocks at cavern wall. Indeed, to the purely mechanical stress related to changes in gas pressure variations, repeated dozens of degrees Celsius of temperature variation are superimposed; causes in particular during withdrawal, additional tensile stresses whom may lead to fractures at cavern wall; whose evolution could be dangerous. The mechanical behavior of rock salt is known: it is elasto-viscoplastic, nonlinear and highly thermo sensitive. The existing rock salt constitutive laws and failures and damages criteria have been used to analyze the behavior of caverns under the effects of these new loading. The study deals with the thermo mechanics of rocks and helps to analyze the effects of these new operations modes on the structural stability of salt caverns. The approach was to firstly design and validate a thermodynamic model of the behavior of gas in the cavern. This model was used to analyze blowout in gas salt cavern. Then, with the thermo mechanical coupling, to analyze the effects of rapid withdrawal, rapid injection and daily cycles on the structural stability of caverns. At the experimental level, we sought the optimal conditions to the occurrence and the development of cracks on a pastille and a block of rock salt. The creep behavior of rock salt specimens in triaxial extension also was analyzed. (author)

  20. Mathematical model of salt cavern leaching for gas storage in high-insoluble salt formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinlong; Shi, Xilin; Yang, Chunhe; Li, Yinping; Wang, Tongtao; Ma, Hongling

    2018-01-10

    A mathematical model is established to predict the salt cavern development during leaching in high-insoluble salt formations. The salt-brine mass transfer rate is introduced, and the effects of the insoluble sediments on the development of the cavern are included. Considering the salt mass conservation in the cavern, the couple equations of the cavern shape, brine concentration and brine velocity are derived. According to the falling and accumulating rules of the insoluble particles, the governing equations of the insoluble sediments are deduced. A computer program using VC++ language is developed to obtain the numerical solution of these equations. To verify the proposed model, the leaching processes of two salt caverns of Jintan underground gas storage are simulated by the program, using the actual geological and technological parameters. The same simulation is performed by the current mainstream leaching software in China. The simulation results of the two programs are compared with the available field data. It shows that the proposed software is more accurate on the shape prediction of the cavern bottom and roof, which demonstrates the reliability and applicability of the model.

  1. Modeling deformation processes of salt caverns for gas storage due to fluctuating operation pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, N.; Nagel, T.; Goerke, U.; Khaledi, K.; Lins, Y.; König, D.; Schanz, T.; Köhn, D.; Attia, S.; Rabbel, W.; Bauer, S.; Kolditz, O.

    2013-12-01

    In the course of the Energy Transition in Germany, the focus of the country's energy sources is shifting from fossil to renewable and sustainable energy carriers. Since renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power, are subjected to annual, seasonal, and diurnal fluctuations, the development and extension of energy storage capacities is a priority in German R&D programs. Common methods of energy storage are the utilization of subsurface caverns as a reservoir for natural or artificial fuel gases, such as hydrogen, methane, or the storage of compressed air. The construction of caverns in salt rock is inexpensive in comparison to solid rock formations due to the possibility of solution mining. Another advantage of evaporite as a host material is the self-healing capacity of salt rock. Gas caverns are capable of short-term energy storage (hours to days), so the operating pressures inside the caverns are fluctuating periodically with a high number of cycles. This work investigates the influence of fluctuating operation pressures on the stability of the host rock of gas storage caverns utilizing numerical models. Therefore, we developed a coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) model based on the finite element method utilizing the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Our simulations include the thermodynamic behaviour of the gas during the loading/ unloading of the cavern. This provides information on the transient pressure and temperature distribution on the cavern boundary to calculate the deformation of its geometry. Non-linear material models are used for the mechanical analysis, which describe the creep and self-healing behavior of the salt rock under fluctuating loading pressures. In order to identify the necessary material parameters, we perform experimental studies on the mechanical behaviour of salt rock under varying pressure and temperature conditions. Based on the numerical results, we further derive concepts for monitoring THM quantities in the

  2. Stability of interbed for salt cavern gas storage in solution mining considering cusp displacement catastrophe theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cusp displacement catastrophe theory can be introduced to propose a new method about instability failure of the interbed for gas storage cavern in bedded salt in solution mining. We can calculate initial fracture drawing pace of this interbed to obtain 2D and 3D gas storage shapes at this time. Moreover, Stability evaluation of strength reduction finite element method (FEM based on this catastrophe theory can used to evaluate this interbed stability after initial fracture. A specific example is simulated to obtain the influence of the interbed depth, cavern internal pressure, and cavern building time on stability safety factor (SSF. The results indicate: the value of SSF will be lower with the increase of cavern building time in solution mining and the increase of interbed depth and also this value remains a rise with the increase of cavern internal pressure Especially, we can conclude that the second-fracture of the interbed may take place when this pressure is lower than 6 MPa or after 6 days later of the interbed after initial fracture. According to above analysis, some effective measures, namely elevating the tube up to the top of the interbed, or changing the circulation of in-and-out lines, can be introduced to avoid the negative effects when the second-fracture of the interbed may occur.

  3. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  4. Commercial potential of natural gas storage in lined rock caverns (LRC); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The geologic conditions in many regions of the United States will not permit the development of economical high-deliverability gas storage in salt caverns. These regions include the entire Eastern Seaboard; several northern states, notably Minnesota and Wisconsin; many of the Rocky Mountain States; and most of the Pacific Northwest. In late 1997, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Federal Energy Technology Center engaged Sofregaz US to investigate the commercialization potential of natural gas storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC). Sofregaz US teamed with Gaz de France and Sydkraft, who had formed a consortium, called LRC, to perform the study for the USDOE. Underground storage of natural gas is generally achieved in depleted oil and gas fields, aquifers, and solution-mined salt caverns. These storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Unlined rock caverns have been used for decades to store hydrocarbons - mostly liquids such as crude oil, butane, and propane. The maximum operating pressure in unlined rock caverns is limited, since the host rock is never entirely impervious. The LRC technology allows a significant increase in the maximum operating pressure over the unlined storage cavern concept, since the gas in storage is completely contained with an impervious liner. The LRC technology has been under development in Sweden by Sydkraft since 1987. The development process has included extensive technical studies, laboratory testing, field tests, and most recently includes a storage facility being constructed in southern Sweden (Skallen). The LRC development effort has shown that the concept is technically and economically viable. The Skallen storage facility will have a rock cover of 115 meters (375 feet), a storage volume of 40,000 cubic meters (250,000 petroleum barrels), and a maximum operating pressure of 20 MPa (2,900 psi). There is a potential for commercialization of the LRC technology in the United States. Two regions were studied

  5. Ultimate storage in salt caverns / status report; Endverwahrung von Salzkavernen / Stand der Entwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, F.; Schmidt, U. [Kavernen Bau- und Betriebs-GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The contribution reviews the state of knowledge on final storage in salt caverns. The long-term effects of a hermetically sealed, brine-filled cavern are discussed. So far, there are no valid predictions. (orig.) [Deutsch] In dem Beitrag wird der derzeitige Kenntnis- und Diskussionsstand zur Endverwahrung von Salzkavernen zusammengefasst. Aufbauend auf den bisher vorliegenden Vorstellungen zur Soleimpraegnation bei einem Innendruck, der nahezu dem Ueberlagerungsdruck entspricht, werden die denkbaren langfristigen Auswirkungen einer vollstaendig abgeschlossenen solegefuellten Kaverne skizziert; belastbare Prognosen sind derzeit noch nicht moeglich. (orig.)

  6. Spall formation in solution mined storage caverns based on a creep and fracture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Darrell E.

    2000-01-01

    Because of limited direct observation, understanding of the interior conditions of the massive storage caverns constructed in Gulf Coast salt domes is realizable only through predictions of salt response. Determination of the potential for formation of salt spans, leading to eventual salt falls, is based on salt creep and fracture using the Multimechanism-Deformation Coupled Fracture (MCDF) model. This is a continuum model for creep, coupled to continuum damage evolution. The model has been successfully tested against underground results of damage around several test rooms at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Model simulations, here, evaluate observations made in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, namely, the accumulation of material on cavern floors and evidence of salt falls. A simulation of a smooth cavern wall indicates damage is maximum at the surface but diminishes monotonically into the salt, which suggests the source of salt accumulation is surface sluffing. If a protuberance occurs on the wall, fracture damage can form beneath the protuberance, which will eventually cause fracture, and lead to a salt fall

  7. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  8. Large cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland: Laparoscopic treatment. Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Agrusa

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment in case of diagnosis of benign lesions. In this case report we discussed a large adrenal cavernous hemangioma treated with laparoscopic approach. Fundamental is the study of preoperative endocrine disorders and radiologic findings to exclude signs of malignancy.

  9. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  10. 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix D: superconductive magnetic energy storage cavern construction methods and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    The excavation and preparation of an underground cavern to contain a 1-GWh diurnal load-leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit is examined. The cavern's principal function is to provide a rock structure for supporting the magnetic forces from the charged storage coil. Certain economic considerations indicate the refrigerator cold box for the helium system should also be underground. The study includes such a provision and considers, among other things, rock bolting, water seepage, concrete lining of the walls, steel bearing pads, a system to prevent freezing of the walls, a mining schedule, and costs

  11. Large mass storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Arnold M.

    1978-08-01

    This is the final report of a study group organized to investigate questions surrounding the acquisition of a large mass storage facility. The programatic justification for such a system at Brookhaven is reviewed. Several candidate commercial products are identified and discussed. A draft of a procurement specification is developed. Some thoughts on possible new directions for computing at Brookhaven are also offered, although this topic was addressed outside of the context of the group's deliberations. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Principle of gas storage in salt caverns; Principe du stockage de gaz en cavites creusees dans le sel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durup, J.G. [Mining Research Institute, CA (United States)]|[Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-08-15

    The principle of the exploitation of a gas storage cavity is analogue to the one of a cylinder of compressed gas. Such a reservoir has remarkable dimensions with a volume of several thousands of m{sup 3}, a height of few hundred meters and a diameter of about 100 m. The mechanical resistance with respect to the gas pressure is ensured by the 'pre-stress' corresponding to the weight of the geologic strata. Salt (halite) is the ideal material for the digging out of such facilities because of its excellent tightness, its solubility in water (allowing the dissolution digging technique), and its good mechanical resistance. Natural gas storage is in general performed in natural porous and permeable environments, like depleted hydrocarbon fields or aquifers. The storage in salt caverns has the advantage of allowing important emission flow rates with respect to the quantities of immobilized gases. In some Northern Europe countries, like Germany, the salt deposits are well developed and abundant, in particular near the North Sea and its important natural gas fields. In France, there exists 3 gas storage sites in salt caverns, with about 40 cavities as a whole. This document briefly presents the main elements of the gas storage technique in salt caverns: characteristics and geology of salt deposits, geo-technique, wells, dissolution digging, gas injection and exploitation. (J.S.)

  13. Surgical treatment of a large congenital cavernous hemangioma on the thorax of a foal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Christophersen, Mogens Teken; Tnibar, Aziz

    2018-01-01

    A 3-day-old male foal was presented with a fluctuant 25 × 15 cm mass on the thorax. The mass had increased in size since birth. The mass did not respond to conservative treatment consisting of aspiration of serohaemorrhagic contents and compression bandages, and it was therefore surgically removed...... when the foal was approximately 2½ weeks. A histopathological diagnosis of cavernous haemangioma was made. Healing progressed without complications despite a large surgical wound left to heal by second intention. Recurrence was not observed during the 1.5-year follow-up period....

  14. Assessment of the Available Drawdowns for Oil Storage Caverns at the West Hackberry SPR Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geotechnology and Engineering Dept.

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Energy, in response to requests from the U.S. Congress, wishes to maintain an up-to-date table documenting the number of available full drawdowns of each of the caverns owned by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This information is important for assessing the SPR’s ability to deliver oil to domestic oil companies expeditiously if national or world events dictate a rapid sale and deployment of the oil reserves. What factors go into assessing available drawdowns? The evaluation of drawdown risks require the consideration of several factors regarding cavern and wellbore integrity and stability, including stress states caused by cavern geometry and operations, salt damage caused by dilatant and tensile stresses, the effect on enhanced creep on wellbore integrity, the sympathetic stress effect of operations on neighboring caverns. Based on the work over the past several months, a consensus has been built regarding the assessment of drawdown capabilities and risks for the SPR caverns. This paper draws upon the recently West Hackberry model upgrade and analyses to reevaluate and update the available drawdowns for each of those caverns. Similar papers for the Bryan Mound, Big Hill, and Bayou Choctaw papers will be developed as the upgrades to those analyses are completed. The rationale and documentation of the methodology is described in the remainder of this report, as are the updated estimates of available drawdowns for the West Hackberry caverns.

  15. Characterizing Excavation Damaged Zone and Stability of Pressurized Lined Rock Caverns for Underground Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jeong, Ju-Hwan; Choi, Byung-Hee; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Song, Won-Kyong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) on the geomechanical performance of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. We conducted a detailed characterization of the EDZ in rock caverns that have been excavated for a Korean pilot test program on CAES in (concrete) lined rock caverns at shallow depth. The EDZ was characterized by measurements of P- and S-wave velocities and permeability across the EDZ and into undisturbed host rock. Moreover, we constructed an in situ concrete lining model and conducted permeability measurements in boreholes penetrating the concrete, through the EDZ and into the undisturbed host rock. Using the site-specific conditions and the results of the EDZ characterization, we carried out a model simulation to investigate the influence of the EDZ on the CAES performance, in particular related to geomechanical responses and stability. We used a modeling approach including coupled thermodynamic multiphase flow and geomechanics, which was proven to be useful in previous generic CAES studies. Our modeling results showed that the potential for inducing tensile fractures and air leakage through the concrete lining could be substantially reduced if the EDZ around the cavern could be minimized. Moreover, the results showed that the most favorable design for reducing the potential for tensile failure in the lining would be a relatively compliant concrete lining with a tight inner seal, and a relatively stiff (uncompliant) host rock with a minimized EDZ. Because EDZ compliance depends on its compressibility (or modulus) and thickness, care should be taken during drill and blast operations to minimize the damage to the cavern walls.

  16. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation and Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: SMALL • LARGE Cerebral Cavernous Angioma and Hemorrhage By Jack Hoch; Reviewed by Dr. Issam Awad ... for years, the mechanism by which these lesions hemorrhage remains poorly understood. Hemorrhage Types Since cavernous angiomas ...

  17. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage in lined rock caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Kim, Hyung-Mok; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Synn, Joong-Ho; Song, Won-Kyong

    2012-06-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be

  18. Numerical estimation of structural integrity of salt cavern wells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Schreppers, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Finite element analyses were performed to estimate axial deformation of cavern wells due to gas storage operations in solution-mined salt caverns. Caverns shrink over time due to salt creep and the cavern roof subsides potentially threatening well integrity. Cavern deformation, deformation of salt

  19. Sequestration of CO2 in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.; Rothenburg, L.; Bachu, S.

    2002-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is thought to be greatly affected by anthropogenic and naturally generated gases, such as carbon dioxide. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere could be effected through the permanent storage of carbon dioxide in dissolved salt caverns. A large number of suitable salt deposits are located in Alberta, especially the Lotsberg Salt of east-central Alberta. A major advantage of this deposit is its proximity to present and future point sources of carbon dioxide associated with fossil fuel development projects. Using the perspective of the long term fate of the stored carbon dioxide, the authors presented the characteristics of the Lotsberg Salt and the overlying strata. A high level of security against leakage and migration of the gas back to the biosphere is ensured by several features discussed in the paper. The authors propose a procedure that would be applicable for the creation, testing, and filling of a salt cavern. Achieving a long term prediction of the behavior of the cavern during slow closure, coupled to the pressure and volume behavior of the gas within the cavern represents the critical factor. The authors came up with an acceptable prediction by using a semi-analytical model. The use of salt caverns for the permanent sequestration of carbon dioxide has not yet faced technical obstacles that would prevent it. The authors argue that sequestration of carbon dioxide in salt caverns represents an environmentally acceptable option in Alberta. 11 refs., 3 figs

  20. Cooperative work program between ERDA/OWI and the Swedish State Power Board on waste storage in mined caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent conferences between members of OWI and LBL, and members of the Swedish State Power Board have revealed that an abandoned iron ore mine in Stripa, Sweden, can be used in a very profitable manner for a cooperative work program on the problem of radioactive waste storage in mined caverns. The main thrust of this cooperative work program will be to determine the feasibility of using a mined cavern in hard rock as a permanent repository for high level radioactive materials. The ERDA/OWI program is directed along different lines that complement the Swedish program. Seven tasks are involved as follows: Task 1 will investigate over a two-year period the temperature effects in the granite rock mass at Stripa using a full scale electric heater that simulates the energy output of radioactive waste canisters. Task 2 will determine the long term effect of waste heat in a fractured rock mass. Task 3 will assess the fracture hydrology in the Stripa mine. Task 4 will involve geophysical measurements to determine the locations of the fracture system in the granite rock mass. Task 5 is a laboratory investigation on the measurement of rock properties that are urgently needed in the overall problem of evaluating repository sites in the U.S. Task 6 will involve a method of measuring the gross seepage rate in the low permeability granitic rocks at Stripa. Task 7 will determine the virgin state of stress in the fractured granite rock mass at Stripa

  1. Numerical simulation for the coupled thermo-mechanical performance of a lined rock cavern for underground compressed air energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shu-Wei; Xia, Cai-Chu; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Mei, Song-Hua; Zhou, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a technology that uses compressed air to store surplus electricity generated from low power consumption time for use at peak times. This paper presents a thermo-mechanical modeling for the thermodynamic and mechanical responses of a lined rock cavern used for CAES. The simulation was accomplished in COMSOL Multiphysics and comparisons of the numerical simulation and some analytical solutions validated the thermo-mechanical modeling. Air pressure and temperatures in the sealing layer and concrete lining exhibited a similar trend of ‘up-down-down-up’ in one cycle. Significant temperature fluctuation occurred only in the concrete lining and sealing layer, and no strong fluctuation was observed in the host rock. In the case of steel sealing, principal stresses in the sealing layer were larger than those in the concrete and host rock. The maximum compressive stresses of the three layers and the displacement on the cavern surface increased with the increase of cycle number. However, the maximum tensile stresses exhibited the opposite trend. Polymer sealing achieved a relatively larger air temperature and pressure compared with steel and air-tight concrete sealing. For concrete layer thicknesses of 0 and 0.1 m and an initial air pressure of 4.5 MPa, the maximum rock temperature could reach 135 °C and 123 °C respectively in a 30 day simulation.

  2. State of the art for fabricating and emplacing concrete containers into large horizontal disposal caverns in the french geological repository - 59267

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosgiraud, Jean-Michel; Guariso, Maurice; Pineau, Francois

    2012-01-01

    The research and development work presented in this paper was initialized by Andra in 2007. The work necessary for manufacturing and testing a full scale demonstrator is presently implemented. The case story is twofold. The first part is related to the initial development of a high performance concrete formulation used for fabricating concrete storage containers (containing Intermediate Level and Long Lived Waste primary canisters) to be stacked and emplaced into 400-m long concrete lined horizontal disposal vaults (also called cavern), excavated in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay host formation at a 550 to 600-m depth, with an inside diameter of approximately 8-m. The fabrication of the concrete boxes is illustrated. The second part presents the outcome at the end of the detailed design phase, for a system which is now being manufactured (for further test and assembly), for the emplacement of the concrete containers inside the vault. The application was engineered for remote emplacing a pile of 2 concrete containers (the containers are preliminarily stacked in a pile of 2, inside a hot cell, thanks to a ground travelling gantry crane). The emplacement process is justified and the related emplacement synoptic is illustrated. The test campaign is scheduled in 2011-2012. The successful completion of the technical trials is mandatory to confirm the mechanical feasibility of remotely emplacing concrete containers into large horizontal disposal caverns over long distances. The later display of the machinery at work in Andra's showroom will be instrumental for the confidence building process involving the various stakeholders concerned by the public enquiry period (mid-2013) preceding the deep geological repository license application (2014-2015). (authors)

  3. Heat storage in underground caverns - measurements and simulations; Speicherung von Waerme in Grubenraeumen - Messung und Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaberg, A; Krause, H; Poetke, W [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik und Technische Thermodynamik

    1997-12-01

    Among the different discussed underground concepts for longterm storing of solar or waste heat old waterfilled mines can be an interesting solution. To examine the temperature behaviour of this storage type a testing store is built in a mine belonging to the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology in Saxonia. In a longterm project temperatures are measured inside the water volume and in the adjacent rock. The temperature behaviour depends on the operating conditions. Inside the water volume temperature stratification can be observed. During loading and standstill heat is transported into the rock surrounding. A certain part of this amount of heat can be discharged again. For designing and optimizing this storage type a numerical modell is developed. The modell is validated with experimental data from the testing plant. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter den verschiedenen, in der Diskussion stehenden Untegrund-Waermespeichern fuer Solarwaerme oder Abwaerme bieten sich auch geflutete Gruben als Waermespeicher an. Zur Untersuchung des Temperaturverhaltens dieses Speichertyps ist im Saechsischen Lehr- und Besucherbergwerk der TU Bergakademie Freiberg ein Versuchsspeicher errichtet worden. In einem Langzeitversuch wird das Temperaturfeld im Wasser und im angrenzenden Gestein aufgezeichnet. Das Temperaturverhalten ist von den Betriebsgroessen abhaengig. Im Grubenwasser stellt sich eine stabile Temperaturschichtung ein. Waehrend der Beladung und der Stillstandszeiten wird Waerme in die Gesteinsumgebung transportiert. Ein Teil dieser Waermemenge kann wider entspeichert werden. Zur Auslegung und Optimierung von Gruben-Waermespeichern ist ein numerisches Modell entwickelt worden. Das Modell ist anhand der Messergebnisse des Versuchsspeichers validiert worden. (orig.)

  4. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Mok; Rutqvist, Jonny; Ryu, Dong-Woo; Choi, Byung-Hee; Sunwoo, Choon; Song, Won-Kyong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We carried out coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport analysis. ► Coupled behavior associated with underground lined caverns for CAES was investigated. ► Air leakage could be reduced by controlling the permeability of concrete lining. ► Heat loss during compression would be gained back at subsequent decompression phase. -- Abstract: This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operation costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1 × 10 −18 m 2 would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operation pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operation air pressure and when the lining is kept at relatively high moisture content. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability of less than 1 × 10 −18 m 2 , heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be

  5. "Tepid" Geysers above salt caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérest, Pierre; Brouard, Benoît; Zakharov, Vassily

    2018-06-01

    The formation of a brine geyser erupting from the wellhead of a large underground salt cavern is described. In most cases, the brine outflow from an opened cavern is slow; it results from the cavern creep closure and the thermal expansion of the cavern brine. These two processes are smooth; however, the brine outflow often is bumpy, as it is modulated by atmospheric pressure variations that generate an elastic increase (or decrease) of both cavern and brine volumes. In addition, when the flow is fast enough, the brine thermodynamic behavior in the wellbore is adiabatic. The cold brine expelled from the cavern wellhead is substituted with warm brine entering the borehole bottom, resulting in a lighter brine column. The brine outflow increases. In some cases, the flow becomes so fast that inertia terms must be taken into account. A geyser forms, coming to an end when the pressure in the cavern has dropped sufficiently. A better picture is obtained when head losses are considered. A closed-form solution can be reached. This proves that two cases must be distinguished, depending on whether the cold brine initially contained in the wellbore is expelled fully or not. It can also be shown that geyser formation is a rare event, as it requires both that the wellbore be narrow and that the cavern be very compressible. This study stemmed from an actual example in which a geyser was observed. However, scarce information is available, making any definite interpretation difficult. xml:lang="fr"

  6. Radioactive waste storage in mined caverns in crystalline rock: results of field investigations at Stripa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.

    1980-10-01

    It is generally agreed that the most practicable method of isolating nuclear wastes from the biosphere is by deep burial in suitable geologic formations. Such burial achieves a high degree of physical isolation but raises questions concerning the rate at which some of these wastes may return to the biosphere through transport by groundwater. Any suitable repository site will be disturbed first by excavation and second by the thermal pulse caused by the radioactive decay of the wastes. To assess the effectiveness of geologic isolation it is necessary to develop the capability of predicting the response of a rock mass to such a thermal pulse. Ultimately, this requires field measurements below the surface in media representative of those likely to be encountered at an actual repository. Access to a granitic rock mass adjacent to a defunct iron ore mine at Stripa, Sweden, at a depth of about 350 m below surface has provided a unique opportunity to conduct a comprehensive suite of hydrological and thermo-mechanical experiments under such conditions. The results of these field tests have shown the importance of geologic structure and the functional dependence of the thermo-mechanical properties on temperature in developing a valid predictive model. The results have also demonstrated the vital importance of carrying out large-scale investigations in a field test facility

  7. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage

  8. Calculation of the water permeability in large scale at a rock cavern in Blekinge, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, U.; Granero, J.J.

    1979-08-01

    A contract for KBS, Hagconsult has interpreted water leakage date for rock chambers near the harbor of Karlshamn in Southern Sweden. The storage plant consists of four separate rock chambers, each with a ca cross sectional area of 600 m 2 and a volume of 400.000 m 3 . The bedrock consists of gray, fine-grained gneiss, named ''Blekinge kustgnejs''. Through a simple potential flow analysis, utilizing homogeneous and isotropic rock conditions, the gross hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass was estimated at 1 x 10 -8 m/s. (author)

  9. Literature Survey Concerning the Feasibility of Remedial Leach for Select Phase I Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flores, Karen A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Bryan Mound 5 ( BM5 ) and West Hackberry 9 ( WH9 ) have the potential to create a significant amount of new storage space should the caverns be deemed "leach - ready". This study discusses the original drilling history of the caverns, surrounding geology, current stability, and, based on this culmination of data, makes a preliminary assessment of the leach potential for the cavern. The risks associated with leaching BM5 present substantial problems for the SPR . The odd shape and large amount of insoluble material make it difficult to de termine whether a targeted leach would have the desired effect and create useable ullage or further distort the shape with preferential leaching . T he likelihood of salt falls and damaged or severed casing string is significant . In addition, a targeted le ach would require the relocation of approximately 27 MMB of oil . Due to the abundance of unknown factors associated with this cavern, a targeted leach of BM5 is not recommended. A targeted leaching of the neck of WH 9 could potentially eliminate or diminis h the mid - cavern ledge result ing in a more stable cavern with a more favorable shape. A better understanding of the composition of the surrounding salt and a less complicated leaching history yields more confidence in the ability to successfully leach this region. A targeted leach of WH9 can be recommended upon the completion of a full leach plan with consideration of the impacts upon nearby caverns .

  10. Investigation of underground caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, E.; Lichter, D.

    1979-01-01

    By means of a probe the condition of the boundary surfaces, other parameters, or the contents of the caverns, e.g. in salt rock may be investigated for ultimate storage of radioactive waste. The probe is hanging on a measuring cable designed as a suspending wire leading to a driving and remote-control mechanism and to evaluation units standing on the surface. At the lower end of the probe an extensionarm is hinged as supporting arm for the testing equipment. The supporting arm can be rotated about the probe axis. As testing equipment e.g. ultrasonic probes, lasers, temperature and moisture sensors may be used. (RW) [de

  11. Penile cavernous hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoughit ECHCHAOUI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are benign lesions that occur in any part of the body in newborns or in young patients, they are typically capillary or cavernous. Cavernous hemangioma of the penis is extremely rare; and its etiology is not completely understood. Treatment options (surgical excision, laser therapy or sclerotherapy… are controversial and are required if pain, cosmetic defect and/or bleeding during intercourse.                                                  We report a case of a 26 years old man presented with a five years history of a painless lesion on his penis. Physical examination showed an ovoid, solid, 1 x 2 mm in size on the dorsum of penis (Panel A and two elevated irregular lesions on the ventral side (Panel B. The lesions were compressive, nonpulsatile and bluish-red in color with strawberry like appearance. Biopsy and histopathological examination of the lesion revealed a gaping and communicating vessels proliferated in the superficial and medium dermis which is pathognomonic for cavernous hemangioma (Panel C and D. Given the small size, the large number of the lesions, the young age, and the ulceration risk during intercourse if skin graft after excision, Neodymium: YAG laser coagulation was recommended to get a good cosmetic results and sexual function satisfaction.

  12. Storage process of large solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno; Thiery, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Process for the storage of large size solid radioactive waste, consisting of contaminated objects such as cartridge filters, metal swarf, tools, etc, whereby such waste is incorporated in a thermohardening resin at room temperature, after prior addition of at least one inert charge to the resin. Cross-linking of the resin is then brought about [fr

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry oil storage cavern fire and spill of September 21, 1978: an environmental assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A

    1980-02-29

    This report summarizes an environmental assessment of the fire and oil spill at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site, West Hackberry, Louisiana. Subjective identification of oil contaminated habitats was supported by a more rigorous classification of samples utilizing discriminant analysis. Fourteen contaminated stations were identified along the shore of Black Lake just north and west of Wellpad 6, encompassing approximately 9 hectares. Seasonal variation in the structures of marsh and lake bottom communities in this contaminated area were not generally distinguishable from that of similar communities in uncontaminated habitats along the southern and southeastern shores of Black Lake. The major impact of spilled oil on the marsh vegetation was to accelerate the natural marsh deterioration which will eventually impact animals dependent on marsh vegetation for habitat structure. Vanadium, the predominate trace metal in the oil, and pyrogenic products due to the fire were found at the most distant sampling site (5 km) from Cavern 6 during Phase I, but were not detected downwind of the fire in excess of background levels in the later phases. Remote sensing evaluation of vegetation under the plume also indicated that stress existed immediately after the fire, but had disappeared by the end of the 1-year survey.

  14. Analysis of cavern stability at the West Hackberry SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-05-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressuization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 ft of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage is

  15. JACoW Virtual control commissioning for a large critical ventilation system: The CMS cavern use case

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, William; Bradu, Benjamin; Sourisseau, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    The current cavern ventilation control system of the CMS experiment at CERN is based on components which are already obsolete: the SCADA system, or close to the end of life: the PLCs. The control system is going to be upgraded during the LHC Long Shutdown 2 (2019-2020) and will be based on the CERN industrial control standard: UNICOS employing WinCC OA as SCADA and Schneider PLCs. Due to the critical nature of the CMS ventilation installation and the short allowed downtime, the approach was to design an environment based on the virtual commissioning of the new control. This solution uses a first principles model of the ventilation system to simulate the real process. The model was developed with the modelling and simulation software EcosimPro. In addition, the current control application of the cavern ventilation will also be re-engineered as it is not completely satisfactory in some transients where many sequences are performed manually and some pressure fluctuations observed could potentially cause issues t...

  16. Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-04-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to

  17. Development and utilization of a mechanical barrier for large-calibre cavern necks. The ''Spider Plug''; Entwicklung und Einsatz einer mechanischen Absperrung fuer grosskalibrige Kavernenhaelse. Der ''Spider Plug''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, K.; Maut, D. [UGS GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    An hydraulic separation of a well and the cavern can be necessary for different workover applications, e.g. casing milling or underreaming. The separation is needed to ensure a mud circulation during such operations. In that case a barrier is set after flooding the cavern, which will then be used as a mechanical abutment for the cement bridge. If the diameter of the cavern neck has been enlarged due to e.g. unwanted leaching processes or unstabilized underreaming processes, it might get impossible to set a standard plug with the available technologies into those diameters. Therefore UGS GmbH has developed a mechanical plug, which is set hydraulically. The so called 'Spider Plug' is used as basis for a cement bridge and can be removed by drilling after the workover has been done. Depending on the dimension of the setting tool a cavern neck up to 50'' diameter can be plugged by the 'Spider Plug'. Up to now a number of successful operations on different locations has shown, that the 'Spider Plug' is a practicable and cost-efficient solution for a mechanical abutment of large cavern necks. (orig.)

  18. Pulsed rf systems for large storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1979-03-01

    The possibility is considered that by using a pulsed rf system a substantial reduction can be made in the rf power requirement for the next generation of large storage rings. For a ring with a sufficiently large circumference, the time between bunch passages, T/sub b/, can exceed the cavity filling time, T/sub f/. As the ratio T/sub b//T/sub f/ increases, it is clear that at some point the average power requirement can be reduced by pulsing the rf to the cavities. In this mode of operation, the rf power is turned on a filling time or so before the arrival of a bunch and is switched off again at the time of bunch passage. There is no rf energy in the accelerating structure, and hence no power dissipation, for most of the period between bunches

  19. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher

  20. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    cavern sealing and operation. The MDCF model is used in three simulations of field experiments in which indirect measures were obtained of the generation of damage. The results of the simulations help to verify the model and suggest that the model captures the correct fracture behavior of rock salt. The model is used in this work to estimate the generation and location of damage around a cylindrical storage cavern. The results are interesting because stress conditions around the cylindrical cavern do not lead to large amounts of damage. Moreover, the damage is such that general failure can not readily occur, nor does the extent of the damage suggest possible increased permeation when the surrounding salt is impermeable

  1. Numerical simulation for excavation and long-term behavior of large-scale cavern in soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Masataka; Okada, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste is planned to be disposed at the depth of more than 50 m in Neogene tuff or tuffaceous sandstone. Generally there are few cracks in sedimentary soft rocks, thus it is considered to be easier to determine permeability of soft rocks than that of discontinuous rocks. On the other hand, sedimentary soft rocks show strong time-dependent behavior, and they are more sensitive to heat, groundwater, and their chemical effect. Numerical method for long-term behavior of underground facilities is necessary to their design and safety assessment. Numerical simulations for excavation of test cavern in disposal site are described in this report. Our creep model was applied to these simulations. Although it is able to reproduce the behavior of soft rock observed in laboratory creep test, simulation using parameters obtained from laboratory tests predicts much larger displacement than that of measurement. Simulation using parameters modified based on in-situ elastic wave measurement and back analysis reproduces measured displacements very well. Behavior of the surrounding rock mass during resaturation after setting of the waste and the engineered barrier system is also simulated. We have a plan to investigate chemical and mechanical interaction among soft rock, tunnel supports and engineered barriers, and to make their numerical models. (author)

  2. Energy storage device with large charge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Timothy P.; Prinz, Friedrich B.; Iancu, Andrei T.

    2018-04-03

    High density energy storage in semiconductor devices is provided. There are two main aspects of the present approach. The first aspect is to provide high density energy storage in semiconductor devices based on formation of a plasma in the semiconductor. The second aspect is to provide high density energy storage based on charge separation in a p-n junction.

  3. Digging a cavern for a titan

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    Civil engineers work 100 m underground near the France-Swiss border on the cavern that will soon house ATLAS, one of the experiments on CERN's new LHC accelerator. All personnel and equipment must be lowered by crane down the access shaft. When completed this cavern will have one of the largest spans constructed at 35 m, which required the roof to be supported by large steel anchors buried in concrete.

  4. Caverns for neutrino physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffaut, P.

    2005-01-01

    Since more than 20 years, particle physicists are using underground facilities to catch cosmic neutrinos and to get rid of other parasitic cosmic radiations. The observation of significant numbers of neutrinos requires the use of large volume caverns at important depths. This article presents such existing facilities in the US, France, Italy, UK, Spain, Japan (Kamioka), Russia and India and the different projects in competition for the setting up of a mega-ton detector with a volume of 1 million m 3 of water (DUSEL project in the US, MEMPHYS project in France, Hyperkamiokande in Japan). Several suitable underground spaces are available in these countries (abandoned mines, tunnels) but each has its advantages and drawbacks in terms of rock mechanics, access and seismicity. (J.S.)

  5. Viewing Systems for Large Underground Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Robinson, C.W.; Anderson, E.K.; Pardini, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    Specialized remote video systems have been successfully developed and deployed in a number of large radiological Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)that tolerate the hostile tank interior, while providing high resolution video to a remotely located operator. The deployment is through 100 mm (4 in) tank openings, while incorporating full video functions of the camera, lights, and zoom lens. The usage of remote video minimizes the potential for personnel exposure to radiological and hazardous conditions, and maximizes the quality of the visual data used to assess the interior conditions of both tank and contents. The robustness of this type of remote system has a direct effect on the potential for radiological exposure that personnel may encounter. The USTs typical of the Savannah River and Hanford Department Of Energy - (DOE) sites are typically 4.5 million liter (1.2 million gal) units under earth. or concrete overburden with limited openings to the surface. The interior is both highly contaminated and radioactive with a wide variety of nuclear processing waste material. Some of the tanks are -flammable rated -to Class 1, Division 1,and personnel presence at or near the openings should be minimized. The interior of these USTs must be assessed periodically as part of the ongoing management of the tanks and as a step towards tank remediation. The systems are unique in their deployment technology, which virtually eliminates the potential for entrapment in a tank, and their ability to withstand flammable environments. A multiplicity of components used within a common packaging allow for cost effective and appropriate levels of technology, with radiation hardened components on some units and lesser requirements on other units. All units are completely self contained for video, zoom lens, lighting, deployment,as well as being self purging, and modular in construction

  6. First experiences with large SAN storage and Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wezel, Jos van; Marten, Holger; Verstege, Bernhard; Jaeger, Axel

    2004-01-01

    The use of a storage area network (SAN) with Linux opens possibilities for scalable and affordable large data storage and poses a new challenge for cluster computing. The GridKa center uses a commercial parallel file system to create a highly available high-speed data storage using a combination of Fibre Channel (SAN) and Ethernet (LAN) to optimize between data throughput and costs. This article describes the design, implementation and optimizations of the GridKa storage solution which will offer over 400 TB online storage for 600 nodes. Presented are some throughput measurements of one of the largest Linux-based parallel storage systems in the world

  7. Experiments on hydraulically-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system using large-diameter vertical pipe two-phase flow test facility: test facility and test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsu, Iwao; Murata, Hideo; Kukita, Yutaka; Kumamaru, Hiroshige.

    1996-07-01

    JAERI, the University of Tokyo, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry and Shimizu Corporation jointing performed and experimental study on two-phase flow in the hydraulically-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system with a large-diameter vertical pipe two-phase flow test facility from 1993 to 1995. A hydraulically-compensated CAES system is a proposed, conceptual energy storage system where energy is stored in the form of compressed air in an underground cavern which is sealed by a deep (several hundred meters) water shaft. The shaft water head maintains a constant pressure in the cavern, of several mega Pascals, even during loading or unloading of the cavern with air. The dissolved air in the water, however, may create voids in the shaft when the water rises through the shaft during the loading, being forced by the air flow into the cavern. The voids may reduce the effective head of the shaft, and thus the seal may fail, if significant bubbling should occur in the shaft. This bubbling phenomenon (termed 'Champaign effect') and potential failure of the water seal ('blowout') are simulated in a scaled-height, scaled-diameter facility. Carbon dioxide is used to simulate high solubility of air in the full-height, full-pressure system. This report describes the expected and potential two-phase flow phenomena in a hydraulically-compensated CAES system, the test facility and the test procedure, a method to estimate quantities which are not directly measured by using measured quantities and hydrodynamic basic equations, and desirable additional instrumentation. (author)

  8. CMS cavern inspection robot

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Robots which are immune to the CMS cavern environment, wirelessly controlled: -One actuated by smart materials (Ionic Polymer-Metal Composites and Macro Fiber Composites) -One regular brushed DC rover -One servo-driven rover -Stair-climbing robot

  9. Intracranial cavernous angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhi, Fumiaki; Gondou, Masazumi; Sasahira, Masahiro; Ichitsubo, Hidenori; Asakura, Tetsuhiko.

    1986-01-01

    The present authors have experienced 2 cases of intracranial cavernous angioma. Of these cases, one was admitted because of generalized convulsions, while the other was admitted because of headache. In both cases, neither plain X-ray films nor carotid angiography showed any abnormality, but computerized tomography (CT) revealed a slightly high-density area which was not enhanced with contrast media. Histologically, the tumors had many vascular cavities with walls lined with a single layer of endothelial cells and had no neural tissue between the vascular cavities; therefore, they were diagnosed as cases of cavernous angioma. The authors discussed the radiological findings of the intracranial cavernous angioma with a review of the literature and stressed the role of computerized tomography in the diagnosis of cavernous angioma. (author)

  10. Systematic Evaluation of Salt Cavern Well Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B. L.; Lord, D. L.; Lord, A. S.; Bettin, G.; Sobolik, S. R.; Park, B. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) holds a reserve of crude oil ( 700 million barrels) to help ease any interruptions in oil import to the United States. The oil is stored in a set of 63 underground caverns distributed across four sites along the U.S. Gulf Coast. The caverns were solution mined into salt domes at each of the four sites. The plastic nature of the salt is beneficial for the storage of crude oil as it heals any fractures that may occur in the salt. The SPR is responsible for operating and maintaining the nearly 120 wells used to access the storage caverns over operational lifetimes spanning decades. Salt creep can induce deformation of the well casing which must be remediated to insure cavern and well integrity. This is particularly true at the interface between the plastic salt and the rigid caprock. The Department of Energy, the SPR Management and Operations contractor, and Sandia National Laboratories has developed a multidimensional well-grading system for the salt cavern access wells. This system is designed to assign numeric grades to each well indicating its risk of losing integrity and remediation priority. The system consists of several main components which themselves may consist of sub-components. The main components consider such things as salt cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations modeling salt deformation, and measurements of well casing deformation due to salt creep. In addition, the geology of the salt domes and their overlying caprock is also included in the grading. These multiple factors are combined into summary values giving the monitoring and remediation priority for each well. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.

  11. Surveying the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The cathedral-like cavern into which the ATLAS experiment will be lowered and installed forms a vital part of the engineering work at CERN in preparation for the new LHC accelerator. This cavern, being measured by surveyors in these images, will have one of the largest spans of any man-made underground structure. The massive 46X25X25 cubic metre detector will be the largest of its type in the world when it is completed for the LHC start-up in 2008.

  12. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J.N.

    1998-01-20

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T{sub ij}(x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval. 6 figs.

  13. Monitoring and/or Detection of Wellbore Leakage In Energy Storage Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratigan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Energy (compressed natural gas, crude oil, NGL, and LPG) storage wells in solution-mined caverns in salt formations are required to be tested for integrity every five years. Rules promulgated for such testing typically assume the cavern interval in the salt formation is inherently impermeable, even though some experience demonstrates that this is not always the case. A protocol for testing the cavern impermeable hypothesis should be developed. The description for the integrity test of the "well" component of the well and cavern storage system was developed more than 30 years ago. However, some of the implicit assumptions inherent to the decades-old well test protocol are no longer applicable to the large diameter, high flow rate wells commonly constructed today. More detailed test protocols are necessary for the more contemporary energy storage wells.

  14. Prospects for large scale electricity storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Ekman, Claus; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2010-01-01

    In a future power systems with additional wind power capacity there will be an increased need for large scale power management as well as reliable balancing and reserve capabilities. Different technologies for large scale electricity storage provide solutions to the different challenges arising w...

  15. Strategic petroleum reserve caverns casing damage update 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Molecke, M.A.; Neal, J.T. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Hanging casing strings are used for oil and brine transfer in the domal salt storage caverns of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Damage to these casings is of concern because hanging string replacement is costly and because of implications on cavern stability. Although the causes of casing damage are not always well defined, many events leading to damage are assumed to be the result of salt falls impacting the hanging strings. However, in some cases, operational aspects may be suspected. The history of damage to hanging strings is updated in this study to include the most recent events. Potential general domal and local operational and material factors that could influence the tendency for caverns to have salt falls are examined in detail. As a result of this examination, general factors, such as salt dome anomalies and crude type, and most of the operational factors, such as geometry, location and depressurizations, are not believed to be primary causes of casing damage. Further analysis is presented of the accumulation of insolubles during cavern solutioning and accumulation of salt fall material on the cavern floor. Inaccuracies in sump geometry probably make relative cavern insolubles contents uncertain. However, determination of the salt fall accumulations, which are more accurate, suggest that the caverns with the largest salt fall accumulations show the greatest number of hanging string events. There is good correlation between the accumulation rate and the number of events when the event numbers are corrected to an equivalent number for a single hanging string in a quiescent, operating cavern. The principal factor that determines the propensity for a cavern to exhibit this behavior is thought to be the effect of impurity content on the fracture behavior of salt.

  16. Intracranial cavernous hemangiomas: a case report and bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiguihara, L.C.M.; Granero, P.C.; Gianotti, I.A.; Lederman, H.M.; Seixas, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This is a case report of intracranial cavernous hemangioma that presented with macrocrania. A large, spontaneously hyperdense area with mass effect on CT was seen. This is a rare vascular malformation evolving the CNS in pediatrics. (author)

  17. Review of applicable technology: solution mining of caverns in salt domes to serve as repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    There is an abundance of salt domes in the Gulf Coastal region. Advances in leaching technology and cavern shape control make it possible to build large caverns with configurations approaching teardrops, cylinders, and spheres. Fenix and Scisson has designed and constructed several dozen caverns in sizes up to three million barrels (16.8 million cubic feet). It is now within current technological bounds to evacuate the brine left in the cavern following construction, dehumidify the cavern atmosphere and supply conditioned cavern ventilation. The state-of-the-art in drilling large diameter holes has advanced to the point that it is now possible to drill 120-in. holes as deep as 6,000 ft and 144-in. holes to lesser depths. Additional research is needed in the area of cavern stability. Cavern shrinkage rates are known to increase with depth because of lower salt strengths at higher pressures and temperatures

  18. Large permanent magnet quadrupoles for an electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herb, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    We have built large high quality permanent magnet quadrupoles for use as interaction region quadrupoles in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring where they must operate in the 10 kG axial field of the CLEO experimental detector. We describe the construction and the magnetic measurement and tuning procedures used to achieve the required field quality and stability. (orig.)

  19. Genetics Home Reference: cerebral cavernous malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Cavernous Malformations Disease InfoSearch: Cerebral Cavernous Malformation ...

  20. Cavern disposal concepts for HLW/SF: assuring operational practicality and safety with maximum programme flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, Ian G.; Apted, Mick; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Most conventional engineered barrier system (EBS) designs for HLW/SF repositories are based on concepts developed in the 1970s and 1980s that assured feasibility with high margins of safety, in order to convince national decision makers to proceed with geological disposal despite technological uncertainties. In the interval since the advent of such 'feasibility designs', significant progress has been made in reducing technological uncertainties, which has lead to a growing awareness of other, equally important uncertainties in operational implementation and challenges regarding social acceptance in many new, emerging national repository programs. As indicated by the NUMO repository concept catalogue study (NUMO, 2004), there are advantages in reassessing how previous designs can be modified and optimised in the light of improved system understanding, allowing a robust EBS to be flexibly implemented to meet nation-specific and site-specific conditions. Full-scale emplacement demonstrations, particularly those carried out underground, have highlighted many of the practical issues to be addressed; e.g., handling of compacted bentonite in humid conditions, use of concrete for support infrastructure, remote handling of heavy radioactive packages in confined conditions, quality inspection, monitoring / ease of retrieval of emplaced packages and institutional control. The CAvern REtrievable (CARE) concept reduces or avoids such issues by emplacement of HLW or SF within multi-purpose transportation / storage / disposal casks in large ventilated caverns at a depth of several hundred metres. The facility allows the caverns to serve as inspectable stores for an extended period of time (up to a few hundred years) until a decision is made to close them. At this point the caverns are backfilled and sealed as a final repository, effectively with the same safety case components as conventional 'feasibility designs'. In terms of operational practicality an d safety, the CARE

  1. Analysis of cavern and well stability at the West Hackberry SPR site using a full-dome model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) West Hackberry site. The cavern field comprises 22 caverns. Five caverns (6, 7, 8, 9, 11) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 17 caverns (101-117) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a three-dimensional geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios corresponding to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant results in this report are relevant to Cavern 6. The cavern is shaped like a bowl with a large ceiling span and is in close proximity to Cavern 9. The analyses predict tensile stresses at the edge of the ceiling during repressurization of Cavern 6 following workover conditions. During a workover the cavern is at low pressure to service a well. The wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension around the edge of the large ceiling span. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state because of salt creep. However, the potential for salt fracture and propagation exists, particularly towards Cavern 9. With only 200 feet of salt between the caverns, the operational consequences must be examined if the two caverns become connected. A critical time may be during a workover of Cavern 9 in part because of the operational vulnerabilities, but also because dilatant damage

  2. Brain stem cavernous angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcarpio-O'Donovan, R.; Melanson, D.; Tampieri, D.; Ethier, R.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-two cases of cavernous angioma of the brain stem were definitely diagnosed by means of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In many cases, the diagnosis had remained elusive for several years. Clinically, some cases behaved like multiple sclerosis or brain stem tumor. Others, usually associated with bleeding, caused increased intracranial pressure or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The diagnostic limitations of computed tomography in the posterior fossa are well known. Angiography fails to reveal abnormalities, since this malformation has neither a feeding artery nor a draining vein. Diagnosticians' familiarity with the MR appearance of this lesion may save patients from invasive diagnostic studies and potentially risky treatment

  3. A review of pumped energy storage schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, G.N.

    1975-07-01

    The comparative advantages and costs of pumped water storage, steam accumulators, storage of boiler feedwater , and compressed air storage in caverns are described. Boiler feedwater storage in caverns and pumped water storage are most economical. All systems are costly enough to justify developing reactors with load following capabilities. (E.C.B.)

  4. Analysis of large concrete storage tank under seismic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Jingyuan; Cui, Hongcheng; He, Qiang; Ju, Jinsan [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); You, Xiaochuan [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-01-15

    This study adopted the finite element software ABAQUS to trace the dynamic response history of large reinforced concrete storage tank during different seismic excitations. The dynamic characteristics and failure modes of the tank's structure were investigated by considering the rebar's effect. Calculation results show that the large concrete storage tank remains in safe working conditions under a seismic acceleration of 55 cm/s{sup 2}. The joint of the concrete wall and dome begins to crack when seismic acceleration reaches 250 cm/s{sup 2}. As the earthquake continues, cracks spread until the top of the wall completely fails and stops working. The maximum displacement of the concrete tank and seismic acceleration are in proportion. Peak displacement and stress of the tank always appear behind the maximum acceleration.

  5. Consequent implementation of a LKS concept using the natural gas storage cavern as an example; Konsequente Umsetzung eines LKS-Konzeptes am Beispiel des Erdgaskavernenspeichers Jemgum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steller, Daniel; Buhr, Klaus-Dieter; Kruemmel, Dirk [Steffel KKS GmbH, Lachendorf (Germany); Engelke, Hermann [EWE Netz GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In Jengum (Federal Republic of Germany) EWE Gasspeicher GmbH (Oldenburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and astora GmbH and Co. KG (Kassel, Federal Republic of Germany) constructed commonly the second largest natural gas storage facility in Germany. With a planned storage capacity of 2.2 billion cubic meters of natural gas, this natural gas storage facility project provides a significant contribution to the energy supply in Germany. Technical measures such as cathodic corrosion protection play an important part in the construction of the natural gas storage facilities: All underground components of this storage facility have to be protected effectively against corrosion from security aspects and value-preserving aspects. For this, challenges such as topography, geology and structural features have to be considered. Furthermore, different operational requirements of each installation (sol technology and gas operation) are to be considered previously. This was achieved by means of a consistent implementation of the system-specific LKS protection plan and by means of a continuous supervision.

  6. Valuation of gas stored in salt cavern facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Michael A. [St. Mary' s University, TX (United States); Grant, Floyd H. [Purdue University, IN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Since natural gas production is relatively inelastic towards demand in the short term, underground storage is used as a buffer against periods of high demand. Of the three most common storage facility types, depleted reservoirs, aquifers and manmade salt caverns, the latter is the most costly to develop. The challenge then is to maximize profits through efficient operation, well-timed injection and withdrawal of gas. The valuation of a commodity in storage is a challenging problem and has been the subject of study for decades. We investigate selected existing valuation approaches and look for ways to leverage salt-cavern-specific physical characteristics for financial advantage. The basis for our valuation is the Black-Scholes model for pricing options. Then, applying Monte-Carlo methods and simulation, we model combinations of characteristics in multi-cavern facilities and their impact on profitability. We describe the theory behind our work and our analytical framework and provide numerical results of our analysis. Our approach offers increased efficiency in salt-cavern gas storage facility operations. (author)

  7. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit. The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1 finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2 make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3 build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4 set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1 the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2 there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3 the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples

  8. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, H.

    2013-06-01

    CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit). The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year) is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1) finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2) make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3) build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4) set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1) the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2) there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3) the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples close to the

  9. 78 FR 57625 - Arlington Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... existing salt caverns previously used for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage, the proposed Gallery 2... caverns, known as Gallery 2, to natural gas storage at its Seneca Lake Storage facility in Schuyler County, New York. The conversion of the Gallery 2 caverns to natural gas storage would add 0.55 billion cubic...

