WorldWideScience

Sample records for large robotics competition

  1. Robotics Competitions: An Overview of First© Events and VEX© Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Robotics competitions generate excitement and raise the profile of a robotics program. This article provides an overview of robotics competitions, concentrating on those sponsored by FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) and RECF (Robotics Education and Competition Foundation). FIRST® LEGO® League and VEX® robotics…

  2. Measurement of power and energy consumption of a competition-mobile-robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Tsing-Tshih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power and energy consumption are the two most important factors for successful operation; they also play important roles in performance identification. The measurement of power and energy consumption is a common test in the development process of a competition mobile robot. If the power of a competition mobile robot is not sufficient, the running time in the competition will be too long and winning the competition will not be possible. Thus, the power and energy consumption are basic and important measurement parameters for a competition mobile robot. In this paper, five types of hand-made competition mobile robots are successfully developed and their performances are measured. From the measurements, their powers and energy consumptions are evaluated and analyzed, respectively. The test results show large differences in the powers and energy consumptions of the five models, even though the same motors were used. The design and construction of the competition mobile robot are the key parameters that cause these huge differences. It is possible to develop the measurement techniques for power and energy consumption, quickly and precisely, to determine how to modify a competition mobile robot rapidly and efficiently to a condition optimal for a mobile robot competition.

  3. Designing competitions for education in robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes design considerations for making a robot competition. Topics as level of participants, learning objective, evaluation form, task design and competition rules are treated. It is shown that careful design considering these topics are necessary for a succesful outcome of a compet......The paper describes design considerations for making a robot competition. Topics as level of participants, learning objective, evaluation form, task design and competition rules are treated. It is shown that careful design considering these topics are necessary for a succesful outcome...... of a competition. The conclusions are based on examples from more than 15 years of experience with robotic competitions....

  4. Final matches of the FIRST regional robotic competition at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Four robots vie for position on the playing field during the 1999 FIRST Southeastern Regional robotic competition held at KSC. Powered by 12-volt batteries and operated by remote control, the robotic gladiators spent two minutes each trying to grab, claw and hoist large, satin pillows onto their machines. Student teams, shown behind protective walls, play defense by taking away competitors' pillows and generally harassing opposing machines. Two of the robots have lifted their caches of pillows above the field, a movement which earns them points. Along with the volunteer referees, at the edge of the playing field, judges at right watch the action. FIRST is a nonprofit organization, For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology. The competition comprised 27 teams, pairing high school students with engineer mentors and corporations. The FIRST robotics competition is designed to provide students with a hands-on, inside look at engineering and other professional careers.

  5. Referees check robots after qualifying match at regional robotic competition at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Referees check the robots on the floor of the playing field after a qualifying match of the 1999 Southeastern Regional robotic competition at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex . Thirty schools from around the country have converged at KSC for the event that pits gladiator robots against each other in an athletic-style competition. The robots have to retrieve pillow- like disks from the floor, as well as climb onto the platform (with flags) and raise the cache of pillows to a height of eight feet. KSC is hosting the event being sponsored by the nonprofit organization For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology, known as FIRST. The FIRST robotics competition is designed to provide students with a hands-on, inside look at engineering and other professional careers.

  6. Student teams maneuver robots in qualifying match at regional robotic competition at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    All four robots, maneuvered by student teams behind protective walls, converge on a corner of the playing field during qualifying matches of the 1999 Southeastern Regional robotic competition at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex . Thirty schools from around the country have converged at KSC for the event that pits gladiator robots against each other in an athletic-style competition. The robots have to retrieve pillow- like disks from the floor, as well as climb onto the platform (with flags) and raise the cache of pillows to a height of eight feet. KSC is hosting the event being sponsored by the nonprofit organization For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology, known as FIRST. The FIRST robotics competition is designed to provide students with a hands-on, inside look at engineering and other professional careers.

  7. Robotics Competitions: The Choice Is up to You!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard T.; Londt, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Competitive robotics as an interactive experience can increase the level of student participation in technology education, inspire students to consider careers in technical fields, and enhance the visibility of technology education programs. Implemented correctly, a competitive robotics program can provide a stimulating learning environment for…

  8. FIRST 2002, 2003, 2004 Robotics Competition(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2002, 2003, and 2004 FIRST Robotics Competitions. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  9. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  10. Design and Implementation of a New DELTA Parallel Robot in Robotics Competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonqlan Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This investigation concerns the design and implementation of the DELTA parallel robot, covering the entire mechatronic process, involving kinematics, control design and optimizing methods. To accelerate the construction of the robot, 3D printing is used to fabricate end-effector parts. The parts are modular, low-cost, reconfigurable and can be assembled in less time than is required for conventionally fabricated parts. The controller, including the control algorithm and human-machine interface (HMI, is coded using the Borland C++ Builder 6 Personal software environment. The integration of the motion controller with image recognition into an opto-mechatronics system is presented. The robot system has been entered into robotic competitions in Taiwan. The experimental results reveal that the proposed DELTA robot completed the tasks in those competitions successfully.

  11. Student teams practice for regional robotic competition at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Student teams (right and left) behind protective walls maneuver their robots on the playing field during practice rounds of the 1999 Southeastern Regional robotic competition at Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex . Thirty schools from around the country have converged at KSC for the event that pits gladiator robots against each other in an athletic-style competition. The robots have to retrieve pillow-like disks from the floor, as well as climb onto the platform (foreground) and raise the cache of pillows to a height of eight feet. KSC is hosting the event being sponsored by the nonprofit organization For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology, known as FIRST. The FIRST robotics competition is designed to provide students with a hands-on, inside look at engineering and other professional careers.

  12. The 1997 AAAI Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Arkin, Ronald C.

    1998-01-01

    In July 1997, the Sixth Annual Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition was held. The competition consisted of four new events: (1) Find Life on Mars; (2) Find the Remote; (3) Home Vacuum; and (4) Hors d'Oeuvres, Anyone? The robot exhibition was the largest in AAAI history. This article presents the history, motivation, and contributions for the event.

  13. The AAAI 2006 Mobile Robot Competition and Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Rybski, Paul E.; Forbes, Jeffrey; Burhans, Debra; Dodds, Zach; Oh, Paul; Scheutz, Matthias; Avanzato, Bob

    2007-01-01

    The Fifteenth Annual AAAI Robot Competition and Exhibition was held at the Twenty-First National Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2006. This article describes the events that were held at the conference, including the Scavenger Hunt, Human Robot Interaction, and Robot Exhibition.

  14. Competitive Robotics Brings out the Best in Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Darrell

    2010-01-01

    This article features Advanced Competitive Science (ACS), a two-year course introduced by a science teacher, Joe Pouliot, in 2004 at Trinity High School in Manchester, New Hampshire. More than a traditional STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) course, ACS harnesses the excitement of robotics competitions to promote student…

  15. NASA's Robotics Mining Competition Provides Undergraduates Full Life Cycle Systems Engineering Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette

    2017-01-01

    NASA has held an annual robotic mining competition for teams of university/college students since 2010. This competition is yearlong, suitable for a senior university engineering capstone project. It encompasses the full project life cycle from ideation of a robot design to actual tele-operation of the robot in simulated Mars conditions mining and collecting simulated regolith. A major required element for this competition is a Systems Engineering Paper in which each team describes the systems engineering approaches used on their project. The score for the Systems Engineering Paper contributes 25% towards the team's score for the competition's grand prize. The required use of systems engineering on the project by this competition introduces the students to an intense practical application of systems engineering throughout a full project life cycle.

