Sample records for large space platforms

  1. Artificial Intelligence in Space Platforms. (United States)


    computer algorithms, there still appears to be a need for Artificial Inteligence techniques in the navigation area. The reason is that navigaion, in...RD-RI32 679 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SPACE PLRTFORNSMU AIR FORCE 1/𔃼 INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING M A WRIGHT DEC 94...i4 Preface The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of implementing Artificial Intelligence techniques to increase autonomy for

  2. Evolutionary space platform concept study. Volume 2, part B: Manned space platform concepts (United States)


    Logical, cost-effective steps in the evolution of manned space platforms are investigated and assessed. Tasks included the analysis of requirements for a manned space platform, identifying alternative concepts, performing system analysis and definition of the concepts, comparing the concepts and performing programmatic analysis for a reference concept.

  3. Large size space construction for space exploitation (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey


    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  4. Tethered elevator and platforms as space station facilities: Systems studies and demonstrative experiments (United States)


    Several key concepts of the science and applications tethered platforms were studied. Some conclusions reached are herein listed. Tether elevator and platform could improve the space station scientific and applicative capabilities. The space elevator presents unique characteristics as microgravity facility and as a tethered platform servicing vehicle. Pointing platforms could represent a new kind of observation facility for large class of payloads. The dynamical, control and technological complexity of these concepts advised demonstrative experiments. The on-going tethered satellite system offers the opportunity to perform such experiments. And feasibility studies are in progress.

  5. A multilevel control approach for a modular structured space platform (United States)

    Chichester, F. D.; Borelli, M. T.


    A three axis mathematical representation of a modular assembled space platform consisting of interconnected discrete masses, including a deployable truss module, was derived for digital computer simulation. The platform attitude control system as developed to provide multilevel control utilizing the Gauss-Seidel second level formulation along with an extended form of linear quadratic regulator techniques. The objectives of the multilevel control are to decouple the space platform's spatial axes and to accommodate the modification of the platform's configuration for each of the decoupled axes.

  6. A Network Enabled Platform for Canadian Space Science Data (United States)

    Rankin, R.; Boteler, D. R.; Jayachandran, T. P.; Mann, I. R.; Sofko, G.; Yau, A. W.


    The internet is an example of a pervasive disruptive technology that has transformed society on a global scale. The term "cyberinfrastructure" refers to technology underpinning the collaborative aspect of large science projects and is synonymous with terms such as e-Science, intelligent infrastructure, and/or e- infrastructure. In the context of space science, a significant challenge is to exploit the internet and cyberinfrastructure to form effective virtual organizations (VOs) of scientists that have common or agreed- upon objectives. A typical VO is likely to include universities and government agencies specializing in types of instrumentation (ground and/or space based), which in deployment produce large quantities of space data. Such data is most effectively described by metadata, which if defined in a standard way, facilitates discovery and retrieval of data over the internet by intelligent interfaces and cyberinfrastructure. One recent and significant approach is SPASE, which is being developed by NASA as a data-standard for its Virtual Observatories (VxOs) programs. The space science community in Canada has recently formed a VO designed to complement the e-POP microsatellite mission, and new ground-based observatories (GBOs) that collect data over a large fraction of the Canadian land-mass. The VO includes members of the CGSM community (, which is funded operationally by the Canadian Space Agency. It also includes the UCLA VMO team, and scientists in the NASA THEMIS mission. CANARIE (, the federal agency responsible for management, design and operation of Canada's research internet, has recently recognized the value of cyberinfrastucture through the creation of a Network-Enabled-Platforms (NEPs) program. An NEP for space science was funded by CANARIE in its first competition. When fully implemented, the Space Science NEP will consist of a front-end portal providing access to CGSM data. It will utilize an adaptation of the SPASE

  7. Large space antenna concepts for ESGP (United States)

    Love, Allan W.


    It is appropriate to note that 1988 marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of the reflector antenna. It was in 1888 that Heinrich Hertz constructed the first one, a parabolic cylinder made of sheet zinc bent to shape and supported by a wooden frame. Hertz demonstrated the existence of the electromagnetic waves that had been predicted theoretically by James Clerk Maxwell some 22 years earlier. In the 100 years since Hertz's pioneering work the field of electromagnetics has grown explosively: one of the technologies is that of remote sensing of planet Earth by means of electromagnetic waves, using both passive and active sensors located on an Earth Science Geostationary Platform (ESEP). For these purposes some exquisitely sensitive instruments were developed, capable of reaching to the fringes of the known universe, and relying on large reflector antennas to collect the minute signals and direct them to appropriate receiving devices. These antennas are electrically large, with diameters of 3000 to 10,000 wavelengths and with gains approaching 80 to 90 dB. Some of the reflector antennas proposed for ESGP are also electrically large. For example, at 220 GHz a 4-meter reflector is nearly 3000 wavelengths in diameter, and is electrically quite comparable with a number of the millimeter wave radiotelescopes that are being built around the world. Its surface must meet stringent requirements on rms smoothness, and ability to resist deformation. Here, however, the environmental forces at work are different. There are no varying forces due to wind and gravity, but inertial forces due to mechanical scanning must be reckoned with. With this form of beam scanning, minimizing momentum transfer to the space platform is a problem that demands an answer. Finally, reflector surface distortion due to thermal gradients caused by the solar flux probably represents the most challenging problem to be solved if these Large Space Antennas are to achieve the gain and resolution required of

  8. ASAP: An Extensible Platform for State Space Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael; Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael


    The ASCoVeCo State space Analysis Platform (ASAP) is a tool for performing explicit state space analysis of coloured Petri nets (CPNs) and other formalisms. ASAP supports a wide range of state space reduction techniques and is intended to be easy to extend and to use, making it a suitable tool fo...... for students, researchers, and industrial users that would like to analyze protocols and/or experiment with different algorithms. This paper presents ASAP from these two perspectives....

  9. Staghorn: An Automated Large-Scale Distributed System Analysis Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabert, Kasimir [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, Ian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Elliott, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kallaher, Jenna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vail, Adam [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Conducting experiments on large-scale distributed computing systems is becoming significantly easier with the assistance of emulation. Researchers can now create a model of a distributed computing environment and then generate a virtual, laboratory copy of the entire system composed of potentially thousands of virtual machines, switches, and software. The use of real software, running at clock rate in full virtual machines, allows experiments to produce meaningful results without necessitating a full understanding of all model components. However, the ability to inspect and modify elements within these models is bound by the limitation that such modifications must compete with the model, either running in or alongside it. This inhibits entire classes of analyses from being conducted upon these models. We developed a mechanism to snapshot an entire emulation-based model as it is running. This allows us to \\freeze time" and subsequently fork execution, replay execution, modify arbitrary parts of the model, or deeply explore the model. This snapshot includes capturing packets in transit and other input/output state along with the running virtual machines. We were able to build this system in Linux using Open vSwitch and Kernel Virtual Machines on top of Sandia's emulation platform Firewheel. This primitive opens the door to numerous subsequent analyses on models, including state space exploration, debugging distributed systems, performance optimizations, improved training environments, and improved experiment repeatability.

  10. A High-power Electric Propulsion Test Platform in Space (United States)

    Petro, Andrew J.; Reed, Brian; Chavers, D. Greg; Sarmiento, Charles; Cenci, Susanna; Lemmons, Neil


    This paper will describe the results of the preliminary phase of a NASA design study for a facility to test high-power electric propulsion systems in space. The results of this design study are intended to provide a firm foundation for subsequent detailed design and development activities leading to the deployment of a valuable space facility. The NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate is sponsoring this design project. A team from the NASA Johnson Space Center, Glenn Research Center, the Marshall Space Flight Center and the International Space Station Program Office is conducting the project. The test facility is intended for a broad range of users including government, industry and universities. International participation is encouraged. The objectives for human and robotic exploration of space can be accomplished affordably, safely and effectively with high-power electric propulsion systems. But, as thruster power levels rise to the hundreds of kilowatts and up to megawatts, their testing will pose stringent and expensive demands on existing Earth-based vacuum facilities. These considerations and the human access to near-Earth space provided by the International Space Station (ISS) have led to a renewed interest in space testing. The ISS could provide an excellent platform for a space-based test facility with the continuous vacuum conditions of the natural space environment and no chamber walls to modify the open boundary conditions of the propulsion system exhaust. The test platform could take advantage of the continuous vacuum conditions of the natural space environment. Space testing would provide open boundary conditions without walls, micro-gravity and a realistic thermal environment. Testing on the ISS would allow for direct observation of the test unit, exhaust plume and space-plasma interactions. When necessary, intervention by on-board personnel and post-test inspection would be possible. The ISS can provide electrical power, a location for

  11. Large Space Structures Fielding Plan (United States)


    15830 STS PAYLOARE SYSTESETY 3C (A %AA IASB STS DAYLCODSICARGO SRORM 1PVFR! PR 111L 5 SOL? CIE. JR-012 SAFETY 19LENEVIASO PLA PSOR 1, ,I -1 AR S’ measures in space will interface. Although these features can be developed to some degree as stated objectives, many must be designed from...continuity 7. Check system for mechanical continuity 8. Verify LSS assembly continuity B. Productivity Measurements 1. Note duration of assembly activities

  12. Evaluating Unmanned Aerial Platforms for Cultural Heritage Large Scale Mapping (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Oikonomou, C.; Adamopoulos, E.; Stathopoulou, E. K.


    When it comes to large scale mapping of limited areas especially for cultural heritage sites, things become critical. Optical and non-optical sensors are developed to such sizes and weights that can be lifted by such platforms, like e.g. LiDAR units. At the same time there is an increase in emphasis on solutions that enable users to get access to 3D information faster and cheaper. Considering the multitude of platforms, cameras and the advancement of algorithms in conjunction with the increase of available computing power this challenge should and indeed is further investigated. In this paper a short review of the UAS technologies today is attempted. A discussion follows as to their applicability and advantages, depending on their specifications, which vary immensely. The on-board cameras available are also compared and evaluated for large scale mapping. Furthermore a thorough analysis, review and experimentation with different software implementations of Structure from Motion and Multiple View Stereo algorithms, able to process such dense and mostly unordered sequence of digital images is also conducted and presented. As test data set, we use a rich optical and thermal data set from both fixed wing and multi-rotor platforms over an archaeological excavation with adverse height variations and using different cameras. Dense 3D point clouds, digital terrain models and orthophotos have been produced and evaluated for their radiometric as well as metric qualities.

  13. Exploring the Design Space of Longitudinal Censorship Measurement Platforms


    Razaghpanah, Abbas; Li, Anke; Filastò, Arturo; Nithyanand, Rishab; Ververis, Vasilis; Scott, Will; Gill, Phillipa


    Despite the high perceived value and increasing severity of online information controls, a data-driven understanding of the phenomenon has remained elusive. In this paper, we consider two design points in the space of Internet censorship measurement with particular emphasis on how they address the challenges of locating vantage points, choosing content to test, and analyzing results. We discuss the trade offs of decisions made by each platform and show how the resulting data provides compleme...

  14. DEEP SPACE: High Resolution VR Platform for Multi-user Interactive Narratives (United States)

    Kuka, Daniela; Elias, Oliver; Martins, Ronald; Lindinger, Christopher; Pramböck, Andreas; Jalsovec, Andreas; Maresch, Pascal; Hörtner, Horst; Brandl, Peter

    DEEP SPACE is a large-scale platform for interactive, stereoscopic and high resolution content. The spatial and the system design of DEEP SPACE are facing constraints of CAVETM-like systems in respect to multi-user interactive storytelling. To be used as research platform and as public exhibition space for many people, DEEP SPACE is capable to process interactive, stereoscopic applications on two projection walls with a size of 16 by 9 meters and a resolution of four times 1080p (4K) each. The processed applications are ranging from Virtual Reality (VR)-environments to 3D-movies to computationally intensive 2D-productions. In this paper, we are describing DEEP SPACE as an experimental VR platform for multi-user interactive storytelling. We are focusing on the system design relevant for the platform, including the integration of the Apple iPod Touch technology as VR control, and a special case study that is demonstrating the research efforts in the field of multi-user interactive storytelling. The described case study, entitled "Papyrate's Island", provides a prototypical scenario of how physical drawings may impact on digital narratives. In this special case, DEEP SPACE helps us to explore the hypothesis that drawing, a primordial human creative skill, gives us access to entirely new creative possibilities in the domain of interactive storytelling.

  15. A new large-scale manufacturing platform for complex biopharmaceuticals. (United States)

    Vogel, Jens H; Nguyen, Huong; Giovannini, Roberto; Ignowski, Jolene; Garger, Steve; Salgotra, Anil; Tom, Jennifer


    Complex biopharmaceuticals, such as recombinant blood coagulation factors, are addressing critical medical needs and represent a growing multibillion-dollar market. For commercial manufacturing of such, sometimes inherently unstable, molecules it is important to minimize product residence time in non-ideal milieu in order to obtain acceptable yields and consistently high product quality. Continuous perfusion cell culture allows minimization of residence time in the bioreactor, but also brings unique challenges in product recovery, which requires innovative solutions. In order to maximize yield, process efficiency, facility and equipment utilization, we have developed, scaled-up and successfully implemented a new integrated manufacturing platform in commercial scale. This platform consists of a (semi-)continuous cell separation process based on a disposable flow path and integrated with the upstream perfusion operation, followed by membrane chromatography on large-scale adsorber capsules in rapid cycling mode. Implementation of the platform at commercial scale for a new product candidate led to a yield improvement of 40% compared to the conventional process technology, while product quality has been shown to be more consistently high. Over 1,000,000 L of cell culture harvest have been processed with 100% success rate to date, demonstrating the robustness of the new platform process in GMP manufacturing. While membrane chromatography is well established for polishing in flow-through mode, this is its first commercial-scale application for bind/elute chromatography in the biopharmaceutical industry and demonstrates its potential in particular for manufacturing of potent, low-dose biopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. In-Space Internet-Based Communications for Space Science Platforms Using Commercial Satellite Networks (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Fabian, Theodore P.; Griner, James H.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Richard, Alan M.


    The continuing technological advances in satellite communications and global networking have resulted in commercial systems that now can potentially provide capabilities for communications with space-based science platforms. This reduces the need for expensive government owned communications infrastructures to support space science missions while simultaneously making available better service to the end users. An interactive, high data rate Internet type connection through commercial space communications networks would enable authorized researchers anywhere to control space-based experiments in near real time and obtain experimental results immediately. A space based communications network architecture consisting of satellite constellations connecting orbiting space science platforms to ground users can be developed to provide this service. The unresolved technical issues presented by this scenario are the subject of research at NASA's Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Assessment of network architectures, identification of required new or improved technologies, and investigation of data communications protocols are being performed through testbed and satellite experiments and laboratory simulations.

  17. Space platforms - A cost effective evolution of Spacelab operation (United States)

    Stofan, A. J.


    The capabilities added to the Shuttle/Spacelab configuration by the addition of the Power Extension Package (PEP), the Power System (PS), and the Science and Applications Space Platforms (SASP) are reviewed with an emphasis on SASP. SASP are intended for placement in orbit by the Shuttle to test new instruments and systems, for clustering of instrumentation, and for servicing, refurbishment, repair, or augmentation by the Shuttle. The PEP permits extended stays in orbit (30 days), and the PS is an orbital solar array and energy storage system acting as a free flying spacecraft. The Shuttle can deliver payloads to the PS or attach to it for extension of the Spacelab operations. Applications of SASP for long term space-based biological experiments are outlined, and the fact that SASP do not increase the required Shuttle in-orbit time is stressed.

  18. Large Scale Simulation Platform for NODES Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotorrio, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Qin, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Min, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This report summarizes the Large Scale (LS) simulation platform created for the Eaton NODES project. The simulation environment consists of both wholesale market simulator and distribution simulator and includes the CAISO wholesale market model and a PG&E footprint of 25-75 feeders to validate the scalability under a scenario of 33% RPS in California with additional 17% of DERS coming from distribution and customers. The simulator can generate hourly unit commitment, 5-minute economic dispatch, and 4-second AGC regulation signals. The simulator is also capable of simulating greater than 10k individual controllable devices. Simulated DERs include water heaters, EVs, residential and light commercial HVAC/buildings, and residential-level battery storage. Feeder-level voltage regulators and capacitor banks are also simulated for feeder-level real and reactive power management and Vol/Var control.

  19. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Requirements for Space Station Accommodations (United States)

    Crowe, D. A.; Clayton, M. J.; Runge, F. C.


    Top level requirements for assembly and integration of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Observatory at the Space Station are examined. Concepts are currently under study for LDR which will provide a sequel to the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. LDR will provide a spectacular capability over a very broad spectral range. The Space Station will provide an essential facility for the initial assembly and check out of LDR, as well as a necessary base for refurbishment, repair and modification. By providing a manned platform, the Space Station will remove the time constraint on assembly associated with use of the Shuttle alone. Personnel safety during necessary EVA is enhanced by the presence of the manned facility.

  20. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) requirements for space station accommodations (United States)

    Crowe, D. A.; Clayton, M. J.; Runge, F. C.


    Top level requirements for assembly and integration of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Observatory at the Space Station are examined. Concepts are currently under study for LDR which will provide a sequel to the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. LDR will provide a spectacular capability over a very broad spectral range. The Space Station will provide an essential facility for the initial assembly and check out of LDR, as well as a necessary base for refurbishment, repair and modification. By providing a manned platform, the Space Station will remove the time constraint on assembly associated with use of the Shuttle alone. Personnel safety during necessary EVA is enhanced by the presence of the manned facility.

  1. Robot Work Platform for Large Hot Cell Deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BITTEN, E.J.


    The 324 Building, located at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, is being deactivated to meet state and federal cleanup commitments. The facility is currently in its third year of a nine-year project to complete deactivation and closure for long-term surveillance and maintenance. The 324 building contains large hot cells that were used for high-radiation, high-contamination chemical process development and demonstrations. A major obstacle for the 324 deactivation project is the inability to effectively perform deactivation tasks within highly radioactive, contaminated environments. Current strategies use inefficient, resource intensive technologies that significantly impact the cost and schedule for deactivation. To meet mandated cleanup commitments, there is a need to deploy rapid, more efficient remote/robot technologies to minimize worker exposure, accelerate work tasks, and eliminate the need for multiple specialized tool design and procurement efforts. This paper describes the functions and performance requirements for a crane-deployed remote/robot Work Platform possessing full access capabilities. The remote/robot Work Platform will deploy commercially available off-the-shelf tools and end effectors to support Project cleanup goals and reduce overall project risk and cost. The intent of this system is to maximize the use of off-the-shelf technologies that minimize additional new, unproven, or novel designs. This paper further describes procurement strategy, the selection process, the selected technology, and the current status of the procurement and lessons learned. Funding, in part, has been provided by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area

  2. Environmental effects and large space systems (United States)

    Garrett, H. B.


    When planning large scale operations in space, environmental impact must be considered in addition to radiation, spacecraft charging, contamination, high power and size. Pollution of the atmosphere and space is caused by rocket effluents and by photoelectrons generated by sunlight falling on satellite surfaces even light pollution may result (the SPS may reflect so much light as to be a nuisance to astronomers). Large (100 Km 2) structures also will absorb the high energy particles that impinge on them. Altogether, these effects may drastically alter the Earth's magnetosphere. It is not clear if these alterations will in any way affect the Earth's surface climate. Large structures will also generate large plasma wakes and waves which may cause interference with communications to the vehicle. A high energy, microwave beam from the SPS will cause ionospheric turbulence, affecting UHF and VHF communications. Although none of these effects may ultimately prove critical, they must be considered in the design of large structures.

  3. Platforms. (United States)

    Josko, Deborah


    The advent of DNA sequencing technologies and the various applications that can be performed will have a dramatic effect on medicine and healthcare in the near future. There are several DNA sequencing platforms available on the market for research and clinical use. Based on the medical laboratory scientist or researcher's needs and taking into consideration laboratory space and budget, one can chose which platform will be beneficial to their institution and their patient population. Although some of the instrument costs seem high, diagnosing a patient quickly and accurately will save hospitals money with fewer hospital stays and targeted treatment based on an individual's genetic make-up. By determining the type of disease an individual has, based on the mutations present or having the ability to prescribe the appropriate antimicrobials based on the knowledge of the organism's resistance patterns, the clinician will be better able to treat and diagnose a patient which ultimately will improve patient outcomes and prognosis.

  4. Vertical integration from the large Hilbert space (United States)

    Erler, Theodore; Konopka, Sebastian


    We develop an alternative description of the procedure of vertical integration based on the observation that amplitudes can be written in BRST exact form in the large Hilbert space. We relate this approach to the description of vertical integration given by Sen and Witten.

  5. Space Science Cloud: a Virtual Space Science Research Platform Based on Cloud Model (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Tong, Jizhou; Zou, Ziming

    Through independent and co-operational science missions, Strategic Pioneer Program (SPP) on Space Science, the new initiative of space science program in China which was approved by CAS and implemented by National Space Science Center (NSSC), dedicates to seek new discoveries and new breakthroughs in space science, thus deepen the understanding of universe and planet earth. In the framework of this program, in order to support the operations of space science missions and satisfy the demand of related research activities for e-Science, NSSC is developing a virtual space science research platform based on cloud model, namely the Space Science Cloud (SSC). In order to support mission demonstration, SSC integrates interactive satellite orbit design tool, satellite structure and payloads layout design tool, payload observation coverage analysis tool, etc., to help scientists analyze and verify space science mission designs. Another important function of SSC is supporting the mission operations, which runs through the space satellite data pipelines. Mission operators can acquire and process observation data, then distribute the data products to other systems or issue the data and archives with the services of SSC. In addition, SSC provides useful data, tools and models for space researchers. Several databases in the field of space science are integrated and an efficient retrieve system is developing. Common tools for data visualization, deep processing (e.g., smoothing and filtering tools), analysis (e.g., FFT analysis tool and minimum variance analysis tool) and mining (e.g., proton event correlation analysis tool) are also integrated to help the researchers to better utilize the data. The space weather models on SSC include magnetic storm forecast model, multi-station middle and upper atmospheric climate model, solar energetic particle propagation model and so on. All the services above-mentioned are based on the e-Science infrastructures of CAS e.g. cloud storage and

  6. Indoor Climate of Large Glazed Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Ole Juhl; Madsen, Christina E.; Heiselberg, Per

    In recent years large glazed spaces has found increased use both in connection with renovation of buildings and as part of new buildings. One of the objectives is to add an architectural element, which combines indoor- and outdoor climate. In order to obtain a satisfying indoor climate it is crui...... it is cruicial at the design stage to be able to predict the performance regarding thermal comfort and energy consumption. This paper focus on the practical implementation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the relation to other simulation tools regarding indoor climate.......In recent years large glazed spaces has found increased use both in connection with renovation of buildings and as part of new buildings. One of the objectives is to add an architectural element, which combines indoor- and outdoor climate. In order to obtain a satisfying indoor climate...

  7. Adaptive Backstepping Controller Design for Leveling Control of an Underwater Platform Based on Joint Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Zeng


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on high precision leveling control of an underwater heavy load platform, which is viewed as an underwater parallel robot on the basis of its work pattern. The kinematic of platform with deformation is analyzed and the dynamics model of joint space is established. An adaptive backstepping controller according to Lyapunov's function is proposed for leveling control of platform based on joint space. Furthermore, the “lowest point fixed angle error” leveling scheme called “chase” is chosen for leveling control of platform. The digital simulation and practical experiment of single joint space actuator are carried out, and the results show high precision servo control of joint space. On the basis of this, the platform leveling control simulation relies on the hardware-in-loop system. The results indicate that the proposed controller can effectively restrain the influence from system parameter uncertainties and external disturbance to realize high precision leveling control of the underwater platform.

  8. A space-based public service platform for terrestrial rescue operations (United States)

    Fleisig, R.; Bernstein, J.; Cramblit, D. C.


    The space-based Public Service Platform (PSP) is a multibeam, high-gain communications relay satellite that can provide a variety of functions for a large number of people on earth equipped with extremely small, very low cost transceivers. This paper describes the PSP concept, the rationale used to derive the concept, the criteria for selecting specific communication functions to be performed, and the advantages of performing such functions via satellite. The discussion focuses on the benefits of using a PSP for natural disaster warning; control of attendant rescue/assistance operations; and rescue of people in downed aircraft, aboard sinking ships, lost or injured on land.

  9. Supporting co-creation with software, the idSpace platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Boon, Jo; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Sie, Rory; Sloep, Peter


    Innovation, in general, requires teamwork among specialist of different disciplines. The idSpace project developed ideas on how teams of collaborating innovators could best be supported. These ideas were embodied in a platform that the project developed. This idSpace platform allows its users to

  10. Advancing Translational Space Research Through Biospecimen Sharing: Amplified Impact of Studies Utilizing Analogue Space Platforms (United States)

    Staten, B.; Moyer, E.; Vizir, V.; Gompf, H.; Hoban-Higgins, T.; Lewis, L.; Ronca, A.; Fuller, C. A.


    Biospecimen Sharing Programs (BSPs) have been organized by NASA Ames Research Center since the 1960s with the goal of maximizing utilization and scientific return from rare, complex and costly spaceflight experiments. BSPs involve acquiring otherwise unused biological specimens from primary space research experiments for distribution to secondary experiments. Here we describe a collaboration leveraging Ames expertise in biospecimen sharing to magnify the scientific impact of research informing astronaut health funded by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element. The concept expands biospecimen sharing to one-off ground-based studies utilizing analogue space platforms (e.g., Hindlimb Unloading (HLU), Artificial Gravity) for rodent experiments, thereby significantly broadening the range of research opportunities with translational relevance for protecting human health in space and on Earth.

  11. Multi-Objective Design Space Exploration of Embedded System Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter


    on local memory sizes and interface buffer sizes. Our approach allows for mapping onto a fixed platform or onto a flexible platform where architectural changes are explored during the mapping. We demonstrate our approach through an exploration of a smart phone, where five task graphs with a total of 530...

  12. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.


    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The Veggie vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellowsbaseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  13. Evaluation of sensor placement algorithms for on-orbit identification of space platforms (United States)

    Glassburn, Robin S.; Smith, Suzanne Weaver


    Anticipating the construction of the international space station, on-orbit modal identification of space platforms through optimally placed accelerometers is an area of recent activity. Unwanted vibrations in the platform could affect the results of experiments which are planned. Therefore, it is important that sensors (accelerometers) be strategically placed to identify the amount and extent of these unwanted vibrations, and to validate the mathematical models used to predict the loads and dynamic response. Due to cost, installation, and data management issues, only a limited number of sensors will be available for placement. This work evaluates and compares four representative sensor placement algorithms for modal identification. Most of the sensor placement work to date has employed only numerical simulations for comparison. This work uses experimental data from a fully-instrumented truss structure which was one of a series of structures designed for research in dynamic scale model ground testing of large space structures at NASA Langley Research Center. Results from this comparison show that for this cantilevered structure, the algorithm based on Guyan reduction is rated slightly better than that based on Effective Independence.

  14. Deep Space CubeSat Prototype Platform Design and Testing (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This IRAD will significantly advance a GSFC Deep Space CubeSat prototype effort in almost all subsystems.  Because it represents a “tall pole” for lunar orbiters, as...

  15. Small Space Platform Enhanced Internet Protocol Stack Device, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless communication of small, nano and micro satellites will play a vital role to NASA mission and marketability of the satellite. The use of an Internet-based...

  16. GECKO: a complete large-scale gene expression analysis platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuer Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gecko (Gene Expression: Computation and Knowledge Organization is a complete, high-capacity centralized gene expression analysis system, developed in response to the needs of a distributed user community. Results Based on a client-server architecture, with a centralized repository of typically many tens of thousands of Affymetrix scans, Gecko includes automatic processing pipelines for uploading data from remote sites, a data base, a computational engine implementing ~ 50 different analysis tools, and a client application. Among available analysis tools are clustering methods, principal component analysis, supervised classification including feature selection and cross-validation, multi-factorial ANOVA, statistical contrast calculations, and various post-processing tools for extracting data at given error rates or significance levels. On account of its open architecture, Gecko also allows for the integration of new algorithms. The Gecko framework is very general: non-Affymetrix and non-gene expression data can be analyzed as well. A unique feature of the Gecko architecture is the concept of the Analysis Tree (actually, a directed acyclic graph, in which all successive results in ongoing analyses are saved. This approach has proven invaluable in allowing a large (~ 100 users and distributed community to share results, and to repeatedly return over a span of years to older and potentially very complex analyses of gene expression data. Conclusions The Gecko system is being made publicly available as free software In totality or in parts, the Gecko framework should prove useful to users and system developers with a broad range of analysis needs.

  17. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review (United States)


    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  18. Autonomous vision in space, based on Advanced Stellar Compass platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl Christian


    The Ørsted Star Imager, comprises the functionality of an Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC). I.e. it is able to, autonomously solve "the lost in space" attitude problem, as well as determine the attitude with high precision in the matter of seconds. The autonomy makes for a high capability for error......) Complex Object surface tracking (e.g. space docking, planetary terrain tracking). All the above topics, has been realized in the past. Either by open loop, or by man-in-loop systems. By implementing these methods or function in the onboard autonomy, a superior system performance could be acheived by means...

  19. Free Space Optics Communication for Mobile Military Platforms (United States)


    Federal Communications Commission FDA Food and Drug Administration FOV Field-of-View FSO Free Space Optics FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum Gbps...Physique et de Métrologie des Oscillateurs (LPMO) du CNRS UPR3203, associé à l’Université de Franche -Comté, 15 March 2002 [Schenk 2000] H. Schenk

  20. Using conceptual spaces to fuse knowledge from heterogeneous robot platforms (United States)

    Kira, Zsolt


    As robots become more common, it becomes increasingly useful for many applications to use them in teams that sense the world in a distributed manner. In such situations, the robots or a central control center must communicate and fuse information received from multiple sources. A key challenge for this problem is perceptual heterogeneity, where the sensors, perceptual representations, and training instances used by the robots differ dramatically. In this paper, we use Gärdenfors' conceptual spaces, a geometric representation with strong roots in cognitive science and psychology, in order to represent the appearance of objects and show how the problem of heterogeneity can be intuitively explored by looking at the situation where multiple robots differ in their conceptual spaces at different levels. To bridge low-level sensory differences, we abstract raw sensory data into properties (such as color or texture categories), represented as Gaussian Mixture Models, and demonstrate that this facilitates both individual learning and the fusion of concepts between robots. Concepts (e.g. objects) are represented as a fuzzy mixture of these properties. We then treat the problem where the conceptual spaces of two robots differ and they only share a subset of these properties. In this case, we use joint interaction and statistical metrics to determine which properties are shared. Finally, we show how conceptual spaces can handle the combination of such missing properties when fusing concepts received from different robots. We demonstrate the fusion of information in real-robot experiments with a Mobile Robots Amigobot and Pioneer 2DX with significantly different cameras and (on one robot) a SICK lidar.ÿÿÿÿ

  1. Environmental Disturbance Modeling for Large Inflatable Space Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Donald


    Tightening space budgets and stagnating spacelift capabilities are driving the Air Force and other space agencies to focus on inflatable technology as a reliable, inexpensive means of deploying large structures in orbit...

  2. Vulnerability assessment of a space based weapon platform electronic system exposed to a thermonuclear weapon detonation (United States)

    Perez, C. L.; Johnson, J. O.

    Rapidly changing world events, the increased number of nations with inter-continental ballistic missile capability, and the proliferation of nuclear weapon technology will increase the number of nuclear threats facing the world today. Monitoring these nation's activities and providing an early warning and/or intercept system via reconnaissance and surveillance satellites and space based weapon platforms is a viable deterrent against a surprise nuclear attack. However, the deployment of satellite and weapon platform assets in space will subject the sensitive electronic equipment to a variety of natural and man-made radiation environments. These include Van Allen Belt protons and electrons; galactic and solar flare protons; and neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays from intentionally detonated fission and fusion weapons. In this paper, the MASH vl.0 code system is used to estimate the dose to the critical electronics components of an idealized space based weapon platform from neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from a thermonuclear weapon detonation in space. Fluence and dose assessments were performed for the platform fully loaded, and in several stages representing limited engagement scenarios. The results indicate vulnerabilities to the Command, Control, and Communication bay instruments from radiation damage for a nuclear weapon detonation for certain source/platform orientations. The distance at which damage occurs will depend on the weapon yield (n,(gamma)/kiloton) and size (kilotons).

  3. Space Station Freedom electrical power system hardware commonality with the United States Polar Platform (United States)

    Rieker, Lorra L.; Haraburda, Francis M.


    Information is presented on how the concept of commonality is being implemented with respect to electric power system hardware for the Space Station Freedom and the U.S. Polar Platform. Included is a historical account of the candidate common items which have the potential to serve the same power system functions on both Freedom and the Polar Platform. The Space Station program and objectives are described, focusing on the test and development responsibilities. The program definition and preliminary design phase and the design and development phase are discussed. The goal of this work is to reduce the program cost.

  4. Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization Issues for Large Space Structures (United States)

    Pinson, L. D. (Compiler); Amos, A. K. (Compiler); Venkayya, V. B. (Compiler)


    Topics concerning the modeling, analysis, and optimization of large space structures are discussed including structure-control interaction, structural and structural dynamics modeling, thermal analysis, testing, and design.

  5. Implementing EW Receivers Based on Large Point Reconfigured FFT on FPGA Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen


    Full Text Available This paper presents design and implementation of digital receiver based on large point fast Fourier transform (FFT suitable for electronic warfare (EW applications. When implementing the FFT algorithm on field-programmable gate array (FPGA platforms, the primary goal is to maximize throughput and minimize area. This algorithm adopts two-dimension, parallel and pipeline stream mode and implements the reconfiguration of FFT's points. Moreover, a double-sequence-separation FFT algorithm has been implemented in order to achieve faster real time processing in broadband digital receivers. The performance of the hardware implementation on the FPGA platforms of broadband digital receivers has been analyzed in depth. It reaches the requirement of high-speed digital signal processing, and reveals the designing this kind of digital signal processing systems on FPGA platforms. Keywords: digital receivers, field programmable gate array (FPGA, fast Fourier transform (FFT, large point reconfigured, signal processing system.

  6. The Oncopig Cancer Model: An Innovative Large Animal Translational Oncology Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schachtschneider, Kyle M.; Schwind, Regina M.; Newson, Jordan


    -the Oncopig Cancer Model (OCM)-as a next-generation large animal platform for the study of hematologic and solid tumor oncology. With mutations in key tumor suppressor and oncogenes, TP53R167H and KRASG12D , the OCM recapitulates transcriptional hallmarks of human disease while also exhibiting clinically...

  7. Exploring a Large Space of Small Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barros, Gabriella; Togelius, Julian

    We explore the soundness and playability of randomly generated games expressed in the Video Game Description Language (VGDL). A grammar is defined for VGDL, which is able to express a large variety of simple arcade-like games, and random expansions of this grammar are fed to a VGDL interpreter...... and played with off the shelf agents. We see this work as the first step towards generating complete, playable games....

  8. mmpdb: An Open-Source Matched Molecular Pair Platform for Large Multiproperty Data Sets. (United States)

    Dalke, Andrew; Hert, Jérôme; Kramer, Christian


    Matched molecular pair analysis (MMPA) enables the automated and systematic compilation of medicinal chemistry rules from compound/property data sets. Here we present mmpdb, an open-source matched molecular pair (MMP) platform to create, compile, store, retrieve, and use MMP rules. mmpdb is suitable for the large data sets typically found in pharmaceutical and agrochemical companies and provides new algorithms for fragment canonicalization and stereochemistry handling. The platform is written in Python and based on the RDKit toolkit. It is freely available from .

  9. The Space Station as a Construction Base for Large Space Structures (United States)

    Gates, R. M.


    The feasibility of using the Space Station as a construction site for large space structures is examined. An overview is presented of the results of a program entitled Definition of Technology Development Missions (TDM's) for Early Space Stations - Large Space Structures. The definition of LSS technology development missions must be responsive to the needs of future space missions which require large space structures. Long range plans for space were assembled by reviewing Space System Technology Models (SSTM) and other published sources. Those missions which will use large space structures were reviewed to determine the objectives which must be demonstrated by technology development missions. The three TDM's defined during this study are: (1) a construction storage/hangar facility; (2) a passive microwave radiometer; and (3) a precision optical system.

  10. A study of rotor and platform design trade-offs for large-scale floating vertical axis wind turbines (United States)

    Griffith, D. Todd; Paquette, Joshua; Barone, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew J.; Fowler, Matthew J.; Bull, Diana; Owens, Brian


    Vertical axis wind turbines are receiving significant attention for offshore siting. In general, offshore wind offers proximity to large populations centers, a vast & more consistent wind resource, and a scale-up opportunity, to name a few beneficial characteristics. On the other hand, offshore wind suffers from high levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and in particular high balance of system (BoS) costs owing to accessibility challenges and limited project experience. To address these challenges associated with offshore wind, Sandia National Laboratories is researching large-scale (MW class) offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). The motivation for this work is that floating VAWTs are a potential transformative technology solution to reduce offshore wind LCOE in deep-water locations. This paper explores performance and cost trade-offs within the design space for floating VAWTs between the configurations for the rotor and platform.

  11. Astrobee: A New Platform for Free-Flying Robotics on the International Space Station (United States)

    Smith, Trey; Barlow, Jonathan; Bualat, Maria; Fong, Terrence; Provencher, Christopher; Sanchez, Hugo; Smith, Ernest


    The Astrobees are next-generation free-flying robots that will operate in the interior of the International Space Station (ISS). Their primary purpose is to provide a flexible platform for research on zero-g freeflying robotics, with the ability to carry a wide variety of future research payloads and guest science software. They will also serve utility functions: as free-flying cameras to record video of astronaut activities, and as mobile sensor platforms to conduct surveys of the ISS. The Astrobee system includes two robots, a docking station, and a ground data system (GDS). It is developed by the Human Exploration Telerobotics 2 (HET-2) Project, which began in Oct. 2014, and will deliver the Astrobees for launch to ISS in 2017. This paper covers selected aspects of the Astrobee design, focusing on capabilities relevant to potential users of the platform.

  12. Large-size space debris flyby in low earth orbits (United States)

    Baranov, A. A.; Grishko, D. A.; Razoumny, Y. N.


    the analysis of NORAD catalogue of space objects executed with respect to the overall sizes of upper-stages and last stages of carrier rockets allows the classification of 5 groups of large-size space debris (LSSD). These groups are defined according to the proximity of orbital inclinations of the involved objects. The orbits within a group have various values of deviations in the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN). It is proposed to use the RAANs deviations' evolution portrait to clarify the orbital planes' relative spatial distribution in a group so that the RAAN deviations should be calculated with respect to the concrete precessing orbital plane of the concrete object. In case of the first three groups (inclinations i = 71°, i = 74°, i = 81°) the straight lines of the RAAN relative deviations almost do not intersect each other. So the simple, successive flyby of group's elements is effective, but the significant value of total Δ V is required to form drift orbits. In case of the fifth group (Sun-synchronous orbits) these straight lines chaotically intersect each other for many times due to the noticeable differences in values of semi-major axes and orbital inclinations. The intersections' existence makes it possible to create such a flyby sequence for LSSD group when the orbit of one LSSD object simultaneously serves as the drift orbit to attain another LSSD object. This flyby scheme requiring less Δ V was called "diagonal." The RAANs deviations' evolution portrait built for the fourth group (to be studied in the paper) contains both types of lines, so the simultaneous combination of diagonal and successive flyby schemes is possible. The value of total Δ V and temporal costs were calculated to cover all the elements of the 4th group. The article is also enriched by the results obtained for the flyby problem solution in case of all the five mentioned LSSD groups. The general recommendations are given concerned with the required reserve of total

  13. wayGoo: a platform for geolocating and managing indoor and outdoor spaces (United States)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.; Karafylli, Christina; Karafylli, Maria; Motos, Dionysis; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Dimitros, Kostantinos; Margonis, Christos


    wayGoo2 is a platform for Geolocating and Managing indoor and outdoor spaces and content with multidimensional indoor and outdoor Navigation and Guidance. Its main components are a Geographic Information System, a back-end server, front-end applications and a web-based Content Management System (CMS). It constitutes a fully integrated 2D/3D space and content management system that creates a repository that consists of a database, content components and administrative data. wayGoo can connect to any third party database and event management data-source. The platform is secure as the data is only available through a Restful web service using https security protocol in conjunction with an API key used for authentication. To enhance users experience, wayGoo makes the content available by extracting components out of the repository and constructing targeted applications. The wayGoo platform supports geo-referencing of indoor and outdoor information and use of metadata. It also allows the use of existing information such as maps and databases. The platform enables planning through integration of content that is connected either spatially, temporally or contextually, and provides immediate access to all spatial data through interfaces and interactive 2D and 3D representations. wayGoo constitutes a mean to document and preserve assets through computerized techniques and provides a system that enhances the protection of your space, people and guests when combined with wayGoo notification and alert system. It constitutes a strong marketing tool providing staff and visitors with an immersive tool for navigation in indoor spaces and allowing users to organize their agenda and to discover events through wayGoo event scheduler and recommendation system. Furthermore, the wayGoo platform can be used in Security applications and event management, e.g. CBRNE incidents, man-made and natural disasters, etc., to document and geolocate information and sensor data (off line and real time

  14. Benchmarking processes for managing large international space programs (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt C., Jr.; Duke, Michael B.


    The relationship between management style and program costs is analyzed to determine the feasibility of financing large international space missions. The incorporation of management systems is considered to be essential to realizing low cost spacecraft and planetary surface systems. Several companies ranging from large Lockheed 'Skunk Works' to small companies including Space Industries, Inc., Rocket Research Corp., and Orbital Sciences Corp. were studied. It is concluded that to lower the prices, the ways in which spacecraft and hardware are developed must be changed. Benchmarking of successful low cost space programs has revealed a number of prescriptive rules for low cost managements, including major changes in the relationships between the public and private sectors.

  15. An Enhanced Inverter Controller for PV Applications Using the dSPACE Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Hannan


    Full Text Available This paper presents the simulation modeling and prototype development of an inverter controller for photovoltaic (PV applications using the dSPACE DS1104 controller platform. The controller platform can link the simulation model developed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment to its prototype hardware. In the dSPACE controller, the voltage regulator controls the inverter by employing a proportional integral (PI controller and the Park transformation method to generate sinusoidal pulse-width modulation (SPWM signals. The SPWM signals switch the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT to stabilize the 50-Hz sinusoidal AC output voltages of the inverter. The simulation was performed with a DC power supply that acts as the PV generator to supply the power to the inverter. The simulation model was then translated into the inverter prototype using the dSPACE platform and tested in the laboratory to prove the efficacy of the proposed controller. The experimental results for the inverter system demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed control strategy by maintaining the THD of the output voltage at 4.6%.

  16. GeneLab: NASA's Open Access, Collaborative Platform for Systems Biology and Space Medicine (United States)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Thompson, Terri G.; Fogle, Homer W.; Rask, Jon C.; Coughlan, Joseph C.


    NASA is investing in GeneLab1 (, a multi-year effort to maximize utilization of the limited resources to conduct biological and medical research in space, principally aboard the International Space Station (ISS). High-throughput genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic or other omics analyses from experiments conducted on the ISS will be stored in the GeneLab Data Systems (GLDS), an open-science information system that will also include a biocomputation platform with collaborative science capabilities, to enable the discovery and validation of molecular networks.

  17. Nonterrestrial material processing and manufacturing of large space systems (United States)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G.


    Nonterrestrial processing of materials and manufacturing of large space system components from preprocessed lunar materials at a manufacturing site in space is described. Lunar materials mined and preprocessed at the lunar resource complex will be flown to the space manufacturing facility (SMF), where together with supplementary terrestrial materials, they will be final processed and fabricated into space communication systems, solar cell blankets, radio frequency generators, and electrical equipment. Satellite Power System (SPS) material requirements and lunar material availability and utilization are detailed, and the SMF processing, refining, fabricating facilities, material flow and manpower requirements are described.

  18. Potential large missions enabled by NASA's space launch system (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David A.; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.


    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  19. Potential Large Decadal Missions Enabled by Nasas Space Launch System (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David Alan; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.


    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  20. High Altitude Balloons as a Platform for Space Radiation Belt Science (United States)

    Mazzino, L.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Johnson, W.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB)


    The goals of the University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons Program (UA-HAB) are to i) use low cost balloons to address space radiation science, and ii) to utilise the excitement of "space mission" involvement to promote and facilitate the recruitment of undergraduate and graduate students in physics, engineering, and atmospheric sciences to pursue careers in space science and engineering. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB) is a unique opportunity for University of Alberta students (undergraduate and graduate) to engage in the hands-on design, development, build, test and flight of a payload to operate on a high altitude balloon at around 30km altitude. The program development, including formal design and acceptance tests, reports and reviews, mirror those required in the development of an orbital satellite mission. This enables the students to gain a unique insight into how space missions are flown. UA-HAB is a one and half year program that offers a gateway into a high-altitude balloon mission through hands on experience, and builds skills for students who may be attracted to participate in future space missions in their careers. This early education will provide students with the experience necessary to better assess opportunities for pursuing a career in space science. Balloons offer a low-cost alternative to other suborbital platforms which can be used to address radiation belt science goals. In particular, the participants of this program have written grant proposal to secure funds for this project, have launched several 'weather balloon missions', and have designed, built, tested, and launched their particle detector called "Maple Leaf Particle Detector". This detector was focussed on monitoring cosmic rays and space radiation using shielded Geiger tubes, and was flown as one of the payloads from the institutions participating in the High Altitude Student Platform (HASP), organized by the Louisiana State University and the Louisiana

  1. Quantum Monte Carlo for large chemical systems: implementing efficient strategies for peta scale platforms and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scemama, Anthony; Caffarel, Michel; Oseret, Emmanuel; Jalby, William


    Various strategies to implement efficiently quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations for large chemical systems are presented. These include: (i) the introduction of an efficient algorithm to calculate the computationally expensive Slater matrices. This novel scheme is based on the use of the highly localized character of atomic Gaussian basis functions (not the molecular orbitals as usually done), (ii) the possibility of keeping the memory footprint minimal, (iii) the important enhancement of single-core performance when efficient optimization tools are used, and (iv) the definition of a universal, dynamic, fault-tolerant, and load-balanced framework adapted to all kinds of computational platforms (massively parallel machines, clusters, or distributed grids). These strategies have been implemented in the QMC-Chem code developed at Toulouse and illustrated with numerical applications on small peptides of increasing sizes (158, 434, 1056, and 1731 electrons). Using 10-80 k computing cores of the Curie machine (GENCI-TGCC-CEA, France), QMC-Chem has been shown to be capable of running at the peta scale level, thus demonstrating that for this machine a large part of the peak performance can be achieved. Implementation of large-scale QMC simulations for future exa scale platforms with a comparable level of efficiency is expected to be feasible. (authors)

  2. Cloud-based bioinformatics workflow platform for large-scale next-generation sequencing analyses. (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Madduri, Ravi K; Sotomayor, Borja; Chard, Kyle; Lacinski, Lukasz; Dave, Utpal J; Li, Jianqiang; Liu, Chunchen; Foster, Ian T


    Due to the upcoming data deluge of genome data, the need for storing and processing large-scale genome data, easy access to biomedical analyses tools, efficient data sharing and retrieval has presented significant challenges. The variability in data volume results in variable computing and storage requirements, therefore biomedical researchers are pursuing more reliable, dynamic and convenient methods for conducting sequencing analyses. This paper proposes a Cloud-based bioinformatics workflow platform for large-scale next-generation sequencing analyses, which enables reliable and highly scalable execution of sequencing analyses workflows in a fully automated manner. Our platform extends the existing Galaxy workflow system by adding data management capabilities for transferring large quantities of data efficiently and reliably (via Globus Transfer), domain-specific analyses tools preconfigured for immediate use by researchers (via user-specific tools integration), automatic deployment on Cloud for on-demand resource allocation and pay-as-you-go pricing (via Globus Provision), a Cloud provisioning tool for auto-scaling (via HTCondor scheduler), and the support for validating the correctness of workflows (via semantic verification tools). Two bioinformatics workflow use cases as well as performance evaluation are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Life Science Research in Outer Space: New Platform Technologies for Low-Cost, Autonomous Small Satellite Missions (United States)

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Parra, Macarena P.; Niesel, David; McGinnis, Michael; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Nicholson, Wayne; Mancinelli, Rocco; Piccini, Matthew E.; Beasley, Christopher C.; Timucin, Linda R.; hide


    We develop integrated instruments and platforms suitable for economical, frequent space access for autonomous life science experiments and processes in outer space. The technologies represented by three of our recent free-flyer small-satellite missions are the basis of a rapidly growing toolbox of miniaturized biologically/biochemically-oriented instrumentation now enabling a new generation of in-situ space experiments. Autonomous small satellites ( 1 50 kg) are less expensive to develop and build than fullsize spacecraft and not subject to the comparatively high costs and scheduling challenges of human-tended experimentation on the International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and comparable platforms. A growing number of commercial, government, military, and civilian space launches now carry small secondary science payloads at far lower cost than dedicated missions; the number of opportunities is particularly large for so-called cube-sat and multicube satellites in the 1 10 kg range. The recent explosion in nano-, micro-, and miniature technologies, spanning fields from telecommunications to materials to bio/chemical analysis, enables development of remarkably capable autonomous miniaturized instruments to accomplish remote biological experimentation. High-throughput drug discovery, point-of-care medical diagnostics, and genetic analysis are applications driving rapid progress in autonomous bioanalytical technology. Three of our recent missions exemplify the development of miniaturized analytical payload instrumentation: GeneSat-1 (launched: December 2006), PharmaSat (launched: May 2009), and O/OREOS (organism/organics exposure to orbital stresses; scheduled launch: May 2010). We will highlight the overall architecture and integration of fluidic, optical, sensor, thermal, and electronic technologies and subsystems to support and monitor the growth of microorganisms in culture in these small autonomous space satellites, including real-time tracking of their culture

  4. Nuclear spectroscopy in large shell model spaces: recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kota, V.K.B.


    Three different approaches are now available for carrying out nuclear spectroscopy studies in large shell model spaces and they are: (i) the conventional shell model diagonalization approach but taking into account new advances in computer technology; (ii) the recently introduced Monte Carlo method for the shell model; (iii) the spectral averaging theory, based on central limit theorems, in indefinitely large shell model spaces. The various principles, recent applications and possibilities of these three methods are described and the similarity between the Monte Carlo method and the spectral averaging theory is emphasized. (author). 28 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  5. An end-to-end microfluidic platform for engineering life supporting microbes in space exploration missions, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HJ Science & Technology proposes a programmable, low-cost, and compact microfluidic platform capable of running automated end-to-end processes and optimization...

  6. Hierarchical approach to optimization of parallel matrix multiplication on large-scale platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hasanov, Khalid


    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Many state-of-the-art parallel algorithms, which are widely used in scientific applications executed on high-end computing systems, were designed in the twentieth century with relatively small-scale parallelism in mind. Indeed, while in 1990s a system with few hundred cores was considered a powerful supercomputer, modern top supercomputers have millions of cores. In this paper, we present a hierarchical approach to optimization of message-passing parallel algorithms for execution on large-scale distributed-memory systems. The idea is to reduce the communication cost by introducing hierarchy and hence more parallelism in the communication scheme. We apply this approach to SUMMA, the state-of-the-art parallel algorithm for matrix–matrix multiplication, and demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that the modified Hierarchical SUMMA significantly improves the communication cost and the overall performance on large-scale platforms.

  7. Integrated numerical platforms for environmental dose assessments of large tritium inventory facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, P.; Ardao, J.; Velarde, M.; Sedano, L.; Xiberta, J.


    Related with a prospected new scenario of large inventory tritium facilities [KATRIN at TLK, CANDUs, ITER, EAST, other coming] the prescribed dosimetric limits by ICRP-60 for tritium committed-doses are under discussion requiring, in parallel, to surmount the highly conservative assessments by increasing the refinement of dosimetric-assessments in many aspects. Precise Lagrangian-computations of dosimetric cloud-evolution after standardized (normal/incidental/SBO) tritium cloud emissions are today numerically open to the perfect match of real-time meteorological-data, and patterns data at diverse scales for prompt/early and chronic tritium dose assessments. The trends towards integrated-numerical-platforms for environmental-dose assessments of large tritium inventory facilities under development.

  8. Effects of Turbine Spacings in Very Large Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    farm. LES simulations of large wind farms are performed with full aero-elastic Actuator Lines. The simulations investigate the inherent dynamics inside wind farms in the absence of atmospheric turbulence compared to cases with atmospheric turbulence. Resulting low frequency structures are inherent...... in wind farms for certain turbine spacings and affect both power production and loads...