  10. Principal considerations in large energy-storage capacitor banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    Capacitor banks storing one or more megajoules and costing more than one million dollars have unique problems not often found in smaller systems. Two large banks, Scyllac at Los Alamos and Shiva at Livermore, are used as models of large, complex systems. Scyllac is a 10-MJ, 60-kV theta-pinch system while Shiva is a 20-MJ, 20-kV energy system for laser flash lamps. A number of design principles are emphasized for expediting the design and construction of large banks. The sensitive features of the charge system, the storage system layout, the switching system, the transmission system, and the design of the principal bank components are presented. Project management and planning must involve a PERT chart with certain common features for all the activities. The importance of the budget is emphasized

  11. Analysis of SPR salt cavern remedial leach program 2013.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Paula D.; Gutierrez, Karen A.; Lord, David L.; Rudeen, David Keith

    2013-09-01

    The storage caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) exhibit creep behavior resulting in reduction of storage capacity over time. Maintenance of oil storage capacity requires periodic controlled leaching named remedial leach. The 30 MMB sale in summer 2011 provided space available to facilitate leaching operations. The objective of this report is to present the results and analyses of remedial leach activity at the SPR following the 2011 sale until mid-January 2013. This report focuses on caverns BH101, BH104, WH105 and WH106. Three of the four hanging strings were damaged resulting in deviations from normal leach patterns; however, the deviations did not affect the immediate geomechanical stability of the caverns. Significant leaching occurred in the toes of the caverns likely decreasing the number of available drawdowns until P/D ratio criteria are met. SANSMIC shows good agreement with sonar data and reasonably predicted the location and size of the enhanced leaching region resulting from string breakage.

  12. NOSQL FOR STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF LARGE LIDAR DATA COLLECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Boehm

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Developments in LiDAR technology over the past decades have made LiDAR to become a mature and widely accepted source of geospatial information. This in turn has led to an enormous growth in data volume. The central idea for a file-centric storage of LiDAR point clouds is the observation that large collections of LiDAR data are typically delivered as large collections of files, rather than single files of terabyte size. This split of the dataset, commonly referred to as tiling, was usually done to accommodate a specific processing pipeline. It makes therefore sense to preserve this split. A document oriented NoSQL database can easily emulate this data partitioning, by representing each tile (file in a separate document. The document stores the metadata of the tile. The actual files are stored in a distributed file system emulated by the NoSQL database. We demonstrate the use of MongoDB a highly scalable document oriented NoSQL database for storing large LiDAR files. MongoDB like any NoSQL database allows for queries on the attributes of the document. As a specialty MongoDB also allows spatial queries. Hence we can perform spatial queries on the bounding boxes of the LiDAR tiles. Inserting and retrieving files on a cloud-based database is compared to native file system and cloud storage transfer speed.

  13. Nosql for Storage and Retrieval of Large LIDAR Data Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J.; Liu, K.

    2015-08-01

    Developments in LiDAR technology over the past decades have made LiDAR to become a mature and widely accepted source of geospatial information. This in turn has led to an enormous growth in data volume. The central idea for a file-centric storage of LiDAR point clouds is the observation that large collections of LiDAR data are typically delivered as large collections of files, rather than single files of terabyte size. This split of the dataset, commonly referred to as tiling, was usually done to accommodate a specific processing pipeline. It makes therefore sense to preserve this split. A document oriented NoSQL database can easily emulate this data partitioning, by representing each tile (file) in a separate document. The document stores the metadata of the tile. The actual files are stored in a distributed file system emulated by the NoSQL database. We demonstrate the use of MongoDB a highly scalable document oriented NoSQL database for storing large LiDAR files. MongoDB like any NoSQL database allows for queries on the attributes of the document. As a specialty MongoDB also allows spatial queries. Hence we can perform spatial queries on the bounding boxes of the LiDAR tiles. Inserting and retrieving files on a cloud-based database is compared to native file system and cloud storage transfer speed.

  14. Acoustic Profiling of Bottom Sediments in Large Oil Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svet, V. D.; Tsysar', S. A.

    2018-01-01

    Characteristic features of acoustic profiling of bottom sediments in large oil storage tanks are considered. Basic acoustic parameters of crude oil and bottom sediments are presented. It is shown that, because of the presence of both transition layers in crude oil and strong reverberation effects in oil tanks, the volume of bottom sediments that is calculated from an acoustic surface image is generally overestimated. To reduce the error, additional post-processing of acoustic profilometry data is proposed in combination with additional measurements of viscosity and tank density distributions in vertical at several points of the tank.

  15. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two

  16. EXAMINE AND EVALUATE A PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; D. Braxton Scherz

    2003-04-24

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy cooperative research project is to define, describe, and validate, a process to utilize salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships. The project defines the process as receiving LNG from a ship, pumping the LNG up to cavern injection pressures, warming it to cavern compatible temperatures, injecting the warmed vapor directly into salt caverns for storage, and distribution to the pipeline network. The performance of work under this agreement is based on U.S. Patent 5,511,905, and other U.S. and Foreign pending patent applications. The cost sharing participants in the research are The National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. Department of Energy), BP America Production Company, Bluewater Offshore Production Systems (U.S.A.), Inc., and HNG Storage, L.P. Initial results indicate that a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at about half the capital cost, less than half the operating costs and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. There is a significant body of knowledge and practice concerning natural gas storage in salt caverns, and there is a considerable body of knowledge and practice in handling LNG, but there has never been any attempt to develop a process whereby the two technologies can be combined. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or terrorist acts, and much more acceptable to the community. The project team developed conceptual designs of two salt cavern based LNG terminals, one with caverns located in Calcasieu Parish Louisiana, and the second in Vermilion block 179 about 50 miles offshore Louisiana. These conceptual designs were compared to conventional tank based LNG terminals and demonstrate superior security, economy and capacity. The potential for the development of LNG receiving terminals

  17. Self-oscillations in large storages of highly mineralized brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Tsiberkin, Kirill; Parshakova, Yanina

    2014-05-01

    One of the stages of the production process at large enrichment plants is settling of aqueous solutions in large technological storages. The present work is devoted to the modeling of hydrodynamic regimes of large storage of highly mineralized brines. The density of brines in these objects depends not only on the content of dissolved macrocomponents, but also on the concentration of fine particulate matter. This leads to the need to consider the dynamics of the suspended sediment under significant density stratification, which greatly complicates the problem. Because of that it is important to develop hydrodynamical models of these objects. A peculiarity of these systems is the possibility of self-oscillatory regimes the mechanism of which is as follows. In warm sunny days, with high solar insolation, the heating of the sediments and bottom water takes place. The bottom water warming and the decrease of its density give rise to flow. The slurry particles composing the sediments are involved in the flow. The heated particles entrained by the flow transfer the heat to the surrounding liquid and increase the absorption of the solar radiation in the volume, which leads to equalization of temperature and convective flow damping. After the particle settling on the bottom the process is repeated. We study the stability of equilibrium of the horizontal liquid layer containing heavy insoluble particles in the presence of evaporation from the free surface and solar radiation absorption by insoluble particles. The time-dependent solution of heat transfer problem is obtained and used for estimate of time of instability onset. It is found that for the layer of saturated brines of potassium chloride of the thickness about 10 m the time for instability onset is about one hour. By using analytical estimates based on the empirical model of turbulence by Prandtl we confirmed the time for the onset of instability and obtained the estimates for the period of self

  18. The huge ATLAS cavern now fully excavated

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Excavation of the ATLAS cavern is now complete! At the end of two years' work involving a tremendous technical challenge, the civil engineering contractors have succeeded in digging out one of the biggest experimental caverns in the world. Bravo!

  19. Beyond peak reservoir storage? A global estimate of declining water storage capacity in large reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisser, D.; Frolking, S.; Hagen, Stephen; Bierkens, M.F.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2013-01-01

    Water storage is an important way to cope with temporal variation in water supply anddemand. The storage capacity and the lifetime of water storage reservoirs can besignificantly reduced by the inflow of sediments. A global, spatially explicit assessment ofreservoir storage loss in conjunction with

  20. Fat in the normal cavernous sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Takaaki; Kera, Masahiro; Suzuki, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    1986-01-01

    The cavernous sinuses of 17 patients examined by metrizamide CT cisternography with 1.5 mm-thick silces were reviewed. Most of the cavernous sinuses contained fatty components. Anterior lateral end and posterior end of the cavernous sinus are the comon sites where the fat is visible. (orig.)

  1. Geological Feasibility of Underground Oil Storage in Jintan Salt Mine of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xilin Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of large underground oil storage spaces will be constructed in deep salt mines in China in the coming years. According to the general geological survey, the first salt cavern oil storage base of China is planned to be built in Jintan salt mine. In this research, the geological feasibility of the salt mine for oil storage is identified in detail as follows. (1 The characteristics of regional structure, strata sediment, and impermeable layer distribution of Jintan salt mine were evaluated and analyzed. (2 The tightness of cap rock was evaluated in reviews of macroscopic geology and microscopic measuring. (3 According to the geological characteristics of Jintan salt mine, the specific targeted formation for building underground oil storage was chosen, and the sealing of nonsalt interlayers was evaluated. (4 Based on the sonar measuring results of the salt caverns, the characteristics of solution mining salt caverns were analyzed. In addition, the preferred way of underground oil storage construction was determined. (5 Finally, the results of closed well observation in solution mining salt caverns were assessed. The research results indicated that Jintan salt mine has the basic geological conditions for building large-scale underground oil storage.

  2. Metastases in the cavernous synus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria Fernandez, C.; Gonzalez Patino, E.; Pereiro Zabala, I.; Lopez Vazquez, M.D.; Cascallar Caneda, L.; Porto Vazquez, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    We report four cases of metastases in the cavernous synus in patients with primary tumors of parotid gland, lymphatic system, breast and colon. In spite of the similarity in the presentation clinic, the diagnosis wasn't carried out in all the cases with the required celerity, specially in the case of the first presentation of metastasis disease. Three of them response. We analyze the clinic and radiologic data characteristical in cavernous synus metastases, highliting the importance of diagnostic techniques, facilitating as soon as possible the suitable treatment. (Author)

  3. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-01-01

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  4. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  5. Characteristics of large thermal energy storage systems in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzchowski, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    In District Heating Systems (DHS) there are significant fluctuations in demand for heat by consumers during both the heating and the summer seasons. These variations are considered primarily in the 24-hour time horizon. These problems are aggravated further if the DHS is supplied by a CHP plant, because fluctuations in heat demand adversely affect to a significant degree the stable production of electricity at high overall efficiency. Therefore, introducing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) would be highly recommended on these grounds alone. The characteristics of Large (i.e. over 10 000 m3) TES in operation in Poland are presented. Information is given regarding new projects (currently in design or construction) that apply TES technology in DHS in Poland. The paper looks at the methodology used in Poland to select the TES system for a particular DHS, i.e., procedure for calculating capacity of the TES tank and the system to prevent water stored in the tank from absorbing oxygen from atmospheric air. Implementation of TES in DHS is treated as a recommended technology in the Polish District Heating sector. This technology offers great opportunities to improve the operating conditions of DHS, cutting energy production costs and emissions of pollutants to the atmosphere.

  6. Pressure bump instability in very large cold bore storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, P.

    1983-12-01

    Calculations have been done to estimate the circulating current necessary to induce the onset of a pressure bump instability in a cold bore storage ring. For a wide range of storage ring parameters, the instability threshold current is more than an order of magnitude higher than the operating current. 4 references, 2 tables

  7. Thermo-mechanical modelling of salt caverns due to fluctuating loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, N.

    2015-12-01

    This work summarizes the development and application of a numerical model for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of salt caverns during cyclic gas storage. Artificial salt caverns are used for short term energy storage, such as power-to-gas or compressed air energy storage. Those applications are characterized by highly fluctuating operation pressures due to the unsteady power levels of power plants based on renewable energy. Compression and expansion of the storage gases during loading and unloading stages lead to rapidly changing temperatures in the host rock of the caverns. This affects the material behaviour of the host rock within a zone that extends several meters into the rock mass adjacent to the cavern wall, and induces thermo-mechanical stresses and alters the creep response.The proposed model features the thermodynamic behaviour of the storage medium, conductive heat transport in the host rock, as well as temperature dependent material properties of rock salt using different thermo-viscoplastic material models. The utilized constitutive models are well known and state-of-the-art in various salt mechanics applications. The model has been implemented into the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Thermal and mechanical processes are solved using a finite element approach, coupled via a staggered coupling scheme. The simulation results allow the conclusion, that the cavern convergence rate (and thus the efficiency of the cavern) is highly influenced by the loading cycle frequency and the resulting gas temperatures. The model therefore allows to analyse the influence of operation modes on the cavern host rock or on neighbouring facilities.

  8. Tolerance of cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus to radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishler, R.B.; Loeffler, J.S.; Alexander, E. III; Kooy, H.M.; Lunsford, L.D.; Duma, C.; Flickinger, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is becoming a more accepted treatment option for benign, deep seated intracranial lesions. However, little is known about the effects of large single fractions of radiation on cranial nerves. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of radiosurgery on the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus. The authors examined the tolerance of cranial nerves (II-VI) following radiosurgery for 62 patients (42/62 with meningiomas) treated for lesions within or near the cavernous sinus. Twenty-nine patients were treated with a modified 6 MV linear accelerator (Joint Center for Radiation Therapy) and 33 were treated with the Gamma Knife (University of Pittsburgh). Three-dimensional treatment plans were retrospectively reviewed and maximum doses were calculated for the cavernous sinus and the optic nerve and chiasm. Median follow-up was 19 months (range 3-49). New cranial neuropathies developed in 12 patients from 3-41 months following radiosurgery. Four of these complications involved injury to the optic system and 8 (3/8 transient) were the result of injury to the sensory or motor nerves of the cavernous sinus. There was no clear relationship between the maximum dose to the cavernous sinus and the development of complications for cranial nerves III-VI over the dose range used (1000-4000 cGy). For the optic apparatus, there was a significantly increased incidence of complications with dose. Four of 17 patients (24%) receiving greater than 800 cGy to any part of the optic apparatus developed visual complications compared with 0/35 who received less than 800 cGy (p = 0.009). Radiosurgery using tumor-controlling doses of up to 4000 cGy appears to be a relatively safe technique in treating lesions within or near the sensory and motor nerves (III-VI) of the cavernous sinus. The dose to the optic apparatus should be limited to under 800 cGy. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Angiographic patterns of carotid-cavernous fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, G.; Jekova, M.; Genov, P.; Hadjidekov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study is to present our experience in angiographic evaluation of carotid-cavernous fistulas. 8 patients with carotid-cavernous fistula (6 men and 2 women, range of age from 15 to 62) are included in the study out of all undergone cerebral angiography for a four year period (1996 - 2000). All patients underwent CT brain examination, two out of 8 - MRI. Visualization of ipsi- and contra lateral cavernous sinus and ophthalmic vein dilatation are assessed. In all cases the communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus has been assessed as direct. Near simultaneous visualization of the home internal carotid artery, the dilated ipsilateral cavernous sinus and dilated superior ophthalmic vein is found in 2 patients, simultaneous visualization of both cavernous sinuses - in two. In 1 patient the early visualization of the cavernous sinus through the fistula enabled visualization of ipsilateral main internal carotid artery from the contra lateral circulation through the communicating arteries.In 1 excessive contralateral cavernous sinus and contralateral superior ophthalmic vein dilatation is detected. In other 1 excessive flow to dilated ipsilateral cavernous sinus lead insufficient circulation in distal vessels. Digital subtraction Angiography remains the most suitable imaging method in carotid-cavernous fistula assessment regarding type of communication and level of following vessels morphology changes

  10. Large Survey Database: A Distributed Framework for Storage and Analysis of Large Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juric, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The Large Survey Database (LSD) is a Python framework and DBMS for distributed storage, cross-matching and querying of large survey catalogs (>10^9 rows, >1 TB). The primary driver behind its development is the analysis of Pan-STARRS PS1 data. It is specifically optimized for fast queries and parallel sweeps of positionally and temporally indexed datasets. It transparently scales to more than >10^2 nodes, and can be made to function in "shared nothing" architectures. An LSD database consists of a set of vertically and horizontally partitioned tables, physically stored as compressed HDF5 files. Vertically, we partition the tables into groups of related columns ('column groups'), storing together logically related data (e.g., astrometry, photometry). Horizontally, the tables are partitioned into partially overlapping ``cells'' by position in space (lon, lat) and time (t). This organization allows for fast lookups based on spatial and temporal coordinates, as well as data and task distribution. The design was inspired by the success of Google BigTable (Chang et al., 2006). Our programming model is a pipelined extension of MapReduce (Dean and Ghemawat, 2004). An SQL-like query language is used to access data. For complex tasks, map-reduce ``kernels'' that operate on query results on a per-cell basis can be written, with the framework taking care of scheduling and execution. The combination leverages users' familiarity with SQL, while offering a fully distributed computing environment. LSD adds little overhead compared to direct Python file I/O. In tests, we sweeped through 1.1 Grows of PanSTARRS+SDSS data (220GB) less than 15 minutes on a dual CPU machine. In a cluster environment, we achieved bandwidths of 17Gbits/sec (I/O limited). Based on current experience, we believe LSD should scale to be useful for analysis and storage of LSST-scale datasets. It can be downloaded from http://mwscience.net/lsd.

  11. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of experiments was conducted to determine whether volumetric leak detection system presently used to test underground storage tanks (USTs) up to 38,000 L (10,000 gal) in capacity could meet EPA's regulatory standards for tank tightness and automatic tank gauging systems whe...

  12. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  13. MR findings of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Lae; Lee, Nam Joon; Lee, Jung Hee; Pyo, Hyeon Soon; Eo, Geun; Kim, Kyo Nam; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jang Min [Kwang Myung Sung Ae Hospital, Kwang Myung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Don Young [Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-08-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinus. Eleven MR images of six patients with septic cavernous sinus thrombosis obtained over a five-year period and proven clinically or radiologically were retrospectively reviewed. The contour and enhancement pattern of the cavernous sinus, changes in the internal carotid artery, orbit, pituitary gland and sphenoid sinus, and intracranial abnormalities were analyzed and compared with the findings of follow-up studies. In all six patients, contrast study revealed asymmetrical enlargement of the ipsilateral cavernous sinus and multiple irregular filling defects within it. Narrowing of the cavernous portion of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery was noted in five patients, upward displacement of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery in four, ipsilateral proptosis with engorgement of the superior ophthalmic vein in two, pituitary enlargement in five, and inflammatory change in the sphenoid sinus in six. Associated intracranial abnormalities included edema and enhancement in the meninx, temporal lobe, or pons adjacent to the cavernous sinus in four patients, hydrocephalus in one, and cerebral infarction in one. Follow-up MR imaging indicated that the extent of asymmetrical enlargement of the cavernous sinus, filling defects within it, as seen on contrast study, and enlarged pituitary glands had all decreased, without significant interval change. MR imaging is useful in the diagnosis of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis. Asymmetrical enlargement of the cavernous sinus, multiple irregular filling defect within it, as seen on contrast study, and changes in the internal carotid artery are characteristic findings. (author)

  14. Reinforcement of the concrete base slab of the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 02: UX15 cavern, preparation for concreting of base slab first lift. Photo 05: UX15 cavern, placing of reinforcement for base slab first lift. Photo 07: UX15 cavern, preparation for concreting of base slab first lift. Photo 09: UX15 cavern, placing of reinforcement for base slab first lift. Photo 10: UX15 cavern, view into PX14 shaft above. Photo 12: UX15 cavern, temporary access platform of RB16 tunnel. Photo 15: UJ17 chamber, invert excavation.

  15. The viability of balancing wind generation with large scale energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdash, Batsaikhan; Denny, Eleanor; O'Malley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of combining wind generation and dedicated large scale energy storage on the conventional thermal plant mix and the CO 2 emissions of a power system. Different strategies are proposed here in order to explore the best operational strategy for the wind and storage system in terms of its effect on the net load. Furthermore, the economic viability of combining wind and large scale storage is studied. The empirical application, using data for the Irish power system, shows that combined wind and storage reduces the participation of mid-merit plants and increases the participation of base-load plants. Moreover, storage negates some of the CO 2 emissions reduction of the wind generation. It was also found that the wind and storage output can significantly reduce the variability of the net load under certain operational strategies and the optimal strategy depends on the installed wind capacity. However, in the absence of any supporting mechanism none of the storage devices were economically viable when they were combined with the wind generation on the Irish power system. - Research Highlights: → Energy storage would displace the peaking and mid-merit plants generations by the base-load plants generations. Energy storage may negate the CO 2 emissions reduction that is due to the increased wind generations. →Energy storage reduces the variation of the net load. →Under certain market conditions, merchant type energy storage is not viable.

  16. Clinical features and management of cavernous and venous angiomas in the head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Koji; Date, Isao

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous angiomas consist of well-circumscribed collections of thin-walled sinusoidal vascular channels lacking the intervening brain tissue. They are present in 0.4-0.8% of the population, and can occur in a sporadic or familial form. Most common symptoms are seizures, hemorrhage, and focal neurological deficits. The annual bleeding rate of the patient is reported to be 0.25%-20%. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful diagnostic tool with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Microsurgical excision of the lesion is a good treatment choice for cavernous angiomas in the brain, even in the brainstem. Although stereotactic radiosurgery may reduce the incidence of rebleeding and the frequency of seizures, its indication should be carefully investigated because of the relatively high rate of radiation-induced side effects. Less frequently, cavernous angiomas can be located at the extra-axial regions of the head, which include the cavernous sinus, the orbit, and the cranial nerves. Cavernous angiomas in the cavernous sinus pose a neurosurgical challenge due to the high vascularity and involvement of the neurovascular structures, and stereotactic radiosurgery is considered as an additional option. Surgical resection is recommended for symptomatic cavernous angiomas in the orbit; however, the rate of complications after resection is not necessarily low for cavernous angiomas within the apex. Venous angiomas are anomalies of normal venous drainage, which show characteristic appearance of the drainage system in the late phase of angiography (caput medusae). They are found either alone or in combination with other vascular malformations. Conservative treatment is recommended except for patients with a large hematoma or with a coexisting cavernous angioma. (author)

  17. The Analysis of RDF Semantic Data Storage Optimization in Large Data Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dandan; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Can

    2018-03-01

    With the continuous development of information technology and network technology in China, the Internet has also ushered in the era of large data. In order to obtain the effective acquisition of information in the era of large data, it is necessary to optimize the existing RDF semantic data storage and realize the effective query of various data. This paper discusses the storage optimization of RDF semantic data under large data.

  18. Special technology with high safety-related standards for the repair of the wellhead damage of a gas filled cavern at storage site Stassfurt; Spezialtechnologie mit hohen Sicherheitsvorkehrungen zur Beseitigung des Bohrlochkopfschadens einer Gaskaverne des Kavernenspeichers Stassfurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, S.; Klafki, M. [ESK-Erdgasspeicher Kalle GmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    For the completion of the cavern Stassfurt S 106 which was leached by the so called ''solution mining under gas'' technology, the leaching strings 6 5/8''-4 1/2'' should be pulled out by using a snubbing unit. Due to an unexpected damage at the wellhead, the job could not be realized as projected. Therefore the snubbing work was stopped. For solving the technical damage different repair concepts were investigated, for example partial flooding of the cavern with brine or water, sealing of wellhead components by freezing or cutting of the lower leaching string section and setting plugs afterwards. All concepts had been evaluated concerning feasibility and risks. The most favourable technology was selected on the basis of a comparison of pros and cons and was planned for realization according to a detailed working programme. The specialized contractors as well as the fire brigade have guaranteed the required safety measures. The essential planning and working steps will be described as well as the acquired experiences will be explained in the following section. Finally, it can be stated that all jobs were realized according to the projected programme and all involved persons perfectly worked with the special technologies. (orig.)

  19. Arachnoid cyst in cavernous sinus: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyoung Gun; Yoo, Won Jong; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Hae Gui; Lim, Hyun Wook; Im, Soo Ah

    2002-01-01

    Arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus is very rare. When present, its anatomic location frequently gives rise to cranial nerve palsy. We report a case of arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus in a 38-year-old man with impaired eyeball movement and diplopia

  20. Arachnoid cyst in cavernous sinus: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyoung Gun; Yoo, Won Jong; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Hae Giu; Lim, Hyun Wook; Im, Soo Ah

    2002-01-01

    Arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus is very rare. When present, its anatomic location frequently gives rise to cranial nerve palsy. We report a case of arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus in a 38-year-old man with impeder eyeball movement and diplopia

  1. Arachnoid cyst in cavernous sinus: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyoung Gun; Yoo, Won Jong; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Hae Giu; Lim, Hyun Wook; Im, Soo Ah [The Catholic University of Kore College of Medicine, Puchun (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    Arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus is very rare. When present, its anatomic location frequently gives rise to cranial nerve palsy. We report a case of arachnoid cyst of the cavernous sinus in a 38-year-old man with impeder eyeball movement and diplopia.

  2. Hazard assessment of the stability of a cavern roof along the coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, A.; Lollino, P.

    2009-04-01

    This work concerns the hazard assessment about the stability of a large shallow depth cavern, located along the coastline rocky sector of Polignano town (Apulia, Southern Italy) under an intensely urbanised area. This cavern, which lies at the sea level, has been created by a prolonged process of sea erosion within a rock mass formed of a lower stratified limestone mass and an upper Gravina Calcarenite mass. The thickness of the cavern roof, which has a dome shape, is less than 10 metres in the centre. Important buildings, as hotels and private houses, are located just above the top of the roof. Erosion processes have been observed to be still active along the whole cavern due to climate factors and, in particular, to sea salt weathering and sea spray effects. In 2007 a large calcarenite block, 3 m large, fell down from the cavern roof and consequently a field investigation campaign was carried out for a rational stabilization plan in order to understand the current stability conditions of the roof and the potential failure mechanism. Therefore, a thorough geo-structural survey has firstly been carried out, together with laboratory and in-situ testing for measuring the physical and mechanical properties of the calcarenite rock and of the corresponding joints. A monitoring system has also been planned and installed in order to measure the erosional rate and the block displacements in the cavern.

  3. Cryogenic systems for large superconducting accelerators/storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.

    1981-01-01

    Particle accelerators and storage rings which utilize superconducting magnets have presented cryogenic system designers, as well as magnet designers, with many new challenges. When such accelerators were first proposed, little operational experience existed to guide the design. Two superconducting accelerators, complete with cryogenic systems, have been designed and are now under construction. These are the Fermilab Doubler Project and the Brookhaven National Laboratory ISABELLE Project. The cryogenic systems which developed at these two laboratories share many common characteristics, especially as compared to earlier cryogenic systems. Because of this commonality, these characteristics can be reasonably taken as also being representative of future systems. There are other areas in which the two systems are dissimilar. In those areas, it is not possible to state which, if either, will be chosen by future designers. Some of the design parameters for the two systems are given

  4. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouard B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  5. The “Endothelialized Muscularis Mucosae”: A Case Report Describing a Large Cavernous Hemangioma at the Terminal Ileum and a New Histologic Clue for Preoperative Diagnosis from Endoscopic Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy-Payne, Erin K.; Miner, Jean F.; Foles, Brandon; Tran, Tien-Anh N.

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract are quite rare and, until now, have been difficult to diagnose preoperatively due their nonspecific presentations and imaging features, as well as a lack of histologic description pertaining to small superficial biopsies such as those obtained endoscopically. We report a unique case of a 4 cm transmural cavernous hemangioma in the terminal ileum with literature review and describe a new histologic finding—the “endothelialized muscularis mucosae,” which was discovered upon review of the endoscopic biopsy and could potentially facilitate preoperative diagnosis of these lesions from endoscopic biopsies in the future. These lesions have classically required surgical resection in order to make a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy, with which they share many historical and radiographic features. Due to their potential to cause bowel obstruction, intussusception, perforation, and hemorrhage, these lesions may ultimately require surgical resection to relieve symptoms or prevent or treat complications—however, surgical planning and patient counseling could be greatly improved by a preoperative diagnosis. Therefore, gastroenterologists, pathologists, and surgeons should be aware of the “endothelialized muscularis mucosae” which can be very helpful in diagnosing GI cavernous hemangiomas from endoscopic biopsies. PMID:26442160

  6. The “Endothelialized Muscularis Mucosae”: A Case Report Describing a Large Cavernous Hemangioma at the Terminal Ileum and a New Histologic Clue for Preoperative Diagnosis from Endoscopic Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Purdy-Payne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangiomas of the gastrointestinal tract are quite rare and, until now, have been difficult to diagnose preoperatively due their nonspecific presentations and imaging features, as well as a lack of histologic description pertaining to small superficial biopsies such as those obtained endoscopically. We report a unique case of a 4 cm transmural cavernous hemangioma in the terminal ileum with literature review and describe a new histologic finding—the “endothelialized muscularis mucosae,” which was discovered upon review of the endoscopic biopsy and could potentially facilitate preoperative diagnosis of these lesions from endoscopic biopsies in the future. These lesions have classically required surgical resection in order to make a definitive diagnosis and rule out malignancy, with which they share many historical and radiographic features. Due to their potential to cause bowel obstruction, intussusception, perforation, and hemorrhage, these lesions may ultimately require surgical resection to relieve symptoms or prevent or treat complications—however, surgical planning and patient counseling could be greatly improved by a preoperative diagnosis. Therefore, gastroenterologists, pathologists, and surgeons should be aware of the “endothelialized muscularis mucosae” which can be very helpful in diagnosing GI cavernous hemangiomas from endoscopic biopsies.

  7. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwen Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  8. Large-Scale Wireless Temperature Monitoring System for Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangwen; Shen, Yu; Hao, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zongming; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-09-18

    Temperature distribution is a critical indicator of the health condition for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) storage tanks. In this paper, we present a large-scale wireless temperature monitoring system to evaluate the safety of LPG storage tanks. The system includes wireless sensors networks, high temperature fiber-optic sensors, and monitoring software. Finally, a case study on real-world LPG storage tanks proves the feasibility of the system. The unique features of wireless transmission, automatic data acquisition and management, local and remote access make the developed system a good alternative for temperature monitoring of LPG storage tanks in practical applications.

  9. Correction: Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2017-01-01

    Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479.......Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479....

  10. Report on the explosion, fire, and oil spill resulting in one fatality and injury on September 21, 1978, at Well 6 of Cavern 6 at the West Hackberry, Louisiana, oil storage site of the strategic petroleum reserve. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The following report is the independent product of the Accident Investigation Committee which was commissioned by the Department of Energy following the accident on September 21, 1978, at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve site at West Hackberry, Louisiana. This Committee is charged with the task of determining the nature, extent, and causes of that accident, which resulted in loss of life, injury and property damage, and the need for corrective action. A nonburning oil spill went into nearby Black Lake, but was contained by the deployment of a series of oil spill containment booms and a prevailing wind from the northeast that kept the oil spill in a restricted area near shore. Because of the rapid and effective containment and cleanup of the oil spill by the Rapid Response Team, it appears very likely at this time that Black Lake will not sustain any permanent environmental damage. Cavern 6 initially contained approximately 7,000,000 barrels of oil at a pressure of 650 psig measured at the well head. As of September 29, 1978, the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office - New Orleans (SPRO) estimated that oil expulsion from Cavern 6 was 67,510 barrels. Of this, 34,620 barrels of oil are accounted for, including 31,200 barrels of oil released into Black Lake and subsequently recovered. The remainder (32,890 barrels) was assumed by SPRO to have been burned. The total loss is presently estimated by the Accident Investigation Committee 's consultant to be $12 million. An assessment of the technical problems present at the time of the accident is given. Recommendations for improved safety procedures are included.

  11. Large temporal scale and capacity subsurface bulk energy storage with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M. O.; Fleming, M. R.; Adams, B. M.; Ogland-Hand, J.; Nelson, E. S.; Randolph, J.; Sioshansi, R.; Kuehn, T. H.; Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Decarbonizing energy systems by increasing the penetration of variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies requires efficient and short- to long-term energy storage. Very large amounts of energy can be stored in the subsurface as heat and/or pressure energy in order to provide both short- and long-term (seasonal) storage, depending on the implementation. This energy storage approach can be quite efficient, especially where geothermal energy is naturally added to the system. Here, we present subsurface heat and/or pressure energy storage with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) and discuss the system's efficiency, deployment options, as well as its advantages and disadvantages, compared to several other energy storage options. CO2-based subsurface bulk energy storage has the potential to be particularly efficient and large-scale, both temporally (i.e., seasonal) and spatially. The latter refers to the amount of energy that can be stored underground, using CO2, at a geologically conducive location, potentially enabling storing excess power from a substantial portion of the power grid. The implication is that it would be possible to employ centralized energy storage for (a substantial part of) the power grid, where the geology enables CO2-based bulk subsurface energy storage, whereas the VRE technologies (solar, wind) are located on that same power grid, where (solar, wind) conditions are ideal. However, this may require reinforcing the power grid's transmission lines in certain parts of the grid to enable high-load power transmission from/to a few locations.

  12. Valuation framework for large scale electricity storage in a case with wind curtailment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loisel, Rodica; Mercier, Arnaud; Gatzen, Christoph; Elms, Nick; Petric, Hrvoje

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the value of large scale applications of electricity storage in selected European power systems in the context of wind generation confronted with a grid bottleneck. It analyzes the market value to 2030 of two storage technologies, assuming the market situation projected for Germany and France. The analysis assesses the evolution of storage economics based on the net present value of cash flows. Sensitivities to market and regulatory drivers of value are assessed, e.g. electricity price spreads, ancillary services revenues, wind curtailment and the level of carbon prices. The paper concludes by suggesting possible ways to improve the competitiveness of electricity storage, such as research and development and deployment programmes, and changes to the design of power markets and regulatory arrangements to enable storage owners to better capture the benefits of storage. Such changes would allow electricity storage, where economically viable, to play a critical role in establishing a future sustainable European power system. - Research highlights: →CAES and PHS are not cost-effective for current market design in France and Germany → Market reforms are run to reward bottleneck avoiding and ancillary reserves → Storage is profitable when all potential socio-economic benefits are aggregated → R and D and D programs for storage improvement are economically and socially justified.

  13. Large capacity storage of integrated objects before change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Rogier; Spekreijse, Henk; Lamme, Victor A F

    2003-01-01

    Normal people have a strikingly low ability to detect changes in a visual scene. This has been taken as evidence that the brain represents only a few objects at a time, namely those currently in the focus of attention. In the present study, subjects were asked to detect changes in the orientation of rectangular figures in a textured display across a 1600 ms gray interval. In the first experiment, change detection improved when the location of a possible change was cued during the interval. The cue remained effective during the entire interval, but after the interval, it was ineffective, suggesting that an initially large representation was overwritten by the post-change display. To control for an effect of light intensity during the interval on the decay of the representation, we compared performance with a gray or a white interval screen in a second experiment. We found no difference between these conditions. In the third experiment, attention was occasionally misdirected during the interval by first cueing the wrong figure, before cueing the correct figure. This did not compromise performance compared to a single cue, indicating that when an item is attentionally selected, the representation of yet unchosen items remains available. In the fourth experiment, the cue was shown to be effective when changes in figure size and orientation were randomly mixed. At the time the cue appeared, subjects could not know whether size or orientation would change, therefore these results suggest that the representation contains features in their 'bound' state. Together, these findings indicate that change blindness involves overwriting of a large capacity representation by the post-change display.

  14. ATLAS cavern magnetic field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorojtsov, S.B.; Vorozhtsov, A.S.; Butin, F.; Price, M.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach has been adopted in an attempt to produce a complete ATLAS cavern B-field map using a more precise methodological approach (variable magnetisation, depending on the external field) and the latest design taking into account of the structural elements. The basic idea was to produce a dedicated basic TOSCA model and then to insert a series of ferromagnetic structure elements to monitor the perturbative effect on the basic field map. Eventually, it was found: the bedplate field perturbation is an order of magnitude above the permissible level; manufacturing of the bedplates from nonmagnetic material or careful evaluation of their field contribution in the event reconstruction codes is required; the field value at the rack positions is higher than the permissible one; the final position of racks should be chosen taking into account the detailed magnetic field distribution

  15. Collocated Dataglyphs for large-message storage and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Rakhi C.; Breidenbach, Jeff A.; Black, John R.

    2004-06-01

    In contrast to the security and integrity of electronic files, printed documents are vulnerable to damage and forgery due to their physical nature. Researchers at Palo Alto Research Center utilize DataGlyph technology to render digital characteristics to printed documents, which provides them with the facility of tamper-proof authentication and damage resistance. This DataGlyph document is known as GlyphSeal. Limited DataGlyph carrying capacity per printed page restricted the application of this technology to a domain of graphically simple and small-sized single-paged documents. In this paper the authors design a protocol motivated by techniques from the networking domain and back-up strategies, which extends the GlyphSeal technology to larger-sized, graphically complex, multi-page documents. This protocol provides fragmentation, sequencing and data loss recovery. The Collocated DataGlyph Protocol renders large glyph messages onto multiple printed pages and recovers the glyph data from rescanned versions of the multi-page documents, even when pages are missing, reordered or damaged. The novelty of this protocol is the application of ideas from RAID to the domain of DataGlyphs. The current revision of this protocol is capable of generating at most 255 pages, if page recovery is desired and does not provide enough data density to store highly detailed images in a reasonable amount of page space.

  16. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey J.

    2012-03-02

    IThe National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,000 users and hosting some 550 projects that involve nearly 700 codes for a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-scale computing resources NERSC provides critical staff support and expertise to help scientists make the most efficient use of these resources to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Science. In May 2011, NERSC, DOE’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE’s Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for NP research over the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC’s continuing involvement in anticipating future user needs and deploying necessary resources to meet these demands. The workshop revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing NP computing. The key requirements include: 1. Larger allocations of computational resources at NERSC; 2. Visualization and analytics support; and 3. Support at NERSC for the unique needs of experimental nuclear physicists. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. The results are based upon representative samples, called “case studies,” of the needs of science teams within NP. The case studies were prepared by NP workshop participants and contain a summary of science goals, methods of solution, current and future computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, “multi-core” environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report also includes a section with NERSC responses to the workshop findings. NERSC has many initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings and all of the action items are aligned with NERSC strategic plans.

  17. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report includes

  18. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years

  19. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi-Jafari, M.

    2007-11-01

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  20. Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    Electricity storage is needed on an unprecedented scale to sustain the ongoing transition of electricity generation from fossil fuels to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar power. Today pumped hydro is the only commercially viable large-scale electricity storage technology......-scale electricity storage with a round-trip efficiency exceeding 70% and an estimated storage cost around 3 b kW-1 h-1, i.e., comparable to pumped hydro and much better than previously proposed technologies...

  1. Civil Engineering in the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Ghostly figures can be seen wandering the cavern that will eventually house the ATLAS experiment, part of the LHC at CERN. Quite fitting since the detector will hunt the illusive 'ghostly' particles, such as the Higgs boson and dark matter. These engineers are excavating the huge cavern that has to be anchored from above as the detector will fill so much space that there is no room for support pillars.

  2. Characteristics and treatment of cavernous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kenji; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Okabe, Hidetoshi; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Cavernous malformations are clusters of dilated sinusoidal channels with thin walls devoid of elastin and smooth muscle. They have no intervening brain tissue. They occur both in sporadic and familial forms. The genes responsible for cavernous malformations have been identified. Recent reports show that mutations of these responsible genes are involved not only in familial but also in sporadic forms. Germline and somatic mutations may occur before cavernous malformations develop (two-hit mechanism). Two patterns, with mulberry-like and hematoma-like appearances, are seen intraoperatively, and from histological findings, mulberry-like appearance may change into hematoma-like one by intralesional hemorrhage. Cavernous malformation treatments include open surgery and radiosurgery. Open surgery is usually chosen for the treatment of symptomatic hemorrhagic cavernous malformations because post-radiosurgical annual bleeding risks at the early phase seem to be higher than those of open surgery. If open surgery has a high risk because of lesion location, radiosurgery becomes an effective alternative treatment. Brainstem cavernous malformations have high annual bleeding and re-bleeding incidence, so if the lesion is accessible with low risk, open surgery is recommended. (author)

  3. Advances in Large-Scale Solar Heating and Long Term Storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    According to (the) information from the European Large-Scale Solar Heating Network, (See http://www.hvac.chalmers.se/cshp/), the area of installed solar collectors for large-scale application is in Europe, approximately 8 mill m2, corresponding to about 4000 MW thermal power. The 11 plants...... the last 10 years and the corresponding cost per collector area for the final installed plant is kept constant, even so the solar production is increased. Unfortunately large-scale seasonal storage was not able to keep up with the advances in solar technology, at least for pit water and gravel storage...... of the total 51 plants are equipped with long-term storage. In Denmark, 7 plants are installed, comprising of approx. 18,000-m2 collector area with new plants planned. The development of these plants and the involved technologies will be presented in this paper, with a focus on the improvements for Danish...

  4. Electricity storage by gas pumping. An introduction to thermodynamic storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruer, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    To date, Pumped Hydro Storage (PHS) is practically the only technology used to store large quantities of electricity. There are however other ways to achieve the same goal. There are not yet well known, because the interest for large scale storage is quite new A complete family of storage technologies can be defined as 'Thermodynamic Storage Systems'. Their only common factor is that a gas is pumped and expanded in the process. If the gas is air taken from the atmosphere and discharged to it, the system is said 'an open system'. This is already developed in the form of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Different embodiments are possible, following the way the heat gene - rated during the compression stage is conserved. The compressed air is generally stored in underground caverns created in deep salt formations. 2 installations are presently operating and many projects are envisaged. if the gas circulates in closed loop within the plant, the system is said 'a closed system' In this case, the energy is stored as heat and/or cold at different temperature levels. A great variety of technologies can be imagined and are under development, using different gases (e.g. argon, CO 2 ) and different temperature ranges. PHS and CAES require specific sites for water reservoirs or underground caverns. The dosed systems can be installed basically anywhere. (author)

  5. Optimal Offering and Operating Strategy for a Large Wind-Storage System as a Price Maker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Huajie; Pinson, Pierre; Hu, Zechun

    2017-01-01

    Wind farms and energy storage systems are playing increasingly more important roles in power systems, which makes their offering non-negligible in some markets. From the perspective of wind farm-energy storage systems (WF-ESS), this paper proposes an integrated strategy of day-ahead offering...... and real-time operation policies to maximize their overall profit. As participants with large capacity in electricity markets can influence cleared prices by strategic offering, a large scaled WFESS is assumed to be a price maker in day-ahead markets. Correspondingly, the strategy considers influence...

  6. Global models underestimate large decadal declining and rising water storage trends relative to GRACE satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Zhang, Zizhan; Save, Himanshu; Sun, Alexander Y.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Wiese, David N.; Reedy, Robert C.; Longuevergne, Laurent; Döll, Petra; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing reliability of global models is critical because of increasing reliance on these models to address past and projected future climate and human stresses on global water resources. Here, we evaluate model reliability based on a comprehensive comparison of decadal trends (2002–2014) in land water storage from seven global models (WGHM, PCR-GLOBWB, GLDAS NOAH, MOSAIC, VIC, CLM, and CLSM) to trends from three Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite solutions in 186 river basins (∼60% of global land area). Medians of modeled basin water storage trends greatly underestimate GRACE-derived large decreasing (≤−0.5 km3/y) and increasing (≥0.5 km3/y) trends. Decreasing trends from GRACE are mostly related to human use (irrigation) and climate variations, whereas increasing trends reflect climate variations. For example, in the Amazon, GRACE estimates a large increasing trend of ∼43 km3/y, whereas most models estimate decreasing trends (−71 to 11 km3/y). Land water storage trends, summed over all basins, are positive for GRACE (∼71–82 km3/y) but negative for models (−450 to −12 km3/y), contributing opposing trends to global mean sea level change. Impacts of climate forcing on decadal land water storage trends exceed those of modeled human intervention by about a factor of 2. The model-GRACE comparison highlights potential areas of future model development, particularly simulated water storage. The inability of models to capture large decadal water storage trends based on GRACE indicates that model projections of climate and human-induced water storage changes may be underestimated. PMID:29358394

  7. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a user's tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which could offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply or changing seasonal demands. The geostorage site options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and hard rock caverns. The DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of geologic hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an economic analysis methodology and subsequent spreadsheet analysis to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) incorporate more site-specific model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules, (2) develop a version that matches the general format of the HDSAM model developed and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory, and (3) incorporate specific demand scenarios illustrating the model's capability. Four general types of underground storage were analyzed: salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers, and hard rock caverns/other custom sites. Due to the substantial lessons learned from the geological storage of natural gas already employed, these options present a potentially sizable storage option. Understanding and including these various geologic storage types in the analysis physical and economic framework will help identify what geologic option would be best suited for the storage of hydrogen. It is important to note, however, that existing natural gas options may not translate to a hydrogen system where substantial engineering obstacles may be encountered. There are only three locations worldwide that currently store hydrogen underground and they are all in salt caverns. Two locations are in the U.S. (Texas), and are managed by ConocoPhillips and Praxair (Leighty, 2007). The third is in Teeside, U.K., managed by Sabic Petrochemicals (Crotogino

  8. Submarine groundwater discharge into the coast revealed by water chemistry of man-made undersea liquefied petroleum gas cavern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Cho, Byung Wook

    2008-10-01

    SummaryThe occurrence of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) as well as its supply of many nutrients and metals to coastal seawaters is now generally known. However, previous studies have focused on the chemical and radiological analysis of groundwater, surface seawater, shallow marine sediments and their pore waters, as well as the measurement of upward flow through the marine sediments, as end members of the discharge process. In this study, chemical and isotopic analysis results of marine subsurface waters are reported. These were obtained from deep boreholes of an undersea liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage cavern, located about 8 km off the western coast of Korea. The cavern is about 130-150 m below the sea bottom, which is covered by a 4.8-19.5 m silty clay stratum. An isotopic composition (δ 2H and δ 18O) of the marine subsurface waters falls on a mixing line between terrestrial groundwater and seawater. Vertical EC profiling at the cavern boreholes revealed the existence of a fresh water zone. An increase in the contents of ferrous iron and manganese and a decrease in levels of nitrate, bicarbonate and cavern seepage were recorded in August 2006, indicating a decreased submarine groundwater flux originating from land, mainly caused by an elevated cavern gas pressure. It is suggested in this study that the main source of fresh waters in the man-made undersea cavern is the submarine groundwater discharge mainly originating from the land.

  9. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-08-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  10. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-10-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  11. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  12. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 4, West Hackberry site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 4 focuses on the West Hackberry SPR site, located in southwestern Louisiana. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  13. DURAL CAROTID-CAVERNOUS FISTULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cvenkel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas (CCF are communications fed by meningeal branches of the intracavernous internal carotid artery (ACI or/and external carotid artery (ACE. In contrast to typical CCF, the arteriovenous shunting of blood is usually low flow and low pressure. Spontaneous dural CCF are more common in postmenopausal women. Aetiology is unknown, but congenital malformation or rupture of thin-walled dural arteries within venous sinuses is believed to be the cause.Case reports. 3 cases lacking the typical clinical signs of CCF who had been treated as chronic conjunctivitis, myositis of the extraocular muscle and orbital pseudotumour are presented. Clinical presentation depends on the direction and magnitude of fistular flow and on the anatomy of the collateral branches. If increased blood flow is directed anteriorly in ophthalmic veins the signs of orbito-ocular congestion are present (»redeyed shunt syndrome«. Drainage primarly in the inferior petrosal sinus may cause painful oculomotor and abducens palsies without signs of ocular congestion (»white-eyed shunt syndrome«. Also different therapeutic approaches as well as possible complications are described.Conclusions. For definite diagnosis angiography is obligatory and is also therapeutic as one third to one half of dural CCF close spontaneously. Because of potential severe eye and systemic complications, surgical intervention is indicated only in cases with uncontrolled secondary glaucoma and hypoxic retinopathy.

  14. Thermal System Analysis and Optimization of Large-Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongguang Fu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As an important solution to issues regarding peak load and renewable energy resources on grids, large-scale compressed air energy storage (CAES power generation technology has recently become a popular research topic in the area of large-scale industrial energy storage. At present, the combination of high-expansion ratio turbines with advanced gas turbine technology is an important breakthrough in energy storage technology. In this study, a new gas turbine power generation system is coupled with current CAES technology. Moreover, a thermodynamic cycle system is optimized by calculating for the parameters of a thermodynamic system. Results show that the thermal efficiency of the new system increases by at least 5% over that of the existing system.

  15. Stability Analysis of Buffer Storage Large Basket and Temporary Storage Pre-packaging Basket Used in the Type B Radwaste Process Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Kyun; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The ITER radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment and storage systems are currently being designed to manage Type B, Type A and dust radwastes generated during the ITER machine operation. The Type B management system is to be in the hot cell building basement with temporary storage and the modular type storages outside the hot cell building for the pre-packed Type B radwaste during the ITER operation of 20 years. In order to store Type B radwaste components in onsite storage, the waste treatment chain process for Type B radwastes was developed as follows. First, Type B full components filled in a large basket are imported from Tokamak to the hot cell basement and they are stored in the buffer storage before treatment. Second, they are cut properly with a laser cutting machine or band saw machine and sliced waste parts are filled in a pre-packaging basket. Third, the sampling of Type B components is performed and then the tritium removal treatment is done in an oven to remove tritium from the waste surface and then the sampling is performed again. Forth, the characterization is performed by using a gamma spectrometry. Fifth, the pre-packaging operation is done to ensure the final packaging of the radwaste. Sixth, the pre-packaging baskets are stored in the temporary storage for 6 months and then they are sent to the extension storage and stored until export to host country. One of issues in the waste treatment scheme is to analyze the stacking stability of a stack of large baskets and pre-packaging baskets in the storage system. The baseline plan is to stack the large baskets in two layers in the buffer storage and to stack the pre-packaging baskets in three layers in the temporary storage and extension storage. In this study, the stacking stability analysis for the buffer storage large basket and temporary storage pre-packaging basket was performed for various stack failure modes

  16. Extensive optimisation analyses of the piping of two large underground gas storage ariel compressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Korst, H.J.C.; Ploumen, G.; Heyer, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two large identical 6-cylinder Ariel JGB/6 compressors of each 7.5 Mw, are used for the underground gas storage (UGS) plant of Essent in Epe, Germany. The compressors can be operated at a wide range of operating conditions, e.g. variable suction and discharge pressures, 2-stage mode during gas

  17. VOLUMETRIC LEAK DETECTION IN LARGE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS - VOLUME II: APPENDICES A-E

    Science.gov (United States)

    The program of experiments conducted at Griffiss Air Force Base was devised to expand the understanding of large underground storage tank behavior as it impacts the performance of volumetric leak detection testing. The report addresses three important questions about testing the ...

  18. A central solar-industrial waste heat heating system with large scale borehole thermal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.; Yang, X.; Xu, L.; Torrens, I.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new research of seasonal thermal storage is introduced. This study aims to maximize the utilization of renewable energy source and industrial waste heat (IWH) for urban district heating systems in both heating and non-heating seasons through the use of large-scale seasonal thermal

  19. Survey and analysis of selected jointly owned large-scale electric utility storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and document the issues surrounding the curtailment in commercialization of large-scale electric storage projects. It was sensed that if these issues could be uncovered, then efforts might be directed toward clearing away these barriers and allowing these technologies to penetrate the market to their maximum potential. Joint-ownership of these projects was seen as a possible solution to overcoming the major barriers, particularly economic barriers, of commercializaton. Therefore, discussions with partners involved in four pumped storage projects took place to identify the difficulties and advantages of joint-ownership agreements. The four plants surveyed included Yards Creek (Public Service Electric and Gas and Jersey Central Power and Light); Seneca (Pennsylvania Electric and Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company); Ludington (Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, and Bath County (Virginia Electric Power Company and Allegheny Power System, Inc.). Also investigated were several pumped storage projects which were never completed. These included Blue Ridge (American Electric Power); Cornwall (Consolidated Edison); Davis (Allegheny Power System, Inc.) and Kttatiny Mountain (General Public Utilities). Institutional, regulatory, technical, environmental, economic, and special issues at each project were investgated, and the conclusions relative to each issue are presented. The major barriers preventing the growth of energy storage are the high cost of these systems in times of extremely high cost of capital, diminishing load growth and regulatory influences which will not allow the building of large-scale storage systems due to environmental objections or other reasons. However, the future for energy storage looks viable despite difficult economic times for the utility industry. Joint-ownership can ease some of the economic hardships for utilites which demonstrate a need for energy storage.

  20. Large-Scale Demonstration of Liquid Hydrogen Storage with Zero Boiloff for In-Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Flachbart, R. H.; Holt, K. A.; Johnson, E.; Hedayat, A.; Hipp, B.; Plachta, D. W.

    2010-01-01

    Cryocooler and passive insulation technology advances have substantially improved prospects for zero-boiloff cryogenic storage. Therefore, a cooperative effort by NASA s Ames Research Center, Glenn Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was implemented to develop zero-boiloff concepts for in-space cryogenic storage. Described herein is one program element - a large-scale, zero-boiloff demonstration using the MSFC multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB). A commercial cryocooler was interfaced with an existing MHTB spray bar mixer and insulation system in a manner that enabled a balance between incoming and extracted thermal energy.

  1. Catalytic Metal Free Production of Large Cage Structure Carbon Particles: A Candidate for Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Ferguson, Frank T.

    2005-01-01

    We will demonstrate that carbon particles consisting of large cages can be produced without catalytic metal. The carbon particles were produced in CO gas as well as by introduction of 5% methane gas into the CO gas. The gas-produced carbon particles were able to absorb approximately 16.2 wt% of hydrogen. This value is 2.5 times higher than the 6.5 wt% goal for the vehicular hydrogen storage proposed by the Department of Energy in the USA. Therefore, we believe that this carbon particle is an excellent candidate for hydrogen storage for fuel cells.