  16. Mobile robot competition. Underground mining: A challenging application in mobile robotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . The competition aspires to grow in subsequent years in size and complexity as the universities and their teams grow in capability. In this way, the human capital moving into mining robotics will grow in number and capability, so supplying an expanding market....

  17. Gender, Interest, and Prior Experience Shape Opportunities to Learn Programming in Robotics Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Eben B.; Schunn, Christian D.; Higashi, Ross M.; Baehr, Emily C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Robotics competitions are increasingly popular and potentially provide an on-ramp to computer science, which is currently highly gender imbalanced. However, within competitive robotics teams, student participation in programming is not universal. This study gathered surveys from over 500 elementary, middle, and high school robotics…

  18. Effect of Regional Hospital Competition and Hospital Financial Status on the Use of Robotic-Assisted Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason D; Tergas, Ana I; Hou, June Y; Burke, William M; Chen, Ling; Hu, Jim C; Neugut, Alfred I; Ananth, Cande V; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-07-01

    Despite the lack of efficacy data, robotic-assisted surgery has diffused rapidly into practice. Marketing to physicians, hospitals, and patients has been widespread, but how this marketing has contributed to the diffusion of the technology remains unknown. To examine the effect of regional hospital competition and hospital financial status on the use of robotic-assisted surgery for 5 commonly performed procedures. A cohort study of 221 637 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy, total nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, hysterectomy, or oophorectomy at 1370 hospitals in the United States from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011, was conducted. The association between hospital competition, hospital financial status, and performance of robotic-assisted surgery was examined. The association between hospital competition was measured with the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), hospital financial status was estimated as operating margin, and performance of robotic-assisted surgery was examined using multivariate mixed-effects regression models. We identified 221 637 patients who underwent one of the procedures of interest. The cohort included 30 345 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy; 20 802, total nephrectomy; 8060, partial nephrectomy; 134 985, hysterectomy; and 27 445, oophorectomy. Robotic-assisted operations were performed for 20 500 (67.6%) radical prostatectomies, 1405 (6.8%) total nephrectomies, 2759 (34.2%) partial nephrectomies, 14 047 (10.4%) hysterectomies, and 1782 (6.5%) oophorectomies. Use of robotic-assisted surgery increased for each procedure from January 2010 through December 2011. For all 5 operations, increased market competition (as measured by the HHI) was associated with increased use of robotic-assisted surgery. For prostatectomy, the risk ratios (95% CIs) for undergoing a robotic-assisted procedure were 2.20 (1.50-3.24) at hospitals in moderately competitive markets and 2.64 (1.84-3.78) for highly competitive markets

  19. A Retrospective of the AAAI Robot Competitions

    OpenAIRE

    Bonasso, R. Peter; Dean, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    This article is the content of an invited talk given by the authors at the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-96). The piece begins with a short history of the competition, then discusses the technical challenges and the political and cultural issues associated with bringing it off every year. We also cover the science and engineering involved with the robot tasks and the educational and commercial aspects of the competition. We finish with a discussion of the com...

  20. IDC Robocon: A Transnational Teaming Competition for Project-Based Design Education in Undergraduate Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Tan; Rajesh Elara Mohan; Shaohui Foong; Masaki Yamakita; Masami Iwase; Shoshiro Hatakeyama; Norihiro Kamamichi; Libo Song; You Wang; Qiuguo Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a robot design competition called ‘IDC Robocon’ as an effective tool for engineering education. The International Design Contest (IDC) Robocon competition has several benefits in creating a meaningful design experience for undergraduate engineering students and includes an international flavour as participants of the competition hail from all around the world. The problem posed to the contestants is to design, build and test mobile robots that are capable of accomplishing ...

  1. New Horizons Regional Education Center 2001 FIRST Robotics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2001 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  2. New Horizons Regional Education Center 1999 FIRST Robotics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purman, Richard I.

    1999-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 1999 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  3. Closing ceremonies of the FIRST Southeast Regional robotics competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    At the conclusion of the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition held at the KSC Visitor Complex, KSC Deputy Director for Business Operations Jim Jennings speaks to the teams and other attendees. At left is Gregg Gale, with Walt Disney World, which is the site of the national competition (at EPCOT) April 6-8. Teams of high school students from all over the country tested the limits of their imagination using robots they designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing at the Southeast Regional event, 16 were Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  4. Framework for Educational Robotics: A Multiphase Approach to Enhance User Learning in a Competitive Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, Ngit Chan; Wong, Kok Wai; Chiou, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Educational robotics involves using robots as an educational tool to provide a long term, and progressive learning activity, to cater to different age group. The current concern is that, using robots in education should not be an instance of a one-off project for the sole purpose of participating in a competitive event. Instead, it should be a…

  5. Collaborative gaming and competition for CS-STEM education using SPHERES Zero Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Katz, Jacob G.; Saenz-Otero, Alvar

    2013-02-01

    There is widespread investment of resources in the fields of Computer Science, Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (CS-STEM) education to improve STEM interests and skills. This paper addresses the goal of revolutionizing student education using collaborative gaming and competition, both in virtual simulation environments and on real hardware in space. The concept is demonstrated using the SPHERES Zero Robotics (ZR) Program which is a robotics programming competition. The robots are miniature satellites called SPHERES—an experimental test bed developed by the MIT SSL on the International Space Station (ISS) to test navigation, formation flight and control algorithms in microgravity. The participants compete to win a technically challenging game by programming their strategies into the SPHERES satellites, completely from a web browser. The programs are demonstrated in simulation, on ground hardware and then in a final competition when an astronaut runs the student software aboard the ISS. ZR had a pilot event in 2009 with 10 High School (HS) students, a nationwide pilot tournament in 2010 with over 200 HS students from 19 US states, a summer tournament in 2010 with ˜150 middle school students and an open-registration tournament in 2011 with over 1000 HS students from USA and Europe. The influence of collaboration was investigated by (1) building new web infrastructure and an Integrated Development Environment where intensive inter-participant collaboration is possible, (2) designing and programming a game to solve a relevant formation flight problem, collaborative in nature—and (3) structuring a tournament such that inter-team collaboration is mandated. This paper introduces the ZR web tools, assesses the educational value delivered by the program using space and games and evaluates the utility of collaborative gaming within this framework. There were three types of collaborations as variables—within matches (to achieve game objectives), inter

  6. Using a robotics competition to teach about and stimulate enthusiasm for Earth science and other STEM topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Hildee; Barnhart, Paul; Brevik, Corinne E.; Brevik, Eric C.; Burgess, Cynthia; Chen, Jundong; Egli, Shawna; Harris, Billy; Johanson, Paul J.; Johnson, Naomi; Moe, Marie; Olsen, Reba