  9. Shell model in large spaces and statistical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kota, V.K.B.


    For many nuclear structure problems of current interest it is essential to deal with shell model in large spaces. For this, three different approaches are now in use and two of them are: (i) the conventional shell model diagonalization approach but taking into account new advances in computer technology; (ii) the shell model Monte Carlo method. A brief overview of these two methods is given. Large space shell model studies raise fundamental questions regarding the information content of the shell model spectrum of complex nuclei. This led to the third approach- the statistical spectroscopy methods. The principles of statistical spectroscopy have their basis in nuclear quantum chaos and they are described (which are substantiated by large scale shell model calculations) in some detail. (author)

  10. ISS External Payload Platform - a new opportunity for research in the space environment (United States)

    Steimle, Christian; Pape, Uwe

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a widely accepted platform for research activities in low Earth orbit. To a wide extent these activities are conducted in the pressurised laboratories of the station and less in the outside environment. Suitable locations outside the ISS are rare, existing facilities fully booked for the coming years. To overcome this limitation, an external payload platform accessible for small size payloads on a commercial basis will be launched to the ISS and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module External Facility (JEM-EF) in the third quarter of 2014 and will be ready to be used by the scientific community on a fully commercial basis. The new External Payload Platform (EPP) and its opportunities and constraints assessed regarding future research activities on-board the ISS. The small size platform is realised in a cooperation between the companies NanoRacks, Astrium North America in the United States, and Airbus Defence and Space in Germany. The hardware allows the fully robotic installation and operation of payloads. In the nominal mission scenario payload items are installed not later than one year after the signature of the contract, stay in operation for 15 weeks, and can be returned to the scientist thereafter. Payload items are transported among the pressurised cargo usually delivered to the station with various supply vehicles. Due to the high frequency of flights and the flexibility of the vehicle manifests the risk of a delay in the payload readiness can be mitigated by delaying to the next flight opportunity which on average is available not more than two months later. The mission is extra-ordinarily fast and of low cost in comparison to traditional research conducted on-board the ISS and can fit into short-term funding cycles available on national and multi-national levels. The size of the payload items is limited by handling constraints on-board the ISS. Therefore, the standard experiment payload size is a multiple of a

  11. Extra-large letter spacing improves reading in dyslexia (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Barbiero, Chiara; Facoetti, Andrea; Lonciari, Isabella; Carrozzi, Marco; Montico, Marcella; Bravar, Laura; George, Florence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C.


    Although the causes of dyslexia are still debated, all researchers agree that the main challenge is to find ways that allow a child with dyslexia to read more words in less time, because reading more is undisputedly the most efficient intervention for dyslexia. Sophisticated training programs exist, but they typically target the component skills of reading, such as phonological awareness. After the component skills have improved, the main challenge remains (that is, reading deficits must be treated by reading more—a vicious circle for a dyslexic child). Here, we show that a simple manipulation of letter spacing substantially improved text reading performance on the fly (without any training) in a large, unselected sample of Italian and French dyslexic children. Extra-large letter spacing helps reading, because dyslexics are abnormally affected by crowding, a perceptual phenomenon with detrimental effects on letter recognition that is modulated by the spacing between letters. Extra-large letter spacing may help to break the vicious circle by rendering the reading material more easily accessible. PMID:22665803

  12. Multilevel microvibration test for performance predictions of a space optical load platform (United States)

    Li, Shiqi; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Shiping; Wang, Yue


    This paper presents a framework for the multilevel microvibration analysis and test of a space optical load platform. The test framework is conducted on three levels, including instrument, subsystem, and system level. Disturbance source experimental investigations are performed to evaluate the vibration amplitude and study vibration mechanism. Transfer characteristics of space camera are validated by a subsystem test, which allows the calculation of transfer functions from various disturbance sources to optical performance outputs. In order to identify the influence of the source on the spacecraft performance, a system level microvibration measurement test has been performed on the ground. From the time domain analysis and spectrum analysis of multilevel microvibration tests, we concluded that the disturbance source has a significant effect on its installation position. After transmitted through mechanical links, the residual vibration reduces to a background noise level. In addition, the angular microvibration of the platform jitter is mainly concentrated in the rotation of y-axes. This work is applied to a real practical application involving the high resolution satellite camera system.

  13. Kameleon Live: An Interactive Cloud Based Analysis and Visualization Platform for Space Weather Researchers (United States)

    Pembroke, A. D.; Colbert, J. A.


    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) provides hosting for many of the simulations used by the space weather community of scientists, educators, and forecasters. CCMC users may submit model runs through the Runs on Request system, which produces static visualizations of model output in the browser, while further analysis may be performed off-line via Kameleon, CCMC's cross-language access and interpolation library. Off-line analysis may be suitable for power-users, but storage and coding requirements present a barrier to entry for non-experts. Moreover, a lack of a consistent framework for analysis hinders reproducibility of scientific findings. To that end, we have developed Kameleon Live, a cloud based interactive analysis and visualization platform. Kameleon Live allows users to create scientific studies built around selected runs from the Runs on Request database, perform analysis on those runs, collaborate with other users, and disseminate their findings among the space weather community. In addition to showcasing these novel collaborative analysis features, we invite feedback from CCMC users as we seek to advance and improve on the new platform.

  14. Power conditioning for large dc motors for space flight applications (United States)

    Veatch, Martin S.; Anderson, Paul M.; Eason, Douglas J.; Landis, David M.


    The design and performance of a prototype power-conditioning system for use with large brushless dc motors on NASA space missions are discussed in detail and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, and graphs. The 5-kW 8-phase parallel module evaluated here would be suitable for use in the Space Shuttle Orbiter cargo bay. A current-balancing magnetic assembly with low distributed inductance permits high-speed current switching from a low-voltage bus as well as current balancing between parallel MOSFETs.

  15. NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions (United States)

    Creech, Stephen A.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit. The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Fight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced propulsion technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability after 2021, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars, among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions destined to rewrite textbooks with the

  16. The TeraShake Computational Platform for Large-Scale Earthquake Simulations (United States)

    Cui, Yifeng; Olsen, Kim; Chourasia, Amit; Moore, Reagan; Maechling, Philip; Jordan, Thomas

    Geoscientific and computer science researchers with the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) are conducting a large-scale, physics-based, computationally demanding earthquake system science research program with the goal of developing predictive models of earthquake processes. The computational demands of this program continue to increase rapidly as these researchers seek to perform physics-based numerical simulations of earthquake processes for larger meet the needs of this research program, a multiple-institution team coordinated by SCEC has integrated several scientific codes into a numerical modeling-based research tool we call the TeraShake computational platform (TSCP). A central component in the TSCP is a highly scalable earthquake wave propagation simulation program called the TeraShake anelastic wave propagation (TS-AWP) code. In this chapter, we describe how we extended an existing, stand-alone, wellvalidated, finite-difference, anelastic wave propagation modeling code into the highly scalable and widely used TS-AWP and then integrated this code into the TeraShake computational platform that provides end-to-end (initialization to analysis) research capabilities. We also describe the techniques used to enhance the TS-AWP parallel performance on TeraGrid supercomputers, as well as the TeraShake simulations phases including input preparation, run time, data archive management, and visualization. As a result of our efforts to improve its parallel efficiency, the TS-AWP has now shown highly efficient strong scaling on over 40K processors on IBM’s BlueGene/L Watson computer. In addition, the TSCP has developed into a computational system that is useful to many members of the SCEC community for performing large-scale earthquake simulations.

  17. Optimal control of large space structures via generalized inverse matrix (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Fang, Xiaowen


    Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) is a control scheme that decouples the space structure into n independent second-order subsystems according to n controlled modes and controls each mode independently. It is well-known that the IMSC eliminates control and observation spillover caused when the conventional coupled modal control scheme is employed. The independent control of each mode requires that the number of actuators be equal to the number of modelled modes, which is very high for a faithful modeling of large space structures. A control scheme is proposed that allows one to use a reduced number of actuators to control all modeled modes suboptimally. In particular, the method of generalized inverse matrices is employed to implement the actuators such that the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system are as closed as possible to those specified by the optimal IMSC. Computer simulation of the proposed control scheme on a simply supported beam is given.

  18. Visualising very large phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberles David A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common existing phylogenetic tree visualisation tools are not able to display readable trees with more than a few thousand nodes. These existing methodologies are based in two dimensional space. Results We introduce the idea of visualising phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space with the Walrus graph visualisation tool and have developed a conversion tool that enables the conversion of standard phylogenetic tree formats to Walrus' format. With Walrus, it becomes possible to visualise and navigate phylogenetic trees with more than 100,000 nodes. Conclusion Walrus enables desktop visualisation of very large phylogenetic trees in 3 dimensional hyperbolic space. This application is potentially useful for visualisation of the tree of life and for functional genomics derivatives, like The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED.

  19. Lagrangian space consistency relation for large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Bart; Hui, Lam; Xiao, Xiao


    Consistency relations, which relate the squeezed limit of an (N+1)-point correlation function to an N-point function, are non-perturbative symmetry statements that hold even if the associated high momentum modes are deep in the nonlinear regime and astrophysically complex. Recently, Kehagias and Riotto and Peloso and Pietroni discovered a consistency relation applicable to large scale structure. We show that this can be recast into a simple physical statement in Lagrangian space: that the squeezed correlation function (suitably normalized) vanishes. This holds regardless of whether the correlation observables are at the same time or not, and regardless of whether multiple-streaming is present. The simplicity of this statement suggests that an analytic understanding of large scale structure in the nonlinear regime may be particularly promising in Lagrangian space

  20. A Web-based Distributed Voluntary Computing Platform for Large Scale Hydrological Computations (United States)

    Demir, I.; Agliamzanov, R.


    Distributed volunteer computing can enable researchers and scientist to form large parallel computing environments to utilize the computing power of the millions of computers on the Internet, and use them towards running large scale environmental simulations and models to serve the common good of local communities and the world. Recent developments in web technologies and standards allow client-side scripting languages to run at speeds close to native application, and utilize the power of Graphics Processing Units (GPU). Using a client-side scripting language like JavaScript, we have developed an open distributed computing framework that makes it easy for researchers to write their own hydrologic models, and run them on volunteer computers. Users will easily enable their websites for visitors to volunteer sharing their computer resources to contribute running advanced hydrological models and simulations. Using a web-based system allows users to start volunteering their computational resources within seconds without installing any software. The framework distributes the model simulation to thousands of nodes in small spatial and computational sizes. A relational database system is utilized for managing data connections and queue management for the distributed computing nodes. In this paper, we present a web-based distributed volunteer computing platform to enable large scale hydrological simulations and model runs in an open and integrated environment.

  1. ESA's Food Security Thematic Exploitation Platform "Supporting Sustainable Food Production from Space" (United States)

    Gilliams, S. J.


    In line with the paradigm shift in Earth Observation of "Bringing the users to the data", ESA provides collaborative, virtual work environments giving access to EO data and tools, processors, and ICT resources through coherent interfaces. These coherent interfaces are categorized thematically, tailored to the related user communities and named Thematic Exploitation Platforms (TEP). The Food Security Thematic Exploitation Platform (FS-TEP) is the youngest out of seven TEPs and is developed in an agile mode in close coordination with its users. It will provide a "one stop platform" for the extraction of information from EO data for services in the food security sector mainly in Europe & Africa, allowing both access to EO data and processing of these data sets. Thereby it will foster smart, data-intensive agricultural and aquacultural applications in the scientific, private and public domain. The FS-TEP builds on a large and heterogeneous user community, spanning from application developers in agriculture to aquaculture, from small-scale farmers to agricultural industry, from public science to the finance and insurance sectors, from local and national administration to international agencies. To meet the requirements of these groups, the FS-TEP will provide different frontend interfaces. Service pilots will demonstrate the platform's ability to support agriculture and aquaculture with tailored EO based information services.The project team developing the FS-TEP and implementing pilot services during a 30 months period (started in April 2017) is led by Vista GmbH, Germany, supported by CGI Italy, VITO, Belgium, and Hatfield Consultants, Canada. It is funded by ESA under contract number 4000120074/17/I-EF.

  2. Model Experiments for the Determination of Airflow in Large Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Model experiments are one of the methods used for the determination of airflow in large spaces. This paper will discuss the formation of the governing dimensionless numbers. It is shown that experiments with a reduced scale often will necessitate a fully developed turbulence level of the flow....... Details of the flow from supply openings are very important for the determination of room air distribution. It is in some cases possible to make a simplified supply opening for the model experiment....

  3. On the possibility of large axion moduli spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudelius, Tom [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    We study the diameters of axion moduli spaces, focusing primarily on type IIB compactifications on Calabi-Yau three-folds. In this case, we derive a stringent bound on the diameter in the large volume region of parameter space for Calabi-Yaus with simplicial Kähler cone. This bound can be violated by Calabi-Yaus with non-simplicial Kähler cones, but additional contributions are introduced to the effective action which can restrict the field range accessible to the axions. We perform a statistical analysis of simulated moduli spaces, finding in all cases that these additional contributions restrict the diameter so that these moduli spaces are no more likely to yield successful inflation than those with simplicial Kähler cone or with far fewer axions. Further heuristic arguments for axions in other corners of the duality web suggest that the difficulty observed in of finding an axion decay constant parametrically larger than M{sub p} applies not only to individual axions, but to the diagonals of axion moduli space as well. This observation is shown to follow from the weak gravity conjecture of, so it likely applies not only to axions in string theory, but also to axions in any consistent theory of quantum gravity.

  4. Precision Optical Coatings for Large Space Telescope Mirrors (United States)

    Sheikh, David

    This proposal “Precision Optical Coatings for Large Space Telescope Mirrors” addresses the need to develop and advance the state-of-the-art in optical coating technology. NASA is considering large monolithic mirrors 1 to 8-meters in diameter for future telescopes such as HabEx and LUVOIR. Improved large area coating processes are needed to meet the future requirements of large astronomical mirrors. In this project, we will demonstrate a broadband reflective coating process for achieving high reflectivity from 90-nm to 2500-nm over a 2.3-meter diameter coating area. The coating process is scalable to larger mirrors, 6+ meters in diameter. We will use a battery-driven coating process to make an aluminum reflector, and a motion-controlled coating technology for depositing protective layers. We will advance the state-of-the-art for coating technology and manufacturing infrastructure, to meet the reflectance and wavefront requirements of both HabEx and LUVOIR. Specifically, we will combine the broadband reflective coating designs and processes developed at GSFC and JPL with large area manufacturing technologies developed at ZeCoat Corporation. Our primary objectives are to: Demonstrate an aluminum coating process to create uniform coatings over large areas with near-theoretical aluminum reflectance Demonstrate a motion-controlled coating process to apply very precise 2-nm to 5- nm thick protective/interference layers to large areas, Demonstrate a broadband coating system (90-nm to 2500-nm) over a 2.3-meter coating area and test it against the current coating specifications for LUVOIR/HabEx. We will perform simulated space-environment testing, and we expect to advance the TRL from 3 to >5 in 3-years.

  5. Engagement, bonding, and identity across multiple platforms: Avaaz on Facebook, YouTube, and MySpace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Kavada


    Full Text Available This article explores the role of social media platforms in transnational activism by examining the case of, an international advocacy organization aiming to bring people-powered politics to global decision-making. Focusing on the Avaaz website, its channel on YouTube, its page on Facebook and its profile page on MySpace, the article investigates the affordances of these platforms for identity-building, bonding, and engagement. The empirical data is derived from features analysis of the selected web platforms, as well as textual analysis of the comments posted by users. The findings show that while social media platforms make individual voices more visible, their design helps Avaaz to maintain a coherent collective voice. In terms of bonding, platforms allow individual activists to communicate with the organization and to spread its message to their existing social networks, but opportunities for private interpersonal communication with other Avaaz supporters are limited.

  6. istar: a web platform for large-scale protein-ligand docking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjian Li

    Full Text Available Protein-ligand docking is a key computational method in the design of starting points for the drug discovery process. We are motivated by the desire to automate large-scale docking using our popular docking engine idock and thus have developed a publicly-accessible web platform called istar. Without tedious software installation, users can submit jobs using our website. Our istar website supports 1 filtering ligands by desired molecular properties and previewing the number of ligands to dock, 2 monitoring job progress in real time, and 3 visualizing ligand conformations and outputting free energy and ligand efficiency predicted by idock, binding affinity predicted by RF-Score, putative hydrogen bonds, and supplier information for easy purchase, three useful features commonly lacked on other online docking platforms like DOCK Blaster or iScreen. We have collected 17,224,424 ligands from the All Clean subset of the ZINC database, and revamped our docking engine idock to version 2.0, further improving docking speed and accuracy, and integrating RF-Score as an alternative rescoring function. To compare idock 2.0 with the state-of-the-art AutoDock Vina 1.1.2, we have carried out a rescoring benchmark and a redocking benchmark on the 2,897 and 343 protein-ligand complexes of PDBbind v2012 refined set and CSAR NRC HiQ Set 24Sept2010 respectively, and an execution time benchmark on 12 diverse proteins and 3,000 ligands of different molecular weight. Results show that, under various scenarios, idock achieves comparable success rates while outperforming AutoDock Vina in terms of docking speed by at least 8.69 times and at most 37.51 times. When evaluated on the PDBbind v2012 core set, our istar platform combining with RF-Score manages to reproduce Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's correlation coefficient of as high as 0.855 and 0.859 respectively between the experimental binding affinity and the predicted binding affinity of the docked

  7. istar: a web platform for large-scale protein-ligand docking. (United States)

    Li, Hongjian; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Ballester, Pedro J; Wong, Man-Hon


    Protein-ligand docking is a key computational method in the design of starting points for the drug discovery process. We are motivated by the desire to automate large-scale docking using our popular docking engine idock and thus have developed a publicly-accessible web platform called istar. Without tedious software installation, users can submit jobs using our website. Our istar website supports 1) filtering ligands by desired molecular properties and previewing the number of ligands to dock, 2) monitoring job progress in real time, and 3) visualizing ligand conformations and outputting free energy and ligand efficiency predicted by idock, binding affinity predicted by RF-Score, putative hydrogen bonds, and supplier information for easy purchase, three useful features commonly lacked on other online docking platforms like DOCK Blaster or iScreen. We have collected 17,224,424 ligands from the All Clean subset of the ZINC database, and revamped our docking engine idock to version 2.0, further improving docking speed and accuracy, and integrating RF-Score as an alternative rescoring function. To compare idock 2.0 with the state-of-the-art AutoDock Vina 1.1.2, we have carried out a rescoring benchmark and a redocking benchmark on the 2,897 and 343 protein-ligand complexes of PDBbind v2012 refined set and CSAR NRC HiQ Set 24Sept2010 respectively, and an execution time benchmark on 12 diverse proteins and 3,000 ligands of different molecular weight. Results show that, under various scenarios, idock achieves comparable success rates while outperforming AutoDock Vina in terms of docking speed by at least 8.69 times and at most 37.51 times. When evaluated on the PDBbind v2012 core set, our istar platform combining with RF-Score manages to reproduce Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's correlation coefficient of as high as 0.855 and 0.859 respectively between the experimental binding affinity and the predicted binding affinity of the docked conformation. istar

  8. Integrated System Design for a Large Wind Turbine Supported on a Moored Semi-Submersible Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Liu


    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, wind energy has emerged as an alternative to conventional power generation that is economical, environmentally friendly and, importantly, renewable. Specifically, offshore wind energy is being considered by a number of countries to harness the stronger and more consistent wind resource compared to that over land. To meet the projected “20% energy from wind by 2030” scenario that was announced in 2006, 54 GW of added wind energy capacity need to come from offshore according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL study. In this study, we discuss the development of a semi-submersible floating offshore platform with a catenary mooring system to support a very large 13.2-MW wind turbine with 100-m blades. An iterative design process is applied to baseline models with Froude scaling in order to achieve preliminary static stability. Structural dynamic analyses are performed to investigate the performance of the new model using a finite element method approach for the tower and a boundary integral equation (panel method for the platform. The steady-state response of the system under uniform wind and regular waves is first studied to evaluate the performance of the integrated system. Response amplitude operators (RAOs are computed in the time domain using white-noise wave excitation; this serves to highlight nonlinear, as well as dynamic characteristics of the system. Finally, selected design load cases (DLCs and the stochastic dynamic response of the system are studied to assess the global performance for sea states defined by wind fields with turbulence and long-crested irregular waves.

  9. Multistage stereotactic radiosurgery for large cerebral arteriovenous malformations using the Gamma Knife platform. (United States)

    Ding, Chuxiong; Hrycushko, Brian; Whitworth, Louis; Li, Xiang; Nedzi, Lucien; Weprin, Bradley; Abdulrahman, Ramzi; Welch, Babu; Jiang, Steve B; Wardak, Zabi; Timmerman, Robert D


    Radiosurgery is an established technique to treat cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Obliteration of larger AVMs (> 10-15 cm 3 or diameter > 3 cm) in a single session is challenging with current radiosurgery platforms due to toxicity. We present a novel technique of multistage stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for large intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) using the Gamma Knife system. Eighteen patients with large (> 10-15 cm 3 or diameter > 3 cm) AVMs, which were previously treated using a staged SRS technique on the Cyberknife platform, were retrospectively selected for this study. The AVMs were contoured and divided into 3-8 subtargets to be treated sequentially in a staged approach at half to 4 week intervals. The prescription dose ranged from 15 Gy to 20 Gy, depending on the subtarget number, volume, and location. Gamma Knife plans using multiple collimator settings were generated and optimized. The coordinates of each shot from the initial plan covering the total AVM target were extracted based on their relative positions within the frame system. The shots were regrouped based on their location with respect to the subtarget contours to generate subplans for each stage. The delivery time of each shot for a subtarget was decay corrected with 60 Co for staging the treatment course to generate the same dose distribution as that planned for the total AVM target. Conformality indices and dose-volume analysis were performed to evaluate treatment plans. With the shot redistribution technique, the composite dose for the multistaged treatment of multiple subtargets is equivalent to the initial plan for total AVM target. Gamma Knife plans resulted in an average PTV coverage of 96.3 ± 0.9% and a PITV of 1.23 ± 0.1. The resulting Conformality indices, V 12Gy and R 50 dose spillage values were 0.76 ± 0.05, 3.4 ± 1.8, and 3.1 ± 0.5 respectively. The Gamma Knife system can deliver a multistaged conformal dose to treat large AVMs when correcting for

  10. Use of Parallel Micro-Platform for the Simulation the Space Exploration (United States)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Velasco Herrera, Graciela; Rosano, Felipe Lara; Rodriguez Lozano, Salvador; Lucero Roldan Serrato, Karen

    The purpose of this work is to create a parallel micro-platform, that simulates the virtual movements of a space exploration in 3D. One of the innovations presented in this design consists of the application of a lever mechanism for the transmission of the movement. The development of such a robot is a challenging task very different of the industrial manipulators due to a totally different target system of requirements. This work presents the study and simulation, aided by computer, of the movement of this parallel manipulator. The development of this model has been developed using the platform of computer aided design Unigraphics, in which it was done the geometric modeled of each one of the components and end assembly (CAD), the generation of files for the computer aided manufacture (CAM) of each one of the pieces and the kinematics simulation of the system evaluating different driving schemes. We used the toolbox (MATLAB) of aerospace and create an adaptive control module to simulate the system.

  11. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures (United States)

    Gates, R. M.; Reid, G.


    The objectives studied are the definition of the tested role of an early Space Station for the construction of large space structures. This is accomplished by defining the LSS technology development missions (TDMs) identified in phase 1. Design and operations trade studies are used to identify the best structural concepts and procedures for each TDMs. Details of the TDM designs are then developed along with their operational requirements. Space Station resources required for each mission, both human and physical, are identified. The costs and development schedules for the TDMs provide an indication of the programs needed to develop these missions.

  12. Engaging Students in a Large-Enrollment Physics Class Using an Academically Focused Social Media Platform (United States)

    Gavrin, Andy; Lindell, Rebecca


    There are many reasons for an instructor to consider using social media, particularly in a large introductory course. Improved communications can lessen the sense of isolation some students feel in large classes, and students may be more likely to respond to faculty announce-ments in a form that is familiar and comfortable. Furthermore, many students currently establish social media sites for their classes, without the knowledge or participation of their instructors. Such "shadow" sites can be useful, but they can also become distributors of misinformation, or venues for inappropriate or disruptive discussions. CourseNetworking (CN) is a social media platform designed for the academic environment. It combines many features common among learning management systems (LMS's) with an interface that looks and feels more like Facebook than a typical academic system. We have recently begun using CN as a means to engage students in an introductory calculus-based mechanics class, with enrollments of 150-200 students per semester. This article presents basic features of CN, and details our initial experiences and observations.

  13. Camera memory study for large space telescope. [charge coupled devices (United States)

    Hoffman, C. P.; Brewer, J. E.; Brager, E. A.; Farnsworth, D. L.


    Specifications were developed for a memory system to be used as the storage media for camera detectors on the large space telescope (LST) satellite. Detectors with limited internal storage time such as intensities charge coupled devices and silicon intensified targets are implied. The general characteristics are reported of different approaches to the memory system with comparisons made within the guidelines set forth for the LST application. Priority ordering of comparisons is on the basis of cost, reliability, power, and physical characteristics. Specific rationales are provided for the rejection of unsuitable memory technologies. A recommended technology was selected and used to establish specifications for a breadboard memory. Procurement scheduling is provided for delivery of system breadboards in 1976, prototypes in 1978, and space qualified units in 1980.

  14. Investigation of Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles for Deep Space (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul


    Future NASA missions will focus on deep space and Mars surface operations with large structures necessary for transportation of crew and cargo. In addition to the challenges of manufacturing these large structures, there are added challenges from the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, electronics, and vehicle materials. Primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle and the elements inside the vehicle. These interactions lead to the primary radiation being absorbed or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high-energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, which can be significant enough to cause concern. In a previous paper, we embarked upon our first steps toward studying neutron production from large vehicles by validating our radiation transport codes for neutron environments against flight data. The following paper will extend the previous work to focus on the deep space environment and the resulting neutron flux from large vehicles in this deep space environment.

  15. Photoluminescence in large fluence radiation irradiated space silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Osamu; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Tsukamoto, Kazuyoshi


    Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were carried out for silicon 50{mu}m BSFR space solar cells irradiated with 1MeV electrons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 16} e/cm{sup 2} and 10MeV protons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}. The results were compared with the previous result performed in a relative low fluence region, and the radiation-induced defects which cause anomalous degradation of the cell performance in such large fluence regions were discussed. As far as we know, this is the first report which presents the PL measurement results at 4.2K of the large fluence radiation irradiated silicon solar cells. (author)

  16. Didactic satellite based on Android platform for space operation demonstration and development (United States)

    Ben Bahri, Omar; Besbes, Kamel


    Space technology plays a pivotal role in society development. It offers new methods for telemetry, monitoring and control. However, this sector requires training, research and skills development but the lack of instruments, materials and budgets affects the ambiguity to understand satellite technology. The objective of this paper is to describe a demonstration prototype of a smart phone device for space operations study. Therefore, the first task was carried out to give a demonstration for spatial imagery and attitude determination missions through a wireless communication. The smart phone's Bluetooth was used to achieve this goal inclusive of a new method to enable real time transmission. In addition, an algorithm around a quaternion based Kalman filter was included in order to detect the reliability of the prototype's orientation. The second task was carried out to provide a demonstration for the attitude control mission using the smart phone's orientation sensor, including a new method for an autonomous guided mode. As a result, the acquisition platform showed real time measurement with good accuracy for orientation detection and image transmission. In addition, the prototype kept the balance during the demonstration based on the attitude control method.

  17. Large-scale machine learning and evaluation platform for real-time traffic surveillance (United States)

    Eichel, Justin A.; Mishra, Akshaya; Miller, Nicholas; Jankovic, Nicholas; Thomas, Mohan A.; Abbott, Tyler; Swanson, Douglas; Keller, Joel


    In traffic engineering, vehicle detectors are trained on limited datasets, resulting in poor accuracy when deployed in real-world surveillance applications. Annotating large-scale high-quality datasets is challenging. Typically, these datasets have limited diversity; they do not reflect the real-world operating environment. There is a need for a large-scale, cloud-based positive and negative mining process and a large-scale learning and evaluation system for the application of automatic traffic measurements and classification. The proposed positive and negative mining process addresses the quality of crowd sourced ground truth data through machine learning review and human feedback mechanisms. The proposed learning and evaluation system uses a distributed cloud computing framework to handle data-scaling issues associated with large numbers of samples and a high-dimensional feature space. The system is trained using AdaBoost on 1,000,000 Haar-like features extracted from 70,000 annotated video frames. The trained real-time vehicle detector achieves an accuracy of at least 95% for 1/2 and about 78% for 19/20 of the time when tested on ˜7,500,000 video frames. At the end of 2016, the dataset is expected to have over 1 billion annotated video frames.

  18. EFT of large scale structures in redshift space (United States)

    Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo; Prada, Francisco; Zhao, Cheng; Chuang, Chia-Hsun


    We further develop the description of redshift-space distortions within the effective field theory of large scale structures. First, we generalize the counterterms to include the effect of baryonic physics and primordial non-Gaussianity. Second, we evaluate the IR resummation of the dark matter power spectrum in redshift space. This requires us to identify a controlled approximation that makes the numerical evaluation straightforward and efficient. Third, we compare the predictions of the theory at one loop with the power spectrum from numerical simulations up to ℓ=6 . We find that the IR resummation allows us to correctly reproduce the baryon acoustic oscillation peak. The k reach—or, equivalently, the precision for a given k —depends on additional counterterms that need to be matched to simulations. Since the nonlinear scale for the velocity is expected to be longer than the one for the overdensity, we consider a minimal and a nonminimal set of counterterms. The quality of our numerical data makes it hard to firmly establish the performance of the theory at high wave numbers. Within this limitation, we find that the theory at redshift z =0.56 and up to ℓ=2 matches the data at the percent level approximately up to k ˜0.13 h Mpc-1 or k ˜0.18 h Mpc-1 , depending on the number of counterterms used, with a potentially large improvement over former analytical techniques.

  19. High-Throughput Tabular Data Processor - Platform independent graphical tool for processing large data sets. (United States)

    Madanecki, Piotr; Bałut, Magdalena; Buckley, Patrick G; Ochocka, J Renata; Bartoszewski, Rafał; Crossman, David K; Messiaen, Ludwine M; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz


    High-throughput technologies generate considerable amount of data which often requires bioinformatic expertise to analyze. Here we present High-Throughput Tabular Data Processor (HTDP), a platform independent Java program. HTDP works on any character-delimited column data (e.g. BED, GFF, GTF, PSL, WIG, VCF) from multiple text files and supports merging, filtering and converting of data that is produced in the course of high-throughput experiments. HTDP can also utilize itemized sets of conditions from external files for complex or repetitive filtering/merging tasks. The program is intended to aid global, real-time processing of large data sets using a graphical user interface (GUI). Therefore, no prior expertise in programming, regular expression, or command line usage is required of the user. Additionally, no a priori assumptions are imposed on the internal file composition. We demonstrate the flexibility and potential of HTDP in real-life research tasks including microarray and massively parallel sequencing, i.e. identification of disease predisposing variants in the next generation sequencing data as well as comprehensive concurrent analysis of microarray and sequencing results. We also show the utility of HTDP in technical tasks including data merge, reduction and filtering with external criteria files. HTDP was developed to address functionality that is missing or rudimentary in other GUI software for processing character-delimited column data from high-throughput technologies. Flexibility, in terms of input file handling, provides long term potential functionality in high-throughput analysis pipelines, as the program is not limited by the currently existing applications and data formats. HTDP is available as the Open Source software (

  20. A future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs (United States)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice


    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  1. Advanced Mirror Technology Development for Very Large Space Telescopes (United States)

    Stahl, H. P.


    Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology project to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. The developed mirror technology must enable missions capable of both general astrophysics & ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets. Just as JWST’s architecture was driven by launch vehicle, a future UVOIR mission’s architectures (monolithic, segmented or interferometric) will depend on capacities of future launch vehicles (and budget). Since we cannot predict the future, we must prepare for all potential futures. Therefore, to provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We derived engineering specifications for potential future monolithic or segmented space telescopes based on science needs and implement constraints. And we are maturing six inter-linked critical technologies to enable potential future large aperture UVOIR space telescope: 1) Large-Aperture, Low Areal Density, High Stiffness Mirrors, 2) Support Systems, 3) Mid/High Spatial Frequency Figure Error, 4) Segment Edges, 5) Segment-to-Segment Gap Phasing, and 6) Integrated Model Validation Science Advisory Team and a Systems Engineering Team. We are maturing all six technologies simultaneously because all are required to make a primary mirror assembly (PMA); and, it is the PMA’s on-orbit performance which determines science return. PMA stiffness depends on substrate and support stiffness. Ability to cost-effectively eliminate mid/high spatial figure errors and polishing edges depends on substrate stiffness. On-orbit thermal and mechanical performance depends on substrate stiffness, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and thermal mass. And, segment-to-segment phasing depends on substrate & structure stiffness

  2. Creating a Discovery Platform for Confined-Space Chemistry and Materials: Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Simmons, Blake


    Metal organic frameworks (MOF) are a recently discovered class of nanoporous, defect-free crystalline materials that enable rational design and exploration of porous materials at the molecular level. MOFs have tunable monolithic pore sizes and cavity environments due to their crystalline nature, yielding properties exceeding those of most other porous materials. These include: the lowest known density (91% free space); highest surface area; tunable photoluminescence; selective molecular adsorption; and methane sorption rivaling gas cylinders. These properties are achieved by coupling inorganic metal complexes such as ZnO4 with tunable organic ligands that serve as struts, allowing facile manipulation of pore size and surface area through reactant selection. MOFs thus provide a discovery platform for generating both new understanding of chemistry in confined spaces and novel sensors and devices based on their unique properties. At the outset of this project in FY06, virtually nothing was known about how to couple MOFs to substrates and the science of MOF properties and how to tune them was in its infancy. An integrated approach was needed to establish the required knowledge base for nanoscale design and develop methodologies integrate MOFs with other materials. This report summarizes the key accomplishments of this project, which include creation of a new class of radiation detection materials based on MOFs, luminescent MOFs for chemical detection, use of MOFs as templates to create nanoparticles of hydrogen storage materials, MOF coatings for stress-based chemical detection using microcantilevers, and "flexible" force fields that account for structural changes in MOFs that occur upon molecular adsorption/desorption. Eight journal articles, twenty presentations at scientific conferences, and two patent applications resulted from the work. The project created a basis for continuing development of MOFs for many Sandia applications and succeeded in securing $2.75 M in

  3. Large Scale System Safety Integration for Human Rated Space Vehicles (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.


    Since the 1960s man has searched for ways to establish a human presence in space. Unfortunately, the development and operation of human spaceflight vehicles carry significant safety risks that are not always well understood. As a result, the countries with human space programs have felt the pain of loss of lives in the attempt to develop human space travel systems. Integrated System Safety is a process developed through years of experience (since before Apollo and Soyuz) as a way to assess risks involved in space travel and prevent such losses. The intent of Integrated System Safety is to take a look at an entire program and put together all the pieces in such a way that the risks can be identified, understood and dispositioned by program management. This process has many inherent challenges and they need to be explored, understood and addressed.In order to prepare truly integrated analysis safety professionals must gain a level of technical understanding of all of the project's pieces and how they interact. Next, they must find a way to present the analysis so the customer can understand the risks and make decisions about managing them. However, every organization in a large-scale project can have different ideas about what is or is not a hazard, what is or is not an appropriate hazard control, and what is or is not adequate hazard control verification. NASA provides some direction on these topics, but interpretations of those instructions can vary widely.Even more challenging is the fact that every individual/organization involved in a project has different levels of risk tolerance. When the discrete hazard controls of the contracts and agreements cannot be met, additional risk must be accepted. However, when one has left the arena of compliance with the known rules, there can be no longer be specific ground rules on which to base a decision as to what is acceptable and what is not. The integrator must find common grounds between all parties to achieve

  4. Visualisation methods for large provenance collections in data-intensive collaborative platforms (United States)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Fligueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm; Gemuend, Andre


    This work investigates improving the methods of visually representing provenance information in the context of modern data-driven scientific research. It explores scenarios where data-intensive workflows systems are serving communities of researchers within collaborative environments, supporting the sharing of data and methods, and offering a variety of computation facilities, including HPC, HTC and Cloud. It focuses on the exploration of big-data visualization techniques aiming at producing comprehensive and interactive views on top of large and heterogeneous provenance data. The same approach is applicable to control-flow and data-flow workflows or to combinations of the two. This flexibility is achieved using the W3C-PROV recommendation as a reference model, especially its workflow oriented profiles such as D-PROV (Messier et al. 2013). Our implementation is based on the provenance records produced by the dispel4py data-intensive processing library (Filgueira et al. 2015). dispel4py is an open-source Python framework for describing abstract stream-based workflows for distributed data-intensive applications, developed during the VERCE project. dispel4py enables scientists to develop their scientific methods and applications on their laptop and then run them at scale on a wide range of e-Infrastructures (Cloud, Cluster, etc.) without making changes. Users can therefore focus on designing their workflows at an abstract level, describing actions, input and output streams, and how they are connected. The dispel4py system then maps these descriptions to the enactment platforms, such as MPI, Storm, multiprocessing. It provides a mechanism which allows users to determine the provenance information to be collected and to analyze it at runtime. For this work we consider alternative visualisation methods for provenance data, from infinite lists and localised interactive graphs, to radial-views. The latter technique has been positively explored in many fields, from text

  5. a platform for large-scale, open-source text processing on the cloud. (United States)

    Tablan, Valentin; Roberts, Ian; Cunningham, Hamish; Bontcheva, Kalina


    Cloud computing is increasingly being regarded as a key enabler of the 'democratization of science', because on-demand, highly scalable cloud computing facilities enable researchers anywhere to carry out data-intensive experiments. In the context of natural language processing (NLP), algorithms tend to be complex, which makes their parallelization and deployment on cloud platforms a non-trivial task. This study presents a new, unique, cloud-based platform for large-scale NLP research--GATECloud. net. It enables researchers to carry out data-intensive NLP experiments by harnessing the vast, on-demand compute power of the Amazon cloud. Important infrastructural issues are dealt with by the platform, completely transparently for the researcher: load balancing, efficient data upload and storage, deployment on the virtual machines, security and fault tolerance. We also include a cost-benefit analysis and usage evaluation.

  6. The International Space Station: A Unique Platform for Remote Sensing of Natural Disasters (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.


    Assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) was completed in 2012, and the station is now fully operational as a platform for remote sensing instruments tasked with collecting scientific data about the Earth system. Remote sensing systems are mounted inside the ISS, primarily in the U.S. Destiny Module's Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), or are located on the outside of the ISS on any of several attachment points. While NASA and other space agencies have had remote sensing systems orbiting Earth and collecting publicly available data since the early 1970s, these sensors are carried onboard free-flying, unmanned satellites. These satellites are traditionally placed into Sun-synchronous polar orbits that allow imaging of the entire surface of the Earth to be repeated with approximately the same Sun illumination (typically local solar noon) over specific areas, with set revisit times that allow uniform data to be taken over long time periods and enable straightforward analysis of change over time. In contrast, the ISS has an inclined, Sun-asynchronous orbit (the solar illumination for data collections over any location changes as the orbit precesses) that carries it over locations on the Earth between approximately 52degnorth and 52deg south latitudes (figure 1). The ISS is also unique among NASA orbital platforms in that it has a human crew. The presence of a crew provides options not available to robotic sensors and platforms, such as the ability to collect unscheduled data of an unfolding event using handheld digital cameras as part of the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) facility and on-the-fly assessment of environmental conditions, such as cloud cover, to determine whether conditions are favorable for data collection. The crew can also swap out internal sensor systems installed in the WORF as needed. The ISS orbit covers more than 90 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth, allowing the ISS to pass over the same ground locations at

  7. Seismic hazard and risk assessment for large Romanian dams situated in the Moldavian Platform (United States)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Popescu, Emilia; Otilia Placinta, Anica; Petruta Constantin, Angela; Toma Danila, Dragos; Borleanu, Felix; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Moldoveanu, Traian


    Besides periodical technical inspections, the monitoring and the surveillance of dams' related structures and infrastructures, there are some more seismic specific requirements towards dams' safety. The most important one is the seismic risk assessment that can be accomplished by rating the dams into seismic risk classes using the theory of Bureau and Ballentine (2002), and Bureau (2003), taking into account the maximum expected peak ground motions at the dams site - values obtained using probabilistic hazard assessment approaches (Moldovan et al., 2008), the structures vulnerability and the downstream risk characteristics (human, economical, historic and cultural heritage, etc) in the areas that might be flooded in the case of a dam failure. Probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH), vulnerability and risk studies for dams situated in the Moldavian Platform, starting from Izvorul Muntelui Dam, down on Bistrita and following on Siret River and theirs affluent will be realized. The most vulnerable dams will be studied in detail and flooding maps will be drawn to find the most exposed downstream localities both for risk assessment studies and warnings. GIS maps that clearly indicate areas that are potentially flooded are enough for these studies, thus giving information on the number of inhabitants and goods that may be destroyed. Geospatial servers included topography is sufficient to achieve them, all other further studies are not necessary for downstream risk assessment. The results will consist of local and regional seismic information, dams specific characteristics and locations, seismic hazard maps and risk classes, for all dams sites (for more than 30 dams), inundation maps (for the most vulnerable dams from the region) and possible affected localities. The studies realized in this paper have as final goal to provide the local emergency services with warnings of a potential dam failure and ensuing flood as a result of an large earthquake occurrence, allowing further

  8. Stray light field dependence for large astronomical space telescopes (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Bowers, Charles W.


    Future large astronomical telescopes in space will have architectures that expose the optics to large angular extents of the sky. Options for reducing stray light coming from the sky range from enclosing the telescope in a tubular baffle to having an open telescope structure with a large sunshield to eliminate solar illumination. These two options are considered for an on-axis telescope design to explore stray light considerations. A tubular baffle design will limit the sky exposure to the solid angle of the cone in front of the telescope set by the aspect ratio of the baffle length to Primary Mirror (PM) diameter. Illumination from this portion of the sky will be limited to the PM and structures internal to the tubular baffle. Alternatively, an open structure design will allow a large portion of the sky to directly illuminate the PM and Secondary Mirror (SM) as well as illuminating sunshield and other structure surfaces which will reflect or scatter light onto the PM and SM. Portions of this illumination of the PM and SM will be scattered into the optical train as stray light. A Radiance Transfer Function (RTF) is calculated for the open architecture that determines the ratio of the stray light background radiance in the image contributed by a patch of sky having unit radiance. The full 4π steradian of sky is divided into a grid of patches, with the location of each patch defined in the telescope coordinate system. By rotating the celestial sky radiance maps into the telescope coordinate frame for a given pointing direction of the telescope, the RTF may be applied to the sky brightness and the results integrated to get the total stray light from the sky for that pointing direction. The RTF data generated for the open architecture may analyzed as a function of the expanding cone angle about the pointing direction. In this manner, the open architecture data may be used to directly compare to a tubular baffle design parameterized by allowed cone angle based on the

  9. Systematic analysis of rocky shore platform morphology at large spatial scale using LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Dickson, Mark E.; Masselink, Gerd


    Much of the existing research on rocky shore platforms describes results from carefully selected field sites, or comparisons between a relatively small number of selected sites. Here we describe a method to systematically analyse rocky shore morphology over a large area using LiDAR-derived digital elevation models. The method was applied to 700 km of coastline in southwest England; a region where there is considerable variation in wave climate and lithological settings, and a large alongshore variation in tidal range. Across-shore profiles were automatically extracted at 50 m intervals around the coast where information was available from the Coastal Channel Observatory coastal classification. Routines were developed to automatically remove non-platform profiles. The remaining 612 shore platform profiles were then subject to automated morphometric analyses, and correlation analysis in respect to three possible environmental controls: wave height, mean spring tidal range and rock strength. As expected, considerable scatter exists in the correlation analysis because only very coarse estimates of rock strength and wave height were applied, whereas variability in factors such as these can locally be the most important control on shoreline morphology. In view of this, it is somewhat surprising that overall consistency was found between previous published findings and the results from the systematic, automated analysis of LiDAR data: platform gradient increases as rock strength and tidal range increase, but decreases as wave height increases; platform width increases as wave height and tidal range increase, but decreases as rock strength increases. Previous studies have predicted shore platform gradient using tidal range alone. A multi-regression analysis of LiDAR data confirms that tidal range is the strongest predictor, but a new multi-factor empirical model considering tidal range, wave height, and rock strength yields better predictions of shore platform gradient

  10. The development and application of a quantitative peptide microarray platform to SH2 domain specificity space (United States)

    Engelmann, Brett Warren

    The Src homology 2 (SH2) domains evolved alongside protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and phosphatases (PTPs) in metazoans to recognize the phosphotyrosine (pY) post-translational modification. The human genome encodes 121 SH2 domains within 111 SH2 domain containing proteins that represent the primary mechanism for cellular signal transduction immediately downstream of PTKs. Despite pY recognition contributing to roughly half of the binding energy, SH2 domains possess substantial binding specificity, or affinity discrimination between phosphopeptide ligands. This specificity is largely imparted by amino acids (AAs) adjacent to the pY, typically from positions +1 to +4 C-terminal to the pY. Much experimental effort has been undertaken to construct preferred binding motifs for many SH2 domains. However, due to limitations in previous experimental methodologies these motifs do not account for the interplay between AAs. It was therefore not known how AAs within the context of individual peptides function to impart SH2 domain specificity. In this work we identified the critical role context plays in defining SH2 domain specificity for physiological ligands. We also constructed a high quality interactome using 50 SH2 domains and 192 physiological ligands. We next developed a quantitative high-throughput (Q-HTP) peptide microarray platform to assess the affinities four SH2 domains have for 124 physiological ligands. We demonstrated the superior characteristics of our platform relative to preceding approaches and validated our results using established biophysical techniques, literature corroboration, and predictive algorithms. The quantitative information provided by the arrays was leveraged to investigate SH2 domain binding distributions and identify points of binding overlap. Our microarray derived affinity estimates were integrated to produce quantitative interaction motifs capable of predicting interactions. Furthermore, our microarrays proved capable of resolving

  11. Cryogenic techniques for large superconducting magnets in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.


    A large superconducting magnet is proposed for use in a particle astrophysics experiment, ASTROMAG, which is to be mounted on the United States Space Station. This experiment will have a two-coil superconducting magnet with coils which are 1.3 to 1.7 meters in diameter. The two-coil magnet will have zero net magnetic dipole moment. The field 15 meters from the magnet will approach earth's field in low earth orbit. The issue of high Tc superconductor will be discussed in the paper. The reasons for using conventional niobium-titanium superconductor cooled with superfluid helium will be presented. Since the purpose of the magnet is to do particle astrophysics, the superconducting coils must be located close to the charged particle detectors. The trade off between the particle physics possible and the cryogenic insulation around the coils is discussed. As a result, the ASTROMAG magnet coils will be operated outside of the superfluid helium storage tank. The fountain effect pumping system which will be used to cool the coil is described in the report. Two methods for extending the operating life of the superfluid helium dewar are discussed. These include: operation with a third shield cooled to 90 K with a sterling cycle cryocooler, and a hybrid cryogenic system where there are three hydrogen-cooled shields and cryostat support heat intercept points. Both of these methods will extend the ASTROMAG cryogenic operating life from 2 years to almost 4 years. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Cryogenic techniques for large superconducting magnets in space (United States)

    Green, M. A.


    A large superconducting magnet is proposed for use in a particle astrophysics experiment, ASTROMAG, which is to be mounted on the United States Space Station. This experiment will have a two-coil superconducting magnet with coils which are 1.3 to 1.7 meters in diameter. The two-coil magnet will have zero net magnetic dipole moment. The field 15 meters from the magnet will approach earth's field in low earth orbit. The issue of high Tc superconductor will be discussed in the paper. The reasons for using conventional niobium-titanium superconductor cooled with superfluid helium will be presented. Since the purpose of the magnet is to do particle astrophysics, the superconducting coils must be located close to the charged particle detectors. The trade off between the particle physics possible and the cryogenic insulation around the coils is discussed. As a result, the ASTROMAG magnet coils will be operated outside of the superfluid helium storage tank. The fountain effect pumping system which will be used to cool the coil is described in the report. Two methods for extending the operating life of the superfluid helium dewar are discussed. These include: operation with a third shield cooled to 90 K with a sterling cycle cryocooler, and a hybrid cryogenic system where there are three hydrogen-cooled shields and cryostat support heat intercept points.

  13. Next generation sensing platforms for extended deployments in large-scale, multidisciplinary, adaptive sampling and observational networks (United States)

    Cross, J. N.; Meinig, C.; Mordy, C. W.; Lawrence-Slavas, N.; Cokelet, E. D.; Jenkins, R.; Tabisola, H. M.; Stabeno, P. J.


    New autonomous sensors have dramatically increased the resolution and accuracy of oceanographic data collection, enabling rapid sampling over extremely fine scales. Innovative new autonomous platofrms like floats, gliders, drones, and crawling moorings leverage the full potential of these new sensors by extending spatiotemporal reach across varied environments. During 2015 and 2016, The Innovative Technology for Arctic Exploration Program at the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory tested several new types of fully autonomous platforms with increased speed, durability, and power and payload capacity designed to deliver cutting-edge ecosystem assessment sensors to remote or inaccessible environments. The Expendable Ice-Tracking (EXIT) gloat developed by the NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) is moored near bottom during the ice-free season and released on an autonomous timer beneath the ice during the following winter. The float collects a rapid profile during ascent, and continues to collect critical, poorly-accessible under-ice data until melt, when data is transmitted via satellite. The autonomous Oculus sub-surface glider developed by the University of Washington and PMEL has a large power and payload capacity and an enhanced buoyancy engine. This 'coastal truck' is designed for the rapid water column ascent required by optical imaging systems. The Saildrone is a solar and wind powered ocean unmanned surface vessel (USV) developed by Saildrone, Inc. in partnership with PMEL. This large-payload (200 lbs), fast (1-7 kts), durable (46 kts winds) platform was equipped with 15 sensors designed for ecosystem assessment during 2016, including passive and active acoustic systems specially redesigned for autonomous vehicle deployments. The senors deployed on these platforms achieved rigorous accuracy and precision standards. These innovative platforms provide new sampling capabilities and cost efficiencies in high-resolution sensor deployment

  14. Space platform expendables resupply concept definition study. Volume 3: Work breakdown structure and work breakdown structure dictionary (United States)


    The work breakdown structure (WBS) for the Space Platform Expendables Resupply Concept Definition Study is described. The WBS consists of a list of WBS elements, a dictionary of element definitions, and an element logic diagram. The list and logic diagram identify the interrelationships of the elements. The dictionary defines the types of work that may be represented by or be classified under each specific element. The Space Platform Expendable Resupply WBS was selected mainly to support the program planning, scheduling, and costing performed in the programmatics task (task 3). The WBS is neither a statement-of-work nor a work authorization document. Rather, it is a framework around which to define requirements, plan effort, assign responsibilities, allocate and control resources, and report progress, expenditures, technical performance, and schedule performance. The WBS element definitions are independent of make-or-buy decisions, organizational structure, and activity locations unless exceptions are specifically stated.

  15. Online Model Evaluation in a Large-Scale Computational Advertising Platform


    Shariat, Shahriar; Orten, Burkay; Dasdan, Ali


    Online media provides opportunities for marketers through which they can deliver effective brand messages to a wide range of audiences. Advertising technology platforms enable advertisers to reach their target audience by delivering ad impressions to online users in real time. In order to identify the best marketing message for a user and to purchase impressions at the right price, we rely heavily on bid prediction and optimization models. Even though the bid prediction models are well studie...

  16. Using a grid platform for solving large sparse linear systems over GF(2)


    Kleinjung , Thorsten; Nussbaum , Lucas; Thomé , Emmanuel


    International audience; In Fall 2009, the final step of the factorization of rsa768 was carried out on several clusters of the Grid'5000 platform, leading to a new record in integer factorization. This step involves solving a huge sparse linear system defined over the binary field GF(2). This article aims at describing the algorithm used, the difficulties encountered, and the methodology which led to success. In particular, we illustrate how our use of the block Wiedemann algorithm led to a m...

  17. Future space-based direct imaging platforms: high fidelity simulations and instrument testbed development (United States)

    Hicks, Brian A.; Eberhardt, Andrew; SAINT, VNC, LUVOIR


    The direct detection and characterization of habitable zone (HZ) Earth-like exoplanets is predicated on light gathering power of a large telescope operating with tens of millicarcsecond angular resolution, and at contrast scales on the order of 0.1 ppb. Accessing a statistically significant sample of planets to search for habitable worlds will likely build on the knowledge and insfrastructure gained through JWST, later advancing to assembly in space or formation flying approaches that may eventually be used to achieve even greater photometric sensitivity or resolution. in order to address contrast, a means of starlight suppression is needed that contends with complex aperture diffraction. The Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) is one such approach that destructively interferes starlight to enable detection and characterization of extrasolar objects.The VNC is being incorporated into an end-to-end telescope-coronagraph system demonstrator called the Segmented Aperture Interferometric Nulling Testbed (SAINT). Development of the VNC has a rich legacy, and successfully demonstrating its capability with SAINT will mark milestones towards meeting the high-contrast direct imaging needs of future large space telescopes. SAINT merges the VNC with an actively-controlled segmented aperture telescope via a fine pointing system and aims to demonstrate 1e-8 contrast nulling of a segmented aperture at an inner working angle of four diffraction radii over a 20 nm visible bandpass. The system comprises four detectors for wavefront sensing, one of which is the high-contrast focal plane. The detectors provide feedback to control the segmented telescope primary mirror, a fast steering mirror, a segmented deformable mirror, and a delay stage. All of these components must work in concert with passive optical elements that are designed, fabricated, and aligned pairwise to achieve the requisite wavefront symmetry needed to push the state of the art in broadband destructive interferometric

  18. Can we close large prosthetic space with orthodontics? (United States)

    Mesko, Mauro Elias; Skupien, Jovito Adiel; Valentini, Fernanda; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana


    For years, the treatment for the replacement of a missing tooth was a fixed dental prosthesis. Currently, implants are indicated to replace missing teeth due to high clinical success and with the advantage of not performing preparations in the adjacent tooth. Another option for space closure is the use of orthodontics associated to miniscrews for anchorage allowing better control of the orthodontic biomechanics and especially making possible closure of larger prosthetic spaces. Thus, this article describes two cases with indications and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of using orthodontics for prosthetic spaces closure. The cases herein presented show that it is possible to close an space when there are available teeth in the adjacent area. It can be concluded that when a malocclusion is present there will be a strong trend to indicate space closure by orthodontic movement as it preserves natural teeth and seems a more physiological approach.