  2. Nitrogen Monitoring of West Hackberry 117 Cavern Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern West Hackberry 117 was tested under extended nitrogen monitoring following a successful mechanical integrity test in order to validate a newly developed hydrostatic column model to be used to differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen. High resolution wireline pressure and temperature data were collected during the test period and used in conjunction with the hydrostatic column model to predict the nitrogen/oil interface and the pressure along the entire fluid column from the bradenhead flange nominally at ground surface to bottom of brine pool. Results here and for other SPR caverns have shown that wells under long term nitrogen monitoring do not necessarily pressurize with a relative rate (P N2 /P brine) of 1. The theoretical relative pressure rate depends on the well configuration, pressure and the location of the nitrogen-oil interface and varies from well to well. For the case of WH117 the predicted rates were 0.73 for well A and 0.92 for well B. The measured relative pressurization rate for well B was consistent with the model prediction, while well A rate was found to be between 0.58-0.68. A number of possible reasons for the discrepancy between the model and measured rates of well A are possible. These include modeling inaccuracy, measurement inaccuracy or the possibility of the presence of a very small leak (below the latest calculated minimum detectable leak rate).

  3. Indirect carotid- cavernous fistula — embolisation using the superior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    MD, FRCS (C). Division of Neurosurgery. Royal University Hospital. University of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon. Canada. Fig .1a. Left common carotid angiogram, AP view, showing the carotid-cavernous fistula. Note opaci- fication of the left cavernous sinus (arrow) and fill- ing of the right cavernous sinus (double arrows).

  4. Cavernous transformation of the portal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehotska, V.; Dostalova, K.; Durkovsky, A.; Samal, V.

    1995-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors give an account of a rare case of a cavernous transformation of the portal vein that may have originated secondarily in a proliferative hematogenous disease with a polyglobulia and thrombosis in the periferal blood count as well as development of portal hypertension of a prehepatal type. The state of hyper-coagulation in a myeloproliferative disease may have lead to a chronic thrombosis of the portal vein with a subsequent malformation of the portal vein in terms of a cavernous transformation of the portal vein. The case is an interesting one because of the discrepancy between the gravity of the thrombotic complication and slightness of the symptoms in the clinical picture. The authors point out the importance of ultrasonography and computed tomography examination following the intravenous application of a water solution of a contrast medium in a morphologic diagnosing of a rare complication of a chronic thrombotic clot of the portal vein - the cavernous transformation. (authors)

  5. Advanced Gas Storage Concepts: Technologies for the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeway, Katy (PB-KBB Inc.); Rogers, R.E. (Mississippi State University); DeVries, Kerry L.; Nieland, Joel D.; Ratigan, Joe L.; Mellegard, Kirby D. (RESPEC)

    2000-02-01

    This full text product includes: 1) A final technical report titled Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts, Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage and presentations from two technology transfer workshops held in 1998 in Houston, Texas, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (both on the topic of Chilled Gas Storage in Mined Caverns); 2) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project, Final Report 1 October 1997 - 31 May 1999; 3) A final technical report titled Natural Gas Hydrates Storage Project Phase II: Conceptual Design and Economic Study, Final Report 9 June - 10 October 1999; 4) A final technical report titled Commerical Potential of Natural Gas Storage in Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) and presentations from a DOE-sponsored workshop on Alternative Gas Storage Technologies, held Feb 17, 2000 in Pittsburgh, PA; and 5) Phase I and Phase II topical reports titled Feasibility Study for Lowering the Minimum Gas Pressure in Solution-Mined Caverns Based on Geomechanical Analyses of Creep-Induced Damage and Healing.

  6. Cavernous haemangioma mimicking as clitoral hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Nayyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemangioma is the most common benign neoplasm of infantile age. It is most commonly located in head and neck region, trunk and extremities but very rarely it can be located at clitoris. However, it is very important to differentiate clitoral haemangioma from enlargement of the clitoris secondary to androgen excess. Only four cases of clitoromegaly caused by cavernous haemangioma have been reported in the literature so far. Herein, we report our experience with a 10-year-old girl who presented with clitoromegaly and normal hormonal assay that turned out to be clitoral cavernous haemangioma after histopathological examination of the clitoral mass.

  7. Radiological features of childhood giant cavernous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgen, Burce; Senocak, Efsun; Oguz, Kader K. [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Soylemezoglu, Figen [Hacettepe University, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Akalan, Nejat [Hacettepe University, Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Giant cavernous malformations (GCM) are very large, low-flow vascular malformations, which usually have atypical imaging features and are commonly misdiagnosed preoperatively as neoplasms or vascular malformations. These lesions have mostly been reported in children. As cavernomas show different features in children compared to adults, we evaluated the imaging features of pediatric GCMs in order to help in the preoperative diagnosis of these malformations. Brain MR studies of nine children (mean age of 4 years; 8 months-9 years) with biopsy-proven GCM were retrospectively evaluated. We defined GCMs as cavernomas of {>=}4 cm. Lesions were evaluated regarding their size, location, signal characteristics, general appearance (uni/multilocular) as well as regarding the presence of mass effect, edema, and fluid-fluid levels and were classified according to the Mottolese classification of pediatric cavernomas. Lesion locations were parietal (n = 5), frontal (n = 2), temporal, and intraventricular. Seven lesions were in the periventricular region (with five in the periatrial region). Six patients had T1 hyperintense multilobulated lesions with ''bubbles of blood'' appearance and three patients had heterogeneous lesions with reticular core. All lesions had mass effect, edema (marked in four cases), and peripheral hemosiderin rim. Fluid-fluid levels were also common (n = 7). Most of our lesions (six of nine) were classified as type IIIA, two as type IIIC, and one as type IA. In children, a GCM should be considered in case of very large hemorrhagic intra-axial mass with ''bubbles of blood'' multicystic appearance, surrounding hemosiderin ring, fluid-fluid levels, and accompanying edema-mass effect, especially in the periatrial location. (orig.)

  8. A Report on Simulation-Driven Reliability and Failure Analysis of Large-Scale Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Lipeng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Feiyi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oral, H. Sarp [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cao, Qing [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) storage systems provide data availability and reliability using various hardware and software fault tolerance techniques. Usually, reliability and availability are calculated at the subsystem or component level using limited metrics such as, mean time to failure (MTTF) or mean time to data loss (MTTDL). This often means settling on simple and disconnected failure models (such as exponential failure rate) to achieve tractable and close-formed solutions. However, such models have been shown to be insufficient in assessing end-to-end storage system reliability and availability. We propose a generic simulation framework aimed at analyzing the reliability and availability of storage systems at scale, and investigating what-if scenarios. The framework is designed for an end-to-end storage system, accommodating the various components and subsystems, their interconnections, failure patterns and propagation, and performs dependency analysis to capture a wide-range of failure cases. We evaluate the framework against a large-scale storage system that is in production and analyze its failure projections toward and beyond the end of lifecycle. We also examine the potential operational impact by studying how different types of components affect the overall system reliability and availability, and present the preliminary results

  9. Impact of Data Placement on Resilience in Large-Scale Object Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carns, Philip; Harms, Kevin; Jenkins, John; Mubarak, Misbah; Ross, Robert; Carothers, Christopher

    2016-05-02

    Distributed object storage architectures have become the de facto standard for high-performance storage in big data, cloud, and HPC computing. Object storage deployments using commodity hardware to reduce costs often employ object replication as a method to achieve data resilience. Repairing object replicas after failure is a daunting task for systems with thousands of servers and billions of objects, however, and it is increasingly difficult to evaluate such scenarios at scale on realworld systems. Resilience and availability are both compromised if objects are not repaired in a timely manner. In this work we leverage a high-fidelity discrete-event simulation model to investigate replica reconstruction on large-scale object storage systems with thousands of servers, billions of objects, and petabytes of data. We evaluate the behavior of CRUSH, a well-known object placement algorithm, and identify configuration scenarios in which aggregate rebuild performance is constrained by object placement policies. After determining the root cause of this bottleneck, we then propose enhancements to CRUSH and the usage policies atop it to enable scalable replica reconstruction. We use these methods to demonstrate a simulated aggregate rebuild rate of 410 GiB/s (within 5% of projected ideal linear scaling) on a 1,024-node commodity storage system. We also uncover an unexpected phenomenon in rebuild performance based on the characteristics of the data stored on the system.

  10. The application of liquid air energy storage for large scale long duration solutions to grid balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) provides large scale, long duration energy storage at the point of demand in the 5 MW/20 MWh to 100 MW/1,000 MWh range. LAES combines mature components from the industrial gas and electricity industries assembled in a novel process and is one of the few storage technologies that can be delivered at large scale, with no geographical constraints. The system uses no exotic materials or scarce resources and all major components have a proven lifetime of 25+ years. The system can also integrate low grade waste heat to increase power output. Founded in 2005, Highview Power Storage, is a UK based developer of LAES. The company has taken the concept from academic analysis, through laboratory testing, and in 2011 commissioned the world's first fully integrated system at pilot plant scale (300 kW/2.5 MWh) hosted at SSE's (Scottish & Southern Energy) 80 MW Biomass Plant in Greater London which was partly funded by a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) grant. Highview is now working with commercial customers to deploy multi MW commercial reference plants in the UK and abroad.

  11. Properties and uses of storage for enhancing the grid penetration of very large photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, A.A.; Faiman, D.; Meron, G.

    2010-01-01

    In this third paper, which studies the hourly generation data for the year 2006 from the Israel Electric Corporation, with a view to incorporating very large photovoltaic (PV) power plants, we address the question: What properties should storage have in order to enhance the grid penetration of large PV systems in an efficient and substantial manner? We first impose the constraint that no PV energy losses are permitted other than those due to storage inefficiency. This constraint leads to powerful linkages between the energy capacity and power capacity of storage, and PV system size, and their combined effect on grid penetration. Various strategies are then examined for enhancing grid penetration, based upon this newfound knowledge. Specific strategies examined include PV energy dumping and baseload rescheduling both on a seasonal basis and shorter time periods. We found, inter alia, that at high grid flexibilities (in the range ff=0.8-1), PV grid penetration levels could be possible in the range 60-90% of annual requirements. Moreover, with appropriately designed storage and accurate forecasting, a future grid could be operated at ff=1.

  12. Large entropy derived from low-frequency vibrations and its implications for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Chen, Hongshan

    2018-02-01

    Adsorption and desorption are driven by the energy and entropy competition, but the entropy effect is often ignored in hydrogen storage and the optimal adsorption strength for the ambient storage is controversial in the literature. This letter investigated the adsorption states of the H2 molecule on M-B12C6N6 (M = Li, Na, Mg, Ca, and Sc) and analyzed the correlation among the zero point energy (ZPE), the entropy change, and the adsorption energy and their effects on the delivery capacities. The ZPE has large correction to the adsorption energy due to the light mass of hydrogen. The computations show that the potential energies along the spherical surface centered at the alkali metals are very flat and it leads to large entropy (˜70 J/mol.K) of the adsorbed H2 molecules. The entropy change can compensate the enthalpy change effectively, and the ambient storage can be realized with relatively weak adsorption of ΔH = -12 kJ/mol. The results are encouraging and instructive for the design of hydrogen storage materials.

  13. Large storage operations under climate change: expanding uncertainties and evolving tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Vu, Phuong Nam; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    2016-03-01

    In a changing climate and society, large storage systems can play a key role for securing water, energy, and food, and rebalancing their cross-dependencies. In this letter, we study the role of large storage operations as flexible means of adaptation to climate change. In particular, we explore the impacts of different climate projections for different future time horizons on the multi-purpose operations of the existing system of large dams in the Red River basin (China-Laos-Vietnam). We identify the main vulnerabilities of current system operations, understand the risk of failure across sectors by exploring the evolution of the system tradeoffs, quantify how the uncertainty associated to climate scenarios is expanded by the storage operations, and assess the expected costs if no adaptation is implemented. Results show that, depending on the climate scenario and the time horizon considered, the existing operations are predicted to change on average from -7 to +5% in hydropower production, +35 to +520% in flood damages, and +15 to +160% in water supply deficit. These negative impacts can be partially mitigated by adapting the existing operations to future climate, reducing the loss of hydropower to 5%, potentially saving around 34.4 million US year-1 at the national scale. Since the Red River is paradigmatic of many river basins across south east Asia, where new large dams are under construction or are planned to support fast growing economies, our results can support policy makers in prioritizing responses and adaptation strategies to the changing climate.

  14. Strains and stresses in the rock around and unlined hot water cavern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbinder, Göran

    1984-07-01

    Hot water stored in an unlined rock cavern is an efficient energy storage. A research program has been carried out with a test plant at the city of Avesta, Sweden. The plant consists of a rock cavern, the volume of which is 15000 m3, which serves as an energy buffer in the district heating system of the city. The water is heated from a garbage incinerator located close to the cavern. During the first test period the temperature of the stored water has varied between 40°C and 95°C. The heating of the rock causes strains and stresses in the rock. The measurements show that the state in the rock does mainly respond to the average temperature and not to the fluctuations. The maximum thermal stress is 9 MPa occurring at the wall of the cavern. The heave of the ground is less than 5 mm. The development of stress and strain will continue after the first test period since thermal equilibrium was not reached during this period.

  15. A numerical study on the structural behavior of underground rock caverns for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Choi, Kyu Sup; Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Dae Hong

    1991-01-01

    In order to design safe and economical underground disposal structures for radioactive wastes, understanding the behavior of discontinuous rock masses is essential. This study includes discussions about the computational model for discontinuous rock masses and the structural analysis method for underground storage structures. Then, based on an engineering judgement a suitable selection and slight modifications on computational models and analysis methods have been made in order to analyze and understand the structural behavior of the rock cavern with discontinuities

  16. A novel iron-lead redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Ren, Y. X.

    2017-04-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies for the massive utilization of intermittent renewables especially wind and solar energy. This work presents a novel redox flow battery that utilizes inexpensive and abundant Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples as redox materials. Experimental results show that both the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and Pb/Pb(II) redox couples have fast electrochemical kinetics in methanesulfonic acid, and that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the battery are, respectively, as high as 96.2% and 86.2% at 40 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the battery exhibits stable performance in terms of efficiencies and discharge capacities during the cycle test. The inexpensive redox materials, fast electrochemical kinetics and stable cycle performance make the present battery a promising candidate for large-scale energy storage applications.

  17. Observations on vapor pressure in SPR caverns : sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Darrell Eugene

    2010-05-01

    The oil of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) represents a national response to any potential emergency or intentional restriction of crude oil supply to this country, and conforms to International Agreements to maintain such a reserve. As assurance this reserve oil will be available in a timely manner should a restriction in supply occur, the oil of the reserve must meet certain transportation criteria. The transportation criteria require that the oil does not evolve dangerous gas, either explosive or toxic, while in the process of transport to, or storage at, the destination facility. This requirement can be a challenge because the stored oil can acquire dissolved gases while in the SPR. There have been a series of reports analyzing in exceptional detail the reasons for the increases, or regains, in gas content; however, there remains some uncertainty in these explanations and an inability to predict why the regains occur. Where the regains are prohibitive and exceed the criteria, the oil must undergo degasification, where excess portions of the volatile gas are removed. There are only two known sources of gas regain, one is the salt dome formation itself which may contain gas inclusions from which gas can be released during oil processing or storage, and the second is increases of the gases release by the volatile components of the crude oil itself during storage, especially if the stored oil undergoes heating or is subject to biological generation processes. In this work, the earlier analyses are reexamined and significant alterations in conclusions are proposed. The alterations are based on how the fluid exchanges of brine and oil uptake gas released from domal salt during solutioning, and thereafter, during further exchanges of fluids. Transparency of the brine/oil interface and the transfer of gas across this interface remains an important unanswered question. The contribution from creep induced damage releasing gas from the salt surrounding the cavern is

  18. The role of large scale storage in a GB low carbon energy future: Issues and policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, Philipp; Cockerill, Tim; Contestabile, Marcello; Pearson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Large scale storage offers the prospect of capturing and using excess electricity within a low carbon energy system, which otherwise might have to be wasted. Incorporating the role of storage into current scenario tools is challenging, because it requires high temporal resolution to reflect the effects of intermittent sources on system balancing. This study draws on results from a model with such resolution. It concludes that large scale storage could become economically viable for scenarios with high penetration of renewables. As the proportion of intermittent sources increases, the optimal type of storage shifts towards solutions with low energy related costs, even at the expense of efficiency. However, a range of uncertainties have been identified, concerning storage technology development, the regulatory environment, alternatives to storage and the stochastic uncertainty of year-on-year revenues. All of these negatively affect the cost of finance and the chances of successful market uptake. We argue, therefore, that, if the possible wider system and social benefits from the presence of storage are to be achieved, stronger and more strategic policy support may be necessary. More work on the social and system benefits of storage is needed to gauge the appropriate extent of support measures. - Highlights: → Time resolved modelling shows future potential for large scale power storage in GB. → The value of storage is highly sensitive to a range of parameters. → Uncertainty over the revenue from storage could pose a barrier to investment. → To realise wider system benefits stronger and more strategic policy support may be necessary.

  19. Imaging diagnosis of dural and direct cavernous carotid fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Daniela dos; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Cruz, Antonio Augusto Velasco e; Colli, Benedicto Oscar; Abud, Daniel Giansante, E-mail: danisantos2404@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2014-07-15

    Arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus are rare and difficult to diagnose. They are classified into dural cavernous sinus fistulae or direct carotid-cavernous fistulae. Despite the similarity of symptoms between both types, a precise diagnosis is essential since the treatment is specific for each type of fistula. Imaging findings are remarkably similar in both dural cavernous sinus fistulae and carotid-cavernous fistulae, but it is possible to differentiate one type from the other. Amongst the available imaging methods (Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography), angiography is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. The present essay is aimed at didactically presenting the classification and imaging findings of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. (author)

  20. Historical Cavern Floor Rise for All SPR Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) contains the largest supply is the largest stockpile of government-owned emergency crude oil in the world. The oil is stored in multiple salt caverns spread over four sites in Louisiana and Texas. Cavern infrastructure near the bottom of the cavern can be damaged from vertical floor movement. This report presents a comprehensive history of floor movements in each cavern. Most of the cavern floor rise rates ranged from 0.5-3.5 ft/yr, however, there were several caverns with much higher rise rates. BH103, BM106, and BH105 had the three highest rise rates. Information from this report will be used to better predict future vertical floor movements and optimally place cavern infrastructure. The reasons for floor rise are not entirely understood and should be investigated.

  1. Subdural hematoma from a cavernous malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Anne J; Mitha, Alim P; Germain, Rasha; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Spetzler, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    To present a case of a cavernous malformation presenting with a subdural hematoma. A 27-year-old woman was admitted with progressively worsening headache, vomiting, weakness, and word-finding difficulties 1 week after she was discharged from an outside hospital, where she was managed conservatively for a presumed traumatic subdural hematoma. Computed tomography revealed an enlarging subacute left hemispheric subdural hematoma for which she underwent drill craniostomy. Postprocedural magnetic resonance imaging showed a posterior left temporal lobe mass consistent with a cavernous malformation juxtaposed with the subdural hematoma. Craniotomy for resection of the lesion was performed. She had an uncomplicated postoperative course and experienced a good recovery. The signs and symptoms, diagnostic imaging, and intraoperative findings suggest that the subdural hematoma was caused by extralesional hemorrhage of the cavernous malformation, which is a rare finding associated with these malformations. The clinical course, radiologic, and intraoperative findings suggest that the subdural hemorrhage was caused by extralesional hemorrhage of the cavernous malformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Air quality in the Carlsbad cavern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yung-Seng; Chen, Tou-Rong; Wasiolek, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    The air quality in the Carlsbad Cavern has been investigated, but there are no reports on radon progeny and aerosols. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the activity size distribution of radon progeny and the air exchange rate inside the Cavern. Teams from ITRI and New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMT) conducted the field study in July 1994. The ITRI graded diffusion battery (GDB) was used to determine the activity size distribution, progeny concentration, equilibrium factor, and unattached fraction of the radon progeny. The design, calibration, and performance of the GDB have been described. For this study, each stage of the GDB contained one stainless steel screen, with the mesh sizes arranged in a series of 30, 50, 145, 200, and 635 mesh from the air inlet to the outlet. A 47-nm type A/E glass fiber filter was used to collect all particles that penetrated the screens. The flow rate was 5 L/min. The average ventilation rate in the cavern is 0.0026 V/hr. Our results showed that the cavern atmosphere may be quite different from other underground environments. The atmosphere in the summer is stable and relatively free of airborne particles, partly due to the extremely slow air exchange rate

  3. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observ...

  4. The ATLAS cavern in the spotlight

    CERN Multimedia

    On Wednesday, 4th June, the President of the Swiss Confederation, Pascal Couchepin, inaugurated the world's largest experimental cavern, which is to house the ATLAS detector in 2007, and announced Switzerland's gift to CERN of the "Palais de l'Equilibre".

  5. Special people visit the ATLAS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Muriel

    ATLAS has been host to many important visitors lately. Here are a selected few: Professor Stephen Hawking visits the ATLAS cavern On Tuesday 26 September 2006 the ATLAS Collaboration was honoured by a very special visit to the detector in the underground cavern. We were pleased to guide Professor Stephen Hawking, the famous cosmologist holding the post of Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University (position held by Isaac Newton in the 17th century), on a tour of the ATLAS pit and the LHC tunnel. The visit was accompanied by a few colleagues from the CERN Theory group, and was only possible thanks to the professional assistance of Olga Beltramello and Bernard Lebegue, who had also taken care of all the necessary preparatory work in the cavern. Professor Hawking was very keen to check for himself the status of the detector installation, and he admired, in particular, the spectacular TGC big wheel on side C. (left) Stephen Hawking in the ATLAS cavern side-C (right) and in the LHC tunnel...

  6. Soluble Supercapacitors: Large and Reversible Charge Storage in Colloidal Iron-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek, Carl K; Zhou, Dongming; Liu, Hongbin; Li, Xiaosong; Kittilstved, Kevin R; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2018-05-09

    Colloidal ZnO semiconductor nanocrystals have previously been shown to accumulate multiple delocalized conduction-band electrons under chemical, electrochemical, or photochemical reducing conditions, leading to emergent semimetallic characteristics such as quantum plasmon resonances and raising prospects for application in multielectron redox transformations. Here, we demonstrate a dramatic enhancement in the capacitance of colloidal ZnO nanocrystals through aliovalent Fe 3+ -doping. Very high areal and volumetric capacitances (33 μF cm -2 , 233 F cm -3 ) are achieved in Zn 0.99 Fe 0.01 O nanocrystals that rival those of the best supercapacitors used in commercial energy-storage devices. The redox properties of these nanocrystals are probed by potentiometric titration and optical spectroscopy. These data indicate an equilibrium between electron localization by Fe 3+ dopants and electron delocalization within the ZnO conduction band, allowing facile reversible charge storage and removal. As "soluble supercapacitors", colloidal iron-doped ZnO nanocrystals constitute a promising class of solution-processable electronic materials with large charge-storage capacity attractive for future energy-storage applications.

  7. Development of large scale fusion plasma simulation and storage grid on JAERI Origin3800 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idomura, Yasuhiro; Wang, Xin

    2003-01-01

    Under the Numerical EXperiment of Tokamak (NEXT) research project, various fluid, particle, and hybrid codes have been developed. These codes require a computational environment which consists of high performance processors, high speed storage system, and high speed parallelized visualization system. In this paper, the performance of the JAERI Origin3800 system is examined from a point of view of these requests. In the performance tests, it is shown that the representative particle and fluid codes operate with 15 - 40% of processing efficiency up to 512 processors. A storage area network (SAN) provides high speed parallel data transfer. A parallel visualization system enables order to magnitude faster visualization of a large scale simulation data compared with the previous graphic workstations. Accordingly, an extremely advanced simulation environment is realized on the JAERI Origin3800 system. Recently, development of a storage grid is underway in order to improve a computational environment of remote users. The storage grid is constructed by a combination of SAN and a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). The preliminary tests show that compared with the existing data transfer methods, it enables dramatically high speed data transfer ∼100 Gbps over a wide area network. (author)

  8. Hierarchical storage of large volume of multidector CT data using distributed servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman; Rosset, Antoine; Heuberger, Joris; Bandon, David

    2006-03-01

    Multidector scanners and hybrid multimodality scanners have the ability to generate large number of high-resolution images resulting in very large data sets. In most cases, these datasets are generated for the sole purpose of generating secondary processed images and 3D rendered images as well as oblique and curved multiplanar reformatted images. It is therefore not essential to archive the original images after they have been processed. We have developed an architecture of distributed archive servers for temporary storage of large image datasets for 3D rendering and image processing without the need for long term storage in PACS archive. With the relatively low cost of storage devices it is possible to configure these servers to hold several months or even years of data, long enough for allowing subsequent re-processing if required by specific clinical situations. We tested the latest generation of RAID servers provided by Apple computers with a capacity of 5 TBytes. We implemented a peer-to-peer data access software based on our Open-Source image management software called OsiriX, allowing remote workstations to directly access DICOM image files located on the server through a new technology called "bonjour". This architecture offers a seamless integration of multiple servers and workstations without the need for central database or complex workflow management tools. It allows efficient access to image data from multiple workstation for image analysis and visualization without the need for image data transfer. It provides a convenient alternative to centralized PACS architecture while avoiding complex and time-consuming data transfer and storage.

  9. A low-cost iron-cadmium redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies that offer a potential solution to the intermittency of renewable sources such as wind and solar. The prerequisite for widespread utilization of RFBs is low capital cost. In this work, an iron-cadmium redox flow battery (Fe/Cd RFB) with a premixed iron and cadmium solution is developed and tested. It is demonstrated that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the Fe/Cd RFB reach 98.7% and 80.2% at 120 mA cm-2, respectively. The Fe/Cd RFB exhibits stable efficiencies with capacity retention of 99.87% per cycle during the cycle test. Moreover, the Fe/Cd RFB is estimated to have a low capital cost of 108 kWh-1 for 8-h energy storage. Intrinsically low-cost active materials, high cell performance and excellent capacity retention equip the Fe/Cd RFB to be a promising solution for large-scale energy storage systems.

  10. Large underground radioactive waste storage tanks successfully cleaned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, K.; Burks, B.L.; Johnson, M.; Mims, C.; Powell, J.; Hoesen, D. van

    1998-05-01

    Waste retrieval operations were successfully completed in two large underground radioactive waste storage tanks in 1997. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Gunite Tanks Team worked cooperatively during two 10-week waste removal campaigns and removed approximately 58,300 gallons of waste from the tanks. About 100 gallons of a sludge and liquid heel remain in each of the 42,500 gallon tanks. These tanks are 25 ft. in diameter and 11 ft. deep, and are located in the North Tank Farm in the center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Less than 2% of the radioactive contaminants remain in the tanks, proving the effectiveness of the Radioactive Tank Cleaning System, and accomplishing the first field-scale cleaning of contaminated underground storage tanks with a robotic system in the DOE complex

  11. Seneca Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-11-30

    Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a hybrid energy storage and generation concept that has many potential benefits especially in a location with increasing percentages of intermittent wind energy generation. The objectives of the NYSEG Seneca CAES Project included: for Phase 1, development of a Front End Engineering Design for a 130MW to 210 MW utility-owned facility including capital costs; project financials based on the engineering design and forecasts of energy market revenues; design of the salt cavern to be used for air storage; draft environmental permit filings; and draft NYISO interconnection filing; for Phase 2, objectives included plant construction with a target in-service date of mid-2016; and for Phase 3, objectives included commercial demonstration, testing, and two-years of performance reporting. This Final Report is presented now at the end of Phase 1 because NYSEG has concluded that the economics of the project are not favorable for development in the current economic environment in New York State. The proposed site is located in NYSEG’s service territory in the Town of Reading, New York, at the southern end of Seneca Lake, in New York State’s Finger Lakes region. The landowner of the proposed site is Inergy, a company that owns the salt solution mining facility at this property. Inergy would have developed a new air storage cavern facility to be designed for NYSEG specifically for the Seneca CAES project. A large volume, natural gas storage facility owned and operated by Inergy is also located near this site and would have provided a source of high pressure pipeline quality natural gas for use in the CAES plant. The site has an electrical take-away capability of 210 MW via two NYSEG 115 kV circuits located approximately one half mile from the plant site. Cooling tower make-up water would have been supplied from Seneca Lake. NYSEG’s engineering consultant WorleyParsons Group thoroughly evaluated three CAES designs and concluded that any

  12. Preliminary analytical study on the feasibility of using reinforced concrete pile foundations for renewable energy storage by compressed air energy storage technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulebekova, S.; Saliyev, D.; Zhang, D.; Kim, J. R.; Karabay, A.; Turlybek, A.; Kazybayeva, L.

    2017-11-01

    Compressed air energy storage technology is one of the promising methods that have high reliability, economic feasibility and low environmental impact. Current applications of the technology are mainly limited to energy storage for power plants using large scale underground caverns. This paper explores the possibility of making use of reinforced concrete pile foundations to store renewable energy generated from solar panels or windmills attached to building structures. The energy will be stored inside the pile foundation with hollow sections via compressed air. Given the relatively small volume of storage provided by the foundation, the required storage pressure is expected to be higher than that in the large-scale underground cavern. The high air pressure typically associated with large temperature increase, combined with structural loads, will make the pile foundation in a complicated loading condition, which might cause issues in the structural and geotechnical safety. This paper presents a preliminary analytical study on the performance of the pile foundation subjected to high pressure, large temperature increase and structural loads. Finite element analyses on pile foundation models, which are built from selected prototype structures, have been conducted. The analytical study identifies maximum stresses in the concrete of the pile foundation under combined pressure, temperature change and structural loads. Recommendations have been made for the use of reinforced concrete pile foundations for renewable energy storage.

  13. Large-area printed supercapacitor technology for low-cost domestic green energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehrani, Z.; Thomas, D.J.; Korochkina, T.; Phillips, C.O.; Lupo, D.; Lehtimäki, S.; O'Mahony, J.; Gethin, D.T.

    2017-01-01

    In this research we demonstrate that a flexible ultra-thin supercapacitor can be fabricated using high volume screen printing process. This has enabled the sequential deposition of current collector, electrode, electrolyte materials and adhesive onto a Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate in order to form flexible electrodes for reliable energy storage applications. The electrodes were based on an activated carbon ink and gel electrolyte each of which were formulated for this application. Supercapacitors that have surface areas from 100 to 1600 mm"2 and an assembled device thickness of 375 μm were demonstrated. The capacitance ranged from 50 to 400 mF. Capacitance of printed carbon electrodes is rarely reported in literature and no references were found. The chemistry developed during this study displayed long-term cycling potential and demonstrated the stability of the capacitor for continued usage. The gel electrolyte developed within this work showed comparable performance to that of a liquid counterpart. This improvement resulted in the reduction in gel resistance from 90Ω to 0.5Ω. Significant reduction was observed for all resistances. The solid-state supercapacitors with the gel electrolyte showed comparable performance to the supercapacitors that used a liquid electrolyte. This large area printed device can be used in future houses for reliable green energy storage. - Highlights: • It has been demonstrated that a flexible supercapacitors with large area storage has been developed. • The simplified architecture has the potential to lead to a new class of printable, thin storage devices. • The specific capacitance of 21 F/g was measured.

  14. Operational design and pressure response of large-scale compressed air energy storage in porous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid growth of energy production from intermittent renewable sources like wind and solar power plants, large-scale energy storage options are required to compensate for fluctuating power generation on different time scales. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations is seen as a promising option for balancing short-term diurnal fluctuations. CAES is a power-to-power energy storage, which converts electricity to mechanical energy, i.e. highly pressurized air, and stores it in the subsurface. This study aims at designing the storage setup and quantifying the pressure response of a large-scale CAES operation in a porous sandstone formation, thus assessing the feasibility of this storage option. For this, numerical modelling of a synthetic site and a synthetic operational cycle is applied. A hypothetic CAES scenario using a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was investigated. The top of the storage formation is at 700 m depth and the thickness is 20 m. The porosity and permeability were assumed to have a homogenous distribution with a value of 0.35 and 500 mD, respectively. According to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant, a gas turbine producing 321 MW power with a minimum inlet pressure of 43 bars at an air mass flowrate of 417 kg/s was assumed. Pressure loss in the gas wells was accounted for using an analytical solution, which defines a minimum bottom hole pressure of 47 bars. Two daily extraction cycles of 6 hours each were set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. A two-year initial filling of the reservoir with air and ten years of daily cyclic operation were numerically simulated using the Eclipse E300 reservoir simulator. The simulation results show that using 12 wells the storage formation with a permeability of 500 mD can support the required 6-hour continuous power output of 321MW, which corresponds an energy output of 3852 MWh per

  15. Physical and Numerical Modeling of the Stability of Deep Caverns in Tahe Oil Field in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cave collapses emerge during the process of oil reservoir development, seriously affecting oil production. To reveal the collapse and failure mechanism of the carbonate cavern with a buried depth of 5600 m in Tahe Oil Field, using a self-developed ultra-high pressure model test system with the intelligent numerical control function, the model simulation material of carbonate rocks developed to carry out the 3D geo-mechanical model test. The model test and numerical results indicate that: (1 collapse and failure mechanism of the deep-buried caves mainly involve the failure mode of tensile shear. The rupture plane on the side wall is approximately parallel to the direction of maximum principal compressive stress. The V-type tension and split rupture plane then emerges. (2 In the process of forming holes in the model caverns, micro cracks are generated at the foot of the left and right side walls of the caverns, and the roof panels are constantly moving downward. The shorter the distance to the cave wall, the severer the destructiveness of the surrounding rocks will be. (3 The displacement of the top of the model cavern is relatively large and uniform, indicating that the cave roof moves downward as a whole. The area of the cavity suffering damage is 2.3 times as large as the cave span. The research results in this paper lay a solid test basis for revealing the cave collapse and failure mechanism in super depth.

  16. Evaluating Potential for Large Releases from CO2 Storage Reservoirs: Analogs, Scenarios, and Modeling Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Karimjee, Anhar

    2005-01-01

    While the purpose of geologic storage of CO 2 in deep saline formations is to trap greenhouse gases underground, the potential exists for CO 2 to escape from the target reservoir, migrate upward along permeable pathways, and discharge at the land surface. Such discharge is not necessarily a serious concern, as CO 2 is a naturally abundant and relatively benign gas in low concentrations. However, there is a potential risk to health, safety and environment (HSE) in the event that large localized fluxes of CO 2 were to occur at the land surface, especially where CO 2 could accumulate. In this paper, we develop possible scenarios for large CO 2 fluxes based on the analysis of natural analogues, where large releases of gas have been observed. We are particularly interested in scenarios which could generate sudden, possibly self-enhancing, or even eruptive release events. The probability for such events may be low, but the circumstances under which they might occur and potential consequences need to be evaluated in order to design appropriate site selection and risk management strategies. Numerical modeling of hypothetical test cases is needed to determine critical conditions for such events, to evaluate whether such conditions may be possible at designated storage sites, and, if applicable, to evaluate the potential HSE impacts of such events and design appropriate mitigation strategies

  17. Large Scale Production of Densified Hydrogen Using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, William U.; Swanger, Adam Michael; Jumper, Kevin M.; Fesmire, James E.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Johnson, Wesley L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent demonstration of advanced liquid hydrogen storage techniques using Integrated Refrigeration and Storage (IRAS) technology at NASA Kennedy Space Center led to the production of large quantities of solid densified liquid and slush hydrogen in a 125,000 L tank. Production of densified hydrogen was performed at three different liquid levels and LH2 temperatures were measured by twenty silicon diode temperature sensors. System energy balances and solid mass fractions are calculated. Experimental data reveal hydrogen temperatures dropped well below the triple point during testing (up to 1 K), and were continuing to trend downward prior to system shutdown. Sub-triple point temperatures were seen to evolve in a time dependent manner along the length of the horizontal, cylindrical vessel. Twenty silicon diode temperature sensors were recorded over approximately one month for testing at two different fill levels (33 67). The phenomenon, observed at both two fill levels, is described and presented detailed and explained herein., and The implications of using IRAS for energy storage, propellant densification, and future cryofuel systems are discussed.

  18. Assessing the value of storage services in large-scale multireservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; Arjoon, D.; Guilherme, G. F.

    2012-12-01

    both countries, the highly contrasted hydrologic regime of the Euphrates river could only be dealt with through storage. However, due to political tensions, those projects were carried out without much cooperation and coordination among riparian countries. The development started in the late 1960s with the construction of the head reservoir in Turkey (Keban dam) and the most downstream reservoir in Syria (Tabqa dam). Thirty years later, five other dams in both countries had been commissioned, changing the economy of this region through the export of hydroelectric power (7812 MW) and agricultural products (cotton and cereals). The operating policies and marginal water values of this multipurpose multiresevoir system are determined using Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming, an optimization algorithm that can handle large-scale reservoir operation problems while keeping an individual representation of the hydraulic infrastructure and the demand sites. The analysis of the simulation results reveal that the average value of storage for the entire cascade of reservoirs is around 420 million US/a, which is 18% of the annual short-run benefits of the system (2.26 billion US/a).

  19. The association of carotid cavernous fistula with Graves′ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Celik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ ophthalmopathy (GO is one of the frequent manifestations of the disorder which is an inflammatory process due to fibroblast infiltration, fibroblast proliferation and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Eye irritation, dryness, excessive tearing, visual blurring, diplopia, pain, visual loss, retroorbital discomfort are the symptoms and they can mimic carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. The clinical manifestations of GO can mimic the signs of carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the GO patients especially who are not responding to the standard treatment and when there is a unilateral or asymmetric eye involvement. Here we report the second case report with concurrent occurrence of GO and carotid cavernous fistula in the literature.

  20. The association of carotid cavernous fistula with Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ozlem; Buyuktas, Deram; Islak, Civan; Sarici, A Murat; Gundogdu, A Sadi

    2013-01-01

    Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is one of the frequent manifestations of the disorder which is an inflammatory process due to fibroblast infiltration, fibroblast proliferation and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Eye irritation, dryness, excessive tearing, visual blurring, diplopia, pain, visual loss, retroorbital discomfort are the symptoms and they can mimic carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. The clinical manifestations of GO can mimic the signs of carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the GO patients especially who are not responding to the standard treatment and when there is a unilateral or asymmetric eye involvement. Here we report the second case report with concurrent occurrence of GO and carotid cavernous fistula in the literature. PMID:23571267

  1. Cavernous angioma associated with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okujava, M.; Ebner, A.; Schmitt, J.; Woermann, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    We report two cases with extratemporal cavernous angioma (CA) and coexisting ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis. Classically dual pathology is defined as the association of hippocampal sclerosis with an extrahippocampal lesion. Subtle changes in hippocampus might be overlooked in the presence of an unequivocal extrahippocampal abnormality. Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery in cases with dual pathology is less favourable if only one of the lesions is removed. Dual pathology must always be considered in diagnostic imaging of patients with intractable epilepsy and CA. (orig.)

  2. Cavernous angioma associated with ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okujava, M [Institute of Radiology and Interventional Diagnostics, Tbilisi (Georgia); Ebner, A; Schmitt, J; Woermann, F G [Bethel Epilepsy Centre, Mara Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    We report two cases with extratemporal cavernous angioma (CA) and coexisting ipsilateral hippocampal sclerosis. Classically dual pathology is defined as the association of hippocampal sclerosis with an extrahippocampal lesion. Subtle changes in hippocampus might be overlooked in the presence of an unequivocal extrahippocampal abnormality. Seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery in cases with dual pathology is less favourable if only one of the lesions is removed. Dual pathology must always be considered in diagnostic imaging of patients with intractable epilepsy and CA. (orig.)

  3. Leveraging storage assets to meet winter power demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charleson, D. [Enbridge Gas Distribution, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Toronto-based Enbridge Gas Distribution serves 1.7 million customers by distributing 420 billion cubic feet (BCF) of natural gas over more than 31,000 km of pipelines. A map of the franchise area was presented. The utility has one of the lowest operating and maintenance costs in North America. Daily gas requirements were outlined along with the historic role of storage in gas utilities. Storage is used by heat sensitive local distribution companies, marketers, large industrials, and power generators. Storage locations in North America were reviewed with reference to baseload electricity production versus peak load; depleted reservoirs; salt caverns; aquifers; and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Enbridge operates 98 BCF of storage facilities for a maximum deliverability of 1.7 BCF per day. tabs., figs.

  4. Leveraging storage assets to meet winter power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charleson, D.

    2004-01-01

    Toronto-based Enbridge Gas Distribution serves 1.7 million customers by distributing 420 billion cubic feet (BCF) of natural gas over more than 31,000 km of pipelines. A map of the franchise area was presented. The utility has one of the lowest operating and maintenance costs in North America. Daily gas requirements were outlined along with the historic role of storage in gas utilities. Storage is used by heat sensitive local distribution companies, marketers, large industrials, and power generators. Storage locations in North America were reviewed with reference to baseload electricity production versus peak load; depleted reservoirs; salt caverns; aquifers; and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Enbridge operates 98 BCF of storage facilities for a maximum deliverability of 1.7 BCF per day. tabs., figs

  5. Compressed air energy storage technology program. Annual report for 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loscutoff, W.V.

    1980-06-01

    The objectives of the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) program are to establish stability criteria for large underground reservoirs in salt domes, hard rock, and porous rock used for air storage in utility applications, and to develop second-generation CAES technologies that have minimal or no dependence on petroleum fuels. During the year reported reports have been issued on field studies on CAES on aquifers and in salt, stability, and design criteria for CAES and for pumped hydro-storage caverns, laboratory studies of CAES in porous rock reservoris have continued. Research has continued on combined CAES/Thermal Energy Storage, CAES/Solar systems, coal-fired fluidized bed combustors for CAES, and two-reservoir advanced CAES concepts. (LCL)

  6. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Nose Complicated with Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Swaminath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive life threatening bacterial infection of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, and the fascia. We present a case of necrotizing fasciitis involving the nose complicated by cavernous sinus thrombosis. Few cases of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis have been reported to be caused by cellulitis of the face but necrotizing fasciitis of the nose is rare. It is very important to recognize the early signs of cavernous thrombosis. Treatment for septic cavernous sinus thrombosis is controversial but early use of empirical antibiotics is imperative.

  7. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  8. Large-scale electrophysiology: acquisition, compression, encryption, and storage of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Benjamin H; Bower, Mark R; Stengel, Keith A; Worrell, Gregory A; Stead, Matt

    2009-05-30

    The use of large-scale electrophysiology to obtain high spatiotemporal resolution brain recordings (>100 channels) capable of probing the range of neural activity from local field potential oscillations to single-neuron action potentials presents new challenges for data acquisition, storage, and analysis. Our group is currently performing continuous, long-term electrophysiological recordings in human subjects undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery using hybrid intracranial electrodes composed of up to 320 micro- and clinical macroelectrode arrays. DC-capable amplifiers, sampling at 32kHz per channel with 18-bits of A/D resolution are capable of resolving extracellular voltages spanning single-neuron action potentials, high frequency oscillations, and high amplitude ultra-slow activity, but this approach generates 3 terabytes of data per day (at 4 bytes per sample) using current data formats. Data compression can provide several practical benefits, but only if data can be compressed and appended to files in real-time in a format that allows random access to data segments of varying size. Here we describe a state-of-the-art, scalable, electrophysiology platform designed for acquisition, compression, encryption, and storage of large-scale data. Data are stored in a file format that incorporates lossless data compression using range-encoded differences, a 32-bit cyclically redundant checksum to ensure data integrity, and 128-bit encryption for protection of patient information.

  9. Seasonal storage and alternative carriers: A flexible hydrogen supply chain model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuß, M.; Grube, T.; Robinius, M.; Preuster, P.; Wasserscheid, P.; Stolten, D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Techno-economic model of future hydrogen supply chains. •Implementation of liquid organic hydrogen carriers into a hydrogen mobility analysis. •Consideration of large-scale seasonal storage for fluctuating renewable hydrogen production. •Implementation of different technologies for hydrogen storage and transportation. -- Abstract: A viable hydrogen infrastructure is one of the main challenges for fuel cells in mobile applications. Several studies have investigated the most cost-efficient hydrogen supply chain structure, with a focus on hydrogen transportation. However, supply chain models based on hydrogen produced by electrolysis require additional seasonal hydrogen storage capacity to close the gap between fluctuation in renewable generation from surplus electricity and fuelling station demand. To address this issue, we developed a model that draws on and extends approaches in the literature with respect to long-term storage. Thus, we analyse Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHC) and show their potential impact on future hydrogen mobility. We demonstrate that LOHC-based pathways are highly promising especially for smaller-scale hydrogen demand and if storage in salt caverns remains uncompetitive, but emit more greenhouse gases (GHG) than other gaseous or hydrogen ones. Liquid hydrogen as a seasonal storage medium offers no advantage compared to LOHC or cavern storage since lower electricity prices for flexible operation cannot balance the investment costs of liquefaction plants. A well-to-wheel analysis indicates that all investigated pathways have less than 30% GHG-emissions compared to conventional fossil fuel pathways within a European framework.

  10. Impacts of compressed air energy storage plant on an electricity market with a large renewable energy portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.; Díaz Lobera, I.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy generation is expected to continue to increase globally due to renewable energy targets and obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some renewable energy sources are variable power sources, for example wind, wave and solar. Energy storage technologies can manage the issues associated with variable renewable generation and align non-dispatchable renewable energy generation with load demands. Energy storage technologies can play different roles in each of the step of the electric power supply chain. Moreover, large scale energy storage systems can act as renewable energy integrators by smoothing the variability. Compressed air energy storage is one such technology. This paper examines the impacts of a compressed air energy storage facility in a pool based wholesale electricity market in a power system with a large renewable energy portfolio

  11. MRI findings of intracranial cavernous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byoung Hee; Kim, Dong Ik; Cho, Yong Kuk

    1995-01-01

    To analyze the variable MRI features and clinical significance of intracranial cavernous malformations. Forty patients(mean age 35.4) with cavernous malformation were evaluated by MRI. Eleven patients were surgically confirmed. Cavernous malformations were divided into four categories on the basis of the MR imaging characteristics, especially on T2-weighted image. Type I lesion was defined as an extralesional subacute hemorrhage outside the low signal rim, type II as an intralesional hemorrhage surrounded by low signal rim, type III lesion as an intralesional thrombosis with variegated central core surrounded by low signal rim, and type IV lesion as a focal old hemorrhagic core with small low signal intensity. Type IV was further divided into IVa and IVb, whether the lesion has small iso-or hypersignal central core (IVa) or not (IVb). Follow-up MRI was evaluated in 12 patients who were managed conservatively. Follow-up intervals ranged from 2 weeks to 29 months (mean 6 months). Total 80 lesions were detected in 40 patients. Multiple lesions were noted in 10 patients. The topography of the cavernous malformations was supratentorial in 75% and infratentorial in 23%. There were 10 lesions in type I, 15 in type II, 21 in type III, 14 in type IVa, and 20 in type IVb. Type I lesions mainly showed mass effect and edema. Type III lesions showed minimal contrast enhancements in 7 lesions on delayed images. Type II lesions showed the characteristics of both type I and type III lesions. On follow up images, decrease in size in 5, change of type in 7, rebleeding in 2 and no change in 12 lesions were demonstrated. Hemorrhage, edema and mass effect were combined in the cases of rebleeding. On follow-up study, the estimated risk of bleeding was 32.3%/person-year and 13.7%/lesion-year. Cavernous malformations show as variable appearance, on MR imaging suggesting variable stages of evolution. The MR morphologic classification and evaluation of secondary findings are helpful to

  12. Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms

  13. Large diameter boreholes (LDB) for low and intermediate radioactive waste storage/disposal in clay deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, A.V.; Litinsky, Y.V.; Guskov, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    shortage of free area after 30-40 years of operation or because of ecological and radiological safety reasons. To minimize these effects and increase ecological safety of near-surface RAW storage facilities as well as to use operating territory in more effective manner the new type of long term storage/disposal facility has been developed on the basis of Large Diameter Borehole (LDB), drilled in clayey sediments. In the case of LDB applications for LILW storage the waste are removed from the scope of human activity into a stable geological medium. Wastes are placed below the frost zone where damage to engineered barriers due to climatic factors is practically impossible. Construction of the repository by means of drilling prevents large disturbances of the host rock, as happens during excavation work for trenches. When using an LDB-type repositories, the usage factor (ratio of repository surface area, protected with natural barrier, to total repository surface area) of the geological barrier (host rocks) is about 1, as almost all the surface of the repository is protected with not disturbed host rock. This helps to draw the conclusion that, even in the case of total destruction of all engineered barriers, which is very unlikely, radionuclides will still be constrained in a small volume of the host rock and their release to the human activity sphere is virtually impossible. Two LDB-type repositories (LDB-1 and LDB-2) with the internal diameter of 1.5 m and the depth near 40 m have been constructed at the site of SUE MosSIA 'Radon'. In October 2003 LDB-2 for the first time has been loaded with low and intermediate level radioactive waste, conditioned in 36 standard steel drums. In May 2006 LDB-1 has been loaded with 90 similar drums. Later on both Large Diameter Boreholes were licensed for RAW storage. Since 2003 a complex of manual observations within the repository, in engineered barriers and in near field was carried out to assess the tightness of construction, its

  14. Present situation of the electric power storage technology and its future outlook. IV. ; Compressed air energy storage. Denryoku Chozo gijutsu no genjo to shorai tenbo ni tsuibe. IV. ; Asshuku kuki chozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoyu, M. (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-03-20

    The compressed air energy storage gas turbine power generation system is paid attetion to as a load levelling power source in view of the recent increase in electric power demand. The paper describes features, cavern construction technology, economy and future expansion of the system. In this system compressed air made by use of cheap night-time electric power is stored in underground spaces or underwater facilities. Burning the fuel together with this compressed air in the daytime, the gas turbine power generation is conducted. Several examples overseas of this system are reported including a 290,000KW class in Germany. A key technology of the system is how safely and cheaply a large amount of hih-pressure air can be stored. In Europe and America, caverns of hundreds of thousand m {sub 3} are constructed in the rock salt cavern which can be excavated by a water jet. In consideration of storing it in rock beds in Japan where there are no rock salt caverns, NEDO started 1990 a 9-year construction plan of a 35,000 KW class pilot plant at Kamisunagawa, Hokkaido. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The large superconducting solenoids for the g-2 muon storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunce, G.; Cullen, J.; Danby, G.

    1994-01-01

    The g-2 muon storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory consists of four large superconducting solenoids. The two outer solenoids, which are 15.1 meters in diameter, share a common cryostat. The two inner solenoids, which are 13.4 meters in diameter, are in separate cryostats. The two 24 turn inner solenoids are operated at an opposite polarity from the two 24 turn outer solenoids. This generates a dipole field between the inner and outer solenoids. The flux between the solenoids is returned through a C shaped iron return yoke that also shapes the dipole field. The integrated field around the 14 meter diameter storage ring must be good to about 1 part in one million over the 90 mm dia. circular cross section where the muons are stored, averaged over the azimuth. When the four solenoids carry their 5300 A design current, the field in the 18 centimeter gap between the poles is 1.45 T. When the solenoid operates at its design current 5.5 MJ is stored between the poles. The solenoids were wound on site at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The cryostats were built around the solenoid windings which are indirectly cooled using two-phase helium

  16. Large-scale fabrication of pseudocapacitive glass windows that combine electrochromism and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Chai, Zhisheng; Huang, Langhuan; Cai, Xiang; Tan, Shaozao; Song, Jinhui; Mai, Wenjie

    2014-10-27

    Multifunctional glass windows that combine energy storage and electrochromism have been obtained by facile thermal evaporation and electrodeposition methods. For example, WO3 films that had been deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass exhibited a high specific capacitance of 639.8 F g(-1). Their color changed from transparent to deep blue with an abrupt decrease in optical transmittance from 91.3% to 15.1% at a wavelength of 633 nm when a voltage of -0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was applied, demonstrating its excellent energy-storage and electrochromism properties. As a second example, a polyaniline-based pseudocapacitive glass was also developed, and its color can change from green to blue. A large-scale pseudocapacitive WO3-based glass window (15×15 cm(2)) was fabricated as a prototype. Such smart pseudocapacitive glass windows show great potential in functioning as electrochromic windows and concurrently powering electronic devices, such as mobile phones or laptops. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Intramedullary cavernous hemangiomas, magnetic resonance studies in four patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, M.R.; Guelbenzu, S.; Garcia, S.; Bertrol, V.