    2016-04-01

    One of the major challenges in recruiting students to careers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields is to stimulate enthusiasm about these fields in our youth. BEST (Boosting Engineering Science and Technology) Robotics is a national program in the USA that attempts to recruit junior and senior high school students (ages 13-18) into STEM careers by showing youth how exciting these careers can be by using robotics competitions. The competitions have several aspects, including robot design, software engineering, marketing, public outreach, research into the subject area of the year's tasks, and a set of tasks to be physically performed by the robots that each team builds. The tasks to be performed change every year; therefore, even teams that compete over multiple years must build a new robot each year designed to perform the particular tasks charged to them. Dickinson State University is the home to Blue Hawk BEST, one of the hubs that host the first round of competition for teams hoping to move on to regional, and potentially, national level competition. The tasks for 2015 revolved around a mining theme. The robots needed to be able to replace the filter in an air filtration system, fix broken pipes, mine simulated aggregate, coal, magnetite, bauxite, chalcopyrite, and spodumene, and move core samples. Points were awarded for successful progress toward each task based on the difficulty of the task and the market value of the commodities. While several STEM fields are covered in various aspects of the competition, the 2015 competition includes Earth science in that the students are required to research the history and science of the commodities being mined and learn about ways the commodities are important to their lives and the economy of their particular region. Several awards are handed out to the top performing teams in various categories, including spirit and sportsmanship awards. As teams compete for these awards a raucous

  7. Using FIRST LEGO League Robotics Competitions to Engage Middle School Students in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jeffrey

    2009-11-01

    As the nation and world grapple with looming crises in sectors such as energy, health care and the environment, it is critical that we keep today's youth interested in careers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM). Studies indicate that many students lose interest in the sciences by ages 10-13, when they are in grades 4-8 in the U.S. educational system. Many of the interventions to counteract this trend focus on boosting interest in STEM in secondary schools and universities. However the case can be made that the greater need is actually earlier in the education of the child. How can we work with this age group in an exciting way that will promote the study of science? Student robotics competitions might be one effective answer. Programs are currently being run around the country and the world that engage young people in the study of science through robotic competition. Many of these programs rely on mentors to guide the students through the process, which in the most effective programs includes the study of physic concepts through engineering design. During this presentation we will discuss the options for participating in programs that help the students and teachers better understand the science, specifically the physics, which underlies robotics. In particular, we will focus on the international program called FIRST LEGO League (FLL), in which students ages 9-14 are challenged every year to construct a LEGO robot that can navigate and complete a course of theme-related missions. The FLL program is currently operating in almost every state in the U.S. and relies on recruiting qualified mentors and judges who want to impact young people's interest in STEM. Physics professionals can make a tremendous difference in the lives of these eager middle school students.

  8. Pittsburgh Public School District / Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Team Participation in the US First Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroupe, Ashley

    2002-01-01

    FIRST, For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology, is an international program designed to encourage junior and senior high school students to participate in science and technology related activities. FIRST attempts to increase enthusiasm for technology by providing a competitive environment in which to demonstrate robotics technology designed for a particular set of tasks. Carnegie Mellon University provided student members of the project the opportunity to complete the design, construction, testing, and operation of a robot. Electrical, mechanical, and programming skills were stressed, with both adult and senior students acting as mentors for more junior members. Teamwork and integration was also stressed in order to provide students with a realistic feel for project-based work. Finally, an emphasis was placed on recruiting students with greater difficulty in entering technological fields: girls and ethnic minorities and students leaning toward humanities (especially art). Carnegie Mellon built a relationship with Taylor Allderdice High School that lasted four years. For four years, the success of the project increased each year. Each term, the students successfully designed and built a working robot that could fully participate in the competition. The enthusiasm of the students has been the cornerstone of the recruit of new students, keeping the project growing and vital. Carnegie Mellon's participation with Allderdice has been an overall great success.

  9. Robotic simple prostatectomy: A consideration for large prostate adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Nething

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH has changed considerably over the last several decades. First line treatment of BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with medical therapy has created a population of men with much larger prostate glands, many of whom require surgical intervention. Patients with prostate glands greater than 80 to 100 grams may be better managed surgically with a retropubic prostatectomy. We explore our experience with robotic assisted simple prostatectomy and review the relevant literature. Database: The database reviewed includes our experience with seven patients undergoing robotic simple prostatectomy, and a comprehensive review of the previously published series of this procedure. In addition, the literature pertaining to a pure laparoscopic approach to simple prostatectomy is reviewed. Conclusion: Robotic experience and training has become a standard in resident training programs; while classic transurethral resection is being performed less for large prostate glands. The robotic approach to simple prostatectomy provides an excellent option for surgical treatment of very large prostate glands, providing patients acceptable results in terms of operative time, estimated blood loss, hospital stay and duration of Foley catheter.

  10. Strategic Alliances in The Robotics Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the master-thesis was to examine how Blue Ocean Robotics can structure its strategic alliances to gain a competitive advantage in the market development of robotics in international markets.......The purpose of the master-thesis was to examine how Blue Ocean Robotics can structure its strategic alliances to gain a competitive advantage in the market development of robotics in international markets....

  11. The 17th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: Intelligent Robots Built by Intelligent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-23

    intelligent mobile robots. The competition has been highly praised by faculty advisors as an excellent multidisciplinary design experience for...States Naval Academy Robo -Goat 60 0:54 21 Oakland University Moonwalker 54 0:22 22 Tennessee Technological University Andros 53 1:06 23 California...Naval Academy Robo -Goat 622.00 20 University of Michigan – Dearborn Rhino 568.50 21 Georgia Institute of Technology Candiii 533.00 22 Rose-Hulman

  12. The difficulties of writing procurement specifications for robots in nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.; Bowen, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    The commercial robots available today were developed to primarily support the automotive or electronics industries. The adaptation of these robots and the current robotic technology to handle and manufacture nuclear materials has had its problems. The operational space and maintenance constraints have special consideration. The robotic systems of today tend to not have the payload capability for nuclear applications or, if the payload is sufficient, the system is very large and has several operating and maintenance accessibility requirements. The process of specifying, purchasing, and modifying a robotic system is an expensive and time-consuming process. The procurement specification is critical to obtaining competitive quotations on robots for nuclear applications resulting in the most economical robotic system

  13. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  14. Research and assessment of competitiveness of large engineering complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivorotov V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the problem of ensuring the competitiveness of manufacturing and high-tech sectors is shown. Substantiated the decisive role of the large industrial complexes in the formation of the results of the national economy; the author’s interpretation of the concept of “industrial complex” with regard to current economic systems. Current approaches to assessing the competitiveness of enterprises and industrial complexes are analyzed; showing their main advantages and disadvantages. Provides scientific-methodological approach to the study and management of competitiveness of a large industrial complex; the description of its main units is provided. As a Central element of the scientific methodology approach proposed the methodology for assessing the competitiveness of a large industrial complex based on the Pattern-method; a modular system of indicators of competitiveness is developed and its adaptation to a large engineering complexes is made. Using the developed methodology the competitiveness of one of the largest engineering complexes of the group of companies Uralelectrotyazhmash, which is the leading enterprises in electrotechnical industry of Russia is assessed. The evaluation identified the main problems and bottlenecks in the development of these enterprises, and their comparison with leading competitors is provided. According to the results of the study the main conclusions and recommendations are formed.