  19. Scaling and application of commercial, feature-rich, modular mixed-signal technology platforms for large format ROICs (United States)

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Racanelli, Marco; Howard, David; Miyagi, Glenn; Bowler, Mark; Jordan, Scott; Zhang, Tao; Krieger, William


    Today's modular, mixed-signal CMOS process platforms are excellent choices for manufacturing of highly integrated, large-format read out integrated circuits (ROICs). Platform features, that can be used for both cooled and un-cooled ROIC applications, can include (1) quality passives such as 4fFμm2 stacked MIM capacitors for linearity and higher density capacitance per pixel, 1kOhm high-value poly-silicon resistors, 2.8μm thick metals for efficient power distribution and reduced I-R drop; (2) analog active devices such as low noise single gate 3.3V, and 1.8V/3.3V or 1.8V/5V dual gate configurations, 40V LDMOS FETs, and NPN and PNP devices, deep n-well for substrate isolation for analog blocks and digital logic; (3) tools to assist the circuit designer such as models for cryogenic temperatures, CAD assistance for metal density uniformity determination, statistical, X-sigma and PCM-based models for corner validation and to simulate design sensitivity, and (4) sub-field stitching for large die. The TowerJazz platform of technology for 0.50μm, 0.25μm and 0.18μm CMOS nodes, with features as described above, is described in detail in this paper.

  20. GLAST, the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, A


    GLAST, a detector for cosmic gamma rays in the range from 20 MeV to 300 GeV, will be launched in space in 2005. Breakthroughs are expected in particular in the study of particle acceleration mechanisms in space and of gamma ray bursts, and maybe on the search for cold dark matter; but of course the most exciting discoveries could come from the unexpected.

  1. Evaluation of the SBAS InSAR Service of the European Space Agency’s Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pedro Galve


    Full Text Available The analysis of remote sensing data to assess geohazards is being improved by web-based platforms and collaborative projects, such as the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP of the European Space Agency (ESA. This paper presents the evaluation of a surface velocity map that is generated by this platform. The map was produced through an unsupervised Multi-temporal InSAR (MTI analysis applying the Parallel-SBAS (P-SBAS algorithm to 25 ENVISAT satellite images from the South of Spain that were acquired between 2003 and 2008. This analysis was carried out using a service implemented in the GEP called “SBAS InSAR”. Thanks to the map that was generated by the SBAS InSAR service, we identified processes not documented so far; provided new monitoring data in places affected by known ground instabilities; defined the area affected by these instabilities; and, studied a case where GEP could have been able to help in the forecast of a slope movement reactivation. This amply demonstrates the reliability and usefulness of the GEP, and shows how web-based platforms may enhance the capacity to identify, monitor, and assess hazards that are associated to geological processes.

  2. Engaging Students in a Large-Enrollment Physics Class Using an Academically Focused Social Media Platform (United States)

    Gavrin, Andy; Lindell, Rebecca


    There are many reasons for an instructor to consider using social media, particularly in a large introductory course. Improved communications can lessen the sense of isolation some students feel in large classes, and students may be more likely to respond to faculty announcements in a form that is familiar and comfortable. Furthermore, many…

  3. Near-Space TOPSAR Large-Scene Full-Aperture Imaging Scheme Based on Two-Step Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianghui Zhang


    Full Text Available Free of the constraints of orbit mechanisms, weather conditions and minimum antenna area, synthetic aperture radar (SAR equipped on near-space platform is more suitable for sustained large-scene imaging compared with the spaceborne and airborne counterparts. Terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS, which is a novel wide-swath imaging mode and allows the beam of SAR to scan along the azimuth, can reduce the time of echo acquisition for large scene. Thus, near-space TOPS-mode SAR (NS-TOPSAR provides a new opportunity for sustained large-scene imaging. An efficient full-aperture imaging scheme for NS-TOPSAR is proposed in this paper. In this scheme, firstly, two-step processing (TSP is adopted to eliminate the Doppler aliasing of the echo. Then, the data is focused in two-dimensional frequency domain (FD based on Stolt interpolation. Finally, a modified TSP (MTSP is performed to remove the azimuth aliasing. Simulations are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed imaging scheme for near-space large-scene imaging application.

  4. A logistics model for large space power systems (United States)

    Koelle, H. H.

    Space Power Systems (SPS) have to overcome two hurdles: (1) to find an attractive design, manufacturing and assembly concept and (2) to have available a space transportation system that can provide economical logistic support during the construction and operational phases. An initial system feasibility study, some five years ago, was based on a reference system that used terrestrial resources only and was based partially on electric propulsion systems. The conclusion was: it is feasible but not yet economically competitive with other options. This study is based on terrestrial and extraterrestrial resources and on chemical (LH 2/LOX) propulsion systems. These engines are available from the Space Shuttle production line and require small changes only. Other so-called advanced propulsion systems investigated did not prove economically superior if lunar LOX is available! We assume that a Shuttle derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will become available around the turn of the century and that this will be used to establish a research base on the lunar surface. This lunar base has the potential to grow into a lunar factory producing LOX and construction materials for supporting among other projects also the construction of space power systems in geostationary orbit. A model was developed to simulate the logistics support of such an operation for a 50-year life cycle. After 50 years 111 SPS units with 5 GW each and an availability of 90% will produce 100 × 5 = 500 GW. The model comprises 60 equations and requires 29 assumptions of the parameter involved. 60-state variables calculated with the 60 equations mentioned above are given on an annual basis and as averages for the 50-year life cycle. Recycling of defective parts in geostationary orbit is one of the features of the model. The state-of-the-art with respect to SPS technology is introduced as a variable Mg mass/MW electric power delivered. If the space manufacturing facility, a maintenance and repair facility

  5. A proficient and versatile online student-teacher collaboration platform for large classroom lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABM Tariqul Islam


    Full Text Available Abstract The popularity of online collaboration on lecture content has been growing steadily over the last few decades because of its potential to enhance the overall learning experience. We propose a didactical approach of online collaboration where the students and the teachers can collaborate seamlessly on the lecture contents. The approach, which we call Multiscript (MS, offers two methods of online learning on one collaboration platform. In MS, we call one method the outside of class Multiscript (OMS and another, the inside of class Multiscript (IMS. OMS is a form of distance online learning where the students can collaborate on the lecture contents while being outside of class, whereas IMS allows online collaboration among the students and the teacher during the lecture. In OMS, the teacher can share the slides along with audio annotations for each lecture slides and/or a single recorded audio for the whole lecture. The students can access the slides and discuss (via text and audio chat with their fellow classmates about the slides and annotate them, post feedback about the slides and ask questions to the teacher directly via MS. In IMS, the students can create annotations for the slides and post feedback to the teacher about the slides. We design MS in such a way that it can be accessed by using just a web browser on any PC, tablet or mobile device.

  6. MiSTIC, an integrated platform for the analysis of heterogeneity in large tumour transcriptome datasets. (United States)

    Lemieux, Sebastien; Sargeant, Tobias; Laperrière, David; Ismail, Houssam; Boucher, Geneviève; Rozendaal, Marieke; Lavallée, Vincent-Philippe; Ashton-Beaucage, Dariel; Wilhelm, Brian; Hébert, Josée; Hilton, Douglas J; Mader, Sylvie; Sauvageau, Guy


    Genome-wide transcriptome profiling has enabled non-supervised classification of tumours, revealing different sub-groups characterized by specific gene expression features. However, the biological significance of these subtypes remains for the most part unclear. We describe herein an interactive platform, Minimum Spanning Trees Inferred Clustering (MiSTIC), that integrates the direct visualization and comparison of the gene correlation structure between datasets, the analysis of the molecular causes underlying co-variations in gene expression in cancer samples, and the clinical annotation of tumour sets defined by the combined expression of selected biomarkers. We have used MiSTIC to highlight the roles of specific transcription factors in breast cancer subtype specification, to compare the aspects of tumour heterogeneity targeted by different prognostic signatures, and to highlight biomarker interactions in AML. A version of MiSTIC preloaded with datasets described herein can be accessed through a public web server (; in addition, the MiSTIC software package can be obtained ( for local use with personalized datasets. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Hierarchical Parallel Matrix Multiplication on Large-Scale Distributed Memory Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Quintin, Jean-Noel


    Matrix multiplication is a very important computation kernel both in its own right as a building block of many scientific applications and as a popular representative for other scientific applications. Cannon\\'s algorithm which dates back to 1969 was the first efficient algorithm for parallel matrix multiplication providing theoretically optimal communication cost. However this algorithm requires a square number of processors. In the mid-1990s, the SUMMA algorithm was introduced. SUMMA overcomes the shortcomings of Cannon\\'s algorithm as it can be used on a nonsquare number of processors as well. Since then the number of processors in HPC platforms has increased by two orders of magnitude making the contribution of communication in the overall execution time more significant. Therefore, the state of the art parallel matrix multiplication algorithms should be revisited to reduce the communication cost further. This paper introduces a new parallel matrix multiplication algorithm, Hierarchical SUMMA (HSUMMA), which is a redesign of SUMMA. Our algorithm reduces the communication cost of SUMMA by introducing a two-level virtual hierarchy into the two-dimensional arrangement of processors. Experiments on an IBM BlueGene/P demonstrate the reduction of communication cost up to 2.08 times on 2048 cores and up to 5.89 times on 16384 cores. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Hierarchical Parallel Matrix Multiplication on Large-Scale Distributed Memory Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Quintin, Jean-Noel; Hasanov, Khalid; Lastovetsky, Alexey


    Matrix multiplication is a very important computation kernel both in its own right as a building block of many scientific applications and as a popular representative for other scientific applications. Cannon's algorithm which dates back to 1969 was the first efficient algorithm for parallel matrix multiplication providing theoretically optimal communication cost. However this algorithm requires a square number of processors. In the mid-1990s, the SUMMA algorithm was introduced. SUMMA overcomes the shortcomings of Cannon's algorithm as it can be used on a nonsquare number of processors as well. Since then the number of processors in HPC platforms has increased by two orders of magnitude making the contribution of communication in the overall execution time more significant. Therefore, the state of the art parallel matrix multiplication algorithms should be revisited to reduce the communication cost further. This paper introduces a new parallel matrix multiplication algorithm, Hierarchical SUMMA (HSUMMA), which is a redesign of SUMMA. Our algorithm reduces the communication cost of SUMMA by introducing a two-level virtual hierarchy into the two-dimensional arrangement of processors. Experiments on an IBM BlueGene/P demonstrate the reduction of communication cost up to 2.08 times on 2048 cores and up to 5.89 times on 16384 cores. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Large Plant Growth Chambers: Flying Soon on a Space Station near You! (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.


    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species, and those capabilities continue to grow. The Veggie vegetable production system will be deployed to the ISS in Spring of 2014 to act as an applied research platform with goals of studying food production in space, providing the crew with a source of fresh food, allowing behavioral health and plant microbiology experimentation, and being a source of recreation and enjoyment for the crew. Veggie was conceived, designed, and constructed by Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC, Madison, WI). Veggie is the largest plant growth chamber that NASA has flown to date, and is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low energy usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) light emitting diodes. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellows baseplate secured to the light cap via magnetic closures and stabilized with extensible flexible arms. The baseplate contains vents allowing air from the ISS cabin to be pulled through the plant growth area by a fan in the light cap. The baseplate holds a Veggie root mat reservoir that will supply water to plant pillows attached via elastic cords. Plant pillows are packages of growth media and seeds that will be sent to ISS dry and installed and hydrated on orbit. Pillows can be constructed in various sizes for different plant types. Watering will be via passive wicking from the root mat to the pillows. Science procedures will include photography or videography, plant thinning, pollination, harvesting, microbial sampling, water sampling, etcetera. Veggie is one of the ISS flight options currently available for research investigations on plants. The Plant Habitat (PH) is being designed and constructed through a NASA

  10. Crash problem definition and safety benefits methodology for stability control for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses (United States)


    This report presents the findings of a comprehensive engineering analysis of electronic stability control (ESC) and roll stability control (RSC) systems for single-unit medium and heavy trucks and large-platform buses. This report details the applica...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tampubolon


    Full Text Available Normally, in order to provide high resolution 3 Dimension (3D geospatial data, large scale topographical mapping needs input from conventional airborne campaigns which are in Indonesia bureaucratically complicated especially during legal administration procedures i.e. security clearance from military/defense ministry. This often causes additional time delays besides technical constraints such as weather and limited aircraft availability for airborne campaigns. Of course the geospatial data quality is an important issue for many applications. The increasing demand of geospatial data nowadays consequently requires high resolution datasets as well as a sufficient level of accuracy. Therefore an integration of different technologies is required in many cases to gain the expected result especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. Another important issue in this context is the fast delivery of relevant data which is expressed by the term “Rapid Mapping”. In this paper we present first results of an on-going research to integrate different data sources like space borne radar and optical platforms. Initially the orthorectification of Very High Resolution Satellite (VHRS imagery i.e. SPOT-6 has been done as a continuous process to the DEM generation using TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X data. The role of Ground Control Points (GCPs from GNSS surveys is mandatory in order to fulfil geometrical accuracy. In addition, this research aims on providing suitable processing algorithm of space borne data for large scale topographical mapping as described in section 3.2. Recently, radar space borne data has been used for the medium scale topographical mapping e.g. for 1:50.000 map scale in Indonesian territories. The goal of this on-going research is to increase the accuracy of remote sensing data by different activities, e.g. the integration of different data sources (optical and radar or the usage of the GCPs in both, the optical and the

  12. Evolution of the large Deep Space Network antennas (United States)

    Imbriale, William A.


    The evolution of the largest antenna of the US NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The design, performance analysis, and measurement techniques, beginning with its initial 64-m operation at S-band (2295 MHz) in 1966 and continuing through the present ka-band (32-GHz) operation at 70 m, is described. Although their diameters and mountings differ, these parabolic antennas all employ a Cassegrainian feed system, and each antenna dish surface is constructed of precision-shaped perforated-aluminum panels that are secured to an open steel framework

  13. Tradespace investigation of strategic design factors for large space telescopes (United States)

    Karlow, Brandon; Jewison, Christopher; Sternberg, David; Hall, Sherrie; Golkar, Alessandro


    Future large telescope arrays require careful balancing of satisfaction across the stakeholders' community. Development programs usually cannot afford to explicitly address all stakeholder tradeoffs during the conceptual design stage, but rather confine the analysis to performance, cost, and schedule discussions, treating policy and budget as constraints defining the envelope of the investigation. Thus, it is of interest to develop an integrated stakeholder analysis approach to explicitly address the impact of all stakeholder interactions on the design of large telescope arrays to address future science and exploration needs. This paper offers a quantitative approach for modeling some of the stakeholder influences relevant to large telescope array designs-the linkages between a given mission and the wider NASA community. The main goal of the analysis is to explore the tradespace of large telescope designs and understand the effects of different design decisions in the stakeholders' network. Proposed architectures that offer benefits to existing constellations of systems, institutions, and mission plans are expected to yield political and engineering benefits for NASA stakeholders' wider objectives. If such synergistic architectures are privileged in subsequent analysis, regions of the tradespace that better meet the needs of the wider NASA community can be selected for further development.

  14. Sampling large random knots in a confined space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsuaga, J; Blackstone, T; Diao, Y; Hinson, K; Karadayi, E; Saito, M


    DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e n 2 )). We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n 2 ). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications

  15. Sampling large random knots in a confined space (United States)

    Arsuaga, J.; Blackstone, T.; Diao, Y.; Hinson, K.; Karadayi, E.; Saito, M.


    DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e^{n^2}) . We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n2). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications.

  16. Sampling large random knots in a confined space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsuaga, J [Department of Mathematics, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Blackstone, T [Department of Computer Science, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Diao, Y [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Hinson, K [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Karadayi, E [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Saito, M [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)


    DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e{sup n{sup 2}}). We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n{sup 2}). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications.

  17. Parallel Computation of RCS of Electrically Large Platform with Coatings Modeled with NURBS Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yan


    Full Text Available The significance of Radar Cross Section (RCS in the military applications makes its prediction an important problem. This paper uses large-scale parallel Physical Optics (PO to realize the fast computation of RCS to electrically large targets, which are modeled by Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS surfaces and coated with dielectric materials. Some numerical examples are presented to validate this paper’s method. In addition, 1024 CPUs are used in Shanghai Supercomputer Center (SSC to perform the simulation of a model with the maximum electrical size 1966.7 λ for the first time in China. From which, it can be found that this paper’s method can greatly speed the calculation and is capable of solving the real-life problem of RCS prediction.

  18. High stability space frame for a large fusion laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, C.A.; Myall, J.O.


    The Shiva laser system is a large neodymium glass laser target irradiation facility being constructed at LLL to perform laser fusion experiments. A frame is being constructed to support the large number of laser components that make up the Shiva system. Twenty laser chains composed of amplifiers, spatial filters, polarizers, rotators, and mirrors will be arranged in an optimum geometry so that each beam arrives at the target simultaneously and within alignment tolerances. This frame is capable of supporting approximately 600 individual component assemblies and maintaining a tolerance of +-4-μrad rotation between any two points over a period of 100 s. Consideration has been given to the positional stability and support of the components, the geometrical array of stacked beams with respect to the oscillator and target, the flow of utilities (e.g., power cables and cooling gas pipes), good accessibility for operation and maintenance, and adaptability for change and growth

  19. Mobile Platform Augmented Reality for Enhanced Operations on the International Space Station, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To develop an Augmented Reality system that runs on a small portable device to aid crew in routine maintenance activities by providing enhanced information and...

  20. A microfluidic platform for generating large-scale nearly identical human microphysiological system arrays (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Moya, Monica L.; Hughes, Christopher C.W.; Georgea, Steven C.; Lee, Abraham P.


    This paper reports a polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic model system that can develop an array of nearly identical human microtissues with interconnected vascular networks. The microfluidic system design is based on an analogy with an electric circuit, applying resistive circuit concepts to design pressure dividers in serially-connected microtissue chambers. A long microchannel (550, 620 and 775 mm) creates a resistive circuit with a large hydraulic resistance. Two media reservoirs with a large cross-sectional area and of different heights are connected to the entrance and exit of the long microchannel to serve as a pressure source, and create a near constant pressure drop along the long microchannel. Microtissue chambers (0.12 μl) serve as a two-terminal resistive component with an input impedance > 50-fold larger than the long microchannel. Connecting each microtissue chamber to two different positions along the long microchannel creates a series of pressure dividers. Each microtissue chamber enables a controlled pressure drop of a segment of the microchannel without altering the hydrodynamic behaviour of the microchannel. The result is a controlled and predictable microphysiological environment within the microchamber. Interstitial flow, a mechanical cue for stimulating vasculogenesis, was verified by finite element simulation and experiments. The simplicity of this design enabled the development of multiple microtissue arrays (5, 12, and 30 microtissues) by co-culturing endothelial cells, stromal cells, and fibrin within the microchambers over two and three week periods. This methodology enables the culturing of a large array of microtissues with interconnected vascular networks for biological studies and applications such as drug development. PMID:23723013

  1. The Importance of Conducting Life Sciences Experiments on the Deep Space Gateway Platform (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.


    Over the last several decades important information has been gathered by conducting life science experiments on the Space Shuttle and on the International Space Station. It is now time to leverage that scientific knowledge, as well as aspects of the hardware that have been developed to support the biological model systems, to NASA's next frontier - the Deep Space Gateway. In order to facilitate long duration deep space exploration for humans, it is critical for NASA to understand the effects of long duration, low dose, deep space radiation on biological systems. While carefully controlled ground experiments on Earth-based radiation facilities have provided valuable preliminary information, we still have a significant knowledge gap on the biological responses of organisms to chronic low doses of the highly ionizing particles encountered beyond low Earth orbit. Furthermore, the combined effects of altered gravity and radiation have the potential to cause greater biological changes than either of these parameters alone. Therefore a thorough investigation of the biological effects of a cis-lunar environment will facilitate long term human exploration of deep space.

  2. Free Global Dsm Assessment on Large Scale Areas Exploiting the Potentialities of the Innovative Google Earth Engine Platform (United States)

    Nascetti, A.; Di Rita, M.; Ravanelli, R.; Amicuzi, M.; Esposito, S.; Crespi, M.


    The high-performance cloud-computing platform Google Earth Engine has been developed for global-scale analysis based on the Earth observation data. In particular, in this work, the geometric accuracy of the two most used nearly-global free DSMs (SRTM and ASTER) has been evaluated on the territories of four American States (Colorado, Michigan, Nevada, Utah) and one Italian Region (Trentino Alto- Adige, Northern Italy) exploiting the potentiality of this platform. These are large areas characterized by different terrain morphology, land covers and slopes. The assessment has been performed using two different reference DSMs: the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) and a LiDAR acquisition. The DSMs accuracy has been evaluated through computation of standard statistic parameters, both at global scale (considering the whole State/Region) and in function of the terrain morphology using several slope classes. The geometric accuracy in terms of Standard deviation and NMAD, for SRTM range from 2-3 meters in the first slope class to about 45 meters in the last one, whereas for ASTER, the values range from 5-6 to 30 meters. In general, the performed analysis shows a better accuracy for the SRTM in the flat areas whereas the ASTER GDEM is more reliable in the steep areas, where the slopes increase. These preliminary results highlight the GEE potentialities to perform DSM assessment on a global scale.

  3. A unique aerial platform equipped for large area surveillance: a real-time tool for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frullani, Salvatore; Castelluccio, Donato M.; Cisbani, Evaristo; Colilli, Stefano; Fratoni, Rolando; Giuliani, Fausto; Mostarda, Angelo; Colangeli, Giorgio; De Otto, Gian L.; Marchiori, Carlo; Paoloni, Gianfranco


    Aerial platform equipped with a sampling line and real-time monitoring of sampled aerosol is presented. The system is composed by: a) A Sky Arrow 650 fixed wing aircraft with the front part of the fuselage properly adapted to house the detection and acquisition equipment; b) A compact air sampling line where the iso kinetic sampling is dynamically maintained, aerosol is collected on a filter positioned along the line and hosted on a rotating 4-filters disk; c) A detection subsystem: a small BGO scintillator and Geiger counter right behind the sampling filter, a HPGe detector allows radionuclide identification in the collected aerosol samples, a large NaI(Tl) crystal detects airborne and ground gamma radiation; d) Several environmental (temperature, pressure, aircraft/wind speed) sensors and a GPS receiver that support the full characterization of the sampling conditions and the temporal and geographical location of the acquired data; e) Acquisition and control system based on compact electronics and real time software that operate the sampling line actuators, guarantee the dynamical iso kinetic condition, and acquire the detectors and sensor data. With this system quantitative measurements can be available also during the plume phase of an accident, while other aerial platforms, without sampling capability, can only be used for qualitative assessments. Transmission of all data will be soon implemented in order to make all the data available in real-time to the Technical Centre for the Emergency Management. The use of an unmanned air-vehicle (UAV) is discussed as future option. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nascetti


    Full Text Available The high-performance cloud-computing platform Google Earth Engine has been developed for global-scale analysis based on the Earth observation data. In particular, in this work, the geometric accuracy of the two most used nearly-global free DSMs (SRTM and ASTER has been evaluated on the territories of four American States (Colorado, Michigan, Nevada, Utah and one Italian Region (Trentino Alto- Adige, Northern Italy exploiting the potentiality of this platform. These are large areas characterized by different terrain morphology, land covers and slopes. The assessment has been performed using two different reference DSMs: the USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED and a LiDAR acquisition. The DSMs accuracy has been evaluated through computation of standard statistic parameters, both at global scale (considering the whole State/Region and in function of the terrain morphology using several slope classes. The geometric accuracy in terms of Standard deviation and NMAD, for SRTM range from 2-3 meters in the first slope class to about 45 meters in the last one, whereas for ASTER, the values range from 5-6 to 30 meters. In general, the performed analysis shows a better accuracy for the SRTM in the flat areas whereas the ASTER GDEM is more reliable in the steep areas, where the slopes increase. These preliminary results highlight the GEE potentialities to perform DSM assessment on a global scale.

  5. Blocked inverted indices for exact clustering of large chemical spaces. (United States)

    Thiel, Philipp; Sach-Peltason, Lisa; Ottmann, Christian; Kohlbacher, Oliver


    The calculation of pairwise compound similarities based on fingerprints is one of the fundamental tasks in chemoinformatics. Methods for efficient calculation of compound similarities are of the utmost importance for various applications like similarity searching or library clustering. With the increasing size of public compound databases, exact clustering of these databases is desirable, but often computationally prohibitively expensive. We present an optimized inverted index algorithm for the calculation of all pairwise similarities on 2D fingerprints of a given data set. In contrast to other algorithms, it neither requires GPU computing nor yields a stochastic approximation of the clustering. The algorithm has been designed to work well with multicore architectures and shows excellent parallel speedup. As an application example of this algorithm, we implemented a deterministic clustering application, which has been designed to decompose virtual libraries comprising tens of millions of compounds in a short time on current hardware. Our results show that our implementation achieves more than 400 million Tanimoto similarity calculations per second on a common desktop CPU. Deterministic clustering of the available chemical space thus can be done on modern multicore machines within a few days.

  6. Large Energy Development Projects: Lessons Learned from Space and Politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.


    The challenge to global energy future lies in meeting the needs and aspirations of the ten to twelve billion earthlings that will be on this planet by 2050. At least an eight-fold increase in annual production will be required by the middle of this century. The energy sources that can be considered developed and 'in the box' for consideration as sources for major increases in supply over the next half century are fossil fuels, nuclear fission, and, to a lesser degree, various forms of direct and stored solar energy and conservation. None of these near-term sources of energy will provide an eight-fold or more increase in energy supply for various technical, environmental and political reasons.Only a few potential energy sources that fall 'out of the box' appear worthy of additional consideration as possible contributors to energy demand in 2050 and beyond. These particular candidates are deuterium-tritium fusion, space solar energy, and lunar helium-3 fusion. The primary advantage that lunar helium-3 fusion will have over other 'out of the box' energy sources in the pre-2050 timeframe is a clear path into the private capital markets. The development and demonstration of new energy sources will require several development paths, each of Apollo-like complexity and each with sub-paths of parallel development for critical functions and components

  7. Floating substructure flexibility of large-volume 10MW offshore wind turbine platforms in dynamic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Michael; Hansen, Anders Melchior; Bredmose, Henrik


    Designing floating substructures for the next generation of 10MW and larger wind turbines has introduced new challenges in capturing relevant physical effects in dynamic simulation tools. In achieving technically and economically optimal floating substructures, structural flexibility may increase to the extent that it becomes relevant to include in addition to the standard rigid body substructure modes which are typically described through linear radiation-diffraction theory. This paper describes a method for the inclusion of substructural flexibility in aero-hydro-servo-elastic dynamic simulations for large-volume substructures, including wave-structure interactions, to form the basis of deriving sectional loads and stresses within the substructure. The method is applied to a case study to illustrate the implementation and relevance. It is found that the flexible mode is significantly excited in an extreme event, indicating an increase in predicted substructure internal loads. (paper)

  8. RTEMP: Exploring an end-to-end, agnostic platform for multidisciplinary real-time analytics in the space physics community and beyond (United States)

    Chaddock, D.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.; Jackel, B. J.


    Large-scale, real-time, sensor-driven analytics are a highly effective set of tools in many research environments; however, the barrier to entry is expensive and the learning curve is steep. These systems need to operate efficiently from end to end, with the key aspects being data transmission, acquisition, management and organization, and retrieval. When building a generic multidisciplinary platform, acquisition and data management needs to be designed with scalability and flexibility as the primary focus. Additionally, in order to leverage current sensor web technologies, the integration of common sensor data standards (ie. SensorML and SWE Services) should be supported. Perhaps most important, researchers should be able to get started and integrate the platform into their set of research tools as easily and quickly as possible. The largest issue with current platforms is that the sensor data must be formed and described using the previously mentioned standards. As useful as these standards are for organizing data, they are cumbersome to adopt, often restrictive, and are required to be geospatially-driven. Our solution, RTEMP (Real-time Environment Monitoring Platform), is a real-time analytics platform with over ten years and an estimated two million dollars of investment. It has been developed for our continuously expanding requirements of operating and building remote sensors and supporting equipment for space physics research. A key benefit of our approach is RTEMP's ability to manage agnostic data. This allows data that flows through the system to be structured in any way that best addresses the needs of the sensor operators and data users, enabling extensive flexibility and streamlined development and research. Here we begin with an overview of RTEMP and how it is structured. Additionally, we will showcase the ways that we are using RTEMP and how it is being adopted by researchers in an increasingly broad range of other research fields. We will lay out a

  9. SIproc: an open-source biomedical data processing platform for large hyperspectral images. (United States)

    Berisha, Sebastian; Chang, Shengyuan; Saki, Sam; Daeinejad, Davar; He, Ziqi; Mankar, Rupali; Mayerich, David


    There has recently been significant interest within the vibrational spectroscopy community to apply quantitative spectroscopic imaging techniques to histology and clinical diagnosis. However, many of the proposed methods require collecting spectroscopic images that have a similar region size and resolution to the corresponding histological images. Since spectroscopic images contain significantly more spectral samples than traditional histology, the resulting data sets can approach hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes in size. This makes them difficult to store and process, and the tools available to researchers for handling large spectroscopic data sets are limited. Fundamental mathematical tools, such as MATLAB, Octave, and SciPy, are extremely powerful but require that the data be stored in fast memory. This memory limitation becomes impractical for even modestly sized histological images, which can be hundreds of gigabytes in size. In this paper, we propose an open-source toolkit designed to perform out-of-core processing of hyperspectral images. By taking advantage of graphical processing unit (GPU) computing combined with adaptive data streaming, our software alleviates common workstation memory limitations while achieving better performance than existing applications.

  10. Advances in geospatial analysis platforms and tools: Creating space for differentiated policy and investment responses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maritz, Johan


    Full Text Available be targeted in planning and policy development, and a new "reading" of the South African space economy. The latter for example highlighting the importance of the policy centric network of densely settled clusters, local towns and service centres, regional...

  11. The white space opportunity in Southern Africa: measurements with Meraka cognitive radio platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT


    Full Text Available space is available and how can it be used opportunistically and dynamically without causing harmful interference to licensed users? In this paper, we present work that is currently ongoing in our research lab with regard to the use of cognitive radio...

  12. Designing Websites for Displaying Large Data Sets and Images on Multiple Platforms (United States)

    Anderson, A.; Wolf, V. G.; Garron, J.; Kirschner, M.


    The desire to build websites to analyze and display ever increasing amounts of scientific data and images pushes for web site designs which utilize large displays, and to use the display area as efficiently as possible. Yet, scientists and users of their data are increasingly wishing to access these websites in the field and on mobile devices. This results in the need to develop websites that can support a wide range of devices and screen sizes, and to optimally use whatever display area is available. Historically, designers have addressed this issue by building two websites; one for mobile devices, and one for desktop environments, resulting in increased cost, duplicity of work, and longer development times. Recent advancements in web design technology and techniques have evolved which allow for the development of a single website that dynamically adjusts to the type of device being used to browse the website (smartphone, tablet, desktop). In addition they provide the opportunity to truly optimize whatever display area is available. HTML5 and CSS3 give web designers media query statements which allow design style sheets to be aware of the size of the display being used, and to format web content differently based upon the queried response. Web elements can be rendered in a different size, position, or even removed from the display entirely, based upon the size of the display area. Using HTML5/CSS3 media queries in this manner is referred to as "Responsive Web Design" (RWD). RWD in combination with technologies such as LESS and Twitter Bootstrap allow the web designer to build web sites which not only dynamically respond to the browser display size being used, but to do so in very controlled and intelligent ways, ensuring that good layout and graphic design principles are followed while doing so. At the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Satellite Facility SAR Data Center (ASF) recently redesigned their popular Vertex application and converted it from a

  13. 3D models as a platform for urban analysis and studies on human perception of space (United States)

    Fisher-Gewirtzman, D.


    The objective of this work is to develop an integrated visual analysis and modelling for environmental and urban systems in respect to interior space layout and functionality. This work involves interdisciplinary research efforts that focus primarily on architecture design discipline, yet incorporates experts from other and different disciplines, such as Geoinformatics, computer sciences and environment-behavior studies. This work integrates an advanced Spatial Openness Index (SOI) model within realistic geovisualized Geographical Information System (GIS) environment and assessment using subjective residents' evaluation. The advanced SOI model measures the volume of visible space at any required view point practically, for every room or function. This model enables accurate 3D simulation of the built environment regarding built structure and surrounding vegetation. This paper demonstrates the work on a case study. A 3D model of Neve-Shaanan neighbourhood in Haifa was developed. Students that live in this neighbourhood had participated in this research. Their apartments were modelled in details and inserted into a general model, representing topography and the volumes of buildings. The visual space for each room in every apartment was documented and measured and at the same time the students were asked to answer questions regarding their perception of space and view from their residence. The results of this research work had shown potential contribution to professional users, such as researchers, designers and city planners. This model can be easily used by professionals and by non-professionals such as city dwellers, contractors and developers. This work continues with additional case studies having different building typologies and functions variety, using virtual reality tools.

  14. Public Park Spaces as a Platform to Promote Healthy Living: Introducing a HealthPark Concept. (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Bond, Samantha; O'Neill, Robert; Laddu, Deepika R; Hills, Andrew P; Lavie, Carl J; McNeil, Amy

    The concept of Healthy Living (HL) as a primary medical intervention continues to gain traction, and rightfully so. Being physically active, consuming a nutritious diet, not smoking and maintaining an appropriate body weight constitute the HL polypill, the foundation of HL medicine (HLM). Daily use of the HL polypill, working toward optimal dosages, portends profound health benefits, substantially reducing the risk of chronic disease [i.e., cardiovascular disease (CVD), pulmonary disease, metabolic syndromes, certain cancers, etc.] and associated adverse health consequences. To be effective and proactive, our healthcare system must rethink where its primary intervention, HLM, is delivered. Waiting for individuals to come to the traditional outpatient setting is an ineffective approach as poor lifestyle habits are typically well established by the time care is initiated. Ideally, HLM should be delivered where individuals live, work and go to school, promoting immersion in a culture of health and wellness. To this end, there is a growing interest in the use of public parks as a platform to promote the adoption of HL behaviors. The current perspectives paper provides a brief literature review on the use of public parks for HL interventions and introduces a new HealthPark model being developed in Chicago. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and application of an optogenetic platform for controlling and imaging a large number of individual neurons (United States)

    Mohammed, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    The understanding and treatment of brain disorders as well as the development of intelligent machines is hampered by the lack of knowledge of how the brain fundamentally functions. Over the past century, we have learned much about how individual neurons and neural networks behave, however new tools are critically needed to interrogate how neural networks give rise to complex brain processes and disease conditions. Recent innovations in molecular techniques, such as optogenetics, have enabled neuroscientists unprecedented precision to excite, inhibit and record defined neurons. The impressive sensitivity of currently available optogenetic sensors and actuators has now enabled the possibility of analyzing a large number of individual neurons in the brains of behaving animals. To promote the use of these optogenetic tools, this thesis integrates cutting edge optogenetic molecular sensors which is ultrasensitive for imaging neuronal activity with custom wide field optical microscope to analyze a large number of individual neurons in living brains. Wide-field microscopy provides a large field of view and better spatial resolution approaching the Abbe diffraction limit of fluorescent microscope. To demonstrate the advantages of this optical platform, we imaged a deep brain structure, the Hippocampus, and tracked hundreds of neurons over time while mouse was performing a memory task to investigate how those individual neurons related to behavior. In addition, we tested our optical platform in investigating transient neural network changes upon mechanical perturbation related to blast injuries. In this experiment, all blasted mice show a consistent change in neural network. A small portion of neurons showed a sustained calcium increase for an extended period of time, whereas the majority lost their activities. Finally, using optogenetic silencer to control selective motor cortex neurons, we examined their contributions to the network pathology of basal ganglia related to

  16. A large-scale superhydrophobic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform fabricated via capillary force lithography and assembly of Ag nanocubes for ultratrace molecular sensing. (United States)

    Tan, Joel Ming Rui; Ruan, Justina Jiexin; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Phang, In Yee; Ling, Xing Yi


    An analytical platform with an ultratrace detection limit in the atto-molar (aM) concentration range is vital for forensic, industrial and environmental sectors that handle scarce/highly toxic samples. Superhydrophobic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platforms serve as ideal platforms to enhance detection sensitivity by reducing the random spreading of aqueous solution. However, the fabrication of superhydrophobic SERS platforms is generally limited due to the use of sophisticated and expensive protocols and/or suffers structural and signal inconsistency. Herein, we demonstrate a high-throughput fabrication of a stable and uniform superhydrophobic SERS platform for ultratrace molecular sensing. Large-area box-like micropatterns of the polymeric surface are first fabricated using capillary force lithography (CFL). Subsequently, plasmonic properties are incorporated into the patterned surfaces by decorating with Ag nanocubes using the Langmuir-Schaefer technique. To create a stable superhydrophobic SERS platform, an additional 25 nm Ag film is coated over the Ag nanocube-decorated patterned template followed by chemical functionalization with perfluorodecanethiol. Our resulting superhydrophobic SERS platform demonstrates excellent water-repellency with a static contact angle of 165° ± 9° and a consequent analyte concentration factor of 59-fold, as compared to its hydrophilic counterpart. By combining the analyte concentration effect of superhydrophobic surfaces with the intense electromagnetic "hot spots" of Ag nanocubes, our superhydrophobic SERS platform achieves an ultra-low detection limit of 10(-17) M (10 aM) for rhodamine 6G using just 4 μL of analyte solutions, corresponding to an analytical SERS enhancement factor of 10(13). Our fabrication protocol demonstrates a simple, cost- and time-effective approach for the large-scale fabrication of a superhydrophobic SERS platform for ultratrace molecular detection.

  17. Observation planning algorithm of a Japanese space-borne sensor: Hyperspectral Imager SUIte (HISUI) onboard International Space Station (ISS) as platform (United States)

    Ogawa, Kenta; Konno, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Satoru; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Tachikawa, Tetsushi; Komoda, Mako


    Hyperspectral Imager Suite (HISUI) is a Japanese future space-borne hyperspectral instrument being developed by Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI). HISUI will be launched in 2019 or later onboard International Space Station (ISS) as platform. HISUI has 185 spectral band from 0.4 to 2.5 μm with 20 by 30 m spatial resolution with swath of 20 km. Swath is limited as such, however observations in continental scale area are requested in HISUI mission lifetime of three years. Therefore we are developing a scheduling algorithm to generate effective observation plans. HISUI scheduling algorithm is to generate observation plans automatically based on platform orbit, observation area maps (we say DAR; "Data Acquisition Request" in HISUI project), their priorities, and available resources and limitation of HISUI system such as instrument operation time per orbit and data transfer capability. Then next we need to set adequate DAR before start of HISUI observation, because years of observations are needed to cover continental scale wide area that is difficult to change after the mission started. To address these issues, we have developed observation simulator. The simulator's critical inputs are DAR and the ISS's orbit, HISUI limitations in observation minutes per orbit, data storage and past cloud coverage data for term of HISUI observations (3 years). Then the outputs of simulator are coverage map of each day. Areas with cloud free image are accumulated for the term of observation up to three years. We have successfully tested the simulator and tentative DAR and found that it is possible to estimate coverage for each of requests for the mission lifetime.

  18. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems. Volume 3: Executive summary (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.


    Facilities and equipment are defined for refining processes to commercial grade of lunar material that is delivered to a 'space manufacturing facility' in beneficiated, primary processed quality. The manufacturing facilities and the equipment for producing elements of large space systems from these materials and providing programmatic assessments of the concepts are also defined. In-space production processes of solar cells (by vapor deposition) and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, converters, and others are described.

  19. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 1, chapters 1-6 (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.


    Space program scenarios for production of large space structures from lunar materials are defined. The concept of the space manufacturing facility (SMF) is presented. The manufacturing processes and equipment for the SMF are defined and the conceptual layouts are described for the production of solar cells and arrays, structures and joints, conduits, waveguides, RF equipment radiators, wire cables, and converters. A 'reference' SMF was designed and its operation requirements are described.

  20. Low-Power Large-Area Radiation Detector for Space Science Measurements (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this task is to develop a low-power, large-area detectors from SiC, taking advantage of very low thermal noise characteristics and high radiation...

  1. The QuakeFinder Magnetometer Network - a Platform for Earth and Space Science Research (United States)

    Bleier, T.; Kappler, K. N.; Schneider, D.


    QuakeFinder (QF) is a humanitarian research and development project attempting to characterize earth-emitting electromagnetic (EM) signals as potential precursors to earthquakes. Beginning in 2005, QF designed, built, deployed and now maintains an array of 165 remote monitoring stations in 6 countries (US/California, Taiwan, Greece, Indonesia, Peru and Chile). Having amassed approximately 70 TB of data and greater than 140 earthquakes (M4+), QF is focused on the data analysis and signal processing algorithms in our effort to enable a forecasting capability. QF's autonomous stations, located along major fault lines, collect and transmit electromagnetic readings from 3-axis induction magnetometers and positive/negative ion sensors, a geophone, as well as various station health status and local conditions. The induction magnetometers, oriented N-S,E-W and vertically, have a 40 nT range and 1 pT sensitivity. Data is continuously collected at 50 samples/sec (sps), GPS time-stamped and transmitted, primarily through cell phone networks, to our data center in Palo Alto, California. The induction magnetometers routinely detect subtle geomagnetic and ionospheric disturbances as observed worldwide. QF seeks to make available both historic data and the array platform to strategic partners in the EM-related research and operation fields. The QF system will be described in detail with examples of local and regional geomagnetic activity. The stations are robust and will be undergoing a system-level upgrade in the near future. Domestically, QF maintains a 98% `up time' among the 120 stations in California while internationally our metric is typically near 80%. Irregular cell phone reception is chief among the reasons for outages although little data has been lost as the stations can store up to 90 days of data. These data are retrieved by QF personnel or, when communication is reestablished, the QF data ingest process automatically updates the database. Planned station upgrades

  2. Design considerations for an astronaut monorail system for large space structures and the structural characterization of its positioning arm (United States)

    Watson, Judith J.


    An astronaut monorail system (AMS) is presented as a vehicle to transport and position EVA astronauts along large space truss structures. The AMS is proposed specifically as an alternative to the crew and equipment transfer aid for Space Station Freedom. Design considerations for the AMS were discussed and a reference configuration was selected for the study. Equations were developed to characterize the stiffness and frequency behavior of the AMS positioning arm. Experimental data showed that these equations gave a fairly accurate representation of the stiffness and frequency behavior of the arm. A study was presented to show trends for the arm behavior based on varying parameters of the stiffness and frequency equations. An ergonomics study was conducted to provide boundary conditions for tolerable frequency and deflection to be used in developing a design concept for the positioning arm. The feasibility of the AMS positioning arm was examined using equations and working curves developed in this study. It was found that a positioning arm of a length to reach all interior points of the space station truss structure could not be designed to satisfy frequency and deflection constraints. By relaxing the design requirements and the ergonomic boundaries, an arm could be designed which would provide a stable work platform for the EVA astronaut and give him access to over 75 percent of the truss interior.

  3. Rectangular coordination polymer nanoplates: large-scale, rapid synthesis and their application as a fluorescent sensing platform for DNA detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Zhang

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on the large-scale, rapid synthesis of uniform rectangular coordination polymer nanoplates (RCPNs assembled from Cu(II and 4,4'-bipyridine for the first time. We further demonstrate that such RCPNs can be used as a very effective fluorescent sensing platform for multiple DNA detection with a detection limit as low as 30 pM and a high selectivity down to single-base mismatch. The DNA detection is accomplished by the following two steps: (1 RCPN binds dye-labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA probe, which brings dye and RCPN into close proximity, leading to fluorescence quenching; (2 Specific hybridization of the probe with its target generates a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA which detaches from RCPN, leading to fluorescence recovery. It suggests that this sensing system can well discriminate complementary and mismatched DNA sequences. The exact mechanism of fluorescence quenching involved is elucidated experimentally and its use in a human blood serum system is also demonstrated successfully.

  4. Characteristics and prediction of sound level in extra-large spaces


    Wang, C.; Ma, H.; Wu, Y.; Kang, J.


    This paper aims to examine sound fields in extra-large spaces, which are defined in this paper as spaces used by people, with a volume approximately larger than 125,000m 3 and absorption coefficient less than 0.7. In such spaces inhomogeneous reverberant energy caused by uneven early reflections with increasing volume has a significant effect on sound fields. Measurements were conducted in four spaces to examine the attenuation of the total and reverberant energy with increasing source-receiv...

  5. Development of a mobile device optimized cross platform-compatible oral pathology and radiology spaced repetition system for dental education. (United States)

    Al-Rawi, Wisam; Easterling, Lauren; Edwards, Paul C


    Combining active recall testing with spaced repetition increases memory retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare students' perception and utilization of an electronic spaced repetition oral pathology-radiology system in dental hygiene education and predoctoral dental education. The study employed an open-source suite of applications to create electronic "flashcards" that can be individually adjusted for frequency of repetition, depending on a user's assessment of difficulty. Accessible across multiple platforms (iOS, Android, Linux, OSX, Windows) as well as via any web-based browser, this framework was used to develop an oral radiology-oral pathology database of case-based questions. This system was introduced in two courses: sophomore oral pathology for dental students and sophomore radiology for dental hygiene students. Students were provided free software and/or mobile tablet devices as well as a database of 300 electronic question cards. Study participants were surveyed on frequency and extent of use. Perception-based surveys were used to evaluate their attitudes towards this technology. Of the eligible students, 12 of 22 (54.5%) dental hygiene and 49 of 107 (45.8%) dental students responded to the surveys. Adoption rates and student feedback were compared between the two groups. Among the respondents, acceptance of this technology with respect to educational usefulness was similar for the dental and dental hygiene students (median=5 on a five-point scale; dental hygiene interquartile range (IQR)=0; dental IQR=1). Only a minority of the survey respondents (25% dental, 33% dental hygiene) took advantage of one of the main benefits of this technology: automated spaced repetition.

  6. Concept and design of a UAS-based platform for measurements of RF signal-in-space (United States)

    Schrader, Thorsten; Bredemeyer, Jochen; Mihalachi, Marius; Rohde, Jan; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas


    Field strength or signal-in-space (SIS) measurements have been performed by using manned helicopters, aircrafts or from ground level using extendable masts. With the availability of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) such as multicopters a new versatile platform for SIS measurements is deployable. Larger types show up to eight individually driven electric motors and controllers (therefore called octocopter). They provide the ability to fly along predefined traces, to hover at waypoints and to initiate other actions when those have been reached. They provide self-levelling and stabilisation and moreover, they may gear at a point of interest regardless of their actual position, e.g. during their flight around a tower. Their payload mainly depends on the platform size and allows integration of complex measurement equipment. Upgrading their navigation capabilities including state-of-the-art global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and ground station transmitter (real-time kinematic - RTK) enables precise localisation of the UAS. For operation in electromagnetic harsh environments a shielding can be considered and integrated into the concept. This paper describes concept and design of an octocopter and its instrumentation, along with applications in recent projects, in which we measure and validate terrestrial navigation systems applied in air traffic and the weather forecast services. Among those are instrumentation landing systems (ILS), VHF omnidirectional radio ranges (VOR), airport traffic and weather radars as well as military surveillance radars, and UHF wind profilers. Especially to investigate the possible interaction of VORs and radars with single wind turbines (WT) or wind power plants has become a major request of economy, military and politics. Here, UAS can be deployed to deliver measurement data investigating this interaction. Once developed and setup to a certain extent, UAS are easy and cost-efficient to operate. Nonetheless, due to their compact size, UAS

  7. Impact of large-scale tides on cosmological distortions via redshift-space power spectrum (United States)

    Akitsu, Kazuyuki; Takada, Masahiro


    Although large-scale perturbations beyond a finite-volume survey region are not direct observables, these affect measurements of clustering statistics of small-scale (subsurvey) perturbations in large-scale structure, compared with the ensemble average, via the mode-coupling effect. In this paper we show that a large-scale tide induced by scalar perturbations causes apparent anisotropic distortions in the redshift-space power spectrum of galaxies in a way depending on an alignment between the tide, wave vector of small-scale modes and line-of-sight direction. Using the perturbation theory of structure formation, we derive a response function of the redshift-space power spectrum to large-scale tide. We then investigate the impact of large-scale tide on estimation of cosmological distances and the redshift-space distortion parameter via the measured redshift-space power spectrum for a hypothetical large-volume survey, based on the Fisher matrix formalism. To do this, we treat the large-scale tide as a signal, rather than an additional source of the statistical errors, and show that a degradation in the parameter is restored if we can employ the prior on the rms amplitude expected for the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model. We also discuss whether the large-scale tide can be constrained at an accuracy better than the CDM prediction, if the effects up to a larger wave number in the nonlinear regime can be included.

  8. A research on the excavation, support, and environment control of large scale underground space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Pil Chong; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Jeong, So Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    With the growing necessity of the underground space due to the deficiency of above-ground space, the size and shape of underground structures tend to be complex and diverse. This complexity and variety force the development of new techniques for rock mass classification, excavation and supporting of underground space, monitoring and control of underground environment. All these techniques should be applied together to make the underground space comfortable. To achieve this, efforts have been made on 5 different areas; research on the underground space design and stability analysis, research on the techniques for excavation of rock by controlled blasting, research on the development of monitoring system to forecast the rock behaviour of underground space, research on the environment inspection system in closed space, and research on dynamic analysis of the airflow and environmental control in the large geos-spaces. The 5 main achievements are improvement of the existing structure analysis program(EXCRACK) to consider the deformation and failure characteristics of rock joints, development of new blasting design (SK-cut), prediction of ground vibration through the newly proposed wave propagation equation, development and In-Situ application of rock mass deformation monitoring system and data acquisition software, and trial manufacture of the environment inspection system in closed space. Should these techniques be applied to the development of underground space, prevention of industrial disaster, cut down of construction cost, domestication of monitoring system, improvement of tunnel stability, curtailment of royalty, upgrade of domestic technologies will be brought forth. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. Coupled radiative gasdynamic interaction and non-equilibrium dissociation for large-scale returned space vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surzhikov, S.


    Graphical abstract: It has been shown that different coupled vibrational dissociation models, being applied for solving coupled radiative gasdynamic problems for large size space vehicles, exert noticeable effect on radiative heating of its surface at orbital entry on high altitudes (h ⩾ 70 km). This influence decreases with decreasing the space vehicles sizes. Figure shows translational (solid lines) and vibrational (dashed lines) temperatures in shock layer with (circle markers) and without (triangles markers) radiative-gasdynamic interaction for one trajectory point of entering space vehicle. Highlights: ► Nonequilibrium dissociation processes exert effect on radiation heating of space vehicles (SV). ► The radiation gas dynamic interaction enhances this influence. ► This influence increases with increasing the SV sizes. - Abstract: Radiative aerothermodynamics of large-scale space vehicles is considered for Earth orbital entry at zero angle of attack. Brief description of used radiative gasdynamic model of physically and chemically nonequilibrium, viscous, heat conductive and radiative gas of complex chemical composition is presented. Radiation gasdynamic (RadGD) interaction in high temperature shock layer is studied by means of numerical experiment. It is shown that radiation–gasdynamic coupling for orbital space vehicles of large size is important for high altitude part of entering trajectory. It is demonstrated that the use of different models of coupled vibrational dissociation (CVD) in conditions of RadGD interaction gives rise temperature variation in shock layer and, as a result, leads to significant variation of radiative heating of space vehicle.

  10. Hybrid Electrostatic/Flextensional Deformable Membrane Mirror for Lightweight, Large Aperture and Cryogenic Space Telescopes, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes innovative hybrid electrostatic/flextensional membrane deformable mirror capable of large amplitude aberration correction for large...

  11. Effects of variable-row-spacing harvesting picker platform scraping plates on cotton fiber quality and quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Michele de Campos Baraviera


    Full Text Available There have been increasing demands for high-quality cotton fibers that meet the textile industry quality standards. Concurrently, there have been efforts to reduce contaminants during harvesting to reduce harvesting costs. The goal of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of the picker platform with Variable-Row-Spacing (VRS for harvesting cotton in narrow rows, over two harvest seasons in two regions within the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. In this study, how the presence vs. absence of scraping plates and variations in travel speed was related to quantifiable levels of impurities the harvested fibers was examined. The research was divided into three experiments (Exp. I, II, and III, using cotton varieties FM 975 WS, IMA 5672 B2 RF, and IMA 5675 B2 RF, with row spacing of 0.45 m. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 ? 3 factorial design, using the presence/absence of the plate and three speeds (0.61, 1.0, and 1.42 m·s-¹, with seven repetitions, totaling 42 experimental plots. The plot size was 108 m² (3.6 ? 30 m. The data were analyzed using the F test in ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey test (p < 0.05. The results showed that scraping plates increased the number of stems and cones, and reduced the harvest efficiency of cotton planted in narrow rows in the region of Sorriso-MT during the 2013/2014 harvest. For the 2014/2015 harvest, the highest speed and the presence of the scraping plates increased the number of cones in the cotton samples. In the experiment conducted in Serra da Petrovina, the removal of the scraping plates decreased the amount of cones in the harvested cotton.