    1998-01-01

    Intramedullary cavernous hemangiomas are vascular malformations that can be located throughout the entire central nervous system. They are more frequently found in brain than in spinal cord, where it is only possible to diagnose them by magnetic resonance (RM): We present four cases of intramedullary spinal cord cavernoma, three of which were located in the thoracic spine and one in cervical spine. Computed tomography was ineffective in their diagnosis. However, MR disclosed there presence of well-defined tumors producing a thickening of the spinal cord. The signal was heterogeneous in both T1 and T2-weighted images. There were low signal areas due to the presence of calcium and hemosiderin and high intensity signals provoked by methemoglobin within the lesions, which were scarcely enhanced by intravenous gadolinium administration. One of the lesions presented in the form of a large intramedullary hematoma. (Author) 8 refs

  18. Recovery of opthalmoplegia associated with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas after transvenous cavernous sinus packing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xianli, Lv; Chuhan, Jiang; Youxiang, Li; Xinjian, Yang [Beijing Neurosurgical institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing (China); Wu Zhongxue, E-mail: ttyyzjb@sina.co [Beijing Neurosurgical institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Background: We report the recovery of ophthalmoplegia in 11 patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) after sinus packing at follow-up. Methods: Of 18 patients with CSDAVF treated with transvenous cavernous sinus packing between August 2002 and December 2007 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, there were 9 patients with initial CNIII or CNVI dysfunction and 2 patients with CNVI dysfunction immediately after cavernous sinus packing selected and reevaluated. Results: Of 11 patients with CNIII or CNVI palsy, recovery was complete in 10. In 1 patient, complete CNVI palsy was unchanged because the CSDAVF was not cured. There were 6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 52.9 years. In 5 patients, CNVI palsy was associated with chemosis, proptosis and pulsatile tinnitus. Timing of treatment after onset of symptoms was from 4 to 35 days in 9 patients. All CSDAVFs were Barrow type D. Mean follow-up after treatment was 17.7 months (range, 2-54 months). Conclusion: CSDAVF-induced CNIII or CNVI palsies can be cured after cavernous sinus packing transvenously in most patients.

  19. Recovery of opthalmoplegia associated with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas after transvenous cavernous sinus packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Xianli; Jiang Chuhan; Li Youxiang; Yang Xinjian; Wu Zhongxue

    2010-01-01

    Background: We report the recovery of ophthalmoplegia in 11 patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) after sinus packing at follow-up. Methods: Of 18 patients with CSDAVF treated with transvenous cavernous sinus packing between August 2002 and December 2007 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, there were 9 patients with initial CNIII or CNVI dysfunction and 2 patients with CNVI dysfunction immediately after cavernous sinus packing selected and reevaluated. Results: Of 11 patients with CNIII or CNVI palsy, recovery was complete in 10. In 1 patient, complete CNVI palsy was unchanged because the CSDAVF was not cured. There were 6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 52.9 years. In 5 patients, CNVI palsy was associated with chemosis, proptosis and pulsatile tinnitus. Timing of treatment after onset of symptoms was from 4 to 35 days in 9 patients. All CSDAVFs were Barrow type D. Mean follow-up after treatment was 17.7 months (range, 2-54 months). Conclusion: CSDAVF-induced CNIII or CNVI palsies can be cured after cavernous sinus packing transvenously in most patients.

  20. ARRA-Multi-Level Energy Storage and Controls for Large-Scale Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Wenzhong Gao

    2012-09-30

    intelligent controller that increases battery life within hybrid energy storage systems for wind application was developed. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and simulation results are analyzed. A permanent magnet synchronous generator, coupled with a variable speed wind turbine, is connected to a power grid (14-bus system). A rectifier, a DC-DC converter and an inverter are used to provide a complete model of the wind system. An Energy Storage System (ESS) is connected to a DC-link through a DC-DC converter. An intelligent controller is applied to the DC-DC converter to help the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) to regulate output power and also to control the operation of the battery and supercapacitor. This ensures a longer life time for the batteries. The detailed model is simulated in PSCAD/EMTP. Additionally, economic analysis has been done for different methods that can reduce the wind power output fluctuation. These methods are, wind power curtailment, dumping loads, battery energy storage system and hybrid energy storage system. From the results, application of single advanced HESS can save more money for wind turbines owners. Generally the income would be the same for most of methods because the wind does not change and maximum power point tracking can be applied to most systems. On the other hand, the cost is the key point. For short term and small wind turbine, the BESS is the cheapest and applicable method while for large scale wind turbines and wind farms the application of advanced HESS would be the best method to reduce the power fluctuation. The key outcomes of this project include a new intelligent controller that can reduce energy exchanged between the battery and DC-link, reduce charging/discharging cycles, reduce depth of discharge and increase time interval between charge/discharge, and lower battery temperature. This improves the overall lifetime of battery energy storages. Additionally, a new design method based on probability help optimize the

  1. Benign mass in tonsil- cavernous hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sumitha; Prakash, M; Mohammed, Hafida K; Govar, Aberna

    2013-10-01

    Cavernous hemangioma is also called as 'ANGIOMA CAVERNOSUM' or 'CAVERNOMA' as benign lesion of blood vessels. They are similar to strawberry hemangioma but deeply situated. Although most often associated with skin it is also sometimes found in mucous membrane, brain and the viscera. The diagnosis of hemangiomas is mainly based on clinical evaluation . Isolated hemangiomas in the tonsillar tissue is a rare occurance. In this we report had a case of adult tonsillar hemangioma of left side associated with recurrent tonsillitis . He was effectively managed surgically without any complications.

  2. Cavernous hemangioma of the knee - case report

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Marcin; Dolata, Tomasz; Weiss, Waldemar; Maksymiak, Martyna; Kałużny, Krystian; Kałużna, Anna; Zukow, Walery; Hagner Derengowska, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Weiss Marcin, Dolata Tomasz, Weiss Waldemar, Maksymiak Martyna, Kałużny Krystian, Kałużna Anna, Zukow Walery, Hagner‑Derengowska Magdalena. Cavernous hemangioma of the knee - case report. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2018;8(4):318-325. eISNN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1226645 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5438 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evalu...

  3. Experimental use of large diameter boreholes in clay deposits for radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.; Litinsky, Y.; Tkachenko, A.; Guskov, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Application of radioactive substances in industry, medicine and scientific research leads to generation of radioactive waste. The problem of improving reliability of isolation of the radioactive waste is becoming more acute with each passing year, and requirements for ecological safety are getting more and more stringent. Near surface repositories are usually considered to be acceptable for storage of waste with short lived radionuclides of low and intermediate activity level (LILW). However, the experience with LILW isolation in the near surface facilities in Russia has shown that a lot of operational and natural factors impact on the engineered barriers, and in case of traditional near surface repositories can cause failure of the isolation and discharge of radionuclides into near field. Operation of the old repositories with already contaminated surroundings and construction of similar new facilities require more and more area. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' from early 60-s was responsible for development of new approaches for waste treatment and long term storage. In accordance with this direction, research and experimental work is carried out both in field of upgrading safety for typical near surface repository constructions and in developing new repository types. Significant increase of LILW isolation reliability and land saving could be achieved by use of large diameter boreholes (LDB) drilled in clayey deposits for waste storage. Due to the depth of the borehole and depth of waste package emplacement, this type of facility can be considered as near surface facility. To date technology of LDB construction and its experimental use is being conducted in SUE Mos SIA 'Radon'. The diameter of a LDB type repository may range from 1 to 6 m depending on drilling rig capabilities and parameters of the repository in whole. The depth of the boreholes should depend on geological and hydro-geological conditions

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of a cerebral cavernous haemangioma in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Schoeman

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 13-month-old, neutered, male Golden retriever presented with seizures and progressive depression. Clinical and neurological assessment was consistent with severe intracranial disease. The neurological condition progressively deteriorated and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed the presence of a large, contrast-enhancing, space-occupying mass in the right cerebral hemisphere. Therapy with corticosteroids, mannitol and furosemide ameliorated the signs of depression and ataxia, but the owner elected euthanasia after 1 week. Post mortem examination of the brain confirmed the presence of a large haemorrhagic lesion in the right olfactory lobe, the histopathological appearance of which was consistent with cerebral cavernous haemangioma. This is the 1st case describing the MRI appearance of a cavernous haemangioma of the cerebrum in the veterinary literature.

  5. Pyogenic abscess complicating a resolving cerebral haematoma secondary to a cavernous haemangioma: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, A.D.; Naidoo, P.

    2005-01-01

    A case is discussed of a brain abscess complicating an intracerebral haemorrhage occurring in a cavernous haemangioma. A young child presented with focal seizures as a result of a large intracerebral haemorrhage, occurring in a cavernous haemangioma. The only clue to the underlying vascular malformation was the presence of an associated developmental venous anomaly. The case was complicated by the development of a brain abscess at the site of the intracranial haematoma. The CT and MRI findings are discussed Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  6. Improving Large-scale Storage System Performance via Topology-aware and Balanced Data Placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of big data, the I/O subsystems of large-scale compute clusters are becoming a center of focus, with more applications putting greater demands on end-to-end I/O performance. These subsystems are often complex in design. They comprise of multiple hardware and software layers to cope with the increasing capacity, capability and scalability requirements of data intensive applications. The sharing nature of storage resources and the intrinsic interactions across these layers make it to realize user-level, end-to-end performance gains a great challenge. We propose a topology-aware resource load balancing strategy to improve per-application I/O performance. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on an extreme-scale compute cluster, Titan, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Our experiments with both synthetic benchmarks and a real-world application show that, even under congestion, our proposed algorithm can improve large-scale application I/O performance significantly, resulting in both the reduction of application run times and higher resolution simulation runs.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Jet-Induced Mixing of a Large Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. S.; Hasan, M. M.; Vandresar, N. T.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of fluid mixing on the depressurization of a large liquid hydrogen storage tank. The test tank is approximately ellipsoidal, having a volume of 4.89 m(exp 3) and an average wall heat flux of 4.2 W/m(exp 2) due to external heat input. A mixer unit was installed near the bottom of the tank to generate an upward directed axial jet flow normal to the liquid-vapor interface. Mixing tests were initiated after achieving thermally stratified conditions in the tank either by the introduction of hydrogen gas into the tank or by self-pressurization due to ambient heat leak through the tank wall. The subcooled liquid jet directed towards the liquid-vapor interface by the mixer induced vapor condensation and caused a reduction in tank pressure. Tests were conducted at two jet submergence depths for jet Reynolds numbers from 80,000 to 495,000 and Richardson numbers from 0.014 to 0.52. Results show that the rate of tank pressure change is controlled by the competing effects of subcooled jet flow and the free convection boundary layer flow due to external tank wall heating. It is shown that existing correlations for mixing time and vapor condensation rate based on small scale tanks may not be applicable to large scale liquid hydrogen systems.

  8. The role of reservoir storage in large-scale surface water availability analysis for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, L. M.; Granados, A.; Martin-Carrasco, F.; Iglesias, A.

    2017-12-01

    A regional assessment of current and future water availability in Europe is presented in this study. The assessment was made using the Water Availability and Adaptation Policy Analysis (WAAPA) model. The model was built on the river network derived from the Hydro1K digital elevation maps, including all major river basins of Europe. Reservoir storage volume was taken from the World Register of Dams of ICOLD, including all dams with storage capacity over 5 hm3. Potential Water Availability is defined as the maximum amount of water that could be supplied at a certain point of the river network to satisfy a regular demand under pre-specified reliability requirements. Water availability is the combined result of hydrological processes, which determine streamflow in natural conditions, and human intervention, which determines the available hydraulic infrastructure to manage water and establishes water supply conditions through operating rules. The WAAPA algorithm estimates the maximum demand that can be supplied at every node of the river network accounting for the regulation capacity of reservoirs under different management scenarios. The model was run for a set of hydrologic scenarios taken from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP), where the PCRGLOBWB hydrological model was forced with results from five global climate models. Model results allow the estimation of potential water stress by comparing water availability to projections of water abstractions along the river network under different management alternatives. The set of sensitivity analyses performed showed the effect of policy alternatives on water availability and highlighted the large uncertainties linked to hydrological and anthropological processes.

  9. Energy modeling and analysis for optimal grid integration of large-scale variable renewables using hydrogen storage in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Otsuki, Takashi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2015-01-01

    Although the extensive introduction of VRs (variable renewables) will play an essential role to resolve energy and environmental issues in Japan after the Fukushima nuclear accident, its large-scale integration would pose a technical challenge in the grid management; as one of technical countermeasures, hydrogen storage receives much attention, as well as rechargeable battery, for controlling the intermittency of VR power output. For properly planning renewable energy policies, energy system modeling is important to quantify and qualitatively understand its potential benefits and impacts. This paper analyzes the optimal grid integration of large-scale VRs using hydrogen storage in Japan by developing a high time-resolution optimal power generation mix model. Simulation results suggest that the installation of hydrogen storage is promoted by both its cost reduction and CO 2 regulation policy. In addition, hydrogen storage turns out to be suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. Finally, through a sensitivity analysis of rechargeable battery cost, hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery; the cost of both technologies should be more elaborately recognized for formulating effective energy policies to integrate massive VRs into the country's power system in an economical manner. - Highlights: • Authors analyze hydrogen storage coupled with VRs (variable renewables). • Simulation analysis is done by developing an optimal power generation mix model. • Hydrogen storage installation is promoted by its cost decline and CO 2 regulation. • Hydrogen storage is suitable for storing VR energy in a long period of time. • Hydrogen storage is economically competitive with rechargeable battery

  10. Beta adrenergic receptors in human cavernous tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhabuwala, C.B.; Ramakrishna, C.V.; Anderson, G.F.

    1985-04-01

    Beta adrenergic receptor binding was performed with /sup 125/I iodocyanopindolol on human cavernous tissue membrane fractions from normal tissue and transsexual procedures obtained postoperatively, as well as from postmortem sources. Isotherm binding studies on normal fresh tissues indicated that the receptor density was 9.1 fmoles/mg. with a KD of 23 pM. Tissue stored at room temperature for 4 to 6 hours, then at 4C in saline solution for 19 to 20 hours before freezing showed no significant changes in receptor density or affinity, and provided evidence for the stability of postmortem tissue obtained within the same time period. Beta receptor density of 2 cavernous preparations from transsexual procedures was not significantly different from normal control tissues, and showed that high concentrations of estrogen received by these patients had no effect on beta adrenergic receptor density. Displacement of /sup 125/iodocyanopindolol by 5 beta adrenergic agents demonstrated that 1-propranolol had the greatest affinity followed by ICI 118,551, zinterol, metoprolol and practolol. When the results of these displacement studies were subjected to Scatfit, non- linear regression line analysis, a single binding site was described. Based on the relative potency of the selective beta adrenergic agents it appears that these receptors were of the beta 2 subtype.

  11. Small hepatocellular carcinoma versus small cavernous hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.I.; Park, H.W.; Kim, S.H.; Han, M.C.; Kim, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the optimal pulse sequence for detection and differential diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinomas and cavernous hemangiomas less than 5 cm in diameter, the authors have analyzed spin-echo (SE) images of 15 small hepatocellular carcinomas and 31 small cavernous hemangiomas obtained at 2.0 T. Pulse sequences used included repetition times (TRs) of 500 and 2,000 msec and echo times (TEs) of 30,60,90,120,150, and 180 msec. Mean tumor-liver contrast-to-noise ratios on the SE 2,000/60 (TR msec/TE msec) sequence were 23.90 ± 16.33 and 62.10 ± 25.94 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences. Mean tumor-liver signal intensity ratios on the SE 2,000/150 sequence were 2.34 ± 1.72 and 6.04 ± 2.72 for small hepatocellular carcinomas and hemangiomas, respectively, and were significantly greater than for all other pulse sequences in hemangiomas

  12. Study on Excavation of Particular Part of Underground Cavern for Hydropower Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Feng; Shang, Qin; Zheng, Huakang

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, regarding four particular parts of underground cavern for hydropower station, i.e., crown, high sidewall, the intersection between high sidewall and tunnel and tailrace tunnel, by summarizing the previous construction experience, we have proposed the excavation approach based on “middle first and edge later, soft first and hard later”, “layered construction by excavating the thin layer first and supporting as the layer advances”, “tunnel first and wall later, small tunnels into large ones” and “excavating tunnels supported by separation piers”. In addition, the proposed excavation approach has been analyzed and verified with finite element numerical simulation. The result has indicated that the proposed special approach is reasonable and effective to reduce the turbulence on surrounding rocks, lower the influence of unloading during excavating and enhance the local and global stability of caverns and surrounding rocks.

  13. Remediation and recycling of oil-contaminated soil beneath a large above-ground storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.

    1994-01-01

    While retrofitting a large 30-year-old, above-ground petroleum storage tank, Southern California Edison Company (SCE) discovered that soil beneath the fixed-roof, single-bottom tank was contaminated with 40,000 gallons of number-sign 6 fuel oil. The steel tank was left in place during the excavation and remediation of the contaminated soil to retain the operating permit. The resulting 2,000 tons of contaminated aggregate was recycled to make asphalt concrete for paving the tank basin and the remaining 5,600 tons of oily soil was thermally treated on site for use as engineered fill at another location. This successful operation provided an economical cleanup solution for a common leakage problem of single-lined tanks and eliminated the long-term liability of Class 1 landfill disposal. As a pro-active environmental effort, this paper shares SCE's site assessment procedure, reveals the engineering method developed to stabilize the tank, discusses the soil treatment technologies used, describes the problems encountered and lessons learned during the cleanup, discloses the costs of the operation, and offers guidelines and recommendations for similar tank remediation. This paper does not describe the work or costs for removing or replacing the tank bottom

  14. Very large virtual compound spaces: construction, storage and utility in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhengwei

    2013-09-01

    Recent activities in the construction, storage and exploration of very large virtual compound spaces are reviewed by this report. As expected, the systematic exploration of compound spaces at the highest resolution (individual atoms and bonds) is intrinsically intractable. By contrast, by staying within a finite number of reactions and a finite number of reactants or fragments, several virtual compound spaces have been constructed in a combinatorial fashion with sizes ranging from 10(11)11 to 10(20)20 compounds. Multiple search methods have been developed to perform searches (e.g. similarity, exact and substructure) into those compound spaces without the need for full enumeration. The up-front investment spent on synthetic feasibility during the construction of some of those virtual compound spaces enables a wider adoption by medicinal chemists to design and synthesize important compounds for drug discovery. Recent activities in the area of exploring virtual compound spaces via the evolutionary approach based on Genetic Algorithm also suggests a positive shift of focus from method development to workflow, integration and ease of use, all of which are required for this approach to be widely adopted by medicinal chemists.

  15. Cavernous hemangioma of the thoracic spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.M.; Lin, J.C.T.; Morris, J.H.; Fischer, E.G.; Petersen, R.

    1988-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman presented with a four-year history of progressive right-lower-extremity weakness and atrophy and a left hemisensory deficit was found. Metrizamide-enhanced spinal CT scan showed an intramedullary lesion at the level of T1-T2; this had expanded the cord in fusiform fashion but showed no evidence of a cystic component. Surgical resection was performed and the pathological diagnosis was cavernous hemangioma. Two and one-half years later, her left hemisensory deficit was worsening and a spinal MRI showed high signal intensity mass in the region of the previous surgery consistent with chronic hematoma which was re-evacuated with some improvement in the patient's neurological condition. (orig.)

  16. Neuronavigation for the resection of cavernous angiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, G; Zhou, L

    1999-08-01

    To introduce the use of the StealthStation neuronavigator combined with preoperative computerized tomography (CT) in resection of intracranial cavernous angiomas (CAs). The StealthStation neuronavigator was used to provide a realtime correlation of the operating field and the computerized images in 6 patients with CAs. All patients suffered from epileptic seizures. Four patients underwent keyhole surgery and 2 underwent small skin-flap craniotomy. The mean follow-up was 4.5 months. With the guidance of neuronavigator, lesionectomy associated with removal of hemosiderin deposition, gliosis and calcification was performed precisely. The mean fiducial error was from 1.65 mm to 4.53 mm, the predicted accuracy at 10 cm was between 1.82 mm and 3.28 mm, and the sustained accuracy ranged from 0.50 mm to 3.45 mm. The StealthStation neuronavigator is reliable and accurate in the resection of CAs.

  17. Power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm using a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, S. S.; Wang, L.; Lee, W. J.

    2009-01-01

    A novel scheme using a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit to perform both power flow control and damping enhancement of a large wind farm (WF) feeding to a utility grid is presented. The studied WF consisting of forty 2 MW wind induction generators (IGs) is simulated...

  18. Techno-economic Modeling of the Integration of 20% Wind and Large-scale Energy Storage in ERCOT by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldick, Ross; Webber, Michael; King, Carey; Garrison, Jared; Cohen, Stuart; Lee, Duehee

    2012-12-21

    This study's objective is to examine interrelated technical and economic avenues for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) grid to incorporate up to and over 20% wind generation by 2030. Our specific interests are to look at the factors that will affect the implementation of both high level of wind power penetration (> 20% generation) and installation of large scale storage.

  19. Root cause analysis of the fatigue failures of the pulsation dampers of a large underground gas storage (UGS) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lange, D. de; Maljaars, J.; Tenbrock-Ingenhorst, A.; Gottmer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Two large identical 6-cylinder Ariel JGB/6 reciprocating compressors each of 7.5 MW, are used for an underground gas storage system (UGS) plant of RWE Gasspeicher GmbH located in Epe, Germany. The system is in operation since 2005. In 2011 several internals parts (baffle plates and baffle choke

  20. [Cavernous haemangiomas: hearing and vestibular inaugural symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G; Schmerber, S

    2004-11-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas (cavernomas)(CH) are relatively rare (2% of cranial tumoral pathology) vascular malformations mostly observed in the central nervous system. Their most common topographical site in brain stem is midline in the pons, for which clinical course may mimic symptoms of peripheral origin (sudden deafness, fluctuating hearing loss, Meniere-like vertigo). To establish the correlation between the clinical manifestations of hearing and balance disturbance and the anatomical site within the pons of cavernous haemangiomas, and to describe their clinical features, and the findings on auditory brainstem response (ABR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To propose a literature review about CH and its implications. We made a retrospective review of the histories of three patients aged 24, 44 and 45 years, diagnosed as having cavernomas of the brainstem in which audiometric evaluation, videonystagmography (VNG), ABR and imaging techniques lead to the diagnosis of intracranial cavernoma. The clinical and radiological files were reviewed and a direct relationship between symptoms and localization was found in all 3 patients, especially in relation to our understanding of the auditory and vestibular pathways within the brainstem. The literature regarding cavernomas of the pons is reviewed and the clinical, neuroimage, pathological, natural course and management aspects of the disease are discussed. We recommend the use of cerebral MRI for initial diagnosis which shows a typical rosette-like appearance with a heterogeneous signal on T2-weighted images, along with follow-up and investigation into similar profiles among family members. At present there is no consensus about the treatment to follow when cavernomas are located in the brain stem. There is no specific medical treatment for this condition, and surgery is indicated only exceptionally. Anticoagulant therapy, platelet-dispersing medication and violent sports activities are contraindicated.

  1. Applications of large-area nanopatterning to energy generation and storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Eric N.

    This dissertation encompasses the creation and testing of nanostructured, electrochemically-active energy generation and storage devices, and development of the associated fabrication techniques. The fabricated devices include nanopatterned, plasmonically-active, TiO2+Au thin films for Photocatalytic Water Splitting (PCW), TiO2-based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) incorporating nanopatterned, plasmonically-active metallic front electrodes, and Si nanopillar anodes for Li-ion batteries. Techniques were also developed for encapsulation and removal of wet-etched Si nanowires from their mother substrates. TiO2 was the first material to be widely used for PCW. Its use is hampered by its large bandgap (~3.2eV), and poor recombination lifetimes. Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been previously used to improve recombination lifetimes in TiO2 by separating photogenerated carriers near the NP edges, and to increase photocurrents by injecting plasmonically-excited hot electrons into the TiO2 conduction band. Using nanostructured TiO 2+Au electrodes, we aim to increase the PCW efficiency of TiO2 -based electrodes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) employ visible-absorbing dyes anchored to a high-surface-area semiconducting scaffold. The front transparent conducting electrode (TCE) is typically ITO, a scarce and expensive material. We aim to increase the efficiency of thin-film DSSCs and eliminate the use of ITO by using a metallic subwavelength array (MESH) of nanoholes as the front TCE. Silicon holds promise as a high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, as it can store ~10x the Li of graphite, the current leading anode material (3569 vs. 372 mAh/g). However, Si undergoes dramatic (>300%) volume expansion upon "lithiation", pulverizing any structure with non-nanoscopic dimensions (>250nm). We created large-area arrays of "nanopillars" with sub-100nm diameters, using roll-to-roll-compatible flexible-mold NIL on commercially-available metal substrates. Ordered

  2. Scenario simulation based assessment of subsurface energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, C.; Bauer, S.; Dahmke, A.

    2014-12-01

    Energy production from renewable sources such as solar or wind power is characterized by temporally varying power supply. The politically intended transition towards renewable energies in Germany („Energiewende") hence requires the installation of energy storage technologies to compensate for the fluctuating production. In this context, subsurface energy storage represents a viable option due to large potential storage capacities and the wide prevalence of suited geological formations. Technologies for subsurface energy storage comprise cavern or deep porous media storage of synthetic hydrogen or methane from electrolysis and methanization, or compressed air, as well as heat storage in shallow or moderately deep porous formations. Pressure build-up, fluid displacement or temperature changes induced by such operations may affect local and regional groundwater flow, geomechanical behavior, groundwater geochemistry and microbiology. Moreover, subsurface energy storage may interact and possibly be in conflict with other "uses" like drinking water abstraction or ecological goods and functions. An utilization of the subsurface for energy storage therefore requires an adequate system and process understanding for the evaluation and assessment of possible impacts of specific storage operations on other types of subsurface use, the affected environment and protected entities. This contribution presents the framework of the ANGUS+ project, in which tools and methods are developed for these types of assessments. Synthetic but still realistic scenarios of geological energy storage are derived and parameterized for representative North German storage sites by data acquisition and evaluation, and experimental work. Coupled numerical hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and reactive transport (THMC) simulation tools are developed and applied to simulate the energy storage and subsurface usage scenarios, which are analyzed for an assessment and generalization of the imposed THMC

  3. Results of geo-radio-monitoring for radioactive waste storage in large diameter boreholes in clayey ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.; Litinsky, Y.; Tkachenko, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The main purpose of the work carried out at the site of SUE MosSIA 'Radon' is to develop the system of geo-radio-monitoring for new type of storage facility (large diameter borehole) integrated into existing monitoring system of the whole site, check its effectiveness and improve the system, obtain initial results on safety aspects for using large diameter boreholes for RAW storage. Technology of large diameter boreholes (LDB) construction for low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) isolation in moraine loams is being under development at SUE MosSIA 'Radon' site since the end of the last century. A project for construction of a demonstration unit for LILW storage in large diameter boreholes at the SUE MosSIA 'Radon' site in Sergiev Posad region has been developed taking into account specific site conditions. The main aim of the project is to develop the technology of LDB repository construction, operational procedures such as loading and retrieval, to develop and improve monitoring system for the new repository type, to get practical data on safety of radioactive wastes storage in new repositories, hermeticity of construction, and behavior of waste, waste packages, construction materials and near-field. In the case of LDB applications for LILW storage, the waste are removed from the scope of human activity into a stable geological medium. Waste are placed below the frost zone where damage of engineered barriers due to climatic factors is practically impossible. Two boreholes with 1.5 m internal diameter and 38 m depth have been drilled in 1997, equipped with engineering barriers including bentonite-concrete stone, licensed as storage facilities in 2003 and are in use now for solid and solidified RAW storage. Specific automated system of geo-radio-monitoring has been developed especially for the LDB-type repository, covering both the interior and the

  4. HVDC interrupter experiments for large Magnetic Energy Transfer and Storage (METS) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannack, C.E.; Haarman, R.A.; Lindsay, J.D.G.; Weldon, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Proposed fusion-test reactors will require energy storage systems of hundreds of megajoules with transfer times of the order of one millisecond. The size of the energy storage submodule (and hence, the overall system cost and complexity) is directly determined by the voltage and current limits of the switch used for the energy transfer. Experiments are being conducted on high voltage dc circuit breakers as a major part of the energy storage, pulsed power program. DC circuit interruption characteristics of a commercially available ac power vacuum interrupter are discussed. Preliminary data of interruption characteristics are reported for an interrupter developed specifically to match a present METS circuit requirement

  5. Therapeutic surprise! Photodynamic therapy for cavernous haemangioma of the disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh P Shanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the response of cavernous haemangioma of the disc to PDT. Methods and Patients: A 32 years old lady presented to us with complaints of sudden onset of blurry vision in her right eye. What seemed initially as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy turned out as cavernous haemangioma of the disc after pneumatic displacement of the sub-retinal haeme. She was treated with PDT as she was prone to recurrent haemorrhage from the lesion due to her low platelet count. Results: Complete regression of the cavernous haemangioma was noted as early as the second week itself and remained regressed for 4 months. Conclusion: PDT can be safe option for patients presenting with symptomatic cavernous haemangioma of the disc or retina.

  6. Assessment of Future Whole-System Value of Large-Scale Pumped Storage Plants in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Teng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impacts and benefits of the pumped storage plant (PSP and its upgrade to variable speed on generation and transmission capacity requirements, capital costs, system operating costs and carbon emissions in the future European electricity system. The combination of a deterministic system planning tool, Whole-electricity System Investment Model (WeSIM, and a stochastic system operation optimisation tool, Advanced Stochastic Unit Commitment (ASUC, is used to analyse the whole-system value of PSP technology and to quantify the impact of European balancing market integration and other competing flexible technologies on the value of the PSP. Case studies on the Pan-European system demonstrate that PSPs can reduce the total system cost by up to €13 billion per annum by 2050 in a scenario with a high share of renewables. Upgrading the PSP to variable-speed drive enhances its long-term benefits by 10–20%. On the other hand, balancing market integration across Europe may potentially reduce the overall value of the variable-speed PSP, although the effect can vary across different European regions. The results also suggest that large-scale deployment of demand-side response (DSR leads to a significant reduction in the value of PSPs, while the value of PSPs increases by circa 18% when the total European interconnection capacity is halved. The benefit of PSPs in reducing emissions is relatively negligible by 2030 but constitutes around 6–10% of total annual carbon emissions from the European power sector by 2050.

  7. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ji Kwang [Woosuk University, Wanju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work.

  8. Analysis of an HTS coil for large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Se Yeon; Choi, Kyeong Dal; Park, Sang Ho; Hong, Gye Won; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Woo Seok; Lee, Ji Kwang

    2015-01-01

    It has been well known that a toroid is the inevitable shape for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil as a component of a large scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) because it is the best option to minimize a magnetic field intensity applied perpendicularly to the HTS wires. Even though a perfect toroid coil does not have a perpendicular magnetic field, for a practical toroid coil composed of many HTS pancake coils, some type of perpendicular magnetic field cannot be avoided, which is a major cause of degradation of the HTS wires. In order to suggest an optimum design solution for an HTS SMES system, we need an accurate, fast, and effective calculation for the magnetic field, mechanical stresses, and stored energy. As a calculation method for these criteria, a numerical calculation such as an finite element method (FEM) has usually been adopted. However, a 3-dimensional FEM can involve complicated calculation and can be relatively time consuming, which leads to very inefficient iterations for an optimal design process. In this paper, we suggested an intuitive and effective way to determine the maximum magnetic field intensity in the HTS coil by using an analytic and statistical calculation method. We were able to achieve a remarkable reduction of the calculation time by using this method. The calculation results using this method for sample model coils were compared with those obtained by conventional numerical method to verify the accuracy and availability of this proposed method. After the successful substitution of this calculation method for the proposed design program, a similar method of determining the maximum mechanical stress in the HTS coil will also be studied as a future work

  9. Ordered one-component plasmas: Phase transitions, normal modes, large systems, and experiments in a storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    The property of cold one-component plasmas, confined by external forces, to form an ordered array has been known for some time both from simulations and from experiment. The purpose of this talk is to summarize some recent work on simulations and some new experimental results. The author discusses some experimental work on real storage rings, magnetic storage devices in which partials circulate with large kinetic energies and for which laser cooling is used on partially ionized ions to attain temperatures ten or more orders of magnitude lower than their kinetic energies

  10. Ultra-Capacitor Energy Storage in a Large Hybrid Electric Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    The power requirements for inner city transit buses are characterized by power peaks about an order of magnitude larger than the average power usage of the vehicle. For these vehicles, hybrid power trains can offer significantly improved fuel economy and exhaust emissions. A critical design challenge, however, has been developing the energy storage and power management system to respond to these rapid power variations. Most hybrid vehicles today use chemical energy storage batteries to supplement the power from the fuel burning generator unit. Chemical storage batteries however, present several difficulties in power management and control. These difficulties include (1) inadequate life, (2) limited current delivery as well as absorption during regenerative braking, (3) inaccurate measurement of state of charge, and (4) stored energy safety issues. Recent advances in ultra-capacitor technology create an opportunity to address these concerns. The NASA Lewis Research Center, in cooperation with industry and academia, has developed an advanced hybrid electric transit bus using ultra-capacitors as the primary energy storage system. At over 15,000-kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using this advanced energy storage technology. Results of analyses show that the vehicle will match the performance of an equivalent conventionally powered vehicle over typical inner city drive cycles. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and analysis of power flow and vehicle performance.

  11. Analysis of the evolution of the instability process of a coastal cavern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollino, P.; Reina, A.

    2012-04-01

    This work concerns the study performed for the interpretation of the potential failure mechanism of a large natural cavern, which is located along the rocky cliffs of Polignano a Mare town (Apulia, Southern Italy) under an intensely urbanised area. This cavern, which is located at the sea level, was formed due to an intense process of salt and wave erosion, mainly acting during sea storms, within a rock mass formed of a lower stratified limestone mass and an upper soft calcarenite mass. Therefore, the influence of the climatic factors and of the upward erosion process within the cavern has been specifically investigated. At present, the thickness of the cave roof, which has a dome shape, is less than 10 metres in the centre and several buildings are founded on the ground surface above. In 2006 a large calcarenite block, of about 1.5 m diameter, fell down from the roof of the cavern and afterwards field and laboratory investigations as well as both simple analytical methods and elasto-plastic numerical modelling were carried out in order to assess the current state of the roof and to interpret the effects of the potential evolution of the inner erosion and of the local failure processes of the cave. As such, a detailed geo-structural survey has firstly been carried out, together with laboratory and in-situ testing for the geomechanical characterisation of the rock materials and of the corresponding joints. An analysis of the sea storms occurred within the observation period has also been performed by considering daily rainfall and wind data. The rate of erosion has been measured by means of special nets installed at the sea level to collect the material falling down from the roof and the corresponding measurements, which lasted for about one year, indicate an erosion rate of at least 0.005 m3/month. A structural monitoring system, including extensometers and joint-meters, was also installed in several points of the cave in order to measure eventual block

  12. Hybrid Stochastic Forecasting Model for Management of Large Open Water Reservoir with Storage Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Tomas; Stary, Milos

    2017-12-01

    The main advantage of stochastic forecasting is fan of possible value whose deterministic method of forecasting could not give us. Future development of random process is described better by stochastic then deterministic forecasting. Discharge in measurement profile could be categorized as random process. Content of article is construction and application of forecasting model for managed large open water reservoir with supply function. Model is based on neural networks (NS) and zone models, which forecasting values of average monthly flow from inputs values of average monthly flow, learned neural network and random numbers. Part of data was sorted to one moving zone. The zone is created around last measurement average monthly flow. Matrix of correlation was assembled only from data belonging to zone. The model was compiled for forecast of 1 to 12 month with using backward month flows (NS inputs) from 2 to 11 months for model construction. Data was got ridded of asymmetry with help of Box-Cox rule (Box, Cox, 1964), value r was found by optimization. In next step were data transform to standard normal distribution. The data were with monthly step and forecast is not recurring. 90 years long real flow series was used for compile of the model. First 75 years were used for calibration of model (matrix input-output relationship), last 15 years were used only for validation. Outputs of model were compared with real flow series. For comparison between real flow series (100% successfully of forecast) and forecasts, was used application to management of artificially made reservoir. Course of water reservoir management using Genetic algorithm (GE) + real flow series was compared with Fuzzy model (Fuzzy) + forecast made by Moving zone model. During evaluation process was founding the best size of zone. Results show that the highest number of input did not give the best results and ideal size of zone is in interval from 25 to 35, when course of management was almost same for

  13. Cerebral cavernous malformations. Serial magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with and without gamma knife surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon Pyeong-Ho; Kim, Dong-Ik; Jeon Pyoung; Ryu, Young-Hoon; Hwang, Geum-Joo; Park, Sang-Joon

    1998-01-01

    To classify the cerebral cavernous malformations and to investigate the natural history of cavernous malformations according to the classification, 41 patients with 61 cavernous malformations (40 cavernous malformations from 22 patients treated with gamma knife surgery) were regularly followed up using MR imaging for a mean period of 25.5 months in treated cavernous malformations and 20.7 months in untreated cavernous malformations, respectively. Cavernous malformations were classified into four types. Follow-up MR images were analyzed to evaluate changes in size, signal intensity, rebleeding, and perilesional adverse reaction of irradiation. A total of 61 cavernous malformations including 17 in type I, 23 in type II, 10 in type III, and 11 in type IV showed usual degradation of blood product in 22 cavernous malformations, no change in shape and signal intensity in 31 cavernous malformations, and eight cavernous malformations with rebleedings in the serial MR images. In these eight cavernous malformations with rebleedings, six occurred in type II and two in type III, but none in type I or IV. Rebleedings were more frequent in type II than in other types. Adverse reaction of irradiation was observed in five of 22 patients treated with gamma knife surgery. Although most cerebral cavernous malformations showed evolution of hemorrhage or no change in size or shape on follow-up MR images, cerebral cavernous malformations represented as mixture of subacute and chronic hemorrhage with hemosiderin rim (type II) have a higher frequency to rebleed than other types of cerebral cavernous malformations. Cerebral cavernous malformations represented as hemosiderin deposition without central core (type IV) have a lower tendency to rebleed than other types and do not need any treatment. Most of the adverse reaction of irradiation after gamma knife surgery around cavernous malformations are transient findings and are considered to be perilesional edema. (K.H)

  14. Features of Bayou Choctaw SPR caverns and internal structure of the salt dome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Darrell E.

    2007-07-01

    The intent of this study is to examine the internal structure of the Bayou Choctaw salt dome utilizing the information obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data of the internal cavern surfaces. Many of the Bayou Choctaw caverns have been abandoned. Some existing caverns were purchased by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program and have rather convoluted histories and complex cavern geometries. In fact, these caverns are typically poorly documented and are not particularly constructive to this study. Only two Bayou Choctaw caverns, 101 and 102, which were constructed using well-controlled solutioning methods, are well documented. One of these was constructed by the SPR for their use while the other was constructed and traded for another existing cavern. Consequently, compared to the SPR caverns of the West Hackberry and Big Hill domes, it is more difficult to obtain a general impression of the stratigraphy of the dome. Indeed, caverns of Bayou Choctaw show features significantly different than those encountered in the other two SPR facilities. In the number of abandoned caverns, and some of those existing caverns purchased by the SPR, extremely irregular solutioning has occurred. The two SPR constructed caverns suggest that some sections of the caverns may have undergone very regular solutioning to form uniform cylindrical shapes. Although it is not usually productive to speculate, some suggestions that point to the behavior of the Bayou Choctaw dome are examined. Also the primary differences in the Bayou Choctaw dome and the other SPR domes are noted.

  15. Prospects for Large-Scale Energy Storage in Decarbonised Power Grids. Working Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-21

    This report describes the development of a simplified algorithm to determine the amount of storage that compensates for short-term net variation of wind power supply and assesses its role in light of a changing future power supply mix. It also examines the range of options available to power generation and transmission operators to deal with variability.

  16. Reliability analysis of hydrologic containment of liquefied petroleum gas within unlined rock caverns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Yan, E. C.; Yeh, T. C. J.; Wang, Y.; Liang, Y.; Hao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Notice that most of the underground liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage caverns are constructed in unlined rock caverns (URCs), where the variability of hydraulic properties (in particular, hydraulic conductivity) has significant impacts on hydrologic containment performance. However, it is practically impossible to characterize the spatial distribution of these properties in detail at the site of URCs. This dilemma forces us to cope with uncertainty in our evaluations of gas containment. As a consequence, the uncertainty-based analysis is deemed more appropriate than the traditional deterministic analysis. The objectives of this paper are 1) to introduce a numerical first order method to calculate the gas containment reliability within a heterogeneous, two-dimensional unlined rock caverns, and 2) to suggest a strategy for improving the gas containment reliability. In order to achieve these goals, we first introduced the stochastic continuum representation of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of fractured rock and analyzed the spatial variability of Ks at a field site. We then conducted deterministic simulations to demonstrate the importance of heterogeneity of Ks in the analysis of gas tightness performance of URCs. Considering the uncertainty of the heterogeneity in the real world situations, we subsequently developed a numerical first order method (NFOM) to determine the gas tightness reliability at crucial locations of URCs. Using the NFOM, the effect of spatial variability of Ks on gas tightness reliability was investigated. Results show that as variance or spatial structure anisotropy of Ks increases, most of the gas tightness reliability at crucial locations reduces. Meanwhile, we compare the results of NFOM with those of Monte Carlo simulation, and we find the accuracy of NFOM is mainly affected by the magnitude of the variance of Ks. At last, for improving gas containment reliability at crucial locations at this study site, we suggest that vertical

  17. The uses of electrostatic bending and focussing elements for auxiliary storage rings in large proton collider tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the possibility of using electrostatic elements, instead of magnets, for bending and focusing in auxiliary electron storage rings in the tunnels of large proton accelerators. For example, in the proposed SSC tunnel, electron beam energies of --100 GeV appear to be possible. Benefits of electrostatic systems over conventional magnets in cost, aperture, beam dynamics, radiation hardness, and power are presented. Electrostatic element designs are discussed, as are applications to electron, anti-proton and heavy ion beams

  18. Indirect carotid cavernous fistula mimicking ocular myasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishangthem, Lakshmi; Satti, Sudhakar Reddy

    2017-10-19

    71-year-old woman with progressive left-sided, monocular diplopia and ptosis. Her symptoms mimicked ocular myasthenia, but she had an indirect carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). She was diagnosed with monocular myasthenia gravis (negative acetylcholinesterase antibody) after a positive ice test and started on Mestinon and underwent a thymectomy complicated by a brachial plexus injury. Months later, she developed left-sided proptosis and ocular bruit. She was urgently referred to neuro-interventional surgery and was diagnosed with an indirect high-flow left CCF, which was treated with Onyx liquid and platinum coil embolisation. Mestinon was discontinued. Her ophthalmic symptoms resolved. However, she was left with a residual left arm and hand hemiparesis and dysmetria secondary to a brachial plexus injury. Indirect CCF usually can present with subtle and progressive symptoms leading to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. It is important for ophthalmologists to consider this differential in a patient with progressive ocular symptoms. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Outdoor Storage Characteristics of Single-Pass Large Square Corn Stover Bales in Iowa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Shah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Year-round operation of biorefineries can be possible only if the continuous flow of cellulosic biomass is guaranteed. If corn (Zea mays stover is the primary cellulosic biomass, it is essential to recognize that this feedstock has a short annual harvest window (≤1–2 months and therefore cost effective storage techniques that preserve feedstock quality must be identified. This study evaluated two outdoor and one indoor storage strategies for corn stover bales in Iowa. High- and low-moisture stover bales were prepared in the fall of 2009, and stored either outdoors with two different types of cover (tarp and breathable film or within a building for 3 or 9 months. Dry matter loss (DML, changes in moisture and biomass compositions (fiber and ultimate analyses were determined. DML for bales stored outdoor with tarp and breathable film covers were in the ranges of 5–11 and 14–17%, respectively. More than half of the total DML occurred early during the storage. There were measurable differences in carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, cellulose, hemi-cellulose and acid detergent lignin for the different storage treatments, but the changes were small and within a narrow range. For the bale storage treatments investigated, cellulose content increased by as much as 4%s from an initial level of ~41%, hemicellulose content changed by −2 to 1% from ~34%, and acid detergent lignin contents increased by as much as 3% from an initial value of ~5%. Tarp covered bales stored the best in this study, but other methods, such as tube-wrapping, and economics need further investigation.

  20. Acinic cell carcinoma of parotid gland metastasis to left cavernous sinus: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Xiao-yan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations and pathological features of parotid gland papillary acinic cell carcinoma metastasis to left cavernous sinus. Methods The clinical manifestations, pathological features and differential diagnosis were studied in one case of parotid papillary acinic cell carcinoma metastasis to left cavernous sinus. Related literatures were also reviewed. Results The patient was a 50-year-old female who presented paroxysmal dizziness for 5 months and blurred vision in her left eye for 10 months. The MRI examination showed left parasellar space-occupying mass in the cavernous sinus. In operation, the tumor was located in the superior wall of left cavernous sinus, soft and red-grey in color, with abundant blood supply. The histomorphological examination revealed the tumor cells were arranged in solid, acinar or papillary pattern. The tumor cells were large, with eosinophilic cytoplasm, round or oval nuclei and small nucleoli. Immunohistochemical staining found that the tumor cells expressed cytokeratin (CK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, vimentin (Vim and S-100 protein (S-100, and showed weak positive expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and focal positive expression of P53 protein. Ki-67 labeling index was about 5%-10% . The tumor cells were negative for neuroendocrine markers and pituitary hormone protein markers. This case was difficult to differentiate from other primary intracalvarium tumors, including papillary meningioma, papillary tumor of choroid plexus, papillary ependymoma, papillary glioneuronal tumors as well as chordoma. According to the medical history and the comparison of histomorphology and immunophenotyping between parotid gland tumor cells and left cavernous sinus tumor cells, the final diagnosis was metastatic papillary parotid acinar cell carcinoma of the left cavernous sinus. The patient was followed for 21 months and no recurrence was seen. Conclusion It is very rare and

  1. Gallium scintigraphy in a case of septic cavernous sinus thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestro, C.J.; Malat, J.; Gladstone, A.G.; Richman, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis, a relatively uncommon disease entity, frequently can be fatal. Early diagnosis is imperative in order that appropriate treatment be instituted. A 59-year-old woman who was admitted to our institution with complaints of diplopia, blurred vision and fevers that developed following a tooth extraction is presented. Initial CT and lumbar puncture on the day of admission were totally normal. A repeat CT performed 48 hours after admission, on the same day as gallium imaging, demonstrated findings consistent with cavernous sinus thrombosis. Gallium imaging demonstrated intense uptake in the left cavernous sinus and left orbit as well as moderately increased activity in the right cavernous sinus and orbit, confirming infection. The patient was treated with antibiotics, and repeat CT and gallium imaging were performed ten days later, both of which demonstrated near total resolution of the disease process. Conceivably, if gallium imaging had been initiated on the day of admission it may have been the first study to demonstrate an infectious process in the cavernous sinus. Gallium imaging should be considered as a diagnostic tool in the noninvasive workup of this entity

  2. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  3. Large energy storage efficiency of the dielectric layer of graphene nanocapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadin, A; Belkin, A; Ilin, E; Pak, M; Colla, Eugene V; Hubler, A

    2017-12-08

    Electric capacitors are commonly used in electronic circuits for the short-term storage of small amounts of energy. It is desirable however to use capacitors to store much larger energy amounts to replace rechargeable batteries. Unfortunately existing capacitors cannot store sufficient energy to be able to replace common electrochemical energy storage systems. Here we examine the energy storage capabilities of graphene nanocapacitors, which are tri-layer devices involving an Al film, Al 2 O 3 dielectric layer, and a single layer of carbon atoms, i.e., graphene. This is a purely electronic capacitor and therefore it can function in a wide temperature interval. The capacitor shows a high dielectric breakdown electric field strength, of the order of 1000 kV mm -1 (i.e., 1 GV m -1 ), which is much larger than the table value of the Al 2 O 3 dielectric strength. The corresponding energy density is 10-100 times larger than the energy density of a common electrolytic capacitor. Moreover, we discover that the amount of charge stored in the dielectric layer can be equal or can even exceed the amount of charge stored on the capacitor plates. The dielectric discharge current follows a power-law time dependence. We suggest a model to explain this behavior.

  4. Large energy storage efficiency of the dielectric layer of graphene nanocapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezryadin, A.; Belkin, A.; Ilin, E.; Pak, M.; Colla, Eugene V.; Hubler, A.

    2017-12-01

    Electric capacitors are commonly used in electronic circuits for the short-term storage of small amounts of energy. It is desirable however to use capacitors to store much larger energy amounts to replace rechargeable batteries. Unfortunately existing capacitors cannot store sufficient energy to be able to replace common electrochemical energy storage systems. Here we examine the energy storage capabilities of graphene nanocapacitors, which are tri-layer devices involving an Al film, Al2O3 dielectric layer, and a single layer of carbon atoms, i.e., graphene. This is a purely electronic capacitor and therefore it can function in a wide temperature interval. The capacitor shows a high dielectric breakdown electric field strength, of the order of 1000 kV mm-1 (i.e., 1 GV m-1), which is much larger than the table value of the Al2O3 dielectric strength. The corresponding energy density is 10-100 times larger than the energy density of a common electrolytic capacitor. Moreover, we discover that the amount of charge stored in the dielectric layer can be equal or can even exceed the amount of charge stored on the capacitor plates. The dielectric discharge current follows a power-law time dependence. We suggest a model to explain this behavior.

  5. High temperature underground thermal energy storage system for solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The activities feasibility of high temperature underground thermal storage of energy was investigated. Results indicate that salt cavern storage of hot oil is both technically and economically feasible as a method of storing huge quantities of heat at relatively low cost. One particular system identified utilizes a gravel filled cavern leached within a salt dome. Thermal losses are shown to be less than one percent of cyclically transferred heat. A system like this having a 40 MW sub t transfer rate capability and over eight hours of storage capacity is shown to cost about $13.50 per KWh sub t.

  6. Impact of In Situ Stress Distribution Characteristics on Jointed Surrounding Rock Mass Stability of an Underground Cavern near a Hillslope Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangxiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a series of numerical simulations are performed to analyze the in situ stress distribution characteristics of the rock mass near different slope angles hillslope surfaces, which are subjected to the vertical gravity stress and different horizontal lateral stresses and the influence which the in situ stress distribution characteristics of 45° hillslope to the integral stability of surrounding rock mass when an underground cavern is excavated considering three different horizontal distances from the underground cavern to the slope surface. It can be concluded from the numerical results that different slope angles and horizontal lateral stresses have a strong impact on the in situ stress distribution and the integral surrounding rock mass stability of the underground cavern when the horizontal distance from the underground cavern to the slope surface is approximately 100 m to 200 m. The relevant results would provide some important constructive suggestions to the engineering site selection and optimization of large-scale underground caverns in hydropower stations.

  7. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Retinal Cavernous Hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierro, Luisa; Marchese, Alessandro; Gagliardi, Marco; Bandello, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Retinal cavernous hemangioma is a rare, benign, retinal tumor characterized by angiomatous proliferation of vessels within the inner retina or the optic disc.1 Here we report a case of retinal cavernous hemangioma on the margin of the optic disc in the right eye of a 61-year-old asymptomatic female. The lesion was studied with multimodal imaging which included structural optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, blue fundus auto-fluorescence, optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) and visual field examination. Blood circulation inside retinal cavernous hemangioma lesion is typically low-stagnant.2 However, OCTA demonstrated blood flow inside the lesion, illustrating its vascular circulation.3 Visual field was within the normal limits, except from a slight enlargement of the blind spot. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:684-685.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  9. Neuroradiological diagnosis and interventional therapy of carotid cavernous fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, T.; Engelhorn, T.; Doelken, M.; Doerfler, A.; Holbach, L.

    2008-01-01

    Carotid cavernous fistulas are pathologic connections between the internal and/or external carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. According to Barrow one can distinguish between direct (high flow) and indirect (low flow) fistulas, whereby direct fistulas are often traumatic while indirect fistulas more frequently occur spontaneously in postmenopausal women. Diagnosis can easily be established using MRI and angiography, which allow exact visualization of the anatomy of fistulas to plan the interventional neurological therapy that in recent years has replaced surgical therapy. This article provides an overview on imaging findings, diagnosis using MRI and angiography as well as interventional treatment strategies. (orig.) [de

  10. Monitoring of large-scale federated data storage: XRootD and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Beche, A; Arias, D Diguez; Giordano, D; Saiz, P; Tuckett, D; Belov, S; Oleynik, D; Petrosyan, A; Tadel, M; Vukotic, I

    2014-01-01

    The computing models of the LHC experiments are gradually moving from hierarchical data models with centrally managed data pre-placement towards federated storage which provides seamless access to data files independently of their location and dramatically improve recovery due to fail-over mechanisms. Construction of the data federations and understanding the impact of the new approach to data management on user analysis requires complete and detailed monitoring. Monitoring functionality should cover the status of all components of the federated storage, measuring data traffic and data access performance, as well as being able to detect any kind of inefficiencies and to provide hints for resource optimization and effective data distribution policy. Data mining of the collected monitoring data provides a deep insight into new usage patterns. In the WLCG context, there are several federations currently based on the XRootD technology. This paper will focus on monitoring for the ATLAS and CMS XRootD federations implemented in the Experiment Dashboard monitoring framework. Both federations consist of many dozens of sites accessed by many hundreds of clients and they continue to grow in size. Handling of the monitoring flow generated by these systems has to be well optimized in order to achieve the required performance. Furthermore, this paper demonstrates the XRootD monitoring architecture is sufficiently generic to be easily adapted for other technologies, such as HTTP/WebDAV dynamic federations.