  15. Automation, robotics and remote handling technology in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, C.; Venugopal, S.

    2013-01-01

    Automation and Robotics technology are making significant contributions in almost all fields of engineering and technology and their presence is felt in all spheres of human life. The importance of automation and robotics has increased rapidly in the recent years to cater to the global competitive pressures by the manufacturing industry by utilizing the increased productivity and improved quality this technology offers. Improvement of productivity, quality, profitability and, indeed, survival are the major motivating factors in the implementation of automation and robotics technology in the manufacturing sector. Robots are used extensively in the automotive industry, primarily for welding, painting and material handling applications. The electronics, aerospace, metalworking and consumer goods industries are also major potential robot users. The common uses of robots in industries mostly include the four Ps - Picking, Placing, Packaging and Painting - apart from other industrial routines like assembly and welding. As is the case with industrial tools and machineries, a properly designed robot (for the appropriate task) has almost unlimited endurance with the added benefit of precisions unmatched by human workers. With robot technology as a key element, integrated factory automation systems touch on nearly all types of manufacturing. The productivity and competitiveness in these industries will depend in large part on flexible automation through robotics

  16. Problems of Sport Biomechanics and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on biomechanics and also to present different types of sport robots: serving balls, helping to provide sports training, substituting humans during training, physically participating in competitions, physically participating in competitions against humans, serving as models of real sport performance, helping organizers of sport events and robot toys. Examples of the application of robots in sports communities are also given.

  17. Gait Planning Research for an Electrically Driven Large-Load-Ratio Six-Legged Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chao Zhuang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gait planning is an important basis for the walking of a legged robot. To improve the walking stability of multi-legged robots and to reduce the impact force between the foot and the ground, gait planning strategies are presented for an electrically driven large-load-ratio six-legged robot. First, the configuration and walking gait of the electrically driven large-load-ratio six-legged robot are designed. The higher-stable swing sequences of legs and typical walking modes are respectively obtained. Based on the Denavit–Hartenberg (D–H method, the analyses of the forward and inverse kinematics are implemented. The mathematical models of the articulated rotation angles are respectively established. In view of the buffer device installed at the end of shin to decrease the impact force between the foot and the ground, an initial lift height of the leg is brought into gait planning when the support phase changes into the transfer phase. The mathematical models of foot trajectories are established. Finally, a prototype of the electrically driven large-load-ratio six-legged robot is developed. The experiments of the prototype are carried out regarding the aspects of the walking speed and surmounting obstacle. Then, the reasonableness of gait planning is verified based on the experimental results. The proposed strategies of gait planning lay the foundation for effectively reducing the foot–ground impact force and can provide a reference for other large-load-ratio multi-legged robots.

  18. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  19. An Aerial-Ground Robotic System for Navigation and Obstacle Mapping in Large Outdoor Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zapata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many outdoor robotic applications where a robot must reach a goal position or explore an area without previous knowledge of the environment around it. Additionally, other applications (like path planning require the use of known maps or previous information of the environment. This work presents a system composed by a terrestrial and an aerial robot that cooperate and share sensor information in order to address those requirements. The ground robot is able to navigate in an unknown large environment aided by visual feedback from a camera on board the aerial robot. At the same time, the obstacles are mapped in real-time by putting together the information from the camera and the positioning system of the ground robot. A set of experiments were carried out with the purpose of verifying the system applicability. The experiments were performed in a simulation environment and outdoor with a medium-sized ground robot and a mini quad-rotor. The proposed robotic system shows outstanding results in simultaneous navigation and mapping applications in large outdoor environments.

  20. RoboCup Rescue Robot and Simulation Leagues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akin, H.L.; Ito, N.; Jacoff, A.; Kleiner, A.; Pellenz, J.; Visser, A.

    2013-01-01

    The RoboCup Rescue Robot and Simulation competitions have been held since 2000. The experience gained during these competitions has increased the maturity level of the field, which allowed deploying robots after real disasters (for example, Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster). This article provides

  1. MARS: An Educational Environment for Multiagent Robot Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Casini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate robotics students often find it difficult to design and validate control algorithms for teams of mobile robots. This is mainly due to two reasons. First, very rarely, educational laboratories are equipped with large teams of robots, which are usually expensive, bulky, and difficult to manage and maintain. Second, robotics simulators often require students to spend much time to learn their use and functionalities. For this purpose, a simulator of multiagent mobile robots named MARS has been developed within the Matlab environment, with the aim of helping students to simulate a wide variety of control algorithms in an easy way and without spending time for understanding a new language. Through this facility, the user is able to simulate multirobot teams performing different tasks, from cooperative to competitive ones, by using both centralized and distributed controllers. Virtual sensors are provided to simulate real devices. A graphical user interface allows students to monitor the robots behaviour through an online animation.

  2. FIRST robots compete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams and their robots work to go through the right motions at the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  3. EVOLUTION OF THE ROBOT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Marina Andreea

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction of a robot used at a national robot competition in Romania. The robot consists of datasheet sensors (2 long distance measuring sensors, 4 reflective object sensors, 4 engines, 4 gears, a battery and the plates with microcontrollers

  4. The Robotic Decathlon: Project-Based Learning Labs and Curriculum Design for an Introductory Robotics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelleri, D. J.; Vitoroulis, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a series of novel project-based learning labs for an introductory robotics course that are developed into a semester-long Robotic Decathlon. The last three events of the Robotic Decathlon are used as three final one-week-long project tasks; these replace a previous course project that was a semester-long robotics competition.…

  5. The Mobile Robot "Little Helper"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Madsen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Increased customer needs and intensified global competition require intelligent and flexible automation. The interaction technology mobile robotics addresses this, so it holds great potential within the industry. This paper presents the concepts, ideas and working principles of the mobile robot...... this show promising results regarding industrial integration, exploitation and maturation of mobile robotics....

  6. Towards Competitive Commercial Autonomous Robots: The Configuration Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2011-01-01

    knowledge about the underlying algorithms. The framework also makes it possible for the robot to autonomously calibrate itself, resulting in higher stability of the robot and less development time required. The work is a result of an industrial research project aimed at lowering development costs...