  12. Automatic Measurement in Large-Scale Space with the Laser Theodolite and Vision Guiding Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu


    Full Text Available The multitheodolite intersection measurement is a traditional approach to the coordinate measurement in large-scale space. However, the procedure of manual labeling and aiming results in the low automation level and the low measuring efficiency, and the measurement accuracy is affected easily by the manual aiming error. Based on the traditional theodolite measuring methods, this paper introduces the mechanism of vision measurement principle and presents a novel automatic measurement method for large-scale space and large workpieces (equipment combined with the laser theodolite measuring and vision guiding technologies. The measuring mark is established on the surface of the measured workpiece by the collimating laser which is coaxial with the sight-axis of theodolite, so the cooperation targets or manual marks are no longer needed. With the theoretical model data and the multiresolution visual imaging and tracking technology, it can realize the automatic, quick, and accurate measurement of large workpieces in large-scale space. Meanwhile, the impact of artificial error is reduced and the measuring efficiency is improved. Therefore, this method has significant ramification for the measurement of large workpieces, such as the geometry appearance characteristics measuring of ships, large aircraft, and spacecraft, and deformation monitoring for large building, dams.

  13. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus


    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  14. SparseLeap: Efficient Empty Space Skipping for Large-Scale Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus; Al-Awami, Ali K.; Beyer, Johanna; Agus, Marco; Pfister, Hanspeter


    Recent advances in data acquisition produce volume data of very high resolution and large size, such as terabyte-sized microscopy volumes. These data often contain many fine and intricate structures, which pose huge challenges for volume rendering, and make it particularly important to efficiently skip empty space. This paper addresses two major challenges: (1) The complexity of large volumes containing fine structures often leads to highly fragmented space subdivisions that make empty regions hard to skip efficiently. (2) The classification of space into empty and non-empty regions changes frequently, because the user or the evaluation of an interactive query activate a different set of objects, which makes it unfeasible to pre-compute a well-adapted space subdivision. We describe the novel SparseLeap method for efficient empty space skipping in very large volumes, even around fine structures. The main performance characteristic of SparseLeap is that it moves the major cost of empty space skipping out of the ray-casting stage. We achieve this via a hybrid strategy that balances the computational load between determining empty ray segments in a rasterization (object-order) stage, and sampling non-empty volume data in the ray-casting (image-order) stage. Before ray-casting, we exploit the fast hardware rasterization of GPUs to create a ray segment list for each pixel, which identifies non-empty regions along the ray. The ray-casting stage then leaps over empty space without hierarchy traversal. Ray segment lists are created by rasterizing a set of fine-grained, view-independent bounding boxes. Frame coherence is exploited by re-using the same bounding boxes unless the set of active objects changes. We show that SparseLeap scales better to large, sparse data than standard octree empty space skipping.

  15. Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe


    This book deals with special relativity theory and its application to cosmology. It presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The book will be of interest to cosmologists, astrophysicists, theoretical

  16. Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe


    This book presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large-scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The relationship between cosmic velocity, acceleration and distances is given. In the appendices gravitation is added in the form of a cosmological g

  17. Interactive computer graphics and its role in control system design of large space structures (United States)

    Reddy, A. S. S. R.


    This paper attempts to show the relevance of interactive computer graphics in the design of control systems to maintain attitude and shape of large space structures to accomplish the required mission objectives. The typical phases of control system design, starting from the physical model such as modeling the dynamics, modal analysis, and control system design methodology are reviewed and the need of the interactive computer graphics is demonstrated. Typical constituent parts of large space structures such as free-free beams and free-free plates are used to demonstrate the complexity of the control system design and the effectiveness of the interactive computer graphics.

  18. Inertially Stabilized Platforms for Precision Pointing Applications to Directed-Energy Weapons and Space-Based Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Negro, J; Griffin, S


    .... This article addresses directed-energy-weapon (DEW) precision pointing requirements and implementation alternatives in the context of strapdown and stable-platform inertial-reference technologies...

  19. MCBooster: a library for fast Monte Carlo generation of phase-space decays on massively parallel platforms. (United States)

    Alves Júnior, A. A.; Sokoloff, M. D.


    MCBooster is a header-only, C++11-compliant library that provides routines to generate and perform calculations on large samples of phase space Monte Carlo events. To achieve superior performance, MCBooster is capable to perform most of its calculations in parallel using CUDA- and OpenMP-enabled devices. MCBooster is built on top of the Thrust library and runs on Linux systems. This contribution summarizes the main features of MCBooster. A basic description of the user interface and some examples of applications are provided, along with measurements of performance in a variety of environments

  20. Large anterior temporal Virchow-Robin spaces: unique MR imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Anthony T. [Monash University, Neuroradiology Service, Monash Imaging, Monash Health, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Chandra, Ronil V. [Monash University, Neuroradiology Service, Monash Imaging, Monash Health, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Monash University, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Melbourne (Australia); Trost, Nicholas M. [St Vincent' s Hospital, Neuroradiology Service, Melbourne (Australia); McKelvie, Penelope A. [St Vincent' s Hospital, Anatomical Pathology, Melbourne (Australia); Stuckey, Stephen L. [Monash University, Neuroradiology Service, Monash Imaging, Monash Health, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Monash University, Southern Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Melbourne (Australia)


    Large Virchow-Robin (VR) spaces may mimic cystic tumor. The anterior temporal subcortical white matter is a recently described preferential location, with only 18 reported cases. Our aim was to identify unique MR features that could increase prospective diagnostic confidence. Thirty-nine cases were identified between November 2003 and February 2014. Demographic, clinical data and the initial radiological report were retrospectively reviewed. Two neuroradiologists reviewed all MR imaging; a neuropathologist reviewed histological data. Median age was 58 years (range 24-86 years); the majority (69 %) was female. There were no clinical symptoms that could be directly referable to the lesion. Two thirds were considered to be VR spaces on the initial radiological report. Mean maximal size was 9 mm (range 5-17 mm); majority (79 %) had perilesional T2 or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensity. The following were identified as potential unique MR features: focal cortical distortion by an adjacent branch of the middle cerebral artery (92 %), smaller adjacent VR spaces (26 %), and a contiguous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) intensity tract (21 %). Surgery was performed in three asymptomatic patients; histopathology confirmed VR spaces. Unique MR features were retrospectively identified in all three patients. Large anterior temporal lobe VR spaces commonly demonstrate perilesional T2 or FLAIR signal and can be misdiagnosed as cystic tumor. Potential unique MR features that could increase prospective diagnostic confidence include focal cortical distortion by an adjacent branch of the middle cerebral artery, smaller adjacent VR spaces, and a contiguous CSF intensity tract. (orig.)

  1. Laboratory Spectroscopy of Large Carbon Molecules and Ions in Support of Space Missions. A New Generation of Laboratory & Space Studies (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Tan, Xiaofeng; Cami, Jan; Biennier, Ludovic; Remy, Jerome


    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important and ubiquitous component of carbon-bearing materials in space. A long-standing and major challenge for laboratory astrophysics has been to measure the spectra of large carbon molecules in laboratory environments that mimic (in a realistic way) the physical conditions that are associated with the interstellar emission and absorption regions [1]. This objective has been identified as one of the critical Laboratory Astrophysics objectives to optimize the data return from space missions [2]. An extensive laboratory program has been developed to assess the properties of PAHs in such environments and to describe how they influence the radiation and energy balance in space. We present and discuss the gas-phase electronic absorption spectra of neutral and ionized PAHs measured in the UV-Visible-NIR range in astrophysically relevant environments and discuss the implications for astrophysics [1]. The harsh physical conditions of the interstellar medium characterized by a low temperature, an absence of collisions and strong VUV radiation fields - have been simulated in the laboratory by associating a pulsed cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS) with a supersonic slit jet seeded with PAHs and an ionizing, penning-type, electronic discharge. We have measured for the {\\it first time} the spectra of a series of neutral [3,4] and ionized [5,6] interstellar PAHs analogs in the laboratory. An effort has also been attempted to quantify the mechanisms of ion and carbon nanoparticles production in the free jet expansion and to model our simulation of the diffuse interstellar medium in the laboratory [7]. These experiments provide {\\it unique} information on the spectra of free, large carbon-containing molecules and ions in the gas phase. We are now, for the first time, in the position to directly compare laboratory spectral data on free, cold, PAH ions and carbon nano-sized carbon particles with astronomical observations in the

  2. The seesaw space, a vector space to identify and characterize large-scale structures at 1 AU (United States)

    Lara, A.; Niembro, T.


    We introduce the seesaw space, an orthonormal space formed by the local and the global fluctuations of any of the four basic solar parameters: velocity, density, magnetic field and temperature at any heliospheric distance. The fluctuations compare the standard deviation of a moving average of three hours against the running average of the parameter in a month (consider as the local fluctuations) and in a year (global fluctuations) We created this new vectorial spaces to identify the arrival of transients to any spacecraft without the need of an observer. We applied our method to the one-minute resolution data of WIND spacecraft from 1996 to 2016. To study the behavior of the seesaw norms in terms of the solar cycle, we computed annual histograms and fixed piecewise functions formed by two log-normal distributions and observed that one of the distributions is due to large-scale structures while the other to the ambient solar wind. The norm values in which the piecewise functions change vary in terms of the solar cycle. We compared the seesaw norms of each of the basic parameters due to the arrival of coronal mass ejections, co-rotating interaction regions and sector boundaries reported in literature. High seesaw norms are due to large-scale structures. We found three critical values of the norms that can be used to determined the arrival of coronal mass ejections. We present as well general comparisons of the norms during the two maxima and the minimum solar cycle periods and the differences of the norms due to large-scale structures depending on each period.

  3. Prediction of Thermal Environment in a Large Space Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jung Yoon


    Full Text Available Since the thermal environment of large space buildings such as stadiums can vary depending on the location of the stands, it is important to divide them into different zones and evaluate their thermal environment separately. The thermal environment can be evaluated using physical values measured with the sensors, but the occupant density of the stadium stands is high, which limits the locations available to install the sensors. As a method to resolve the limitations of installing the sensors, we propose a method to predict the thermal environment of each zone in a large space. We set six key thermal factors affecting the thermal environment in a large space to be predicted factors (indoor air temperature, mean radiant temperature, and clothing and the fixed factors (air velocity, metabolic rate, and relative humidity. Using artificial neural network (ANN models and the outdoor air temperature and the surface temperature of the interior walls around the stands as input data, we developed a method to predict the three thermal factors. Learning and verification datasets were established using STAR CCM+ (2016.10, Siemens PLM software, Plano, TX, USA. An analysis of each model’s prediction results showed that the prediction accuracy increased with the number of learning data points. The thermal environment evaluation process developed in this study can be used to control heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC facilities in each zone in a large space building with sufficient learning by ANN models at the building testing or the evaluation stage.

  4. Affordable Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) Testing on Large Space Vehicles (United States)

    Aldridge, Edward; Curry, Bruce; Scully, Robert


    Objective: Perform System-Level EMI testing of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) spacecraft in situ in the Kennedy Space Center's Neil Armstrong Operations & Checkout (O&C) Facility in 6 days. The only way to execute the system-level EMI testing and meet this schedule challenge was to perform the EMI testing in situ in the Final Assembly & System Test (FAST) Cell in a reverberant mode, not the direct illumination mode originally planned. This required the unplanned construction of a Faraday Cage around the vehicle and FAST Cell structure. The presence of massive steel platforms created many challenges to developing an efficient screen room to contain the RF energy and yield an effective reverberant chamber. An initial effectiveness test showed marginal performance, but improvements implemented afterward resulted in the final test performing surprisingly well! The paper will explain the design, the challenges, and the changes that made the difference in performance!

  5. Resilient and Corrosion-proof Rolling Element Bearings Made from Ni-ti Alloys for Aerospace Mechanism Applications and the Ultimate Space Technology Development Platform (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher


    The International Space Station provides a unique microgravity laboratory environment for research. The ISS also serves as an effective platform for the development of technologies and engineered solutions related to living and working in space. The space environment also challenges our capabilities related to lubrication and tribology. In this seminar, Dr. DellaCorte will review the basics of space mechanism tribology and the challenges of providing good lubrication and long-life in the harsh space environment. He will also discuss recent tribological challenges associated with the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) bearings and life support hardware that must operate under severe conditions that are literally out of this world. Each tribology challenge is unique and their solutions often result in new technologies that benefit the tribology community everywhere, even back on Earth

  6. An optimal beam alignment method for large-scale distributed space surveillance radar system (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Wang, Dongya; Xia, Shuangzhi


    Large-scale distributed space surveillance radar is a very important ground-based equipment to maintain a complete catalogue for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space debris. However, due to the thousands of kilometers distance between each sites of the distributed radar system, how to optimally implement the Transmitting/Receiving (T/R) beams alignment in a great space using the narrow beam, which proposed a special and considerable technical challenge in the space surveillance area. According to the common coordinate transformation model and the radar beam space model, we presented a two dimensional projection algorithm for T/R beam using the direction angles, which could visually describe and assess the beam alignment performance. Subsequently, the optimal mathematical models for the orientation angle of the antenna array, the site location and the T/R beam coverage are constructed, and also the beam alignment parameters are precisely solved. At last, we conducted the optimal beam alignment experiments base on the site parameters of Air Force Space Surveillance System (AFSSS). The simulation results demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of our novel method, which can significantly stimulate the construction for the LEO space debris surveillance equipment.

  7. Prime focus architectures for large space telescopes: reduce surfaces to save cost (United States)

    Breckinridge, J. B.; Lillie, C. F.


    Conceptual architectures are now being developed to identify future directions for post JWST large space telescope systems to operate in the UV Optical and near IR regions of the spectrum. Here we show that the cost of optical surfaces within large aperture telescope/instrument systems can exceed $100M/reflection when expressed in terms of the aperture increase needed to over come internal absorption loss. We recommend a program in innovative optical design to minimize the number of surfaces by considering multiple functions for mirrors. An example is given using the Rowland circle imaging spectrometer systems for UV space science. With few exceptions, current space telescope architectures are based on systems optimized for ground-based astronomy. Both HST and JWST are classical "Cassegrain" telescopes derived from the ground-based tradition to co-locate the massive primary mirror and the instruments at the same end of the metrology structure. This requirement derives from the dual need to minimize observatory dome size and cost in the presence of the Earth's 1-g gravitational field. Space telescopes, however function in the zero gravity of space and the 1- g constraint is relieved to the advantage of astronomers. Here we suggest that a prime focus large aperture telescope system in space may have potentially have higher transmittance, better pointing, improved thermal and structural control, less internal polarization and broader wavelength coverage than Cassegrain telescopes. An example is given showing how UV astronomy telescopes use single optical elements for multiple functions and therefore have a minimum number of reflections.

  8. Large-Scale Demonstration of Liquid Hydrogen Storage with Zero Boiloff for In-Space Applications (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C. B.; Flachbart, R. H.; Holt, K. A.; Johnson, E.; Hedayat, A.; Hipp, B.; Plachta, D. W.


    Cryocooler and passive insulation technology advances have substantially improved prospects for zero-boiloff cryogenic storage. Therefore, a cooperative effort by NASA s Ames Research Center, Glenn Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was implemented to develop zero-boiloff concepts for in-space cryogenic storage. Described herein is one program element - a large-scale, zero-boiloff demonstration using the MSFC multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB). A commercial cryocooler was interfaced with an existing MHTB spray bar mixer and insulation system in a manner that enabled a balance between incoming and extracted thermal energy.

  9. Major technological innovations introduced in the large antennas of the Deep Space Network (United States)

    Imbriale, W. A.


    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is the largest and most sensitive scientific, telecommunications and radio navigation network in the world. Its principal responsibilities are to provide communications, tracking, and science services to most of the world's spacecraft that travel beyond low Earth orbit. The network consists of three Deep Space Communications Complexes. Each of the three complexes consists of multiple large antennas equipped with ultra sensitive receiving systems. A centralized Signal Processing Center (SPC) remotely controls the antennas, generates and transmits spacecraft commands, and receives and processes the spacecraft telemetry.

  10. An optimum organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary Space Base (United States)

    Ragusa, J. M.


    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify an optimum hypothetical organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary research and applications (R&A) Space Base manned by a mixed crew of technologists. Since such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than the empirical testing of it. The essential finding of this research was that a four-level project type 'total matrix' model will optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of Space Base technologists.

  11. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David


    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  12. Design of intelligent power consumption optimization and visualization management platform for large buildings based on internet of things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Shulan


    Full Text Available The buildings provide a significant contribution to total energy consumption and CO2 emission. It has been estimated that the development of an intelligent power consumption monitor and control system will result in about 30% savings in energy consumption. This design innovatively integrates the advanced technologies such as the internet of things, the internet, intelligent buildings and intelligent electricity which can offer open, efficient, convenient energy consumption detection platform in demand side and visual management demonstration application platform in power enterprises side. The system was created to maximize the effective and efficient the use of energy resource. It was development around sensor networks and intelligent gateway and the monitoring center software. This will realize the highly integration and comprehensive application in energy and information to meet the needs with intelligent buildings

  13. Very large virtual compound spaces: construction, storage and utility in drug discovery. (United States)

    Peng, Zhengwei


    Recent activities in the construction, storage and exploration of very large virtual compound spaces are reviewed by this report. As expected, the systematic exploration of compound spaces at the highest resolution (individual atoms and bonds) is intrinsically intractable. By contrast, by staying within a finite number of reactions and a finite number of reactants or fragments, several virtual compound spaces have been constructed in a combinatorial fashion with sizes ranging from 10(11)11 to 10(20)20 compounds. Multiple search methods have been developed to perform searches (e.g. similarity, exact and substructure) into those compound spaces without the need for full enumeration. The up-front investment spent on synthetic feasibility during the construction of some of those virtual compound spaces enables a wider adoption by medicinal chemists to design and synthesize important compounds for drug discovery. Recent activities in the area of exploring virtual compound spaces via the evolutionary approach based on Genetic Algorithm also suggests a positive shift of focus from method development to workflow, integration and ease of use, all of which are required for this approach to be widely adopted by medicinal chemists.

  14. Some thoughts on the management of large, complex international space ventures (United States)

    Lee, T. J.; Kutzer, Ants; Schneider, W. C.


    Management issues relevant to the development and deployment of large international space ventures are discussed with particular attention given to previous experience. Management approaches utilized in the past are labeled as either simple or complex, and signs of efficient management are examined. Simple approaches include those in which experiments and subsystems are developed for integration into spacecraft, and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project is given as an example of a simple multinational approach. Complex approaches include those for ESA's Spacelab Project and the Space Station Freedom in which functional interfaces cross agency and political boundaries. It is concluded that individual elements of space programs should be managed by individual participating agencies, and overall configuration control is coordinated by level with a program director acting to manage overall objectives and project interfaces.

  15. Advanced UVOIR Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Very Large Space Telescopes (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Smith, W. Scott; Mosier, Gary; Abplanalp, Laura; Arnold, William


    ASTRO2010 Decadal stated that an advanced large-aperture ultraviolet, optical, near-infrared (UVOIR) telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exoplanet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. AMTD builds on the state of art (SOA) defined by over 30 years of monolithic & segmented ground & space-telescope mirror technology to mature six key technologies. AMTD is deliberately pursuing multiple design paths to provide the science community with op-tions to enable either large aperture monolithic or segmented mirrors with clear engineering metrics traceable to science requirements.

  16. Design and analysis of throttle orifice applying to small space with large pressure drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yan; Lu Daogang; Zeng Xiaokang


    Throttle orifices are widely used in various pipe systems of nuclear power plants. Improper placement of orifices would aggravate the vibration of the pipe with strong noise, damaging the structure of the pipe and the completeness of the system. In this paper, effects of orifice diameter, thickness, eccentric distance and chamfering on the throttling are analyzed applying CFD software. Based on that, we propose the throttle orifices which apply to small space with large pressure drop are multiple eccentric orifices. The results show that the multiple eccentric orifices can effectively restrain the cavitation and flash distillation, while generating a large pressure drop. (authors)

  17. A Piezoelectric Unimorph Deformable Mirror Concept by Wafer Transfer for Ultra Large Space Telescopes (United States)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok; Shcheglov, Kirill


    Future concepts of ultra large space telescopes include segmented silicon mirrors and inflatable polymer mirrors. Primary mirrors for these systems cannot meet optical surface figure requirements and are likely to generate over several microns of wavefront errors. In order to correct for these large wavefront errors, high stroke optical quality deformable mirrors are required. JPL has recently developed a new technology for transferring an entire wafer-level mirror membrane from one substrate to another. A thin membrane, 100 mm in diameter, has been successfully transferred without using adhesives or polymers. The measured peak-to-valley surface error of a transferred and patterned membrane (1 mm x 1 mm x 0.016 mm) is only 9 nm. The mirror element actuation principle is based on a piezoelectric unimorph. A voltage applied to the piezoelectric layer induces stress in the longitudinal direction causing the film to deform and pull on the mirror connected to it. The advantage of this approach is that the small longitudinal strains obtainable from a piezoelectric material at modest voltages are thus translated into large vertical displacements. Modeling is performed for a unimorph membrane consisting of clamped rectangular membrane with a PZT layer with variable dimensions. The membrane transfer technology is combined with the piezoelectric bimorph actuator concept to constitute a compact deformable mirror device with a large stroke actuation of a continuous mirror membrane, resulting in a compact A0 systems for use in ultra large space telescopes.

  18. Phases of a stack of membranes in a large number of dimensions of configuration space (United States)

    Borelli, M. E.; Kleinert, H.


    The phase diagram of a stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is calculated exactly in a large number of dimensions of configuration space. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase with spontaneously broken translational symmetry in the vertical direction. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a meltinglike transition. The critical temperature is determined as a function of the interlayer separation l.

  19. Evaluation of linear DC motor actuators for control of large space structures


    Ide, Eric Nelson


    This thesis examines the use of a linear DC motor as a proof mass actuator for the control of large space structures. A model for the actuator, including the current and force compensation used, is derived. Because of the force compensation, the actuator is unstable when placed on a structure. Relative position feedback is used for actuator stabilization. This method of compensation couples the actuator to the mast in a feedback configuration. Three compensator designs are prop...

  20. Large-scale cross-species chemogenomic platform proposes a new drug discovery strategy of veterinary drug from herbal medicines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    Full Text Available Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.

  1. Control of the large renal vein in limited dissected space during laparoscopic nephrectomy: a simple and reliable method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijvikai, Kittinut; Laguna, M. Pilar; de la Rosette, Jean


    We describe our technique for large renal vein control in the limited dissected space during laparoscopic nephrectomy. This technique is a simple, inexpensive and reliable method, especially for large and short renal vein ligation

  2. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip


    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  3. A Study for Optimum Space-to-Ground Communication Concept for CubeSat and SmallSat Platforms (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study is to explore the communication architecture for future space-to-ground CubeSat/SmallSat communication, through simulations, analyses, and identifying...

  4. Large-signal analysis of DC motor drive system using state-space averaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekir Yildiz, Ali


    The analysis of a separately excited DC motor driven by DC-DC converter is realized by using state-space averaging technique. Firstly, a general and unified large-signal averaged circuit model for DC-DC converters is given. The method converts power electronic systems, which are periodic time-variant because of their switching operation, to unified and time independent systems. Using the averaged circuit model enables us to combine the different topologies of converters. Thus, all analysis and design processes about DC motor can be easily realized by using the unified averaged model which is valid during whole period. Some large-signal variations such as speed and current relating to DC motor, steady-state analysis, large-signal and small-signal transfer functions are easily obtained by using the averaged circuit model

  5. Analyzing Damping Vibration Methods of Large-Size Space Vehicles in the Earth's Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shcheglov


    Full Text Available It is known that most of today's space vehicles comprise large antennas, which are bracket-attached to the vehicle body. Dimensions of reflector antennas may be of 30 ... 50 m. The weight of such constructions can reach approximately 200 kg.Since the antenna dimensions are significantly larger than the size of the vehicle body and the points to attach the brackets to the space vehicles have a low stiffness, conventional dampers may be inefficient. The paper proposes to consider the damping antenna in terms of its interaction with the Earth's magnetic field.A simple dynamic model of the space vehicle equipped with a large-size structure is built. The space vehicle is a parallelepiped to which the antenna is attached through a beam.To solve the model problems, was used a simplified model of Earth's magnetic field: uniform, with intensity lines parallel to each other and perpendicular to the plane of the antenna.The paper considers two layouts of coils with respect to the antenna, namely: a vertical one in which an axis of magnetic dipole is perpendicular to the antenna plane, and a horizontal layout in which an axis of magnetic dipole lies in the antenna plane. It also explores two ways for magnetic damping of oscillations: through the controlled current that is supplied from the power supply system of the space vehicle, and by the self-induction current in the coil. Thus, four objectives were formulated.In each task was formulated an oscillation equation. Then a ratio of oscillation amplitudes and their decay time were estimated. It was found that each task requires the certain parameters either of the antenna itself, its dimensions and moment of inertia, or of the coil and, respectively, the current, which is supplied from the space vehicle. In each task for these parameters were found the ranges, which allow us to tell of efficient damping vibrations.The conclusion can be drawn based on the analysis of tasks that a specialized control system

  6. Feasibility analysis of large length-scale thermocapillary flow experiment for the International Space Station (United States)

    Alberts, Samantha J.

    The investigation of microgravity fluid dynamics emerged out of necessity with the advent of space exploration. In particular, capillary research took a leap forward in the 1960s with regards to liquid settling and interfacial dynamics. Due to inherent temperature variations in large spacecraft liquid systems, such as fuel tanks, forces develop on gas-liquid interfaces which induce thermocapillary flows. To date, thermocapillary flows have been studied in small, idealized research geometries usually under terrestrial conditions. The 1 to 3m lengths in current and future large tanks and hardware are designed based on hardware rather than research, which leaves spaceflight systems designers without the technological tools to effectively create safe and efficient designs. This thesis focused on the design and feasibility of a large length-scale thermocapillary flow experiment, which utilizes temperature variations to drive a flow. The design of a helical channel geometry ranging from 1 to 2.5m in length permits a large length-scale thermocapillary flow experiment to fit in a seemingly small International Space Station (ISS) facility such as the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR). An initial investigation determined the proposed experiment produced measurable data while adhering to the FIR facility limitations. The computational portion of this thesis focused on the investigation of functional geometries of fuel tanks and depots using Surface Evolver. This work outlines the design of a large length-scale thermocapillary flow experiment for the ISS FIR. The results from this work improve the understanding thermocapillary flows and thus improve technological tools for predicting heat and mass transfer in large length-scale thermocapillary flows. Without the tools to understand the thermocapillary flows in these systems, engineers are forced to design larger, heavier vehicles to assure safety and mission success.

  7. Preliminary results on the dynamics of large and flexible space structures in Halo orbits (United States)

    Colagrossi, Andrea; Lavagna, Michèle


    The global exploration roadmap suggests, among other ambitious future space programmes, a possible manned outpost in lunar vicinity, to support surface operations and further astronaut training for longer and deeper space missions and transfers. In particular, a Lagrangian point orbit location - in the Earth- Moon system - is suggested for a manned cis-lunar infrastructure; proposal which opens an interesting field of study from the astrodynamics perspective. Literature offers a wide set of scientific research done on orbital dynamics under the Three-Body Problem modelling approach, while less of it includes the attitude dynamics modelling as well. However, whenever a large space structure (ISS-like) is considered, not only the coupled orbit-attitude dynamics should be modelled to run more accurate analyses, but the structural flexibility should be included too. The paper, starting from the well-known Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem formulation, presents some preliminary results obtained by adding a coupled orbit-attitude dynamical model and the effects due to the large structure flexibility. In addition, the most relevant perturbing phenomena, such as the Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) and the fourth-body (Sun) gravity, are included in the model as well. A multi-body approach has been preferred to represent possible configurations of the large cis-lunar infrastructure: interconnected simple structural elements - such as beams, rods or lumped masses linked by springs - build up the space segment. To better investigate the relevance of the flexibility effects, the lumped parameters approach is compared with a distributed parameters semi-analytical technique. A sensitivity analysis of system dynamics, with respect to different configurations and mechanical properties of the extended structure, is also presented, in order to highlight drivers for the lunar outpost design. Furthermore, a case study for a large and flexible space structure in Halo orbits around

  8. Heating of large format filters in sub-mm and fir space optics (United States)

    Baccichet, N.; Savini, G.


    Most FIR and sub-mm space borne observatories use polymer-based quasi-optical elements like filters and lenses, due to their high transparency and low absorption in such wavelength ranges. Nevertheless, data from those missions have proven that thermal imbalances in the instrument (not caused by filters) can complicate the data analysis. Consequently, for future, higher precision instrumentation, further investigation is required on any thermal imbalances embedded in such polymer-based filters. Particularly, in this paper the heating of polymers when operating at cryogenic temperature in space will be studied. Such phenomenon is an important aspect of their functioning since the transient emission of unwanted thermal radiation may affect the scientific measurements. To assess this effect, a computer model was developed for polypropylene based filters and PTFE-based coatings. Specifically, a theoretical model of their thermal properties was created and used into a multi-physics simulation that accounts for conductive and radiative heating effects of large optical elements, the geometry of which was suggested by the large format array instruments designed for future space missions. It was found that in the simulated conditions, the filters temperature was characterized by a time-dependent behaviour, modulated by a small scale fluctuation. Moreover, it was noticed that thermalization was reached only when a low power input was present.

  9. Last results of technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes (United States)

    Gambicorti, Lisa; D'Amato, Francesco; Vettore, Christian; Duò, Fabrizio; Guercia, Alessio; Patauner, Christian; Biasi, Roberto; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Gallieni, Daniele; Lazzarini, Paolo; Tintori, Matteo; Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Pereira do Carmo, Joao


    The aim of this work is to describe the latest results of new technological concepts for Large Aperture Telescopes Technology (LATT) using thin deployable lightweight active mirrors. This technology is developed under the European Space Agency (ESA) Technology Research Program and can be exploited in all the applications based on the use of primary mirrors of space telescopes with large aperture, segmented lightweight telescopes with wide Field of View (FOV) and low f/#, and LIDAR telescopes. The reference mission application is a potential future ESA mission, related to a space borne DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) instrument operating around 935.5 nm with the goal to measure water vapor profiles in atmosphere. An Optical BreadBoard (OBB) for LATT has been designed for investigating and testing two critical aspects of the technology: 1) control accuracy in the mirror surface shaping. 2) mirror survivability to launch. The aim is to evaluate the effective performances of the long stroke smart-actuators used for the mirror control and to demonstrate the effectiveness and the reliability of the electrostatic locking (EL) system to restraint the thin shell on the mirror backup structure during launch. The paper presents a comprehensive vision of the breadboard focusing on how the requirements have driven the design of the whole system and of the various subsystems. The manufacturing process of the thin shell is also presented.

  10. Biased Tracers in Redshift Space in the EFT of Large-Scale Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perko, Ashley [Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Senatore, Leonardo [KIPAC, Menlo Park; Jennings, Elise [Chicago U., KICP; Wechsler, Risa H. [Stanford U., Phys. Dept.


    The Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure (EFTofLSS) provides a novel formalism that is able to accurately predict the clustering of large-scale structure (LSS) in the mildly non-linear regime. Here we provide the first computation of the power spectrum of biased tracers in redshift space at one loop order, and we make the associated code publicly available. We compare the multipoles $\\ell=0,2$ of the redshift-space halo power spectrum, together with the real-space matter and halo power spectra, with data from numerical simulations at $z=0.67$. For the samples we compare to, which have a number density of $\\bar n=3.8 \\cdot 10^{-2}(h \\ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1})^3$ and $\\bar n=3.9 \\cdot 10^{-4}(h \\ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1})^3$, we find that the calculation at one-loop order matches numerical measurements to within a few percent up to $k\\simeq 0.43 \\ h \\ {\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$, a significant improvement with respect to former techniques. By performing the so-called IR-resummation, we find that the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation peak is accurately reproduced. Based on the results presented here, long-wavelength statistics that are routinely observed in LSS surveys can be finally computed in the EFTofLSS. This formalism thus is ready to start to be compared directly to observational data.

  11. Unique Programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics using large rubber Balloons (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sarkar, Ritabrata; Bhowmick, Debashis; Chakraborty, Subhankar

    Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) has developed a unique capability to pursue space based studies at a very low cost. Here, large rubber balloons are sent to near space (~ 40km) with payloads of less than 4kg weight. These payloads can be cosmic ray detectors, X-ray detectors, muon detectors apart from communication device, GPS, and nine degrees of freedom measuring capabilities. With two balloons in orbiter-launcher configuration, ICSP has been able to conduct long duration flights upto 12 hours. ICSP has so far sent 56 Dignity missions to near space and obtained Cosmic Ray and muon variation on a regular basis, dynamical spectrum of solar flares and gamma ray burst apart from other usual parameters such as wind velocity components, temperature and pressure variations etc. Since all the payloads are retrieved by parachutes, the cost per mission remains very low, typically around USD1000.00. The preparation time is low. Furthermore, no special launching area is required. In principle, such experiments can be conducted on a daily basis, if need be. Presently, we are also incorporating studies relating to earth system science such as Ozone, aerosols, micro-meteorites etc.

  12. Dynamical analysis of rendezvous and docking with very large space infrastructures in non-Keplerian orbits (United States)

    Colagrossi, Andrea; Lavagna, Michèle


    A space station in the vicinity of the Moon can be exploited as a gateway for future human and robotic exploration of the solar system. The natural location for a space system of this kind is about one of the Earth-Moon libration points. The study addresses the dynamics during rendezvous and docking operations with a very large space infrastructure in an EML2 Halo orbit. The model takes into account the coupling effects between the orbital and the attitude motion in a circular restricted three-body problem environment. The flexibility of the system is included, and the interaction between the modes of the structure and those related with the orbital motion is investigated. A lumped parameter technique is used to represents the flexible dynamics. The parameters of the space station are maintained as generic as possible, in a way to delineate a global scenario of the mission. However, the developed model can be tuned and updated according to the information that will be available in the future, when the whole system will be defined with a higher level of precision.

  13. A change of coordinates on the large phase space of quantum cohomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabanov, A.


    The Gromov-Witten invariants of a smooth, projective variety V, when twisted by the tautological classes on the moduli space of stable maps, give rise to a family of cohomological field theories and endow the base of the family with coordinates. We prove that the potential functions associated to the tautological ψ classes (the large phase space) and the κ classes are related by a change of coordinates which generalizes a change of basis on the ring of symmetric functions. Our result is a generalization of the work of Manin-Zograf who studied the case where V is a point. We utilize this change of variables to derive the topological recursion relations associated to the κ classes from those associated to the ψ classes. (orig.)

  14. Large-size deployable construction heated by solar irradiation in free space (United States)

    Pestrenina, Irena; Kondyurin, Alexey; Pestrenin, Valery; Kashin, Nickolay; Naymushin, Alexey

    Large-size deployable construction in free space with subsequent direct curing was invented more than fifteen years ago (Briskman et al., 1997 and Kondyurin, 1998). It caused a lot of scientific problems, one of which is a possibility to use the solar energy for initiation of the curing reaction. This paper is devoted to investigate the curing process under sun irradiation during a space flight in Earth orbits. A rotation of the construction is considered. This motion can provide an optimal temperature distribution in the construction that is required for the polymerization reaction. The cylindrical construction of 80 m length with two hemispherical ends of 10 m radius is considered. The wall of the construction of 10 mm carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composite is irradiated by heat flux from the sun and radiates heat from the external surface by the Stefan- Boltzmann law. A stage of polymerization reaction is calculated as a function of temperature/time based on the laboratory experiments with certified composite materials for space exploitation. The curing kinetics of the composite is calculated for different inclination Low Earth Orbits (300 km altitude) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (40000 km altitude). The results show that • the curing process depends strongly on the Earth orbit and the rotation of the construction; • the optimal flight orbit and rotation can be found to provide the thermal regime that is sufficient for the complete curing of the considered construction. The study is supported by RFBR grant No.12-08-00970-a. 1. Briskman V., A.Kondyurin, K.Kostarev, V.Leontyev, M.Levkovich, A.Mashinsky, G.Nechitailo, T.Yudina, Polymerization in microgravity as a new process in space technology, Paper No IAA-97-IAA.12.1.07, 48th International Astronautical Congress, October 6-10, 1997, Turin Italy. 2. Kondyurin A.V., Building the shells of large space stations by the polymerisation of epoxy composites in open space, Int. Polymer Sci. and Technol., v.25, N4

  15. Analysis of large optical ground stations for deep-space optical communications (United States)

    Garcia-Talavera, M. Reyes; Rivera, C.; Murga, G.; Montilla, I.; Alonso, A.


    Inter-satellite and ground to satellite optical communications have been successfully demonstrated over more than a decade with several experiments, the most recent being NASA's lunar mission Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The technology is in a mature stage that allows to consider optical communications as a high-capacity solution for future deep-space communications [1][2], where there is an increasing demand on downlink data rate to improve science return. To serve these deep-space missions, suitable optical ground stations (OGS) have to be developed providing large collecting areas. The design of such OGSs must face both technical and cost constraints in order to achieve an optimum implementation. To that end, different approaches have already been proposed and analyzed, namely, a large telescope based on a segmented primary mirror, telescope arrays, and even the combination of RF and optical receivers in modified versions of existing Deep-Space Network (DSN) antennas [3][4][5]. Array architectures have been proposed to relax some requirements, acting as one of the key drivers of the present study. The advantages offered by the array approach are attained at the expense of adding subsystems. Critical issues identified for each implementation include their inherent efficiency and losses, as well as its performance under high-background conditions, and the acquisition, pointing, tracking, and synchronization capabilities. It is worth noticing that, due to the photon-counting nature of detection, the system performance is not solely given by the signal-to-noise ratio parameter. To start with the analysis, first the main implications of the deep space scenarios are summarized, since they are the driving requirements to establish the technical specifications for the large OGS. Next, both the main characteristics of the OGS and the potential configuration approaches are presented, getting deeper in key subsystems with strong impact in the

  16. Concept for a power system controller for large space electrical power systems (United States)

    Lollar, L. F.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.; Graves, J. R.


    The development of technology for a fail-operatonal power system controller (PSC) utilizing microprocessor technology for managing the distribution and power processor subsystems of a large multi-kW space electrical power system is discussed. The specific functions which must be performed by the PSC, the best microprocessor available to do the job, and the feasibility, cost savings, and applications of a PSC were determined. A limited function breadboard version of a PSC was developed to demonstrate the concept and potential cost savings.

  17. A flat array large telescope concept for use on the moon, earth, and in space (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.


    An astronomical optical telescope concept is described which can provide very large collecting areas, of order 1000 sq m. This is an order of magnitude larger than the new generation of telescopes now being designed and built. Multiple gimballed flat mirrors direct the beams from a celestial source into a single telescope of the same aperture as each flat mirror. Multiple images of the same source are formed at the telescope focal plane. A beam combiner collects these images and superimposes them into a single image, onto a detector or spectrograph aperture. This telescope could be used on the earth, the moon, or in space.

  18. Delft-FEWS:A Decision Making Platform to Intergrate Data, Model, Algorithm for Large-Scale River Basin Water Management (United States)

    Yang, T.; Welles, E.


    In this paper, we introduce a flood forecasting and decision making platform, named Delft-FEWS, which has been developed over years at the Delft Hydraulics and now at Deltares. The philosophy of Delft-FEWS is to provide water managers and operators with an open shell tool, which allows the integratation of a variety of hydrological, hydraulics, river routing, and reservoir models with hydrometerological forecasts data. Delft-FEWS serves as an powerful tool for both basin-scale and national-scale water resources management. The essential novelty of Delft-FEWS is to change the flood forecasting and water resources management from a single model or agency centric paradigm to a intergrated framework, in which different model, data, algorithm and stakeholders are strongly linked together. The paper will start with the challenges in water resources managment, and the concept and philosophy of Delft-FEWS. Then, the details of data handling and linkages of Delft-FEWS with different hydrological, hydraulic, and reservoir models, etc. Last, several cases studies and applications of Delft-FEWS will be demonstrated, including the National Weather Service and the Bonneville Power Administration in USA, and a national application in the water board in the Netherland.

  19. Development of a large scale Chimera grid system for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Pearce, Daniel G.; Stanley, Scott A.; Martin, Fred W., Jr.; Gomez, Ray J.; Le Beau, Gerald J.; Buning, Pieter G.; Chan, William M.; Chiu, Ing-Tsau; Wulf, Armin; Akdag, Vedat


    The application of CFD techniques to large problems has dictated the need for large team efforts. This paper offers an opportunity to examine the motivations, goals, needs, problems, as well as the methods, tools, and constraints that defined NASA's development of a 111 grid/16 million point grid system model for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle. The Chimera approach used for domain decomposition encouraged separation of the complex geometry into several major components each of which was modeled by an autonomous team. ICEM-CFD, a CAD based grid generation package, simplified the geometry and grid topology definition by provoding mature CAD tools and patch independent meshing. The resulting grid system has, on average, a four inch resolution along the surface.

  20. Overview of Small and Large-Scale Space Solar Power Concepts (United States)

    Potter, Seth; Henley, Mark; Howell, Joe; Carrington, Connie; Fikes, John


    An overview of space solar power studies performed at the Boeing Company under contract with NASA will be presented. The major concepts to be presented are: 1. Power Plug in Orbit: this is a spacecraft that collects solar energy and distributes it to users in space using directed radio frequency or optical energy. Our concept uses solar arrays having the same dimensions as ISS arrays, but are assumed to be more efficient. If radiofrequency wavelengths are used, it will necessitate that the receiving satellite be equipped with a rectifying antenna (rectenna). For optical wavelengths, the solar arrays on the receiving satellite will collect the power. 2. Mars Clipper I Power Explorer: this is a solar electric Mars transfer vehicle to support human missions. A near-term precursor could be a high-power radar mapping spacecraft with self-transport capability. Advanced solar electric power systems and electric propulsion technology constitute viable elements for conducting human Mars missions that are roughly comparable in performance to similar missions utilizing alternative high thrust systems, with the one exception being their inability to achieve short Earth-Mars trip times. 3. Alternative Architectures: this task involves investigating alternatives to the traditional solar power satellite (SPS) to supply commercial power from space for use on Earth. Four concepts were studied: two using photovoltaic power generation, and two using solar dynamic power generation, with microwave and laser power transmission alternatives considered for each. All four architectures use geostationary orbit. 4. Cryogenic Propellant Depot in Earth Orbit: this concept uses large solar arrays (producing perhaps 600 kW) to electrolyze water launched from Earth, liquefy the resulting hydrogen and oxygen gases, and store them until needed by spacecraft. 5. Beam-Powered Lunar Polar Rover: a lunar rover powered by a microwave or laser beam can explore permanently shadowed craters near the lunar

  1. A Short Survey on the State of the Art in Architectures and Platforms for Large Scale Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery from Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begoli, Edmon [ORNL


    Intended as a survey for practicing architects and researchers seeking an overview of the state-of-the-art architectures for data analysis, this paper provides an overview of the emerg- ing data management and analytic platforms including par- allel databases, Hadoop-based systems, High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms and platforms popularly re- ferred to as NoSQL platforms. Platforms are presented based on their relevance, analysis they support and the data organization model they support.

  2. First results from a large, multi-platform study of trace gas and particle emissions from biomass burning (United States)

    I. R. Burling; R. J. Yokelson; S. K. Akagi; T. J. Johnson; D. W. Griffith; Shawn Urbanski; J. W. Taylor; J. S. Craven; G. R. McMeeking; J. M. Roberts; C. Warneke; P. R. Veres; J. A. de Gouw; J. B. Gilman; W. C. Kuster; WeiMin Hao; D. Weise; H. Coe; J. Seinfeld


    We report preliminary results from a large, multi-component study focused on North American biomass burning that measured both initial emissions and post-emission processing. Vegetation types burned were from the relatively less-studied temperate region of the US and included chaparral, oak savanna, and mixed conifer forest from the southwestern US, and pine understory...

  3. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David


    The development of the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large complex systems engineering challenge being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams composed of multiple development disciplines. NASA also has formed an M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle. This team has developed a dedicated Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) that integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. The flexibility of VMET enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models. The intent is to validate the algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to flight software test processes. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test processes. Risk reduction is addressed by working with other organizations such as S

  4. Performance Analysis and Scaling Behavior of the Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform TerrSysMP in Large-Scale Supercomputing Environments (United States)

    Kollet, S. J.; Goergen, K.; Gasper, F.; Shresta, P.; Sulis, M.; Rihani, J.; Simmer, C.; Vereecken, H.


    In studies of the terrestrial hydrologic, energy and biogeochemical cycles, integrated multi-physics simulation platforms take a central role in characterizing non-linear interactions, variances and uncertainties of system states and fluxes in reciprocity with observations. Recently developed integrated simulation platforms attempt to honor the complexity of the terrestrial system across multiple time and space scales from the deeper subsurface including groundwater dynamics into the atmosphere. Technically, this requires the coupling of atmospheric, land surface, and subsurface-surface flow models in supercomputing environments, while ensuring a high-degree of efficiency in the utilization of e.g., standard Linux clusters and massively parallel resources. A systematic performance analysis including profiling and tracing in such an application is crucial in the understanding of the runtime behavior, to identify optimum model settings, and is an efficient way to distinguish potential parallel deficiencies. On sophisticated leadership-class supercomputers, such as the 28-rack 5.9 petaFLOP IBM Blue Gene/Q 'JUQUEEN' of the Jülich Supercomputing Centre (JSC), this is a challenging task, but even more so important, when complex coupled component models are to be analysed. Here we want to present our experience from coupling, application tuning (e.g. 5-times speedup through compiler optimizations), parallel scaling and performance monitoring of the parallel Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform TerrSysMP. The modeling platform consists of the weather prediction system COSMO of the German Weather Service; the Community Land Model, CLM of NCAR; and the variably saturated surface-subsurface flow code ParFlow. The model system relies on the Multiple Program Multiple Data (MPMD) execution model where the external Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea-Ice-Soil coupler (OASIS3) links the component models. TerrSysMP has been instrumented with the performance analysis tool Scalasca and analyzed

  5. High-Performance Reaction Wheel Optimization for Fine-Pointing Space Platforms: Minimizing Induced Vibration Effects on Jitter Performance plus Lessons Learned from Hubble Space Telescope for Current and Future Spacecraft Applications (United States)

    Hasha, Martin D.


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) applies large-diameter optics (2.5-m primary mirror) for diffraction-limited resolution spanning an extended wavelength range (approx. 100-2500 nm). Its Pointing Control System (PCS) Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWAs), in the Support Systems Module (SSM), acquired an unprecedented set of high-sensitivity Induced Vibration (IV) data for 5 flight-certified RWAs: dwelling at set rotation rates. Focused on 4 key ratios, force and moment harmonic values (in 3 local principal directions) are extracted in the RWA operating range (0-3000 RPM). The IV test data, obtained under ambient lab conditions, are investigated in detail, evaluated, compiled, and curve-fitted; variational trends, core causes, and unforeseen anomalies are addressed. In aggregate, these values constitute a statistically-valid basis to quantify ground test-to-test variations and facilitate extrapolations to on-orbit conditions. Accumulated knowledge of bearing-rotor vibrational sources, corresponding harmonic contributions, and salient elements of IV key variability factors are discussed. An evolved methodology is presented for absolute assessments and relative comparisons of macro-level IV signal magnitude due to micro-level construction-assembly geometric details/imperfections stemming from both electrical drive and primary bearing design parameters. Based upon studies of same-size/similar-design momentum wheels' IV changes, upper estimates due to transitions from ground tests to orbital conditions are derived. Recommended HST RWA choices are discussed relative to system optimization/tradeoffs of Line-Of-Sight (LOS) vector-pointing focal-plane error driven by higher IV transmissibilities through low-damped structural dynamics that stimulate optical elements. Unique analytical disturbance results for orbital HST accelerations are described applicable to microgravity efforts. Conclusions, lessons learned, historical context/insights, and perspectives on future applications

  6. Enhancing Scientific Collaboration, Transparency, and Public Access: Utilizing the Second Life Platform to Convene a Scientific Conference in 3-D Virtual Space (United States)

    McGee, B. W.


    Recent studies reveal a general mistrust of science as well as a distorted perception of the scientific method by the public at-large. Concurrently, the number of science undergraduate and graduate students is in decline. By taking advantage of emergent technologies not only for direct public outreach but also to enhance public accessibility to the science process, it may be possible to both begin a reversal of popular scientific misconceptions and to engage a new generation of scientists. The Second Life platform is a 3-D virtual world produced and operated by Linden Research, Inc., a privately owned company instituted to develop new forms of immersive entertainment. Free and downloadable to the public, Second Life offers an imbedded physics engine, streaming audio and video capability, and unlike other "multiplayer" software, the objects and inhabitants of Second Life are entirely designed and created by its users, providing an open-ended experience without the structure of a traditional video game. Already, educational institutions, virtual museums, and real-world businesses are utilizing Second Life for teleconferencing, pre-visualization, and distance education, as well as to conduct traditional business. However, the untapped potential of Second Life lies in its versatility, where the limitations of traditional scientific meeting venues do not exist, and attendees need not be restricted by prohibitive travel costs. It will be shown that the Second Life system enables scientific authors and presenters at a "virtual conference" to display figures and images at full resolution, employ audio-visual content typically not available to conference organizers, and to perform demonstrations or premier three-dimensional renderings of objects, processes, or information. An enhanced presentation like those possible with Second Life would be more engaging to non- scientists, and such an event would be accessible to the general users of Second Life, who could have an

  7. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments Using the International Space Station (ISS) Light Microscopy Module (LMM) (United States)

    Kurk, Michael A. (Andy)


    Techshot, Inc., has developed an observation platform for the LMM on the ISS that will enable biomedical and biotechnology experiments. The LMM Dynamic Stage consists of an electronics module and the first two of a planned suite of experiment modules. Specimens and reagent solutions can be injected into a small, hollow microscope slide-the heart of the innovation-via a combination of small reservoirs, pumps, and valves. A life science experiment module allows investigators to load up to two different fluids for on-orbit, real-time image cytometry. Fluids can be changed to initiate a process, fix biological samples, or retrieve suspended cells. A colloid science experiment module conducts microparticle and nanoparticle tests for investigation of colloid self-assembly phenomena. This module includes a hollow glass slide and heating elements for the creation of a thermal gradient from one end of the slide to the other. The electronics module supports both experiment modules and contains a unique illuminator/condenser for bright and dark field and phase contrast illumination, power supplies for two piezoelectric pumps, and controller boards for pumps and valves. This observation platform safely contains internal fluids and will greatly accelerate the research and development (R&D) cycle of numerous experiments, products, and services aboard the ISS.

  8. Offshore platform sourced pollution monitoring using space-borne fully polarimetric C and X band synthetic aperture radar. (United States)

    Singha, Suman; Ressel, Rudolf


    Use of polarimetric SAR data for offshore pollution monitoring is relatively new and shows great potential for operational offshore platform monitoring. This paper describes the development of an automated oil spill detection chain for operational purposes based on C-band (RADARSAT-2) and X-band (TerraSAR-X) fully polarimetric images, wherein we use polarimetric features to characterize oil spills and look-alikes. Numbers of near coincident TerraSAR-X and RADARSAT-2 images have been acquired over offshore platforms. Ten polarimetric feature parameters were extracted from different types of oil and 'look-alike' spots and divided into training and validation dataset. Extracted features were then used to develop a pixel based Artificial Neural Network classifier. Mutual information contents among extracted features were assessed and feature parameters were ranked according to their ability to discriminate between oil spill and look-alike spots. Polarimetric features such as Scattering Diversity, Surface Scattering Fraction and Span proved to be most suitable for operational services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural-electromagnetic bidirectional coupling analysis of space large film reflector antennas (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Zhang, Shuxin; Cheng, ZhengAi; Duan, Baoyan; Yang, Chen; Li, Meng; Hou, Xinbin; Li, Xun


    As used for energy transmission, a space large film reflector antenna (SLFRA) is characterized by large size and enduring high power density. The structural flexibility and the microwave radiation pressure (MRP) will lead to the phenomenon of structural-electromagnetic bidirectional coupling (SEBC). In this paper, the SEBC model of SLFRA is presented, then the deformation induced by the MRP and the corresponding far field pattern deterioration are simulated. Results show that, the direction of the MRP is identical to the normal of the reflector surface, and the magnitude is proportional to the power density and the square of cosine incident angle. For a typical cosine function distributed electric field, the MRP is a square of cosine distributed across the diameter. The maximum deflections of SLFRA linearly increase with the increasing microwave power densities and the square of the reflector diameters, and vary inversely with the film thicknesses. When the reflector diameter becomes 100 m large and the microwave power density exceeds 102 W/cm2, the gain loss of the 6.3 μm-thick reflector goes beyond 0.75 dB. When the MRP-induced deflection degrades the reflector performance, the SEBC should be taken into account.

  10. Space use of African wild dogs in relation to other large carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Darnell

    Full Text Available Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus and dominant lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta. Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs.