  11. Large-site air-storage gas-turbine plants in electricity networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, H C

    1980-08-01

    The article gives a detailed description of the construction and the operation of the 290 MW air-storage gas-turbine power station at the town of Huntorf. The cavities of a 300,000 cbm storage capacity needed for accomodating compressed air have been solution-mined in a salt dome at a depth of c. 700 m. The air-mass-flow-controlled gas turbine consists of a 6-stage HP part and a 5-stage LP part with a combustion chamber each. The turbine is used to cover peak loads, whereas slack periods are covered by the generator which drives to air compressors connected in series to refill the underground compressed-air stores. Since December 1978, the plant has been in operation. As a gas turbine, it has attained a high level of start frequency, indeed, with its 400 starts within the first 5 months. Energy cost of this power station range within the optimum (between half and full load) at about 70% of the energy cost required by a conventionally natural-gas-fired turbine.

  12. Assessing storage adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirault, P.

    2004-01-01

    Government policy encourages the use of natural gas. It is expected that liquefied natural gas (LNG) and Arctic gas will make up 20 to 25 per cent of supply. This presentation provided an outlook of storage value based on a technical analysis by the National Petroleum Counsel (NPC) report. A moderately robust growth is expected in the residential and commercial load which may be partially offset by robust growth in electricity. The net result is an increase in storage requirements. It was concluded that there is a strong case for growth in storage demand but a lack of good sites for additional capacity. This will lead to higher storage values. The NPC sees the need for 1 Tcf more storage use by 2025, of which 700 Bcf will need to come from new storage. In particular, current storage levels may not be sufficient to meet a colder than normal winter, and deliverability is affected by field inventory. Most storage capacity was built before 1985, mostly by regulated entities. It is expected that only 250 to 400 Bcf will be added over the next 25 years in North America. If storage becomes scarce, prices will move to the marginal cost of new additions, and the upper limit on price will be determined by salt cavern storage. An increase of $1.00 in the price of leasing storage would add about $0.11 to the average price of consumed gas. tabs., figs

  13. Large solar heating system with seasonal storage for buld drying in Lisse, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhoven, T.P.; Geus, A.C. de

    1996-01-01

    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design

  14. A comparative study of all-vanadium and iron-chromium redox flow batteries for large-scale energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.

    2015-12-01

    The promise of redox flow batteries (RFBs) utilizing soluble redox couples, such as all vanadium ions as well as iron and chromium ions, is becoming increasingly recognized for large-scale energy storage of renewables such as wind and solar, owing to their unique advantages including scalability, intrinsic safety, and long cycle life. An ongoing question associated with these two RFBs is determining whether the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) or iron-chromium redox flow battery (ICRFB) is more suitable and competitive for large-scale energy storage. To address this concern, a comparative study has been conducted for the two types of battery based on their charge-discharge performance, cycle performance, and capital cost. It is found that: i) the two batteries have similar energy efficiencies at high current densities; ii) the ICRFB exhibits a higher capacity decay rate than does the VRFB; and iii) the ICRFB is much less expensive in capital costs when operated at high power densities or at large capacities.

  15. Analysis of flexible fabric structures for large-scale subsea compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimm, A; Garvey, S

    2009-01-01

    The idea of storing compressed air in submerged flexible fabric structures anchored to the seabed is being investigated for its potential to be a clean, economically-attractive means of energy storage which could integrate well with offshore renewable energy conversion. In this paper a simple axisymmetric model of an inextensional pressurised bag is presented, along with its implementation in a constrained multidimensional optimization used to minimise the cost of the bag materials per unit of stored energy. Base pressure difference and circumferential stress are included in the optimization, and the effect of hanging ballast masses from the inside of the bag is also considered. Results are given for a zero pressure natural shape bag, a zero pressure bag with circumferential stress and hanging masses, and a nonzero pressure bag with circumferential stress and hanging masses.

  16. Aquifer thermal energy storage - A feasibility study for large scale demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, W. V.; Supkow, D. J.

    Engineering procedures necessary for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), based on studies of the Magothy Aquifer on Long Island, NY, are presented, with chilled winter water pumped into the aquifer and reclaimed in summer months for air conditioning. The choice of aquifer involves necessary volume, flow rate, efficiency of thermal recovery, and avoidance of conflict with other users; utilization depends on choice of appropriate piping, heat exchangers, and well construction to prevent degradation of the aquifer. The methods employed to probe the Magothy for suitability are described, including drilling an asymmetric well cluster for observation, and 48 hr pumping and 8 hr recovery. Transmissivity was found to vary from 8,000 to 29,000 sq ft/day. A doublet well was then drilled and water withdrawn, chilled, and returned. Later withdrawal indicated a 46% thermal recovery, with computer models projecting 80% with additional cycling. The study verified the feasibility of ATES, which can be expanded with additional demand.

  17. On-line Observation Of Electron Beam Bunches In The Large Storage Ring Of Kurchatov Srs

    CERN Document Server

    Ioudin, L I; Krylov, Y V; Rezvov, V A; Stirin, A I; Valentinov, A G; Yupinov, Y L

    2004-01-01

    A complex of instrumentation for visual quantitative estimation of electron beam bunches in the big storage ring of Kurchatov Synchrotron Radiation Centre (KSRC) is tested. The bunches pass through a cylindrical electrostatic sensor whose signal is recorded by a wide-band oscillograph. The TV camera reads the optical image of the signal from the oscillograph screen. The TV signal numbering board inputs the video image to the computer memory. The monitor displays the beam bunch structure. A special program provides on-line visualisation of bunch behaviour on the beam orbit. The images of beam structure and a series of images showing the beam behaviour in the regimes of accumulation, acceleration and in the stationary regime a full power are numbered and stored.

  18. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Energy Storage System for Power Systems with Large-scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes algorithms for optimal sitingand sizing of Energy Storage System (ESS) for the operationplanning of power systems with large scale wind power integration.The ESS in this study aims to mitigate the wind powerfluctuations during the interval between two rolling Economic......Dispatches (EDs) in order to maintain generation-load balance.The charging and discharging of ESS is optimized consideringoperation cost of conventional generators, capital cost of ESSand transmission losses. The statistics from simulated systemoperations are then coupled to the planning process to determinethe...

  19. Large-volume heat storage tank made of GFK; Grosswaermespeichertank aus GFK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehl, J.; Schultheis, P. [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany). Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik

    1998-12-31

    The Technical University of Ilmenau, the company Verbundwerkstoff- und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn, the Institute for Aerospace and Light-weight construction of Dresden University with its approved testing facilities for plastics and the Institute for Construction Engineering in Berlin and several other institutions co-operated since 1996 in developing a concept for a series of long-term heat storage tanks up to 6,000 cubic metres storage volume made of plastic (GFK components) with a combined thermal insulation. A model tank (sandwich body with proportional thermal insulation layer and selected mixed laminates) with a volume of 1.5 cubic metres was built and installed in November 1996. The tank has been continuously operated at various test levels. The experiment proves the longevity of the materials used. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Zusammenarbeit der TU Ilmenau mit der Fa. Verbundwerkstoff - und Kunststoffanwendungstechnik Schoenbrunn und dem Institut fuer Luftfahrttechnik und Leichtbau Dresden, seiner akkredierten Pruefstelle fuer Kunststoffe, in Abstimmung mit dem Institut fuer Bautechnik Berlin und weiteren Einrichtungen und Partnern wird seit 1996 an einem Konzept fuer eine Typenreihe Langzeitwaermespeicher bis vorerst 6.000 m{sup 3} Speichervolumen aus Kunststoff (GFK-Komponenten) und kombinierter integrierter thermischer Isolation gearbeitet. Im Vorfeld dieser Entwicklung wurde auf der Basis vorausgewaehlter Materialien und Kompositionen ein Musterspeicher (ein Sandwich - Modellkoerper mit proportionaler Waermedaemmschicht sowie ausgewaehlten Mischlaminaten) mit einem Speichervolumen von 1,5 m{sup 3} realisiert. Dieser Musterspeicher wurde im November 1996 installiert und wird seither kontinuierlich in den entsprechenden Erprobungsstufen betrieben. Der Nachweis der Langlebigkeit der eingesetzten Materialien wurde experimentell erbracht. (orig.)

  20. Large scale renewable power generation advances in technologies for generation, transmission and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the issues of integrating large-scale renewable power generation into existing grids. It includes a new protection technique for renewable generators along with the inclusion of current status of smart grid.

  1. Stent-assisted coil embolization for cavernous carotid artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Kenichi; Shintani, Aki; Okada, Hideo; Tanaka, Yuko; Terada, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion with or without a bypass surgery is the traditional treatment for cavernous sinus (CS) aneurysms with cranial nerve (CN) dysfunction. Coil embolization without stents frequently requires retreatment because of the large size of CS aneurysms. We report the mid-term results of six unruptured CS aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE). The mean age of the patients was 72 years. The mean size of the aneurysms was 19.8 mm (range: 13-26 mm). Before treatment, four patients presented with CN dysfunction and two patients had no symptoms. SACE was performed under local or general anesthesia in three patients each. Mean packing density was 29.1% and tight packing was achieved. There were no neurological complications. CN dysfunction was cured in three patients (75%) and partly resolved in one patient (25%). Transient new CN dysfunction was observed in two patients (33%). Clinical and imaging follow-up ranged from 6 to 26 months (median: 16 months). Recanalization was observed in three patients (50%; neck remnant in two patients and dome filling in one patient), but no retreatment has yet been required. No recurrence of CN dysfunction has occurred yet. In summary, SACE increases packing density and may reduce requirement of retreatment with an acceptable cure rate of CN dysfunction. SACE may be a superior treatment for coiling without stents and be an alternative treatment of ICA occlusion for selected patients, such as older patients and those who require a high-flow bypass surgery or cannot receive general anesthesia.

  2. Cerebral cavernous angioma. 16 cases. Aspects in CT and MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, J.I.; Medrano, J.; Lasierra, R.; Benito, J.L. de; Feijoo, R.; Fernandez, J.A.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The cerebral cavernous angioma (CA) is included in the group of cerebral malformations that can not be detected angiographically. We present the retrospective study of 16 patients, diagnosed as having CA, comparing the data provided by CT and MR, as well as the contribution of cerebral angiography. (Author) 25 refs

  3. Carotid-cavernous fistula after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Emin; Isildak, Huseyin; Haciyev, Yusuf; Kaytaz, Asim; Enver, Ozgun

    2009-03-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are anomalous communications between the carotid arterial system and the venous cavernous sinus. They can arise because of spontaneous or trauma causes. Most caroticocavernous fistulas are of spontaneous origin and unknown etiology. Spontaneous CCF may also be associated with cavernous sinus pathology such as arteriosclerotic changes of the arterial wall, fibromuscular dysplasia, or Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Traumatic CCFs may occur after either blunt or penetrating head trauma. Their clinical presentation is related to their size and to the type of venous drainage, which can lead to a variety of symptoms, such as visual loss, proptosis, bruit, chemosis, cranial nerve impairment, intracranial hemorrhage (rare), and so on. Treatment by endovascular transarterial embolization with electrolytically detachable coils is a very effective method for CCF with good outcomes. Carotid-cavernous fistulas have been rarely reported after craniofacial surgery and are uncommon pathologies in otolaryngology practice. In this study, we report a 40-year-old woman with CCF secondary to blunt trauma of functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  4. NA62 cavern and sub-detectors 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Graham, Connor

    2017-01-01

    The NA62 cavern, with the completed detector, during breaks in data taking in July 2017. Pictures from 05-07-17 by Dan Protopopescu and pictures from 08-07-17 by Connor Graham (Both Glasgow-affiliated). Includes pictures of the whole experiment, safety systems and sub-detector elements.

  5. Value of gamma knife radiosurgery for tumors invading cavernous sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokura, Hidefumi; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of radiosurgery for cavernous sinus tumors was evaluated based on our experience and recent published reports from other institutes. Twenty-six meningiomas involving the cavernous sinus were treated by radiosurgery. The length of follow-up average 3 years. Tumors regressed in 40% and remained stable in 56% of cases. A total of 96% of the tumors were controlled with only a few minor complications. We believe surgical resection to reduce the volume of the tumor without causing new neurological deficits, followed by radiosurgery on the tumor located in the cavernous sinus is the best choice in many cases. Twenty-five pituitary adenomas with cavernous sinus invasion were treated by a combination of transsphenoidal removal and radiosurgery. All the tumors are controlled in terms of volume during the follow-up (average of 34 months). There were no new neurological deficits, including visual disturbance. Hormone elevation was able to be corrected at an early stage without pituitary insufficiency more by radiosurgery than by fractionated radiation. However, to obtain good results by radiosurgery, it must be preceded by complete surgical decompression of optic nerves and chiasma from the tumor. (author)

  6. Estimating the distribution of salt cavern squeeze using subsidence measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.; Visser, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report a field study on solution mining of magnesium chloride from bischofite layers in the Netherlands at depths between 1500 and 1850 m. Subsidence that was observed in the area is due to part of the brine production being realized by cavern squeeze; some of which were connccted. Wc used an

  7. Simulation of Cavern Formation and Karst Development Using Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Douglas C.; Ross, Alex R.

    1975-01-01

    A salt model was developed as a teaching tool to demonstrate the development of caverns and karst topography. Salt slabs are placed in a watertight box to represent fractured limestone. Erosion resulting from water flow can be photographed in time-lapse sequence or demonstrated in the laboratory. (Author/CP)

  8. Fat deposition in the cavernous sinus in Cushing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachow, T.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Aaron, J.O.; Davis, K.R.; Taveras, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fat density in the cavernous sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in 6 out of 16 (37.5%) patients with Cushing disease. This finding may aid in making a specific diagnosis in patients with a pituitary mass. It was not seen in 30 random CT studies of the sella; however, supra seller fat was incidentally noted in the patient with acromegaly

  9. Fat deposition in the cavernous sinus in Cushing disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachow, T.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Aaron, J.O.; Davis, K.R.; Taveras, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    Fat density in the cavernous sinus on computed tomography (CT) is described in 6 out of 16 (37.5%) patients with Cushing disease. This finding may aid in making a specific diagnosis in patients with a pituitary mass. It was not seen in 30 random CT studies of the sella; however, supra seller fat was incidentally noted in the patient with acromegaly.

  10. A Case of Brainstem Cavernous Angioma Presenting with Persistent Hiccups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Arami

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nIntractable hiccup most be considered as a symptom of underlying serious pathologies. We report a case of medulla oblongata cavernous angima presented with persistant hiccup and without any improvement during routine nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment regimns. The patient is under our follow up visits and surgery is very high risk for this young girl.

  11. Novel Technique for the UX15 Cavern Vault Support System

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    2000-01-01

    The overall LHC project schedule requires the civil engineering work to begin before the final LEP shutdown. The new caverns for the ATLAS experiment will be built in and around the existing underground structures at point 1. In order to make the best possible use of the time available for the LHC civil engineering before the shutdown of LEP, a particular arrangement for the construction of the UX15 cavern vault has been developed. The basic concept of this arrangement consists of the excavation of the cavern top heading and the installation of the concrete vault immediately afterwards, prior to the subsequent bench excavation after LEP shutdown. A temporary support of the dead weight of the concrete roof will be achieved by the suspension of the roof by 38 no. pre-stressed ground anchors of 225 tons capacity each. This support system will work up to the construction of the cavern base slab and walls and the completion of the permanent concrete lining.

  12. Primary extradural leiomyosarcoma involving cavernous sinus in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni V Gulwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial leiomyosarcoma (LMS are uncommon malignancies and usually encountered after systemic metastases. Limited cases of primary intracranial LMSs have been reported in the literature. It mostly affects immunocompromised individuals in association with Epstein-Barr virus infection. This is the unusual first case being reported of primary LMS in immunocompetent patient with involvement of cavernous sinus.

  13. Preoperative irradiation of an extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shobu; Kurihara, Masaki; Mori, Kazuo; Amamoto, Yuhei.

    1981-01-01

    This is a report of case with the extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa in which total removal was carried out after radiotherapy. Follow-up study with computed tomography during and after irradiation are presented. A 44-year-old house-wife complained of a decreased vision of the both eyes and paresis of the left upper and lower limbs. CT scan revealed a slightly high density area in the right middle cranial fossa which was markedly enhanced with contrast media. Right carotid angio-graphy demonstrated a large avascular mass in the right middle fossa and no feeding artery or draining vein was visualized except a faint irregular stain in the venous phase. An attempt to total removal of the tumor had failed to success because of extensive hemorrhage from the tumor. Histological examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma. Irradiation with a total dose of 5000 rads was delivered. After irradiation. CT scan revealed a marked decrease of size and EMI number of the tumor. At this stage, hypervascular mass lesion with feeding arteries was noted in conventional angiography. Tumor stain in prolonged injection angiography was also visualized. In the second operation, removal of the tumor was performed without any difficulty and hemorrhage was controlled easily by electrocoagulation. Histology revealed a marked narrowing of vessels with an increase in the connective tissues. In the central part of specimen, there noted findings of coagulation necrosis, intraluminal thrombus formations and so on, which were attributed to the influence of radiation. It is concluded that in case of a extracerebral cavernous hemangioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 3000 - 5000 rads was a method of choice. The treatment results in an increase of probability of total removal of the tumor. (author)

  14. Contamination immobilization by polymer coating of large-sized radioactive wastes for storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassigny, C. de; Signoret, C.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the research work is the development of new techniques to fix contamination and the containment of radioactive waste by using polyurethane paints. The following main work steps have been carried out: . Determination of the polyurethane paint most suited for this application based on water diffusion tests and diffusion of radio-elements . Choice of the spraying technique with respect to conditions of an ionizing environment . Pilot application of the technique on a dismantling site. The polyurethane paint selected is a solventless bicomponent paint manufactured by Bayer. The spraying device chosen (Isotherm PMS 70) and fitted with a Gusmer-Getrasur spray gun is able to operate in an ionizing environment under satisfactory conditions (tested on two pilot work sites). The process generates no contaminated aerosols, but ensures perfect fixation of the ionizing particles. ANDRA has given its agreement for storage in one of its sites of 12 alpha contaminated cast iron slabs (total weight: 60 tons) on which one ton of polyurethane has been applied

  15. A Method for Preparation, Storage and Activation of Large Populations of Immotile Sea Urchin Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Fritch, Jennifer J.; Tash, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is associated with initiation and modulation of sperm flagellar motility. Many studies aimed at examining the signal transduction mechanisms underlying the expression of motility have relied on detergent-permeabilized sperm reactivated with exogenous 32 P-ATP. However, the reactivation conditions allow variable levels of motility to be expressed and phosphorylation of many proteins that appear to be unrelated to sperm motility. Thus, identification of the few relevant proteins is difficult. We have developed a method to collect and keep sperm immotile until reactivated for analysis to normal motility levels. Artificial sea water (ASW) buffered with 5 mM 2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid at pH 6.0 and containing 50 mM KCI, allows collection and storage of immotile sea urchin sperm for up to 96 h at 4-5 C. Motility under these conditions is essentially zero, but sperm is rapidly reactivated to normal motility by diluting with ASW to standard pH (8.0) and KCI concentration (10 mM).

  16. Reliability of high-voltage pulse capacitors operating in large energy storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchinskij, G.S.; Fedorova, V.S.; Shilin, O.V.

    1982-01-01

    To improve the reliability of pulse capacitors operating in capacitive energy storages, processes, resulting in break-down of capacitor insulation were investigated. A statistic model of failures was constructed and reliability of real capacitors, functioning at operating electric intensity Usub(oper) equal 70 kV/mm and at elevated intensity 90 kV/mm was calculated. Results of testing the IK50-ZU4 capacitor are given. The form of the capacitor service life distribution function was specified. To provide and confirm the assigned capacitor reliability, it is necessary to speed up tests at a higher voltage (1.3-1.5) Usub(oper). To improve the capacitor reliability, it is advisable to conduct acceptance tests, which include hold at increased constant voltage (1.3-1.5) Usub(oper) during 1-3 min and the effect of pulses of increased voltage (1.2-1.3) Usub(oper) with the pulse shape corresponding to operating conditions

  17. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program Office (BER),

    2009-09-30

    In May 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BER-funded research over the subsequent three to five years. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. Chief among them: scientific progress in BER-funded research is limited by current allocations of computational resources. Additionally, growth in mission-critical computing -- combined with new requirements for collaborative data manipulation and analysis -- will demand ever increasing computing, storage, network, visualization, reliability and service richness from NERSC. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. It also presents a number of"case studies" as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BER. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this"case study" format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and 3-5 year computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel,"multi-core" environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years.

  18. Design of a large remote seismic exploration data acquisition system, with the architecture of a distributed storage area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Ping; Song, Ke-zhu; Yang, Jun-feng; Ruan, Fu-ming

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, seismic exploration data acquisition (DAQ) systems have been developed into remote forms with a large-scale coverage area. In this kind of application, some features must be mentioned. Firstly, there are many sensors which are placed remotely. Secondly, the total data throughput is high. Thirdly, optical fibres are not suitable everywhere because of cost control, harsh running environments, etc. Fourthly, the ability of expansibility and upgrading is a must for this kind of application. It is a challenge to design this kind of remote DAQ (rDAQ). Data transmission, clock synchronization, data storage, etc must be considered carefully. A fourth-hierarchy model of rDAQ is proposed. In this model, rDAQ is divided into four different function levels. From this model, a simple and clear architecture based on a distributed storage area network is proposed. rDAQs with this architecture have advantages of flexible configuration, expansibility and stability. This architecture can be applied to design and realize from simple single cable systems to large-scale exploration DAQs

  19. Modeling and Coordinated Control Strategy of Large Scale Grid-Connected Wind/Photovoltaic/Energy Storage Hybrid Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingguo Kong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An AC-linked large scale wind/photovoltaic (PV/energy storage (ES hybrid energy conversion system for grid-connected application was proposed in this paper. Wind energy conversion system (WECS and PV generation system are the primary power sources of the hybrid system. The ES system, including battery and fuel cell (FC, is used as a backup and a power regulation unit to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of the intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic resources. Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM is employed to support the AC-linked bus voltage and improve low voltage ride through (LVRT capability of the proposed system. An overall power coordinated control strategy is designed to manage real-power and reactive-power flows among the different energy sources, the storage unit, and the STATCOM system in the hybrid system. A simulation case study carried out on Western System Coordinating Council (WSCC 3-machine 9-bus test system for the large scale hybrid energy conversion system has been developed using the DIgSILENT/Power Factory software platform. The hybrid system performance under different scenarios has been verified by simulation studies using practical load demand profiles and real weather data.

  20. Analysis on Dangerous Source of Large Safety Accident in Storage Tank Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Li, Ying; Xie, Tiansheng; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Xueyuan

    2018-01-01

    The difference between a large safety accident and a general accident is that the consequences of a large safety accident are particularly serious. To study the tank area which factors directly or indirectly lead to the occurrence of large-sized safety accidents. According to the three kinds of hazard source theory and the consequence cause analysis of the super safety accident, this paper analyzes the dangerous source of the super safety accident in the tank area from four aspects, such as energy source, large-sized safety accident reason, management missing, environmental impact Based on the analysis of three kinds of hazard sources and environmental analysis to derive the main risk factors and the AHP evaluation model is established, and after rigorous and scientific calculation, the weights of the related factors in four kinds of risk factors and each type of risk factors are obtained. The result of analytic hierarchy process shows that management reasons is the most important one, and then the environmental factors and the direct cause and Energy source. It should be noted that although the direct cause is relatively low overall importance, the direct cause of Failure of emergency measures and Failure of prevention and control facilities in greater weight.

  1. Derived data storage and exchange workflow for large-scale neuroimaging analyses on the BIRN grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Keator

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizing and annotating biomedical data in structured ways has gained much interest and focus in the last 30 years. Driven by decreases in digital storage costs and advances in genetics sequencing, imaging, electronic data collection, and microarray technologies, data is being collected at an alarming rate. The need to store and exchange data in meaningful ways in support of data analysis, hypothesis testing and future collaborative use is pervasive. Because trans-disciplinary projects rely on effective use of data from many domains, there is a genuine interest in informatics community on how best to store and combine this data while maintaining a high level of data quality and. The difficulties in sharing and combining raw data become amplified after post-processing and/or data analysis in which the new dataset of interest is a function of the original data and may have been collected by multiple collaborating sites. Simple meta-data, documenting which subject and version of data were used for a particular analysis, becomes complicated by the heterogeneity of the collecting sites yet is critically important to the interpretation and reuse of derived results. This manuscript will present a case study of using the XML-Based Clinical Experiment Data Exchange (XCEDE schema and the Human Imaging Database (HID in the Biomedical Informatics Research Network’s (BIRN distributed environment to document and exchange derived data. The discussion includes an overview of the data structures used in both the XML and the database representations, insight into the design considerations, and the extensibility of the design to support additional analysis streams.

  2. Using Large-Scale Cooperative Control to Manage Operational Uncertainties for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxa-Rozen, M.; Rostampour, V.; Kwakkel, J. H.; Bloemendal, M.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) technology can help reduce the demand of energy for heating and cooling in buildings, and has become a popular option for larger buildings in northern Europe. However, the larger-scale deployment of this technology has evidenced some issues of concern for policymakers; in particular, recent research shows that operational uncertainties contribute to inefficient outcomes under current planning methods for ATES. For instance, systems in the Netherlands typically use less than half of their permitted pumping volume on an annual basis. This overcapacity gives users more flexibility to operate their systems in response to the uncertainties which drive building energy demand; these include short-term operational factors such as weather and occupancy, and longer-term, deeply uncertain factors such as changes in climate and aquifer conditions over the lifespan of the buildings. However, as allocated subsurface volume remains unused, this situation limits the adoption of the technology in dense areas. Previous work using coupled agent-based/geohydrological simulation has shown that the cooperative operation of neighbouring ATES systems can support more efficient spatial planning, by dynamically managing thermal interactions in response to uncertain operating conditions. An idealized case study with centralized ATES control thus showed significant improvements in the energy savings which could obtained per unit of allocated subsurface volume, without degrading the recovery performance of systems. This work will extend this cooperative approach for a realistic case study of ATES planning in the city of Utrecht, in the Netherlands. This case was previously simulated under different scenarios for individual ATES operation. The poster will compare these results with a cooperative case under which neighbouring systems can coordinate their operation to manage interactions. Furthermore, a cooperative game-theoretical framework will be

  3. A stochastic model of depolarization enhancement due to large energy spread in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1988-10-01

    A new semiclassical and stochastic model of spin diffusion is used to obtain numerical predictions for depolarization enhancement due to beam energy spread. It confirms the results of previous models for the synchrotron sidebands of isolated spin resonances. A satisfactory agreement is obtained with the width of a synchrotron satellite observed at SPEAR. For HERA and LEP, at Z 0 energy, the depolarization enhancement is of the order of a few units and increases very rapidly with the energy spread. Large reduction of polarization degree is expected in these rings

  4. Analytic calculation of depolarization due to large energy spread in high-energy electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1989-08-01

    A new semiclassical and stochastic model of spin diffusion is used to obtain numerical predictions for depolarization enhancement due to beam energy spread. It confirms the results of previous models for the synchrotron sidebands of spin resonances. A satisfactory agreement is obtained with the width of a synchrotron satellite observed at SPEAR. For HERA, TRISTAN, and LEP at Z 0 energy, the depolarization enhancement is of the order of a few units and increases very rapidly with the energy spread. Large reduction of polarization degree is expected in these rings

  5. Centralized manure digestion. Selection of locations and estimation of costs of large-scale manure storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    A study to assess the possibilities and the consequences of the use of existing Dutch large scale manure silos at centralised anaerobic digestion plants (CAD-plants) for manure and energy-rich organic wastes is carried out. Reconstruction of these large scale manure silos into digesters for a CAD-plant is not self-evident due to the high height/diameter ratio of these silos and the extra investments that have to be made for additional facilities for roofing, insulation, mixing and heating. From the results of an inventory and selection of large scale manure silos with a storage capacity above 1,500 m 3 it appeared that there are 21 locations in The Netherlands that can be qualified for realisation of a CAD plant with a processing capacity of 100 m 3 biomass (80% manure, 20% additives) per day. These locations are found in particular at the 'shortage-areas' for manure fertilisation in the Dutch provinces Groningen and Drenthe. Three of these 21 locations with large scale silos are considered to be the most suitable for realisation of a large scale CAD-plant. The selection is based on an optimal scale for a CAD-plant of 300 m 3 material (80% manure, 20% additives) to be processed per day and the most suitable consuming markets for the biogas produced at the CAD-plant. The three locations are at Middelharnis, Veendam, and Klazinaveen. Applying the conditions as used in this study and accounting for all costs for transport of manure, additives and end-product including the costs for the storage facilities, a break-even operation might be realised at a minimum income for the additives of approximately 50 Dutch guilders per m 3 (including TAV). This income price is considerably lower than the prevailing costs for tipping or processing of organic wastes in The Netherlands. This study revealed that a break-even exploitation of a large scale CAD-plant for the processing of manure with energy-rich additives is possible. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. Control of field uniformity for a large superconducting storage ring magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A 1.45 Tesla, 14.2 meter diameter ''superferric'' magnet is in an advanced stage of construction at BNL. This magnet will be used to store muons for a planned ultra-precise measurement of their anomalous magnetic moment g-2. This measurement requires a magnetic field uniformity of 1 PPM with a knowledge of the field over the muon orbits to 0.1 PPM. The methods built into the design to produce ultra-high field uniformity will be described. Large deviations from the ideal circularly symmetric uniform shape of the iron flux path are required to accommodate transfer lines and superconducting current leads, as well as apparatus for beam injection. Shimming methods to correct for the perturbations due to these large holes will be presented. The pole pieces consist of 36 closely fitting 10 degree arc sections butted together to produce a very good approximation to a continuous 360 degree ring magnet. However, in the cast of a possible quench of the superconducting coils, significant eddy currents will be induced which will circulate within the confines of each 10 degree pole piece. At the great precision required, these eddy currents may leave very small but significant aberrations in the field even after they decay away, because of slight changes in the orientation of the magnetization. Surface coil possibilities to correct for this effect will be described

  7. Quantifying induced effects of subsurface renewable energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; Beyer, Christof; Pfeiffer, Tilmann; Boockmeyer, Anke; Popp, Steffi; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Wang, Bo; Li, Dedong; Dethlefsen, Frank; Dahmke, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    New methods and technologies for energy storage are required for the transition to renewable energy sources. Subsurface energy storage systems such as salt caverns or porous formations offer the possibility of hosting large amounts of energy or substance. When employing these systems, an adequate system and process understanding is required in order to assess the feasibility of the individual storage option at the respective site and to predict the complex and interacting effects induced. This understanding is the basis for assessing the potential as well as the risks connected with a sustainable usage of these storage options, especially when considering possible mutual influences. For achieving this aim, in this work synthetic scenarios for the use of the geological underground as an energy storage system are developed and parameterized. The scenarios are designed to represent typical conditions in North Germany. The types of subsurface use investigated here include gas storage and heat storage in porous formations. The scenarios are numerically simulated and interpreted with regard to risk analysis and effect forecasting. For this, the numerical simulators Eclipse and OpenGeoSys are used. The latter is enhanced to include the required coupled hydraulic, thermal, geomechanical and geochemical processes. Using the simulated and interpreted scenarios, the induced effects are quantified individually and monitoring concepts for observing these effects are derived. This presentation will detail the general investigation concept used and analyze the parameter availability for this type of model applications. Then the process implementation and numerical methods required and applied for simulating the induced effects of subsurface storage are detailed and explained. Application examples show the developed methods and quantify induced effects and storage sizes for the typical settings parameterized. This work is part of the ANGUS+ project, funded by the German Ministry

  8. Buffer Construction Methodology in Demonstration Test For Cavern Type Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihiro, Akiyama; Takahiro, Nakajima; Katsuhide, Matsumura; Kenji, Terada; Takao, Tsuboya; Kazuhiro, Onuma; Tadafumi, Fujiwara

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies concerning a cavern type disposal facility have been carried out for disposal of low level radioactive waste mainly generated by power plant decommissioning in Japan. The disposal facility is composed of an engineered barrier system with concrete pit and bentonite buffer, and planed to be constructed in sub-surface 50 - 100 meters depth. Though the previous studies have mainly used laboratory and mock-up tests, we conducted a demonstration test in a full-size cavern. The main objectives of the test were to study the construction methodology and to confirm the quality of the engineered barrier system. The demonstration test was planned as the construction of full scale mock-up. It was focused on a buffer construction test to evaluate the construction methodology and quality control in this paper. Bentonite material was compacted to 1.6 Mg/m 3 in-site by large vibrating roller in this test. Through the construction of the buffer part, a 1.6 Mg/m 3 of the density was accomplished, and the data of workability and quality is collected. (authors)

  9. Delayed effect of radiation therapy on extracerebral cavernous angioma in the middle fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shobu; Mori, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of a case with extracerebral cavernous angioma in the middle fossa which had received radiation therapy. Follow-up study with serial computed tomography during and after irradiation were presented. A 62-year-old housewife complained of vertigo. CT scan revealed a slightly high density area in the left middle cranial fossa which was markedly enhanced with contrast media. Left carotid angiography demonstrated a large avascular mass in the left middle fossa and no feeding artery or draining vein was visualized except a faint irregular stain in the venous phase. Irradiation with a total dose of 50 Gy was delivered. At the end of radiation, CT scan revealed a slight decrease in size and CT number of the tumor. Follow-up CT scans 5 months later showed 50 % regression of the tumor and 19 months later were negative for tumor. It is concluded that in case of an extracerebral cavernous angioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 30 - 50 Gy was a method of choice. The treatment results in the possibility of eliminating surgery and the benefit of irradiation may not become evident until the first year. (author)

  10. The allocation of fast core storage in large computer programs: design and use of the VARY package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, A.G.

    1975-12-01

    In the design of a large computer program which will be used to solve a wide range of problems, consideration must be given to more than just the processing algorithms in the program. For example, such programs must be flexible, readable, easily modified and must make efficient use of fast storage. A subroutine package written in Fortran IV is described here which formalises the demands and eases the job of the programmer in meeting them. In the design of programs for modular code schemes it is found that the extra demands of standardisation of programming practices where possible makes obligatory the use of such a subroutine. The use of the subroutine in a modular code scheme is specfically exemplified. (author)

  11. LOD-based clustering techniques for efficient large-scale terrain storage and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaohong; Pajarola, Renato

    2003-05-01

    Large multi-resolution terrain data sets are usually stored out-of-core. To visualize terrain data at interactive frame rates, the data needs to be organized on disk, loaded into main memory part by part, then rendered efficiently. Many main-memory algorithms have been proposed for efficient vertex selection and mesh construction. Organization of terrain data on disk is quite difficult because the error, the triangulation dependency and the spatial location of each vertex all need to be considered. Previous terrain clustering algorithms did not consider the per-vertex approximation error of individual terrain data sets. Therefore, the vertex sequences on disk are exactly the same for any terrain. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering algorithm which introduces the level-of-detail (LOD) information to terrain data organization to map multi-resolution terrain data to external memory. In our approach the LOD parameters of the terrain elevation points are reflected during clustering. The experiments show that dynamic loading and paging of terrain data at varying LOD is very efficient and minimizes page faults. Additionally, the preprocessing of this algorithm is very fast and works from out-of-core.

  12. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2011-03-31

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility supporting research within the Department of Energy's Office of Science. NERSC provides high-performance computing (HPC) resources to approximately 4,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. In addition to hosting large-scale computing facilities, NERSC provides the support and expertise scientists need to effectively and efficiently use HPC systems. In February 2010, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BES research through 2013. The workshop was part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users future needs and deploying the necessary resources to meet these demands. Workshop participants reached a consensus on several key findings, in addition to achieving the workshop's goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The key requirements for scientists conducting research in BES are: (1) Larger allocations of computational resources; (2) Continued support for standard application software packages; (3) Adequate job turnaround time and throughput; and (4) Guidance and support for using future computer architectures. This report expands upon these key points and presents others. Several 'case studies' are included as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BES. Research teams scientific goals, computational methods of solution, current and 2013 computing requirements, and special software and support needs are summarized in these case studies. Also included are researchers strategies for computing in the highly parallel, 'multi-core' environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. NERSC has strategic plans and initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings. This report includes a

  13. Cataract surgery in a case of carotid cavernous fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Praveen, Smita Vittal; Noronha, Veena Olma

    2014-01-01

    A carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the cavernous sinus and the carotid arterial system. The ocular manifestations include conjunctival chemosis, proptosis, globe displacement, raised intraocular pressure and optic neuropathy. Although management of CCF in these patients is necessary, the ophthalmologist may also have to treat other ocular morbidities such as cataract. Cataract surgery in patients with CCF may be associated with many possible complications, including suprachoroidal hemorrhage. We describe cataract extraction surgery in 60-year-old female with bilateral spontaneous low-flow CCF. She underwent phacoemulsification via a clear corneal route under topical anesthesia and had an uneventful postoperative phase and recovered successfully. Given the various possible ocular changes in CCF, one must proceed with an intraocular surgery with caution. In this communication, we wish to describe the surgical precautions and the possible pitfalls in cataract surgery in patients with CCF. PMID:25370401

  14. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large, round bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from two cuttings that were harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large, round bales. A total of 87 large...

  15. Storage in alluvial deposits controls the timing of particle delivery from large watersheds, filtering upland erosional signals and delaying benefits from watershed best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuto, J. E.; Skalak, K.; Karwan, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Transport of suspended sediment and sediment-borne constituents (here termed fluvial particles) through large river systems can be significantly influenced by episodic storage in floodplains and other alluvial deposits. Geomorphologists quantify the importance of storage using sediment budgets, but these data alone are insufficient to determine how storage influences the routing of fluvial particles through river corridors across large spatial scales. For steady state systems, models that combine sediment budget data with "waiting time distributions" (to define how long deposited particles remain stored until being remobilized) and velocities during transport events can provide useful predictions. Limited field data suggest that waiting time distributions are well represented by power laws, extending from 104 years, while the probability of storage defined by sediment budgets varies from 0.1 km-1 for small drainage basins to 0.001 km-1 for the world's largest watersheds. Timescales of particle delivery from large watersheds are determined by storage rather than by transport processes, with most particles requiring 102 -104 years to reach the basin outlet. These predictions suggest that erosional "signals" induced by climate change, tectonics, or anthropogenic activity will be transformed by storage before delivery to the outlets of large watersheds. In particular, best management practices (BMPs) implemented in upland source areas, designed to reduce the loading of fluvial particles to estuarine receiving waters, will not achieve their intended benefits for centuries (or longer). For transient systems, waiting time distributions cannot be constant, but will vary as portions of transient sediment "pulses" enter and are later released from storage. The delivery of sediment pulses under transient conditions can be predicted by adopting the hypothesis that the probability of erosion of stored particles will decrease with increasing "age" (where age is defined as the

  16. Numerical Investigation of the Influences of Wellbore Flow on Compressed Air Energy Storage in Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the blossoming of intermittent energy, compressed air energy storage (CAES has attracted much attention as a potential large-scale energy storage technology. Compared with caverns as storage vessels, compressed air energy storage in aquifers (CAESA has the advantages of wide availability and lower costs. The wellbore can play an important role as the energy transfer mechanism between the surroundings and the air in CAESA system. In this paper, we investigated the influences of the well screen length on CAESA system performance using an integrated wellbore-reservoir simulator (T2WELL/EOS3. The results showed that the well screen length can affect the distribution of the initial gas bubble and that a system with a fully penetrating wellbore can obtain acceptably stable pressurized air and better energy efficiencies. Subsequently, we investigated the impact of the energy storage scale and the target aquifer depth on the performance of a CAESA system using a fully penetrating wellbore. The simulation results demonstrated that larger energy storage scales exhibit better performances of CAESA systems. In addition, deeper target aquifer systems, which could decrease the energy loss by larger storage density and higher temperature in surrounding formation, can obtain better energy efficiencies.

  17. Performance analysis of a novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mingkun; Zhao, Pan; Wu, Yi; Dai, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Due to the intermittence and fluctuation of wind resource, the increasing penetration level of wind power will bring huge challenges to maintain the stability of power system. Integrating compressed air energy storage (CAES) system with wind farms can weaken this negative effect. However CAES system needs large caverns or mines to store compressed air, which is restricted in application. In this paper, a novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide is presented. The mathematical models of compressed liquid-carbon dioxide energy storage system are developed. The parametric analysis is conducted to examine the effect of some key thermodynamic parameters on the system performance. Compared with AA-CAES, the liquid carbon dioxide energy storage system has advantages such as a high energy density, high EVR. Moreover, the round trip efficiency of this system can reach about 56.64%, which is acceptable in consideration of the storage volume. Therefore, this proposed system has a good potential for storing wind power in large scale and offers an attractive solution to the challenges of the increasing penetration level of wind power. - Highlights: • A novel energy storage system based on liquid carbon dioxide is presented. • The effects of some key parameters on the system performance are studied. • The operation optimization is conducted by genetic algorithm. • Comparative analysis of AA-CAES and liquid carbon dioxide system is studied.

  18. Endovascular treatment of carotid-cavernous vascular lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME BRASILEIRO DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the endovascular treatment of vascular lesions of the cavernous segment of the internal carotidartery (ICA performed at our institution. Methods: we conducted a descriptive, retrospective and prospective study of patients with aneurysms of the cavernous portion of the ICA or with direct carotid-cavernous fistulas (dCCF undergoing endovascular treatment. Results: we included 26 patients with intracavernous aneurysms and ten with dCCF. All aneurysms were treated with ICA occlusion. Those with dCCF were treated with occlusion in seven cases and with selective fistula occlusion in the remaining three. There was improvement of pain and ocular proptosis in all patients with dCCF. In patients with intracavernous aneurysms, the incidence of retro-orbital pain fell from 84.6% to 30.8% after treatment. The endovascular treatment decreased the dysfunction of affected cranial nerves in both groups, especially the oculomotor one. Conclusion: the endovascular treatment significantly improved the symptoms in the patients studied, especially those related to pain and oculomotor nerve dysfunction.

  19. [A case of multiple cavernous angioma with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariya, S; Kawahara, M; Suzumura, A

    2000-10-01

    We reported a 65-year-old man who developed dementia since 50 years of age. His consciousness was clear but he was indifferent to his illness. Also, the luck of attention was recognized when we underwent examinations and the result of intellectual test varied every time we performed. His memory function was almost normal on the examination which was performed when he was cooperative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed multiple tiny lesions (more than 130 in all) in cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. These lesions were compatible with multiple cavernous angioma. Most of lesions manifested high-density area on cranial CT. Though the multiplicity of foci indicated the possibility of familial occurrence, he was considered to be a sporadic case on his lineage investigation and the brain MRI of his only son. In this case, neither headache nor seizures which were known as the major clinical features of intracerebral cavernous angioma was observed. He was diagnosed as having white matter dementia characterized by attentional dysfunction, decrement of volition and less memory disturbance. We speculated that he developed symptomatic dementia by the sum of multiple minor degeneration, especially in frontal lobe white matter, caused by repeated minor bleeding from cavernous angiomas.

  20. Interventional Treatment of a Symptomatic Neonatal Hepatic Cavernous Hemangioma Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmar, Oliver; Knirsch, Walter; Bernet, Vera

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous intervention is one treatment option for symptomatic hepatic hemangioma in infants. We report the case of a newborn (birth weight 4060 g) with a large hepatic cavernous hemangioma, which presented early with high cardiac output failure due to arteriovenous shunting and signs of incipient Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. We performed a successful superselective transcatheter coil embolization of three feeding arteries on the seventh day of life. Because of remaining diffuse very small arteries causing a relevant residual shunt, additional occlusion of the three main draining veins was necessary with three Amplatzer vascular plugs. Cardiac failure resolved immediately. Without any additional therapy the large venous cavities disappeared within the following months. The tumor continues to regress in size 8 months after the intervention

  1. Coupling of Large Eddy Simulations with Meteorological Models to simulate Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Storage Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric transport is usually performed with weather models, e.g., the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that employs a parameterized turbulence model and does not resolve the fine scale dynamics generated by the flow around buildings and features comprising a large city. The NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is a computational fluid dynamics model that utilizes large eddy simulation methods to model flow around buildings at length scales much smaller than is practical with models like WRF. FDS has the potential to evaluate the impact of complex topography on near-field dispersion and mixing that is difficult to simulate with a mesoscale atmospheric model. A methodology has been developed to couple the FDS model with WRF mesoscale transport models. The coupling is based on nudging the FDS flow field towards that computed by WRF, and is currently limited to one way coupling performed in an off-line mode. This approach allows the FDS model to operate as a sub-grid scale model with in a WRF simulation. To test and validate the coupled FDS - WRF model, the methane leak from the Aliso Canyon underground storage facility was simulated. Large eddy simulations were performed over the complex topography of various natural gas storage facilities including Aliso Canyon, Honor Rancho and MacDonald Island at 10 m horizontal and vertical resolution. The goal of these simulations included improving and validating transport models as well as testing leak hypotheses. Forward simulation results were compared with aircraft and tower based in-situ measurements as well as methane plumes observed using the NASA Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the next generation instrument AVIRIS-NG. Comparison of simulation results with measurement data demonstrate the capability of the coupled FDS-WRF models to accurately simulate the transport and dispersion of methane plumes over urban domains. Simulated integrated methane enhancements will be presented and

  2. Inferring Large-Scale Terrestrial Water Storage Through GRACE and GPS Data Fusion in Cloud Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude, C. M.; Li, J. D.; Gowanlock, M.; Herring, T.; Pankratius, V.

    2016-12-01

    Surface subsidence due to depletion of groundwater can lead to permanent compaction of aquifers and damaged infrastructure. However, studies of such effects on a large scale are challenging and compute intensive because they involve fusing a variety of data sets beyond direct measurements from groundwater wells, such as gravity change measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) or surface displacements measured by GPS receivers. Our work therefore leverages Amazon cloud computing to enable these types of analyses spanning the entire continental US. Changes in groundwater storage are inferred from surface displacements measured by GPS receivers stationed throughout the country. Receivers located on bedrock are anti-correlated with changes in water levels from elastic deformation due to loading, while stations on aquifers correlate with groundwater changes due to poroelastic expansion and compaction. Correlating linearly detrended equivalent water thickness measurements from GRACE with linearly detrended and Kalman filtered vertical displacements of GPS stations located throughout the United States helps compensate for the spatial and temporal limitations of GRACE. Our results show that the majority of GPS stations are negatively correlated with GRACE in a statistically relevant way, as most GPS stations are located on bedrock in order to provide stable reference locations and measure geophysical processes such as tectonic deformations. Additionally, stations located on the Central Valley California aquifer show statistically significant positive correlations. Through the identification of positive and negative correlations, deformation phenomena can be classified as loading or poroelastic expansion due to changes in groundwater. This method facilitates further studies of terrestrial water storage on a global scale. This work is supported by NASA AIST-NNX15AG84G (PI: V. Pankratius) and Amazon.

  3. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  4. Identification and characterisation of factors affecting losses in the large-scale, non-ventilated bulk storage of wood chips and development of best storage practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garstang, J.; Weekes, A.; Poulter, R.; Bartlett, D.

    2002-07-01

    The report describes the findings of a study to determine the factors affecting the commercial storage of wood chips for biomass power generation in the UK. The UK's first such plant in North Yorkshire uses a mixture of forestry residues and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, where problems with the stored fuel highlighted the need to determine best storage practices. Two wood chip piles were built (one with willow chip and the other with wood chips from board leaf forestry residues) and monitored (moisture, temperature, chemical composition, spore numbers and species, heat and air flows, bulk density, etc). Local weather data was also obtained. Recommendations for future storage practices are made.

  5. Summary record of the topical session at WPDD-10: Management of large components from decommissioning to storage and disposal, 18-19 November 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, Michel

    2010-01-01

    At its tenth meeting, the WPDD held a topical session on Management of Large Components from Decommissioning to Storage and Disposal. The topical session was organised by a new task group of the WPDD that recently began work on this topic. The group is aiming to prepare a technical guide that provides a methodology to assess different management options and facilitates involvement of the different interested parties in the process of selecting the preferred management option. This report is made of 3 parts: Part 1 presents the Main Outcomes of Topical Session on Management of Large Components from Decommissioning to Storage and Disposal (Summary of Presentations and Discussions and Rapporteurs Report); Part 2 presents the Agenda of the Topical Session on Management of Large Components from Decommissioning to Storage and Disposal; and Part 3 is the List of Participants

  6. Adsorption based processes as alternative to common gas conditioning at underground storage facilities using Sorbead; Procedes bases sur l'adsorption comme solution de rechange dans le conditionnement du gaz dans des lieux de stockage souterrains a l'aide de Sorbead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Th. [Engelhard Process Chemicals GmbH (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The European gas market is continuing to expand due to increased industrial, domestic and power generation demand. As a result of this demand, and the trend toward liberalization of the market, the need for storage of gas is also increasing. One key segment of the large scale storage of gas is underground storage, either in partially depleted gas or oil fields, naturally occurring caverns, aquifers and salt cavities. In most cases the gas produced after storage requires conditioning to meet the water of hydrocarbon dew point specification of the gas transmission system. For that reason export gas from storage will require gas conditioning in order to meet pipeline specifications. Adsorption as a feasible and reliable process will be presented in detail and especially in regards to hydrocarbon dew-pointing compared with other process options. (author)

  7. Study on the planning of a demonstration plant for hydrogen fuel production by electrolysis using caching in salt caverns under pressure; Studie ueber die Planung einer Demonstrationsanlage zur Wasserstoff-Kraftstoffgewinnung durch Elektrolyse mit Zwischenspeicherung in Salzkavernen unter Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-02-05

    In a two year research project the long-term storage of hydrogen as energy carrier has been assessed in detail for large renewable electricity quantities in underground storage caverns in Germany. Next to a regions analysis for potential storage sites, the benchmarking against other large scale storage concepts, a comparative and perspective analysis of alkaline and PEM-electrolysers also potential business cases for Power-to-Hydrogen in the mobility sector as well as for the chemical, electricity and natural gas industry have been analysed. [German] Durch den geplanten Ausbau der Stromerzeugung aus fluktuierenden, erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland ruecken Speichertechnologien fuer elektrische Energie immer staerker in den Fokus des industriellen und politischen Interesses. Eine vielversprechende Moeglichkeit fuer eine Langzeitspeicherung bei hohen Anteilen von Wind- und Photovoltaikanlagen sind Speichertechnologien wie die Wasserstoffspeicherung mit Hilfe von Wasserelektrolyseuren. Diese koennen erneuerbaren Strom in grossen Mengen und bei entsprechender Steuerung selektiv in Zeiten mit hohem Dargebot z.B. an Windstrom chemisch speichern. Der gespeicherte Wasserstoff kann dann entweder zu einem spaeteren Zeitpunkt wieder rueckverstromt oder direkt stofflich verwertet werden, z.B. als Kraftstoff fuer den Verkehrssektor, als chemischer Rohstoff oder fuer den Hausenergiebereich durch Einspeisung in das Erdgastransportnetz. Thema der vorliegenden Studie sind Analysen und Planungen fuer die Erprobung des Gesamtsystems ''Wasserstoff-Elektrolyse-Speicherung'' in energiewirtschaftlich relevanten Dimensionen. Dazu werden mit einem neuen Ansatz techno-oekonomische Entwicklungspfade fuer Wasserstoff-Systeme unterschiedlicher Groesse und Technologien charakterisiert und technologische Risiken bei der Realisierung dieser Systeme identifiziert und bewertet. Diese Arbeiten werden ergaenzt durch Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der Salzkavernenspeicherung in Form

  8. Experimental investigation of the dynamic behavior of a large-scale refrigeration – PCM energy storage system. Validation of a complete model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jing; Tremeac, Brice; Terrier, Marie-France; Charni, Mehdi; Gagnière, Emilie; Couenne, Françoise; Hamroun, Boussad; Jallut, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In the area of buildings refrigeration, the use of thermal energy storages coupled with heat pumps is a significant way for reducing the operating costs and optimizing the design of equipment. In this paper, a prototype of large-scale refrigeration - PCM (Phase Change Material) energy storage system is described, from which experimental results on transient behavior are obtained. A dynamic model for transient simulation of the coupled system is presented. The fluid flows through the heat exchangers and the storage tank are represented by a cascade of Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTRs). Switching procedures between different model configurations associated to phase transitions within heat exchangers and PCM storage tank are mathematically performed by matrix operations. The compressor, the expansion valve and the pressure drop across the evaporator are represented by static models based on empirical correlations. A PI controller for the expansion valve opening is integrated in the heat pump model to maintain the superheat at evaporator exit. The model is validated by a complete and detailed comparison between simulation and experimental results. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of a refrigeration-PCM storage system is presented. • A detailed dynamic model for the coupled system is proposed. • Fluid flows in heat exchangers and PCM storage are represented by a cascade of CSTRs. • Phase transitions events according to time and space within heat exchangers and PCM storage are considered in the model. • Complete comparisons between experimental and simulation results are carried out.