  7. Telerobotic Excavator Designed to Compete in NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Rodney; Santin, Cara; Yousef, Ahmed; Nguyen, Thien; Helferty, John; Pillapakkam, Shriram

    2011-01-01

    The second annual NASA Lunabotics Mining competition is to be held in May 23-28, 2011. The goal of the competition is for teams of university level students to design, build, test and compete with a fully integrated lunar excavator on a simulated lunar surface. Our team, named Lunar Solutions I, will be representing Temple University's College of Engineering in the competition. The team's main goal was to build a robot which is able to compete with other teams, and ultimately win the competition. The main challenge of the competition was to build a wireless robot that can excavate and collect a minimum of 10 kilograms of the regolith material within 15 minutes. The robot must also be designed to operate in conditions similar to those found on the lunar surface. The design of the lunar excavator is constrained by a set of requirements determined by NASA and detailed in the competition's rulebook. The excavator must have the ability to communicate with the "main base" wirelessly, and over a Wi-Fi network. Human operators are located at a remote site approximately 60 meters away from the simulated lunar surface upon which the robot must excavate the lunar regolith surface. During the competition, the robot will operate in a separate area from the control room in an area referred to as the "Lunarena." From the control room, the operators will have to control the robot using visual feedback from cameras placed both within the arena and on the robot. Using this visual feedback the human operators control the robots movement using both keyboard and joystick commands. In order to place in the competition, a minimum of 10 kg of regolith material has to be excavated, collected, and dumped into a specific location. For that reason, the robot must be provided with an effective and powerful excavation system. Our excavator uses tracks for the drive system. After performing extensive research and trade studies, we concluded that tracks would be the most effective method for

  8. Bioinspired legged-robot based on large deformation of flexible skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayyas, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present STARbot, a bioinspired legged robot capable of multiple locomotion modalities by using large deformation of its skeleton. We construct STARbot by using origami-style folding of flexible laminates. The long-term goal is to provide a robotic platform with maximum mobility on multiple surfaces. This paper particularly studies the quasistatic model of STARbot’s leg under different conditions. We describe the large elastic deformation of a leg under external force, payload, and friction by using a set of non-dimensional, nonlinear approximate equations. We developed a test mechanism that models the motion of a leg in STARbot. We augmented several foot shapes and then tested them on soft to rough grounds. Both simulation and experimental findings were in good agreement. We utilized the model to develop several scales of tri and quad STARbot. We demonstrated the capability of these robots to locomote by combining their leg deformations with their foot motions. The combination provided a design platform for an active suspension STARbot with controlled foot locomotion. This included the ability of STARbot to change size, run over obstacles, walk and slide. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss a cost effective manufacturing and production method for manufacturing STARbot. (paper)

  9. Bioinspired legged-robot based on large deformation of flexible skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyas, Mohammad

    2014-11-11

    In this article we present STARbot, a bioinspired legged robot capable of multiple locomotion modalities by using large deformation of its skeleton. We construct STARbot by using origami-style folding of flexible laminates. The long-term goal is to provide a robotic platform with maximum mobility on multiple surfaces. This paper particularly studies the quasistatic model of STARbot's leg under different conditions. We describe the large elastic deformation of a leg under external force, payload, and friction by using a set of non-dimensional, nonlinear approximate equations. We developed a test mechanism that models the motion of a leg in STARbot. We augmented several foot shapes and then tested them on soft to rough grounds. Both simulation and experimental findings were in good agreement. We utilized the model to develop several scales of tri and quad STARbot. We demonstrated the capability of these robots to locomote by combining their leg deformations with their foot motions. The combination provided a design platform for an active suspension STARbot with controlled foot locomotion. This included the ability of STARbot to change size, run over obstacles, walk and slide. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss a cost effective manufacturing and production method for manufacturing STARbot.

  10. 5th International Robotic Sailing Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Finnis, James

    2013-01-01

    Robotic sailing offers the potential of wind propelled vehicles which are sufficiently autonomous to remain at sea for months at a time. These could replace or augment existing oceanographic sampling systems, be used in border surveillance and security or offer a means of carbon neutral transportation. To achieve this represents a complex, multi-disciplinary challenge to boat designers and naval architects, systems/electrical engineers and computer scientists.  Since 2004 a series of competitions in the form of the Sailbot, World Robotic Sailing Championship and Microtransat competitions have sparked an explosion in the number of groups working on autonomous sailing robots. Despite this interest the longest distance sailed autonomously remains only a few hundred miles. Many of the challenges in building truly autonomous sailing robots still remain unsolved. These proceedings present the cutting edge of work in a variety of fields related to robotic sailing. They will be presented during the 5th International...

  11. Development of dog-like retrieving capability in a ground robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Douglas C.; Ashok, Rahul; Rehg, James M.; Witus, Gary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the Mobile Intelligence Team's approach to addressing the CANINE outdoor ground robot competition. The competition required developing a robot that provided retrieving capabilities similar to a dog, while operating fully autonomously in unstructured environments. The vision team consisted of Mobile Intelligence, the Georgia Institute of Technology, and Wayne State University. Important computer vision aspects of the project were the ability to quickly learn the distinguishing characteristics of novel objects, searching images for the object as the robot drove a search pattern, identifying people near the robot for safe operations, correctly identify the object among distractors, and localizing the object for retrieval. The classifier used to identify the objects will be discussed, including an analysis of its performance, and an overview of the entire system architecture presented. A discussion of the robot's performance in the competition will demonstrate the system's successes in real-world testing.

  12. High productivity mould robotic milling in Al-5083

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urresti, Iker; Arrazola, Pedro Jose; Ørskov, Klaus Bonde; Pelegay, Jose Angel

    2018-05-01

    Industrial serial robots were usually limited to welding, handling or spray painting operations until very recent years. However, some industries have already realized about their important capabilities in terms of flexibility, working space, adaptability and cost. Hence, currently they are seriously being considered to carry out certain metal machining tasks. Therefore, robot based machining is presented as a cost-saving and flexible manufacturing alternative compared to conventional CNC machines especially for roughing or even pre-roughing of large parts. Nevertheless, there are still some drawbacks usually referred as low rigidity, accuracy and repeatability. Thus, the process productivity is usually sacrificed getting low Material Removal Rates (MRR), and consequently not being competitive. Nevertheless, in this paper different techniques to obtain increased productivity are presented, though an appropriate selection of cutting strategies and parameters that are essential for it. During this research some rough milling tests in Al-5083 are presented where High Feed Milling (HFM) is implemented as productive cutting strategy and the experimental modal analysis named Tap-testing is used for the suitable choice of cutting conditions. Competitive productivity rates are experienced while process stability is checked through the cutting forces measurements in order to prove the effectiveness of the experimental modal analysis for robotic machining.

  13. Colias: An Autonomous Micro Robot for Swarm Robotic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Arvin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Robotic swarms that take inspiration from nature are becoming a fascinating topic for multi-robot researchers. The aim is to control a large number of simple robots in order to solve common complex tasks. Due to the hardware complexities and cost of robot platforms, current research in swarm robotics is mostly performed by simulation software. The simulation of large numbers of these robots in robotic swarm applications is extremely complex and often inaccurate due to the poor modelling of external conditions. In this paper, we present the design of a low-cost, open-platform, autonomous micro-robot (Colias for robotic swarm applications. Colias employs a circular platform with a diameter of 4 cm. It has a maximum speed of 35 cm/s which enables it to be used in swarm scenarios very quickly over large arenas. Long-range infrared modules with an adjustable output power allow the robot to communicate with its direct neighbours at a range of 0.5 cm to 2 m. Colias has been designed as a complete platform with supporting software development tools for robotics education and research. It has been tested in both individual and swarm scenarios, and the observed results demonstrate its feasibility for use as a micro-sized mobile robot and as a low-cost platform for robot swarm applications.