  11. Displacement in the parameter space versus spurious solution of discretization with large time step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Eduardo; Letellier, Christophe


    In order to investigate a possible correspondence between differential and difference equations, it is important to possess discretization of ordinary differential equations. It is well known that when differential equations are discretized, the solution thus obtained depends on the time step used. In the majority of cases, such a solution is considered spurious when it does not resemble the expected solution of the differential equation. This often happens when the time step taken into consideration is too large. In this work, we show that, even for quite large time steps, some solutions which do not correspond to the expected ones are still topologically equivalent to solutions of the original continuous system if a displacement in the parameter space is considered. To reduce such a displacement, a judicious choice of the discretization scheme should be made. To this end, a recent discretization scheme, based on the Lie expansion of the original differential equations, proposed by Monaco and Normand-Cyrot will be analysed. Such a scheme will be shown to be sufficient for providing an adequate discretization for quite large time steps compared to the pseudo-period of the underlying dynamics

  12. Hybrid Electrostatic/Flextensional Mirror for Lightweight, Large-Aperture, and Cryogenic Space Telescopes (United States)

    Patrick, Brian; Moore, James; Hackenberger, Wesley; Jiang, Xiaoning


    A lightweight, cryogenically capable, scalable, deformable mirror has been developed for space telescopes. This innovation makes use of polymer-based membrane mirror technology to enable large-aperture mirrors that can be easily launched and deployed. The key component of this innovation is a lightweight, large-stroke, cryogenic actuator array that combines the high degree of mirror figure control needed with a large actuator influence function. The latter aspect of the innovation allows membrane mirror figure correction with a relatively low actuator density, preserving the lightweight attributes of the system. The principal components of this technology are lightweight, low-profile, high-stroke, cryogenic-capable piezoelectric actuators based on PMN-PT (piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate) single-crystal configured in a flextensional actuator format; high-quality, low-thermal-expansion polymer membrane mirror materials developed by NeXolve; and electrostatic coupling between the membrane mirror and the piezoelectric actuator assembly to minimize problems such as actuator print-through.

  13. A Steam Jet Plume Simulation in a Large Bulk Space with a System Code MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sung Won; Chung, Bub Dong


    From May 2002, the OECD-SETH group has launched the PANDA Project in order to provide an experimental data base for a multi-dimensional code assessment. OECD-SETH group expects the PANDA Project will meet the increasing needs for adequate experimental data for a 3D distribution of relevant variables like the temperature, velocity and steam-air concentrations that are measured with a sufficient resolution and accuracy. The scope of the PANDA Project is the mixture stratification and mixing phenomena in a large bulk space. Total of 24 test series are still being performed in PSI, Switzerland. The PANDA facility consists of 2 main large vessels and 1 connection pipe Within the large vessels, a steam injection nozzle and outlet vent are arranged for each test case. These tests are categorized into 3 modes, i.e. the high momentum, near wall plume, and free plume tests. KAERI has also participated in the SETH group since 1997 so that the multi-dimensional capability of the MARS code could be assessed and developed. Test 17, the high steam jet injection test, has already been simulated by MARS and shows promising results. Now, the test 9 and 9bis cases which use a low speed horizontal steam jet flow have been simulated and investigated

  14. Space Situational Awareness of Large Numbers of Payloads From a Single Deployment (United States)

    Segerman, A.; Byers, J.; Emmert, J.; Nicholas, A.


    The nearly simultaneous deployment of a large number of payloads from a single vehicle presents a new challenge for space object catalog maintenance and space situational awareness (SSA). Following two cubesat deployments last November, it took five weeks to catalog the resulting 64 orbits. The upcoming Kicksat mission will present an even greater SSA challenge, with its deployment of 128 chip-sized picosats. Although all of these deployments are in short-lived orbits, future deployments will inevitably occur at higher altitudes, with a longer term threat of collision with active spacecraft. With such deployments, individual scientific payload operators require rapid precise knowledge of their satellites' locations. Following the first November launch, the cataloguing did not initially associate a payload with each orbit, leaving this to the satellite operators. For short duration missions, the time required to identify an experiment's specific orbit may easily be a large fraction of the spacecraft's lifetime. For a Kicksat-type deployment, present tracking cannot collect enough observations to catalog each small object. The current approach is to treat the chip cloud as a single catalog object. However, the cloud dissipates into multiple subclouds and, ultimately, tiny groups of untrackable chips. One response to this challenge may be to mandate installation of a transponder on each spacecraft. Directional transponder transmission detections could be used as angle observations for orbit cataloguing. Of course, such an approach would only be employable with cooperative spacecraft. In other cases, a probabilistic association approach may be useful, with the goal being to establish the probability of an element being at a given point in space. This would permit more reliable assessment of the probability of collision of active spacecraft with any cloud element. This paper surveys the cataloguing challenges presented by large scale deployments of small spacecraft

  15. Transparent Large-Area MoS2 Phototransistors with Inkjet-Printed Components on Flexible Platforms. (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young; Ha, Jewook; Cho, Kyungjune; Pak, Jinsu; Seo, Jiseok; Park, Jongjang; Kim, Jae-Keun; Chung, Seungjun; Hong, Yongtaek; Lee, Takhee


    Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have gained considerable attention as an emerging semiconductor due to their promising atomically thin film characteristics with good field-effect mobility and a tunable band gap energy. However, their electronic applications have been generally realized with conventional inorganic electrodes and dielectrics implemented using conventional photolithography or transferring processes that are not compatible with large-area and flexible device applications. To facilitate the advantages of 2D TMDCs in practical applications, strategies for realizing flexible and transparent 2D electronics using low-temperature, large-area, and low-cost processes should be developed. Motivated by this challenge, we report fully printed transparent chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-synthesized monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) phototransistor arrays on flexible polymer substrates. All the electronic components, including dielectric and electrodes, were directly deposited with mechanically tolerable organic materials by inkjet-printing technology onto transferred monolayer MoS 2 , and their annealing temperature of printed MoS 2 phototransistors exhibit excellent transparency and mechanically stable operation.

  16. An Autonomous Sensor Tasking Approach for Large Scale Space Object Cataloging (United States)

    Linares, R.; Furfaro, R.

    The field of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has progressed over the last few decades with new sensors coming online, the development of new approaches for making observations, and new algorithms for processing them. Although there has been success in the development of new approaches, a missing piece is the translation of SSA goals to sensors and resource allocation; otherwise known as the Sensor Management Problem (SMP). This work solves the SMP using an artificial intelligence approach called Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL). Stable methods for training DRL approaches based on neural networks exist, but most of these approaches are not suitable for high dimensional systems. The Asynchronous Advantage Actor-Critic (A3C) method is a recently developed and effective approach for high dimensional systems, and this work leverages these results and applies this approach to decision making in SSA. The decision space for the SSA problems can be high dimensional, even for tasking of a single telescope. Since the number of SOs in space is relatively high, each sensor will have a large number of possible actions at a given time. Therefore, efficient DRL approaches are required when solving the SMP for SSA. This work develops a A3C based method for DRL applied to SSA sensor tasking. One of the key benefits of DRL approaches is the ability to handle high dimensional data. For example DRL methods have been applied to image processing for the autonomous car application. For example, a 256x256 RGB image has 196608 parameters (256*256*3=196608) which is very high dimensional, and deep learning approaches routinely take images like this as inputs. Therefore, when applied to the whole catalog the DRL approach offers the ability to solve this high dimensional problem. This work has the potential to, for the first time, solve the non-myopic sensor tasking problem for the whole SO catalog (over 22,000 objects) providing a truly revolutionary result.

  17. Powerful and large regional authorities are needed to preserve green open space for urban agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aalbers


    Full Text Available Identification and assessment of strategies for the conservation and multifunctional development of green open space in the urban fringe of European urban regions is a challenge to both the academic and the real life world. Within the EU funded research project PLUREL – Peri-urban land use relationships – ‘Strategies and sustainability assessment tools for urban rural linkages’, we developed a methodology for international comparison of regional strategies that considers the policy context at supra-regional level. This methodology helped to explain the reported impacts of strategies. For this we further elaborated the theoretical concept of policy arrangements and policy dimensions by Van Tatenhove et al. (2000 and Arts et al. (2006. Strategies and policy contexts referred to are from Montpellier Agglomeration, a formal coalition of now 31 municipalities, Leipzig-Halle region, a functional urban region (FUR with governance coalitions around green open space preservation strategies, and Hangzhou in China, a very large city with hierarchical formal government. Results showed how the means of influence from different government levels can complement and reinforce each other and raise the effectiveness of the strategies. A combination of hierarchical government with a horizontal coalition between local authorities covering the full FUR can be very effective for managing the land use developments in the urban fringe, even when private business, CSOs or other NGOs are not included in the coalition. Supra-regional authorities do not have to possess the land resources, but setting the Rules of the Game is a powerful means of influence to coerce local municipalities to preserve green open space in the urban fringe.

  18. Dynamic Model Averaging in Large Model Spaces Using Dynamic Occam’s Window* (United States)

    Onorante, Luca; Raftery, Adrian E.


    Bayesian model averaging has become a widely used approach to accounting for uncertainty about the structural form of the model generating the data. When data arrive sequentially and the generating model can change over time, Dynamic Model Averaging (DMA) extends model averaging to deal with this situation. Often in macroeconomics, however, many candidate explanatory variables are available and the number of possible models becomes too large for DMA to be applied in its original form. We propose a new method for this situation which allows us to perform DMA without considering the whole model space, but using a subset of models and dynamically optimizing the choice of models at each point in time. This yields a dynamic form of Occam’s window. We evaluate the method in the context of the problem of nowcasting GDP in the Euro area. We find that its forecasting performance compares well with that of other methods. PMID:26917859

  19. Dynamic Model Averaging in Large Model Spaces Using Dynamic Occam's Window. (United States)

    Onorante, Luca; Raftery, Adrian E


    Bayesian model averaging has become a widely used approach to accounting for uncertainty about the structural form of the model generating the data. When data arrive sequentially and the generating model can change over time, Dynamic Model Averaging (DMA) extends model averaging to deal with this situation. Often in macroeconomics, however, many candidate explanatory variables are available and the number of possible models becomes too large for DMA to be applied in its original form. We propose a new method for this situation which allows us to perform DMA without considering the whole model space, but using a subset of models and dynamically optimizing the choice of models at each point in time. This yields a dynamic form of Occam's window. We evaluate the method in the context of the problem of nowcasting GDP in the Euro area. We find that its forecasting performance compares well with that of other methods.

  20. A more accurate modeling of the effects of actuators in large space structures (United States)

    Hablani, H. B.


    The paper deals with finite actuators. A nonspinning three-axis stabilized space vehicle having a two-dimensional large structure and a rigid body at the center is chosen for analysis. The torquers acting on the vehicle are modeled as antisymmetric forces distributed in a small but finite area. In the limit they represent point torquers which also are treated as a special case of surface distribution of dipoles. Ordinary and partial differential equations governing the forced vibrations of the vehicle are derived by using Hamilton's principle. Associated modal inputs are obtained for both the distributed moments and the distributed forces. It is shown that the finite torquers excite the higher modes less than the point torquers. Modal cost analysis proves to be a suitable methodology to this end.

  1. Enhanced 2D-DOA Estimation for Large Spacing Three-Parallel Uniform Linear Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang


    Full Text Available An enhanced two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA estimation algorithm for large spacing three-parallel uniform linear arrays (ULAs is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we use the propagator method (PM to get the highly accurate but ambiguous estimation of directional cosine. Then, we use the relationship between the directional cosine to eliminate the ambiguity. This algorithm not only can make use of the elements of the three-parallel ULAs but also can utilize the connection between directional cosine to improve the estimation accuracy. Besides, it has satisfied estimation performance when the elevation angle is between 70° and 90° and it can automatically pair the estimated azimuth and elevation angles. Furthermore, it has low complexity without using any eigen value decomposition (EVD or singular value decompostion (SVD to the covariance matrix. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.

  2. Developing a NASA strategy for the verification of large space telescope observatories (United States)

    Crooke, Julie A.; Gunderson, Johanna A.; Hagopian, John G.; Levine, Marie


    In July 2005, the Office of Program Analysis and Evaluation (PA&E) at NASA Headquarters was directed to develop a strategy for verification of the performance of large space telescope observatories, which occurs predominantly in a thermal vacuum test facility. A mission model of the expected astronomical observatory missions over the next 20 years was identified along with performance, facility and resource requirements. Ground testing versus alternatives was analyzed to determine the pros, cons and break points in the verification process. Existing facilities and their capabilities were examined across NASA, industry and other government agencies as well as the future demand for these facilities across NASA's Mission Directorates. Options were developed to meet the full suite of mission verification requirements, and performance, cost, risk and other analyses were performed. Findings and recommendations from the study were presented to the NASA Administrator and the NASA Strategic Management Council (SMC) in February 2006. This paper details the analysis, results, and findings from this study.

  3. Using the DP-190 glue for adhesive attachment of a large space mirror and its rim (United States)

    Vlasenko, Oleg; Zverev, Alexey; Sachkov, Mikhail


    The glue DP-190 is widely used for adhesive attachment of astrositall (zerodur) lightweight large-size space astronomical mirrors (diameter of 1.7 m and more) with elements of their frames of invar. Peculiarities of physicalmechanical behavior of the glue DP-190 when exposed to the environment during the ground operation and in orbit cause instability of the reflective surface quality of mirrors. In this report we show that even a small (around 1%-5%) volumetric deformation of a cylindrical adhesive layer with a thickness of 0.8 mm between the mirror and the rim element causes significant mirrors deformation. We propose to use adhesive layer of special form that allows to reduce volumetric deformations of the glue DP-190 up to three times. Here we present results based on primary mirror tests of the WSO-UV project.

  4. Space-Time Convolutional Codes over Finite Fields and Rings for Systems with Large Diversity Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Uchôa-Filho


    Full Text Available We propose a convolutional encoder over the finite ring of integers modulo pk,ℤpk, where p is a prime number and k is any positive integer, to generate a space-time convolutional code (STCC. Under this structure, we prove three properties related to the generator matrix of the convolutional code that can be used to simplify the code search procedure for STCCs over ℤpk. Some STCCs of large diversity order (≥4 designed under the trace criterion for n=2,3, and 4 transmit antennas are presented for various PSK signal constellations.

  5. GESE: A Small UV Space Telescope to Conduct a Large Spectroscopic Survey of Z-1 Galaxies (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Kruk, Jeffrey; Purves, Lloyd


    One of the key goals of NASA's astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spirals and elliptical galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to address this question by making a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z is approximately 1 (look-back time of approximately 8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-meter space telescope with an ultraviolet (UV) multi-object slit spectrograph that can obtain spectra of hundreds of galaxies per exposure. The spectrograph covers the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 micrometers at a spectral resolving power, R approximately 500. This observed spectral range corresponds to 0.1-0.2 micrometers as emitted by a galaxy at a redshift, z=1. The mission concept takes advantage of two new technological advances: (1) light-weighted, wide-field telescope mirrors, and (2) the Next- Generation MicroShutter Array (NG-MSA) to be used as a slit generator in the multi-object slit spectrograph.

  6. 8 Meter Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m) (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip


    ATLAST-8m (Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope) is a proposed 8-meter monolithic UV/optical/NIR space observatory (wavelength range 110 to 2500 nm) to be placed in orbit at Sun-Earth L2 by NASA's planned Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Given its very high angular resolution (15 mas @ 500 nm), sensitivity and performance stability, ATLAST-8m is capable of achieving breakthroughs in a broad range of astrophysics including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? An 8-meter UVOIR observatory has the performance required to detect habitability (H2O, atmospheric column density) and biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4) in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres, to reveal the underlying physics that drives star formation, and to trace the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies, and intergalactic medium. The ATLAST Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study developed a detailed point design for an 8-m monolithic observatory including optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; mass and power budgets; and system cost. The results of which were submitted by invitation to NRC's 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

  7. A Large Underestimate of Formic Acid from Tropical Fires: Constraints from Space-Borne Measurements. (United States)

    Chaliyakunnel, S; Millet, D B; Wells, K C; Cady-Pereira, K E; Shephard, M W


    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids and a dominant source of atmospheric acidity. Recent work indicates a major gap in the HCOOH budget, with atmospheric concentrations much larger than expected from known sources. Here, we employ recent space-based observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer with the GEOS-Chem atmospheric model to better quantify the HCOOH source from biomass burning, and assess whether fire emissions can help close the large budget gap for this species. The space-based data reveal a severe model HCOOH underestimate most prominent over tropical burning regions, suggesting a major missing source of organic acids from fires. We develop an approach for inferring the fractional fire contribution to ambient HCOOH and find, based on measurements over Africa, that pyrogenic HCOOH:CO enhancement ratios are much higher than expected from direct emissions alone, revealing substantial secondary organic acid production in fire plumes. Current models strongly underestimate (by 10 ± 5 times) the total primary and secondary HCOOH source from African fires. If a 10-fold bias were to extend to fires in other regions, biomass burning could produce 14 Tg/a of HCOOH in the tropics or 16 Tg/a worldwide. However, even such an increase would only represent 15-20% of the total required HCOOH source, implying the existence of other larger missing sources.

  8. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASAs Space Launch System (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David


    The engineering development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS) requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The nominal and off-nominal characteristics of SLS's elements and subsystems must be understood and matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex systems engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model-based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model-based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through FSW certification are an important focus of SLS's development effort to further ensure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. To test and validate these M&FM algorithms a dedicated test-bed was developed for full Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing (VMET). For addressing fault management (FM

  9. Capabilities of a Laser Guide Star for a Large Segmented Space Telescope (United States)

    Clark, James R.; Carlton, Ashley; Douglas, Ewan S.; Males, Jared R.; Lumbres, Jennifer; Feinberg, Lee; Guyon, Olivier; Marlow, Weston; Cahoy, Kerri L.


    Large segmented mirror telescopes are planned for future space telescope missions such as LUVOIR (Large UV Optical Infrared Surveyor) to enable the improvement in resolution and contrast necessary to directly image Earth-like exoplanets, in addition to making contributions to general astrophysics. The precision surface control of these complex, large optical systems, which may have over a hundred meter-sized segments, is a challenge. Our initial simulations show that imaging a star of 2nd magnitude or brighter with a Zernike wavefront sensor should relax the segment stability requirements by factors between 10 and 50 depending on the wavefront control strategy. Fewer than fifty stars brighter than magnitude 2 can be found in the sky. A laser guide star (LGS) on a companion spacecraft will allow the telescope to target a dimmer science star and achieve wavefront control to the required stability without requiring slew or repointing maneuvers.We present initial results for one possible mission architecture, with a LGS flying at 100,000 km range from the large telescope in an L2 halo orbit, using a laser transmit power of 8 days) for an expenditure of system, it can be accommodated in a 6U CubeSat bus, but may require an extended period of time to transition between targets and match velocities with the telescope (e.g. 6 days to transit 10 degrees). If the LGS uses monopropellant propulsion, it must use at least a 27U bus to achieve the the same delta-V capability, but can transition between targets much more rapidly (flight are being refined. A low-cost prototype mission (e.g. between a small satellite in LEO and an LGS in GEO) to validate the feasibility is in development.

  10. The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Anderson, B. /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bartelt, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bederede, D.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Bellardi, F.; /INFN, Pisa; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bisello, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bissaldi, E.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /Kalmar U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASI, Rome /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..


    The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 x 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy {gamma}-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3

  11. Large Scale Automatic Analysis and Classification of Roof Surfaces for the Installation of Solar Panels Using a Multi-Sensor Aerial Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis López-Fernández


    Full Text Available A low-cost multi-sensor aerial platform, aerial trike, equipped with visible and thermographic sensors is used for the acquisition of all the data needed for the automatic analysis and classification of roof surfaces regarding their suitability to harbor solar panels. The geometry of a georeferenced 3D point cloud generated from visible images using photogrammetric and computer vision algorithms, and the temperatures measured on thermographic images are decisive to evaluate the areas, tilts, orientations and the existence of obstacles to locate the optimal zones inside each roof surface for the installation of solar panels. This information is complemented with the estimation of the solar irradiation received by each surface. This way, large areas may be efficiently analyzed obtaining as final result the optimal locations for the placement of solar panels as well as the information necessary (location, orientation, tilt, area and solar irradiation to estimate the productivity of a solar panel from its technical characteristics.

  12. National symposium and workshop on optical platforms, Huntsville, AL, June 12-14, 1984, Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyman, C.L.


    The conference is concerned with space-based observatories (including future systems), interplanetary observation platforms, Space Station optical utilization, orbital earth viewing systems, and Spacelab's use as an observations platform. Attention is given to the pointing system for the space telescope, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility, the conceptual definition of the Space IR Telescope Facility's spacecraft, satellite servicing in light of the Solar Maximum Repair Mission, a large deployable reflector telescope concept, moon-based astronomical observatories, Space Station-based remote sensing of the earth, optical systems is geosynchronous orbit, multispectral linear array detector technology, Spacelab-based space plasma and materials processing investigations, and space construction technology for large space observatories. Also discussed are military optical platforms for sea, land and air stationing

  13. Impact of rapid condensations of large vapor spaces on natural circulation in integral systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Almenas, K.; DiMarzo, M.; Hsu, Y.Y.; Unal, C.


    In this study we demonstrated that the Interruption-Resumption flow mode (IRM) observed in the University of Maryland 2x4 loop is a unique and effective natural circulation cooling mode. The IRM flow mode consists of a series of large flow cycles which are initiated from a quiescent steady-state flow condition by periodic rapid condensation of large vapor spaces. The significance of this mass/energy transport mechanism is that it cannot be evaluated using the techniques developed for the commonly known density-driven natural circulation cooling mode. We also demonstrated that the rapid condensation mechanism essentially acts as a strong amplifier which will augment small perturbations and will activate several flow phenomena. The interplay of the phenomena involves a degree of randomness. This poses two important implications. First, the study of an isolated flow phenomenon is not sufficient for the understanding of the system-wide IRM fluid movement. Second, the duplication of reactor transients which involves randomness can be achieved only within certain bounds. The modeling of such transients by deterministic computer codes requires recognition of this physical reality. (orig.)

  14. Fast Kalman-like filtering for large-dimensional linear and Gaussian state-space models

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa; Hoteit, Ibrahim


    This paper considers the filtering problem for linear and Gaussian state-space models with large dimensions, a setup in which the optimal Kalman Filter (KF) might not be applicable owing to the excessive cost of manipulating huge covariance matrices. Among the most popular alternatives that enable cheaper and reasonable computation is the Ensemble KF (EnKF), a Monte Carlo-based approximation. In this paper, we consider a class of a posteriori distributions with diagonal covariance matrices and propose fast approximate deterministic-based algorithms based on the Variational Bayesian (VB) approach. More specifically, we derive two iterative KF-like algorithms that differ in the way they operate between two successive filtering estimates; one involves a smoothing estimate and the other involves a prediction estimate. Despite its iterative nature, the prediction-based algorithm provides a computational cost that is, on the one hand, independent of the number of iterations in the limit of very large state dimensions, and on the other hand, always much smaller than the cost of the EnKF. The cost of the smoothing-based algorithm depends on the number of iterations that may, in some situations, make this algorithm slower than the EnKF. The performances of the proposed filters are studied and compared to those of the KF and EnKF through a numerical example.

  15. The large dimension limit of a small black hole instability in anti-de Sitter space (United States)

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Kim, Youngshin


    We study the dynamics of a black hole in an asymptotically AdS d × S d space-time in the limit of a large number of dimensions, d → ∞. Such a black hole is known to become dynamically unstable below a critical radius. We derive the dispersion relation for the quasinormal mode that governs this instability in an expansion in 1 /d. We also provide a full nonlinear analysis of the instability at leading order in 1 /d. We find solutions that resemble the lumpy black spots and black belts previously constructed numerically for small d, breaking the SO( d + 1) rotational symmetry of the sphere down to SO( d). We are also able to follow the time evolution of the instability. Due possibly to limitations in our analysis, our time dependent simulations do not settle down to stationary solutions. This work has relevance for strongly interacting gauge theories; through the AdS/CFT correspondence, the special case d = 5 corresponds to maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a spatial S 3 in the microcanonical ensemble and in a strong coupling and large number of colors limit.

  16. Fast Kalman-like filtering for large-dimensional linear and Gaussian state-space models

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa


    This paper considers the filtering problem for linear and Gaussian state-space models with large dimensions, a setup in which the optimal Kalman Filter (KF) might not be applicable owing to the excessive cost of manipulating huge covariance matrices. Among the most popular alternatives that enable cheaper and reasonable computation is the Ensemble KF (EnKF), a Monte Carlo-based approximation. In this paper, we consider a class of a posteriori distributions with diagonal covariance matrices and propose fast approximate deterministic-based algorithms based on the Variational Bayesian (VB) approach. More specifically, we derive two iterative KF-like algorithms that differ in the way they operate between two successive filtering estimates; one involves a smoothing estimate and the other involves a prediction estimate. Despite its iterative nature, the prediction-based algorithm provides a computational cost that is, on the one hand, independent of the number of iterations in the limit of very large state dimensions, and on the other hand, always much smaller than the cost of the EnKF. The cost of the smoothing-based algorithm depends on the number of iterations that may, in some situations, make this algorithm slower than the EnKF. The performances of the proposed filters are studied and compared to those of the KF and EnKF through a numerical example.

  17. Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Flight Engineering Model: Overview (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Godfrey, G.; Williams, S. M.; Grove, J. E.; Mizuno, T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Kamae, T.; Ampe, J.; Briber, Stuart; Dann, James; hide


    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a pair-production high-energy (greater than 20 MeV) gamma-ray telescope being built by an international partnership of astrophysicists and particle physicists for a satellite launch in 2006, designed to study a wide variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena. As part of the development effort, the collaboration has built a Balloon Flight Engineering Model (BFEM) for flight on a high-altitude scientific balloon. The BFEM is approximately the size of one of the 16 GLAST-LAT towers and contains all the components of the full instrument: plastic scintillator anticoincidence system (ACD), high-Z foil/Si strip pair-conversion tracker (TKR), CsI hodoscopic calorimeter (CAL), triggering and data acquisition electronics (DAQ), commanding system, power distribution, telemetry, real-time data display, and ground data processing system. The principal goal of the balloon flight was to demonstrate the performance of this instrument configuration under conditions similar to those expected in orbit. Results from a balloon flight from Palestine, Texas, on August 4, 2001, show that the BFEM successfully obtained gamma-ray data in this high-background environment.

  18. Harnessing solar pressure to slew and point large infrared space telescopes (United States)

    Errico, Simona; Angel, Roger P.; Calvert, Paul D.; Woof, Neville


    Large astronomical Gossamer telescopes in space will need to employ large solar shields to safeguard the optics from solar radiation. These types of telescopes demand accurate controls to maintain telescope pointing over long integration periods. We propose an active solar shield system that harnesses radiation pressure to accurately slew and acquire new targets without the need for reaction wheels or thrusters. To provide the required torques, the solar shield is configured as an inverted, 4-sided pyramidal roof. The sloped roof interior surfaces are covered with hinged “tiles” made from piezoelectric film bimorphs with specular metallized surfaces. Nominally, the tiles lie flat against the roof and the sunlight is reflected outward equally from all sloped surfaces. However, when the tiles on one roof pitch are raised, the pressure balance is upset and the sunshade is pushed to one side. By judicious selection of the tiles and control of their lift angle, the solar pressure can be harvested to stabilize the spacecraft orientation or to change its angular momentum. A first order conceptual design performance analysis and the results from the experimental design, fabrication and testing of piezoelectric bimorph hinge elements will be presented. Next phase challenges in engineering design, materials technology, and systems testing will be discussed.

  19. The Transcriptome Analysis and Comparison Explorer--T-ACE: a platform-independent, graphical tool to process large RNAseq datasets of non-model organisms. (United States)

    Philipp, E E R; Kraemer, L; Mountfort, D; Schilhabel, M; Schreiber, S; Rosenstiel, P


    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies allow a rapid and cost-effective compilation of large RNA sequence datasets in model and non-model organisms. However, the storage and analysis of transcriptome information from different NGS platforms is still a significant bottleneck, leading to a delay in data dissemination and subsequent biological understanding. Especially database interfaces with transcriptome analysis modules going beyond mere read counts are missing. Here, we present the Transcriptome Analysis and Comparison Explorer (T-ACE), a tool designed for the organization and analysis of large sequence datasets, and especially suited for transcriptome projects of non-model organisms with little or no a priori sequence information. T-ACE offers a TCL-based interface, which accesses a PostgreSQL database via a php-script. Within T-ACE, information belonging to single sequences or contigs, such as annotation or read coverage, is linked to the respective sequence and immediately accessible. Sequences and assigned information can be searched via keyword- or BLAST-search. Additionally, T-ACE provides within and between transcriptome analysis modules on the level of expression, GO terms, KEGG pathways and protein domains. Results are visualized and can be easily exported for external analysis. We developed T-ACE for laboratory environments, which have only a limited amount of bioinformatics support, and for collaborative projects in which different partners work on the same dataset from different locations or platforms (Windows/Linux/MacOS). For laboratories with some experience in bioinformatics and programming, the low complexity of the database structure and open-source code provides a framework that can be customized according to the different needs of the user and transcriptome project.

  20. Platforms for Persistent Communications, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, William; Vehlow, Chuck; Wartell, Mike; Adler, Allen; Swan, Pete; Wynn, Bob; Beriwaln, Madhu; Collier, Darrell; Gallagher, Herb; Glaser, Gary; Scalera, Steve; Puthoff, Jolene


    ...). The Army Science Board investigated capabilities of platforms deployed in space near space and lower altitudes and assessed tradeoffs among benefits weaknesses costs and logistics burdens associated with platform types...

  1. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Analysis of space station requirements for LDR (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Vinkey, Victor F.; Runge, Fritz C.


    A study was conducted to determine how the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) might benefit from the use of the space station for assembly, checkout, deployment, servicing, refurbishment, and technology development. Requirements that must be met by the space station to supply benefits for a selected scenario are summarized. Quantitative and qualitative data are supplied. Space station requirements for LDR which may be utilized by other missions are identified. A technology development mission for LDR is outlined and requirements summarized. A preliminary experiment plan is included. Space Station Data Base SAA 0020 and TDM 2411 are updated.

  2. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) system concept and technology definition study. Analysis of space station requirements for LDR (United States)

    Agnew, Donald L.; Vinkey, Victor F.; Runge, Fritz C.


    A study was conducted to determine how the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) might benefit from the use of the space station for assembly, checkout, deployment, servicing, refurbishment, and technology development. Requirements that must be met by the space station to supply benefits for a selected scenario are summarized. Quantitative and qualitative data are supplied. Space station requirements for LDR which may be utilized by other missions are identified. A technology development mission for LDR is outlined and requirements summarized. A preliminary experiment plan is included. Space Station Data Base SAA 0020 and TDM 2411 are updated.

  3. ADMS Evaluation Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Deploying an ADMS or looking to optimize its value? NREL offers a low-cost, low-risk evaluation platform for assessing ADMS performance. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a vendor-neutral advanced distribution management system (ADMS) evaluation platform and is expanding its capabilities. The platform uses actual grid-scale hardware, large-scale distribution system models, and advanced visualization to simulate realworld conditions for the most accurate ADMS evaluation and experimentation.

  4. Monitoring and modeling crop health and water use via in-situ, airborne and space-based platforms

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew; Houborg, Rasmus; Jensen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Helene


    The accurate retrieval of plant water use, health and function together with soil state and condition, represent key objectives in the management and monitoring of large-scale agricultural production. In regions of water shortage or stress

  5. NIAC Phase I Study Final Report on Large Ultra-Lightweight Photonic Muscle Space Structures (United States)

    Ritter, Joe


    way to make large inexpensive deployable mirrors where the cost is measured in millions, not billions like current efforts. For example we seek an interim goal within 10 years of a Hubble size (2.4m) primary mirror weighing 1 pound at a cost of 10K in materials. Described here is a technology using thin ultra lightweight materials where shape can be controlled simply with a beam of light, allowing imaging with incredibly low mass yet precisely shaped mirrors. These " Photonic Muscle" substrates will eventually make precision control of giant s p a c e apertures (mirrors) possible. OCCAM substrates make precision control of giant ultra light-weight mirror apertures possible. This technology is posed to create a revolution in remote sensing by making large ultra lightweight space telescopes a fiscal and material reality over the next decade.

  6. Inverse kinematics of redundant systems driver IKORv1.0-2.0 (full space parameterization with orientation control, platform mobility, and portability)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, C.J.; Fries, G.A.; Pin, F.G.


    Few optimization methods exist for path planning of kinematically redundant manipulators. Among these, a universal method is lacking that takes advantage of a manipulator`s redundancy while satisfying possibly varying constraints and task requirements. Full Space Parameterization (FSP) is a new method that generates the entire solution space of underspecified systems of algebraic equations and then calculates the unique solution satisfying specific constraints and optimization criteria. The FSP method has been previously tested on several configurations of the redundant manipulator HERMIES-III. This report deals with the extension of the FSP driver, Inverse Kinematics On Redundant systems (IKOR), to include three-dimensional manipulation systems, possibly incorporating a mobile platform, with and without orientation control. The driver was also extended by integrating two optimized versions of the FSP solution generator as well as the ability to easily port to any manipulator. IKOR was first altered to include the ability to handle orientation control and to integrate an optimized solution generator. The resulting system was tested on a 4 degrees-of-redundancy manipulator arm and was found to successfully perform trajectories with least norm criteria while avoiding obstacles and joint limits. Next, the system was adapted and tested on a manipulator arm placed on a mobile platform yielding 7 degrees of redundancy. After successful testing on least norm trajectories while avoiding obstacles and joint limits, IKORv1.0 was developed. The system was successfully verified using comparisons with a current industry standard, the Moore Penrose Pseudo-Inverse. Finally, IKORv2.0 was created, which includes both the one shot and two step methods, manipulator portability, integration of a second optimized solution generator, and finally a more robust and usable code design.

  7. DOD Space Systems: Additional Knowledge Would Better Support Decisions about Disaggregating Large Satellites (United States)


    considering new approaches. According to Air Force Space Command, U.S. space systems face intentional and unintentional threats , which have cycle costs • Demand for more satellites may stimulate new entrants and competition to lower acquisition costs. • Smaller, less complex...Fiscal constraints and growing threats to space systems have led DOD to consider alternatives for acquiring space-based capabilities, including

  8. Technological developments for ultra-lightweight, large aperture, deployable mirror for space telescopes (United States)

    Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; D'Amato, Francesco; Gallieni, Daniele; Biasi, Roberto; Molina, Marco; Duò, Fabrizio; Ruder, Nikolaus; Salinari, Piero; Lisi, Franco; Riccardi, Armando; Gambicorti, Lisa; Simonetti, Francesca; Pereira do Carmo, Joao Pedro N.


    The increasing interest on space telescopes for scientific applications leads to implement the manufacturing technology of the most critical element, i.e. the primary mirror: being more suitable a large aperture, it must be lightweight and deployable. The presented topic was originally addressed to a spaceborne DIAL (Differential Absorption LIDAR) mission operating at 935.5 nm for the measurement of water vapour profile in atmosphere, whose results were presented at ICSO 2006 and 2008. Aim of this paper is to present the latest developments on the main issues related to the fabrication of a breadboard, covering two project critical areas identified during the preliminary studies: the design and performances of the long-stroke actuators used to implement the mirror active control and the mirror survivability to launch via Electrostatic Locking (EL) between mirror and backplane. The described work is developed under the ESA/ESTEC contract No. 22321/09/NL/RA. The lightweight mirror is structured as a central sector surrounded by petals, all of them actively controlled to reach the specified shape after initial deployment and then maintained within specs for the entire mission duration. The presented study concerns: a) testing the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) backplane manufacturing and EL techniques, with production of suitable specimens; b) actuator design optimisation; c) design of the deployment mechanism including a high precision latch; d) the fabrication of thin mirrors mock-ups to validate the fabrication procedure for the large shells. The current activity aims to the construction of an optical breadboard capable of demonstrating the achievement of all these coupled critical aspects: optical quality of the thin shell mirror surface, actuators performances and back-plane - EL subsystem functionality.

  9. Applications of tuned mass dampers to improve performance of large space mirrors (United States)

    Yingling, Adam J.; Agrawal, Brij N.


    In order for future imaging spacecraft to meet higher resolution imaging capability, it will be necessary to build large space telescopes with primary mirror diameters that range from 10 m to 20 m and do so with nanometer surface accuracy. Due to launch vehicle mass and volume constraints, these mirrors have to be deployable and lightweight, such as segmented mirrors using active optics to correct mirror surfaces with closed loop control. As a part of this work, system identification tests revealed that dynamic disturbances inherent in a laboratory environment are significant enough to degrade the optical performance of the telescope. Research was performed at the Naval Postgraduate School to identify the vibration modes most affecting the optical performance and evaluate different techniques to increase damping of those modes. Based on this work, tuned mass dampers (TMDs) were selected because of their simplicity in implementation and effectiveness in targeting specific modes. The selected damping mechanism was an eddy current damper where the damping and frequency of the damper could be easily changed. System identification of segments was performed to derive TMD specifications. Several configurations of the damper were evaluated, including the number and placement of TMDs, damping constant, and targeted structural modes. The final configuration consisted of two dampers located at the edge of each segment and resulted in 80% reduction in vibrations. The WFE for the system without dampers was 1.5 waves, with one TMD the WFE was 0.9 waves, and with two TMDs the WFE was 0.25 waves. This paper provides details of some of the work done in this area and includes theoretical predictions for optimum damping which were experimentally verified on a large aperture segmented system.

  10. EURESCOM Services Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria; van Halteren, Aart


    This paper presents the results of the EURESCOM Project 715. In February 1999, a large team of researchers from six European public network operators completed a two year period of cooperative experiments on a TINA-based environment, called the EURESCOM Services Platform (ESP). This platform

  11. Mobile Platforms and Development Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Helal, Sumi; Li, Wengdong


    Mobile platform development has lately become a technological war zone with extremely dynamic and fluid movement, especially in the smart phone and tablet market space. This Synthesis lecture is a guide to the latest developments of the key mobile platforms that are shaping the mobile platform industry. The book covers the three currently dominant native platforms -- iOS, Android and Windows Phone -- along with the device-agnostic HTML5 mobile web platform. The lecture also covers location-based services (LBS) which can be considered as a platform in its own right. The lecture utilizes a sampl

  12. Adaptation of a web-based, open source electronic medical record system platform to support a large study of tuberculosis epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Hamish SF


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, we were funded by the US National Institutes of Health to implement a study of tuberculosis epidemiology in Peru. The study required a secure information system to manage data from a target goal of 16,000 subjects who needed to be followed for at least one year. With previous experience in the development and deployment of web-based medical record systems for TB treatment in Peru, we chose to use the OpenMRS open source electronic medical record system platform to develop the study information system. Supported by a core technical and management team and a large and growing worldwide community, OpenMRS is now being used in more than 40 developing countries. We adapted the OpenMRS platform to better support foreign languages. We added a new module to support double data entry, linkage to an existing laboratory information system, automatic upload of GPS data from handheld devices, and better security and auditing of data changes. We added new reports for study managers, and developed data extraction tools for research staff and statisticians. Further adaptation to handle direct entry of laboratory data occurred after the study was launched. Results Data collection in the OpenMRS system began in September 2009. By August 2011 a total of 9,256 participants had been enrolled, 102,274 forms and 13,829 laboratory results had been entered, and there were 208 users. The system is now entirely supported by the Peruvian study staff and programmers. Conclusions The information system served the study objectives well despite requiring some significant adaptations mid-stream. OpenMRS has more tools and capabilities than it did in 2008, and requires less adaptations for future projects. OpenMRS can be an effective research data system in resource poor environments, especially for organizations using or considering it for clinical care as well as research.

  13. Kinematics and dynamics of green water on a fixed platform in a large wave basin in focusing wave and random wave conditions (United States)

    Chuang, Wei-Liang; Chang, Kuang-An; Mercier, Richard


    Green water kinematics and dynamics due to wave impingements on a simplified geometry, fixed platform were experimentally investigated in a large, deep-water wave basin. Both plane focusing waves and random waves were employed in the generation of green water. The focusing wave condition was designed to create two consecutive plunging breaking waves with one impinging on the frontal vertical wall of the fixed platform, referred as wall impingement, and the other directly impinging on the deck surface, referred as deck impingement. The random wave condition was generated using the JONSWAP spectrum with a significant wave height approximately equal to the freeboard. A total of 179 green water events were collected in the random wave condition. By examining the green water events in random waves, three different flow types are categorized: collapse of overtopping wave, fall of bulk water, and breaking wave crest. The aerated flow velocity was measured using bubble image velocimetry, while the void fraction was measured using fiber optic reflectometry. For the plane focusing wave condition, measurements of impact pressure were synchronized with the flow velocity and void fraction measurements. The relationship between the peak pressures and the pressure rise times is examined. For the high-intensity impact in the deck impingement events, the peak pressures are observed to be proportional to the aeration levels. The maximum horizontal velocities in the green water events in random waves are well represented by the lognormal distribution. Ritter's solution is shown to quantitatively describe the green water velocity distributions under both the focusing wave condition and the random wave condition. A prediction equation for green water velocity distribution under random waves is proposed.

  14. Structural Feasibility Analysis of a Robotically Assembled Very Large Aperture Optical Space Telescope (United States)

    Wilkie, William Keats; Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.; Wilcox, Brian H.


    This paper presents a feasibility study of robotically constructing a very large aperture optical space telescope on-orbit. Since the largest engineering challenges are likely to reside in the design and assembly of the 150-m diameter primary reflector, this preliminary study focuses on this component. The same technology developed for construction of the primary would then be readily used for the smaller optical structures (secondary, tertiary, etc.). A reasonable set of ground and on-orbit loading scenarios are compiled from the literature and used to define the structural performance requirements and size the primary reflector. A surface precision analysis shows that active adjustment of the primary structure is required in order to meet stringent optical surface requirements. Two potential actuation strategies are discussed along with potential actuation devices at the current state of the art. The finding of this research effort indicate that successful technology development combined with further analysis will likely enable such a telescope to be built in the future.

  15. A large-amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbance excited by the space shuttle during launch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, S.T.


    The ionosphere was monitored during the fourth space shuttle (STS 4) launch in June 1982 by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar. A long-lived, large-amplitude, traveling ionospheric disturbance with dominant wave moles of ∼ 15 and 75 min was observed shortly after the launch. The disturbance wave train is likely the product of a variety of wave modes. The disturbance front traveled with an average group speed of >628 m/s. Such speeds are typical of fast moving shock waves and ducted gravity waves. Either one or both could be responsible for the signatures observed near the leading edge of the STS 4 wave train. Later arriving waves, with their inherently lower propagation speeds, are attributed to additional gravity wave modes. These waves, however, were not explicitly identified in this study. Although atmospheric waves are excited along the entire flight path, the most intense region of excitation is located along a relatively short flight segment (∼70 km) near the launch site where all primary thrusters are firing and over 70% of the propellants are expended. Not since the nuclear bomb tests of the late 1950s and early 1960s has an artificial source of atmospheric gravity waves been more available for upper atmospheric studies. The routine launching of high thrust vehicles provides an excellent opportunity to observe the propagation characteristics of atmospheric waves under controlled conditions and to acquire information on the nature of the upper atmosphere

  16. A Very Large Area Network (VLAN) knowledge-base applied to space communication problems (United States)

    Zander, Carol S.


    This paper first describes a hierarchical model for very large area networks (VLAN). Space communication problems whose solution could profit by the model are discussed and then an enhanced version of this model incorporating the knowledge needed for the missile detection-destruction problem is presented. A satellite network or VLAN is a network which includes at least one satellite. Due to the complexity, a compromise between fully centralized and fully distributed network management has been adopted. Network nodes are assigned to a physically localized group, called a partition. Partitions consist of groups of cell nodes with one cell node acting as the organizer or master, called the Group Master (GM). Coordinating the group masters is a Partition Master (PM). Knowledge is also distributed hierarchically existing in at least two nodes. Each satellite node has a back-up earth node. Knowledge must be distributed in such a way so as to minimize information loss when a node fails. Thus the model is hierarchical both physically and informationally.

  17. Measurements of indoor thermal environment and energy analysis in a large space building in typical seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen; Zou, Zhijun; Li, Meiling; Wang, Xin; Huang, Wugang; Yang, Jiangang [University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Li, Wei; Xiao, Xueqin [Shanghai International Gymnastics Stadium, Shanghai (China)


    Shanghai International Gymnastics Stadium is the selected object for site-measurement. The site-measurements have been carried out during summer, winter, and the transitional seasons. Their indoor thermal environments were controlled by continuous air-conditioning, intermittent air-conditioning and natural ventilation, respectively. The site-measurement includes outdoor environment (the weather conditions and peripheral hallway), indoor air temperature distribution (the occupant zone temperature, radial temperature near upper openings and the vertical temperature distributions, etc.), and the heat balance of air-conditioning system, etc. It is found that temperature stratification in winter with air-conditioning is most obvious. The maximum difference of vertical temperature is 15{sup o}C in winter. The second largest one is 12{sup o}C in summer, and less than 2{sup o}C in the transitional season. The results of measurements indicate that it is different in the characteristics on energy saving of upper openings during the different seasons. With heat balance measurements, it is discovered that the roof load and ventilated and infiltrated load account for larger percentages in terms of cooling and heating load. In this paper, many discussions on the results of site measurements show some characteristics and regulations of indoor thermal environment in large space building. (author)

  18. Uniaxial and biaxial tensioning effects on thin membrane materials. [large space structures (United States)

    Hinson, W. F.; Goslee, J. W.


    Thin laminated membranes are being considered for various surface applications on future large space structural systems. Some of the thin membranes would be stretched across or between structural members with the requirement that the membrane be maintained within specified limits of smoothness which would be dictated by the particular applications such as antenna reflector requirements. The multiaxial tensile force required to maintain the smoothness in the membrane needs to be determined for use in the structure design. Therefore, several types of thicknesses of thin membrane materials have been subjected to varied levels of uniaxial and biaxial tensile loads. During the biaxial tests, deviations of the material surface smoothness were measured by a noncontacting capacitance probe. Basic materials consisted of composites of vacuum deposited aluminum on Mylar and Kapton ranging in thickness from 0.00025 in (0.000635 cm) to 0.002 in (0.00508 cm). Some of the material was reinforced with Kevlar and Nomex scrim. The uniaxial tests determined the material elongation and tensile forces up to ultimate conditions. Biaxial tests indicated that a relatively smooth material surface could be achieved with tensile force of approximately 1 to 15 Newtons per centimeter, depending upon the material thickness and/or reinforcement.

  19. ART-SCIENCE OF THE SPACE AGE: towards a platform for art-science collaborations at ESTEC (United States)

    Domnitch, E.; Gelfand, D.


    In 2013, in collaboration with ESTEC scientist Bernard Foing and the ArtScience Interfaculty (Royal Academy of the Arts, The Hague), Synergetica Lab (Amsterdam) developed a course, which was repeated in 2015, for bachelor's and master's students aimed at seeding interactions with ESA researchers. The participants created artworks investigating space travel, radio astronomy, microgravity, ecosynthesis as well as extraterrestrial physics and architecture [1] [2]. After their initial presentation at the Royal Academy, these artworks were shown at ESTEC, TodaysArt Festival (The Hague), and TEC ART (Rotterdam). These presentations prompted diverse future collaborations and outreach opportunities, including the European Planetary Science Congress 2014 (Cascais) and the AxS Festival (Los Angeles).

  20. The Extended Space of Public Opinion in the Context of Multi-Platform Journalism: From Speakers to Discursive Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Eliana Caetano


    Full Text Available This paper has as its starting point the traditional condition of public opinion, especially its existence in the society of mass communication when assuming the role of legitimizing discourses of political protagonists – the government and media. This text aims to show it as an object built around the set of discursive conventions, and show the modifications it goes through in the context of current journalism; a multitude of voices being heard in the circulation of information spaces. The qualitative analysis focuses on opinions on the Israel / Palestine conflict taken from reader comments and Internet search applications based on tags between the period of June and September 2014. Among these changes are the needs to restructure its concept, to understand the challenge it represents to news organizations and to review the formal elaborations that sustain journalistic discourse.

  1. Towards a Scalable and Adaptive Application Support Platform for Large-Scale Distributed E-Sciences in High-Performance Network Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chase Qishi [New Jersey Inst. of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); Univ. of Memphis, TN (United States); Zhu, Michelle Mengxia [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)


    The advent of large-scale collaborative scientific applications has demonstrated the potential for broad scientific communities to pool globally distributed resources to produce unprecedented data acquisition, movement, and analysis. System resources including supercomputers, data repositories, computing facilities, network infrastructures, storage systems, and display devices have been increasingly deployed at national laboratories and academic institutes. These resources are typically shared by large communities of users over Internet or dedicated networks and hence exhibit an inherent dynamic nature in their availability, accessibility, capacity, and stability. Scientific applications using either experimental facilities or computation-based simulations with various physical, chemical, climatic, and biological models feature diverse scientific workflows as simple as linear pipelines or as complex as a directed acyclic graphs, which must be executed and supported over wide-area networks with massively distributed resources. Application users oftentimes need to manually configure their computing tasks over networks in an ad hoc manner, hence significantly limiting the productivity of scientists and constraining the utilization of resources. The success of these large-scale distributed applications requires a highly adaptive and massively scalable workflow platform that provides automated and optimized computing and networking services. This project is to design and develop a generic Scientific Workflow Automation and Management Platform (SWAMP), which contains a web-based user interface specially tailored for a target application, a set of user libraries, and several easy-to-use computing and networking toolkits for application scientists to conveniently assemble, execute, monitor, and control complex computing workflows in heterogeneous high-performance network environments. SWAMP will enable the automation and management of the entire process of scientific

  2. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David; Johnson, Stephen


    The engineering development of the new Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex system engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through Flight Software certification are an important focus of this development effort to further insure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. NASA formed a dedicated M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle for the SLS initiative. As part of the development of the M&FM capabilities, this team has developed a dedicated testbed that

  3. Utilization of lunar materials and expertise for large scale operations in space: Abstracts. [lunar bases and space industrialization (United States)

    Criswell, D. R. (Editor)


    The practicality of exploiting the moon, not only as a source of materials for large habitable structures at Lagrangian points, but also as a base for colonization is discussed in abstracts of papers presented at a special session on lunar utilization. Questions and answers which followed each presentation are included after the appropriate abstract. Author and subject indexes are provided.

  4. Image-based Exploration of Iso-surfaces for Large Multi- Variable Datasets using Parameter Space.

    KAUST Repository

    Binyahib, Roba S.


    With an increase in processing power, more complex simulations have resulted in larger data size, with higher resolution and more variables. Many techniques have been developed to help the user to visualize and analyze data from such simulations. However, dealing with a large amount of multivariate data is challenging, time- consuming and often requires high-end clusters. Consequently, novel visualization techniques are needed to explore such data. Many users would like to visually explore their data and change certain visual aspects without the need to use special clusters or having to load a large amount of data. This is the idea behind explorable images (EI). Explorable images are a novel approach that provides limited interactive visualization without the need to re-render from the original data [40]. In this work, the concept of EI has been used to create a workflow that deals with explorable iso-surfaces for scalar fields in a multivariate, time-varying dataset. As a pre-processing step, a set of iso-values for each scalar field is inferred and extracted from a user-assisted sampling technique in time-parameter space. These iso-values are then used to generate iso- surfaces that are then pre-rendered (from a fixed viewpoint) along with additional buffers (i.e. normals, depth, values of other fields, etc.) to provide a compressed representation of iso-surfaces in the dataset. We present a tool that at run-time allows the user to interactively browse and calculate a combination of iso-surfaces superimposed on each other. The result is the same as calculating multiple iso- surfaces from the original data but without the memory and processing overhead. Our tool also allows the user to change the (scalar) values superimposed on each of the surfaces, modify their color map, and interactively re-light the surfaces. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach over a multi-terabyte combustion dataset. We also illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of our

  5. Thermal Analysis of the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) 8 Meter Primary Mirror (United States)

    Hornsby, Linda; Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.


    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) preliminary design concept consists of an 8 meter diameter monolithic primary mirror enclosed in an insulated, optical tube with stray light baffles and a sunshade. ATLAST will be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 and will experience constant exposure to the sun. The insulation on the optical tube and sunshade serve to cold bias the telescope which helps to minimize thermal gradients. The primary mirror will be maintained at 280K with an active thermal control system. The geometric model of the primary mirror, optical tube, sun baffles, and sunshade was developed using Thermal Desktop(R) SINDA/FLUINT(R) was used for the thermal analysis and the radiation environment was analyzed using RADCAD(R). A XX node model was executed in order to characterize the static performance and thermal stability of the mirror during maneuvers. This is important because long exposure observations, such as extra-solar terrestrial planet finding and characterization, require a very stable observatory wave front. Steady state thermal analyses served to predict mirror temperatures for several different sun angles. Transient analyses were performed in order to predict thermal time constant of the primary mirror for a 20 degree slew or 30 degree roll maneuver. This paper describes the thermal model and provides details of the geometry, thermo-optical properties, and the environment which influences the thermal performance. All assumptions that were used in the analysis are also documented. Parametric analyses are summarized for design parameters including primary mirror coatings and sunshade configuration. Estimates of mirror heater power requirements are reported. The thermal model demonstrates results for the primary mirror heated from the back side and edges using a heater system with multiple independently controlled zones.