  9. Legal and regulatory issues affecting compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1981-07-01

    Several regulatory and legal issues that can potentially affect implementation of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system are discussed. This technology involves the compression of air using base load electric power for storage in an underground storage medium. The air is subsequently released and allowed to pass through a turbine to generate electricity during periods of peak demand. The storage media considered most feasible are a mined hard rock cavern, a solution-mined cavern in a salt deposit, and a porous geologic formation (normally an aquifer) of suitable structure. The issues are discussed in four categories: regulatory issues common to most CAES facilities regardless of storage medium, regulatory issues applicable to particular CAES reservoir media, issues related to possible liability from CAES operations, and issues related to acquisition of appropriate property rights for CAES implementation. The focus is on selected federal regulation. Lesser attention is given to state and local regulation. (WHK)

  10. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes

  11. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  12. Circuit engineering principles for construction of bipolar large-scale integrated circuit storage devices and very large-scale main memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neklyudov, A. A.; Savenkov, V. N.; Sergeyez, A. G.

    1984-06-01

    Memories are improved by increasing speed or the memory volume on a single chip. The most effective means for increasing speeds in bipolar memories are current control circuits with the lowest extraction times for a specific power consumption (1/4 pJ/bit). The control current circuitry involves multistage current switches and circuits accelerating transient processes in storage elements and links. Circuit principles for the design of bipolar memories with maximum speeds for an assigned minimum of circuit topology are analyzed. Two main classes of storage with current control are considered: the ECL type and super-integrated injection type storage with data capacities of N = 1/4 and N 4/16, respectively. The circuits reduce logic voltage differentials and the volumes of lexical and discharge buses and control circuit buses. The limiting speed is determined by the antiinterference requirements of the memory in storage and extraction modes.

  13. The ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aad, G.; et al., [Unknown; Bentvelsen, S.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bos, K.; Boterenbrood, H.; Brouwer, G.; Buis, E.J.; Buskop, J.J.F.; Colijn, A.P.; Dankers, R.; Daum, C.; de Boer, R.; de Jong, P.; Ennes, P.; Gosselink, M.; Groenstege, H.; Hart, R.G.G.; Hartjes, F.; Hendriks, P.J.; Hessey, N.P.; Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Kieft, G.; Klok, P.F.; Klous, S.; Kluit, P.; Koffeman, E.; Koutsman, A.; Liebig, W.; Limper, M.; Linde, F.; Luijckx, G.; Massaro, G.; Muijs, A.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Reichold, A.; Rewiersma, P.; Rijpstra, M.; Scholte, R.C.; Schuijlenburg, H.W.; Snuverink, J.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van Eijk, B.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vreeswijk, M.; Werneke, P.

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS detector as installed in its experimental cavern at point 1 at CERN is described in this paper. A brief overview of the expected performance of the detector when the Large Hadron Collider begins operation is also presented.

  14. Effect of Heat Treatment Process on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of a 9% Ni Steel for Large LNG Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. M.; Li, H.; Yang, F.; Chi, Q.; Ji, L. K.; Feng, Y. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, two different heat treatment processes of a 9% Ni steel for large liquefied natural gas storage tanks were performed in an industrial heating furnace. The former was a special heat treatment process consisting of quenching and intercritical quenching and tempering (Q-IQ-T). The latter was a heat treatment process only consisting of quenching and tempering. Mechanical properties were measured by tensile testing and charpy impact testing, and the microstructure was analyzed by optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The results showed that outstanding mechanical properties were obtained from the Q-IQ-T process in comparison with the Q-T process, and a cryogenic toughness with charpy impact energy value of 201 J was achieved at 77 K. Microstructure analysis revealed that samples of the Q-IQ-T process had about 9.8% of austenite in needle-like martensite, while samples of the Q-T process only had about 0.9% of austenite retained in tempered martensite.

  15. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P.; Snaith, Henry J.; Grant, Patrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices. PMID:27161379

  16. Large-scale hydrological model river storage and discharge correction using a satellite altimetry-based discharge product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Charlotte Marie; Paris, Adrien; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Boone, Aaron; Calmant, Stéphane; Garambois, Pierre-André; Santos da Silva, Joecila

    2018-04-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are widely used to study the continental part of the water cycle. However, even though their accuracy is increasing, inherent model uncertainties can not be avoided. In the meantime, remotely sensed observations of the continental water cycle variables such as soil moisture, lakes and river elevations are more frequent and accurate. Therefore, those two different types of information can be combined, using data assimilation techniques to reduce a model's uncertainties in its state variables or/and in its input parameters. The objective of this study is to present a data assimilation platform that assimilates into the large-scale ISBA-CTRIP LSM a punctual river discharge product, derived from ENVISAT nadir altimeter water elevation measurements and rating curves, over the whole Amazon basin. To deal with the scale difference between the model and the observation, the study also presents an initial development for a localization treatment that allows one to limit the impact of observations to areas close to the observation and in the same hydrological network. This assimilation platform is based on the ensemble Kalman filter and can correct either the CTRIP river water storage or the discharge. Root mean square error (RMSE) compared to gauge discharges is globally reduced until 21 % and at Óbidos, near the outlet, RMSE is reduced by up to 52 % compared to ENVISAT-based discharge. Finally, it is shown that localization improves results along the main tributaries.

  17. Solid-state supercapacitors with rationally designed heterogeneous electrodes fabricated by large area spray processing for wearable energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun; Zhang, Jin; Young, Neil P; Snaith, Henry J; Grant, Patrick S

    2016-05-10

    Supercapacitors are in demand for short-term electrical charge and discharge applications. Unlike conventional supercapacitors, solid-state versions have no liquid electrolyte and do not require robust, rigid packaging for containment. Consequently they can be thinner, lighter and more flexible. However, solid-state supercapacitors suffer from lower power density and where new materials have been developed to improve performance, there remains a gap between promising laboratory results that usually require nano-structured materials and fine-scale processing approaches, and current manufacturing technology that operates at large scale. We demonstrate a new, scalable capability to produce discrete, multi-layered electrodes with a different material and/or morphology in each layer, and where each layer plays a different, critical role in enhancing the dynamics of charge/discharge. This layered structure allows efficient utilisation of each material and enables conservative use of hard-to-obtain materials. The layered electrode shows amongst the highest combinations of energy and power densities for solid-state supercapacitors. Our functional design and spray manufacturing approach to heterogeneous electrodes provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices.

  18. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  19. Improving of Mixing by Submerged Rotary Jet (SRJ) System in a Large Industrial Storage Tank by CFD Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, H.; Hashemabadi, S. H.

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports the result of a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) study on the Submerged Rotary Jet (SRJ) mixing system in a large industrial crude oil storage tank (one million barrels). This system has been installed on the tank just for reduction of sludge, but improper installation causes more accumulation of sludge on one side of tank. The main question is: How can we improve the mixing operation in this tank? For the purpose, a three dimensional modeling is carried out using an in-house CFD code and RNG k-ɛ model for turbulence prediction. The results show that pump suction location and crude oil velocity in tank are most effective factors on the sludge amount. Then, different ways such as increasing of jet flow rate, increasing and decreasing of tank height and reducing of nozzle diameter have been investigated. Finally, in this case, the results show the sedimentation of sludge in whole tank can be removed by 20% increasing of jet flow rate.

  20. Pregnancy-related spinal epidural capillary-cavernous haemangioma: magnetic resonance imaging and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakan, T.; Berkman, M.Z.; Demir, M.K.; Aker, F.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Epidural haemangiomas are very rare tumours of the spine. Only a few case reports have been published and most of them were cavernous or capillary. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of a histologically confirmed epidural capillary-cavernous haemangioma of the thoracic spine presented in the MRI

  1. Increased de novo lipogenesis and delayed conversion of large VLDL into intermediate density lipoprotein particles contribute to Hyperlipidemia in glycogen storage disease type 1a

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandsma, Robert H. J.; Prinsen, Berthil H.; Van Der Velden, Monique De Sain; Rake, Jan-Peter; Boer, Theo; Smit, G. Peter A.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Kuipers, Folkert

    Glycogen storage disease type 1a (GSD-1a) is a metabolic disorder characterized by fasting-induced hypoglycemia, hepatic steatosis, and hyperlipidemia. The mechanisms underlying the lipid abnormalities are largely unknown. To investigate these mechanisms seven GSD-1a patients and four healthy

  2. SECON - A tool for estimation of storage costs and storage project revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, O.

    1997-01-01

    The SECON model Storage ECONomics is useful for gas suppliers, storage operators, gas distributors and consumers when investigating new storage possibilities. SECON has been used within the Sydkraft group to compare cost for different types of storage and to identify the market niche for lined rock cavern (LRC) storage. In the model cost for the different storage types, salt caverns, LNG, and LRC can be compared. By using input according to market needs each storage type can be validated for a specific service e.g. peak shaving, seasonal storage or balancing. The project revenue can also be calculated. SECON includes three models for income calculation; US storage service, Trading and Avoided Supply Contract Costs. The income models calculates annual turnover, pay of time, net present value, internal rate of return and max. liquidity shortfall for the project. The SECON will facilitate sensitivity analysis both regarding cost for different services and different storage types and on the income side by using different scenarios. At the poster session SECON will be presented live and the delegates will have the opportunity to test the model. (au)

  3. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  4. Electrical properties of air in the Carlsbad Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkening, M.; Romero, V.

    1980-01-01

    Radon 222 and its daughter product concentrations in the Carlsbad Caverns are higher than in outdoor air by a factor of several hundred. The effects of the radiation from these substances on the electrical properties of air in the cave have been studied. The rate of ion-pair production, the ion density, and the electrical conductivity are much higher in the Cave than in outdoor air. The mobility of the ions is less than outdoors due to the high humidity and low condensation nuclei concentration. A small net space charge produces a barely detectable electric field of the order of one percent of the earth's fair weather field

  5. Adrenal cavernous hemangioma: MRI, CT, and US appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotti, M.; Sucic, Z.; Krolo, I.; Dimanovski, J.; Klaric, R.; Ferencic, Z.; Karapanda, N.; Babic, N.; Pavlekovic, K.

    1997-01-01

    Two cases of rare adrenal cavernous hemangiomas are reported, one imaged with conventional X-ray techniques, US, CT, and MRI, and the other with US and CT. The CT technique clearly demonstrated calcifications and the internal structure of the lesions in both cases and peripheral rim enhancement on the postcontrast scan in one patient. Although MRI demonstrated accurately the complex nature of the lesion, the inability to visualize the calcified areas do not allow to make a specific histologic diagnosis. (orig.). With 8 figs

  6. An interesting case of angiogenesis in cavernous hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavernous hemangioma is the most common orbital tumor in adult. There is lot of literatures for clinicopathological features of this tumor. These tumors had been studied for the model of angiogenesis in many of the experimental setups. We present a case of 34-year-old male with this tumor in the left eye with computerized tomography evidence. Postsurgical laboratory findings gave interesting evidence of tumor angiogenesis with tumor endothelial cells and sprouting of the small vessels endothelial cells. Podosome rosette could be conceptualized from the characteristic patterns seen in the tumor.

  7. [Pontine cavernous angioma (cavernoma) with initial ENT manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Rivero, V; González Palomino, A; Pantoja Hernández, C G; Trinidad Ruíz, G; Marqués Rebollo, L; Blasco Huelva, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 22 years old female who consulted us for facial parestesias, hearing loss in right ear and sudden tinnitus. Her audiometry showed an unilateral discreet sensorineural hipoacusia and the cranial IRM, a mass of 20 mm diameter in right pontine region and bulbus informed as cavernous angioma with signs of recent bleeding. The patient was sent to Neurosurgery but she refused the intervention. The risk of hemorrhage in the cavernomas is estimated at 0.25% to 1.6% per year and represents the main reason to advise a surgical treatment.

  8. Modelling study, efficiency analysis and optimisation of large-scale Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage systems with low-temperature thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xing; Wang, Jihong; Krupke, Christopher; Wang, Yue; Sheng, Yong; Li, Jian; Xu, Yujie; Wang, Dan; Miao, Shihong; Chen, Haisheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents an A-CAES system thermodynamic model with low temperature thermal energy storage integration. • The initial parameter value ranges for A-CAES system simulation are identified from the study of a CAES plant in operation. • The strategies of system efficiency improvement are investigated via a parametric study with a sensitivity analysis. • Various system configurations are discussed for analysing the efficiency improvement potentials. - Abstract: The key feature of Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage (A-CAES) is the reuse of the heat generated from the air compression process at the stage of air expansion. This increases the complexity of the whole system since the heat exchange and thermal storage units must have the capacities and performance to match the air compression/expansion units. Thus it raises a strong demand in the whole system modelling and simulation tool for A-CAES system optimisation. The paper presents a new whole system mathematical model for A-CAES with simulation implementation and the model is developed with consideration of lowing capital cost of the system. The paper then focuses on the study of system efficiency improvement strategies via parametric analysis and system structure optimisation. The paper investigates how the system efficiency is affected by the system component performance and parameters. From the study, the key parameters are identified, which give dominant influences in improving the system efficiency. The study is extended onto optimal system configuration and the recommendations are made for achieving higher efficiency, which provides a useful guidance for A-CAES system design.

  9. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as

  10. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient

  11. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  12. Endovascular treatment of a cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula by transvenous embolisation through the superior ophthalmic vein via cannulation of a frontal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, C.; Bracco, S.; Cerase, A.; Gennari, P.; Lore, F.; Polito, E.; Casasco, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new approach for transvenous embolisation of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulae through the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV), i.e., via percutaneous cannulation of a frontal vein. Modern neurointerventional angiographic materials make it possible to reach the SOV in this way without puncturing it in the orbit or a surgical exposure. Orbital phlebography should still be in the repertoire of interventional neuroradiology units in large centres. (orig.)

  13. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  14. Cavernous sinus hemangioma: a fourteen year single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sumit; Suri, Ashish; Singh, Manmohan; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Agarwal, Deepak; Sharma, Manish Singh; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2014-06-01

    Cavernous sinus hemangioma (CSH) is a rare extra-axial vascular neoplasm that accounts for 2% to 3% of all cavernous sinus tumors. Their location, propensity for profuse bleeding during surgery, and relationship to complex neurovascular structures are factors which present difficulty in excising these lesions. The authors describe their experience of 22 patients with CSH over 14 years at a tertiary care center. Patients were managed with microsurgical resection using a purely extradural transcavernous approach (13 patients) and with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) (nine patients). Retrospective data analysis found headache and visual impairment were the most common presenting complaints, followed by facial hypesthesia and diplopia. All but one patient had complete tumor excision in the surgical series. Transient ophthalmoparesis (complete resolution in 6-8 weeks) was the most common surgical complication. In the GKRS group, marked tumor shrinkage (>50% tumor volume reduction) was achieved in two patients, slight shrinkage in five and no change in two patients, with symptom improvement in the majority of patients. To our knowledge, we describe one of the largest series of CSH managed at a single center. Although microsurgical resection using an extradural transcavernous approach is considered the treatment of choice in CSH and allows complete excision with minimal mortality and long-term morbidity, GKRS is an additional tool for treating residual symptomatic lesions or in patients with associated comorbidities making surgical resection unsuitable. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Cavern background measurement with the ATLAS RPC system

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of cavern background has been carried out systematically since the beginning of LHC, as soon as the luminosity produced a detectable signal, from L = 10^28 cm^2s^1 of the early 2010 operation up to L=10^28 cm^2s^1 at the end of 2011 proton-proton run, which is just 1/3 of the nominal LHC luminosity. The reason for this is to early foresee the running condition for the detector for the nominal LHC luminosity and beyond, in view of the super-LHC upgrade. Background Montecarlo calculations have been validated against data and the background map analysis pointed out hotspots due to localized cracks in the radiation shielding. The RPCs participated to this effort since the earliest stages providing an accurate correlation between luminosity and background, a 3D background map in the barrel region and a direct measurement of the cavern activation. Moreover due to the high sensitivity and very good signal to noise ratio of the proposed method, based on the gap current, the measurement was provided in...

  16. Cavern background measurement with the ATLAS RPC system

    CERN Document Server

    Aielli, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of cavern background has been carried out systematically since the beginning of LHC, as soon as the luminosity produced a detectable signal, from L=1028 cm-2s-1 of the early 2010 operation up to L=3.5x1033 cm-2s-1 at the end of 2011 proton-proton run, which is just 1/3 of the nominal LHC luminosity. The reason for this is to early foresee the running condition for the detector for the nominal LHC luminosity and beyond, in view of the super-LHC upgrade. Background Montecarlo calculations have been validated against data and the background map analysis pointed out hotspots due to localized cracks in the radiation shielding. The RPCs participated to this effort since the earliest stages providing an accurate correlation between luminosity and background, a 3D background map in the barrel region and a direct measurement of the cavern activation. Moreover due to the high sensitivity and very good signal to noise ratio of the proposed method, based on the gap current, the measurement was provided in...

  17. Investigation concerning geologic storage of radioactive waste in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The first stage of the research program concerning geological storage of radioactive waste in the Netherlands encloses desk studies for the preparation of a selection out of a number of locations for closer field examination, and of a choice of the most proper storage technique (mines, deep boreholes, caverns). This report is the first of two intermediate reports concerning the state of affairs of this first stage. 10 refs.; 6 figs

  18. Large-Scale Multifunctional Electrochromic-Energy Storage Device Based on Tungsten Trioxide Monohydrate Nanosheets and Prussian White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhijie; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Yongbo; He, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2017-09-06

    A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO 3 ·H 2 O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s), and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm 2 C -1 ). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82.5% of its initial optical modulation after 2500 cycles as an electrochromic device, almost fully maintaining its capacitance after 1000 cycles as an energy storage device) is achieved. The EESD is also able to visually detect the energy storage level via reversible and fast color changes. Moreover, the EESD can be combined with commercial solar cells to constitute an intelligent operating system in the architectures, which would realize the adjustment of indoor sunlight and the improvement of physical comfort totally by the rational utilization of solar energy without additional electricity. Besides, a scaled-up EESD (10 × 11 cm 2 ) is further fabricated as a prototype. Such promising EESD shows huge potential in practically serving as electrochromic smart windows and energy storage devices.

  19. Characterization of Pliocene and Miocene Formations in the Wilmington Graben, Offshore Los Angeles, for Large-Scale Geologic Storage of CO₂

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Michael [Geomechanics Technologies, Incorporated, Monrovia, CA (United States)

    2014-12-08

    Geomechanics Technologies has completed a detailed characterization study of the Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California area for large-scale CO₂ storage. This effort has included: an evaluation of existing wells in both State and Federal waters, field acquisition of about 175 km (109 mi) of new seismic data, new well drilling, development of integrated 3D geologic, geomechanics, and fluid flow models for the area. The geologic analysis indicates that more than 796 MMt of storage capacity is available within the Pliocene and Miocene formations in the Graben for midrange geologic estimates (P50). Geomechanical analyses indicate that injection can be conducted without significant risk for surface deformation, induced stresses or fault activation. Numerical analysis of fluid migration indicates that injection into the Pliocene Formation at depths of 1525 m (5000 ft) would lead to undesirable vertical migration of the CO₂ plume. Recent well drilling however, indicates that deeper sand is present at depths exceeding 2135 m (7000 ft), which could be viable for large volume storage. For vertical containment, injection would need to be limited to about 250,000 metric tons per year per well, would need to be placed at depths greater than 7000ft, and would need to be placed in new wells located at least 1 mile from any existing offset wells. As a practical matter, this would likely limit storage operations in the Wilmington Graben to about 1 million tons per year or less. A quantitative risk analysis for the Wilmington Graben indicate that such large scale CO₂ storage in the area would represent higher risk than other similar size projects in the US and overseas.

  20. Preoperative irradiation of an extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa. Follow-up study with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, S; Kurihara, M; Mori, K [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Amamoto, Y

    1981-02-01

    This is a report of case with the extracerebral cavernous hemangioma in the middle fossa in which total removal was carried out after radiotherapy. Follow-up study with computed tomography during and after irradiation are presented. A 44-year-old house-wife complained of a decreased vision of the both eyes and paresis of the left upper and lower limbs. CT scan revealed a slightly high density area in the right middle cranial fossa which was markedly enhanced with contrast media. Right carotid angio-graphy demonstrated a large avascular mass in the right middle fossa and no feeding artery or draining vein was visualized except a faint irregular stain in the venous phase. An attempt to total removal of the tumor had failed to succeed because of extensive hemorrhage from the tumor. Histological examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma. Irradiation with a total dose of 5000 rads was delivered. After irradiation CT scan revealed a marked decrease of size and EMI number of the tumor. At this stage, hypervascular mass lesion with feeding arteries was noted in conventional angiography. Tumor stain in prolonged injection angiography was also visualized. In the second operation, removal of the tumor was performed without any difficulty and hemorrhage was controlled easily by electrocoagulation. Histology revealed a marked narrowing of vessels with an increase in the connective tissues. In the central part of specimen, there noted findings of coagulation necrosis, intraluminal thrombus formations and so on, which were attributed to the influence of radiation. It is concluded that in case of an extracerebral cavernous hemangioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 3000 - 5000 rads was a method of choice. The treatment results in an increase of probability of total removal of the tumor.

  1. Thermochemical heat storage for high temperature applications. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felderhoff, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Urbanczyk, Robert; Peil, Stefan [Institut fuer Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V. (IUTA), Duisburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Heat storage for high temperature applications can be performed by several heat storage techniques. Very promising heat storage methods are based on thermochemical gas solid reactions. Most known systems are metal oxide/steam (metal hydroxides), carbon dioxide (metal carbonates), and metal/hydrogen (metal hydrides) systems. These heat storage materials posses high gravimetric and volumetric heat storage densities and because of separation of the reaction products and their storage in different locations heat losses can be avoided. The reported volumetric heat storage densities are 615, 1340 and 1513 [ kWh m{sup -3}] for calcium hydroxide Ca(OH){sub 2}, calcium carbonate CaCO{sub 3} and magnesium iron hydride Mg{sub 2}FeH{sub 6} respectively. Additional demands for gas storage decrease the heat storage density, but metal hydride systems can use available hydrogen storage possibilities for example caverns, pipelines and chemical plants. (orig.)

  2. Acute presentation of solitary spinal epidural cavernous angioma in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatbari, M.R.; Moharamzad, Y.; Hamidi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Solitary spinal epidural cavernous angiomas are rare lesions, especially in paediatric age group. They are infrequently considered in the differential diagnosis of spinal epidural masses in children. We report a case of solitary epidural cavernous angioma of the thoracic spine in a child presenting with acute onset of back pain and myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine demonstrated a posterior epidural mass at T6-T8 levels with compression of the spinal cord. Using microsurgical technique and bipolar coagulation, total excision of the lesion was achieved. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cavernous angioma. At the five-year follow-up, there was no recurrence of the tumour. (author)

  3. Research progress in hepatic cavernous hemangiomas: a comprehensive review with graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Yong; Zhang Xuejun; Ouyang Xuehui; Chao Lumeng

    2012-01-01

    The common benign tumor of the liver, cavernous hemangioma, has already been confirmed, both embryologically and pathologically, to be not a neoplasm, but a congenital vascular malformation of the liver which is resulted from the arrested development of hepatic sinusoids at embryologic stage. This paper aims to make a comprehensive description of the cavernous hemangiomas of the liver, including the lesion's blood supply, the hemodynamics, the imaging features, the classification and its interventional therapy. The relevant example illustrations, figures and graphics are accompanied with the text in order to provide the readers with an complete and up-to-date understanding of the hepatic cavernous hemangiomas. (authors)

  4. An advanced joint inversion system for CO2 storage modeling with large date sets for characterization and real-time monitoring-enhancing storage performance and reducing failure risks under uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanidis, Peter [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-04-30

    As large-scale, commercial storage projects become operational, the problem of utilizing information from diverse sources becomes more critically important. In this project, we developed, tested, and applied an advanced joint data inversion system for CO2 storage modeling with large data sets for use in site characterization and real-time monitoring. Emphasis was on the development of advanced and efficient computational algorithms for joint inversion of hydro-geophysical data, coupled with state-of-the-art forward process simulations. The developed system consists of (1) inversion tools using characterization data, such as 3D seismic survey (amplitude images), borehole log and core data, as well as hydraulic, tracer and thermal tests before CO2 injection, (2) joint inversion tools for updating the geologic model with the distribution of rock properties, thus reducing uncertainty, using hydro-geophysical monitoring data, and (3) highly efficient algorithms for directly solving the dense or sparse linear algebra systems derived from the joint inversion. The system combines methods from stochastic analysis, fast linear algebra, and high performance computing. The developed joint inversion tools have been tested through synthetic CO2 storage examples.

  5. Identification of a large intronic transposal insertion in SLC17A5 causing sialic acid storage disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarailo-Graovac, M. (Maja); Drögemöller, B.I. (Britt I.); Wasserman, W.W. (Wyeth W.); C.J. Ross; A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); N. Darin (Niklas); Kollberg, G. (Gittan); Van Karnebeek, C.D.M. (Clara D. M.); Blomqvist, M. (Maria)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sialic acid storage diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of sialic acid in the lysosome. These disorders are caused by mutations in SLC17A5, the gene encoding sialin, a sialic acid transporter located in the lysosomal membrane. The most

  6. Assessing groundwater storage changes using remote sensing-based evapotranspiration and precipitation at a large semiarid basin scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gokmen, M.; Vekerdy, Z.; Lubczynski, M.; Timmermans, J.; Batelaan, Okke; Verhoef, W.

    2013-01-01

    A method is presented that uses remote sensing (RS)-based evapotranspiration (ET) and precipitation estimates with improved accuracies under semiarid conditions to quantify a spatially distributed water balance, for analyzing groundwater storage changes due to supplementary water uses. The method is

  7. Efficient estimator of probabilities of large power spills in an stand-alone system with wind generation and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bhaumik (Debarati); D.T. Crommelin (Daan); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe challenges of integrating unpredictable wind energy into a power system can be alleviated using energy storage devices. We assessed a single domestic energy system with a wind turbine and a battery. We investigated the best operation mode of the battery such that the occurrence of

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma with cavernous transformation of the protal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Heung Suk; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    Twenty cases of hepatocellular carcinoma were examined by selective celiac and superior mesenteric arteriography. Obstruction of the main portal vein due to tumor thrombus was revealed in 7 cases and 3 of these cases had cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV). The authors intended in this study to evaluate CTPV group and non-CTPV group clinically and radiologically. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The duration of illness was shorter in CTPV group than non- CTPV group. 2. There was no significant difference in tumor size between two groups ,and main portion of tumor was located in the right lobe in both groups. 3. Arterio portal shunt was present in 2 of 4 cases in non-CTPV group, but was no present at all in CRPV groups. 5. There wa no significant difference in blood chemistry between two groups. 6. CTPV may play an important role maintain the hepatic blood flow.

  9. [Neuronavigation for the resection of intracranial cavernous angiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, G; Zhou, L

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate the use of the Stealth Station neuronavigator in conjunction with preoperative computerized tomography (CT) in the resection of intracranial cavernous angiomas (CAs). The Stealth Station neuronavigator was used to provide real-time correlation of the operating field and computerized images in 6 patients with CAs. All of them suffered from epileptic seizures. Neuronavigation-guided lesionectomy with removal of hemosiderin deposition, gliosis and calcification in all cases was performed precisely. Mean fiducial error, predicted accuracy at 10 cm, and sustained accuracy ranged from 1.65 to 4.53 mm, 1.82 to 3.28 mm, and 0.50 to 3.45 mm, respectively. The Stealth Station neuronavigator is reliable and accurate in the resection of CAs.

  10. Management of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations: From Diagnosis to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mouchtouris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cavernous malformations are the most common vascular malformations and can be found in many locations in the brain. If left untreated, cavernomas may lead to intracerebral hemorrhage, seizures, focal neurological deficits, or headaches. As they are angiographically occult, their diagnosis relies on various MR imaging techniques, which detect different characteristics of the lesions as well as aiding in planning the surgical treatment. The clinical presentation and the location of the lesion are the most important factors involved in determining the optimal course of treatment of cavernomas. We concisely review the literature and discuss the advantages and limitations of each of the three available methods of treatment—microsurgical resection, stereotactic radiosurgery, and conservative management—depending on the lesion characteristics.

  11. Emergency treatment by intravascular embolization in traumatic carotid cavernous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jun; Sun Zengtao; Liu Zuoqin; Liu Yanjun; Li Fengxin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the method of intervenfional intravascular treatment in traumatic carotid cavernous fistula (TCCF) and the significance of clinical application in emergency. Methods: In 297 eases of TCCF, 36 cases were treated by interventional intravascular embolization by detachable balloon, embolization orificium or occlusion in one side of carotid artery. In the 36 cases, serious epistaxis occurred in 22 eases, cortical vein inflow in 9 cases, intracranial hemorrhage in 3 cases, aggravation of eyesight in 3 cases, and limb dysfunction in 2 cases. Results: Fistula was successfully embolized and internal carotid artery remained patent in 19 cases. Complete embolization of orificium or internal carotid artery was achieved in 17 eases. The serious epistaxias in 22 cases and intracranial hemorrhage in 3 cases stopped. Eyesight recovered in 2 eases and improved in 1 case. Limb dysfunction improved evidently in 2 cases. Conclusion: Intravascular embolization treatment is the first therapeutic choice for TCCF, especially in emergency. It is necessary, safe and effective. (authors)

  12. Surgical treatment of cavernous malformations involving medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si; Lin, Sen; Hui, Xuhui; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Surgical treatment of cavernous malformations (CMs) involving medulla oblongata is more difficult than the CMs in other sites because of the surrounding vital structures. However, the distinctive features and treatment strategies have not been well illustrated. Therefore, we enrolled a total of 19 patients underwent surgical treatment of CMs involving medulla oblongata in our hospital from August 2008 to August 2014. The clinical features, surgical management and clinical outcome of these patients were retrospectively analyzed, while our institutional surgical indications, approaches and microsurgical techniques were discussed. In our study, gross total resection was achieved in 17 patients and subtotal resection in 2. Two patients underwent emergency surgeries due to severe and progressive neurological deficits. The postoperative new-onset or worsened neurological deficits occurred in 6 patients. After a mean follow-up of 45.8±22.2months, the neurological status was improved in 10 patients and remained stable in 7. The mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was 2.58±1.26 preoperatively, 3.11±0.99 postoperatively and 1.84±1.42 at the recent follow-up, respectively. During the follow-up period, no rehemorrhage and recurrence occurred, and the residual lesions remained stable. We recommended surgical resection of symptomatic CMs involving medulla oblongata via optimal approaches, feasible entry zones and meticulous microsurgical techniques in attempting to achieve safe resection and favorable outcome. The clinical features, surgical indications, timing and microsurgical techniques of this special entity should be distinctive from the brainstem cavernous malformations in other sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sonographic Findings of Cavernous Hemangioma in Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Jin Kyeung; Kim, Ki Whang; Yoon, Sang Wook; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Kim, Myung Jin; Ji, Hoon

    1995-01-01

    Typical cavernous hemangioma presents no diagnostic difficulty at sonography. However, in cases of atypical hemangioma, further evaluation is needed to differentiate it from malignancy. On the other hand, thcechogenicity of the lesion may be iso echo or hypoecho when it occurs in association with fatty liver. We analyzed the sonographic features of hemangioma in fatty liver. We reviewed the sonograms of 22 lesions from 19 patients. We divided the lesions into two groups; the lesion measuring less than 3cm in diameter (group I) and the lesions measuring same or greater than 3cm (group II). The lesions of each group were analyzed in terms of location, shape, distinction of margin, internal echogenicity, posterior enhancement, lateral shadowing, and peritumoral hypoechoic halo. The lesions were located in subcapsular or perivascular areain 86%. They strowed round or lobulated shape with well defined margin in 82%. Internal echo of the lesions was hypoechoic in 82% and homogeneous in 64%. Posterior enhancement was seen in 77%. The posterior wall of the lesion was distinct in 68%. There was no statistical difference in incidence of each finding described above between the two groups except the internal echogenicity(p<0.05). All of the four hyperechoic lesions measured greater than 3cmin diameter, and three of them showed uneven thickness of echogenic rind. Definitive diagnosis of hemangioma could be obtained in 82%. In remaining 18% of hemangioma, the lesions showed peripheral hypoechoic halo and lateral shadowing that made the diagnosis of hemangioma difficult. However, the possibility of hemangioma could be suggested because they showed haemangiomas internal eye-catching and posterior enhancement. Hepatic cavernous hemangioma presents with variable eye-catching as compared to the surrounding tissue when it is associated with fatty liver disease, Thus, in differentiating hemangiomas from other localized hepatic mass, other characteristics such as homogeneity of the

  14. Large-Scale Total Water Storage and Water Flux Changes over the Arid and Semiarid Parts of the Middle East from GRACE and Reanalysis Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, E.; Safari, A.; Mostafaie, A.; Schumacher, M.; Delavar, M.; Awange, J. L.

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies indicate that water storage over a large part of the Middle East has been decreased over the last decade. Variability in the total (hydrological) water flux (TWF, i.e., precipitation minus evapotranspiration minus runoff) and water storage changes of the Tigris-Euphrates river basin and Iran's six major basins (Khazar, Persian, Urmia, Markazi, Hamun, and Sarakhs) over 2003-2013 is assessed in this study. Our investigation is performed based on the TWF that are estimated as temporal derivatives of terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) products and those from the reanalysis products of ERA-Interim and MERRA-Land. An inversion approach is applied to consistently estimate the spatio-temporal changes of soil moisture and groundwater storage compartments of the seven basins during the study period from GRACE TWS, altimetry, and land surface model products. The influence of TWF trends on separated water storage compartments is then explored. Our results, estimated as basin averages, indicate negative trends in the maximums of TWF peaks that reach up to -5.2 and -2.6 (mm/month/year) over 2003-2013, respectively, for the Urmia and Tigris-Euphrates basins, which are most likely due to the reported meteorological drought. Maximum amplitudes of the soil moisture compartment exhibit negative trends of -11.1, -6.6, -6.1, -4.8, -4.7, -3.8, and -1.2 (mm/year) for Urmia, Tigris-Euphrates, Khazar, Persian, Markazi, Sarakhs, and Hamun basins, respectively. Strong groundwater storage decrease is found, respectively, within the Khazar -8.6 (mm/year) and Sarakhs -7.0 (mm/year) basins. The magnitude of water storage decline in the Urmia and Tigris-Euphrates basins is found to be bigger than the decrease in the monthly accumulated TWF indicating a contribution of human water use, as well as surface and groundwater flow to the storage decline over the study area.

  15. Direct carotid cavernous fistula after submucous resection of the nasal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizri, A R; al-Ajam, M; Zaytoun, G; al-Kutoubi, A

    2000-01-01

    A carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal arteriovenous anastomosis between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Etiologies of this condition reported in the literature so far include facial trauma, rupture of an intracavernous aneurysm of the carotid artery, Ehler-Danlos syndrome and fibromuscular dysplasia of the cerebral arteries. Such fistulae were reported as complications of rhinoplasty, transsphenoidal surgery, embolization of cavernous sinus meningioma, and rhinocerebral mucormycosis. CCF may also occur spontaneously in children or as a congenital malformation. However, to our knowledge, submucous resection of the nasal septum has not been reported before to cause direct carotid-cavernous fistula. CT and angiographic findings are presented and a review of the literature for reported causes of CCF is made as well as a brief discussion of the possible pathophysiology.

  16. Selective occlusion of a carotid sinus cavernous fistula after transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, E.; Dietrich, U.; Wappenschmidt, J.

    1987-01-01

    A case of carotid cavernous sinus fistula following transsphenoidal hypophysectomy is reported. A selective occlusion of the fistula with patency of the carotid artery was achieved by means of a detachable balloon catheter. (orig.) [de

  17. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veil, John

    1996-01-01

    .... These caverns are either created incidentally as a result of salt recovery or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air...

  18. VACUUM THERAPY – PREVENTION OF HYPOXIA OF CAVERNOUS TISSUE PATIENTS AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Osadchinskii

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients, after radical prostatectomy with the use of nerve-sparing techniques, without carrying out penile rehabilitation, are at risk of forming cavernous fibrosis with the emergence of subsequent persistent erectile dysfunction. In order to minimize damage to cavernous tissue and early restoration of erectile function during the period of neuropraxia, it is necessary to ensure a sufficient level of oxygenation. The role of applying vacuum in penile rehabilitation for the prevention of hypoxia of cavernous tissue is not fully understood, due to the lack of data on the gaseous composition of the blood at the time of reaching the vacuum of erection. The purpose of this work was to review the scientific studies devoted to the study of vacuum induced penile erection in animals or humans, which indicates high results due to increased oxygenation of cavernous tissue.

  19. Vascular permeability and iron deposition biomarkers in longitudinal follow-up of cerebral cavernous malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girard, Romuald; Fam, Maged D; Zeineddine, Hussein A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Vascular permeability and iron leakage are central features of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) pathogenesis. The authors aimed to correlate prospective clinical behavior of CCM lesions with longitudinal changes in biomarkers of dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative permeability (...

  20. Transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns; Comportement transitoire des cavites salines profondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi-Jafari, M

    2007-11-15

    This work deals with the transient behaviour of deep underground salt caverns. It has been shown that a cavern is a complex system, in which there are mechanical, thermal, chemical and hydraulic evolutions. The importance of the transient evolutions, particularly the role of the 'reverse' creep in the interpretation of the tightness test in a salt cavern is revealed. Creep is characterized by a formulation of the behaviour law which presents the advantage, in a practical point of view, to only have a reduced number of parameters while accounting of the essential of what it is observed. The initiation of the rupture in the effective traction in a salt cavern rapidly pressurized is discussed. A model fitted to a very long term behaviour (after abandonment) is developed too. In this case too, a lot of phenomena, more or less coupled, occur, when the existing literature took only into account some phenomena. (O.M.)

  1. Dural carotid cavernous sinus fistula presenting as isolated oculomotor nerve palsy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehnaz Arıcı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Indirect (dural carotid cavernous fistula is formed by the connection between meningeal branches of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinüs, and low flow circulation with low pressure is occured. Proptosis, ophtalmoplegia, headache, scleral and conjuctival hyperemia expanding around the eyeball can be observed. A forty-eight year old female patient with a background of diabetes mellitus and hypertension was admitted with complaints of double vision. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy was found in neurological examination and an indirect carotid cavernous fistula was revealed by digital subtraction angiography. Our case with carotid cavernous fistula as a rare cause of isolated oculomotor nerve palsy is worth to be reported.

  2. The Fracture Influence on the Energy Loss of Compressed Air Energy Storage in Hard Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled nonisothermal gas flow and geomechanical numerical modeling is conducted to study the influence of fractures (joints on the complex thermohydromechanical (THM performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES in hard rock caverns. The air-filled chamber is modeled as porous media with high porosity, high permeability, and high thermal conductivity. The present analysis focuses on the CAES in hard rock caverns at relatively shallow depth, that is, ≤100 m, and the pressure in carven is significantly higher than ambient pore pressure. The influence of one discrete crack and multiple crackson energy loss analysis of cavern in hard rock media are carried out. Two conditions are considered during each storage and release cycle, namely, gas injection and production mass being equal and additional gas injection supplemented after each cycle. The influence of the crack location, the crack length, and the crack open width on the energy loss is studied.

  3. Feasibility of Using Intravascular Ultrasonography for Assessment of Giant Cavernous Aneurysm after Endovascular Treatment: A Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Shahram; Grigoryan, Mikayel; Tekle, Wondwossen G; Watanabe, Masaki; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) has been shown as a valuable adjunct imaging tool during endovascular procedures but its value in detection of any recurrence during follow up after endovascular coil embolization of large and giant intracranial aneurysms is not reported. Methods A 41 years old man who had been treated using stent assisted coil embolization for cavernous segment aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery underwent 60 month angiographic follow up. Concurrently, IVUS catheter was advanced under fluoroscopic guidance inside the cavernous portion of the left internal carotid artery. Then IVUS images were used to visualize the stent, coil loops, and aneurysm neck. Results The angiographic images were limited because of superimposition of the aneurysm on the parent vessel in all projections. IVUS images demonstrated that the stent was patent along its whole length and there was no sign of stent deformity or in-stent thrombosis. Loops of the coil were visualized as hyperechoic signals inside the aneurysm and there was no sign of herniated loops of coil inside the stent. Conclusion In this case report, we observed that adjunct use of IVUS can provide valuable information not ascertained by angiography during follow up assessment of coil embolized aneurysm. PMID:22737259

  4. Structural Stability Monitoring of a Physical Model Test on an Underground Cavern Group during Deep Excavations Using FBG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors are comprehensively recognized as a structural stability monitoring device for all kinds of geo-materials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structural entities. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which could accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on the basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Using a physical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station, FBG sensors were used to determine how to model the small displacements of some key monitoring points in the large-scale physical model during excavation. In the process of building the test specimen, it is most successful to embed FBG sensors in the physical model through making an opening and adding some quick-set silicon. The experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like electrical resistance strain gages and extensometers. The experimental results are also in good agreement with the numerical simulation results. In conclusion, FBG sensors could effectively measure small displacements of monitoring points in the whole process of the physical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in situ engineering construction.

  5. Flow diversion in the treatment of carotid injury and carotid-cavernous fistula after transsphenoidal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Cheemum; Ahmed, Muhammad E; Glikstein, Rafael; dos Santos, Marlise P; Lesiuk, Howard; Labib, Mohamed; Kassam, Amin B

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of iatrogenic carotid injury with secondary carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) treated with a silk flow diverter stent placed within the injured internal carotid artery and coils placed within the cavernous sinus. Flow diverters may offer a simple and potentially safe vessel-sparing option in this rare complication of transsphenoidal surgery. The management options are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed. PMID:26015526

  6. The superior ophthalmic vein approach for the treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas: our first experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF are still a technical challenge to neurovascular team. The most commonly performed treatment consists in endovascular embolization of the lesion through an arterial or venous approach. Not always these conventional routes are feasible, requiring alternative routes. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with a complex indirect (Barrow D carotid cavernous sinus fistula treated by two interventional sessions that imposing a retrograde direct transvenous approach via the superior ophthalmic vein.

  7. Endoscope-assisted resection of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Shimazu, Yousuke; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Date, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intraventricular cavernous angiomas are rare pathological entities, and those located at the foramen of Monro are even rarer. We herein present a case of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro that was successfully treated by neuroendoscope-assisted surgical removal, and review the relevant literature. Case presentation A 65-year-old woman had experienced headache and vomiting for 10?days before admission to another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass at t...

  8. Simultaneous and sequential hemorrhage of multiple cerebral cavernous malformations: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Nundia; Marsh, Robert

    2016-02-09

    The etiology of cerebral cavernous malformation hemorrhage is not well understood. Causative physiologic parameters preceding hemorrhagic cavernous malformation events are often not reported. We present a case of an individual with sequential simultaneous hemorrhages in multiple cerebral cavernous malformations with a new onset diagnosis of hypertension. A 42-year-old white man was admitted to our facility with worsening headache, left facial and tongue numbness, dizziness, diplopia, and elevated blood pressure. His past medical history was significant for new onset diagnosis of hypertension and chronic seasonal allergies. Serial imaging over the ensuing 8 days revealed sequential hemorrhagic lesions. He underwent suboccipital craniotomy for resection of the lesions located in the fourth ventricle and right cerebellum. One month after surgery, he had near complete resolution of his symptoms with mild residual vertigo but symptomatic chronic hypertension. Many studies have focused on genetic and inflammatory mechanisms contributing to cerebral cavernous malformation rupture, but few have reported on the potential of hemodynamic changes contributing to cerebral cavernous malformation rupture. Systemic blood pressure changes clearly have an effect on angioma pressures. When considering the histopathological features of cerebral cavernous malformation architecture, changes in arterial pressure could cause meaningful alterations in hemorrhage propensity and patterns.

  9. Fractal Prediction of Grouting Volume for Treating Karst Caverns along a Shield Tunneling Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chieh Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst geology is common in China, and buried karst formations are widely distributed in Guangdong province. In the process of shield tunneling, the abundant water resources present in karst caverns could lead to the potential for high water ingress, and a subsequent in situ stress change-induced stratum collapse. The development and distribution of karst caverns should therefore be identified and investigated prior to shield tunnel construction. Grouting is an efficient measure to stabilize karst caverns. The total volume of karst caverns along the shield tunneling alignment, and its relationship with the required volume of grouts, should be evaluated in the preliminary design phase. Conventionally, the total volume of karst caverns is empirically estimated based on limited geological drilling hole data; however, accurate results are rarely obtained. This study investigates the hydrogeology and engineering geology of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province, and determines the fractal characteristics of the karst caverns along the tunnel section of Guangzhou metro line no. 9. The karst grouting coefficients (VR were found to vary from 0.11 in the case of inadequate drilling holes to 1.1 in the case where adequate drilling holes are provided. A grouting design guideline was furthermore developed in this study for future projects in karst areas.

  10. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  11. Microbiological and environmental effects of aquifer thermal energy storage - studies at the Stuttgart man-made aquifer and a large-scale model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, M.; Ruck, W.

    1993-01-01

    The storage of thermal energy, either heat or cold, in natural or artificial aquifers creates local perturbations of the indigenous microflora and the environmental properties. Within an international working group of the International Energy Agency (IEA Annex VI) possible environmental impacts of ATES-systems were recognized and investigated. Investigations of storage systems on natural sites, man-made aquifers and large-scale models of impounded aquifers showed changes in microbial populations, but until now no adverse microbiological processes associated with ATES-systems could be documented. However, examinations with a model system indicate an increased risk of environmental impact. Therefore, the operation of ATES-systems should be accompanied by chemical and biological investigations. (orig.) [de

  12. Economic analysis of a new class of vanadium redox-flow battery for medium- and large-scale energy storage in commercial applications with renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming-Jia; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xi; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new class of the vanadium redox-flow battery (VRB) is developed. • The new class of VRB is more economic. It is simple process and easy to scale-up. • There are three levels of cell stacks and electrolytes with different qualities. • The economic analysis of the VRB system for renewable energy bases is carried out. • Related polices and suggestions based on the result are provided. - Abstract: Interest in the implement of vanadium redox-flow battery (VRB) for energy storage is growing, which is widely applicable to large-scale renewable energy (e.g. wind energy and solar photo-voltaic), developing distributed generation, lowering the imbalance and increasing the usage of electricity. However, a comprehensive economic analysis of the VRB for energy storage is obscured for various commercial applications, yet it is fundamental for implementation of the VRB in commercial electricity markets. In this study, based on a new class of the VRB that was developed by our team, a comprehensive economic analysis of the VRB for large-scale energy storage is carried out. The results illustrate the economy of the VRB applications for three typical energy systems: (1) The VRB storage system instead of the normal lead-acid battery to be the uninterrupted power supply (UPS) battery for office buildings and hospitals; (2) Application of vanadium battery in household distributed photo-voltaic power generation systems; (3) The wind power and solar power stations equipped with the VRB storage systems. The economic perspectives and cost-benefit analysis of the VRB storage systems may underpin optimisation for maximum profitability. In this case, two findings are concluded. First, with the fixed capacity power or fixed discharging time, the greater profit ratio will be generated from the longer time or the larger capacity power. Second, when the profit ratio, discharging time and capacity power are all variables, it is necessary to find out the best optimisation

  13. Japan's exploration of vertical holes and subsurface caverns on the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, J.; Kawano, I.; Kubota, T.; Yoshida, K.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Kato, H.; Otsuki, M.; Watanabe, K.; Nishibori, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Iwata, T.; Ishigami, G.; Yamada, T. T.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, gigantic vertical holes exceeding several tens of meters in diameter and depth were discovered on the Moon and Mars. Based on high-resolution image data, lunar holes and some Martian pits (called 'holes' hereafter) are probably skylights of subsurface caverns such as lava tubes or magma chambers. We are starting preparations for exploring the caverns through the vertical holes. The holes and subsurface caverns have high potential as resources for scientific studies. Various important geological and mineralogical processes could be uniquely and effectively observed inside these holes and subsurface caverns. The exposed fresh lava layers on the vertical walls of the lunar and Martian holes would provide information on volcanic eruption histories. The lava layers may also provide information on past magnetic fields of the celestial bodies. The regolith layers may be sandwiched between lava layers and may preserve volatile elements including solar wind protons that could be a clue to understanding past solar activities. Water molecules from solar winds or cometary/meteorite impacts may be stored inside the caverns because of mild temperatures there. The fresh lava materials forming the walls and floors of caverns might trap endogenic volatiles from magma eruptions that will be key materials for revealing the formation and early evolution of the Moon and Mars. Furthermore, the Martian subsurface caverns are highly expected to be life cradles where the temperatures are probably stable and that are free from ultra-violet and other cosmic rays that break chemical bonds, thus avoiding polymerization of molecules. Discovering extraterrestrial life and its varieties is one of our ultimate scientific purposes for exploring the lunar and Martian subsurface caverns. In addition to scientific interests, lunar and Martian subsurface caverns are excellent candidates for future lunar bases. We expect such caverns to have high potential due to stable temperatures; absence

  14. Transvenous embolization of indirect carotid-cavernous fistula via upper ophthalmic/facial vein - Case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirakov, S.; Penkov, M.; Sirakov, A.; Kamenov, B.; Todorov, Y.; Ninov, K.; Bachvarov, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect carotid-cavernous fistula or dural arterio-venous fistula of cavernous sinus is relatively rare pathologic finding. Different classifications of carotid-cavernous fistulae are proposed. Now days more and more they are treated by endovascular approach. A case of authors' practice of transvenous embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula via upper ophthalmic vein in 52 year old female is presented with review of the literature. A week later ocular symptoms of the patient regressed. Control angiography at the third month follow up does not visualize fistula. The transvenous approach in management of carotid cavernous fistulae is safe and effective in cases direct arterial approach is absent or technically impossible. Key words: Indirect Carotid-Cavernous Fistula. Embolization. Transvenous Approach

  15. Is there a dural wall between the cavernous sinus and the pituitary fossa? Anatomical and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietemann, J.L.; Diniz, R.; Reis, M. Jr.; Neugroschl, C.; Vinclair, L.; Maillot, C.

    1998-01-01

    We compared MRI studies of the sellar area and embryological and adult histological studies of the cavernous sinuses and pituitary fossa. MRI studies were performed in 50 normal subjects with coronal sections using a fast inversion-recovery sequence to demonstrate the dural walls of the cavernous sinus and pituitary fossa. With this sequence, dura mater appears as a high-signal linear structure. The lateral and superior walls of the cavernous sinus was easily identified on all studies, but demonstration of a dural wall separating the cavernous sinus from the pituitary fossa was not possible. These results correlated well with embryological and adult histological studies obtained from 14 specimens. The absence of a strong separation between the pituitary fossa and the cavernous sinus explains the high incidence of extension of pituitary tumours to the cavernous sinuses and vice versa. (orig.) (orig.)

  16. Carbon Capture and Storage on its way to large-scale deployment: Social acceptance and willingness to pay in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeusel, Jonas; Möst, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an emerging technology to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. In the wake of a rapidly changing German energy system, CCS can play an important role. By means of an online survey among 130 university students in Dresden, this paper investigates the level and influencing factors of social acceptance of CCS. Furthermore, the individual willingness to pay for CCS and renewable power delivery is measured and compared through a choice model. The survey results reveal that the attitude towards CCS is neutral. Moreover, it is shown that acceptance of CCS is an important factor for the willingness to pay. The level of willingness to pay for CCS technology is much lower than for renewable energy. - Highlights: ► Analysis of acceptance and willingness to pay of carbon capture and storage and renwable energies. ► Consumers always prefer green electricity compared to CCS power. ► Willingness to pay for green electricity is quite high.

  17. Power-to-heat in adiabatic compressed air energy storage power plants for cost reduction and increased flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreißigacker, Volker

    2018-04-01

    The development of new technologies for large-scale electricity storage is a key element in future flexible electricity transmission systems. Electricity storage in adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) power plants offers the prospect of making a substantial contribution to reach this goal. This concept allows efficient, local zero-emission electricity storage on the basis of compressed air in underground caverns. The compression and expansion of air in turbomachinery help to balance power generation peaks that are not demand-driven on the one hand and consumption-induced load peaks on the other. For further improvements in cost efficiencies and flexibility, system modifications are necessary. Therefore, a novel concept regarding the integration of an electrical heating component is investigated. This modification allows increased power plant flexibilities and decreasing component sizes due to the generated high temperature heat with simultaneously decreasing total round trip efficiencies. For an exemplarily A-CAES case simulation studies regarding the electrical heating power and thermal energy storage sizes were conducted to identify the potentials in cost reduction of the central power plant components and the loss in round trip efficiency.

  18. Influence of large wood on channel morphology and sediment storage in headwater mountain streams, Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra E. Ryan; Erica L. Bishop; J. Michael Daniels

    2014-01-01

    Large fallen wood can have a significant impact on channel form and process in forested mountain streams. In this study, four small channels on the Fraser Experimental Forest near Fraser, Colorado, USA, were surveyed for channel geometries and large wood loading, including the size, source, and characteristics of individual pieces. The study is part of a larger effort...