  14. The University Rover Challenge: A competition highlighting Human and Robotic partnerships for exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather; Duncan, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The University Rover Challenge began in 2006 with 4 American college teams competing, now in it's 10th year there are 63 teams from 12 countries registered to compete for the top rover designed to assist humans in the exploration of Mars. The Rovers compete aided by the University teams in four tasks (3 engineering and 1 science) in the Mars analog environment of the Utah Southern Desert in the United States. In this presentation we show amazing rover designs with videos demonstrating the incredible ingenuity, skill and determination of the world's most talented college students. We describe the purpose and results of each of the tasks: Astronaut Assistant, Rover Dexterity, Terrain maneuvering, and Science. We explain the evolution of the competition and common challenges faced by the robotic explorers

  15. Robot vision for nuclear advanced robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Ryoichi; Okano, Hideharu; Kuno, Yoshinori; Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Shimada, Hideo; Okada, Satoshi; Kawamura, Astuo

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes Robot Vision and Operation System for Nuclear Advanced Robot. This Robot Vision consists of robot position detection, obstacle detection and object recognition. With these vision techniques, a mobile robot can make a path and move autonomously along the planned path. The authors implemented the above robot vision system on the 'Advanced Robot for Nuclear Power Plant' and tested in an environment mocked up as nuclear power plant facilities. Since the operation system for this robot consists of operator's console and a large stereo monitor, this system can be easily operated by one person. Experimental tests were made using the Advanced Robot (nuclear robot). Results indicate that the proposed operation system is very useful, and can be operate by only person. (author)

  16. Multi-Robot FastSLAM for Large Domains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koperski, Choyong G

    2007-01-01

    For a robot to build a map of its surrounding area, it must have accurate position information within the area, and to obtain accurate position information within the area, the robot needs to have an...

  17. Robot Work Platform for Large Hot Cell Deactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BITTEN, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 324 Building, located at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, is being deactivated to meet state and federal cleanup commitments. The facility is currently in its third year of a nine-year project to complete deactivation and closure for long-term surveillance and maintenance. The 324 building contains large hot cells that were used for high-radiation, high-contamination chemical process development and demonstrations. A major obstacle for the 324 deactivation project is the inability to effectively perform deactivation tasks within highly radioactive, contaminated environments. Current strategies use inefficient, resource intensive technologies that significantly impact the cost and schedule for deactivation. To meet mandated cleanup commitments, there is a need to deploy rapid, more efficient remote/robot technologies to minimize worker exposure, accelerate work tasks, and eliminate the need for multiple specialized tool design and procurement efforts. This paper describes the functions and performance requirements for a crane-deployed remote/robot Work Platform possessing full access capabilities. The remote/robot Work Platform will deploy commercially available off-the-shelf tools and end effectors to support Project cleanup goals and reduce overall project risk and cost. The intent of this system is to maximize the use of off-the-shelf technologies that minimize additional new, unproven, or novel designs. This paper further describes procurement strategy, the selection process, the selected technology, and the current status of the procurement and lessons learned. Funding, in part, has been provided by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area

  18. Robot Skills for Transformable Manufacturing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Rath

    Efficient, transformable production systems need robots that are flexible and effortlessly repurposed or reconfigured. The present dissertation argues that this can be achieved through the implementation and use of general, object-centered robot skills. In this dissertation, we focus on the design...... autonomously, exactly when it is needed. It is the firm belief of this researcher that industrial robotics need to go in a direction towards what is outlined in this dissertation, both in academia and in the industry. In order for manufacturing companies to remain competitive, robotics is the definite way...

  19. Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration Through Accomplishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition is designed to promote the development of interest in space activities and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields. The competition uses excavation, a necessary first step towards extracting resources from the regolith and building bases on the moon. The unique physical properties of lunar regolith and the reduced 1/6th gravity, vacuum environment make excavation a difficult technical challenge. Advances in lunar regolith mining have the potential to significantly contribute to our nation's space vision and NASA space exploration operations. The competition is conducted annually by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The teams that can use telerobotic or autonomous operation to excavate a lunar regolith geotechnical simulant, herein after referred to as Black Point-1 (or BP-1) and score the most points (calculated as an average of two separate 10-minute timed competition attempts) will eam points towards the Joe Kosmo Award for Excellence and the scores will reflect ranking in the on-site mining category of the competition. The minimum excavation requirement is 10.0 kg during each competition attempt and the robotic excavator, referred to as the "Lunabot", must meet all specifications. This paper will review the achievements of the Lunabotics Mining Competition in 2010 and 2011, and present the new rules for 2012. By providing a framework for robotic design and fabrication, which culminates in a live competition event, university students have been able to produce sophisticated lunabots which are tele-operated. Multi-disciplinary teams are encouraged and the extreme sense of accomplishment provides a unique source of inspiration to the participating students, which has been shown to translate into increased interest in STEM careers. Our industrial sponsors (Caterpillar, Newmont Mining, Harris, Honeybee Robotics) have all stated that there is a strong need for skills in the workforce related

  20. College of Engineering team to build battlefield robots for 2010 competition

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    The roving, walking robotic soldiers of the "Terminator" films are becoming less sci-fi, and more certain future every day. Now, a team of robotics researchers from the Virginia Tech College of Engineering will build a team of fully autonomous cooperative battle-ready robots as part of a 2010 international war games challenge that could spur real-life battle bots.

  1. Designing the robot inclusive space challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Elara Mohan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel robotic challenge, namely the robot inclusive spaces (RIS challenge, is proposed in this paper, which is a cross disciplinary and design focused initiative. It aims to foster the roboticists, architects, and designers towards realizing robot friendly social spaces. Contrary to conventional robotics competitions focusing on designing robots and its component technologies, robot inclusive spaces challenge adopts an interdisciplinary “design for robots” strategy to overcome the traditional research problem in real world deployments of social robots. In order to realize the RIS, various architectural elements must be adapted including: design principles for inclusive spaces, lighting schemes, furniture choices and arrangement, wall and floor surfaces, pathways among others. This paper introduces the format and design principles of RIS challenge, presents a first run of the challenge, and gives the corresponding analysis.