  6. Conceptual Design Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Tower Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Chad


    The main objective of this work was to develop a conceptual design and engineering prototype for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) tower structure. This thesis describes the conceptual design of a GLAST tower and the fabrication and testing of a prototype tower tray. The requirements were that the structure had to support GLAST's delicate silicon strip detector array through ground handling, launch and in orbit operations as well as provide for thermal and electrical pathways. From the desired function and the given launch vehicle for the spacecraft that carries the GLAST detector, an efficient structure was designed which met the requirements. This thesis developed in three stages: design, fabrication, and testing. During the first stage, a general set of specifications was used to develop the initial design, which was then analyzed and shown to meet or exceed the requirements. The second stage called for the fabrication of prototypes to prove manufacturability and gauge cost and time estimates for the total project. The last step called for testing the prototypes to show that they performed as the analysis had shown and prove that the design met the requirements. As a spacecraft engineering exercise, this project required formulating a solution based on engineering judgment, analyzing the solution using advanced engineering techniques, then proving the validity of the design and analysis by the manufacturing and testing of prototypes. The design described here met all the requirements set out by the needs of the experiment and operating concerns. This strawman design is not intended to be the complete or final design for the GLAST instrument structure, but instead examines some of the main challenges involved and demonstrates that there are solutions to them. The purpose of these tests was to prove that there are solutions to the basic mechanical, electrical and thermal problems presented with the GLAST project.

  7. Definition of satellite servicing technology development missions for early space stations. Volume 2: Technical (United States)


    Early space station accommodation, build-up of space station manipulator capability, on-orbit spacecraft assembly test and launch, large antenna structure deployment, service/refurbish satellite, and servicing of free-flying materials processing platform are discussed.

  8. Payment Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan


    thoroughly and substitute current payment standards in the decades to come. This paper portrays how digital payment platforms evolve in socio-technical niches and how various technological platforms aim for institutional attention in their attempt to challenge earlier platforms and standards. The paper...... applies a co-evolutionary multilevel perspective to model the interplay and processes between technology and society wherein digital payment platforms potentially will substitute other payment platforms just like the credit card negated the check. On this basis this paper formulate a multilevel conceptual...

  9. Tree-space statistics and approximations for large-scale analysis of anatomical trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Owen, Megan; Petersen, Jens


    parametrize the relevant parts of tree-space well. Using the developed approximate statistics, we illustrate how the structure and geometry of airway trees vary across a population and show that airway trees with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease come from a different distribution in tree-space than...

  10. STEP flight experiments Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) telescope (United States)

    Runge, F. C.


    Flight testing plans for a large deployable infrared reflector telescope to be tested on a space platform are discussed. Subsystem parts, subassemblies, and whole assemblies are discussed. Assurance of operational deployability, rigidization, alignment, and serviceability will be sought.

  11. Monitoring and modeling crop health and water use via in-situ, airborne and space-based platforms

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, M. F.


    The accurate retrieval of plant water use, health and function together with soil state and condition, represent key objectives in the management and monitoring of large-scale agricultural production. In regions of water shortage or stress, understanding the sustainable use of available water supplies is critical. Unfortunately, this need is all too often limited by a lack of reliable observations. Techniques that balance the demand for reliable ground-based data with the rapid retrieval of spatially distributed crop characteristics represent a needed line of research. Data from in-situ monitoring coupled with advances in satellite retrievals of key land surface variables, provide the information necessary to characterize many crop health and water use features, including evaporation, leaf-chlorophyll and other common vegetation indices. With developments in UAV and quadcopter solutions, the opportunity to bridge the spatio-temporal gap between satellite and ground based sensing now exists, along with the capacity for customized retrievals of crop information. While there remain challenges in the routine application of autonomous airborne systems, the state of current technology and sensor developments provide the capacity to explore the operational potential. While this presentation will focus on the multi-scale estimation of crop-water use and crop-health characteristics from satellite-based sensors, the retrieval of high resolution spatially distributed information from near-surface airborne and ground-based systems will also be examined.

  12. Monitoring and Modeling Crop Health and Water Use via in-situ, Airborne and Space-based Platforms (United States)

    McCabe, M. F.


    The accurate retrieval of plant water use, health and function together with soil state and condition, represent key objectives in the management and monitoring of large-scale agricultural production. In regions of water shortage or stress, understanding the sustainable use of available water supplies is critical. Unfortunately, this need is all too often limited by a lack of reliable observations. Techniques that balance the demand for reliable ground-based data with the rapid retrieval of spatially distributed crop characteristics represent a needed line of research. Data from in-situ monitoring coupled with advances in satellite retrievals of key land surface variables, provide the information necessary to characterize many crop health and water use features, including evaporation, leaf-chlorophyll and other common vegetation indices. With developments in UAV and quadcopter solutions, the opportunity to bridge the spatio-temporal gap between satellite and ground based sensing now exists, along with the capacity for customized retrievals of crop information. While there remain challenges in the routine application of autonomous airborne systems, the state of current technology and sensor developments provide the capacity to explore the operational potential. While this presentation will focus on the multi-scale estimation of crop-water use and crop-health characteristics from satellite-based sensors, the retrieval of high resolution spatially distributed information from near-surface airborne and ground-based systems will also be examined.

  13. Space-time relationship in continuously moving table method for large FOV peripheral contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabati, M; Lauzon, M L; Frayne, R


    Data acquisition using a continuously moving table approach is a method capable of generating large field-of-view (FOV) 3D MR angiograms. However, in order to obtain venous contamination-free contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiograms in the lower limbs, one of the major challenges is to acquire all necessary k-space data during the restricted arterial phase of the contrast agent. Preliminary investigation on the space-time relationship of continuously acquired peripheral angiography is performed in this work. Deterministic and stochastic undersampled hybrid-space (x, k y , k z ) acquisitions are simulated for large FOV peripheral runoff studies. Initial results show the possibility of acquiring isotropic large FOV images of the entire peripheral vascular system. An optimal trade-off between the spatial and temporal sampling properties was found that produced a high-spatial resolution peripheral CE-MR angiogram. The deterministic sampling pattern was capable of reconstructing the global structure of the peripheral arterial tree and showed slightly better global quantitative results than stochastic patterns. Optimal stochastic sampling patterns, on the other hand, enhanced small vessels and had more favourable local quantitative results. These simulations demonstrate the complex spatial-temporal relationship when sampling large FOV peripheral runoff studies. They also suggest that more investigation is required to maximize image quality as a function of hybrid-space coverage, acquisition repetition time and sampling pattern parameters

  14. Proceedings of the Workshop on Applications of Distributed System Theory to the Control of Large Space Structures (United States)

    Rodriguez, G. (Editor)


    Two general themes in the control of large space structures are addressed: control theory for distributed parameter systems and distributed control for systems requiring spatially-distributed multipoint sensing and actuation. Topics include modeling and control, stabilization, and estimation and identification.

  15. Measures for minimizing radiation hazardous to the environment in the advent of large-scale space commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, S.N.


    The nature of hazardous effects from radio-frequency (RF), light, infrared, and nuclear radiation on human and other biological species in the advent of large-scale space commercialization is considered. Attention is focused on RF/microwave radiation from earth antennas and domestic picture phone communication links, exposure to microwave radiation from space solar-power satellites, and the continuous transmission of information from spacecraft as well as laser radiation from space. Measures for preventing and/or reducing these effects are suggested, including the use of interlocks for cutting off radiation toward ground, off-pointing microwave energy beams in cases of altitude failure, limiting the satellite off-axis gain data-rate product, the use of reflective materials on buildings and in personnel clothing to protect from space-borne lasers, and underwater colonies in cases of high-power lasers. For nuclear-power satellites, deposition in stable points in the solar system is proposed. 12 refs

  16. Large Format LW Type-II SLS FPAs for Space Applications, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposes to develop high performance (low dark current, high quantum efficiency, and low NEdT) infrared epitaxy materials based on Type II Strained...

  17. Pioneering space research in the USSR and mathematical modeling of large problems of radiation transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkevich, T.A.


    This review is to remind scientists of the older generation of some memorable historical pages and of many famous researchers, teachers and colleagues. For the younger researchers and foreign colleagues it will be useful to get to know about pioneer advancements of the Soviet scientists in the field of information and mathematical supply for cosmonautic problems on the eve of the space era. Main attention is paid to the scientific experiments conducted on the piloted space vehicles and the research teams who created the information and mathematical tools for the first space projects. The role of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, the Major Theoretician of cosmonautics, is particularly emphasized. He determined for the most part the basic directions of development of space research and remote sensing of the Earth and planets that are shortly called remote sensing

  18. An Improved Treatment of AC Space Charge Fields in Large Signal Simulation Codes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dialetis, D; Chernin, D; Antonsen, Jr., T. M; Levush, B


    An accurate representation of the AC space charge electric field is required in order to be able to predict the performance of linear beam tubes, including TWT's and klystrons, using a steady state...

  19. On the problem of earthquake correlation in space and time over large distances (United States)

    Georgoulas, G.; Konstantaras, A.; Maravelakis, E.; Katsifarakis, E.; Stylios, C. D.


    A quick examination of geographical maps with the epicenters of earthquakes marked on them reveals a strong tendency of these points to form compact clusters of irregular shapes and various sizes often traversing with other clusters. According to [Saleur et al. 1996] "earthquakes are correlated in space and time over large distances". This implies that seismic sequences are not formatted randomly but they follow a spatial pattern with consequent triggering of events. Seismic cluster formation is believed to be due to underlying geological natural hazards, which: a) act as the energy storage elements of the phenomenon, and b) tend to form a complex network of numerous interacting faults [Vallianatos and Tzanis, 1998]. Therefore it is imperative to "isolate" meaningful structures (clusters) in order to mine information regarding the underlying mechanism and at a second stage to test the causality effect implied by what is known as the Domino theory [Burgman, 2009]. Ongoing work by Konstantaras et al. 2011 and Katsifarakis et al. 2011 on clustering seismic sequences in the area of the Southern Hellenic Arc and progressively throughout the Greek vicinity and the entire Mediterranean region based on an explicit segmentation of the data based both on their temporal and spatial stamp, following modelling assumptions proposed by Dobrovolsky et al. 1989 and Drakatos et al. 2001, managed to identify geologically validated seismic clusters. These results suggest that that the time component should be included as a dimension during the clustering process as seismic cluster formation is dynamic and the emerging clusters propagate in time. Another issue that has not been investigated yet explicitly is the role of the magnitude of each seismic event. In other words the major seismic event should be treated differently compared to pre or post seismic sequences. Moreover the sometimes irregular and elongated shapes that appear on geophysical maps means that clustering algorithms

  20. Large herbivores in space: Resource partitioning among savanna grazers in a heterogeneous environment


    Cromsigt, Joris Petrus Gerardus Marinus


    Large mammalian grazers are among the most conspicuous species groups of the animal kingdom. The richest assemblages of large grazers can be found on the African continent. Diverse large grazer assemblages and the grazing systems they live in have been ascribed great socio-economic as well as ecological value. The impact of wild large grazers on humans has been enormous throughout the evolutionary history of mankind. Domesticated grazers have taken over most of the socio-economic role of thei...

  1. Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Structure of Large Garlic (Allium sativum Germplasm Bank, by Diversity Arrays Technology “Genotyping-by-Sequencing” Platform (DArTseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia A. Egea


    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum is used worldwide in cooking and industry, including pharmacology/medicine and cosmetics, for its interesting properties. Identifying redundancies in germplasm blanks to generate core collections is a major concern, mostly in large stocks, in order to reduce space and maintenance costs. Yet, similar appearance and phenotypic plasticity of garlic varieties hinder their morphological classification. Molecular studies are challenging, due to the large and expected complex genome of this species, with asexual reproduction. Classical molecular markers, like isozymes, RAPD, SSR, or AFLP, are not convenient to generate germplasm core-collections for this species. The recent emergence of high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS approaches, like DArTseq, allow to overcome such limitations to characterize and protect genetic diversity. Therefore, such technology was used in this work to: (i assess genetic diversity and structure of a large garlic-germplasm bank (417 accessions; (ii create a core collection; (iii relate genotype to agronomical features; and (iv describe a cost-effective method to manage genetic diversity in garlic-germplasm banks. Hierarchical-cluster analysis, principal-coordinates analysis and STRUCTURE showed general consistency, generating three main garlic-groups, mostly determined by variety and geographical origin. In addition, high-resolution genotyping identified 286 unique and 131 redundant accessions, used to select a reduced size germplasm-bank core collection. This demonstrates that DArTseq is a cost-effective method to analyze species with large and expected complex genomes, like garlic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of high-throughput genotyping of a large garlic germplasm. This is particularly interesting for garlic adaptation and improvement, to fight biotic and abiotic stresses, in the current context of climate change and global warming.

  2. Large herbivores in space : Resource partitioning among savanna grazers in a heterogeneous environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromsigt, Joris Petrus Gerardus Marinus


    Large mammalian grazers are among the most conspicuous species groups of the animal kingdom. The richest assemblages of large grazers can be found on the African continent. Diverse large grazer assemblages and the grazing systems they live in have been ascribed great socio-economic as well as

  3. Platform Constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan


    This research paper presents an initial attempt to introduce and explain the emergence of new phenomenon, which we refer to as platform constellations. Functioning as highly modular systems, the platform constellations are collections of highly connected platforms which co-exist in parallel and a......’ acquisition and users’ engagement rates as well as unlock new sources of value creation and diversify revenue streams....

  4. Conducting Automated Test Assembly Using the Premium Solver Platform Version 7.0 with Microsoft Excel and the Large-Scale LP/QP Solver Engine Add-In (United States)

    Cor, Ken; Alves, Cecilia; Gierl, Mark J.


    This review describes and evaluates a software add-in created by Frontline Systems, Inc., that can be used with Microsoft Excel 2007 to solve large, complex test assembly problems. The combination of Microsoft Excel 2007 with the Frontline Systems Premium Solver Platform is significant because Microsoft Excel is the most commonly used spreadsheet…

  5. The Milan Project: A New Method for High-Assurance and High-Performance Computing on Large-Scale Distributed Platforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kedem, Zvi


    ...: Calypso, Chime, and Charlotte; which enable applications developed for ideal, shared memory, parallel machines to execute on distributed platforms that are subject to failures, slowdowns, and changing resource availability...

  6. NTEGRAL: ICT-platform based Distributed Control in electricity grids with a large share of Distributed Energy Resources and Renewable Energy Sources


    Peppink , G.; Kamphuis , R.; Kok , K.; Dimeas , A.; Karfopoulos , E.; Hatziargyriou , Nikos D.; Hadjsaid , Nouredine; Caire , Raphaël; Gustavsson , René; Salas , Josep M.; Niesing , Hugo; Van Der Velde , J.; Tena , Llani; Bliek , Frits; Eijgelaar , Marcel


    International audience; The European project INTEGRAL aims to build and demonstrate an industry-quality reference solution for DER aggregation-level control and coordination, based on commonly available ICT components, standards, and platforms. To achieve this, the Integrated ICT-platform based Distributed Control (IIDC) is introduced. The project includes also three field test site installations in the Netherlands, Spain and France, covering normal, critical and emergency grid conditions.

  7. Screen-Space Normal Distribution Function Caching for Consistent Multi-Resolution Rendering of Large Particle Data

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Wickenhauser, Patrick; Rautek, Peter; Reina, Guido; Hadwiger, Markus


    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to investigating important processes in physics and thermodynamics. The simulated atoms are usually visualized as hard spheres with Phong shading, where individual particles and their local density can be perceived well in close-up views. However, for large-scale simulations with 10 million particles or more, the visualization of large fields-of-view usually suffers from strong aliasing artifacts, because the mismatch between data size and output resolution leads to severe under-sampling of the geometry. Excessive super-sampling can alleviate this problem, but is prohibitively expensive. This paper presents a novel visualization method for large-scale particle data that addresses aliasing while enabling interactive high-quality rendering. We introduce the novel concept of screen-space normal distribution functions (S-NDFs) for particle data. S-NDFs represent the distribution of surface normals that map to a given pixel in screen space, which enables high-quality re-lighting without re-rendering particles. In order to facilitate interactive zooming, we cache S-NDFs in a screen-space mipmap (S-MIP). Together, these two concepts enable interactive, scale-consistent re-lighting and shading changes, as well as zooming, without having to re-sample the particle data. We show how our method facilitates the interactive exploration of real-world large-scale MD simulation data in different scenarios.

  8. Screen-Space Normal Distribution Function Caching for Consistent Multi-Resolution Rendering of Large Particle Data

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed


    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are crucial to investigating important processes in physics and thermodynamics. The simulated atoms are usually visualized as hard spheres with Phong shading, where individual particles and their local density can be perceived well in close-up views. However, for large-scale simulations with 10 million particles or more, the visualization of large fields-of-view usually suffers from strong aliasing artifacts, because the mismatch between data size and output resolution leads to severe under-sampling of the geometry. Excessive super-sampling can alleviate this problem, but is prohibitively expensive. This paper presents a novel visualization method for large-scale particle data that addresses aliasing while enabling interactive high-quality rendering. We introduce the novel concept of screen-space normal distribution functions (S-NDFs) for particle data. S-NDFs represent the distribution of surface normals that map to a given pixel in screen space, which enables high-quality re-lighting without re-rendering particles. In order to facilitate interactive zooming, we cache S-NDFs in a screen-space mipmap (S-MIP). Together, these two concepts enable interactive, scale-consistent re-lighting and shading changes, as well as zooming, without having to re-sample the particle data. We show how our method facilitates the interactive exploration of real-world large-scale MD simulation data in different scenarios.

  9. Beyond advertising : large displays for supporting people’s needs and activities in public space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, Marije; Groen, Maarten; Meys, Wouter; Slakhorst, Wout; Veenstra, Mettina


    This paper explores how displays can be used to support human needs and activities in public spaces rather than be employed for commercial purposes only. Based on our analysis of screen usage around the world, eight different categories of usage are described and motivated. For the purpose of

  10. Large parallel volumes of finite and compact sets in d-dimensional Euclidean space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen; Kiderlen, Markus

    The r-parallel volume V (Cr) of a compact subset C in d-dimensional Euclidean space is the volume of the set Cr of all points of Euclidean distance at most r > 0 from C. According to Steiner’s formula, V (Cr) is a polynomial in r when C is convex. For finite sets C satisfying a certain geometric...

  11. Large micro-mirror arrays: key components in future space instruments for Universe and Earth Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamkotsian Frederic


    Full Text Available In future space missions for Universe and Earth Observation, scientific return could be optimized using MOEMS devices. Micro-mirror arrays are used for designing new generation of instruments, multi-object spectrographs in Universe Observation and programmable wide field spectrographs in Earth Observation. Mock-ups have been designed and built for both applications and they show very promising results.

  12. Comparative Performance in Single-Port Versus Multiport Minimally Invasive Surgery, and Small Versus Large Operative Working Spaces: A Preclinical Randomized Crossover Trial. (United States)

    Marcus, Hani J; Seneci, Carlo A; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Nandi, Dipankar; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara


    Surgical approaches such as transanal endoscopic microsurgery, which utilize small operative working spaces, and are necessarily single-port, are particularly demanding with standard instruments and have not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare simultaneously surgical performance in single-port versus multiport approaches, and small versus large working spaces. Ten novice, 4 intermediate, and 1 expert surgeons were recruited from a university hospital. A preclinical randomized crossover study design was implemented, comparing performance under the following conditions: (1) multiport approach and large working space, (2) multiport approach and intermediate working space, (3) single-port approach and large working space, (4) single-port approach and intermediate working space, and (5) single-port approach and small working space. In each case, participants performed a peg transfer and pattern cutting tasks, and each task repetition was scored. Intermediate and expert surgeons performed significantly better than novices in all conditions (P Performance in single-port surgery was significantly worse than multiport surgery (P performance in the intermediate versus large working space. In single-port surgery, there was a converse trend; performances in the intermediate and small working spaces were significantly better than in the large working space. Single-port approaches were significantly more technically challenging than multiport approaches, possibly reflecting loss of instrument triangulation. Surprisingly, in single-port approaches, in which triangulation was no longer a factor, performance in large working spaces was worse than in intermediate and small working spaces. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Hierarchical DSE for multi-ASIP platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micconi, Laura; Corvino, Rosilde; Gangadharan, Deepak


    This work proposes a hierarchical Design Space Exploration (DSE) for the design of multi-processor platforms targeted to specific applications with strict timing and area constraints. In particular, it considers platforms integrating multiple Application Specific Instruction Set Processors (ASIPs...

  14. Initial Validation of Robotic Operations for In-Space Assembly of a Large Solar Electric Propulsion Transport Vehicle (United States)

    Komendera, Erik E.; Dorsey, John T.


    Developing a capability for the assembly of large space structures has the potential to increase the capabilities and performance of future space missions and spacecraft while reducing their cost. One such application is a megawatt-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) tug, representing a critical transportation ability for the NASA lunar, Mars, and solar system exploration missions. A series of robotic assembly experiments were recently completed at Langley Research Center (LaRC) that demonstrate most of the assembly steps for the SEP tug concept. The assembly experiments used a core set of robotic capabilities: long-reach manipulation and dexterous manipulation. This paper describes cross-cutting capabilities and technologies for in-space assembly (ISA), applies the ISA approach to a SEP tug, describes the design and development of two assembly demonstration concepts, and summarizes results of two sets of assembly experiments that validate the SEP tug assembly steps.

  15. Large motion high cycle high speed optical fibers for space based applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stromberg, Peter G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tandon, Rajan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gibson, Cory S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rasberry, Roger David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rohr, Garth David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Future remote sensing applications will require higher resolution and therefore higher data rates (up to perhaps 100 gigabits per second) while achieving lower mass and cost. A current limitation to the design space is high speed high bandwidth data does not cross movable gimbals because of cabling issues. This requires the detectors to be off gimbal. The ability to get data across the gimbal would open up efficiencies in designs where the detectors and the electronics can be placed anywhere on the system. Fiber optic cables provide light weight high speed high bandwidth connections. Current options are limited to 20,000 cycles as opposed to the 1,000,000 cycles needed for future space based applications. To extend this to the million+ regime, requires a thorough understanding of the failure mechanisms and the materials, proper selection of materials (e.g., glass and jacket material) allowable geometry changes to the cable, radiation hardness, etc.

  16. Extraterrestrial processing and manufacturing of large space systems, volume 2, chapters 7-14 and appendices (United States)

    Miller, R. H.; Smith, D. B. S.


    Production and support equipment specifications are described for the space manufacturing facility (SMF). Defined production equipment includes electromagnetic pumps for liquid metal, metal alloying furnaces, die casters, electron beam welders and cutters, glass forming for structural elements, and rolling. A cost analysis is presented which includes the development, the aquisition of all SMF elements, initial operating cost, maintenance and logistics cost, cost of terrestrial materials, and transportation cost for each major element. Computer program listings and outputs are appended.

  17. Coarse-Grain Bandwidth Estimation Techniques for Large-Scale Space Network (United States)

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Jennings, Esther


    In this paper, we describe a top-down analysis and simulation approach to size the bandwidths of a store-andforward network for a given network topology, a mission traffic scenario, and a set of data types with different latency requirements. We use these techniques to estimate the wide area network (WAN) bandwidths of the ground links for different architecture options of the proposed Integrated Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Network.

  18. Technology for Large Space Systems: A Bibliography with Indexes. Supplement 17 (United States)


    A87-22771 Space Al Systems. The paper makes suggestions for practical SOLAR POWER SATELMTE CONCEPT REVISITED research programs, that require urgent...Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1987, p. 5-11. Initiative, for 1988 start, to foster research on safe and efficient (AIAA PAPER 87-0658...the distance A87-13394" Ohio State Univ., Columbus. of the Virgo Cluster the eigenvalues of the tidal field are about DECENTRALIZED CONTROL EXPERIMENTS

  19. Responses of Cloud Type Distributions to the Large-Scale Dynamical Circulation: Water Budget-Related Dynamical Phase Space and Dynamical Regimes (United States)

    Wong, Sun; Del Genio, Anthony; Wang, Tao; Kahn, Brian; Fetzer, Eric J.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.


    Goals: Water budget-related dynamical phase space; Connect large-scale dynamical conditions to atmospheric water budget (including precipitation); Connect atmospheric water budget to cloud type distributions.

  20. Programmatic implications of implementing the relational algebraic capacitated location (RACL algorithm outcomes on the allocation of laboratory sites, test volumes, platform distribution and space requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Cassim


    Full Text Available Introduction: CD4 testing in South Africa is based on an integrated tiered service delivery model that matches testing demand with capacity. The National Health Laboratory Service has predominantly implemented laboratory-based CD4 testing. Coverage gaps, over-/under-capacitation and optimal placement of point-of-care (POC testing sites need investigation. Objectives: We assessed the impact of relational algebraic capacitated location (RACL algorithm outcomes on the allocation of laboratory and POC testing sites. Methods: The RACL algorithm was developed to allocate laboratories and POC sites to ensure coverage using a set coverage approach for a defined travel time (T. The algorithm was repeated for three scenarios (A: T = 4; B: T = 3; C: T = 2 hours. Drive times for a representative sample of health facility clusters were used to approximate T. Outcomes included allocation of testing sites, Euclidian distances and test volumes. Additional analysis included platform distribution and space requirement assessment. Scenarios were reported as fusion table maps. Results: Scenario A would offer a fully-centralised approach with 15 CD4 laboratories without any POC testing. A significant increase in volumes would result in a four-fold increase at busier laboratories. CD4 laboratories would increase to 41 in scenario B and 61 in scenario C. POC testing would be offered at two sites in scenario B and 20 sites in scenario C. Conclusion: The RACL algorithm provides an objective methodology to address coverage gaps through the allocation of CD4 laboratories and POC sites for a given T. The algorithm outcomes need to be assessed in the context of local conditions.

  1. Methods for Prediction of Steel Temperature Curve in the Whole Process of a Localized Fire in Large Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Guowei


    Full Text Available Based on a full-scale bookcase fire experiment, a fire development model is proposed for the whole process of localized fires in large-space buildings. We found that for localized fires in large-space buildings full of wooden combustible materials the fire growing phases can be simplified into a t2 fire with a 0.0346 kW/s2 fire growth coefficient. FDS technology is applied to study the smoke temperature curve for a 2 MW to 25 MW fire occurring within a large space with a height of 6 m to 12 m and a building area of 1 500 m2 to 10 000 m2 based on the proposed fire development model. Through the analysis of smoke temperature in various fire scenarios, a new approach is proposed to predict the smoke temperature curve. Meanwhile, a modified model of steel temperature development in localized fire is built. In the modified model, the localized fire source is treated as a point fire source to evaluate the flame net heat flux to steel. The steel temperature curve in the whole process of a localized fire could be accurately predicted by the above findings. These conclusions obtained in this paper could provide valuable reference to fire simulation, hazard assessment, and fire protection design.

  2. Technology development for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) as a candidate large UV-Optical-Infrared (LUVOIR) surveyor (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie; Feinberg, Lee; Postman, Marc; Quijada, Manuel; Rauscher, Bernard; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Shaklan, Stuart; Stahl, H. Philip; Stahle, Carl; Thronson, Harley


    The Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) team has identified five key technologies to enable candidate architectures for the future large-aperture ultraviolet/optical/infrared (LUVOIR) space observatory envisioned by the NASA Astrophysics 30-year roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions. The science goals of ATLAST address a broad range of astrophysical questions from early galaxy and star formation to the processes that contributed to the formation of life on Earth, combining general astrophysics with direct-imaging and spectroscopy of habitable exoplanets. The key technologies are: internal coronagraphs, starshades (or external occulters), ultra-stable large-aperture telescopes, detectors, and mirror coatings. Selected technology performance goals include: 1x10-10 raw contrast at an inner working angle of 35 milli-arcseconds, wavefront error stability on the order of 10 pm RMS per wavefront control step, autonomous on-board sensing and control, and zero-read-noise single-photon detectors spanning the exoplanet science bandpass between 400 nm and 1.8 μm. Development of these technologies will provide significant advances over current and planned observatories in terms of sensitivity, angular resolution, stability, and high-contrast imaging. The science goals of ATLAST are presented and flowed down to top-level telescope and instrument performance requirements in the context of a reference architecture: a 10-meter-class, segmented aperture telescope operating at room temperature (~290 K) at the sun-Earth Lagrange-2 point. For each technology area, we define best estimates of required capabilities, current state-of-the-art performance, and current Technology Readiness Level (TRL) - thus identifying the current technology gap. We report on current, planned, or recommended efforts to develop each technology to TRL 5.

  3. Interdisciplinary analysis procedures in the modeling and control of large space-based structures (United States)

    Cooper, Paul A.; Stockwell, Alan E.; Kim, Zeen C.


    The paper describes a computer software system called the Integrated Multidisciplinary Analysis Tool, IMAT, that has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. IMAT provides researchers and analysts with an efficient capability to analyze satellite control systems influenced by structural dynamics. Using a menu-driven interactive executive program, IMAT links a relational database to commercial structural and controls analysis codes. The paper describes the procedures followed to analyze a complex satellite structure and control system. The codes used to accomplish the analysis are described, and an example is provided of an application of IMAT to the analysis of a reference space station subject to a rectangular pulse loading at its docking port.

  4. BrahmVE Platform for Design and Test of Large Scale Multi-Agent Human-Centric Mission Concepts, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All research and development in the nation's space program is being aligned around the new Exploration Systems Enterprise vision. The proposed work product for this...

  5. The Dynameomics Entropy Dictionary: A Large-Scale Assessment of Conformational Entropy across Protein Fold Space. (United States)

    Towse, Clare-Louise; Akke, Mikael; Daggett, Valerie


    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations contain considerable information with regard to the motions and fluctuations of a protein, the magnitude of which can be used to estimate conformational entropy. Here we survey conformational entropy across protein fold space using the Dynameomics database, which represents the largest existing data set of protein MD simulations for representatives of essentially all known protein folds. We provide an overview of MD-derived entropies accounting for all possible degrees of dihedral freedom on an unprecedented scale. Although different side chains might be expected to impose varying restrictions on the conformational space that the backbone can sample, we found that the backbone entropy and side chain size are not strictly coupled. An outcome of these analyses is the Dynameomics Entropy Dictionary, the contents of which have been compared with entropies derived by other theoretical approaches and experiment. As might be expected, the conformational entropies scale linearly with the number of residues, demonstrating that conformational entropy is an extensive property of proteins. The calculated conformational entropies of folding agree well with previous estimates. Detailed analysis of specific cases identifies deviations in conformational entropy from the average values that highlight how conformational entropy varies with sequence, secondary structure, and tertiary fold. Notably, α-helices have lower entropy on average than do β-sheets, and both are lower than coil regions.

  6. Multiband CCD Image Compression for Space Camera with Large Field of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li


    Full Text Available Space multiband CCD camera compression encoder requires low-complexity, high-robustness, and high-performance because of its captured images information being very precious and also because it is usually working on the satellite where the resources, such as power, memory, and processing capacity, are limited. However, the traditional compression approaches, such as JPEG2000, 3D transforms, and PCA, have the high-complexity. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems-Image Data Compression (CCSDS-IDC algorithm decreases the average PSNR by 2 dB compared with JPEG2000. In this paper, we proposed a low-complexity compression algorithm based on deep coupling algorithm among posttransform in wavelet domain, compressive sensing, and distributed source coding. In our algorithm, we integrate three low-complexity and high-performance approaches in a deeply coupled manner to remove the spatial redundant, spectral redundant, and bit information redundancy. Experimental results on multiband CCD images show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the traditional approaches.

  7. Space Active Optics: toward optimized correcting mirrors for future large spaceborne observatories (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Lemaitre, Gérard; Liotard, Arnaud


    Wave-front correction in optical instruments is often needed, either to compensate Optical Path Differences, off-axis aberrations or mirrors deformations. Active optics techniques are developed to allow efficient corrections with deformable mirrors. In this paper, we will present the conception of particular deformation systems which could be used in space telescopes and instruments in order to improve their performances while allowing relaxing specifications on the global system stability. A first section will be dedicated to the design and performance analysis of an active mirror specifically designed to compensate for aberrations that might appear in future 3m-class space telescopes, due to lightweight primary mirrors, thermal variations or weightless conditions. A second section will be dedicated to a brand new design of active mirror, able to compensate for given combinations of aberrations with a single actuator. If the aberrations to be corrected in an instrument and their evolutions are known in advance, an optimal system geometry can be determined thanks to the elasticity theory and Finite Element Analysis.

  8. Simulation of reflecting surface deviations of centimeter-band parabolic space radiotelescope (SRT) with the large-size mirror (United States)

    Kotik, A.; Usyukin, V.; Vinogradov, I.; Arkhipov, M.


    he realization of astrophysical researches requires the development of high-sensitive centimeterband parabolic space radiotelescopes (SRT) with the large-size mirrors. Constructively such SRT with the mirror size more than 10 m can be realized as deployable rigid structures. Mesh-structures of such size do not provide the reflector reflecting surface accuracy which is necessary for the centimeter band observations. Now such telescope with the 10 m diameter mirror is developed in Russia in the frame of "SPECTR - R" program. External dimensions of the telescope is more than the size of existing thermo-vacuum chambers used to prove SRT reflecting surface accuracy parameters under the action of space environment factors. That's why the numerical simulation turns out to be the basis required to accept the taken designs. Such modeling should be based on experimental working of the basic constructive materials and elements of the future reflector. In the article computational modeling of reflecting surface deviations of a centimeter-band of a large-sized deployable space reflector at a stage of his orbital functioning is considered. The analysis of the factors that determines the deviations - both determined (temperatures fields) and not-determined (telescope manufacturing and installation faults; the deformations caused by features of composite materials behavior in space) is carried out. The finite-element model and complex of methods are developed. They allow to carry out computational modeling of reflecting surface deviations caused by influence of all factors and to take into account the deviations correction by space vehicle orientation system. The results of modeling for two modes of functioning (orientation at the Sun) SRT are presented.

  9. Comparison and Validation of FLUKA and HZETRN as Tools for Investigating the Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul


    NASA's exploration goals are focused on deep space travel and Mars surface operations. To accomplish these goals, large structures will be necessary to transport crew and logistics in the initial stages, and NASA will need to keep the crew and the vehicle safe during transport and any surface activities. One of the major challenges of deep space travel is the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, the electronics, and the vehicle materials. The primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle. These interactions lead to some of the primary radiation being absorbed, being modified, or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles that have large shielding masses, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, and this secondary radiation can be significant enough to cause concern. When considering surface operations, there is also a secondary radiation source from the surface of the planet, known as albedo, with neutrons being one of the most significant species. Given new vehicle designs for deep space and Mars missions, the secondary radiation environment and the implications of that environment is currently not well understood. Thus, several studies are necessary to fill the knowledge gaps of this secondary radiation environment. In this paper, we put forth the initial steps to increasing our understanding of neutron production from large vehicles by comparing the neutron production resulting from our radiation transport codes and providing a preliminary validation of our results against flight data. This paper will review the details of these results and discuss the finer points of the analysis.

  10. The universal modular platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, R.B.


    A new and patented design for offshore wellhead platforms has been developed to meet a 'fast track' requirement for increased offshore production, from field locations not yet identified. The new design uses modular construction to allow for radical changes in the water depth of the final location and assembly line efficiency in fabrication. By utilizing high strength steels and structural support from the well conductors the new design accommodates all planned production requirements on a support structure significantly lighter and less expensive than the conventional design it replaces. Twenty two platforms based on the new design were ready for installation within 18 months of the project start. Installation of the new platforms began in 1992 for drilling support and 1993 for production support. The new design has become the Company standard for all future production platforms. Large saving and construction costs have been realized through its light weight, flexibility in both positioning and water depth, and its modular construction

  11. Results of experimental study on detritiation of atmosphere in large space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Takumi; Iwai, Yasunori; Nishi, Masataka


    In order to obtain data on tritium removal from the atmosphere of a room, which is needed for designing a reliable effective atmosphere detritiation system in a fusion reactor and for detailed analysis on its safety, intentional tritium release experiments have been carried out in a controlled space called Caisson under various atmosphere conditions at the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In case there is no tritiated water vapor in the released tritium gas, tritium was ideally removed by constant ventilation in spite of atmospheric conditions and residence time. On the other hand, when tritiated water vapor existed in the released tritium, residual contamination on the wall of the Caisson was detected and it was found that it depended on the initial humidity in the Caisson. This tritium removal behavior was successfully analyzed by considering the adsorption and desorption reaction rates of tritiated water on the wall by the constant ventilation

  12. A large-scale view of Space Technology 5 magnetometer response to solar wind drivers. (United States)

    Knipp, D J; Kilcommons, L M; Gjerloev, J; Redmon, R J; Slavin, J; Le, G


    In this data report we discuss reprocessing of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) magnetometer database for inclusion in NASA's Coordinated Data Analysis Web (CDAWeb) virtual observatory. The mission consisted of three spacecraft flying in elliptical orbits, from 27 March to 27 June 2006. Reprocessing includes (1) transforming the data into the Modified Apex Coordinate System for projection to a common reference altitude of 110 km, (2) correcting gain jumps, and (3) validating the results. We display the averaged magnetic perturbations as a keogram, which allows direct comparison of the full-mission data with the solar wind values and geomagnetic indices. With the data referenced to a common altitude, we find the following: (1) Magnetic perturbations that track the passage of corotating interaction regions and high-speed solar wind; (2) unexpectedly strong dayside perturbations during a solstice magnetospheric sawtooth oscillation interval characterized by a radial interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component that may have enhanced the accompanying modest southward IMF; and (3) intervals of reduced magnetic perturbations or "calms," associated with periods of slow solar wind, interspersed among variable-length episodic enhancements. These calms are most evident when the IMF is northward or projects with a northward component onto the geomagnetic dipole. The reprocessed ST5 data are in very good agreement with magnetic perturbations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft, which we also map to 110 km. We briefly discuss the methods used to remap the ST5 data and the means of validating the results against DMSP. Our methods form the basis for future intermission comparisons of space-based magnetometer data.

  13. Investigation of GICs Associated with Large dB/dt Variations in Space (United States)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Mann, I. R.; Murphy, K. R.; Rae, J.; Denton, M.; Milling, D. K.


    Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) can be driven in terrestrial electrical power grids as a result of the induced electric fields arising from magnetic field changes driven in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-ground system. Substorms are often hypothesised to be associated with the largest GIC effects on the ground, especially at higher latitudes. However, recent studies have suggested that other dayside phenomena such as sudden impulses and even ULF wave trains might also drive significant GICs. Using data from the CARISMA ground-based magnetometer network we examine the GIC response driven from a variety of magnetospheric processes. In particular we focus on events where large dB/dt is observed in-situ on GOES East and West satellites. Auroras, resulting from magnetospheric substorms, give us a dynamical view of sudden destabilizations in the nightside magnetosphere, of large spatial and temporal extent, that can drive large and potentially damaging geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in terrestrial power grids. Since ground dB/dt can be used as a GIC proxy, we have surveyed GOES data since 2011 for the largest dB/dT events, and found some to be of the order of hundreds of nT in the span of a few seconds. These are observed in both the nightside and dayside, and, as such, we seek to establish connections to drivers affecting both sides of the terminator; tail activations and substorms on the nightside, large amplitude ULF waves, solar wind sudden impulses, and rapid changes in MIC current systems on the dayside. The short duration of these events, coupled with the use of conjugate satellite measurements and ground magnetometer arrays when possible, allows us to investigate their localization and the latitudinal extent of their effects and to further examine the potential role of non-substorm phenomena in generating GICs which may have adverse impacts in electrical power grids.

  14. A stowing and deployment strategy for large membrane space systems on the example of Gossamer-1 (United States)

    Seefeldt, Patric


    Deployment systems for innovative space applications such as solar sails require a technique for a controlled and autonomous deployment in space. The deployment process has a strong impact on the mechanism and structural design and sizing. On the example of the design implemented in the Gossamer-1 project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), such a stowing and deployment process is analyzed. It is based on a combination of zig-zag folding and coiling of triangular sail segments spanned between crossed booms. The deployment geometry and forces introduced by the mechanism considered are explored in order to reveal how the loads are transferred through the membranes to structural components such as the booms. The folding geometry and force progressions are described by function compositions of an inverse trigonometric function with the considered trigonometric function itself. If these functions are evaluated over several periods of the trigonometric function, a non-smooth oscillating curve occurs. Depending on the trigonometric function, these are often vividly described as zig-zag or sawtooth functions. The developed functions are applied to the Gossamer-1 design. The deployment geometry reveals a tendency that the loads are transferred along the catheti of the sail segments and therefore mainly along the boom axes. The load introduced by the spool deployment mechanism is described. By combining the deployment geometry with that load, a prediction of the deployment load progression is achieved. The mathematical description of the stowing and deployment geometry, as well as the forces inflicted by the mechanism provides an understanding of how exactly the membrane deploys and through which edges the deployment forces are transferred. The mathematical analysis also gives an impression of sensitive parameters that could be influenced by manufacturing tolerances or unsymmetrical deployment of the sail segments. While the mathematical model was applied on the design of

  15. Monte Carlo estimation of total variation distance of Markov chains on large spaces, with application to phylogenetics. (United States)

    Herbei, Radu; Kubatko, Laura


    Markov chains are widely used for modeling in many areas of molecular biology and genetics. As the complexity of such models advances, it becomes increasingly important to assess the rate at which a Markov chain converges to its stationary distribution in order to carry out accurate inference. A common measure of convergence to the stationary distribution is the total variation distance, but this measure can be difficult to compute when the state space of the chain is large. We propose a Monte Carlo method to estimate the total variation distance that can be applied in this situation, and we demonstrate how the method can be efficiently implemented by taking advantage of GPU computing techniques. We apply the method to two Markov chains on the space of phylogenetic trees, and discuss the implications of our findings for the development of algorithms for phylogenetic inference.

  16. Thermography During Thermal Test of the Gaia Deployable Sunshield Assembly Qualification Model in the ESTEC Large Space Simulator (United States)

    Simpson, R.; Broussely, M.; Edwards, G.; Robinson, D.; Cozzani, A.; Casarosa, G.


    The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and The European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) have performed for the first time successful surface temperature measurements using infrared thermal imaging in the ESTEC Large Space Simulator (LSS) under vacuum and with the Sun Simulator (SUSI) switched on during thermal qualification tests of the GAIA Deployable Sunshield Assembly (DSA). The thermal imager temperature measurements, with radiosity model corrections, show good agreement with thermocouple readings on well characterised regions of the spacecraft. In addition, the thermal imaging measurements identified potentially misleading thermocouple temperature readings and provided qualitative real-time observations of the thermal and spatial evolution of surface structure changes and heat dissipation during hot test loadings, which may yield additional thermal and physical measurement information through further research.

  17. The Space-Time Conservative Schemes for Large-Scale, Time-Accurate Flow Simulations with Tetrahedral Meshes (United States)

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Friedlander, David J.; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung


    Despite decades of development of unstructured mesh methods, high-fidelity time-accurate simulations are still predominantly carried out on structured, or unstructured hexahedral meshes by using high-order finite-difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO), or hybrid schemes formed by their combinations. In this work, the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is used to simulate several flow problems including supersonic jet/shock interaction and its impact on launch vehicle acoustics, and direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows using tetrahedral meshes. This paper provides a status report for the continuing development of the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) numerical and software framework under the Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) project. Solution accuracy and large-scale parallel performance of the numerical framework is assessed with the goal of providing a viable paradigm for future high-fidelity flow physics simulations.

  18. Space station orbit maintenance (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.


    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  19. A simple model for the initial phase of a water plasma cloud about a large structure in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, D.E.; Gatsonis, N.A.; Mogstad, T.


    Large structures in the ionosphere will outgas or eject neutral water and perturb the ambient neutral environment. This water can undergo charge exchange with the ambient oxygen ions and form a water plasma cloud. Additionally, water dumps or thruster firings can create a water plasma cloud. A simple model for the evolution of a water plasma cloud about a large space structure is obtained. It is shown that if the electron density around a large space structure is substantially enhanced above the ambient density then the plasma cloud will move away from the structure. As the cloud moves away, it will become unstable and will eventually break up into filaments. A true steady state will exist only if the total electron density is unperturbed from the ambient density. When the water density is taken to be consistent with shuttle-based observations, the cloud is found to slowly drift away on a time scale of many tens of milliseconds. This time is consistent with the shuttle observations

  20. Large surface scintillators as base of impact point detectors and their application in Space Weather (United States)

    Ayuso, Sindulfo; Medina, José; Gómez-Herrero, Raul; José Blanco, Juan; García-Tejedor, Ignacio; García-Población, Oscar; Díaz-Romeral, Gonzalo


    The use of a pile of two 100 cm x 100 cm x 5 cm BC-400 organic scintillators is proposed as ground-based cosmic ray detector able to provide directional information on the incident muons. The challenge is to get in real time the muon impact point on the scintillator and its arrival direction using as few Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) as possible. The instrument is based on the dependence of attenuation of light with the traversed distance in each scintillator. For the time being, four photomultiplier tubes gather the light through the lateral faces (100 cm x 5 cm) of the scintillator. Several experiments have already been carried out. The results show how data contain information about the muon trajectory through the scintillator. This information can be extracted using the pulse heights collected by the PMTs working in coincidence mode. Reliability and accuracy of results strongly depend on the number of PMTs used and mainly on their appropriate geometrical arrangement with regard to the scintillator. In order to determine the optimal position and the minimum number of PMTs required, a Montecarlo simulation code has been developed. Preliminary experimental and simulation results are presented and the potential of the system for space weather monitoring is discussed.

  1. Robust mode space approach for atomistic modeling of realistically large nanowire transistors (United States)

    Huang, Jun Z.; Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard


    Nanoelectronic transistors have reached 3D length scales in which the number of atoms is countable. Truly atomistic device representations are needed to capture the essential functionalities of the devices. Atomistic quantum transport simulations of realistically extended devices are, however, computationally very demanding. The widely used mode space (MS) approach can significantly reduce the numerical cost, but a good MS basis is usually very hard to obtain for atomistic full-band models. In this work, a robust and parallel algorithm is developed to optimize the MS basis for atomistic nanowires. This enables engineering-level, reliable tight binding non-equilibrium Green's function simulation of nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with a realistic cross section of 10 nm × 10 nm using a small computer cluster. This approach is applied to compare the performance of InGaAs and Si nanowire n-type MOSFETs (nMOSFETs) with various channel lengths and cross sections. Simulation results with full-band accuracy indicate that InGaAs nanowire nMOSFETs have no drive current advantage over their Si counterparts for cross sections up to about 10 nm × 10 nm.

  2. Role of jet spacing and strut geometry on the formation of large scale structures and mixing characteristics (United States)

    Soni, Rahul Kumar; De, Ashoke


    The present study primarily focuses on the effect of the jet spacing and strut geometry on the evolution and structure of the large-scale vortices which play a key role in mixing characteristics in turbulent supersonic flows. Numerically simulated results corresponding to varying parameters such as strut geometry and jet spacing (Xn = nDj such that n = 2, 3, and 5) for a square jet of height Dj = 0.6 mm are presented in the current study, while the work also investigates the presence of the local quasi-two-dimensionality for the X2(2Dj) jet spacing; however, the same is not true for higher jet spacing. Further, the tapered strut (TS) section is modified into the straight strut (SS) for investigation, where the remarkable difference in flow physics is unfolded between the two configurations for similar jet spacing (X2: 2Dj). The instantaneous density and vorticity contours reveal the structures of varying scales undergoing different evolution for the different configurations. The effect of local spanwise rollers is clearly manifested in the mixing efficiency and the jet spreading rate. The SS configuration exhibits excellent near field mixing behavior amongst all the arrangements. However, in the case of TS cases, only the X2(2Dj) configuration performs better due to the presence of local spanwise rollers. The qualitative and quantitative analysis reveals that near-field mixing is strongly affected by the two-dimensional rollers, while the early onset of the wake mode is another crucial parameter to have improved mixing. Modal decomposition performed for the SS arrangement sheds light onto the spatial and temporal coherence of the structures, where the most dominant structures are found to be the von Kármán street vortices in the wake region.

  3. Reference Management Methodologies for Large Structural Models at Kennedy Space Center (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Bingham, Ryan; Schmidt, Rick


    There have been many challenges associated with modeling some of NASA KSC's largest structures. Given the size of the welded structures here at KSC, it was critically important to properly organize model struc.ture and carefully manage references. Additionally, because of the amount of hardware to be installed on these structures, it was very important to have a means to coordinate between different design teams and organizations, check for interferences, produce consistent drawings, and allow for simple release processes. Facing these challenges, the modeling team developed a unique reference management methodology and model fidelity methodology. This presentation will describe the techniques and methodologies that were developed for these projects. The attendees will learn about KSC's reference management and model fidelity methodologies for large structures. The attendees will understand the goals of these methodologies. The attendees will appreciate the advantages of developing a reference management methodology.

  4. Maximum Entropy/Optimal Projection Design Synthesis for Decentralized Control of Large Space Structures (United States)


    Ostrowski, J. Fatb. Anal. ArDl., Vol. 2, pp. 161-209, 1961.) Block-L norm matrix of K: p F1 1 LI ,p ",12 I p .. rxrLp = E + ?൝ L p 22 L p Block-norm matrix...A12 OB ... A1r B A E A 21 E A 22 B ... A2r B [A B Ar2 @B ... Art B I where: V A11 le A12 - M0AI M A h K® A F1 I A ft. O A21 22 - 2r A ri M @ r2 M rr 3...Siljak, Large-Scale Dynamic Systems. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier/North- Holand , 1978. REFERENCES [31] M. Ikeda and D. D. Siljak. "Generalized

  5. How cosmic microwave background correlations at large angles relate to mass autocorrelations in space (United States)

    Blumenthal, George R.; Johnston, Kathryn V.


    The Sachs-Wolfe effect is known to produce large angular scale fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) due to gravitational potential fluctuations. We show how the angular correlation function of the CMBR can be expressed explicitly in terms of the mass autocorrelation function xi(r) in the universe. We derive analytic expressions for the angular correlation function and its multipole moments in terms of integrals over xi(r) or its second moment, J(sub 3)(r), which does not need to satisfy the sort of integral constraint that xi(r) must. We derive similar expressions for bulk flow velocity in terms of xi and J(sub 3). One interesting result that emerges directly from this analysis is that, for all angles theta, there is a substantial contribution to the correlation function from a wide range of distance r and that radial shape of this contribution does not vary greatly with angle.

  6. Mobile work station concept for assembly of large space structures (zero gravity simulation tests) (United States)

    Heard, W. L., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Wallsom, R. E.; Jensen, J. K.


    The concept presented is intended to enhance astronaut assembly of truss structure that is either too large or complex to fold for efficient Shuttle delivery to orbit. The potential of augmented astronaut assembly is illustrated by applying the result of the tests to a barebones assembly of a truss structure. If this structure were assembled from the same nestable struts that were used in the Mobile Work Station assembly tests, the spacecraft would be 55 meters in diameter and consist of about 500 struts. The struts could be packaged in less than 1/2% of the Shuttle cargo bay volume and would take up approximately 3% of the mass lift capability. They could be assembled in approximately four hours. This assembly concept for erectable structures is not only feasible, but could be used to significant economic advantage by permitting the superior packaging feature of erectable structures to be exploited and thereby reduce expensive Shuttle delivery flights.

  7. Large-Scale Testing and High-Fidelity Simulation Capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to Support Space Power and Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobranich, Dean; Blanchat, Thomas K.


    Sandia National Laboratories, as a Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency, has major responsibility to ensure the safety and security needs of nuclear weapons. As such, with an experienced research staff, Sandia maintains a spectrum of modeling and simulation capabilities integrated with experimental and large-scale test capabilities. This expertise and these capabilities offer considerable resources for addressing issues of interest to the space power and propulsion communities. This paper presents Sandia's capability to perform thermal qualification (analysis, test, modeling and simulation) using a representative weapon system as an example demonstrating the potential to support NASA's Lunar Reactor System

  8. Large area, low cost space solar cells with optional wraparound contacts (United States)

    Michaels, D.; Mendoza, N.; Williams, R.


    Design parameters for two large area, low cost solar cells are presented, and electron irradiation testing, thermal alpha testing, and cell processing are discussed. The devices are a 2 ohm-cm base resistivity silicon cell with an evaporated aluminum reflector produced in a dielectric wraparound cell, and a 10 ohm-cm silicon cell with the BSF/BSR combination and a conventional contact system. Both cells are 5.9 x 5.9 cm and require 200 micron thick silicon material due to mission weight constraints. Normalized values for open circuit voltage, short circuit current, and maximum power calculations derived from electron radiation testing are given. In addition, thermal alpha testing values of absorptivity and emittance are included. A pilot cell processing run produced cells averaging 14.4% efficiencies at AMO 28 C. Manufacturing for such cells will be on a mechanized process line, and the area of coverslide application technology must be considered in order to achieve cost effective production.

  9. Communicating the promise, risks, and ethics of large-scale, open space microbiome and metagenome research. (United States)

    Shamarina, Daria; Stoyantcheva, Iana; Mason, Christopher E; Bibby, Kyle; Elhaik, Eran


    The public commonly associates microorganisms with pathogens. This suspicion of microorganisms is understandable, as historically microorganisms have killed more humans than any other agent while remaining largely unknown until the late seventeenth century with the works of van Leeuwenhoek and Kircher. Despite our improved understanding regarding microorganisms, the general public are apt to think of diseases rather than of the majority of harmless or beneficial species that inhabit our bodies and the built and natural environment. As long as microbiome research was confined to labs, the public's exposure to microbiology was limited. The recent launch of global microbiome surveys, such as the Earth Microbiome Project and MetaSUB (Metagenomics and Metadesign of Subways and Urban Biomes) project, has raised ethical, financial, feasibility, and sustainability concerns as to the public's level of understanding and potential reaction to the findings, which, done improperly, risk negative implications for ongoing and future investigations, but done correctly, can facilitate a new vision of "smart cities." To facilitate improved future research, we describe here the major concerns that our discussions with ethics committees, community leaders, and government officials have raised, and we expound on how to address them. We further discuss ethical considerations of microbiome surveys and provide practical recommendations for public engagement.