  19. Improvement in Visual Symptomatology after Endovascular Treatment of Cavernous Carotid Aneurysms: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Doniel; Choulakian, Armen; Nuño, Miriam; Gandhi, Ravi; Edgell, Randall C; Alexander, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Aneurysms arising from the cavernous internal carotid artery (CCAs) pose technical challenges for surgical management and such patients are frequently referred for endovascular treatment. These aneurysms often produce a variety of neurological deficits, primarily those related to oculoparesis. Our purpose was to determine the visual and neurological outcome of patients with treated CCAs. We reviewed the medical records and angiograms for patients who underwent endovascular treatment for CCAs at three academic medical centers. The following outcomes were analyzed: angiographic assessment, visual improvement and outcome at 3 months using Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Thirty-four patients (mean age 54.7 years) were treated for CCAs. The mean aneurysm size was 14.2 mm (range: 3-45 mm), and fourteen patients (41.2%) required stent assistance. Twenty-one aneurysms (61.8%) were completely occluded; nine aneurysms (26.6%) had near-complete occlusion; 4 aneurysms (11.8%) had partial occlusion. Seven patients (20.6%) required retreatment. Fifteen of the 34 patients (44.1%) presented with visual symptoms, while only eight patients had residual visual symptomatology at follow-up (44.1% vs. 23.5%; p=0.02). Patients that presented with visual symptoms (N=15) had a mean aneurysm size of 24.5 mm, while those without visual symptoms (N=19) had a size of 7.5 mm (p=0.001). Follow-up GOS was good (4-5) in 29 patients (90.6%). No thromboembolic complications were observed. One patient died (3.1%) of an unrelated cause. Most patients in this multicenter series improved or remained stable after treatment. The results of this study indicate that endovascular treatment may improve the outcome of visual symptoms in patients with large cavernous aneurysms with low periprocedural morbidity. MJA is a consultant for Stryker and Codman. AC receives a Cordis Endovascular Fellowship Training Grant and a Stryker Endovascular Neurosurgery Post-graduate Fellow Grant. Dr. Drazin: Conception and Design

  20. Combining satellite radar altimetry, SAR surface soil moisture and GRACE total storage changes for hydrological model calibration in a large poorly gauged catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Milzow

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The availability of data is a major challenge for hydrological modelling in large parts of the world. Remote sensing data can be exploited to improve models of ungauged or poorly gauged catchments. In this study we combine three datasets for calibration of a rainfall-runoff model of the poorly gauged Okavango catchment in Southern Africa: (i surface soil moisture (SSM estimates derived from radar measurements onboard the Envisat satellite; (ii radar altimetry measurements by Envisat providing river stages in the tributaries of the Okavango catchment, down to a minimum river width of about one hundred meters; and (iii temporal changes of the Earth's gravity field recorded by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE caused by total water storage changes in the catchment. The SSM data are shown to be helpful in identifying periods with over-respectively underestimation of the precipitation input. The accuracy of the radar altimetry data is validated on gauged subbasins of the catchment and altimetry data of an ungauged subbasin is used for model calibration. The radar altimetry data are important to condition model parameters related to channel morphology such as Manning's roughness. GRACE data are used to validate the model and to condition model parameters related to various storage compartments in the hydrological model (e.g. soil, groundwater, bank storage etc.. As precipitation input the FEWS-Net RFE, TRMM 3B42 and ECMWF ERA-Interim datasets are considered and compared.

  1. Geotechnical and large-scale numerical studies of direct ultimate storage of fuel elements. Part project I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Hanisch, J.; Liedtke, L.

    1991-01-01

    Within the framework of geological investigations of the experimental field for thermal simulation of drift emplacement (TSS), a new model of the formation of the Asse structure was worked out. Consequently, that structure is not a typical salt dome, but was formed by a combination of gravitational sliding of the cap rock and halotectonic salt ascent. The TSS experimental field is situated in the center of the Asse structure, north-east of the so-called main saddle. The storage galleries are located completely within the Stassfurt main salt which consists of halotectonically relatively slightly loaded rock salt and anhydrite. The engineering geology exploration concentrated on an improved treatment of core material. A total of about 250 m of core material was considered, paying special attention to stress relaxation cracks occuring very frequently in salt cores. (orig./DG) [de

  2. An Improved GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Assimilation System For Estimating Large-Scale Soil Moisture and Shallow Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, M.; De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Reichle, R. H.; Rodell, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission is unique because it provides highly accurate column integrated estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations. Major limitations of GRACE-based TWS observations are related to their monthly temporal and coarse spatial resolution (around 330 km at the equator), and to the vertical integration of the water storage components. These challenges can be addressed through data assimilation. To date, it is still not obvious how best to assimilate GRACE-TWS observations into a land surface model, in order to improve hydrological variables, and many details have yet to be worked out. This presentation discusses specific recent features of the assimilation of gridded GRACE-TWS data into the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Catchment land surface model to improve soil moisture and shallow groundwater estimates at the continental scale. The major recent advancements introduced by the presented work with respect to earlier systems include: 1) the assimilation of gridded GRACE-TWS data product with scaling factors that are specifically derived for data assimilation purposes only; 2) the assimilation is performed through a 3D assimilation scheme, in which reasonable spatial and temporal error standard deviations and correlations are exploited; 3) the analysis step uses an optimized calculation and application of the analysis increments; 4) a poor-man's adaptive estimation of a spatially variable measurement error. This work shows that even if they are characterized by a coarse spatial and temporal resolution, the observed column integrated GRACE-TWS data have potential for improving our understanding of soil moisture and shallow groundwater variations.

  3. Adiabatic liquid piston compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Tage [Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Schroeder Pedersen, A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-01-15

    ;'Adiabatic Liquid Piston Compressed Air Energy Storage'' (ALP-CAES). The compression ratio of the gas in the vessel (ratio between maximum and minimum pressure) is relatively low; typical values would be < 1,5, whereas the compression ratio in existing CAES systems can be higher than 100, because the air is compressed from atmospheric pressure to the storage pressure. This investigation leads to the conclusion that: 1) The mechanical/electrical efficiency of the ALP-CAES system is significantly higher than existing CAES systems due to a low or nearly absent compression heat loss. Furthermore, pumps/turbines, which use a liquid as a medium, are more efficient than air/gas compressors/turbines. In addition, the demand for fuel during expansion does not occur. 2) The energy density of the ALP-CAES system is much lower than that of existing CAES systems (by a factor of 15-30) leading to a similar increase in investment in pressure vessel volume per stored MWh. Since the pressure vessel constitutes a relatively large fraction of the overall cost of a CAES system, an increase of 15-30 times renders the system economically unfeasible unless the operating conditions and the system design are very carefully selected to compensate the low energy density. Future electricity prices may increase to the extent that the efficiency benefit of ALP-CAES partly compensates the added investment. 3) When comparing ALP-CAES to an adiabatic CAES system, where compression heat is stored in thermal oil, the ALP-CAES system is found only to be competitive under a very specific set of operating/design conditions, including very high operation pressure and the use of very large caverns. 4) New systems are under development, which show an interesting trend in that they use near-isothermal compression and expansion of air (compression/expansion at almost constant temperature), eliminate compression heat loss and still maintain nearly the same level of energy density as existing CAES systems. This

  4. Cavernous angioma after chemotherapy for desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma associated with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Takayasu, Takeshi; Nosaka, Ryo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Masao; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2016-02-01

    While cavernous angioma (CVA) after cranial irradiation has been documented, its development after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) has not. We present a patient with desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DNMB) associated with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) who developed CVA 2 years after high-dose chemotherapy and PBSCT. A 1-year-old boy with ingravescent vomiting was admitted to our institute. He presented with a large head, a depressed nasal bridge, low-set ears, thick lips with peg-shaped teeth, hypohidrosis, sparse hair, thin atrophic skin, scaly dermatitis with frontal bossing, and a bulging anterior fontanel. Neuroradiological examination revealed multiple cerebellar masses with heterogeneous enhancement and speckled calcifications and severe obstructive hydrocephalus. The histological diagnosis of surgical specimens was DNMB, and he underwent postoperative multiple-drug chemotherapy with autologous PBSCT. The outcome was favorable and he did not undergo radiotherapy. After 2 years, intracranial hemorrhage was detected at his regular radiological check-up and he again underwent surgery. The histological diagnosis was CVA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AED-associated DNMB and CVA.

  5. Second Barrel Toroid Coil Installed in ATLAS Cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Tappern, G.

    The second barrel toroid coil was lowered into the ATLAS Cavern on Friday, 26 November. The operation takes approximately five hours of precision crane and winch operations. Before lowering, several checks are made to ensure that no loose items have been left on the coil which would fall during the lowering down the shaft. This is a very difficult, but very important check, with the first coil in position, and partly below the shaft. After changing the winch tooling on Wednesday December 1st, the coil was lifted, rotated and placed into the feet. The girders which support the coil and the Z direction stops had all been pre-set before putting the coil in the feet. The angle is controlled by an inclinometer. When the final adjustments of position have been made, which will locate the coils at the plus/minus two mm level, the connection beams (voussoirs and struts) will be put in place; this requires a complex shimming procedure. This will lock together the two coils into the feet and forms the foundation for th...

  6. The anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Alan A; Selva, Dinesh; Hardy, Thomas G; O'Donnell, Brett

    2014-10-01

    To determine the anatomical location and laterality of orbital cavernous haemangiomas (OCH). Retrospective case series. The records of 104 patients with OCH were analyzed. The anatomical location of each OCH defined by the location of a point at the centre of the lesion, and its laterality. There were 104 patients included in the study. No patient had more than one lesion. Sixteen (15.4%) were located in the anterior third of the orbit, 74 (71.2%) were in the middle third, and 14 (13.5%) in the posterior third. In the middle third, 10 of 74 (13.5%) were extraconal and 64 intraconal (86.5%), with 30 of 64 (46.9%) middle third intraconal lesions lying lateral to the optic nerve. Of 104 lesions, 56 (53.8%) were left sided, showing a trend towards a predilection for the left side (p = 0.065). If data from other published series which included data on laterality is added to our own data and analysed, 270 of 468 (57.7%) OCH occurred in the left orbit (p lateral to the optic nerve. This may reflect an origin of these lesions from the arterial side of the circulation, as there are more small arteries in the intraconal space lateral to the optic nerve than in other locations. A predilection for the left orbit remains unexplained.

  7. Cerebral cavernous malformations: natural history and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Bradley A; Du, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous malformations (CMs) are angiographically-occult clusters of dilated sinusoidal channels that may present clinically with seizures, focal neurological deficits and/or hemorrhage. Across natural history studies, the annual hemorrhage rate ranged from 1.6-3.1% per patient-year, decreasing to 0.08-0.2% per patient-year for incidental CMs and to 0.3-0.6% for the collective group of unruptured CMs. Prior hemorrhage is a significant risk factor for subsequent CM hemorrhage. Hemorrhage clustering, particularly within the first 2 years, is an established phenomenon that may confound results of natural history studies evaluating the rate of rehemorrhage. Indeed, rehemorrhage rates for hemorrhagic CMs range from 4.5-22.9% in the literature. Surgical resection is the gold standard treatment for surgically-accessible, symptomatic CMs. Incidental CMs or minimally symptomatic, surgically inaccessible eloquent lesions may be considered for observation. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a controversial treatment approach of consideration only for cases of highly aggressive, surgically inaccessible CMs.

  8. Surgical management of cavernous malformations coursing with drug resistant epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Arturo Alonso-Vanegas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cavernous malformations (CM are dynamic lesions characterized by continuous size changes and repeated bleeding. When involving cortical tissue, CM pose a significant risk for the development of drug-resistant epilepsy, which is thought to be result of an altered neuronal network caused by the lesion itself and its blood degradation products. Preoperative evaluation should comprise a complete seizure history, neurological examination, epilepsy-oriented MRI, EEG, video-EEG, completed with SPECT, PET, functional MRI and/or invasive monitoring as needed. Radiosurgery shows variable rates of seizure freedom and a high incidence of complications, thus microsurgical resection remains the optimal treatment for CM coursing with drug-resistant epilepsy.Two thirds of patients reach Engel I class at three-year follow-up, regardless of lobar location. Those with secondarily generalized seizures, a higher seizure frequency, and generalized abnormalities on preoperative or postoperative EEG, show poorer outcomes, while factors such as gender, duration of epilepsy, lesion size, age, bleeding at the time of surgery, do not correlate consistently with seizure outcome. Electrocorticography and a meticulous removal of all cortical hemosiderin –beyond pure lesionectomy– reduce the risk of symptomatic recurrences.

  9. Management of supratentorial cavernous malformations: craniotomy versus gammaknife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yang-Hsin; Pan, David Hung-Chi

    2005-02-01

    Although craniotomy is the preferred treatment for symptomatic solitary supratentorial cavernous malformation (CM), radiosurgery is also an option. Our aim was to see which of these strategies was the most effective and under what circumstances. Of the 46 patients with solitary supratentorial CM that we retrospectively studied, 24 presented with seizures, 16 with focal neurological deficits due to intracerebral hemorrhage, and 6 with both seizures and bleeding. Sixteen were treated with craniotomy and 30 with gammaknife radiosurgery (GKRS). The main outcome measures for comparing craniotomy with GKRS were the proportion of postoperative seizure-free patients and the proportion of patients in whom no rebleeding occurred. Of patients presenting with seizures with/without bleeding, a significantly higher proportion of the craniotomy group than the GKRS group became and remained seizure-free (11/14 [79%] versus 4/16 [25%]; P < 0.002), and of those presenting with bleeding with/without seizures, a somewhat (though nonsignificantly) higher proportion did not rebleed (4/4 [100%] versus 12/18 [67%]) after surgery. The remaining 2 of the 16 craniotomy patients did not rebleed and had no residual tumor at follow up. Twelve of the 30 GKRS patients had evidence of tumor regression at follow up. In the clinical management of solitary supratentorial CM, craniotomy for lesionectomy resulted in better seizure control and rebleeding avoidance than GKRS.

  10. Treatment Outcome Of Seizures Associated With Intracranial Cavernous Angiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nievera Conrad C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are among the typical presentations of intracranial cavernous angiomas (ICA. Twenty-one patients (age range: 2 to 53 years treated for seizures associated with ICA between 1983 and 1997 were restrospectively studied to evaluate their outcome following medical or surgical intervention. The mean interval between seizure onset and initial presentation at our institution was 7.6 years. Seizures were simple partial in 3 patients, complex partial in 15 and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic in 13. The commonest site of the lesion was the temporal lobe (52%. Multiple angiomas were observed in 5 (24% patients. Seven (32% patients were medically-managed with antiepileptic therapy and 14 (68% underwent either lesionectomy with resection of the epileptogenic zone (9 patients or temporal lobectomy (5 patients. Mean follow-up time was 4 years (range: 3 months to 14 years. Of the medically-managed patients, 3 (43% remained seizure-free whereas 4 (57% continued to have seizures with an average frequency of one per day. Of the surgically-managed patients, 12 (86% became seizure-free and 2 (14% had no more than two seizures per year. Surgery appears to be extremely effective in the management of seizures associated with ICA and should receive a strong and early consideration in patients who fail medical therapy.

  11. Thermodynamic characteristics of a novel supercritical compressed air energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Huan; Xu, Yujie; Chen, Haisheng; Zhou, Xuezhi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel supercritical compressed air energy storage system is proposed. • The energy density of SC-CAES is approximately 18 times larger than that of conventional CAES. • The characteristic of thermodynamics and exergy destruction is comprehensively analysed. • The corresponding optimum relationship between charging and discharging pressure is illustrated. • A turning point of efficiency is indicated because of the heat transfer of crossing the critical point. - Abstract: A novel supercritical compressed air energy storage (SC-CAES) system is proposed by our team to solve the problems of conventional CAES. The system eliminates the dependence on fossil fuel and large gas-storage cavern, as well as possesses the advantages of high efficiency by employing the special properties of supercritical air, which is significant for the development of electrical energy storage. The thermodynamic model of the SC-CAES system is built, and the thermodynamic characters are revealed. Through the exergy analysis of the system, the processes of the larger exergy destruction include compression, expansion, cold storage/heat exchange and throttle. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that there is an optimal energy releasing pressure to make the system achieve the highest efficiency when energy storage pressure is constant. The efficiency of SC-CAES is expected to reach about 67.41% when energy storage pressure and energy releasing pressure are 120 bar and 95.01 bar, respectively. At the same time, the energy density is 18 times larger than that of conventional CAES. Sensitivity analysis also shows the change laws of system efficiency varying with other basic system parameters. The study provides support for the design and engineering of SC-CAES.

  12. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  13. Modelling studies for influence factors of gas bubble in compressed air energy storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Chaobin; Zhang, Keni; Li, Cai; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    CAES (Compressed air energy storage) is credited with its potential ability for large-scale energy storage. Generally, it is more convenient using deep aquifers than employing underground caverns for energy storage, because of extensive presence of aquifers. During the first stage in a typical process of CAESA (compressed air energy storage in aquifers), a large amount of compressed air is injected into the target aquifer to develop an initial space (a gas bubble) for energy storage. In this study, numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the influence of aquifer's permeability, geological structure and operation parameters on the formation of gas bubble and the sustainability for the later cycling operation. The SCT (system cycle times) was designed as a parameter to evaluate the reservoir performance and the effect of operation parameters. Simulation results for pressure and gas saturation results of basic model confirm the feasibility of compressed air energy storage in aquifers. The results of different permeability cases show that, for a certain scale of CAESA system, there is an optimum permeability range for a candidate aquifer. An aquifer within this permeability range will not only satisfy the injectivity requirement but also have the best energy efficiency. Structural impact analysis indicates that the anticline structure has the best performance to hold the bubble under the same daily cycling schedule with the same initial injected air mass. In addition, our results indicate that the SCT shows a logarithmic growth as the injected air mass increase. During the formation of gas bubble, compressed air should be injected into aquifers with moderate rate and the injection can be done in several stages with different injection rate to avoid onset pressure. - Highlights: • Impact of permeability, geological structure, operation parameters was investigated. • With certain air production rate, an optimum permeability exists for performance.

  14. Zero boil-off methods for large-scale liquid hydrogen tanks using integrated refrigeration and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; E Fesmire, J.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    NASA has completed a series of tests at the Kennedy Space Center to demonstrate the capability of using integrated refrigeration and storage (IRAS) to remove energy from a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank and control the state of the propellant. A primary test objective was the keeping and storing of the liquid in a zero boil-off state, so that the total heat leak entering the tank is removed by a cryogenic refrigerator with an internal heat exchanger. The LH2 is therefore stored and kept with zero losses for an indefinite period of time. The LH2 tank is a horizontal cylindrical geometry with a vacuum-jacketed, multilayer insulation system and a capacity of 125,000 liters. The closed-loop helium refrigeration system was a Linde LR1620 capable of 390W cooling at 20K (without any liquid nitrogen pre-cooling). Three different control methods were used to obtain zero boil-off: temperature control of the helium refrigerant, refrigerator control using the tank pressure sensor, and duty cycling (on/off) of the refrigerator as needed. Summarized are the IRAS design approach, zero boil-off control methods, and results of the series of zero boil-off tests.

  15. Large sensitivity in land carbon storage due to geographical and temporal variation in the thermal response of photosynthetic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Lina M; Medlyn, Belinda E; Huntingford, Chris; Oliver, Rebecca J; Clark, Douglas B; Sitch, Stephen; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Kattge, Jens; Harper, Anna B; Cox, Peter M

    2018-06-01

    Plant temperature responses vary geographically, reflecting thermally contrasting habitats and long-term species adaptations to their climate of origin. Plants also can acclimate to fast temporal changes in temperature regime to mitigate stress. Although plant photosynthetic responses are known to acclimate to temperature, many global models used to predict future vegetation and climate-carbon interactions do not include this process. We quantify the global and regional impacts of biogeographical variability and thermal acclimation of temperature response of photosynthetic capacity on the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle between 1860 and 2100 within a coupled climate-carbon cycle model, that emulates 22 global climate models. Results indicate that inclusion of biogeographical variation in photosynthetic temperature response is most important for present-day and future C uptake, with increasing importance of thermal acclimation under future warming. Accounting for both effects narrows the range of predictions of the simulated global land C storage in 2100 across climate projections (29% and 43% globally and in the tropics, respectively). Contrary to earlier studies, our results suggest that thermal acclimation of photosynthetic capacity makes tropical and temperate C less vulnerable to warming, but reduces the warming-induced C uptake in the boreal region under elevated CO 2 . © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Distributed Large Data-Object Environments: End-to-End Performance Analysis of High Speed Distributed Storage Systems in Wide Area ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian; Lee, Jason; Hoo, Gary; Thompson, Mary

    1996-01-01

    We have developed and deployed a distributed-parallel storage system (DPSS) in several high speed asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) wide area networks (WAN) testbeds to support several different types of data-intensive applications. Architecturally, the DPSS is a network striped disk array, but is fairly unique in that its implementation allows applications complete freedom to determine optimal data layout, replication and/or coding redundancy strategy, security policy, and dynamic reconfiguration. In conjunction with the DPSS, we have developed a 'top-to-bottom, end-to-end' performance monitoring and analysis methodology that has allowed us to characterize all aspects of the DPSS operating in high speed ATM networks. In particular, we have run a variety of performance monitoring experiments involving the DPSS in the MAGIC testbed, which is a large scale, high speed, ATM network and we describe our experience using the monitoring methodology to identify and correct problems that limit the performance of high speed distributed applications. Finally, the DPSS is part of an overall architecture for using high speed, WAN's for enabling the routine, location independent use of large data-objects. Since this is part of the motivation for a distributed storage system, we describe this architecture.

  17. Large scale use of brazing and high temperature brazing for the fabrication of the 6.4 km long vacuum system of the HERA electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballion, R.; Boster, J.; Giesske, W.; Hartwig, H.; Jagnow, D.; Kouptsidis, J.; Pape, R.; Prohl, W.; Schumann, G.; Schwartz, M.; Iversen, K.; Mucklenbeck, J.

    1989-01-01

    The 6.4 km long vacuum system for electrons in the large storage ring HERA at Hamburg consists of about 1,400 components having lengths between .14 and 12 m. The vacuum components are mainly made from variously shaped tubes of the copper alloy CuSn2. This alloy combines sufficient mechanical strength with the high thermal conductivity needed to remove the 6 MW dissipated power of the synchrotron-light. The vacuum components consist additionally of parts made from stainless steel such as flanges, chambers for pumps, beam monitors, etc. All of these parts are connected in a vacuum tight manner and on a large scale by using brazing and high temperature brazing both in a vacuum or in a reducing gas atmosphere. (orig.)

  18. Integrating experimental and numerical methods for a scenario-based quantitative assessment of subsurface energy storage options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuth, Alina; Dahmke, Andreas; Hagrey, Said Attia al; Berta, Márton; Dörr, Cordula; Koproch, Nicolas; Köber, Ralf; Köhn, Daniel; Nolde, Michael; Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Popp, Steffi; Schwanebeck, Malte; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the transition to renewable energy sources ("Energiewende"), the German government defined the target of producing 60 % of the final energy consumption from renewable energy sources by the year 2050. However, renewable energies are subject to natural fluctuations. Energy storage can help to buffer the resulting time shifts between production and demand. Subsurface geological structures provide large potential capacities for energy stored in the form of heat or gas on daily to seasonal time scales. In order to explore this potential sustainably, the possible induced effects of energy storage operations have to be quantified for both specified normal operation and events of failure. The ANGUS+ project therefore integrates experimental laboratory studies with numerical approaches to assess subsurface energy storage scenarios and monitoring methods. Subsurface storage options for gas, i.e. hydrogen, synthetic methane and compressed air in salt caverns or porous structures, as well as subsurface heat storage are investigated with respect to site prerequisites, storage dimensions, induced effects, monitoring methods and integration into spatial planning schemes. The conceptual interdisciplinary approach of the ANGUS+ project towards the integration of subsurface energy storage into a sustainable subsurface planning scheme is presented here, and this approach is then demonstrated using the examples of two selected energy storage options: Firstly, the option of seasonal heat storage in a shallow aquifer is presented. Coupled thermal and hydraulic processes induced by periodic heat injection and extraction were simulated in the open-source numerical modelling package OpenGeoSys. Situations of specified normal operation as well as cases of failure in operational storage with leaking heat transfer fluid are considered. Bench-scale experiments provided parameterisations of temperature dependent changes in shallow groundwater hydrogeochemistry. As a

  19. Energy storage by compressed air. [using windpowered pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szego, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of windpower energy storage by compressed air is considered. The system is comprised of a compressor, a motor, and a pump turbine to store air in caverns or aquifiers. It is proposed that storage of several days worth of compressed air up to 650 pounds per square inch can be used to push the aquifier up closer to the container dome and thus initiate piston action by simply compressing air more and more. More energy can be put into it by pressure increase or pushing back the water in the aquifier. This storage system concept has reheat flexibility and lowest cost effectiveness.

  20. Storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.; Hagler, R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Current practices and future requirements for the storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen are reviewed in order to identify inadequacies to be corrected before hydrogen can achieve its full potential as a substitute for fossil fuels. Consideration is given to the storage of hydrogen in underground solution-mined salt caverns, portable high-pressure containers and dewars, pressure vessels and aquifers and as metal hydrides, hydrogen transmission in evacuated double-walled insulated containers and by pipeline, and distribution by truck and internal distribution networks. Areas for the improvement of these techniques are indicated, and these technological deficiencies, including materials development, low-cost storage and transmission methods, low-cost, long-life metal hydrides and novel methods for hydrogen storage, are presented as challenges for research and development.

  1. Familial cerebral cavernous haemangioma diagnosed in an infant with a rapidly growing cerebral lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, B.H.K.; Pereira, J.K.; Ghedia, S.; Pinner, J.; Mowat, D.; Vonau, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas of the central nervous system are vascular malformations best imaged by MRI. They may present at any age, but to our knowledge only 39 cases in the first year of life have previously been reported. A familial form has been described and some of the underlying genetic mutations have recently been discovered. We present the clinical features and serial MRI findings of an 8-week-old boy who presented with subacute intracranial haemorrhage followed by rapid growth of a surgically proven cavernous haemangioma, mimicking a tumour. He also developed new lesions. A strong family history of neurological disease was elucidated. A familial form of cavernous haemangioma was confirmed by identification of a KRIT 1 gene mutation and cavernous haemangiomas in the patient and other family members. We stress the importance of considering cavernous haemangiomas in the context of intracerebral haemorrhage and in the differential diagnosis of rapidly growing lesions in this age group. The family history is also important in screening for familial disease

  2. Endoscope-assisted resection of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Shimazu, Yousuke; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Date, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Intraventricular cavernous angiomas are rare pathological entities, and those located at the foramen of Monro are even rarer. We herein present a case of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro that was successfully treated by neuroendoscope-assisted surgical removal, and review the relevant literature. A 65-year-old woman had experienced headache and vomiting for 10 days before admission to another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass at the foramen of Monro, and obstructive hydrocephalus of both lateral ventricles. The patient was then referred to our hospital. Neurological examination on admission to our hospital showed memory disturbance (Mini-Mental State Examination 20/30) and wide-based gait. A cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro was diagnosed based on the typical popcorn-like appearance of the lesion on MRI. The lesion was completely removed by neuroendoscope-assisted transcortical surgery with the Viewsite Brain Access System (Vycor Medical Inc., Boca Raton, FL), leading to a reduction in the size of the ventricles. The resected mass was histologically confirmed to be cavernous angioma. The patient's symptoms resolved immediately and there were no postoperative complications. Minimally invasive neuroendoscope-assisted surgery was used to successfully treat a cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro.

  3. A structural behavior study of rock caverns considering the effects of discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Kim, Sun Hoon; Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, Kyu Seop; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, In Gil; Lee, Dong Yong

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the effects of discontinuities within rock masses on the structural behavior of underground rock caverns for radioactive waste disposal, and then develop a computer program for the structural analysis of rock caverns considering these effect of discontinuities. The behavior of rock masses, such as strength, deformation modes, ect., is very difficult to predict because discontinuities in the form of microcracks or joints are randomly distributed within rock masses. Discontinuties existing around the rock cavern for underground radioactive waste disposal may become the main transport pathways of radionuclides, and reduce the strength of rock masses eventually causing the rock cavern structure unstable. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanical properties and behavior of discontinuous rock masses and an improvement of structural analysis methods are essential in order to understand the behavior of underground rock cavern structures properly in order to design safe and economic understanding the behavior of discontinuous rock masses is essential. Therfore, this study includes literature review on mechanical properties of and computational models for discontinuous rock masses, and on structures. Then, bases on the engineering judgement a suitable selection and slight modifications on computational models and analysis methods have been made before developing the structural analysis computer program for underground radioactive waste disposal structures. (author)

  4. Multiple cavernous malformations presenting in a patient with Poland syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Salles Antonio AF

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Poland syndrome is a congenital disorder related to chest and hand anomalies on one side of the body. Its etiology remains unclear, with an ipsilateral vascular alteration (of unknown origin to the subclavian artery in early embryogenesis being the currently accepted theory. Cavernous malformations are vascular hamartomas, which have been linked to a genetic etiology, particularly in familial cases, which commonly present with multiple lesions. Our case report is the first to describe multiple cavernous malformations associated with Poland syndrome, further supporting the vascular etiology theory, but pointing to a genetic rather than a mechanistic factor disrupting blood flow in the corresponding vessels. Case presentation A 41-year-old Caucasian man with Poland syndrome on the right side of his body presented to our hospital with a secondary generalized seizure and was found to have multiple cavernous malformations distributed in his brain, cerebellum, and brain stem, with a predominance of lesions in the left hemisphere. Conclusion The distribution of cavernous malformations in the left hemisphere and the right-sided Poland syndrome in our patient could not be explained by a mechanistic disruption of one of the subclavian arteries. A genetic alteration, as in familial cavernous malformations, would be a more appropriate etiologic diagnosis of Poland syndrome in our patient. Further genetic and pathological studies of the involved blood vessels in patients with Poland syndrome could lead to a better understanding of the disease.

  5. Thermal-mechanical aspects for radioactive waste storage into underground caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Alvaro.

    1985-12-01

    The thermal and mechanical behaviors of rock mass by analytical models, considering transient effects of the heat generation from radioactive wastes, are analysed. The models were applied to Brazilian gneissic type of rock, considering the usual design of vitrified waste cylinders individually installed into conveniently spaced holes. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Groundwater flow system in the fractured rock near a storage cavern at Yeosu area(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hoon

    2009-08-01

    - Upper part underground water cause hydraulic characteristics and distribution depth - Water pressure distributions underground a main insulation cause and a hydraulic characteristic - I cultivate underground water, and it is distribution reverse a district and an outlet - Natural contain ratio of underground water As the above-mentioned data difficult for being derived in basic investigation processes limited, I build an underground cavity, but can evaluate an underground water system characteristic more correct by the data interpretation that minuteness observes an underground water system change Ui is long term, and I regard by hydraulic tests field of actual scale, and to be happened during construction, and was derived

  7. Long-term modelling of Carbon Capture and Storage, Nuclear Fusion, and large-scale District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Lüthje, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    before 2050. The modelling tools developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement ETSAP include both multi-regional global and long-term energy models till 2100, as well as national or regional models with shorter time horizons. Examples are the EFDA-TIMES model, focusing...... on nuclear fusion and the Pan European TIMES model, respectively. In the next decades CCS can be a driver for the development and expansion of large-scale district heating systems, which are currently widespread in Europe, Korea and China, and with large potentials in North America. If fusion will replace...... fossil fuel power plants with CCS in the second half of the century, the same infrastructure for heat distribution can be used which will support the penetration of both technologies. This paper will address the issue of infrastructure development and the use of CCS and fusion technologies using...

  8. Production spectra of π+-, K+-, p+- at large angles in proton-proton collisions in the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, B.; Boeggild, H.; Booth, P.; Bulos, F.; Carroll, L.J.; Damgaard, G.; Von Dardel, G.; Duff, B.; Hansen, K.H.; Heymann, F.; Jackson, J.N.; Jarlskog, G.; Joensson, L.; Klovning, A.; Leistam, L.; Lillethun, E.; Lohse, E.; Lynch, G.; Manning, G.; Potter, K.; Prentice, M.; Sharp, P.; Sharrock, S.; Oelgaard-Nielsen, S.; Quarrie, D.; Weiss, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Results are given on the inclusive production of charged pions, kaons, and nucleons, in proton-proton collisions at c.m. energies from √s=23 to 63 GeV at large angles and for the transverse momentum range 0.1 < psub(T) < 4.8 GeV/c. The dependence of the production spectra on the collision energy √s, the transverse momentum psub(T), and the longitudinal rapidity is discussed. (Auth.)

  9. Direct traumatic carotid cavernous fistula: angiographic classification and treatment strategies. Study of 172 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Cuong Tran; Nguyen, Dang; Duc, Vo Tan; Chau, Huynh Hong; Son, Vo Tan

    2014-01-01

    We report our experience in treatment of traumatic direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) via endovascular intervention. We hereof recommend an additional classification system for type A CCF and suggest respective treatment strategies. Only type A CCF patients (Barrow's classification) would be recruited for the study. Based on the angiographic characteristics of the CCF, we classified type A CCF into three subtypes including small size, medium size and large size fistula depending on whether there was presence of the anterior carotid artery (ACA) and/or middle carotid artery (MCA). Angiograms with opacification of both ACA and MCA were categorized as small size fistula. Angiograms with opacification of either ACA or MCA were categorized as medium size fistula and those without opacification of neither ACA nor MCA were classified as large size fiatula. After the confirm angiogram, endovascular embolization would be performed impromptu using detachable balloon, coils or both. All cases were followed up for complication and effect after the embolization. A total of 172 direct traumatic CCF patients were enrolled. The small size fistula was accountant for 12.8% (22 cases), medium size 35.5% (61 cases) and large size fistula accountant for 51.7% (89 cases). The successful rate of fistula occlusion under endovascular embolization was 94% with preservation of the carotid artery in 70%. For the treatment of each subtype, a total of 21/22 cases of the small size fistulas were successfully treated using coils alone. The other single case of small fistula was defaulted. Most of the medium and large size fistulas were cured using detachable balloons. When the fistula sealing could not be obtained using detachable balloon, coils were added to affirm the embolization of the cavernous sinus via venous access. There were about 2.9% of patient experienced direct carotid artery puncture and 0.6% puncture after carotid artery cut-down exposure. About 30% of cases experienced

  10. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for hemangioma of the cavernous sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Sheehan, Jason P; Kano, Hideyuki; Akpinar, Berkcan; Martinez-Alvarez, Roberto; Martinez-Moreno, Nuria; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Lunsford, L Dade; Liu, Kang-Du

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Cavernous sinus hemangiomas (CSHs) are rare vascular tumors. A direct microsurgical approach usually results in massive hemorrhage and incomplete tumor resection. Although stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a therapeutic alternative to microsurgery, outcome studies are few. Authors of the present study evaluated the role of SRS for CSH. METHODS An international multicenter study was conducted to review outcome data in 31 patients with CSH. Eleven patients had initial microsurgery before SRS, and the other 20 patients (64.5%) underwent Gamma Knife SRS as the primary management for their CSH. Median age at the time of radiosurgery was 47 years, and 77.4% of patients had cranial nerve dysfunction before SRS. Patients received a median tumor margin dose of 12.6 Gy (range 12-19 Gy) at a median isodose of 55%. RESULTS Tumor regression was confirmed by imaging in all 31 patients, and all patients had greater than 50% reduction in tumor volume at 6 months post-SRS. No patient had delayed tumor growth, new cranial neuropathy, visual function deterioration, adverse radiation effects, or hypopituitarism after SRS. Twenty-four patients had presented with cranial nerve disorders before SRS, and 6 (25%) of them had gradual improvement. Four (66.7%) of the 6 patients with orbital symptoms had symptomatic relief at the last follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Stereotactic radiosurgery was effective in reducing the volume of CSH and attaining long-term tumor control in all patients at a median of 40 months. The authors' experience suggests that SRS is a reasonable primary and adjuvant treatment modality for patients in whom a CSH is diagnosed.

  11. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI evaluation of cerebral cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Blaine L; Taheri, Saeid; Rosenberg, Gary A; Morrison, Leslie A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the behavior of CNS cavernous malformations (CCMs) using a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCEMRI) technique sensitive for slow transfer rates of gadolinium. The prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPPA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained from 14 subjects with familial CCMs (4 men and 10 women, ages 22-76 years, mean 48.1 years). Following routine anatomic MRI of the brain, DCEMRI was performed for six slices, using T1 mapping with partial inversion recovery (TAPIR) to calculate T1 values, following administration of 0.025 mmol/kg gadolinium DTPA. The transfer rate (Ki) was calculated using the Patlak model, and Ki within CCMs was compared to normal-appearing white matter as well as to 17 normal control subjects previously studied. All subjects had typical MRI appearance of CCMs. Thirty-nine CCMs were studied using DCEMRI. Ki was low or normal in 12 lesions and elevated from 1.4 to 12 times higher than background in the remaining 27 lesions. Ki ranged from 2.1E-6 to 9.63E-4 min(-1), mean 3.55E-4. Normal-appearing white matter in the CCM patients had a mean Ki of 1.57E-4, not statistically different from mean WM Ki of 1.47E-4 in controls. TAPIR-based DCEMRI technique permits quantifiable assessment of CCMs in vivo and reveals considerable differences not seen with conventional MRI. Potential applications include correlation with biologic behavior such as lesion growth or hemorrage, and measurement of drug effects.

  12. Radiotracer studies in cavernous marble at Kamathikhairy Dam site, Pench Project (Maharashtra)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, Ravendra; Mahajan, N.M.; Vaidya, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotracer studies with tritiated water at Pench Project site conclusively proved that the cavernous marble upstream of the saddle dam is continuous with the marble occuring near the spillway portion of the main dam and that there is fast subterranean flow of water through the cavernous marble here. It is also established that this marble band upstream of the dam is interconnected with the marble band occuring in the vicinity of Pali village about 3 km downstream of the dam. Though big unclogged subterranean channels do not seem to exist in this region, which might have resulted in heavy leakage from the impounded reservoir, yet the possibility of some leakage of the water through the cavernous marble cannot be ruled out, due to the interconnection of the marble occuring upstream of the dam with the downstream marble band. (author)

  13. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation in preoperative planning for the treatment of motor area cavernous angiomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Marcolin, Marco Antonio; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of microscopic techniques, radical surgery for cavernous angiomas has become a recommended treatment option. However, the treatment of motor area cavernous angioma represents a great challenge for the surgical team. Here, we describe an approach guided by frameless neuronavigation and preoperative functional mapping with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), for surgical planning. We used TMS to map the motor cortex and its relationship with the angioma. We achieved complete resection of the lesions in the surgeries, while avoiding areas of motor response identified during the preoperative mapping. We verified the complete control of seizures (Engel class 1A) in the patients with previous refractory epilepsy. Postsurgery, one patient was seizure-free without medication, and two patients required only one medication for seizure control. Thus, navigated TMS appears to be a useful tool, in preoperative planning for cavernous angiomas of the motor area. PMID:24353424

  14. Spectacular test of the fire extinguishing system in the underground cavern of the CMS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The enormous rumbling heard 100 m under the earth on Friday, 12 May, was not the start of a foam party at CMS. The Safety Team looked on from the second tier of the CMS underground cavern as it reechoed to the sound of water rushing through the two huge pipes overhead and the air was filled with a mixture of water and foam. A minute later it was a winter wonderland, as fluffy puffs of foam came shooting out of the twelve foam blowers lining the upper cavern walls on both sides. In less than two minutes 7 m3 of water mixed with a small percentage of foaming liquid, was transformed into 5600 m3 of foam and discharged into the cavern.

  15. Gd-DTPA in the evaluation of the normal and adnormal cavernous sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, M.P.; Thrush, A.; Enzmann, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on Gd-DTPA used in the evaluation of normal and abnormal cavernous sinus anatomy. Twenty-five normal subjects and 11 patients with cavernous sinus invasion were studied before Gd-DTPA enhancement. Normal studies were assessed for the conspicuity of the dural margins, the trigeminal cistern, and intracavernous and exiting cranial nerves. Contrast medium enhancement improved deductibility of the medical cavernous sinus margin (68% vs 38% on precontrast images) and intracavernous cranial nerves. Cranial nerves were inconsistently seen even on postcontrast images (cranial nerve III, 88%; v 1 , 36%, V 2 , 38%). On the abnormal images, contrast enhancement was beneficial in defining the relationship of tumor to parasellar structures, egress of tumor through bony foramina, and compression of the trigeminal cistern

  16. Sediment supply versus local hydraulic controls on sediment transport and storage in a river with large sediment loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David; Topping, David; Schmidt, John C.; Griffiths, Ronald; Sabol, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico, undergoes rapid geomorphic changes as a result of its large sediment supply and variable hydrology; thus, it is a useful natural laboratory to investigate the relative importance of flow strength and sediment supply in controlling alluvial channel change. We analyzed a suite of sediment transport and geomorphic data to determine the cumulative influence of different flood types on changing channel form. In this study, physically based analyses suggest that channel change in the Rio Grande is controlled by both changes in flow strength and sediment supply over different spatial and temporal scales. Channel narrowing is primarily caused by substantial deposition of sediment supplied to the Rio Grande during tributary-sourced flash floods. Tributary floods have large suspended-sediment concentrations, occur for short durations, and attenuate rapidly downstream in the Rio Grande, depositing much of their sediment in downstream reaches. Long-duration floods on the mainstem have the capacity to enlarge the Rio Grande, and these floods, released from upstream dams, can either erode or deposit sediment in the Rio Grande depending upon the antecedent in-channel sediment supply and the magnitude and duration of the flood. Geomorphic and sediment transport analyses show that the locations and rates of sand erosion and deposition during long-duration floods are most strongly controlled by spatial changes in flow strength, largely through changes in channel slope. However, spatial differences in the in-channel sediment supply regulate sediment evacuation or accumulation over time in long reaches (greater than a kilometer).

  17. Large superconducting detector magnets with ultra thin coils for use in high energy accelerators and storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1977-08-01

    The development of a new class of large superconducting solenoid magnets is described. High energy physics on colliding beam machines sometimes require the use of thin coil solenoid magnets. The development of these magnets has proceeded with the substitution of light materials for heavy materials and by increasing the current density in the coils. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has developed a radical approach to the problem by having the coil operate at very high current densities. This approach and its implications are described in detail

  18. Dedication of the massive ATLAS art mural painted by Josef Kristofoletti directly above the cavern of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni, Michael Barnett

    2010-01-01

    Ceremony to celebrate the massive mural of the ATLAS detector at CERN painted by artist Josef Kristofoletti. The mural is located at the ATLAS Experiment site, and it shows on two perpendicular walls the detector with a collision event superimposed. The event on the large wall shows a simulation of an event that would be recorded in ATLAS if a Higgs boson was produced. The cavern of the ATLAS Experiment with the detector is 100 meters directly below the mural. The height of the mural is about 12 meters (40 feet). The actual ATLAS detector is more than twice as big.

  19. Technical assessment of the bedrock waste storage at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.F.; Corey, J.C.

    1976-11-01

    An assessment of the safety and feasibility of ultimate storage of radioactive wastes produced at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in horizontal tunnels excavated in the bedrock beneath the plant site is presented. Results indicate that a cavern with an excavated volume of 130 million gallons could contain 80 million gallons of concentrated radioactive SRP wastes with minimal risks if the cavern is located in the impermeable Triassic Basin underlying the Savannah River site. The cavern could be placed so that it would lie wholly within the boundaries of the plantsite. The document summarizes the general geological, hydrological, and chemical knowledge of the geological structures beneath the plantsite; develops evaluation guidelines; and utilizes mathematical models to conduct risk analyses. The risk models are developed from known soil and salt solution mechanics; from past, present, and future geological behavior of the onsite rock formations; and from known waste handling technology. The greatest risk is assessed to exist during transfer of the radioactive wastes to the cavern. When the cavern is filled and sealed, further population risks are asessed to be very low

  20. [Clinical picture and complex treatment of septic thromboses of the cavernous sinuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaev, S V; Zubkov, Iu N; Ponomarev, A M; Shimchenko, P Ia

    1980-07-01

    Under analysis are etiology, clinical picture and diagnosis of a septic thrombosis of cavernous sinuses in 28 patients. The authors have shown the interrelationship between local manifestations of the disease, injuries of the brain and its sheaths and septic complications (abscessing pneumonia as the most severe of them). A scheme of the complex treatment of patients with thrombosis of the cavernous sinus is proposed. The leading role in this treatment is played by intracarotid infusion of antibiotics in combination with anticoagulant drugs, vasodilatatory agents and novocaine as well as the therapy of septic complications (abscesses of the face and hairy part of the head, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia).

  1. Facile synthesis of nickel-doped Co9S8 hollow nanoparticles with large surface-controlled pseudocapacitive and fast sodium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hepeng; Cao, Yijun; Ma, Zilong; Li, Shulei

    2018-05-01

    Transition metal sulfides are considered to be promising candidates as anodes for sodium ion batteries (SIBs). However, their further applications are limited by poor electrical conductivity and sluggish electrochemical kinetics. We report, for the first time, nickel-doped Co9S8 hollow nanoparticles as SIB anodes with enhanced electrical conductivity and a large pseudocapacitive effect, leading to fast kinetics. This compound exhibits excellent sodium storage performance, including a high capacity of 556.7 mA h g-1, a high rate capability of 2000 mA g-1 and an excellent stability up to 200 cycles. The results demonstrate that nickel-doped Co9S8 hollow nanoparticles are a promising anode material for SIBs.

  2. Research on volume metrology method of large vertical energy storage tank based on internal electro-optical distance-ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huadong; Shi, Haolei; Yi, Pengju; Liu, Ying; Li, Cunjun; Li, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    A Volume Metrology method based on Internal Electro-optical Distance-ranging method is established for large vertical energy storage tank. After analyzing the vertical tank volume calculation mathematical model, the key processing algorithms, such as gross error elimination, filtering, streamline, and radius calculation are studied for the point cloud data. The corresponding volume values are automatically calculated in the different liquids by calculating the cross-sectional area along the horizontal direction and integrating from vertical direction. To design the comparison system, a vertical tank which the nominal capacity is 20,000 m3 is selected as the research object, and there are shown that the method has good repeatability and reproducibility. Through using the conventional capacity measurement method as reference, the relative deviation of calculated volume is less than 0.1%, meeting the measurement requirements. And the feasibility and effectiveness are demonstrated.

  3. Combining satellite radar altimetry, SAR surface soil moisture and GRACE total storage changes for hydrological model calibration in a large poorly gauged catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, Christian; Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The availability of data is a major challenge for hydrological modelling in large parts of the world. Remote sensing data can be exploited to improve models of ungauged or poorly gauged catchments. In this study we combine three datasets for calibration of a rainfall-runoff model of the poorly...... gauged Okavango catchment in Southern Africa: (i) surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates derived from radar measurements onboard the Envisat satellite; (ii) radar altimetry measurements by Envisat providing river stages in the tributaries of the Okavango catchment, down to a minimum river width of about...... one hundred meters; and (iii) temporal changes of the Earth's gravity field recorded by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) caused by total water storage changes in the catchment. The SSM data are shown to be helpful in identifying periods with over-respectively underestimation...

  4. Combining satellite radar altimetry, SAR surface soil moisture and GRACE total storage changes for model calibration and validation in a large ungauged catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, Christian; Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The availability of data is a major challenge for hydrological modelling in large parts of the world. Remote sensing data can be exploited to improve models of ungauged or poorly gauged catchments. In this study we combine three datasets for calibration and validation of a rainfall-runoff model...... of the ungauged Okavango catchment in Southern Africa: (i) Surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates derived from SAR measurements onboard the Envisat satellite; (ii) Radar altimetry measurements by Envisat providing river stages in the tributaries of the Okavango catchment, down to a minimum width of about one...... hundred meters; and (iii) Temporal changes of the Earth’s gravity field recorded by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) caused by total water storage changes in the catchment. The SSM data are compared to simulated moisture conditions in the top soil layer. They cannot be used for model...

  5. An energy storage and regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

      The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground...... caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet...... the higher level of energy demand....

  6. Trial Readiness in Cavernous Angiomas With Symptomatic Hemorrhage (CASH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polster, Sean P; Cao, Ying; Carroll, Timothy; Flemming, Kelly; Girard, Romuald; Hanley, Daniel; Hobson, Nicholas; Kim, Helen; Koenig, James; Koskimäki, Janne; Lane, Karen; Majersik, Jennifer J; McBee, Nichol; Morrison, Leslie; Shenkar, Robert; Stadnik, Agnieszka; Thompson, Richard E; Zabramski, Joseph; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Awad, Issam A

    2018-04-11

    Brain cavernous angiomas with symptomatic hemorrhage (CASH) are uncommon but exact a heavy burden of neurological disability from recurrent bleeding, for which there is no proven therapy. Candidate drugs to stabilize the CASH lesion and prevent rebleeding will ultimately require testing of safety and efficacy in multisite clinical trials. Much progress has been made in understanding the epidemiology of CASH, and novel biomarkers have been linked to the biological mechanisms and clinical activity in lesions. Yet, the ability to enroll and risk-stratify CASH subjects has never been assessed prospectively at multiple sites. Biomarkers and other outcomes have not been evaluated for their sensitivity and reliability, nor have they been harmonized across sites. To address knowledge gaps and establish a research network as infrastructure for future clinical trials, through the Trial Readiness grant mechanism, funded by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/National Institutes of Health. This project includes an observational cohort study to assess (1) the feasibility of screening, enrollment rates, baseline disease categorization, and follow-up of CASH using common data elements at multiple sites, (2) the reliability of imaging biomarkers including quantitative susceptibility mapping and permeability measures that have been shown to correlate with lesion activity, and (3) the rates of recurrent hemorrhage and change in functional status and biomarker measurements during prospective follow-up. We propose a harmonized multisite assessment of enrollment rates of CASH, baseline features relevant to stratification in clinical trials, and follow-up assessments of functional outcomes in relation to clinical bleeds. We introduce novel biomarkers of vascular leak and hemorrhage, with firm mechanistic foundations, which have been linked to clinical disease activity. We shall test their reliability and validity at multiple sites, and assess their changes over time

  7. Cavernous malformations isolated from cranial nerves: Unexpected diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondo, Michele; Natale, Massimo; D'Avanzo, Raffaele; Pascale, Michela; Scuotto, Assunta

    2014-11-01

    Cranial nerves (CN) cavernous malformations (CMs) are lesions that are isolated from the CNs. The authors present three cases of CN CMs, for which MR was demonstrated to be critical for management, and surgical resection produced good outcomes for the patients. Surgical removal is the recommended course of action to restore or preserve neurological function and to eliminate the risk of future haemorrhage. However, the anatomical location and the complexity of nearby neural structures can make these lesions difficult to access and remove. In this study, the authors review the literature of reported cases of CN CMs to analyse the clinical and radiographic presentations, surgical approaches and neurological outcomes. A MEDLINE/Pub Med search was performed and revealed 86 cases of CN CMs. The authors report three additional cases in this study for a total of 89 cases. CMs affecting the optic nerve (CN II), oculomotor nerve (CN III), facial/vestibule-cochlear nerves (CN VII, CN VIII) have been described. The records of three patients were reviewed with respect to the lesion locations, symptoms, surgical approaches and therapeutic considerations. Clinical and radiological follow-up results are reported. Three patients (2 females, 1 male; age range 21-37 year) presented with three CN lesions. One lesion involved CN III, one lesion involved CN VII-CN VIII, and one involved CN II. The patient with the CN III lesion had a one-month history of mild right ptosis and diplopia. The patient with the CN VII-CN VIII lesion exhibited acute hearing loss and on the left and left facial paresis. The patient with the opticchiasmatic lesion presented with acute visual deterioration on the right and a left temporal field deficit in the left eye. Pterional and orbitozygomatic craniotomies were performed for the CN III lesion and the CN II lesion, and retrosigmoid craniotomy was performed for the cerebello-pontine angle lesion. All patients experienced symptom improvement after surgery. On

  8. Water Curtain System Pre-design for Crude Oil Storage URCs : A Numerical Modeling and Genetic Programming Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghotbi Ravandi, Ebrahim; Rahmannejad, Reza; Karimi-Nasab, Saeed; Sarrafi, Amir; Raoof, Amir

    In this paper the main criteria of the water curtain system for unlined rock caverns (URCs) is described. By the application of numerical modeling and genetic programming (GP), a method for water curtain system pre-design for Iranian crude oil storage URCs (common dimension worldwide) is presented.