  2. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  3. Multi-Robot FastSLAM for Large Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Derr, D. Fox, A.B. Cremers , Integrating global position estimation and position tracking for mobile robots: The dynamic markov localization approach...Intelligence (AAAI), 2000. 53. Andrew J. Davison and David W. Murray. Simultaneous Localization and Map- Building Using Active Vision. IEEE...Wyeth, Michael Milford and David Prasser. A Modified Particle Filter for Simultaneous Robot Localization and Landmark Tracking in an Indoor

  4. Automatic Multiple-Needle Surgical Planning of Robotic-Assisted Microwave Coagulation in Large Liver Tumor Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoli Liu

    Full Text Available The "robotic-assisted liver tumor coagulation therapy" (RALTCT system is a promising candidate for large liver tumor treatment in terms of accuracy and speed. A prerequisite for effective therapy is accurate surgical planning. However, it is difficult for the surgeon to perform surgical planning manually due to the difficulties associated with robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy. These main difficulties include the following aspects: (1 multiple needles are needed to destroy the entire tumor, (2 the insertion trajectories of the needles should avoid the ribs, blood vessels, and other tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity, (3 the placement of multiple needles should avoid interference with each other, (4 an inserted needle will cause some deformation of liver, which will result in changes in subsequently inserted needles' operating environment, and (5 the multiple needle-insertion trajectories should be consistent with the needle-driven robot's movement characteristics. Thus, an effective multiple-needle surgical planning procedure is needed. To overcome these problems, we present an automatic multiple-needle surgical planning of optimal insertion trajectories to the targets, based on a mathematical description of all relevant structure surfaces. The method determines the analytical expression of boundaries of every needle "collision-free reachable workspace" (CFRW, which are the feasible insertion zones based on several constraints. Then, the optimal needle insertion trajectory within the optimization criteria will be chosen in the needle CFRW automatically. Also, the results can be visualized with our navigation system. In the simulation experiment, three needle-insertion trajectories were obtained successfully. In the in vitro experiment, the robot successfully achieved insertion of multiple needles. The proposed automatic multiple-needle surgical planning can improve the efficiency and safety of robot-assisted large liver tumor

  5. Automatic Multiple-Needle Surgical Planning of Robotic-Assisted Microwave Coagulation in Large Liver Tumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaoli; Xia, Zeyang; Liu, Jianhua; Xu, Jing; Ren, He; Lu, Tong; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    The "robotic-assisted liver tumor coagulation therapy" (RALTCT) system is a promising candidate for large liver tumor treatment in terms of accuracy and speed. A prerequisite for effective therapy is accurate surgical planning. However, it is difficult for the surgeon to perform surgical planning manually due to the difficulties associated with robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy. These main difficulties include the following aspects: (1) multiple needles are needed to destroy the entire tumor, (2) the insertion trajectories of the needles should avoid the ribs, blood vessels, and other tissues and organs in the abdominal cavity, (3) the placement of multiple needles should avoid interference with each other, (4) an inserted needle will cause some deformation of liver, which will result in changes in subsequently inserted needles' operating environment, and (5) the multiple needle-insertion trajectories should be consistent with the needle-driven robot's movement characteristics. Thus, an effective multiple-needle surgical planning procedure is needed. To overcome these problems, we present an automatic multiple-needle surgical planning of optimal insertion trajectories to the targets, based on a mathematical description of all relevant structure surfaces. The method determines the analytical expression of boundaries of every needle "collision-free reachable workspace" (CFRW), which are the feasible insertion zones based on several constraints. Then, the optimal needle insertion trajectory within the optimization criteria will be chosen in the needle CFRW automatically. Also, the results can be visualized with our navigation system. In the simulation experiment, three needle-insertion trajectories were obtained successfully. In the in vitro experiment, the robot successfully achieved insertion of multiple needles. The proposed automatic multiple-needle surgical planning can improve the efficiency and safety of robot-assisted large liver tumor therapy

  6. Robotics in general surgery: A systematic cost assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkegkes, Ioannis D; Mamais, Ioannis A; Iavazzo, Christos

    2017-01-01

    The utilisation of robotic-assisted techniques is a novelty in the field of general surgery. Our intention was to examine the up to date available literature on the cost assessment of robotic surgery of diverse operations in general surgery. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched in a systematic way to retrieve the included studies in our review. Thirty-one studies were retrieved, referring on a vast range of surgical operations. The mean cost for robotic, open and laparoscopic ranged from 2539 to 57,002, 7888 to 16,851 and 1799 to 50,408 Euros, respectively. The mean operative charges ranged from 273.74 to 13,670 Euros. More specifically, for the robotic and laparoscopic gastric fundoplication, the cost ranged from 1534 to 2257 and 657 to 763 Euros, respectively. For the robotic and laparoscopic colectomy, it ranged from 3739 to 17,080 and 3109 to 33,865 Euros, respectively. For the robotic and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, ranged from 1163.75 to 1291 and from 273.74 to 1223 Euros, respectively. The mean non-operative costs ranged from 900 to 48,796 from 8347 to 8800 and from 870 to 42,055 Euros, for robotic, open and laparoscopic technique, respectively. Conversions to laparotomy were present in 34/18,620 (0.18%) cases of laparoscopic and in 22/1488 (1.5%) cases of robotic technique. Duration of surgery robotic, open and laparoscopic ranged from 54.6 to 328.7, 129 to 234, and from 50.2 to 260 min, respectively. The present evidence reveals that robotic surgery, under specific conditions, has the potential to become cost-effective. Large number of cases, presence of industry competition and multidisciplinary team utilisation are some of the factors that could make more reasonable and cost-effective the robotic-assisted technique.

  7. Brand competition in consumer packaged goods : Sustaining large market advantages with little product differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    In direct competition between national brands of consumer packaged goods (CPG), one brand often has a large local share advantage over the other despite the similarity of the branded products. I present an explanation for these large and persistent advantages in the context of local competition on

  8. Robotics in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.

    1987-02-01

    In September 1986, a group of German scientists visited Japanese institutions dealing with advanced robotics research, to gain a deeper insight in the Japanese status of this technology. Research projects found and discussions led in seven leading research institutes and seven firms are reported. Advanced robot or handling systems to ease or avoid human exposure to activities in harsh, demanding or dangerous conditions or environment are mainly dealt with. The Japanese show vast research activities in this area in the pre-competitive stage especially in the nuclear and underwater application area. (orig.) [de

  9. RoboCup@Home Scientific Competition and Benchmarking for Domestic Service Robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisspeintner, Thomas; van der Zant, Tijn; Iocchi, Luca; Schiffer, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Being part of the RoboCup initiative, the ROBOCUP@HOME league targets the development and deployment of autonomous service and assistive robot technology being essential for future personal domestic applications. The domain of domestic service and assistive robotics implicates a wide range of

  10. Mating competitiveness of sterile male Anopheles coluzzii in large cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïga, Hamidou; Damiens, David; Niang, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Simon P; Fatherhaman, Omnia; Lees, Rosemary S; Roux, Olivier; Dabiré, Roch K; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Tripet, Fréderic; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-11-26