  10. Assembly procedure for Shot Loading Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routh, R.D.


    This supporting document describes the assembly procedure for the Shot Loading Platform. The Shot Loading Platform is used by multiple equipment removal projects to load shielding shot in the annular spaces of the equipment storage containers. The platform height is adjustable to accommodate different sizes of storage containers and transport assemblies

  11. Across Space and Time: Social Responses to Large-Scale Biophysical Systems (United States)

    Macmynowski, Dena P.


    The conceptual rubric of ecosystem management has been widely discussed and deliberated in conservation biology, environmental policy, and land/resource management. In this paper, I argue that two critical aspects of the ecosystem management concept require greater attention in policy and practice. First, although emphasis has been placed on the “space” of systems, the “time”—or rates of change—associated with biophysical and social systems has received much less consideration. Second, discussions of ecosystem management have often neglected the temporal disconnects between changes in biophysical systems and the response of social systems to management issues and challenges. The empirical basis of these points is a case study of the “Crown of the Continent Ecosystem,” an international transboundary area of the Rocky Mountains that surrounds Glacier National Park (USA) and Waterton Lakes National Park (Canada). This project assessed the experiences and perspectives of 1) middle- and upper-level government managers responsible for interjurisdictional cooperation, and 2) environmental nongovernment organizations with an international focus. I identify and describe 10 key challenges to increasing the extent and intensity of transboundary cooperation in land/resource management policy and practice. These issues are discussed in terms of their political, institutional, cultural, information-based, and perceptual elements. Analytic techniques include a combination of environmental history, semistructured interviews with 48 actors, and text analysis in a systematic qualitative framework. The central conclusion of this work is that the rates of response of human social systems must be better integrated with the rates of ecological change. This challenge is equal to or greater than the well-recognized need to adapt the spatial scale of human institutions to large-scale ecosystem processes and transboundary wildlife.

  12. The 'cube' meta-model for the information system of large health sector organizations--a (platform neutral) mapping tool to integrate information system development with changing business functions and organizational development. (United States)

    Balkányi, László


    To develop information systems (IS) in the changing environment of the health sector, a simple but throughout model, avoiding the techno-jargon of informatics, might be useful for the top management. A platform neutral, extensible, transparent conceptual model should be established. Limitations of current methods lead to a simple, but comprehensive mapping, in the form of a three-dimensional cube. The three 'orthogonal' views are (a) organization functionality, (b) organizational structures and (c) information technology. Each of the cube-sides is described according to its nature. This approach enables to define any kind of an IS component as a certain point/layer/domain of the cube and enables also the management to label all IS components independently form any supplier(s) and/or any specific platform. The model handles changes in organization structure, business functionality and the serving info-system independently form each other. Practical application extends to (a) planning complex, new ISs, (b) guiding development of multi-vendor, multi-site ISs, (c) supporting large-scale public procurement procedures and the contracting, implementation phase by establishing a platform neutral reference, (d) keeping an exhaustive inventory of an existing large-scale system, that handles non-tangible aspects of the IS.

  13. Platform computing

    CERN Multimedia


    "Platform Computing releases first grid-enabled workload management solution for IBM eServer Intel and UNIX high performance computing clusters. This Out-of-the-box solution maximizes the performance and capability of applications on IBM HPC clusters" (1/2 page) .

  14. Design and Initial Tests of the Tracker-Converter ofthe Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W.B.; Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Belli, F.; Borden, T.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cecchi, C.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; De; Drell, P.; Favuzzi, C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giannitrapani, R.; Giglietto, N.; /UC, Santa Cruz /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Trieste /INFN,


    The Tracker subsystem of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) science instrument of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission has been completed and tested. It is the central detector subsystem of the LAT and serves both to convert an incident gamma-ray into an electron-positron pair and to track the pair in order to measure the gamma-ray direction. It also provides the principal trigger for the LAT. The Tracker uses silicon strip detectors, read out by custom electronics, to detect charged particles. The detectors and electronics are packaged, along with tungsten converter foils, in 16 modular, high-precision carbon-composite structures. It is the largest silicon-strip detector system ever built for launch into space, and its aggressive design emphasizes very low power consumption, passive cooling, low noise, high efficiency, minimal dead area, and a structure that is highly transparent to charged particles. The test program has demonstrated that the system meets or surpasses all of its performance specifications as well as environmental requirements. It is now installed in the completed LAT, which is being prepared for launch in early 2008.

  15. Large-Scale Urban Projects, Production of Space and Neo-liberal Hegemony: A Comparative Study of Izmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available With the rise of neo-liberalism, large-scale urban projects (LDPs have become a powerful mechanism of urban policy. Creating spaces of neo-liberal urbanization such as central business districts, tourism centers, gated residences and shopping malls, LDPs play a role not only in the reproduction of capital accumulation relations but also in the shift of urban political priorities towards the construction of neo-liberal hegemony. The construction of neo-liberal hegemony and the role played by LDPs in this process could not only be investigated by the analysis of capital accumulation. For such an investigation; the role of state and civil society actors in LDPs, their collaborative and conflictual relationships should be researched and their functions in hegemony should be revealed. In the case of Izmir’s two LDPs, namely the New City Center (NCC and Inciraltı Tourism Center (ITC projects, this study analyzes the relationship between the production of space and neo-liberal hegemony. In the NCC project, local governments, investors, local capital organizations and professional chambers collaborated and disseminated hegemonic discourse, which provided social support for the project. Through these relationships and discourses, the NCC project has become a hegemonic project for producing space and constructed neo-liberal hegemony over urban political priorities. In contrast to the NCC project, the ITC project saw no collaboration between state and organized civil society actors. The social opposition against the ITC project, initiated by professional chambers, has brought legal action against the ITC development plans in order to prevent their implementation. As a result, the ITC project did not acquire the consent of organized social groups and failed to become a hegemonic project for producing space.

  16. BrahmVE platform for design and test of Large Scale Multi-agent Human-centric Mission Concepts, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I proposal seeks support to extend the BrahmsVE architecture to support a multi-agent human-centric simulation of a hypothetical future ISS which is...

  17. HPC - Platforms Penta Chart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, Angelina Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Strategy, Planning, Acquiring- very large scale computing platforms come and go and planning for immensely scalable machines often precedes actual procurement by 3 years. Procurement can be another year or more. Integration- After Acquisition, machines must be integrated into the computing environments at LANL. Connection to scalable storage via large scale storage networking, assuring correct and secure operations. Management and Utilization – Ongoing operations, maintenance, and trouble shooting of the hardware and systems software at massive scale is required.

  18. [Orange Platform]. (United States)

    Toba, Kenji


    The Organized Registration for the Assessment of dementia on Nationwide General consortium toward Effective treatment in Japan (ORANGE platform) is a recently established nationwide clinical registry for dementia. This platform consists of multiple registries of patients with dementia stratified by the following clinical stages: preclinical, mild cognitive impairment, early-stage, and advanced-stage dementia. Patients will be examined in a super-longitudinal fashion, and their lifestyle, social background, genetic risk factors, and required care process will be assessed. This project is also notable because the care registry includes information on the successful, comprehensive management of patients with dementia. Therefore, this multicenter prospective cohort study will contribute participants to all clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease as well as improve the understanding of individuals with dementia.

  19. Cloud Based Earth Observation Data Exploitation Platforms (United States)

    Romeo, A.; Pinto, S.; Loekken, S.; Marin, A.


    In the last few years data produced daily by several private and public Earth Observation (EO) satellites reached the order of tens of Terabytes, representing for scientists and commercial application developers both a big opportunity for their exploitation and a challenge for their management. New IT technologies, such as Big Data and cloud computing, enable the creation of web-accessible data exploitation platforms, which offer to scientists and application developers the means to access and use EO data in a quick and cost effective way. RHEA Group is particularly active in this sector, supporting the European Space Agency (ESA) in the Exploitation Platforms (EP) initiative, developing technology to build multi cloud platforms for the processing and analysis of Earth Observation data, and collaborating with larger European initiatives such as the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) and the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). An EP is a virtual workspace, providing a user community with access to (i) large volume of data, (ii) algorithm development and integration environment, (iii) processing software and services (e.g. toolboxes, visualization routines), (iv) computing resources, (v) collaboration tools (e.g. forums, wiki, etc.). When an EP is dedicated to a specific Theme, it becomes a Thematic Exploitation Platform (TEP). Currently, ESA has seven TEPs in a pre-operational phase dedicated to geo-hazards monitoring and prevention, costal zones, forestry areas, hydrology, polar regions, urban areas and food security. On the technology development side, solutions like the multi cloud EO data processing platform provides the technology to integrate ICT resources and EO data from different vendors in a single platform. In particular it offers (i) Multi-cloud data discovery, (ii) Multi-cloud data management and access and (iii) Multi-cloud application deployment. This platform has been demonstrated with the EGI Federated Cloud, Innovation Platform Testbed Poland

  20. PROBA-V Mission Exploitation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Goor


    Full Text Available As an extension of the PROBA-Vegetation (PROBA-V user segment, the European Space Agency (ESA, de Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO, and partners TRASYS and Spacebel developed an operational Mission Exploitation Platform (MEP to drastically improve the exploitation of the PROBA-V Earth Observation (EO data archive, the archive from the historical SPOT-VEGETATION mission, and derived products by researchers, service providers, and thematic users. The analysis of the time series of data (petabyte range is addressed, as well as the large scale on-demand processing of the complete archive, including near real-time data. The platform consists of a private cloud environment, a Hadoop-based processing environment and a data manager. Several applications are released to the users, e.g., a full resolution viewing service, a time series viewer, pre-defined on-demand processing chains, and virtual machines with powerful tools and access to the data. After an initial release in January 2016 a research platform was deployed gradually, allowing users to design, debug, and test applications on the platform. From the PROBA-V MEP, access to, e.g., Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 data will be addressed as well.

  1. Development of a Large-Format Science-Grade CMOS Active Pixel Sensor, for Extreme Ultra Violet Spectroscopy and Imaging in Space Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltham, N. R; Prydderch, M; Mapson-Menard, H; Morrissey, Q; Turchetta, R; Pool, P; Harris, A


    We describe our programme to develop a large-format science-grade CMOS active pixel sensor for future space science missions, and in particular an extreme ultra-violet spectrograph for solar physics...

  2. Assessment of current state of the art in modeling techniques and analysis methods for large space structures (United States)

    Noor, A. K.


    Advances in continuum modeling, progress in reduction methods, and analysis and modeling needs for large space structures are covered with specific attention given to repetitive lattice trusses. As far as continuum modeling is concerned, an effective and verified analysis capability exists for linear thermoelastic stress, birfurcation buckling, and free vibration problems of repetitive lattices. However, application of continuum modeling to nonlinear analysis needs more development. Reduction methods are very effective for bifurcation buckling and static (steady-state) nonlinear analysis. However, more work is needed to realize their full potential for nonlinear dynamic and time-dependent problems. As far as analysis and modeling needs are concerned, three areas are identified: loads determination, modeling and nonclassical behavior characteristics, and computational algorithms. The impact of new advances in computer hardware, software, integrated analysis, CAD/CAM stems, and materials technology is also discussed.

  3. Development of an industrialized space-frame system for the support of medium to large solar collector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A low-cost industrialized space-frame system suitable for the economical support of medium to large solar collector arrays was designed following a study of building types, collector interface conditions, structural design requirements, and market and procurement factors. The system consists of a series of welded truss modular sections which may be bolted together in the field to create a support structure with a span capability up to 25 m, thus minimizing expensive structural beams and roof penetrations. Collectors can be readily attached to top and bottom channels. The system meets all current government specifications for collector support. A full-size prototype was built to prove the concept and identify any fabrication and on-site assembly problems. Collectors were attached to test collector interface conditions, and a manufacturing strategy developed. 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Large aperture telescope technology: a design for an active lightweight multi-segmented fold-out space mirror (United States)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Whalley, M.; Edeson, R.; Edeson, R.; Tosh, I.; Poyntz-Wright, O.; Atad-Ettedgui, E.; Montgomery, D.; Nawasra, J.


    Large aperture telescope technology (LATT) is a design study for a differential lidar (DIAL) system; the main investigation being into suitable methods, technologies and materials for a 4-metre diameter active mirror that can be stowed to fit into a typical launch vehicle (e.g. ROKOT launcher with 2.1-metre diameter cargo) and can self-deploy - in terms of both leaving the space vehicle and that the mirrors unfold and self-align to the correct optical form within the tolerances specified. The primary mirror requirements are: main wavelength of 935.5 nm, RMS corrected wavefront error of λ/6, optical surface roughness better than 5 nm, areal density of less than 16 kg/m2 and 1-2 mirror shape corrections per orbit. The primary mirror consists of 7 segments - a central hexagonal mirror and 6 square mirror petals which unfold to form the 4-meter diameter aperture. The focus of the UK LATT consortium for this European Space Agency (ESA) funded project is on using lightweighted aluminium or carbon-fibre-composite materials for the mirror substrate in preference to more traditional materials such as glass and ceramics; these materials have a high strength and stiffness to weight ratio, significantly reducing risk of damage due to launch forces and subsequent deployment in orbit. We present an overview of the design, which includes suitable actuators for wavefront correction, petal deployment mechanisms and lightweight mirror technologies. Preliminary testing results from manufactured lightweight mirror samples will also be summarised.

  5. GESE: a small UV space telescope to conduct a large spectroscopic survey of z˜1 Galaxies (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Kruk, Jeffrey; Purves, Lloyd


    One of the key goals of NASA's astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spirals and elliptical galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to address this question by making a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z˜1 (look-back time of ˜8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-m space telescope with an ultraviolet (UV) multi-object slit spectrograph that can obtain spectra of hundreds of galaxies per exposure. The spectrograph covers the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 μm at a spectral resolving power, R˜500. This observed spectral range corresponds to 0.1-0.2 μm as emitted by a galaxy at a redshift, z=1. The mission concept takes advantage of two new technological advances: (1) light-weighted, wide-field telescope mirrors, and (2) the Next-Generation MicroShutter Array (NG-MSA) to be used as a slit generator in the multi-object slit spectrograph.

  6. Distributed Model Predictive Control over Multiple Groups of Vehicles in Highway Intelligent Space for Large Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiaofeng


    Full Text Available The paper presents the three time warning distances for solving the large scale system of multiple groups of vehicles safety driving characteristics towards highway tunnel environment based on distributed model prediction control approach. Generally speaking, the system includes two parts. First, multiple vehicles are divided into multiple groups. Meanwhile, the distributed model predictive control approach is proposed to calculate the information framework of each group. Each group of optimization performance considers the local optimization and the neighboring subgroup of optimization characteristics, which could ensure the global optimization performance. Second, the three time warning distances are studied based on the basic principles used for highway intelligent space (HIS and the information framework concept is proposed according to the multiple groups of vehicles. The math model is built to avoid the chain avoidance of vehicles. The results demonstrate that the proposed highway intelligent space method could effectively ensure driving safety of multiple groups of vehicles under the environment of fog, rain, or snow.

  7. Performing a Large-Scale Modal Test on the B2 Stand Crane at NASA's Stennis Space Center (United States)

    Stasiunas, Eric C.; Parks, Russel A.; Sontag, Brendan D.


    A modal test of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Core Stage is scheduled to occur at the Stennis Space Center B2 test stand. A derrick crane with a 150-ft long boom, located at the top of the stand, will be used to suspend the Core Stage in order to achieve defined boundary conditions. During this suspended modal test, it is expected that dynamic coupling will occur between the crane and the Core Stage. Therefore, a separate modal test was performed on the B2 crane itself, in order to evaluate the varying dynamic characteristics and correlate math models of the crane. Performing a modal test on such a massive structure was challenging and required creative test setup and procedures, including implementing both AC and DC accelerometers, and performing both classical hammer and operational modal analysis. This paper describes the logistics required to perform this large-scale test, as well as details of the test setup, the modal test methods used, and an overview and application of the results.

  8. The ESA Geohazard Exploitation Platform (United States)

    Bally, Philippe; Laur, Henri; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Pinto, Salvatore


    expanded to address broader objectives of the geohazards community. In particular it is a contribution to the CEOS WG Disasters and its Seismic Hazards Pilot and terrain deformation applications of its Volcano Pilot. The geohazards platform is sourced with elements - data, tools, and processing- relevant to the geohazards theme and related exploitation scenarios. For example, platform provides access to large SAR data collections and services to support SAR Interferometry (InSAR), in particular the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) techniques, to provide precise terrain deformation. The GEP includes data coming from the ENVISAT ASAR and ERS archives, already hosted in the ESA clusters and in ESA's Virtual Archive and further extended to cover the requirements of the CEOS Pilot on Seismic Hazards. The GEP is gradually accessing Sentinel-1A data alongside with EO data from other space agencies with an interest in the geohazard exploitation platform. Further to this, the platform is intended to be available in the framework of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) initiative, in order to help its users exploit EO data to support solid Earth monitoring and geophysical and geological analysis.

  9. Development activities on NIR large format MCT detectors for astrophysics and space science at CEA and SOFRADIR (United States)

    Boulade, Olivier; Moreau, Vincent; Mulet, Patrick; Gravrand, Olivier; Cervera, Cyril; Zanatta, Jean-Paul; Castelein, Pierre; Guellec, Fabrice; Fièque, Bruno; Chorier, Philippe; Roumegoux, Julien


    CEA and SOFRADIR have been manufacturing and characterizing near infrared detectors in the frame of ESA's near infrared large format sensor array roadmap to develop a 2Kx2K large format low flux low noise device for space applications such as astrophysics. These detectors use HgCdTe as the absorbing material and p/n diode technology. The technological developments (photovoltaic technology, readout circuit, ...) are shared between CEA/LETI and SOFRADIR, both in Grenoble, while most of the performances are evaluated at CEA/IRFU in Saclay where a dedicated test facility has been developed, in particular to measure very low dark currents. The paper will present the current status of these developments at the end of ESA's NIRLFSA phase 2. The performances of the latest batch of devices meet or are very close to all the requirements (quantum efficiency, dark current, cross talk, readout noise, ...) even though a glow induced by the ROIC prevents the accurate measurement of the dark current. The current devices are fairly small, 640x512 15μm pixels, and the next phase of activity will target the development of a full size 2Kx2K detector. From the design and development, to the manufacturing and finally the testing, that type of detector requests a high level of mastering. An appropriate manufacturing and process chain compatible with such a size is needed at industrial level and results obtained with CEA technology coupled with Sofradir industrial experience and work on large dimension detector allow French actors to be confident to address this type of future missions.

  10. Microgravity Platforms (United States)

    Del Basso, Steve


    The world's space agencies have been conducting microgravity research since the beginning of space flight. Initially driven by the need to understand the impact of less than- earth gravity physics on manned space flight, microgravity research has evolved into a broad class of scientific experimentation that utilizes extreme low acceleration environments. The U.S. NASA microgravity research program supports both basic and applied research in five key areas: biotechnology - focusing on macro-molecular crystal growth as well as the use of the unique space environment to assemble and grow mammalian tissue; combustion science - focusing on the process of ignition, flame propagation, and extinction of gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels; fluid physics - including aspects of fluid dynamics and transport phenomena; fundamental physics - including the study of critical phenomena, low-temperature, atomic, and gravitational physics; and materials science - including electronic and photonic materials, glasses and ceramics, polymers, and metals and alloys. Similar activities prevail within the Chinese, European, Japanese, and Russian agencies with participation from additional international organizations as well. While scientific research remains the principal objective behind these program, all hope to drive toward commercialization to sustain a long range infrastructure which .benefits the national technology and economy. In the 1997 International Space Station Commercialization Study, conducted by the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, some viable microgravity commercial ventures were identified, however, none appeared sufficiently robust to privately fund space access at that time. Thus, government funded micro gravity research continues on an evolutionary path with revolutionary potential.

  11. Non-orthogonal internally contracted multi-configurational perturbation theory (NICPT): Dynamic electron correlation for large, compact active spaces (United States)

    Kähler, Sven; Olsen, Jeppe


    A computational method is presented for systems that require high-level treatments of static and dynamic electron correlation but cannot be treated using conventional complete active space self-consistent field-based methods due to the required size of the active space. Our method introduces an efficient algorithm for perturbative dynamic correlation corrections for compact non-orthogonal MCSCF calculations. In the algorithm, biorthonormal expansions of orbitals and CI-wave functions are used to reduce the scaling of the performance determining step from quadratic to linear in the number of configurations. We describe a hierarchy of configuration spaces that can be chosen for the active space. Potential curves for the nitrogen molecule and the chromium dimer are compared for different configuration spaces. Already the most compact spaces yield qualitatively correct potentials that with increasing size of configuration spaces systematically approach complete active space results.

  12. Software Development Process Improvement in Datacom Platform


    Trabelsi, Walid


    Masteroppgave i Informasjons- og Kommunikasjonsteknologi 2008, Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad Ericsson Mobile Platform (EMP) is responsible of the development of a software platform and also to some extend responsible for related hardware parts. EMP is developing the data communication parts of the platform which is used by EMP customers. The platform development is done in large development programs and each program span over a quite a long time period. However, as we see eve...

  13. Sub-surface laser nanostructuring in stratified metal/dielectric media: a versatile platform towards flexible, durable and large-scale plasmonic writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siozios, A; Bellas, D V; Lidorikis, E; Patsalas, P; Kalfagiannis, N; Cranton, W M; Koutsogeorgis, D C; Bazioti, C; Dimitrakopulos, G P; Vourlias, G


    Laser nanostructuring of pure ultrathin metal layers or ceramic/metal composite thin films has emerged as a promising route for the fabrication of plasmonic patterns with applications in information storage, cryptography, and security tagging. However, the environmental sensitivity of pure Ag layers and the complexity of ceramic/metal composite film growth hinder the implementation of this technology to large-scale production, as well as its combination with flexible substrates. In the present work we investigate an alternative pathway, namely, starting from non-plasmonic multilayer metal/dielectric layers, whose growth is compatible with large scale production such as in-line sputtering and roll-to-roll deposition, which are then transformed into plasmonic templates by single-shot UV-laser annealing (LA). This entirely cold, large-scale process leads to a subsurface nanoconstruction involving plasmonic Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a hard and inert dielectric matrix on top of both rigid and flexible substrates. The subsurface encapsulation of Ag NPs provides durability and long-term stability, while the cold character of LA suits the use of sensitive flexible substrates. The morphology of the final composite film depends primarily on the nanocrystalline character of the dielectric host and its thermal conductivity. We demonstrate the emergence of a localized surface plasmon resonance, and its tunability depending on the applied fluence and environmental pressure. The results are well explained by theoretical photothermal modeling. Overall, our findings qualify the proposed process as an excellent candidate for versatile, large-scale optical encoding applications. (paper)

  14. A Large-Scale Study of Surrogate Physicality and Gesturing on Human–Surrogate Interactions in a Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangsoo Kim


    Full Text Available Technological human surrogates, including robotic and virtual humans, have been popularly used in various scenarios, including training, education, and entertainment. Prior research has investigated the effects of the surrogate’s physicality and gesturing in human perceptions and social influence of the surrogate. However, those studies have been carried out in research laboratories, where the participants were aware that it was an experiment, and the participant demographics are typically relatively narrow—e.g., college students. In this paper, we describe and share results from a large-scale exploratory user study involving 7,685 people in a public space, where they were unaware of the experimental nature of the setting, to investigate the effects of surrogate physicality and gesturing on their behavior during human–surrogate interactions. We evaluate human behaviors using several variables, such as proactivity and reactivity, and proximity. We have identified several interesting phenomena that could lead to hypotheses developed as part of future hypothesis-based studies. Based on the measurements of the variables, we believe people are more likely to be engaged in a human–surrogate interaction when the surrogate is physically present, but movements and gesturing with its body parts have not shown the expected benefits for the interaction engagement. Regarding the demographics of the people in the study, we found higher overall engagement for females than males, and higher reactivity for younger than older people. We discuss implications for practitioners aiming to design a technological surrogate that will directly interact with real humans.

  15. Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Navigation with the Help of A⁎-Based Routing Graphs in Large Unconstrained Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taia Alaoui


    Full Text Available An A⁎-based routing graph is proposed to assist PDR indoor and outdoor navigation with handheld devices. Measurements are provided by inertial and magnetic sensors together with a GNSS receiver. The novelty of this work lies in providing a realistic motion support that mitigates the absence of obstacles and enables the calibration of the PDR model even in large spaces where GNSS signal is unavailable. This motion support is exploited for both predicting positions and updating them using a particle filter. The navigation network is used to correct for the gyro drift, to adjust the step length model and to assess heading misalignment between the pedestrian’s walking direction and the pointing direction of the handheld device. Several datasets have been tested and results show that the proposed model ensures a seamless transition between outdoor and indoor environments and improves the positioning accuracy. The drift is almost cancelled thanks to heading correction in contrast with a drift of 8% for the nonaided PDR approach. The mean error of filtered positions ranges from 3 to 5 m.

  16. Integration of heterogeneous data bases for development of a large-scale environmental data atlas for multi-platform PC and workstation users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnaham, P.J.; Cowen, D.J.; Jensen, J.R.; Ehler, G.B.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.


    Environmental monitoring and restoration at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) requires efficient access to large amounts of diverse spatial data. In order to handle this task the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) created an environmental data atlas that would use spatial keys to link all data sources to a common data base. These data include extensive information relating to both environmental and man-made features. The data were available in a multitude of different data structures, coordinate systems and formats. The final database also included multimedia information such as airborne multispectral scanner data, aircraft video, photography, bibliographic data, and scanned map bases. It was important that all of the data be readily accessible on the desktop of scientists regardless of the type of computer system they used. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of this extensive digital environmental data atlas

  17. High Efficiency Traveling-Wave Tube Power Amplifier for Ka-Band Software Defined Radio on International Space Station-A Platform for Communications Technology Development (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Force, Dale A.; Kacpura, Thomas J.


    The design, fabrication and RF performance of the output traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for a space based Ka-band software defined radio (SDR) is presented. The TWTA, the SDR and the supporting avionics are integrated to forms a testbed, which is currently located on an exterior truss of the International Space Station (ISS). The SDR in the testbed communicates at Ka-band frequencies through a high-gain antenna directed to NASA s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which communicates to the ground station located at White Sands Complex. The application of the testbed is for demonstrating new waveforms and software designed to enhance data delivery from scientific spacecraft and, the waveforms and software can be upgraded and reconfigured from the ground. The construction and the salient features of the Ka-band SDR are discussed. The testbed is currently undergoing on-orbit checkout and commissioning and is expected to operate for 3 to 5 years in space.

  18. Mobile Launch Platform Vehicle Assembly Building Area (SWMU 056) Hot Spot 3 Bioremediation Interim Measures Work Plan, Kennedy Space Center, Florida (United States)

    Whitney L. Morrison; Daprato, Rebecca C.


    This Interim Measures Work Plan (IMWP) presents an approach and design for the remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) groundwater impacts using bioremediation (biostimulation and bioaugmentation) in Hot Spot 3, which is defined by the area where CVOC (trichloroethene [TCE], cis-1,2-dichloroethene [cDCE], and vinyl chloride [VC]) concentrations are greater than 10 times their respective Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Natural Attenuation Default Concentration (NADC) [10xNADC] near the western Mobile Launch Platform (MLP) structure. The IM treatment area is the Hot Spot 3 area, which is approximately 0.07 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 22 and 41 to 55 feet below land surface (ft BLS). Within Hot Spot 3, a source zone (SZ; area with TCE concentrations greater than 1% solubility [11,000 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L)]) was delineated and is approximately 0.02 acres and extends from approximately 6 to 16 and 41 to 50 ft BLS.

  19. Stratospheric Platforms for Monitoring Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konigorski, D.; Gratzel, U.; Obersteiner, M.; Schneidereit, M.


    Stratospheric platforms are emerging systems based on challenging technology. Goal is to create a platform, payload, and mission design which is able to complement satellite services on a local scale. Applications are close to traditional satellite business in telecommunication, navigation, science, and earth observation and include for example mobile telecommunications, navigation augmentation, atmospheric research, or border control. Stratospheric platforms could potentially support monitoring activities related to safeguards, e.g. by imagery of surfaces, operational conditions of nuclear facilities, and search for undeclared nuclear activities. Stratospheric platforms are intended to be flown in an altitude band between 16 and 30 km, above 16-20 km to take advantage of usually lower winds facilitating station keeping, below 30 km to limit the challenges to achieve a reasonable payload at acceptable platform sizes. Stratospheric platforms could substitute satellites which are expensive and lack upgrade capabilities for new equipment. Furthermore they have practically an unlimited time over an area of interest. It is intended to keep the platforms operational and maintenance free on a 24/7 basis with an average deployment time of 3 years. Geostationary satellites lack resolution. Potential customers like Armed Forces, National Agencies and commercial customers have indicated interest in the use of stratospheric platforms. Governmental entities are looking for cheaper alternatives to communications and surveillance satellites and stratospheric platforms could offer the following potential advantages: Lower operational cost than satellite or UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) constellation (fleet required); Faster deployment than satellite constellation; Repositioning capability and ability to loiter as required; Persistent long-term real-time services over a fairly large regional spot; Surge capability: Able to extend capability (either monitoring or communications

  20. Earth observation from the manned low Earth orbit platforms (United States)

    Guo, Huadong; Dou, Changyong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Han, Chunming; Yue, Xijuan


    The manned low Earth orbit platforms (MLEOPs), e.g., the U.S. and Russia's human space vehicles, the International Space Station (ISS) and Chinese Tiangong-1 experimental space laboratory not only provide laboratories for scientific experiments in a wide range of disciplines, but also serve as exceptional platforms for remote observation of the Earth, astronomical objects and space environment. As the early orbiting platforms, the MLEOPs provide humans with revolutionary accessibility to the regions on Earth never seen before. Earth observation from MLEOPs began in early 1960s, as a part of manned space flight programs, and will continue with the ISS and upcoming Chinese Space Station. Through a series of flight missions, various and a large amount of Earth observing datasets have been acquired using handheld cameras by crewmembers as well as automated sophisticated sensors onboard these space vehicles. Utilizing these datasets many researches have been conducted, demonstrating the importance and uniqueness of studying Earth from a vantage point of MLEOPs. For example, the first, near-global scale digital elevation model (DEM) was developed from data obtained during the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM). This review intends to provide an overview of Earth observations from MLEOPs and present applications conducted by the datasets collected by these missions. As the ISS is the most typical representative of MLEOPs, an introduction to it, including orbital characteristics, payload accommodations, and current and proposed sensors, is emphasized. The advantages and challenges of Earth observation from MLEOPs, using the ISS as an example, is also addressed. At last, a conclusive note is drawn.

  1. Malaria diagnosis from pooled blood samples: comparative analysis of real-time PCR, nested PCR and immunoassay as a platform for the molecular and serological diagnosis of malaria on a large-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle FMC Lima


    Full Text Available Malaria diagnoses has traditionally been made using thick blood smears, but more sensitive and faster techniques are required to process large numbers of samples in clinical and epidemiological studies and in blood donor screening. Here, we evaluated molecular and serological tools to build a screening platform for pooled samples aimed at reducing both the time and the cost of these diagnoses. Positive and negative samples were analysed in individual and pooled experiments using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, nested PCR and an immunochromatographic test. For the individual tests, 46/49 samples were positive by real-time PCR, 46/49 were positive by nested PCR and 32/46 were positive by immunochromatographic test. For the assays performed using pooled samples, 13/15 samples were positive by real-time PCR and nested PCR and 11/15 were positive by immunochromatographic test. These molecular methods demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for both the individual and pooled samples. Due to the advantages of the real-time PCR, such as the fast processing and the closed system, this method should be indicated as the first choice for use in large-scale diagnosis and the nested PCR should be used for species differentiation. However, additional field isolates should be tested to confirm the results achieved using cultured parasites and the serological test should only be adopted as a complementary method for malaria diagnosis.

  2. Variable Step Closed Loop Power Control with Space Diversity for Low Elevation Angle High Altitude Platforms Communication Channel [Langkah Variabel Kontrol Daya Loop Tertutup dengan Keragaman Ruang untuk Sudut Elevasi Rendah pada Kanal Komunikasi HAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Iskandar


    Full Text Available This paper proposes variable step closed loop power control algorithm combined with space diversity to improve the performance of High Altitude Platforms (HAPs communication at low elevation angle using Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA. In this contribution, we first develop HAPs channel model which is derived from experimental measurement. From our experiment, we found HAPs channel characteristic can be modeled as a Ricean distribution because the presence of line of sight path. Different elevation angle resulting different K factor value.  This value is then used in Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR based closed loop power control evaluation. The variable step algorithm is simulated under various elevation angles with different speed of mobile user. The performance is presented in terms of user elevation angle, user speed, step size and space diversity order. We found that the performance of variable step closed-loop power control less effective at low elevation angle. However our simulation shows that space diversity is able to improve the performance of closed loop power control for HAPs channel at low elevation angle.*****Kajian ini mengusulkan suatu algoritma kontrol daya langkah variabel loop tertutup dikombinasikan dengan keragaman ruang untuk meningkatkan kinerja komunikasi High Altitude Platforms(HAPs pada sudut elevasi rendah menggunakan Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA. Kami berkontribusi untuk mengembangkan model kanal HAPs yang berasal dari pengukuran eksperimental sebelumnya. Dari percobaan tersebut, kami menemukan karakteristik kanal HAPs yang dapat dimodelkan sebagai distribusi Ricean karena kehadiran jalur tanpa penghalang. Eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan sudut elevasi menghasilkan perbedaan nilai factor K. Nilai ini kemudian digunakan dalam Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR berbasiskan evaluasi kontrol daya loop tertutup. Algoritma langkah variabel disimulasikan dibawah sudut elevasi yang berbeda dengan kecepatan

  3. Neutrinoless double-β decay matrix elements in large shell-model spaces with the generator-coordinate method (United States)

    Jiao, C. F.; Engel, J.; Holt, J. D.


    We use the generator-coordinate method (GCM) with realistic shell-model interactions to closely approximate full shell-model calculations of the matrix elements for the neutrinoless double-β decay of 48Ca, 76Ge, and 82Se. We work in one major shell for the first isotope, in the f5 /2p g9 /2 space for the second and third, and finally in two major shells for all three. Our coordinates include not only the usual axial deformation parameter β , but also the triaxiality angle γ and neutron-proton pairing amplitudes. In the smaller model spaces our matrix elements agree well with those of full shell-model diagonalization, suggesting that our Hamiltonian-based GCM captures most of the important valence-space correlations. In two major shells, where exact diagonalization is not currently possible, our matrix elements are only slightly different from those in a single shell.

  4. Fluid Lensing, Applications to High-Resolution 3D Subaqueous Imaging & Automated Remote Biosphere Assessment from Airborne and Space-borne Platforms (United States)

    Chirayath, V.


    Fluid Lensing is a theoretical model and algorithm I present for fluid-optical interactions in turbulent flows as well as two-fluid surface boundaries that, when coupled with an unique computer vision and image-processing pipeline, may be used to significantly enhance the angular resolution of a remote sensing optical system with applicability to high-resolution 3D imaging of subaqueous regions and through turbulent fluid flows. This novel remote sensing technology has recently been implemented on a quadcopter-based UAS for imaging shallow benthic systems to create the first dataset of a biosphere with unprecedented sub-cm-level imagery in 3D over areas as large as 15 square kilometers. Perturbed two-fluid boundaries with different refractive indices, such as the surface between the ocean and air, may be exploited for use as lensing elements for imaging targets on either side of the interface with enhanced angular resolution. I present theoretical developments behind Fluid Lensing and experimental results from its recent implementation for the Reactive Reefs project to image shallow reef ecosystems at cm scales. Preliminary results from petabyte-scale aerial survey efforts using Fluid Lensing to image at-risk coral reefs in American Samoa (August, 2013) show broad applicability to large-scale automated species identification, morphology studies and reef ecosystem characterization for shallow marine environments and terrestrial biospheres, of crucial importance to understanding climate change's impact on coastal zones, global oxygen production and carbon sequestration.

  5. An optimum organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary space base. Ph.D. Thesis - Fla. State Univ., 1973 (United States)

    Ragusa, J. M.


    An optimum hypothetical organizational structure was studied for a large earth-orbiting, multidisciplinary research and applications space base manned by a crew of technologists. Because such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than with the empirical testing of the model. The essential finding of this research was that a four-level project type total matrix model will optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of space base technologists.

  6. Enhancement of phase space density by increasing trap anisotropy in a magneto-optical trap with a large number of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengalattore, M.; Conroy, R.S.; Prentiss, M.G.


    The phase space density of dense, cylindrical clouds of atoms in a 2D magneto-optic trap is investigated. For a large number of trapped atoms (>10 8 ), the density of a spherical cloud is limited by photon reabsorption. However, as the atom cloud is deformed to reduce the radial optical density, the temperature of the atoms decreases due to the suppression of multiple scattering leading to an increase in the phase space density. A density of 2x10 -4 has been achieved in a magneto-optic trap containing 2x10 8 atoms

  7. Small on the Left, Large on the Right: Numbers Orient Visual Attention onto Space in Preverbal Infants (United States)

    Bulf, Hermann; de Hevia, Maria Dolores; Macchi Cassia, Viola


    Numbers are represented as ordered magnitudes along a spatially oriented number line. While culture and formal education modulate the direction of this number-space mapping, it is a matter of debate whether its emergence is entirely driven by cultural experience. By registering 8-9-month-old infants' eye movements, this study shows that numerical…

  8. Large-scale parallel configuration interaction. I. Nonrelativisticand scalar-relativistic general active space implementationwith application to (Rb-Ba)+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Fleig, Timo


    We present a parallel implementation of a string-driven general active space configuration interaction program for nonrelativistic and scalar-relativistic electronic-structure calculations. The code has been modularly incorporated in the DIRAC quantum chemistry program package. The implementation...

  9. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities (United States)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.


    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  10. Packaging a successful NASA mission to reach a large audience within a small budget. Earth's Dynamic Space: Solar-Terrestrial Physics & NASA's Polar Mission (United States)

    Fox, N. J.; Goldberg, R.; Barnes, R. J.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Beisser, K. B.; Moore, T. E.; Hoffman, R. A.; Russell, C. T.; Scudder, J.; Spann, J. F.; Newell, P. T.; Hobson, L. J.; Gribben, S. P.; Obrien, J. E.; Menietti, J. D.; Germany, G. G.; Mobilia, J.; Schulz, M.


    To showcase the on-going and wide-ranging scope of the Polar science discoveries, the Polar science team has created a one-stop shop for a thorough introduction to geospace physics, in the form of a DVD with supporting website. The DVD, Earth's Dynamic Space: Solar-Terrestrial Physics & NASA's Polar Mission, can be viewed as an end-to-end product or split into individual segments and tailored to lesson plans. Capitalizing on the Polar mission and its amazing science return, the Polar team created an exciting multi-use DVD intended for audiences ranging from a traditional classroom and after school clubs, to museums and science centers. The DVD tackles subjects such as the aurora, the magnetosphere and space weather, whilst highlighting the science discoveries of the Polar mission. This platform introduces the learner to key team members as well as the science principles. Dramatic visualizations are used to illustrate the complex principles that describe Earth’s dynamic space. In order to produce such a wide-ranging product on a shoe-string budget, the team poured through existing NASA resources to package them into the Polar story, and visualizations were created using Polar data to complement the NASA stock footage. Scientists donated their time to create and review scripts in order to make this a real team effort, working closely with the award winning audio-visual group at JHU/Applied Physics Laboratory. The team was excited to be invited to join NASA’s Sun-Earth Day 2005 E/PO program and the DVD will be distributed as part of the supporting educational packages.

  11. A review of the findings of the plasma diagnostic package and associated laboratory experiments: Implications of large body/plasma interactions for future space technology (United States)

    Murphy, Gerald B.; Lonngren, Karl E.


    The discoveries and experiments of the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP) on the OSS 1 and Spacelab 2 missions are reviewed, these results are compared with those of other space and laboratory experiments, and the implications for the understanding of large body interactions in a low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma environment are discussed. First a brief review of the PDP investigation, its instrumentation and experiments is presented. Next a summary of PDP results along with a comparison of those results with similar space or laboratory experiments is given. Last of all the implications of these results in terms of understanding fundamental physical processes that take place with large bodies in LEO is discussed and experiments to deal with these vital questions are suggested.

  12. Gamma Large Area Silicon Telescope (GLAST): Applying silicon strip detector technology to the detection of gamma rays in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, W.B.


    The recent discoveries and excitement generated by space satellite experiment EGRET (presently operating on Compton Gamma Ray Observatory -- CGRO) have prompted an investigation into modern detector technologies for the next generation space based gamma ray telescopes. The GLAST proposal is based on silicon strip detectors as the open-quotes technology of choiceclose quotes for space application: no consumables, no gas volume, robust (versus fragile), long lived, and self triggerable. The GLAST detector basically has two components: a tracking module preceding a calorimeter. The tracking module has planes of crossed strip (x,y) 300 μm pitch silicon detectors coupled to a thin radiator to measure the coordinates of converted electron-positron pairs. The gap between the layers (∼5 cm) provides a lever arm for track fitting resulting in an angular resolution of <0.1 degree at high energy. The status of this R ampersand D effort is discussed including details on triggering the instrument, the organization of the detector electronics and readout, and work on computer simulations to model this instrument

  13. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models. (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele


    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Overview and Recent Accomplishments of the Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescopes Project (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip


    Per Astro2010, a new, larger UVO telescope is needed to answer fundamental scientific questions, such as: is there life on Earth-like exoplanets; how galaxies assemble stellar populations; how baryonic matter interacts with intergalactic medium; and how solar systems form and evolve. And, present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVO concept. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a funded SAT project. Our objective is to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. We have assembled an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes. One of our key accomplishments is that we have derived engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicle and its inherent mass and volume constraints. We defined and initiated a program to mature 6 key technologies required to fabricate monolithic and segmented space mirrors.

  15. Habitat quality influences population distribution, individual space use and functional responses in habitat selection by a large herbivore. (United States)

    Bjørneraas, Kari; Herfindal, Ivar; Solberg, Erling Johan; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; van Moorter, Bram; Rolandsen, Christer Moe


    Identifying factors shaping variation in resource selection is central for our understanding of the behaviour and distribution of animals. We examined summer habitat selection and space use by 108 Global Positioning System (GPS)-collared moose in Norway in relation to sex, reproductive status, habitat quality, and availability. Moose selected habitat types based on a combination of forage quality and availability of suitable habitat types. Selection of protective cover was strongest for reproducing females, likely reflecting the need to protect young. Males showed strong selection for habitat types with high quality forage, possibly due to higher energy requirements. Selection for preferred habitat types providing food and cover was a positive function of their availability within home ranges (i.e. not proportional use) indicating functional response in habitat selection. This relationship was not found for unproductive habitat types. Moreover, home ranges with high cover of unproductive habitat types were larger, and smaller home ranges contained higher proportions of the most preferred habitat type. The distribution of moose within the study area was partly related to the distribution of different habitat types. Our study shows how distribution and availability of habitat types providing cover and high-quality food shape ungulate habitat selection and space use.

  16. Design of a large heat lift 40 K to 80 K pulse tube cryocooler for space applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Buquet, J.; Ravex, A.; Charles, I.; Coynel, A.; Duband, L.; Ercolani, E.; Guillemet, L.; Mullié, J.; Dam, J.A.M.; Benschop, T.; Linder, M.; Miller, S.D.; Ross, Jr. R.G.


    A Large heat lift Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) is under development in partnership with AL/ DTA, CEA/SBT and THALES Cryogenics. The engineering model is expected to provide 2.3 W at 50 K at a 10 °C rejection temperature and 160 watts of electrical input power to the compressor. The split coaxial design

  17. From Swimming Pool to Collaborative Learning Studio: Pedagogy, Space, and Technology in a Large Active Learning Classroom (United States)

    Lee, Dabae; Morrone, Anastasia S.; Siering, Greg


    To promote student learning and bolster student success, higher education institutions are increasingly creating large active learning classrooms to replace traditional lecture halls. Although there have been many efforts to examine the effects of those classrooms on learning outcomes, there is paucity of research that can inform the design and…

  18. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  19. Large data well-posedness in the energy space of the Chern-Simons-Schrödinger system (United States)

    Lim, Zhuo Min


    We consider the initial-value problem for the Chern-Simons-Schrödinger system, which is a gauge-covariant Schrödinger system in Rt × Rx2 with a long-range electromagnetic field. We show that, in the Coulomb gauge, it is locally well-posed in Hs for s ⩾ 1, and the solution map satisfies a local-in-time weak Lipschitz bound. By energy conservation, we also obtain a global regularity result. The key is to retain the non-perturbative part of the derivative nonlinearity in the principal operator, and exploit the dispersive properties of the resulting paradifferential-type principal operator using adapted Up and Vp spaces.

  20. Large-timestep techniques for particle-in-cell simulation of systems with applied fields that vary rapidly in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.


    Under conditions which arise commonly in space-charge-dominated beam applications, the applied focusing, bending, and accelerating fields vary rapidly with axial position, while the self-fields (which are, on average, comparable in strength to the applied fields) vary smoothly. In such cases it is desirable to employ timesteps which advance the particles over distances greater than the characteristic scales over which the applied fields vary. Several related concepts are potentially applicable: sub-cycling of the particle advance relative to the field solution, a higher-order time-advance algorithm, force-averaging by integration along approximate orbits, and orbit-averaging. We report on our investigations into the utility of such techniques for systems typical of those encountered in accelerator studies for heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion

  1. Product Platform Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone

    The aim of this research is to improve understanding of platform-based product development by studying platform performance in relation to internal effects in companies. Platform-based product development makes it possible to deliver product variety and at the same time reduce the needed resources...... engaging in platform-based product development. Similarly platform assessment criteria lack empirical verification regarding relevance and sufficiency. The thesis focuses on • the process of identifying and estimating internal effects, • verification of performance of product platforms, (i...... experienced representatives from the different life systems phase systems of the platform products. The effects are estimated and modeled within different scenarios, taking into account financial and real option aspects. The model illustrates and supports estimation and quantification of internal platform...

  2. Mobile platform security

    CERN Document Server

    Asokan, N; Dmitrienko, Alexandra


    Recently, mobile security has garnered considerable interest in both the research community and industry due to the popularity of smartphones. The current smartphone platforms are open systems that allow application development, also for malicious parties. To protect the mobile device, its user, and other mobile ecosystem stakeholders such as network operators, application execution is controlled by a platform security architecture. This book explores how such mobile platform security architectures work. We present a generic model for mobile platform security architectures: the model illustrat

  3. The PERSONA Service Platform for AAL Spaces (United States)

    Tazari, Mohammad-Reza; Furfari, Francesco; Ramos, Juan-Pablo Lázaro; Ferro, Erina

    The project PERSONA aims at advancing the paradigm of Ambient Intelligence through the harmonization of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) Technologies and concepts for the development of sustainable and affordable solutions for the independent living of senior citizens. PERSONA is one of the integrated projects funded by the European Commission within the 6th Framework Program for IST (Information Society Technologies) on AAL for the Aging Society. It involves the participation of 21 partners, from Italy, Spain, Germany, Greece, Norway and Denmark, with a total budget of around 12 million Euros.

  4. Data Platforms and Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Courmont, Antoine; Hoyng, Rolien


    This section offers a series of joint reflections on (open) data platform from a variety of cases, from cycling, traffic and mapping to activism, environment and data brokering. Data platforms play a key role in contemporary urban governance. Linked to open data initiatives, such platforms are of...

  5. Dynamic Gaming Platform (DGP) (United States)


    GAMING PLATFORM (DGP) Lockheed Martin Corporation...YYYY) APR 09 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Jul 07 – Mar 09 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DYNAMIC GAMING PLATFORM (DGP) 5a...CMU Carnegie Mellon University DGP Dynamic Gaming Platform GA Genetic Algorithm IARPA Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity LM ATL Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories PAINT ProActive INTelligence

  6. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens


    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...

  7. Auditing Consistency and Usefulness of LOINC Use among Three Large Institutions - Using Version Spaces for Grouping LOINC Codes (United States)

    Lin, M.C.; Vreeman, D.J.; Huff, S.M.


    Objectives We wanted to develop a method for evaluating the consistency and usefulness of LOINC code use across different institutions, and to evaluate the degree of interoperability that can be attained when using LOINC codes for laboratory data exchange. Our specific goals were to: 1) Determine if any contradictory knowledge exists in LOINC. 2) Determine how many LOINC codes were used in a truly interoperable fashion between systems. 3) Provide suggestions for improving the semantic interoperability of LOINC. Methods We collected Extensional Definitions (EDs) of LOINC usage from three institutions. The version space approach was used to divide LOINC codes into small sets, which made auditing of LOINC use across the institutions feasible. We then compared pairings of LOINC codes from the three institutions for consistency and usefulness. Results The number of LOINC codes evaluated were 1,917, 1,267 and 1,693 as obtained from ARUP, Intermountain and Regenstrief respectively. There were 2,022, 2,030, and 2,301 version spaces among ARUP & Intermountain, Intermountain & Regenstrief and ARUP & Regenstrief respectively. Using the EDs as the gold standard, there were 104, 109 and 112 pairs containing contradictory knowledge and there were 1,165, 765 and 1,121 semantically interoperable pairs. The interoperable pairs were classified into three levels: 1) Level I – No loss of meaning, complete information was exchanged by identical codes. 2) Level II – No loss of meaning, but processing of data was needed to make the data completely comparable. 3) Level III – Some loss of meaning. For example, tests with a specific ‘method’ could be rolled-up with tests that were ‘methodless’. Conclusions There are variations in the way LOINC is used for data exchange that result in some data not being truly interoperable across different enterprises. To improve its semantic interoperability, we need to detect and correct any contradictory knowledge within LOINC and add

  8. Dynamic wave field synthesis: enabling the generation of field distributions with a large space-bandwidth product. (United States)

    Kamau, Edwin N; Heine, Julian; Falldorf, Claas; Bergmann, Ralf B


    We present a novel approach for the design and fabrication of multiplexed computer generated volume holograms (CGVH) which allow for a dynamic synthesis of arbitrary wave field distributions. To achieve this goal, we developed a hybrid system that consists of a CGVH as a static element and an electronically addressed spatial light modulator as the dynamic element. We thereby derived a new model for describing the scattering process within the inhomogeneous dielectric material of the hologram. This model is based on the linearization of the scattering process within the Rytov approximation and incorporates physical constraints that account for voxel based laser-lithography using micro-fabrication of the holograms in a nonlinear optical material. In this article we demonstrate that this system basically facilitates a high angular Bragg selectivity on the order of 1°. Additionally, it allows for a qualitatively low cross-talk dynamic synthesis of predefined wave fields with a much larger space-bandwidth product (SBWP ≥ 8.7 × 10(6)) as compared to the current state of the art in computer generated holography.

  9. Modeling, estimation and identification methods for static shape determination of flexible structures. [for large space structure design (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Scheid, R. E., Jr.


    This paper outlines methods for modeling, identification and estimation for static determination of flexible structures. The shape estimation schemes are based on structural models specified by (possibly interconnected) elliptic partial differential equations. The identification techniques provide approximate knowledge of parameters in elliptic systems. The techniques are based on the method of maximum-likelihood that finds parameter values such that the likelihood functional associated with the system model is maximized. The estimation methods are obtained by means of a function-space approach that seeks to obtain the conditional mean of the state given the data and a white noise characterization of model errors. The solutions are obtained in a batch-processing mode in which all the data is processed simultaneously. After methods for computing the optimal estimates are developed, an analysis of the second-order statistics of the estimates and of the related estimation error is conducted. In addition to outlining the above theoretical results, the paper presents typical flexible structure simulations illustrating performance of the shape determination methods.

  10. Reducing cell-to-cell spacing for large-format lithium ion battery modules with aluminum or PCM heat sinks under failure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Brittany; Ostanek, Jason; Heinzel, John


    Highlights: • Finite element analysis to evaluate heat sinks for large format li-ion batteries. • Solid metal heat sink and composite heat sink (metal filler and wax). • Transient simulations show response from rest to steady-state with normal load. • Transient simulations of two different failure modes were considered. • Significance of spacing, material properties, interface quality, and phase change. - Abstract: Thermal management is critical for large-scale, shipboard energy storage systems utilizing lithium-ion batteries. In recent years, there has been growing research in thermal management of lithium-ion battery modules. However, there is little information available on the minimum cell-to-cell spacing limits for indirect, liquid cooled modules when considering heat release during a single cell failure. For this purpose, a generic four-cell module was modeled using finite element analysis to determine the sensitivity of module temperatures to cell spacing. Additionally, the effects of different heat sink materials and interface qualities were investigated. Two materials were considered, a solid aluminum block and a metal/wax composite block. Simulations were run for three different transient load profiles. The first profile simulates sustained high rate operation where the system begins at rest and generates heat continuously until it reaches steady state. And, two failure mode simulations were conducted to investigate block performance during a slow and a fast exothermic reaction, respectively. Results indicate that composite materials can perform well under normal operation and provide some protection against single cell failure; although, for very compact designs, the amount of wax available to absorb heat is reduced and the effectiveness of the phase change material is diminished. The aluminum block design performed well under all conditions, and showed that heat generated during a failure is quickly dissipated to the coolant, even under the

  11. Continuous Platform Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil

    low risks and investments but also with relatively fuzzy results. When looking for new platform projects, it is important to make sure that the company and market is ready for the introduction of platforms, and to make sure that people from marketing and sales, product development, and downstream......, but continuous product family evolution challenges this strategy. The concept of continuous platform development is based on the fact that platform development should not be a one-time experience but rather an ongoing process of developing new platforms and updating existing ones, so that product family...