  9. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  10. Design and thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid energy storage system based on A-CAES (adiabatic compressed air energy storage) and FESS (flywheel energy storage system) for wind power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping; Wang, Jiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Electricity generated from renewable wind sources is highly erratic due to the intermittent nature of wind. This uncertainty of wind power can lead to challenges regarding power system operation and dispatch. Energy storage system in conjunction with wind energy system can offset these effects, making the wind power controllable. Moreover, the power spectrum of wind power exhibits that the fluctuations of wind power include various components with different frequencies and amplitudes. Thus, the hybrid energy storage system is more suitable for smoothing out the wind power fluctuations effectively rather than the independent energy storage system. A hybrid energy storage system consisting of adiabatic compressed air energy storage (A-CAES) system and flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is proposed for wind energy application. The design of the proposed system is laid out firstly. The A-CAES system operates in variable cavern pressure, constant turbine inlet pressure mode, whereas the FESS is controlled by constant power strategy. Then, the off-design analysis of the proposed system is carried out. Meanwhile, a parametric analysis is also performed to investigate the effects of several parameters on the system performance, including the ambient conditions, inlet temperature of compressor, storage cavern temperature, maximum and minimum pressures of storage cavern. - Highlights: • A wind-hybrid energy storage system composed of A-CAES and FESS is proposed. • The design of the proposed hybrid energy storage system is laid out. • The off-design analysis of the proposed system is carried out. • A parametric analysis is conducted to examine the system performance

  11. A creative therapy in treating cavernous hemangioma of penis with copper wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Haiyang; Sun, Peng; Li, Peng; Xue, Aibing; Jin, Xunbo

    2014-10-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of penis are rare benign lesions infrequently described in the literature. No completely satisfactory treatment has been found to correct the cosmetic deformities especially the extensive hemangiomas of corpus penis. In light of the promising application of copper wire/needle in vascular malformations, we began a clinical study to investigate the safety, feasibility, and cosmetic effect of copper wire therapy in treating cavernous hemangioma of penis. Seven patients ranging in age from 12 to 32 years with penile cavernous hemangiomas entered our study from 2005 to 2011. All patients received treatments with percutaneous copper wires. Perioperative data including mean operation time, estimated blood loss, length of copper wire retention, and length of hospital stay were analyzed. All possible complications were noted, and cosmetic result was evaluated. Patients were followed up after discharge from the hospital. All operations were successful, and no obvious complications were observed. The patients were satisfied with the aesthetic results. Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 5 years. Recurrence was discovered in a patient with the largest lesion of corpus penis 2 months after the treatment. Secondary procedure was carried out with the same technique, and no lesions were found later. The shortage of studies on this topic prevented us from defining a therapeutic reference standard. The results of our study confirmed that copper wire therapy was a simple, safe, and useful option for penile cavernous hemangioma. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Schwann cell seeded guidance tubes restore erectile function after ablation of cavernous nerves in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, F; Weidner, N; Matiasek, K; Caspers, C; Mrva, T; Vroemen, M; Henke, J; Lehmer, A; Schwaibold, H; Erhardt, W; Gänsbacher, B; Hartung, R

    2004-07-01

    Dissection of the cavernous nerves eliminates spontaneous erections. We evaluated the ability of Schwann cell seeded nerve guidance tubes to restore erections after bilateral cavernous nerve resection in rats. Sections (5 mm) of the cavernous nerve were excised bilaterally, followed by immediate bilateral microsurgical reconstruction. In 10 animals per group (20 study nerves) reconstruction was performed by genitofemoral nerve interposition, interposition of silicone tubes or interposition of silicone tubes seeded with homologous Schwann cells. As the control 10 animals (20 study nerves) underwent sham operation (positive control) and bilateral nerve ablation (without reconstruction) was performed in a further 10 (negative control). Erectile function was evaluated 3 months postoperatively by relaparotomy, electrical nerve stimulation and intracavernous pressure recording. After 3 months neurostimulation resulted in an intact erectile response in 90% (18 of 20) of Schwann cell grafts, while treatment with autologous nerves (30% or 6 of 20) or tubes only (50% or 10 of 20) was less successful (p Schwann cell grafts compared to results in the other treatment groups (p Schwann cell grafts. Schwann cell seeded guidance tubes restore erectile function after the ablation of cavernous nerves in rats and they are superior to autologous nerve grafts.

  13. Aggressive cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula: Angioarchitecture analysis and embolization by various approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Bao Luo

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Aggressive CSDAVFs are associated with occlusion/stenosis of the IPS or compartment of IPS–cavernous sinus with leptomeningeal reflux. In this limited case series, aggressive CSDAVFs most presented with brainstem ischemia, followed by nonhemorrhagic/hemorrhagic stroke in the cerebrum. Embolization through various access routes is a feasible method to manage these aggressive CSDAVFs, with an acceptable level of periprocedural risks.

  14. Intramedullary cavernous angiomas of the spinal cord. Clinical characteristics of 13 lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takeshi; Hida, Kazutoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has increased the incidence of the diagnosis of intramedullary cavernous angioma. Surgical therapy tends not to be recommended for asymptomatic lesions, but symptomatic lesions that bleed recurrently should be treated. The natural course of intramedullary cavernous angioma remains unknown and arguments have been raised against the surgical treatment of symptomatic lesions. We reviewed the clinical features of 13 intramedullary cavernous angiomas in 12 patients surgically treated between 1988 and 2009. The 7 men and 5 women were aged from 14 to 60 years, the preoperative interval ranged from 0 to 161 months, and the mean number of hemorrhages in the 13 lesions was 2.5. Sixteen operations were performed to treat the 13 lesions. The surgical approach depended on the lesion location. The outcome of patients with mild to moderate preoperative symptoms (McCormick grades I-III) was significantly better than that of patients with severe symptoms (McCormick grade IV) (p<0.05). Symptomatic intramedullary cavernous angioma tends to bleed repeatedly. The lesion should be surgically removed to avoid further deterioration due to recurrent hemorrhages. The shortest path approach should be selected based on preoperative images and complete removal should be attempted. Residual lesion may be masked by surrounding gliosis, so careful postoperative follow up is necessary. (author)

  15. Detection of cavernous transformation of the portal vein by contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Misun; Thimm, Matthew A; Guerrerio, Anthony L

    2018-06-01

    Cavernous transformation of the portal vein can be missed on color Doppler exam or arterial phase cross-sectional imaging due to their slow flow and delayed enhancement. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) offers many advantages over other imaging techniques and can be used to successfully detect cavernous transformations of the portal vein. A 10-month-old female was followed for repeat episodes of hematemesis. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance arteriogram (MRA) and portal venography were performed. Color Doppler exam of the portal vein was performed followed by administration of Lumason, a microbubble US contrast agent. Magnetic resonance arteriogram, CTA, and color Doppler exam at the time of initial presentation was unremarkable without obvious vascular malformation within the limits of motion degraded exam. At 8-month follow-up, esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a vascular malformation in the distal esophagus which was sclerosed. At 6 month after sclerosis of the lesion, portal venography revealed occlusion of the portal vein with extensive collateralization. Color Doppler revealed subtle hyperarterialization and periportal collaterals. CEUS following color Doppler exam demonstrated extensive enhancement of periportal collaterals. Repeat color Doppler after contrast administration demonstrated extensive Doppler signal in the collateral vessels, suggestive of cavernous transformation. We describe a case of cavernous transformation of the portal vein missed on initial color Doppler, CTA and MRA, but detected with contrast-enhanced ultrasound technique.

  16. Roentgenological investigation of cavernous sinus structure with special reference to paracavernous cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuha, M.; Aoki, H.; Okamura, T.

    1987-01-01

    We have evaluated the anatomical structure of cavernous sinuses in parasellar blocks obtained from adult cadavers to gain clinically useful information. Ten microdissectional studies of parasellar blocks (20 sides of cavernous sinus) were carried out with special emphasis on the course of paracavernous cranial nerves (3rd to 6th). These were also examined on plain radiographs. Secondly, CT investigations of the cavernous sinuses (notably as to paracavernous cranial nerves) were undertaken in twenty clinical cases having presumed parasellar lesions and in three parasellar blocks from cadavers. The results from microdisectional studies and plain radiographs were as follows. It was found that the 3rd cranial nerve entered the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus close to the antero-inferior part of the posterior clinoid on lateral projection. The 4th cranial nerve, on the other hand, entered near the postero-inferior portion of the posterior clinoid on the same view. Variations in Parkinson's triangle were fairly often noted, although marked asymmetry was not seen in individual cases. From CT findings, it was found that a postenhanced, magnified direct coronal study was essential for identifying paracavernous cranial nerves more clearly. The 3rd and 5th cranial nerves were fairly well identified on axial and coronal projections. Careful radiological investigation including plain skull radiographs and CT seems to be of value for those who diagnose or treat parasellar lesions. (orig.)

  17. Arteriovenous Malformation in Temporal Lobe Presenting as Contralateral Ocular Symptoms Mimicking Carotid-Cavernous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadzillah Mohd-Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To report a rare case of arteriovenous malformation in temporal lobe presenting as contralateral orbital symptoms mimicking carotid-cavernous fistula. Method. Interventional case report. Results. A 31-year-old Malay gentleman presented with 2-month history of painful progressive exophthalmos of his left eye associated with recurrent headache, diplopia, and reduced vision. Ocular examination revealed congestive nonpulsating 7 mm exophthalmos of the left eye with no restriction of movements in all direction. There was diplopia in left lateral gaze. Left IOP was elevated at 29 mmHg. Left eye retinal vessels were slightly dilated and tortuous. CT scan was performed and showed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with a nidus of 3.8 cm × 2.5 cm with right middle cerebral artery as feeding artery. There was dilated left superior ophthalmic vein of 0.9 mm in diameter with enlarged left cavernous sinus. MRA and carotid angiogram confirmed right temporal arteriovenous malformation with no carotid-cavernous fistula. Most of the intracranial drainage was via left cavernous sinus. His signs and symptoms dramatically improved following successful embolisation, completely resolved after one year. Conclusion. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation is rarely presented with primary ocular presentation. Early intervention would salvage the eyes and prevent patients from more disaster morbidity or fatality commonly due to intracranial haemorrhage.

  18. Derivation and application of an analytical rock displacement solution on rectangular cavern wall using the inverse mapping method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhong Gao

    Full Text Available Rectangular caverns are increasingly used in underground engineering projects, the failure mechanism of rectangular cavern wall rock is significantly different as a result of the cross-sectional shape and variations in wall stress distributions. However, the conventional computational method always results in a long-winded computational process and multiple displacement solutions of internal rectangular wall rock. This paper uses a Laurent series complex method to obtain a mapping function expression based on complex variable function theory and conformal transformation. This method is combined with the Schwarz-Christoffel method to calculate the mapping function coefficient and to determine the rectangular cavern wall rock deformation. With regard to the inverse mapping concept, the mapping relation between the polar coordinate system within plane ς and a corresponding unique plane coordinate point inside the cavern wall rock is discussed. The disadvantage of multiple solutions when mapping from the plane to the polar coordinate system is addressed. This theoretical formula is used to calculate wall rock boundary deformation and displacement field nephograms inside the wall rock for a given cavern height and width. A comparison with ANSYS numerical software results suggests that the theoretical solution and numerical solution exhibit identical trends, thereby demonstrating the method's validity. This method greatly improves the computing accuracy and reduces the difficulty in solving for cavern boundary and internal wall rock displacements. The proposed method provides a theoretical guide for controlling cavern wall rock deformation failure.

  19. When soils become sediments: Large-scale storage of soils in sandpits and lakes and the impact of reduction kinetics on heavy metals and arsenic release to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Jos P M; van Zomeren, Andre; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J

    2017-08-01

    Simulating the storage of aerobic soils under water, the chemical speciation of heavy metals and arsenic was studied over a long-term reduction period. Time-dynamic and redox-discrete measurements in reactors were used to study geochemical changes. Large kinetic differences in the net-complexation quantities of heavy metals with sulfides was observed, and elevated pore water concentrations remained for a prolonged period (>1 year) specifically for As, B, Ba, Co, Mo, and Ni. Arsenic is associated to the iron phases as a co-precipitate or sorbed fraction to Fe-(hydr)oxides, and it is being released into solution as a consequence of the reduction of iron. The composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in reducing pore water was monitored, and relative contributions of fulvic, humic and hydrophylic compounds were measured via analytical batch procedures. Quantitative and qualitative shifts in organic compounds occur during reduction; DOM increased up to a factor 10, while fulvic acids become dominant over humic acids which disappear altogether as reduction progresses. Both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions increase and may even become the dominant fraction. Reactive amorphous and crystalline iron phases, as well as dissolved FeII/FeIII speciation, were measured and used as input for the geochemical model to improve predictions for risk assessment to suboxic and anaerobic environments. The release of arsenic is related to readily reducible iron fractions that may be identified by 1 mM CaCl 2 extraction procedure. Including DOM concentration shifts and compositional changes during reduction significantly improved model simulations, enabling the prediction of peak concentrations and identification of soils with increased emission risk. Practical methods are suggested to facilitate the practice of environmentally acceptable soil storage under water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occipital lobe infarction: a rare presentation of bilateral giant cavernous carotid aneurysms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanikieti, Kavin; Poonyathalang, Anuchit; Jindahra, Panitha; Cheecharoen, Piyaphon; Chokthaweesak, Wimonwan

    2018-02-02

    Cavernous carotid aneurysm (CCA) represents 2-9% of all intracranial aneurysms and 15% of internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms; additionally, giant aneurysms are those aneurysms that are > 25 mm in size. Bilateral CCAs account for 11-29% of patients and are commonly associated with structural weaknesses in the ICA wall, secondary to systemic hypertension. CCAs are considered benign lesions, given the low risk for developing major neurologic morbidities (i.e., subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, or carotid cavernous fistula). Moreover, concurrent presentation with posterior circulation cerebral infarction is even rarer, given different circulation territory from CCA. Here, we report on a patient with bilateral giant CCAs who presented with both typical and atypical symptoms. An 88-year-old hypertensive woman presented with acute vertical oblique binocular diplopia, followed by complete ptosis of the right eye. Ophthalmic examination showed dysfunction of the right third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves. Further examination revealed hypesthesia of the areas supplied by the ophthalmic (V1) and maxillary (V2) branches of the right trigeminal nerve. Bilateral giant cavernous carotid aneurysms, with a concurrent subacute right occipital lobe infarction, were discovered on brain imaging and angiogram. Additionally, a prominent right posterior communicating artery (PCOM) was revealed. Seven months later, clinical improvement with stable radiographic findings was documented without any intervention. Dysfunction of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves, and the ophthalmic (V 1 ) and maxillary (V 2 ) branches of the trigeminal nerves, should necessitate brain imaging, with special attention given to the cavernous sinus. Despite unilateral symptomatic presentation, bilateral lesions cannot be excluded solely on the basis of clinical findings. CCA should be included in the differential diagnosis of cavernous sinus lesions. Although rare, ipsilateral

  1. Endovascular management of dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas in 141 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, M. [Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Greifswald, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Greifswald (Germany); Henkes, H.; Liebig, T.; Weber, W.; Golik, S.; Kuehne, D. [Alfried Krupp Krankenhaus, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Esser, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Zentrum fuer Augenheilkunde, Essen (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the single-centre experience with transvenous coil treatment of dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas. Methods: Between November 1991 and December 2005, a total of 141 patients (112 female) with dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistula underwent 161 transvenous treatment sessions. The patient files and angiograms were analysed retrospectively. Clinical signs and symptoms included chemosis (94%), exophthalmos (87%), cranial nerve palsy (54%), increased intraocular pressure (60%), diplopia (51%), and impaired vision (28%). Angiography revealed in addition cortical drainage in 34% of the patients. Partial arterial embolization was carried out in 23% of the patients. Transvenous treatment comprised in by far the majority of patients complete filling of the cavernous sinus and the adjacent segment of the superior and inferior ophthalmic vein with detachable coils. Complete interruption of the arteriovenous shunt was achieved in 81% of the patients. A minor residual shunt (without cortical or ocular drainage) remained in 13%, a significant residual shunt (with cortical or ocular drainage) remained in 4%, and the attempted treatment failed in 2%. There was a tendency for ocular pressure-related symptoms to resolve rapidly, while cranial nerve palsy and diplopia improved slowly (65%) or did not change (11%). The 39 patients with visual impairment recovered within the first 2 weeks after endovascular treatment. After complete interruption of the arteriovenous shunt, no recurrence was observed. The transvenous coil occlusion of the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins and the cavernous sinus of the symptomatic eye is a highly efficient and safe treatment in dural carotid-cavernous sinus fistulas. In the majority of patients a significant and permanent improvement in clinical signs and symptoms can be achieved. (orig.)

  2. Researches on the CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin Hee Soon; Kang, Sang Soo; Kwon, Kwang Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    CAES which is called as a compressed air energy storage was firstly developed at Huntorf, German in 1978. The capacity of that system was 290 MW, and it can be treated as a first commercial power plant. CAES has a lot of merits, such as saving the unit price of power generation, averaging the peak demand, improvement of maintenance, enlarging the benefit of dynamic use. According to the literature survey, the unlined rock cavern should be proposed to be a reasonable storing style as a method of compressed air storage in Korea. In this study, the most important techniques were evaluated through the investigation of the foreign construction case studies, especially on the unlined rock caverns in hard rock mass. We decided the hill of the Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and materials as CAES site. If we construct the underground spaces in this site, the demand for electricity nearby Taejon should be considered. So we could determine the capacity of the power plant as a 350 MW. This capacity needs a underground space of 200,000 m{sup 3}, and we can conclude 4 parallel tunnels through the numerical studies. Design parameters were achieved from 300 m depth boring job and image processing job. Moreover the techniques for determination of joint characteristics from the images could be obtained. Blasting pattern was designed on the underground spaces, and automatic gas control system and thermomechanical characteristics on caverns were also studied. (author). 51 refs., 79 tabs., 114 figs.

  3. Gas Storage in Europe, recent developments and outlook to 2035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy

    2015-01-01

    These slides present: the European gas storage market in 2014 (Review of 2014 trends, Current challenges, Role of storage); the Outlook to 2035 (Supply/Demand factors, Estimated Storage needs, Project backlog). In conclusion: an over capacity is expected until 2025.Supply and demand evolution, market liberalization and environmental constraints on coal will drive a new period of growth for UGS. Cedigaz estimates that European UGS capacity will increase by around 45 bcm by 2035. UGS projects represent 77 bcm Of which 22 bcm is under construction, there is a majority of salt-cavern projects (market liberalization), not so much new seasonal storage (security of supply?), not all planned storage will be built (Projects under competition for the same (regional) market, the situation is quite contrasted between NW Europe and South-Southeast Europe (and UK)). The challenges are the investment and the security of supply

  4. Large and stable reversible lithium-ion storages from mesoporous SnO2 nanosheets with ultralong lifespan over 1000 cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Jinxue; Xie, Yaping; Tang, Lin

    2014-12-01

    The major challenge to promote the commercialization of SnO2 anode materials is to construct unique structures and/or composites that could alleviate the volume effect and extend the lifespan. This study develops an efficient synthetic solution for the preparation of mesoporous SnO2 nanosheets, which involves an evaporation-induced selfassembly process and the following thermal treatment. Surfactant F127 is used as the soft template to form abundant cores. The as-prepared sample intrinsically inherits flexible sheet-like structure and porous features, as characterized with XRD, SEM, TEM and BET techniques. Based on these combining structural benefits, the sample is utilized as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries and exhibits excellent Li+ storage performance such as large and stable reversible capacity, good rate capability, and especially the outstanding durable cycling life of over 1000 cycles, which meets the demands of practical applications. The structural changes of SnO2 nanosheets are observed from the decomposed electrodes after different electrochemical cycles. Moreover, this synthesis strategy may offer an alternative and universal approach for synthesis of other transitional metal oxides or their binary composites as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  5. The Management of Large Components from Decommissioning to Storage and Disposal. A Report of the Task Group on Large Components of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    During the decommissioning operations of a nuclear facility or during the maintenance activities of an operating nuclear facility, dismantled components may either be segmented (i.e., reduced in size) in order to put the pieces in standardised containers or removed as single or multiple large pieces for treatment or transportation to a disposal facility. Both options have been used and experience exists in most countries with mature nuclear programmes. The considerations and criteria leading to such decisions are multifaceted and include both legal and regulatory aspects dealing notably with transportation, disposal and waste-acceptance criteria (WAC), as well as the availability and acceptance of sized transport containers and dose limits. The final management option may not be selected solely by the decommissioning entity. In any case, radioactive waste will be generated and will need to be processed through a sequence of operations, including deconstruction, conditioning, extraction, short- or long-term storage on site, transport conditioning, transportation to a waste management facility that may be a storage facility, a treatment facility or a disposal facility. The different actors involved play a significant role in choosing the most relevant management option throughout the entire process, since a single option may not be the most appropriate for every stage of the process. If the removal of large pieces raises very complex transportation issues, for instance, it may be preferable to cut components into smaller pieces; in some cases, the disposal of large components may also generate an unacceptable or less than optimal capacity of the repository. For such reasons, integration is required throughout the entire project. The proposed management option for large components should be described in the facility's decommissioning plan and should explain why a particular option was selected. In choosing the proposed option, the decommissioning organisation needs to

  6. Successful Transarterial Embolization of a Posttraumatic Fistula Between a Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm and the Cavernous Sinus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinbo, Yin; Jun, Liu; Kejie, Mou; Zheng, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm-cavernous sinus fistulae are an extremely rare complication of head injury . The treatment of PCoA aneurysm-cavernous sinus fistulae has not been well described. A 27-year-old man was admitted with a retroocular bruit and blurred vision of the left eye seven months after a severe head injury. We report the angiographic appearance of a posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm with a fistula to the cavernous sinus. This injury had been previously misinterpreted to be a PCoA aneurysm by computerized tomographic angiography (CTA). The patient was successfully treated with coils and Onyx of a fistula between the PCoA aneurysm and cavernous sinus.

  7. Use of Synthetic Nerve Grafts to Restore Cavernous Nerve Function Following Prostate Cancer Surgery: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Konety, Badrinath R

    2006-01-01

    .... Schwann cell and neurona stem cells en neurite growth are being investigated. Tubulized sheets of the polymer with and without those factors/cells have been used to microsurgically replace resected cavernous nerve...

  8. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  9. Virtual Reality Model of the Three-Dimensional Anatomy of the Cavernous Sinus Based on a Cadaveric Image and Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zeng-Hui; Feng, Xu; Li, Yang; Tang, Ke

    2018-01-01

    Studying the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the cavernous sinus is essential for treating lesions in this region with skull base surgeries. Cadaver dissection is a conventional method that has insurmountable flaws with regard to understanding spatial anatomy. The authors' research aimed to build an image model of the cavernous sinus region in a virtual reality system to precisely, individually and objectively elucidate the complete and local stereo-anatomy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on 5 adult cadaver heads. Latex mixed with contrast agent was injected into the arterial system and then into the venous system. Computed tomography scans were performed again following the 2 injections. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed again after the cranial nerves were exposed. Image data were input into a virtual reality system to establish a model of the cavernous sinus. Observation results of the image models were compared with those of the cadaver heads. Visualization of the cavernous sinus region models built using the virtual reality system was good for all the cadavers. High resolutions were achieved for the images of different tissues. The observed results were consistent with those of the cadaver head. The spatial architecture and modality of the cavernous sinus were clearly displayed in the 3D model by rotating the model and conveniently changing its transparency. A 3D virtual reality model of the cavernous sinus region is helpful for globally and objectively understanding anatomy. The observation procedure was accurate, convenient, noninvasive, and time and specimen saving.

  10. 27 Febuary 2012 - US DoE Associate Director of Science for High Energy Physics J. Siegrist visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with adviser J.-P. Koutchouk and engineer M. Bajko; in CMS experimental cavern with Spokesperson J. Incadela;in ATLAS experimental cavern with Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford; in ALICE experimental cavern with Spokesperson P. Giubellino; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Egli

    2012-01-01

    27 Febuary 2012 - US DoE Associate Director of Science for High Energy Physics J. Siegrist visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with adviser J.-P. Koutchouk and engineer M. Bajko; in CMS experimental cavern with Spokesperson J. Incadela;in ATLAS experimental cavern with Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford; in ALICE experimental cavern with Spokesperson P. Giubellino; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

  11. Cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis related to dental infection--two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hiroaki; Ogata, Atsushi; Kosugi, Masafumi; Takashima, Hiroshi; Sakata, Shuji; Matsushima, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Two cases of cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis (CST) caused by dental infection are described. A 64-year-old woman presented with palsies of the left oculomotor and trochlear nerves after tooth extraction for dental caries in the left maxilla. A 54-year-old man presented with palsy of the left trochlear nerve, sensory disturbance in the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the left trigeminal nerve, ptosis, proptosis, and chemosis after dental treatment for caries and periodontitis in the left maxilla. In both patients, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast medium showed non-enhanced lesions within the left cavernous sinus and dilation of the superior ophthalmic veins, which indicated CST. These conditions were resolved by administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics. CST is rare but lethal, so prompt diagnosis is crucial, and immediate appropriate treatment is essential.

  12. The primary study of fistulae isolation for difficult-cured traumatic carotid cavernous by two accesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ziliang; Li Tianxiao; Zhai Shuiting; Cao Huicun; Xu Jiangyu; Bai Weixing; Liu Jian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and security of the isolation of fistulae for difficult-cured traumatic carotid cavernous by the anterio or inferior communicating artery. Methods: Five patients with difficult-cured TCCF including four males and one female. They were cathetered by both femoral arteries. Balloon-catheter directly attached to the near of fistulae and microcatheter conversely attached to the far of fistulae. Detachable balloons and micro coils were used to isolated the fistulae. Results: Five patients were cured with fistulae isolation and angiography did not show remnants fistulae in time. Clinical signs and symptoms got better and better. During follows-up no one recurred. Conclusions: The isolation of fistulae is a feasible and secure therapy for the difficult-cured traumatic direct carotid cavernous fistulae. (authors)

  13. Delayed massive epistaxis from traumatic cavernous carotid false aneurysms: A report of two unusual cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankahla, Ncedile; LeFeuvre, David; Taylor, Allan

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Blunt head trauma can injure the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA). This may result in a carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). Rarely, a traumatic aneurysm may bleed medially causing massive epistaxis. Case presentation We present two cases of traumatic intracavernous carotid pseudoaneurysms with delayed massive epistaxis. The patients were managed with endovascular treatment involving coil embolization with parent vessel sparing and detachable balloon occlusion with carotid sacrifice. Early clinical outcome was good in both patients. Wherever possible, the CARE 1 guidelines were followed in the reporting. Conclusion These cases illustrate the delayed nature of traumatic aneurysms and the need for a high index of suspicion in the presence of skull base fractures. The use of endovascular detachable balloon occlusion and coil embolization treatment with parent vessel preservation is shown.

  14. Monitoring of the storage facility Asse II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regenauer, Urban; Wittwer, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    The storage facility Asse II is former salt mine near Wolfenbuettel in Niedersachsen. From 1967 to 1978 totally 125787 barrels with low-and medium-level radioactive wastes were disposed in the salt cavern. Since 1988 ingress of saturated brines from the adjoining rocks were observed in the mine. An extensive monitoring concept was installed for the surveillance of possible radionuclides released with the mine air into the surrounding. The report is aimed to n describe the actual situation in the salt mine Asse II with special emphasis to the monitoring concept. The discussion is based on the history of the storage facility that was primarily a research mine. Furthermore a regional accompanying process is described that was created in 2007.

  15. Endoscopic management of Atypical sellar cavernous hemangioma: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sharydah

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Seller cavernous hemangioma (SCH is an extremely rare lesion that can be misdiagnosed. It is characterized by clinico-radiological features similar to those of other lesions such as pituitary macroadenoma and should be included in the differential diagnosis. The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal (EET approach with subtotal/total resection appears to be a feasible option for debulking, with less surgical complications. Nonetheless, combining stereotactic radiosurgery will reduce postsurgical morbidities.

  16. A cavernous haemangioma of breast in male: radiological-pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreira, C.; Romero, C.; Urbasos, M.; Pinto, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Francisco, J.M. de

    2001-01-01

    Vascular tumours of the breast are especially rare in men, and a majority of them are angiosarcomas. In fact, we found only four cases of haemangioma in males in the literature. We present a case of cavernous haemangioma in a male aged 48 years, and which commenced as a palpable mass. We performed differential diagnosis and radiological-pathological correlation. We established the correct classification of this case histologically, and decided on the definitive therapeutic approach. (orig.)

  17. Cavernous sinus thrombosis following dental extraction: a rare case report and forgotten entity

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Karun; Rastogi, Sanjay; Joshi, Atul; Kumar, Ashish; Chaurasia, Archana; Prakash, Rajat

    2017-01-01

    Prior to the advent of efficacious antimicrobial agents, the mortality rate from cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) was effectively 100%. There have been very few reports of CST associated with tooth extraction. A 40-year-old female presented to the emergency room with swelling over the right side of the face and history of extraction in the upper right region by an unregistered dental practitioner. The patient presented with diplopia, periorbital ecchymosis, and chemosis of the right eye. A co...

  18. First DT+RPC chambers installation round in the UX5 cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2007-01-01

    DT+RPC packages corresponding to sectors 1 and 7 of the barrel region cannot be installed on surface, since the lowering gantry from SX5 to UX5 uses their gaps to hold the wheels. Therefore this installation has to be carried out in the cavern. These pictures illustrate the first installation round on YB+2 right after the lowering. A total of 8 chambers were successfully installed in 2 days.

  19. Results of stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with imaging defined cavernous sinus meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, Bruce E.; Stafford, Scott L.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery as primary management for patients with imaging defined cavernous sinus meningiomas. Methods: Between 1992 and 2001, 49 patients had radiosurgery for dural-based masses of the cavernous sinus presumed to be meningiomas. The mean patient age was 55.5 years. The mean tumor volume was 10.2 mL; the mean tumor margin dose was 15.9 Gy. The mean follow-up was 58 months (range, 16-144 months). Results: No tumor enlarged after radiosurgery. Twelve of 38 patients (26%) with preexisting diplopia or facial numbness/pain had improvement in cranial nerve function. Five patients (10%) had new (n = 3) or worsened (n = 2) trigeminal dysfunction; 2 of these patients (4%) underwent surgery at 20 and 25 months after radiosurgery despite no evidence of tumor progression. Neither patient improved after partial tumor resection. One patient (2%) developed an oculomotor nerve injury. One patient (2%) had an ischemic stroke related to occlusion of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. Event-free survival was 98%, 85%, and 80% at 1, 3, and 7 years after radiosurgery, respectively. Univariate analysis of patient and dosimetric factors found no analyzed factor correlated with postradiosurgical morbidity. Conclusions: Radiosurgery was an effective primary management strategy for patients with an imaging defined cavernous sinus meningioma. Except in situations of symptomatic mass effect, unusual clinical presentation, or atypical imaging features, surgery to confirm the histologic diagnosis is unlikely to provide clinical benefit

  20. Computer-aided evaluation of waste disposal cavern construction methods. ISBN 3-9801713-0-2.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knissel, W.; Fahlbusch, M.

    1991-01-01

    The disposal of hazardous radioactive and toxic wastes in deep geological formations is considered the safest solution in many countries. The Federal Republic of Germany prefers salt formations for underground disposal on account of the special advantages of the rock salt. Calculation methods are presented for the mathematical description of mining techniques for the construction of waste disposal salt caverns. The developed calculation model allows one to evaluate different construction methods with regard to expenses and time. (orig./DG) [de

  1. MRI findings of cavernous hemangioma of the uterus: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ok Hwa; Park, Young Mi; Jeng, Hae Woong; Lee, Sun Joo; Eun, Choong Gi; Choi, Su Im; Kim, Gi Tae [College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    Hemangioma is the most common soft tissue tumor in the body. Though it may occur anywhere in the body, hemangioma of the uterus is a very rare tumor. Hemangioma is almost asymptomatic, but it is sometimes clinically important because it can cause massive hemorrhage and this is a life-threatening condition. We report here on the magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic findings of cavernous hemangioma of the uterus in a 32-year-woman with menorrhagia.

  2. Stochastic energy procurement of large electricity consumer considering photovoltaic, wind-turbine, micro-turbines, energy storage system in the presence of demand response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Aalami, Habib allah

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A stochastic energy procurement cost function in presence of DRP is proposed. • The load, price and output power of PV and wind uncertainties are modeled. • Four case studies are used to assess the effects of ESS and DRP on SEPP. • Case 4 is considered the effects of ESS and DRP simultaneously. • The expected energy procurement cost of case 4 is lower than cases 1, 2 and 3. - Abstract: This paper proposes a stochastic energy procurement problem (SEPP) for large electricity consumer (LEC) with multiple energy procurement sources (EPSs) considering the effects of demand response program (DRP) and energy storage system (ESS). The EPSs contain power market (PM), bilateral contracts (BCs), micro-turbines (MTs), and renewable energy sources (RESs). Moreover, the RESs include photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind-turbines (WT). The ESS and DRP are incorporated in the SEPP by the LEC’s decision-maker to reduce the expected energy procurement cost (EEPC). Meanwhile, the uncertainty models of market price, load and RES output power are considered in the SEPP formulation. The error of forecasting of market price, load, temperature and radiation of PV systems are modeled using the normal distribution for generating the related scenarios. Also, the weibull distribution is used to generate variable wind speed scenarios for WT output power uncertainty modeling. Furthermore, the fast forward selection based on Kantorovich distance approach is used for the scenarios reduction. Finally, the influences of ESS and DRP on EEPC are investigated, and four case studies are used to illustrate the capability of the proposed SEPP. The obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed stochastic program

  3. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  4. Role of fractionated radiotherapy in patients with hemangioma of the cavernous sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Min; Yoon, Sang Min; Lee, Su Min; Park, Jin Hong; Song, Si Yeol; Lee, Sang Wook; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We performed this retrospective study to investigate the outcomes of patients with hemangioma of the cavernous sinus after fractionated radiotherapy. We analyzed 10 patients with hemangioma of the cavernous sinus who were treated with conventional radiotherapy between January 2000 and December 2016. The median patient age was 54 years (range, 31–65 years), and 8 patients (80.0%) were female. The mean hemangioma volume was 34.1 cm{sup 3} (range, 6.8–83.2 cm{sup 3}), and fractionated radiation was administered to a total dose of 50–54 Gy with a daily dose of 2 Gy. The median follow-up period was 6.8 years (range, 2.2–8.8 years). At last follow-up, the volume of the tumor had decreased in all patients. The average tumor volume reduction rate from the initial volume was 72.9% (range, 18.9–95.3%). All 10 of the cranial neuropathies observed before radiation therapy had improved, with complete symptomatic remission in 9 cases (90%) and partial remission in 1 case (10%). No new acute neurologic impairments were reported after radiotherapy. One probable compressive optic neuropathy was observed at 1 year after radiotherapy. Fractionated radiotherapy achieves both symptomatic and radiologic improvements. It is a well-tolerated treatment modality for hemangiomas of the cavernous sinus.

  5. The progress and results of a demonstration test of a cavern-type disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Terada, Kenji; Oda, Nobuaki; Yada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    The cavern-type disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW) with relatively high radioactivity levels mainly generated from power reactor decommissioning and for part of transuranic (TRU) waste mainly from spent fuel reprocessing are designed to be constructed in a cavern 50 to 100 meters below ground, and to employ an engineered barrier system (EBS) of a combination of bentonite and cement materials in Japan. In order to advance the feasibility study for these disposal, a government-commissioned research project named Demonstration Test of Cavern-Type Disposal Facility started in fiscal 2005, and since fiscal 2007 a full-scale mock-up test facility has been constructed under actual subsurface environment. The main objective of the test is to establish construction methodology and procedures which ensure the required quality of the EBS on-site. By fiscal 2009 some parts of the facility have been constructed, and the test has demonstrated both practicability of the construction and achievement of the quality. They are respectively taken as low-permeability of less than 5x10 13 m/s and low-diffusivity of less than 1x10 -12 m 2 /s at the time of completion of construction. This paper covers the project outline and the test results obtained by the construction of some parts of a bentonite and cement materials. (author)

  6. Current status of the Demonstration Test of Underground Cavern-Type Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Terada, Kenji; Oda, Nobuaki; Yada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, the underground cavern-type disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW) with relatively high radioactivity, mainly generated from power reactor decommissioning, and for certain transuranic (TRU) waste, mainly from spent fuel reprocessing, are designed to be constructed in a cavern 50-100 m underground and to employ an engineered barrier system (EBS) made of bentonite and cement materials. To advance a disposal feasibility study, the Japanese government commissioned the Demonstration Test of Underground Cavern-Type Disposal Facilities in fiscal year (FY) 2005. Construction of a full-scale mock-up test facility in an actual subsurface environment started in FY 2007. The main test objective is to establish the construction methodology and procedures that ensure the required quality of the EBS on-site. A portion of the facility was constructed by 2010, and the test has demonstrated both the practicability of the construction and the achievement of quality standards: low permeability of less than 5x10 -13 m/s and low-diffusion of less than 1x10 -12 m 2 /s at the completion of construction. This paper covers the test results from the construction of certain parts using bentonite and cement materials. (author)

  7. Role of fractionated radiotherapy in patients with hemangioma of the cavernous sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Min; Yoon, Sang Min; Lee, Su Min; Park, Jin Hong; Song, Si Yeol; Lee, Sang Wook; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2017-01-01

    We performed this retrospective study to investigate the outcomes of patients with hemangioma of the cavernous sinus after fractionated radiotherapy. We analyzed 10 patients with hemangioma of the cavernous sinus who were treated with conventional radiotherapy between January 2000 and December 2016. The median patient age was 54 years (range, 31–65 years), and 8 patients (80.0%) were female. The mean hemangioma volume was 34.1 cm"3 (range, 6.8–83.2 cm"3), and fractionated radiation was administered to a total dose of 50–54 Gy with a daily dose of 2 Gy. The median follow-up period was 6.8 years (range, 2.2–8.8 years). At last follow-up, the volume of the tumor had decreased in all patients. The average tumor volume reduction rate from the initial volume was 72.9% (range, 18.9–95.3%). All 10 of the cranial neuropathies observed before radiation therapy had improved, with complete symptomatic remission in 9 cases (90%) and partial remission in 1 case (10%). No new acute neurologic impairments were reported after radiotherapy. One probable compressive optic neuropathy was observed at 1 year after radiotherapy. Fractionated radiotherapy achieves both symptomatic and radiologic improvements. It is a well-tolerated treatment modality for hemangiomas of the cavernous sinus

  8. Preoperative diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma: a 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Luca; Borsari, Giulia; Pichierri, Patrizia; Polito, Ennio; Toscano, Olga; Grassetto, Gaia; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Rubello, Domenico; Vattimo, Angelo Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to describe 99mTc-labeled RBC scintigraphy as a diagnostic method for orbital cavernous hemangiomas and to evaluate this diagnostic tool according to surgical outcomes. Fifty-five patients with clinical and radiological (US, CT, and/or MRI) suspicion of unilateral cavernous hemangioma of the orbit underwent 99mTc-RBC SPECT study.Qualitative and semiquantitative evaluations were performed, and results were statistically analyzed. SPECT images showed focal uptake in the orbital mass in 36 of 55 patients. Nineteen patients had a negative scintigraphic pattern, with concordance of early and late absence of uptake of 99mTc-RBC.Our procedure showed 100% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for the diagnosis of orbital cavernous hemangioma, with a positive predictive value of 90.9% and a negative predictive value of 100%. 99mTc-RBC imaging is safe, easy to perform, and highly accurate in providing adequate clinical and surgical management. As a noninvasive and highly specific method for diagnosing orbital hemangioma, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy can avoid more invasive imaging or biopsy.

  9. Simulation of concrete deterioration in Finnish rock cavern conditions for final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kari, O.P.; Puttonen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concrete deterioration in Finnish rock cavern disposal conditions was simulated. • Simulation requires advanced models instead of traditional linear diffusion models. • Concrete analysed performed moderately during the period of 500 years. • Corrosion of steel reinforcement cannot be excluded during the period analysed. - Abstract: A simulation of concrete ageing in Finnish rock cavern disposal conditions showed that the concrete undergoes complex deterioration processes during the period required for lowering the level of radiation. In respect of the concrete ageing, the life time of the disposal facilities shall be divided into the periods before and after the closing of the caverns. Generally, the sulphate-resistant type of concrete analysed performed moderately during the analysed period of 500 years contrary to the corrosion of steel reinforcement, which cannot be excluded. Simulation of ageing clearly requires thermodynamical methods instead of linear diffusion models based on Fick’s law, which are traditionally used in construction industry. The study proves that the thermodynamical simulation method developed with adequate experimental data also makes it possible to observe latent factors of concrete deterioration

  10. RESISTANCE OF KARST CAVERNS NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA TO EXTREME FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashyrev O. B.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the studied bacteria resistance quantitative parameters of extreme factors such as toxic metals (Cu2+, organic xenobiotics (p-nitrochlorobenzene and UV-irradiation were the aim of the research. Six strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from clays of two caverns Mushkarova Yama (Podolia, Ukraine and Kuybyshevskaya (Western Caucasus, Abkhazia and Azotobacter vinelandii УКМ В-6017 as a reference strain have been tested. For this purpose the maximum permissible concentration of Cu2+ and p-nitrochlorobenzene in the concentration gradient and lethal doses of UV by the survival caverns have been determined. Maximum permissible concentrations for strains were as 10 ppm Cu2+, 70–120 ppm of p-nitrochlorobenzene. The maximum doses of UV-irradiation varied in the range of 55–85 J/m2 (LD99.99. It is shown that three classes of extreme factors resistance parameters of karst caverns strains are similar to the strain of terrestrial soil ecosystems. The most active studied strains reduce the concentration of p-nitrochlorobenzene in the medium in 13 times. The ability of nitrogen-fixing bacteria to degrade p-nitrochlorobenzene could be used in creation new environmental biotechnology for industrial wastewater treatment from nitrochloroaromatic xenobiotics. Isolated strains could be used as destructors for soils bioremediation in agrobiotechnologies and to optimize plants nitrogen nutrition in terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. Rhino-orbitocerebral mucormycosis associated with cavernous sinus thrombosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haber, Daniel Martiniano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection caused by Mucorales fungi, and the Rhizopus is the most common one (70% of the cases. It is an acute invasive fungal disease whose form is disseminated, cutaneous, pulmonary, gastrointestinal and rhino-orbitocerebral. The latter is the most common form and its symptoms comprise of unilateral sinusitis, fever and headache. Once established in the orbit the symptoms can be chemosis, diplopia and reduced vision. The infection can spread to the brain via the orbital apex, orbital arteries or via the cribriform plate. Mucormycosis is a medical emergency and the treatment consists of a surgery to an aggressive debridement and in the use of antifungal therapy. Despite the appropriate management, the mortality rate can reach 40% of the cases. One possible intracranial complication of Mucormycosis is the Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis which is a rare and fatal infective disease. The initial symptoms of Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis are headache, retro-orbital pain, periorbital edema, proptosis, diplopia and reduced vision. Case Report: We describe the case of 43-year-old woman with medical history of diabetes mellitus and use of immunosuppressant drugs after kidney transplantation. The patient developed Acute Bacterial Sinusitis and Rhino-orbitocerebral Mucormycosis associated with Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic carotid cavernous fistula combined with sphenoid sinus pseudoaneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huairui; Bai Rulin; Huang Chengguang; Hu Guohan; Luo Chun; Yuan Guoliang; Lu Yicheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic carotid cavernous fistula combined with sphenoid sinus pseudoaneurysm. Methods: Interventional diagnosed and treated 6 eases of traumatid carotid cavernous fistula combined with sphenoid sinus pseudoaneurysm. Results: 5 patients presented with recurrent massive epistaxis and symptoms of CCF caused by pseudoaneurysms and fistulas were occluded with detachable balloons and internal carotid arteries were reserved in 2 cases; of which, 1 case also had indirect carotid cavernous fistula in contralateral side, embolizated by trans facial vein approach with microcoil. Complete symptoms resolution was achieved in all cases, without procedure related complications. During the follow-up period, all patients returned to their work. Conclusions: Falling from high speed motorcycle without helmet may be one of the main causes of this disease. The site of strike mostly localize at the frontal and lateral aspects of the orbit. MRI scan is very helpful for the diagnosis before receiving angiography. Detachable balloon occlusion for the pseudoaneurysm and fistula is safe and efficient for the treatment. (authors)

  13. Helical CT finding of carotid-cavernous fistula: a sign of early enhancing superior ophthalmic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyung; Na, Dong Gyu; Byun, Hong Sik; Ryoo, Jae Wook

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of a sign of early enhancing superior ophthalmic vein (SOV), as seen on helical CT images in patients with carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF). This study involved 16 patients with CCF and 28 control patients. Axial CT images with scanning delays of 30 seconds following bolus injection of contrast material (90 mL, 3 mL/sec) were obtained, and this procedure was followed by coronal CT imaging. To determine the presence or absence of early enhancement or, dilatation of the SOV, bulging of the cavernous sinus, and enlargement of extraocular muscle, CT images were analysed by three observers in a blinded, random manner. Early enhancement of SOV was determined to be present where enhancement of the SOV was similar to or stronger than that of the ipsilateral posterior cerebral artery. A sign of early enhancing SOV was seen in 14 of the 16 patients with CCF but in no control patients (88% sensitivity and 100% specificity). The respective sensitivity and specificity of other CT features were 71% and 100% (dilatation of the SOV, as seen on axial images), 60% and 83% (dilatation of the SOV, as seen on coronal images), 71% and 89% (dilatation of the cavernous sinus), and 65% and 98% (enlargement of extraocular muscle). A sign of early enhancing SOV is a characteristic and specific CT finding of CCF, and is useful for the diagnosis of CCF. (author)

  14. Intermediate storage facility for vitrified high level waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    An intermediate storage facility for vitrified high level waste is described. The design was made specifically for Swedish conditions but can due to modular design be applied also for other conditions. Most of the plant is located underground with a rock cover of about 30 m in order to provide protection against external forces such as acts of war and sabotage. The storage area consists of four caverns each with 150 pits. Each pit can take 10 waste cylinders of 0.4 m diameter and 1.5 m length containing 150 liters of glass. The capacity can be increased by adding additional caverns. Cooling is obtained by forced air convection. Reception areas, auxiliary systems and operation of the plant are also described

  15. Role of EPI in diagnosing cavernous hemangioma and small HCC : comparison with fast T2-weighted MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Chang Won; Jung, Hyun Woo; Choi, Sang Yoel; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare single-shot echo-planar MR imaging (EPI) with breath-hold fast T2-weighted imaging (HASTE or Turbo spin-echo T2WI) for evaluation of the role of EPI in distinguishing small hepatocellular carcinoma from cavernous hemangioma. We retrospectively evaluated MR images of 35 patients (21 cases of small HCC and 14 cases of cavernous hemangioma). EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI images were obtained and compared on the basis of lesion detection sensitivity, lesion-to-liver signal intensity ratio (SIR), contrast ratio (CR), and lesion-to-liver contrast to noise ratio (CNR). For the detection of small HCC, the sensitivity of EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI were equal in 14 of 21 cases (71.4%). The detection sensitivity of cavernous hemangioma with EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI was 100 % (14/14). Mean SIR on breath-hold fast T2WI was 2.02 ± 0.45 for small HCC and 3.65 ± 0.97 for cavernous hemangioma; on EPI, the corresponding figures were 2.91 ± 0.57 for cavernous hemangioma; On EPI, the figures obtained were 2.27 ± 0.52 and 6.26 ± 2.19, respectively. Mean CNR on breath-hold fast T2WI was 14.24 ± 4.098 for small HCC and 50.28 ± 10.96 for cavernous hemangioma, while on EPI, the corresponding figures were 13.84 ± 3.02 and 45.44 ± 11.21. In detecting focal hepatic mass, the sensitivity of EPI and breath-hold fast T2WI are comparable for the diagnosis of small HCC and cavernous hemangioma, EPI can provided additional information. (author). 20 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Experimental and modeling analysis of thermal runaway propagation over the large format energy storage battery module with Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Peifeng; Ping, Ping; Li, Ke; Chen, Haodong; Wang, Qingsong; Wen, Jennifer; Sun, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The heat generation and gas production of four main thermal-chemical reactions are detected. • The fire-impingement takes an unordinary thermal runaway propagation for battery module. • There is a “smoldering period” before the explosion of lithium ion battery module. • Semenov and Frank-Kamenetskii models are used to analysis and predict the onset of runaway. - Abstract: Insight of the thermal characteristics and potential flame spread over lithium-ion battery (LIB) modules is important for designing battery thermal management system and fire protection measures. Such thermal characteristics and potential flame spread are also dependent on the different anode and cathode materials as well as the electrolyte. In the present study, thermal behavior and flame propagation over seven 50 A h Li(Ni_1_/_3Mn_1_/_3Co_1_/_3)O_2/Li_4Ti_5O_1_2 large format LIBs arranged in rhombus and parallel layouts were investigated by directly heating one of the battery units. Such batteries have already been used commercially for energy storage while relatively little is known about its safety features in connection with potential runaway caused fire and explosion hazards. It was found in the present heating tests that fire-impingement resulted in elevated temperatures in the immediate vicinity of the LIBs that were in the range of between 200 °C and 900 °C. Such temperature aggravated thermal runaway (TR) propagation, resulting in rapid temperature rise within the battery module and even explosions after 20 min of “smoldering period”. The thermal runaway and subsequent fire and explosion observed in the heating test was attributed to the violent reduction of the cathode material which coexisted with the electrolyte when the temperature exceeded 260 °C. Separate laboratory tests, which measured the heat and gases generation from samples of the anode and cathode materials using C80 calorimeter, provided insight of the physical-chemistry processes inside the

  17. Batteries in network-independent electric power supply plants. Demands on batteries, storage concepts, lead batteries, load condition, operation management; Batterien in netzfernen Stromversorgungsanlagen. Anforderungen an Batterien, Speicherkonzepte, Bleibatterien, Ladezustand, Betriebsfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, R.; Sauer, D.U. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In principal there are the storage possibilities, which mainly distinguish themselves by the type of energy for storage:1) electric storage; a) supra-conducting ring storage, b) condensers; 2) mechanical storage; a) water high storage, b) flywheels, c) (cavern-) pressurized air storage; 3) electro-chemical storage; a) gas storage systems (with electrolysis or fuel cell unit), b) accumulators with external storage (e.g. FeCR-Redox system), c) accumulators with internal storage (e.g.) Pb/PbO{sub 2}, NiCd). A few electro-chemical storage systems only are economically and technically feasible today. This contribution focuses on these systems, in particular on lead-acid accumulators. An overview of terms, which are often used related to battery storage, can be found at the end. A detailed bibliography is supposed to give the reader specific answers to various questions. (orig.)

  18. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Comparison of Intra-Articular Cavernous Synovial Hemangioma and Cystic Synovial Hyperplasia of the Knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Filippo, M.; Rovani, C.; Sudberry, J. J.; Rossi, F.; Pogliacomi, F.; Zompatori, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, with and without intravenous contrast medium, of cavernous synovial hemangiomas and cystic synovial hyperplasia. Material and Methods: Four cases of cavernous synovial hemangioma and five of cystic synovial hyperplasia of the knee were studied retrospectively. The patients (5 F and 4 M; 15-25 years of age) all had long-standing knee pain. At clinical examination we observed elastic swelling and pain without significant joint effusion. The patients underwent conventional radiography and MRI without and following intravenous contrast medium before arthroscopic biopsy. Results: The radiographs were interpreted as negative in all patients. MRI examination without contrast medium revealed a similar multicystic appearance for both lesions. Following intravenous contrast agent administration, cavernous synovial hemangiomas demonstrated avid, rather homogenous enhancement, whereas cystic synovial hyperplasia demonstrated less intense, peripheral enhancement only. Arthroscopy with histological examination of the lesions confirmed the MRI diagnosis in every case. Conclusion: In our experience, cavernous synovial hemangioma and cystic synovial hyperplasia have a similar appearance on unenhanced MRI, but can be reliably differentiated on the basis of enhancement characteristics following intravenous contrast administration. Keywords: Cavernous synovial hemangioma; cystic synovial hyperplasia; knee; MRI

  20. Localization techniques in resection of deep seated cavernous angiomas - review and reevaluation of frame based stereotactic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotty, P J; Ewelt, C; Sarikaya-Seiwert, S; Steiger, H-J; Vesper, J; Hänggi, D

    2013-04-01

    Providing high accuracy is crucial in neurosurgery especially for resection of deep seated small cerebral pathologies such as cavernous angiomas. The goal of the present series was to reevaluate the feasibility, accuracy, efficacy and safety of frame-based, stereotactically guided resection for patients suffering from small deep-seated cavernous angiomas. Additionally a review of the literature on navigational tools in cavernoma surgery is provided comparing different navigation strategies. Ten patients with deep-seated, small intracranial, cavernous angiomas being subject to frame-based, stereotactically aided resection are included in this survey. Based on the stereotactic-fused image, set entry and target point aimed at the rim of the cavernoma were calculated. A minicraniotomy (Assets and drawbacks of the stereotactic-aided approach were evaluated, patients were analyzed for surgery-related neurological deficits and completeness of resection. Complete resection was achieved in all ten patients verified by post-surgery MRI imaging. The surgical procedure itself was only slightly aggravated by the stereotactic equipment. No adverse events such as bleedings or infections were observed in our series. Stereotactically guided, minimally invasive resection of deep seated and small cavernous angiomas is accurate and effective. The frame-based stereotactic guidance requires some additional time and effort which seems justified only for deep seated and small cavernous angiomas. Frameless neuronavigation is a common tool in cavernoma surgery and its spatial resolution is sufficient for the majority of cases.