  12. Influence of Extrinsic Information Scaling Coefficient on Double-Iterative Decoding Algorithm for Space-Time Turbo Codes with Large Number of Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the extrinsic information scaling coefficient influence on double-iterative decoding algorithm for space-time turbo codes with large number of antennas. The max-log-APP algorithm is used, scaling both the extrinsic information in the turbo decoder and the one used at the input of the interference-canceling block. Scaling coefficients of 0.7 or 0.75 lead to a 0.5 dB coding gain compared to the no-scaling case, for one or more iterations to cancel the spatial interferences.

  13. Development of a large scale structure in the rod gap region for turbulent in-line flow through closely spaced rod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, J.D.


    Experimental studies of developed axial single-phase flow through closely spaced rod arrays have shown, with reducing p/d ratio, the development of high axial and azimuthal turbulence intensities in the rod gap region. Associated with this is the existence of very high levels of the azimuthal Reynolds shear stress component either side of the rod gap centre. Spatial correlation analysis of the three turbulent velocity components has shown a large scale coherent and almost periodic structure in the rod gap region. The structure is markedly different to the currently accepted secondary flow model. 14 references

  14. Cross-Platform Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina ENACHE


    Full Text Available Cross-platform - a concept becoming increasingly used in recent years especially in the development of mobile apps, but this consistently over time and in the development of conventional desktop applications. The notion of cross-platform software (multi-platform or platform-independent refers to a software application that can run on more than one operating system or computing architecture. Thus, a cross-platform application can operate independent of software or hardware platform on which it is execute. As a generic definition presents a wide range of meanings for purposes of this paper we individualize this definition as follows: we will reduce the horizon of meaning and we use functionally following definition: a cross-platform application is a software application that can run on more than one operating system (desktop or mobile identical or in a similar way.

  15. EarthFinder: A Precise Radial Velocity Survey Probe Mission of our Nearest Stellar Neighbors for Earth-Mass Habitable Zone Analogs Using High-Resolution UV-Vis-NIR Echelle Spectroscopy on a Space Platform (United States)

    Plavchan, Peter; EarthFinder Team


    We are investigating the science case for a 1.0-1.4 meter space telescope to survey the closest, brightest FGKM main sequence stars to search for Habitable Zone (HZ) Earth analogs using the precise radial velocity (PRV) technique at a precision of 1-10 cm/s. Our baseline instrument concept uses two diffraction-limited spectrographs operating in the 0.4-1.0 microns and 1.0-2.4 microns spectral regions each with a spectral resolution of R=150,000~200,000, with the possibility of a third UV arm. Because the instrument utilizes a diffraction-limited input beam, the spectrograph would be extremely compact, less than 50 cm on a side, and illumination can be stabilized with the coupling of starlight into single mode fibers. With two octaves of wavelength coverage and a cadence unimpeded by any diurnal, seasonal, and atmospheric effects, EarthFinder will offer a unique platform for recovering stellar activity signals from starspots, plages, granulation, etc. to detect exoplanets at velocity semi-amplitudes currently not obtainable from the ground. Variable telluric absorption and emission lines may potentially preclude achieving PRV measurements at or below 10 cm/s in the visible and advantage compared to an annual ~3-6 month observing season from the ground for mitigating stellar activity and detecting the orbital periods of HZ Earth-mass analogs (e.g. ~6-months to ~2 years). Finally, we are compiling a list of ancillary science cases for the observatory, ranging from asteroseismology to the direct measurement of the expansion of the Universe.

  16. High power rf amplifiers for accelerator applications: The large orbit gyrotron and the high current, space charge enhanced relativistic klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfield, R.M.; Fazio, M.V.; Rickel, D.G.; Kwan, T.J.T.; Peratt, A.L.; Kinross-Wright, J.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Faehl, R.; Carlsten, B.; Destler, W.W.; Warner, L.B.


    Los Alamos is investigating a number of high power microwave (HPM) sources for their potential to power advanced accelerators. Included in this investigation are the large orbit gyrotron amplifier and oscillator (LOG) and the relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA). LOG amplifier development is newly underway. Electron beam power levels of 3 GW, 70 ns duration, are planned, with anticipated conversion efficiencies into RF on the order of 20 percent. Ongoing investigations on this device include experimental improvement of the electron beam optics (to allow injection of a suitable fraction of the electron beam born in the gun into the amplifier structure), and computational studies of resonator design and RF extraction. Recent RKA studies have operated at electron beam powers into the device of 1.35 GW in microsecond duration pulses. The device has yielded modulated electron beam power approaching 300 MW using 3-5 kW of RF input drive. RF powers extracted into waveguide have been up to 70 MW, suggesting that more power is available from the device than has been converted to-date in the extractor

  17. On the notion of abstract platform in MDA development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade Almeida, João; Dijkman, R.M.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis


    Although platform-independence is a central property in MDA models, the study of platform-independence has been largely overlooked in MDA. As a consequence, there is a lack of guidelines to select abstraction criteria and modelling concepts for platform-independent design. In addition, there is

  18. The micro-environmental impact of volatile organic compound emissions from large-scale assemblies of people in a confined space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Tanushree; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Uchimiya, Minori; Kumar, Pawan; Das, Subhasish; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Szulejko, Jan


    Large-scale assemblies of people in a confined space can exert significant impacts on the local air chemistry due to human emissions of volatile organics. Variations of air-quality in such small scale can be studied by quantifying fingerprint volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone, toluene, and isoprene produced during concerts, movie screenings, and sport events (like the Olympics and the World Cup). This review summarizes the extent of VOC accumulation resulting from a large population in a confined area or in a small open area during sporting and other recreational activities. Apart from VOCs emitted directly from human bodies (e.g., perspiration and exhaled breath), those released indirectly from other related sources (e.g., smoking, waste disposal, discharge of food-waste, and use of personal-care products) are also discussed. Although direct and indirect emissions of VOCs from human may constitute <1% of the global atmospheric VOCs budget, unique spatiotemporal variations in VOCs species within a confined space can have unforeseen impacts on the local atmosphere to lead to acute human exposure to harmful pollutants.

  19. The micro-environmental impact of volatile organic compound emissions from large-scale assemblies of people in a confined space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Tanushree [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Hyun, E-mail: [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Uchimiya, Minori [USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center, 1100 Robert E. Lee Boulevard, New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Kumar, Pawan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 11016 (India); Das, Subhasish; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar [Soil & Agro-Bioengineering Lab, Department of Environmental Science, Tezpur University, Napaam 784028 (India); Szulejko, Jan [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-Ro, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)


    Large-scale assemblies of people in a confined space can exert significant impacts on the local air chemistry due to human emissions of volatile organics. Variations of air-quality in such small scale can be studied by quantifying fingerprint volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone, toluene, and isoprene produced during concerts, movie screenings, and sport events (like the Olympics and the World Cup). This review summarizes the extent of VOC accumulation resulting from a large population in a confined area or in a small open area during sporting and other recreational activities. Apart from VOCs emitted directly from human bodies (e.g., perspiration and exhaled breath), those released indirectly from other related sources (e.g., smoking, waste disposal, discharge of food-waste, and use of personal-care products) are also discussed. Although direct and indirect emissions of VOCs from human may constitute <1% of the global atmospheric VOCs budget, unique spatiotemporal variations in VOCs species within a confined space can have unforeseen impacts on the local atmosphere to lead to acute human exposure to harmful pollutants.

  20. Meteoroid Measurements in the Deep Space Cruising and the Jupiter Trojan Rendezvous Phases of the Solar Power Sail Mission by the Arrayed Large-Area Dust Detectors in INterplanetary Space (ALADDIN)-II (United States)

    Yano, H.; Hirai, T.; Arai, K.; Fujii, M.


    The PVDF thin films have been long, space-proven instruments for hypervelocity impact detection in the diverse regions of the Solar System from orbits of Venus by IKAROS and of Pluto by New Horizons. In particular, light weight but large area membranes of a solar sail spacecraft is an ideal location for such detectors to be deployed for detecting statistically enough nubers of so large micrometeoroids that are sensitive to mean motion resonances and other gravitational effects of flux enhancements and voids with planets. The IKAROS spacecraft first detected in situ dust flux enhancement and gap region within the Earth's circumsolar dust ring as well as those of Venus by 0.54 m^2 detection area of ALADDIN sensors on the slar sail membrane. Advancing this heritage, the Solar Power Sail membrane will carry 0.4+ m^2 ALADDIN-II PVDF sensors with improved impact signal prosessng units to detect both hyperveloity dust impacts in the interplanetary space cruising phase and slow dust impacts bound to the Jupiter Trojan region in its rendezvours phase.

  1. Forecasting Space Weather Hazards for Astronauts in Deep Space (United States)

    Martens, P. C.


    Deep Space Gateway provides a unique platform to develop, calibrate, and test a space weather forecasting system for interplanetary travel in a real life setting. We will discuss requirements and design of such a system.

  2. Platform development supportedby gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan; Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård


    The challenge of implementing industrial platforms in practice can be described as a configuration problem caused by high number of variables, which often have contradictory influences on the total performance of the firm. Consequently, the specific platform decisions become extremely complex......, possibly increasing the strategic risks for the firm. This paper reports preliminary findings on platform management process at LEGO, a Danish toy company.  Specifically, we report the process of applying games combined with simulations and workshops in the platform development. We also propose a framework...

  3. Omnidirectional holonomic platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Killough, S.M.


    This paper presents the concepts for a new family of wheeled platforms which feature full omnidirectionality with simultaneous and independently controlled rotational and translational motion capabilities. The authors first present the orthogonal-wheels concept and the two major wheel assemblies on which these platforms are based. They then describe how a combination of these assemblies with appropriate control can be used to generate an omnidirectional capability for mobile robot platforms. The design and control of two prototype platforms are then presented and their respective characteristics with respect to rotational and translational motion control are discussed

  4. Platform decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, David


    There are over 6500 platforms worldwide contributing to the offshore oil and gas production industry. In the North Sea there are around 500 platforms in place. There are many factors to be considered in planning for platform decommissioning and the evaluation of options for removal and disposal. The environmental impact, technical feasibility, safety and cost factors all have to be considered. This presentation considers what information is available about the overall decommissioning costs for the North Sea and the costs of different removal and disposal options for individual platforms. 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Mechanical Behavior Analysis of Y-Type S-SRC Column in a Large-Space Vertical Hybrid Structure Using Local Fine Numerical Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Yue


    Full Text Available In a large spatial structure, normally the important members are of special type and are the safety key for the global structure. In order to study the mechanical behavior details of the local member, it is difficult for the common test method to realize the complex spatial loading state of the local member. Therefore, a local-fine finite element model was proposed and a large-space vertical hybrid structure was numerically simulated. The seismic responses of the global structure and the Y-type S-SRC column were analyzed under El Centro seismic motions with the peak acceleration of 35 gal and 220 gal. The numerical model was verified with the results of the seismic shaking table test of the structure model. The failure mechanism and stiffness damage evolution of the Y-type S-SRC column were analyzed. The calculated results agreed well with the test results. It indicates that the local-fine FEM could reflect the mechanical details of the local members in a large spatial structure.

  6. Helicopter flight simulation motion platform requirements (United States)

    Schroeder, Jeffery Allyn

    Flight simulators attempt to reproduce in-flight pilot-vehicle behavior on the ground. This reproduction is challenging for helicopter simulators, as the pilot is often inextricably dependent on external cues for pilot-vehicle stabilization. One important simulator cue is platform motion; however, its required fidelity is unknown. To determine the required motion fidelity, several unique experiments were performed. A large displacement motion platform was used that allowed pilots to fly tasks with matched motion and visual cues. Then, the platform motion was modified to give cues varying from full motion to no motion. Several key results were found. First, lateral and vertical translational platform cues had significant effects on fidelity. Their presence improved performance and reduced pilot workload. Second, yaw and roll rotational platform cues were not as important as the translational platform cues. In particular, the yaw rotational motion platform cue did not appear at all useful in improving performance or reducing workload. Third, when the lateral translational platform cue was combined with visual yaw rotational cues, pilots believed the platform was rotating when it was not. Thus, simulator systems can be made more efficient by proper combination of platform and visual cues. Fourth, motion fidelity specifications were revised that now provide simulator users with a better prediction of motion fidelity based upon the frequency responses of their motion control laws. Fifth, vertical platform motion affected pilot estimates of steady-state altitude during altitude repositionings. This refutes the view that pilots estimate altitude and altitude rate in simulation solely from visual cues. Finally, the combined results led to a general method for configuring helicopter motion systems and for developing simulator tasks that more likely represent actual flight. The overall results can serve as a guide to future simulator designers and to today's operators.

  7. Development of a Modular Robotic Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ioan Cirebea


    Full Text Available In this paper a modular robotic platform is presented, for students and researchers laboratory work based on the Matlab-Simulink and dSpace real time control platform. The goal of this combination is to stimulate and to experiment with real time hardware and software in courses where mobile robotics is adopted as a motivating platform to introduce mechatronics competencies. Its many possibilities for modifications and extensions make experiments very easy. We used, for example, an omnidirectional mobile robot configuration with three Swedish wheels, whose kinematic model was simulated using Simulink. For real-time control, of the robot, the developed model has been implemented using DSpace platform DS1103.

  8. Groundwater Assessment Platform


    Podgorski, Joel; Berg, Michael


    The Groundwater Assessment Platform is a free, interactive online GIS platform for the mapping, sharing and statistical modeling of groundwater quality data. The modeling allows users to take advantage of publicly available global datasets of various environmental parameters to produce prediction maps of their contaminant of interest.

  9. Stochastic modeling and control system designs of the NASA/MSFC Ground Facility for large space structures: The maximum entropy/optimal projection approach (United States)

    Hsia, Wei-Shen


    In the Control Systems Division of the Systems Dynamics Laboratory of the NASA/MSFC, a Ground Facility (GF), in which the dynamics and control system concepts being considered for Large Space Structures (LSS) applications can be verified, was designed and built. One of the important aspects of the GF is to design an analytical model which will be as close to experimental data as possible so that a feasible control law can be generated. Using Hyland's Maximum Entropy/Optimal Projection Approach, a procedure was developed in which the maximum entropy principle is used for stochastic modeling and the optimal projection technique is used for a reduced-order dynamic compensator design for a high-order plant.

  10. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    for customisation of products. In many companies these changes in the business environment have created a controversy between the need for a wide variety of products offered to the marketplace and a desire to reduce variation within the company in order to increase efficiency. Many companies use the concept...... other. These groups can be varied and combined to form different product variants without increasing the internal variety in the company. Based on the Theory of Domains, the concept of encapsulation in the organ domain is introduced, and organs are formulated as platform elements. Included......This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation...

  11. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer


    . To shed light on this unexplored and growing managerial concern, the purpose of this explorative study is to identify operational challenges to management when product platforms are replaced. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a longitudinal field-study approach. Two companies, Gamma and Omega...... replacement was chosen in each company. Findings – The study shows that platform replacements primarily challenge managers' existing knowledge about platform architectures. A distinction can be made between “width” and “height” in platform replacements, and it is crucial that managers observe this in order...... to challenge their existing knowledge about platform architectures. Issues on technologies, architectures, components and processes as well as on segments, applications and functions are identified. Practical implications – Practical implications are summarized and discussed in relation to a framework...

  12. Design, Analysis, Hybrid Testing and Orientation Control of a Floating Platform with Counter-Rotating Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines (United States)

    Kanner, Samuel Adam Chinman

    The design and operation of two counter-rotating vertical-axis wind turbines on a floating, semi-submersible platform is studied. The technology, called the Multiple Integrated and Synchronized Turbines (MIST) platform has the potential to reduce the cost of offshore wind energy per unit of installed capacity. Attached to the platform are closely-spaced, counter-rotating turbines, which can achieve a higher power density per planform area because of synergistic interaction effects. The purpose of the research is to control the orientation of the platform and rotational speeds of the turbines by modifying the energy absorbed by each of the generators of the turbines. To analyze the various aspects of the platform and wind turbines, the analysis is drawn from the fields of hydrodynamics, electromagnetics, aerodynamics and control theory. To study the hydrodynamics of the floating platform in incident monochromatic waves, potential theory is utilized, taking into account the slow-drift yaw motion of the platform. Steady, second-order moments that are spatially dependent (i.e., dependent on the platform's yaw orientation relative to the incident waves) are given special attention since there are no natural restoring yaw moment. The aerodynamics of the counter-rotating turbines are studied in collaboration with researchers at the UC Berkeley Mathematics Department using a high-order, implicit, large-eddy simulation. An element flipping technique is utilized to extend the method to a domain with counter-rotating turbines and the effects from the closely-spaced turbines is compared with existing experimental data. Hybrid testing techniques on a model platform are utilized to prove the controllability of the platform in lieu of a wind-wave tank. A 1:82 model-scale floating platform is fabricated and tested at the UC Berkeley Physical-Model Testing Facility. The vertical-axis wind turbines are simulated by spinning, controllable actuators that can be updated in real-time of

  13. Discussion on Application of Space Materials and Technological Innovation in Dynamic Fashion Show (United States)

    Huo, Meilin; Kim, Chul Soo; Zhao, Wenhan


    In modern dynamic fashion show, designers often use the latest ideas and technology, and spend their energy in stage effect and overall environment to make audience’s watching a fashion show like an audio-visual feast. With rapid development of China’s science and technology, it has become a design trend to strengthen the relationship between new ideas, new trends and technology in modern art. With emergence of new technology, new methods and new materials, designers for dynamic fashion show stage art can choose the materials with an increasingly large scope. Generation of new technology has also made designers constantly innovate the stage space design means, and made the stage space design innovated constantly on the original basis of experiences. The dynamic clothing display space is on design of clothing display space, layout, platform decoration style, platform models, performing colors, light arrangement, platform background, etc.

  14. The vacuum platform (United States)

    McNab, A.


    This paper describes GridPP’s Vacuum Platform for managing virtual machines (VMs), which has been used to run production workloads for WLCG and other HEP experiments. The platform provides a uniform interface between VMs and the sites they run at, whether the site is organised as an Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud system such as OpenStack, or an Infrastructure-as-a-Client system such as Vac. The paper describes our experience in using this platform, in developing and operating VM lifecycle managers Vac and Vcycle, and in interacting with VMs provided by LHCb, ATLAS, ALICE, CMS, and the GridPP DIRAC service to run production workloads.

  15. Central American and Caribbean Citizen Security Platform | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Collaborative research platform This initiative will establish a real and virtual space known as the Central American and Caribbean Security Platform. It will bring together the region's scholars, practitioners, attorneys, journalists, and other stakeholders into regular, constructive dialogue with specialists dedicated to finding ...

  16. Parallel application of plasma equilibrium fitting based on inhomogeneous platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Min; Zhang Jinhua; Chen Liaoyuan; Li Yongge; Pan Wei; Pan Li


    An online analysis and online display platform EFIT, which is based on the equilibrium-fitting mode, is inducted in this paper. This application can realize large data transportation between inhomogeneous platforms by designing a communication mechanism using sockets. It spends approximately one minute to complete the equilibrium fitting reconstruction by using a finite state machine to describe the management node and several node computers of cluster system to fulfill the parallel computation, this satisfies the online display during the discharge interval. An effective communication model between inhomogeneous platforms is provided, which could transport the computing results from Linux platform to Windows platform for online analysis and display. (authors)

  17. Identification of platform levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik


    reduction, ability to launch a wider product portfolio without increasing resources and reduction of complexity within the whole company. To support the multiple product development process, platform based product development has in many companies such as Philips, VW, Ford etc. proven to be a very effective...... product development in one step and therefore the objective of this paper is to identify levels of platform based product development. The structure of this paper is as follows. First the applied terminology for platforms will be briefly explained and then characteristics between single and multi product...... development will be examined. Based on the identification of the above characteristics five platform levels are described. The research presented in this paper is a result of MSc, Ph.D projects at the Technical University of Denmark and consultancy projects within the organisation of Institute of Product...

  18. Paper based electronics platform

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna Mohammad; Sevilla, Galo Andres Torres; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa


    A flexible and non-functionalized low cost paper-based electronic system platform fabricated from common paper, such as paper based sensors, and methods of producing paper based sensors, and methods of sensing using the paper based sensors

  19. USA Hire Testing Platform (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  20. Electrochemical Power Plant for Terrestrial Flight Platforms, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrochemical power plant is proposed by MicroCell Technologies to provide power to terrestrial flight platforms. Our power plant is based upon a proton...

  1. Micro-Avionics Multi-Purpose Platform (MicroAMPP) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro-Avionics Multi-Purpose Platform (MicroAMPP) is a common avionics architecture supporting microsatellites, launch vehicles, and upper-stage carrier...

  2. Single Electron Transistor Platform for Microgravity Proteomics, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II program builds from the successful Phase I efforts to demonstrate that Quantum Logic Devices' nanoelectronic platform for biological detection could...

  3. Strategies Used by Professors through Virtual Educational Platforms in Face-to-Face Classes: A View from the Chamilo Platform (United States)

    Valencia, Heriberto Gonzalez; Villota Enriquez, Jackeline Amparo; Agredo, Patricia Medina


    This study consisted in characterizing the strategies used by professors; implemented through virtual educational platforms. The context of this research were the classrooms of the Santiago de Cali University and the virtual space of the Chamilo virtual platform, where two professors from the Faculty of Education of the same university…

  4. Evolving Design Criteria for Very Large Aperture Space Based Telescopes and Their Influence on the Need for Integrated Tools in the Optimization Process (United States)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.


    the aperture grows, the primary takes up the majority of the mass and volume and the established rules need to be adjusted. For example, a small change in lowest frequency requirement can change the cost by millions of dollars. The paper uses numerous trade studies created during the software development phase of the Arnold Mirror Modeler to illustrate the influences of system specifications on the design space. The future telescopes will require better performance, stability and documented feasibility to meet the hurdles of today's budget and schedules realities. AMTD is developing the tools, but the basic system planning mentality also has to adopt to the requirements of these very large and complex physical structures.

  5. National Community Solar Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupert, Bart [Clean Energy Collective, Louisville, CO (United States)


    This project was created to provide a National Community Solar Platform (NCSP) portal known as Community Solar Hub, that is available to any entity or individual who wants to develop community solar. This has been done by providing a comprehensive portal to make CEC’s solutions, and other proven community solar solutions, externally available for everyone to access – making the process easy through proven platforms to protect subscribers, developers and utilities. The successful completion of this project provides these tools via a web platform and integration APIs, a wide spectrum of community solar projects included in the platform, multiple groups of customers (utilities, EPCs, and advocates) using the platform to develop community solar, and open access to anyone interested in community solar. CEC’s Incubator project includes web-based informational resources, integrated systems for project information and billing systems, and engagement with customers and users by community solar experts. The combined effort externalizes much of Clean Energy Collective’s industry-leading expertise, allowing third parties to develop community solar without duplicating expensive start-up efforts. The availability of this platform creates community solar projects that are cheaper to build and cheaper to participate in, furthering the goals of DOE’s SunShot Initiative. Final SF 425 Final SF 428 Final DOE F 2050.11 Final Report Narrative

  6. RESGen: Renewable Energy Scenario Generation Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Pinson, Pierre


    studies remains. Consequently, our aim here is to propose an open-source platform for space-time probabilistic forecasting of renewable energy generation (wind and solar power). This document covers both methodological and implementation aspects, to be seen as a companion document for the open......-source scenario generation platform. It can generate predictive densities, trajectories and space-time interdependencies for renewable energy generation. The underlying model works as a post-processing of point forecasts. For illustration, two setups are considered: the case of day-ahead forecasts to be issued......Space-time scenarios of renewable power generation are increasingly used as input to decision-making in operational problems. They may also be used in planning studies to account for the inherent uncertainty in operations. Similarly using scenarios to derive chance-constraints or robust...

  7. Smart Makerspace: A Web Platform Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Licks


    Full Text Available Makerspaces are creative and learning environments, home to activities such as fabrication processes and Do-It-Yourself (DIY tasks. However, containing equipment that are not commonly seen or handled, these spaces can look rather challenging to novice users. This paper is based on the Smart Makerspace research from Autodesk, which uses a smart workbench for an immersive instructional space for DIY tasks. Having its functionalities in mind and trying to overcome some of its limitations, we approach the concept building an immersive instructional space as a web platform. The platform, introduced to users in a makerspace, had a feedback that reflects its potential between novice and intermediate users, for creating facilitators and encouraging these users.

  8. Computer aided system engineering for space construction (United States)

    Racheli, Ugo


    This viewgraph presentation covers the following topics. Construction activities envisioned for the assembly of large platforms in space (as well as interplanetary spacecraft and bases on extraterrestrial surfaces) require computational tools that exceed the capability of conventional construction management programs. The Center for Space Construction is investigating the requirements for new computational tools and, at the same time, suggesting the expansion of graduate and undergraduate curricula to include proficiency in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) though design courses and individual or team projects in advanced space systems design. In the center's research, special emphasis is placed on problems of constructability and of the interruptability of planned activity sequences to be carried out by crews operating under hostile environmental conditions. The departure point for the planned work is the acquisition of the MCAE I-DEAS software, developed by the Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC), and its expansion to the level of capability denoted by the acronym IDEAS**2 currently used for configuration maintenance on Space Station Freedom. In addition to improving proficiency in the use of I-DEAS and IDEAS**2, it is contemplated that new software modules will be developed to expand the architecture of IDEAS**2. Such modules will deal with those analyses that require the integration of a space platform's configuration with a breakdown of planned construction activities and with a failure modes analysis to support computer aided system engineering (CASE) applied to space construction.

  9. The Platformization of the Web: Making Web Data Platform Ready

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, A.


    In this article, I inquire into Facebook’s development as a platform by situating it within the transformation of social network sites into social media platforms. I explore this shift with a historical perspective on, what I refer to as, platformization, or the rise of the platform as the dominant

  10. Miniaturized Spacecraft Platform for Command, Data Handling and Electronics, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microelectronics Research Development Corporation (Micro RDC) proposes to develop a platform of low mass/volume/power, reliable miniaturized electronic modules that...

  11. Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery (WHISPER), Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Systems & Technologies proposed WHISPER (Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery) solution to NASA's need for...

  12. Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery (WHISPER), Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Systems & Technologies proposed WHISPER (Wireless Hybrid Identification and Sensing Platform for Equipment Recovery) solution to NASA's need for...

  13. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.


    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  14. Platform-based production development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Jacob; Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld


    Platforms as a means for applying modular thinking in product development is relatively well studied, but platforms in the production system has until now not been given much attention. With the emerging concept of platform-based co-development the importance of production platforms is though...

  15. The FLP microsatellite platform flight operations manual

    CERN Document Server


    This book represents the Flight Operations Manual for a reusable microsatellite platform – the “Future Low-cost Platform” (FLP), developed at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. It provides a basic insight on the onboard software functions, the core data handling system and on the power, communications, attitude control and thermal subsystem of the platform. Onboard failure detection, isolation and recovery functions are treated in detail. The platform is suited for satellites in the 50-150 kg class and is baseline of the microsatellite “Flying Laptop” from the University. The book covers the essential information for ground operators to controls an FLP-based satellite applying international command and control standards (CCSDS and ECSS PUS). Furthermore it provides an overview on the Flight Control Center in Stuttgart and on the link to the German Space Agency DLR Ground Station which is used for early mission phases. Flight procedure and mission planning chapters complement the book. .

  16. Reusable platform concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudmestad, O.T.; Sparby, B.K.; Stead, B.L.


    There is an increasing need to reduce costs of offshore production facilities in order to make development of offshore fields profitable. For small fields with short production time there is in particular a need to investigate ways to reduce costs. The idea of platform reuse is for such fields particularly attractive. This paper will review reusable platform concepts and will discuss their range of application. Particular emphasis will be placed on technical limitations. Traditional concepts as jackups and floating production facilities will be discussed by major attention will be given to newly developed ideas for reuse of steel jackets and concrete structures. It will be shown how the operator for several fields can obtain considerable savings by applying such reusable platform concepts

  17. Wireless sensor platform (United States)

    Joshi, Pooran C.; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Phani Teja


    A wireless sensor platform and methods of manufacture are provided. The platform involves providing a plurality of wireless sensors, where each of the sensors is fabricated on flexible substrates using printing techniques and low temperature curing. Each of the sensors can include planar sensor elements and planar antennas defined using the printing and curing. Further, each of the sensors can include a communications system configured to encode the data from the sensors into a spread spectrum code sequence that is transmitted to a central computer(s) for use in monitoring an area associated with the sensors.

  18. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi


    The Azure Services Platform is a brand-new cloud-computing technology from Microsoft. It is composed of four core components-Windows Azure, .NET Services, SQL Services, and Live Services-each with a unique role in the functioning of your cloud service. It is the goal of this book to show you how to use these components, both separately and together, to build flawless cloud services. At its heart Windows Azure Platform is a down-to-earth, code-centric book. This book aims to show you precisely how the components are employed and to demonstrate the techniques and best practices you need to know

  19. Windows Azure Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Redkar, Tejaswi


    The Windows Azure Platform has rapidly established itself as one of the most sophisticated cloud computing platforms available. With Microsoft working to continually update their product and keep it at the cutting edge, the future looks bright - if you have the skills to harness it. In particular, new features such as remote desktop access, dynamic content caching and secure content delivery using SSL make the latest version of Azure a more powerful solution than ever before. It's widely agreed that cloud computing has produced a paradigm shift in traditional architectural concepts by providin

  20. Technology review: prototyping platforms for monitoring ambient conditions. (United States)

    Afolaranmi, Samuel Olaiya; Ramis Ferrer, Borja; Martinez Lastra, Jose Luis


    The monitoring of ambient conditions in indoor spaces is very essential owing to the amount of time spent indoors. Specifically, the monitoring of air quality is significant because contaminated air affects the health, comfort and productivity of occupants. This research work presents a technology review of prototyping platforms for monitoring ambient conditions in indoor spaces. It involves the research on sensors (for CO 2 , air quality and ambient conditions), IoT platforms, and novel and commercial prototyping platforms. The ultimate objective of this review is to enable the easy identification, selection and utilisation of the technologies best suited for monitoring ambient conditions in indoor spaces. Following the review, it is recommended to use metal oxide sensors, optical sensors and electrochemical sensors for IAQ monitoring (including NDIR sensors for CO 2 monitoring), Raspberry Pi for data processing, ZigBee and Wi-Fi for data communication, and ThingSpeak IoT platform for data storage, analysis and visualisation.

  1. The Creative Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian; Hansen, Søren

    whether you consider thirdgrade teaching, human-resource development, or radical new thinking in product development in a company. The Creative Platform was developed at Aalborg University through a series of research-and-development activities in collaboration with educational institutions and private...

  2. Creative Platform Learning (CPL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonna Langeland; Hansen, Søren

    Creative Platform Learning (CPL) er en pædagogisk metode, der skaber foretagsomme og innovative elever, der kan anvende deres kreativitet til at lære nyt. Ifølge den nye skolereform skal Innovation og entreprenørskab tydeliggøres i alle fag. I CPL er det en integreret del af undervisningen...

  3. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan


    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  4. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.


    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  5. Brake for rollable platform (United States)

    Morris, A. L.


    Frame-mounted brake is independent of wheels and consists of simple lever-actuated foot. Brake makes good contact with surface even though foot pad is at higher or lower level than wheels, this is particularly important when a rollable platform is used on irregular surface.

  6. CERN Neutrino Platform Hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Kevin


    My summer research was broadly in CERN's neutrino platform hardware efforts. This project had two main components: detector assembly and data analysis work for ICARUS. Specifically, I worked on assembly for the ProtoDUNE project and monitored the safety of ICARUS as it was transported to Fermilab by analyzing the accelerometer data from its move.

  7. Activities of the Center for Space Construction (United States)


    The Center for Space Construction (CSC) at the University of Colorado at Boulder is one of eight University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in 1988. The mission of the center is to conduct research into space technology and to directly contribute to space engineering education. The center reports to the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and resides in the College of Engineering and Applied Science. The college has a long and successful track record of cultivating multi-disciplinary research and education programs. The Center for Space Construction is prominent evidence of this record. At the inception of CSC, the center was primarily founded on the need for research on in-space construction of large space systems like space stations and interplanetary space vehicles. The scope of CSC's research has now evolved to include the design and construction of all spacecraft, large and small. Within this broadened scope, our research projects seek to impact the underlying technological basis for such spacecraft as remote sensing satellites, communication satellites, and other special purpose spacecraft, as well as the technological basis for large space platforms. The center's research focuses on three areas: spacecraft structures, spacecraft operations and control, and regolith and surface systems. In the area of spacecraft structures, our current emphasis is on concepts and modeling of deployable structures, analysis of inflatable structures, structural damage detection algorithms, and composite materials for lightweight structures. In the area of spacecraft operations and control, we are continuing our previous efforts in process control of in-orbit structural assembly. In addition, we have begun two new efforts in formal approach to spacecraft flight software systems design and adaptive attitude control systems. In the area of regolith and surface systems, we are continuing the work of characterizing the physical properties of lunar



    Yang, Yang


    Innovation power has becomes to the priority concern for many enterprises. Open innovation, which acts as a new innovation method, is now applied in many companies due to its unique advantages. On the other hand, social media platforms have been widely accepted by public and it shares an immeasurable business resources. Based on those facts, there must be space to link social media and open innovation together to achieve win-win. The objective was to research the important factors for op...

  9. Is the Current Management of Patients Presenting With Spinal Trauma to District General Hospitals Fit for Purpose? Our Experience of Delivering a Spinal Service Using an Electronic Referral Platform in a Large District General Teaching Hospital Without Onsite Spinal Services. (United States)

    Hill, Daniel S; Marynissen, Hans


    A retrospective cross-sectional analysis. To describe the provision of a spinal service using an electronic platform to direct management from an external spinal unit, and quantify time taken to obtain definitive management plans whilst under prescribed spinal immobilization. Most attending district general hospitals following spinal trauma will have stable injuries and normal neurology, with only a small proportion requiring urgent transfer to a specialist centre. A retrospective review of 104 patients admitted following vertebral during a 12-month period. The British Orthopaedic Association Standards for Trauma consensus that "spinal immobilisation is not recommended for more than 48 hours" was the standard of care measured against. 100 patients occupied a total of 975 hospital inpatient bed days. 117 radiological investigations were requested after the point of external referral (47 CT-scans, 37 MRI-scans, and 33 weight bearing radiographs). The period between initial referral to the regional spinal service and then receiving a definitive final management had a median value of 72 hours and a range of 0 - 33 days. Patients will have been under some form of prescribed spinal immobilisation until the definitive management plan was communicated. 34 patients (34% of the overall cohort) had a definitive management plan in place within 48 hours. 80 patients had vertebral injuries (73 stable, 6 unstable), 3 patients had prolapsed intervertebral disks, 1 had metastatic disease, and 17 had not evidence of an acute injury following evaluation. Patients are being placed under prescribed immobilisation for longer than is recommended. Delays in obtaining radiological imaging were an important factor, together with the time taken to receive a definitive management plan. Limitations in social care provision and delays in arranging this were additional barriers to hospital discharge following the final management plan. 4.

  10. An Open-Source Based ITS Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Torp, Kristian


    In this paper, a complete platform used to compute travel times from GPS data is described. Two approaches to computing travel time are proposed one based on points and one based on trips. Overall both approaches give reasonable results compared to existing manual estimated travel times. However......, the trip-based approach requires more GPS data and of a higher quality than the point-based approach. The platform has been completely implemented using open-source software. The main conclusion is that large quantity of GPS data can be managed, with a limited budget and that GPS data is a good source...... for estimating travel times, if enough data is available....

  11. Distributed hash table theory, platforms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hao; Xie, Haiyong; Yu, Nenghai


    This SpringerBrief summarizes the development of Distributed Hash Table in both academic and industrial fields. It covers the main theory, platforms and applications of this key part in distributed systems and applications, especially in large-scale distributed environments. The authors teach the principles of several popular DHT platforms that can solve practical problems such as load balance, multiple replicas, consistency and latency. They also propose DHT-based applications including multicast, anycast, distributed file systems, search, storage, content delivery network, file sharing and c

  12. Morphological indicators of growth stages in carbonates platform evolution: comparison between present-day and Miocene platforms of Northern Borneo, Malaysia. (United States)

    Pierson, B.; Menier, D.; Ting, K. K.; Chalabi, A.


    Satellite images of present-day reefs and carbonate platforms of the Celebes Sea, east of Sabah, Malaysia, exhibit large-scale features indicative of the recent evolution of the platforms. These include: (1) multiple, sub-parallel reef rims at the windward margin, suggestive of back-stepping of the platform margin; (2) contraction of the platform, possibly as a result of recent sea level fluctuations; (3) colonization of the internal lagoons by polygonal reef structures and (4) fragmentation of the platforms and creation of deep channels separating platforms that used to be part of a single entity. These features are analogue to what has been observed on seismic attribute maps of Miocene carbonate platforms of Sarawak. An analysis of several growth stages of a large Miocene platform, referred to as the Megaplatform, shows that the platform evolves in function of syn-depositional tectonic movements and sea level fluctuations that result in back-stepping of the margin, illustrated by multiple reef rims, contraction of the platform, the development of polygonal structures currently interpreted as karstic in origin and fragmentation of the megaplatform in 3 sub-entities separated by deep channels that precedes the final demise of the whole platform. Comparing similar features on present-day to platforms and Miocene platforms leads to a better understanding of the growth history of Miocene platforms and to a refined predictability of reservoir and non-reservoir facies distribution.

  13. Carbonate platform growth and demise offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael B.W.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Nielsen, Lars H.


    Fault Zone, the Tuy Hoa Carbonate Platform fringes the continental margin between Da Nang and Nha Trang. Here, platform growth initiated during the Early Miocene and continued until Middle Miocene time when regional uplift led to subaerial exposure, termination of platform growth and karstification...... continues on isolated platforms hosting the Paracel Islands farther seawards. The onset of widespread carbonate deposition largely reflects the Early Miocene transgression of the area linked with early post-rift subsidence and the opening of the South China Sea. The mid-Neogene shift in carbonate deposition...

  14. Platform Performance and Challenges - using Platforms in Lego Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone; Mortensen, Niels Henrik


    needs focus on the incentive of using the platform. This problem lacks attention in literature, as well as industry, where assessment criteria do not cover this aspect. Therefore, we recommend including user incentive in platform assessment criteria to these challenges. Concrete solution elements...... ensuring user incentive in platforms is an object for future research...

  15. New design and new challenge for space large ultralightweight and stable Zerodur© mirror for future high resolution observation instruments (United States)

    Devilliers, C.; Du Jeu, C.; Costes, V.; Suau, A.; Girault, N.; Cornillon, L.


    Space telescopes pupil diameter increases continuously to reach higher resolutions and associated optical scheme become more sensitive. As a consequence the size of these telescopes but also their stability requirements increase. Therefore, mass of space telescopes becomes a strong design driver to be still compatible with price competitive launcher capabilities. Moreover satellite agility requirements are more and more severe and instruments shall be compatible with quick evolution of thermal environment.

  16. Available: motorised platform

    CERN Multimedia

    The COMPASS collaboration


    The COMPASS collaboration would like to offer to a new owner the following useful and fully operational piece of equipment, which is due to be replaced with better adapted equipment.   Please contact Erwin Bielert ( or 160539) for further information.  Motorized platform (FOR FREE):   Fabricated by ACL (Alfredo Cardoso & Cia Ltd) in Portugal. The model number is MeXs 5-­‐30.  Specifications: 5 m wide, 1 m deep, adjustable height (1.5 m if folded). Maximum working floor height: 4 m. conforms to CERN regulations, number LV158. Type LD500, capacity 500 kg and weight 2000 kg.  If no interested party is found before December 2014, the platform will be thrown away.

  17. RemoteLabs Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Crabeel


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a first step towards the implementation of a framework for remote experimentation of electric machines – the RemoteLabs platform. This project was focused on the development of two main modules: the user Web-based and the electric machines interfaces. The Web application provides the user with a front-end and interacts with the back-end – the user and experiment persistent data. The electric machines interface is implemented as a distributed client server application where the clients, launched by the Web application, interact with the server modules located in platforms physically connected the electric machines drives. Users can register and authenticate, schedule, specify and run experiments and obtain results in the form of CSV, XML and PDF files. These functionalities were successfully tested with real data, but still without including the electric machines. This inclusion is part of another project scheduled to start soon.

  18. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James


    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  19. Online stock trading platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion LUNGU


    Full Text Available The Internet is the perfect tool that can assure the market’s transparency for any user who wants to trade on the stock market. The investor can have access to the market news, financial calendar or the press releases of the issuers. A good online trading platform also provides real-time intraday quotes, trading history and technical analysis giving the investor a clearer view of the supply and demand in the market. All this information provides the investor a good image of the market and encourages him to trade. This paper wishes to draft the pieces of an online trading platform and to analyze the impact of developing and implementing one in a brokerage firm.

  20. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken


    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  1. Contrasting platform thinking and product modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Persson, Magnus


    Product modularization and platform thinking are both practices that seek to alleviate the negative impact of product customization and variety on internal operations by relying on economies of substitution. Through the use of a standardized pool of components and interfaces, these practices aim...... to create a broad spectrum of product choices. At first sight, product modularization and platform thinking are very similar. The difference between these practices can, however, be found in the manner in which they employ standardization. Where product modularization focuses on creating standardized...... variants. There is a general lack of research addressing the contingency factors that dictate the appropriateness of the use of product modularization and platform thinking in different contexts. To our knowledge, no large-scale empirical research has been reported in which the two concepts, contextual...

  2. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform (United States)

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.


    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  3. Business and IT Capabilities for Cloud Platform Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Christopher; Huntgeburth, Jan; Winkler, Till J.


    The growing proliferation of cloud platform ecosystems demands a deeper understanding of the capabilities that help existing and emerging platform providers to be successful by creating and appropriating value. This multiple case study of four cloud platform providers (three large, one SME......) instantiates Rai and Tang’s (2014) framework of dyadic IT and network IT capabilities for a cloud platform context and extends it by exploring previously undertheorized cloud platform business capabilities. We further build on this extended framework by employing a configurational perspective to elucidate...... the complementary role of the three proposed business capabilities (incentives and rules, ecosystem marketing and sales, partner development and support) for relevant value creation and appropriation mechanisms. In addition to providing a capability framework catered to the cloud platform context, our findings...

  4. Data acquisition system issues for large experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, E.J.


    This talk consists of personal observations on two classes of data acquisition ('DAQ') systems for Silicon trackers in large experiments with which the author has been concerned over the last three or more years. The first half is a classic 'lessons learned' recital based on experience with the high-level debug and configuration of the DAQ system for the GLAST LAT detector. The second half is concerned with a discussion of the promises and pitfalls of using modern (and future) generations of 'system-on-a-chip' ('SOC') or 'platform' field-programmable gate arrays ('FPGAs') in future large DAQ systems. The DAQ system pipeline for the 864k channels of Si tracker in the GLAST LAT consists of five tiers of hardware buffers which ultimately feed into the main memory of the (two-active-node) level-3 trigger processor farm. The data formats and buffer volumes of these tiers are briefly described, as well as the flow control employed between successive tiers. Lessons learned regarding data formats, buffer volumes, and flow control/data discard policy are discussed. The continued development of platform FPGAs containing large amounts of configurable logic fabric, embedded PowerPC hard processor cores, digital signal processing components, large volumes of on-chip buffer memory, and multi-gigabit serial I/O capability permits DAQ system designers to vastly increase the amount of data preprocessing that can be performed in parallel within the DAQ pipeline for detector systems in large experiments. The capabilities of some currently available FPGA families are reviewed, along with the prospects for next-generation families of announced, but not yet available, platform FPGAs. Some experience with an actual implementation is presented, and reconciliation between advertised and achievable specifications is attempted. The prospects for applying these components to space-borne Si tracker detectors are briefly discussed

  5. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle. (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J


    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  6. The OTTI space experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, D.A.; Clifton, K.S.; Pearson, S.D.; Barth, J.L.; LaBel, K.; Ritter, J.C.; Peden, J.; Campbell, A.; Liang, R.


    The orbiting technology tested initiative (OTTI) provides a concept for a series of space experiment platforms to be flown at 2-year interval over the next ten years. The long-term purpose of this program is to provide a convenient test-beds to simulate high radiation environments. The purposes of the first platform is to evaluate the on-orbit performance of novel, emerging, breakthrough technologies and advanced state-of-the-art devices in high radiation orbits and to provide correlations between the natural space radiation environment and the device response in the flight test-bed. This short article presents the concept of the OTTI program

  7. Enabling On-Line Deliberation and Collective Decision-Making through Large-Scale Argumentation: A New Approach to the Design of an Internet-Based Mass Collaboration Platform


    Luca Iandoli; Mark Klein; Giuseppe Zollo


    The successful emergence of on-line communities, such as open source software and Wikipedia, seems due to an effective combination of intelligent collective behavior and internet capabilities However, current internet technologies, such as forum, wikis and blogs appear to be less supportive for knowledge organization and consensus formation. In particular very few attempts have been done to support large, diverse, and geographically dispersed groups to systematically explore and come to decis...

  8. University technology platform of anticipatory learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Davidovich Gitelman


    Full Text Available The innovative development sets large-scale and challenging tasks, which need to be addressed in the lack-of-knowledge conditions and require the coordination and integration of numerous expert structures, which are scattered around the world and have different status and competencies. One of the mechanisms of integrating the partners’ intellectual and financial resources is provided by the technology platforms. The article discusses the nature and functions of technology platforms and analyzes the experience of their application in different countries with a special emphasis on universities. The article gives an overview of the various interpretations of technology platform concepts. It also describes the development and implementation of the technological platform at the Ural Federal University (research and education centre ‘ENGEC’, which was targeted at organizing anticipatory learning in the sphere of energy engineering and high-tech industries; its mechanism and role in improving different university activities and processes are shown. This platform is based on the original methodology ‘Integrated System of Consulting, Training, and Transformation’ (ISCT, which includes authentic methods and technologies, which are used in the educational process. A significant advantage of this methodology is that it can be applied in university education as well as in corporate training integrated with innovative activities.

  9. Utilizing platforms in industrialized construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hvam, Lars


    platform strategies, this researchhighlights key aspects of adapting platform-based developed theory to industrialised construction.Building projects use different layers of product, process and logistics platforms to form the right cost– value ratio for the target market application, while modelling...

  10. Space engineering (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.


    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  11. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars


    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  12. Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita


    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent US high-power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high-power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems

  13. Recent advances in nuclear powered electric propulsion for space exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassady, R. Joseph [Aerojet Corp., Redmond, CA (United States); Frisbee, Robert H. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Gilland, James H. [Ohio Aerospace Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Houts, Michael G. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); LaPointe, Michael R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)], E-mail:; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Oleson, Steven R. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Polk, James E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Russell, Derrek [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Sengupta, Anita [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high-power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent US high-power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high-power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems.

  14. The space - time - cube and the display of large movement data sets: the link between visualization strategies and cartographic design guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Kraak, Menno-Jan


    one should not only consider the nature of the data, but also the purpose of the particular phase of the workflow. To verify the above approach the visualization strategies and design guidelines are applied in a different use cases. The cases include: • The annotated space-time path A travel log...... is the Space-Time-cube (STC). The last decades the interest in this representation has increased considerable because of the technological opportunities. Despite the many domains where the STC is used, it is still unclear what the full possibilities and limitations of this graphic representation are. Its three...... consisting of a trajectory based on different modes of transport, with linked annotations. The challenge is to deal different scales and annotations. • The historical movement data The event ‘Napoleons march to Moscow’ contains fifteen space-time paths (STP) with attribute information. Challenge is to answer...

  15. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Science's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS) (United States)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Spearing, Scott F.; Jordan, Lee P.; McDaniel S. Greg


    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. Provides two levels of containment via physical barrier, negative pressure, and air filtration. The MSG team and facilities provide quick access to space for exploratory and National Lab type investigations to gain an understanding of the role of gravity in the physics associated research areas. The MSG is a very versatile and capable research facility on the ISS. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been used for a large body or research in material science, heat transfer, crystal growth, life sciences, smoke detection, combustion, plant growth, human health, and technology demonstration. MSG is an ideal platform for gravity-dependent phenomena related research. Moreover, the MSG provides engineers and scientists a platform for research in an environment similar to the one that spacecraft and crew members will actually experience during space travel and exploration. The MSG facility is ideally suited to provide quick, relatively inexpensive access to space for National Lab type investigations.

  16. Research Opportunities on board Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo (United States)

    Attenborough, S.; Pomerantz, W.; Stephens, K.


    Virgin Galactic is building the world's first commercial spaceline. Our suborbital spaceflight system, pictured in Figure 1, consists of two vehicles: WhiteKnightTwo (WK2) and SpaceShipTwo (SS2). WhiteKnightTwo is a four-engine, dual-fuselage jet aircraft capable of high-altitude heavy lift missions, including, but not limited to fulfilling its role as a mothership for SpaceShipTwo, an air-launched, suborbital spaceplane capable of routinely reaching an apogee up to 110 kilometers. In conjunction, these two vehicles allow access to space and to regions of the atmosphere ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere; additionally, they provide extended periods of microgravity in a reliable and affordable way. SpaceShipTwo, with a payload capacity of up to 1,300 lbs. (~600 kg), features payload mounting interfaces that are compatible with standard architectures such as NASA Space Shuttle Middeck Lockers, Cargo Transfer Bags, and server racks, in addition to custom structures. With the standard interface, payloads are allowed access to the large 17 inch diameter cabin windows for external observations. Each dedicated research flight will be accompanied by a Virgin Galactic Flight Test Engineer, providing an opportunity for limited in-flight interaction. In addition, tended payloads - a flight that includes the researcher and his or her payload - are also an option. At a price point that is highly competitive with parabolic aircraft and sounding rockets and significantly cheaper than orbital flights, SpaceShipTwo is a unique platform that can provide frequent and repeatable research opportunities. Suborbital flights on SpaceShipTwo offer researchers several minutes of microgravity time and views of the external environment in the upper atmosphere and in outer space. In addition to serving as an important research platform in and of itself, SpaceShipTwo also offers researchers a means to test, iterate, and calibrate experiments designed for orbital platforms

  17. A Framework for Assessing Soil Moisture Deficit and Crop Water Stress at Multiple Space and Time Scales Under Climate Change Scenarios Using Model Platform, Satellite Remote Sensing, and Decision Support System

    KAUST Repository

    Mohanty, Binayak P.


    Better understanding of water cycle at different space–time scales would be a key for sustainable water resources, agricultural production, and ecosystems health in the twenty-first century. Efficient agricultural water management is necessary for sustainability of the growing global population. This warrants better predictive tools for aridity (based on precipitation, temperature, land use, and land cover), root zone (~top 1 m) soil moisture deficit, and crop water stress at farm, county, state, region, and national level, where decisions are made to allocate and manage the water resources. It will provide useful strategies for not only efficient water use but also for reducing potential risk of crop failure due to agricultural drought. Leveraging heavily on ongoing multiscale hydrologic modeling, data assimilation, soil moisture dynamics, and inverse model development research activities, and ongoing Land Data Assimilation (LDAS) and National Climate Assessment (NCA) indexing efforts we are developing a drought assessment framework. The drought assessment platform includes: (1) developing disaggregation methods for extracting various field-scale (1-km or less) climate indicators from the (SMOS, VIIRS, SMAP, AMSR-2) satellite / LDAS-based soil moisture in conjunction with a multimodel simulation–optimization approach using ensemble of Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer, SVAT (Noah, CLM, VIC, Mosaic in LIS) models; (2) predicting farm/field-scale long-term root zone soil moisture status under various land management and climate scenarios for the past decades in hindcast mode and for the next decades in forecast mode across the USA using effective land surface parameters and meteorological input from Global Circulation Model (GCM) outputs; (3) assessing the potential risk of agricultural drought at different space–time scales across the USA based on predicted root zone soil moisture; and (4) evaluating various water management and cropping practices (e

  18. The Study of Multifunction External Fixator Based on Stewart Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yue


    Full Text Available The article develops the model of bone deformities, making 6-DOF Parallel Mechanism have widely applied to correction of deformities. The platform’s positional direct solution is the posture of the motion platform. Malformation can be measured by X-ray, based on the space coordinate transformation can find the final posture of the motion platform. Regarding the reverse solution to platform kinematics the paper gives a quick arithmetic program, six actuators to realize motion requirements. For the computer-assisted fracture reduction, we produced an application interface.

  19. The Definitive Guide to NetBeans™ Platform 7

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Heiko


    The NetBeans Platform is the world's only modular Swing application framework, used by very large organizations in mission-critical scenarios, such as at Boeing and Northrop Grumman, as well as in the financial sector and in the oil/gas industry. For these large customers in enterprises who are increasingly interested in Maven and OSGi, the book will have particular relevance. The Definitive Guide to NetBeans Platform 7 is a thorough and authoritative introduction to the open-source NetBeans Platform, covering all its major APIs in detail, with relevant code examples used throughout. * Provide

  20. Large-scale parallel configuration interaction. II. Two- and four-component double-group general active space implementation with application to BiH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Fleig, Timo


    We present a parallel implementation of a large-scale relativistic double-group configuration interaction CIprogram. It is applicable with a large variety of two- and four-component Hamiltonians. The parallel algorithm is based on a distributed data model in combination with a static load balanci...