    Understanding the factors that account for male mating competitiveness is critical to the development of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Here, the effects of partial sterilization with 90 Gy of radiation on sexual competitiveness of Anopheles coluzzii allowed to mate in different ratios of sterile to untreated males have been assessed. Moreover, competitiveness was compared between males allowed one versus two days of contact with females. Sterile and untreated males four to six days of age were released in large cages (~1.75 sq m) with females of similar age at the following ratios of sterile males: untreated males: untreated virgin females: 100:100:100, 300:100:100, 500:100:100 (three replicates of each) and left for two days. Competitiveness was determined by assessing the egg hatch rate and the insemination rate, determined by dissecting recaptured females. An additional experiment was conducted with a ratio of 500:100:100 and a mating period of either one or two days. Two controls of 0:100:100 (untreated control) and 100:0:100 (sterile control) were used in each experiment. When males and females consort for two days with different ratios, a significant difference in insemination rate was observed between ratio treatments. The competitiveness index (C) of sterile males compared to controls was 0.53. The number of days of exposure to mates significantly increased the insemination rate, as did the increased number of males present in the untreated: sterile male ratio treatments, but the number of days of exposure did not have any effect on the hatch rate. The comparability of the hatch rates between experiments suggest that An. coluzzii mating competitiveness experiments in large cages could be run for one instead of two days, shortening the required length of the experiment. Sterilized males were half as competitive as untreated males, but an effective release ratio of at least five sterile for one untreated male has the potential to impact the fertility of

  11. 8th International Robotic Sailing Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the cutting edge developments within a broad field related to robotic sailing. The contributions were presented during the 8th International Robotic Sailing Conference, which has taken place as a part of the 2015 World Robotic Sailing Championships in Mariehamn, Åland (Finland), August 31st – September 4th 2015. Since more than a decade, a series of competitions such as the World Robotic Sailing Championship have stimulated a variety of groups to work on research and development around autonomous sailing robots, which involves boat designers, naval architects, electrical engineers and computer scientists. While many of the challenges in building a truly autonomous sailboat are still unsolved, the books presents the state of the art of research and development within platform optimization, route and stability planning, collision avoidance, power management and boat control.

  12. Intelligent robot trends for 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ernest L.

    1998-10-01

    An intelligent robot is a remarkably useful combination of a manipulator, sensors and controls. The use of these machines in factory automation can improve productivity, increase product quality and improve competitiveness. This paper presents a discussion of recent technical and economic trends. Technically, the machines are faster, cheaper, more repeatable, more reliable and safer. The knowledge base of inverse kinematic and dynamic solutions and intelligent controls is increasing. More attention is being given by industry to robots, vision and motion controls. New areas of usage are emerging for service robots, remote manipulators and automated guided vehicles. Economically, the robotics industry now has a 1.1 billion-dollar market in the U.S. and is growing. Feasibility studies results are presented which also show decreasing costs for robots and unaudited healthy rates of return for a variety of robotic applications. However, the road from inspiration to successful application can be long and difficult, often taking decades to achieve a new product. A greater emphasis on mechatronics is needed in our universities. Certainly, more cooperation between government, industry and universities is needed to speed the development of intelligent robots that will benefit industry and society.

  13. International Timetabling Competition 2011: An Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Matias; Kristiansen, Simon; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm based on Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) for solving the generalized High School Timetabling problem in XHSTT-format (Post et al (2012a)) is presented. This algorithm was among the nalists of round 2 of the International Timetabling Competition 2011 (ITC2011). For problem...

  14. Molecular Robots Obeying Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminka, Gal A; Spokoini-Stern, Rachel; Amir, Yaniv; Agmon, Noa; Bachelet, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Asimov's three laws of robotics, which were shaped in the literary work of Isaac Asimov (1920-1992) and others, define a crucial code of behavior that fictional autonomous robots must obey as a condition for their integration into human society. While, general implementation of these laws in robots is widely considered impractical, limited-scope versions have been demonstrated and have proven useful in spurring scientific debate on aspects of safety and autonomy in robots and intelligent systems. In this work, we use Asimov's laws to examine these notions in molecular robots fabricated from DNA origami. We successfully programmed these robots to obey, by means of interactions between individual robots in a large population, an appropriately scoped variant of Asimov's laws, and even emulate the key scenario from Asimov's story "Runaround," in which a fictional robot gets into trouble despite adhering to the laws. Our findings show that abstract, complex notions can be encoded and implemented at the molecular scale, when we understand robots on this scale on the basis of their interactions.

  15. Is competition making a comeback? Discovering methods to keep female adolescents engaged in STEM: A phenomenological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Kathryn Betz

    The decreasing number of women who are graduating in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields continues to be a major concern. Despite national support in the form of grants provided by National Science Foundation, National Center for Information and Technology and legislation passed such as the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 that encourages women to enter the STEM fields, the number of women actually graduating in these fields is surprisingly low. This research study focuses on a robotics competition and its ability to engage female adolescents in STEM curricula. Data have been collected to help explain why young women are reticent to take technology or engineering type courses in high school and college. Factors that have been described include attitudes, parental support, social aspects, peer pressure, and lack of role models. Often these courses were thought to have masculine and "nerdy" overtones. The courses were usually majority male enrollments and appeared to be very competitive. With more female adolescents engaging in this type of competitive atmosphere, this study gathered information to discover what about the competition appealed to these young women. Focus groups were used to gather information from adolescent females who were participating in the First Lego League (FLL) and CEENBoT competitions. What enticed them to participate in a curriculum that data demonstrated many of their peers avoided? FLL and CEENBoT are robotics programs based on curricula that are taught in afterschool programs in non-formal environments. These programs culminate in a very large robotics competition. My research questions included: What are the factors that encouraged participants to participate in the robotics competition? What was the original enticement to the FLL and CEENBoT programs? What will make participants want to come back and what are the participants' plans for the future? My research mirrored data of previous findings such as lack

  16. Effect of patient choice and hospital competition on service configuration and technology adoption within cancer surgery: a national, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Lewis, Daniel; Mason, Malcolm; Purushotham, Arnie; Sullivan, Richard; van der Meulen, Jan

    2017-11-01

    closed irrespective of the size of net losses of patients. The number of centres performing robotic surgery increased from 12 (18%) of the 65 centres at the beginning of 2010 to 39 (71%) of 55 centres open at the end of 2014. Competitive factors, in addition to policies advocating centralisation and the requirement to do minimum numbers of surgical procedures, have contributed to large-scale investment in equipment for robotic surgery without evidence of superior outcomes and contributed to the closure of cancer surgery units. If quality performance and outcome indicators are not available to guide patient choice, these policies could threaten health services' ability to deliver equitable and affordable cancer care. National Institute for Health Research. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. On Compliant Underactuated Robotic Fingers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, M.

    2011-01-01

    Driven by societal trends, such as aging, and by a desire to drive economic growth and enhance commercial competitiveness, researchers have tried to move robots from structured manufacturing tasks to unstructured professional and personal service applications. As announced in the Falcon project, an

  18. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  19. Test Methods for Robot Agility in Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Anthony; Harrison, William; Schlenoff, Craig

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims to define and describe test methods and metrics to assess industrial robot system agility in both simulation and in reality. The paper describes test methods and associated quantitative and qualitative metrics for assessing robot system efficiency and effectiveness which can then be used for the assessment of system agility. The paper describes how the test methods were implemented in a simulation environment and real world environment. It also shows how the metrics are measured and assessed as they would be in a future competition. The test methods described in this paper will push forward the state of the art in software agility for manufacturing robots, allowing small and medium manufacturers to better utilize robotic systems. The paper fulfills the identified need for standard test methods to measure and allow for improvement in software agility for manufacturing robots.

  20. Physical Human Robot Interaction for a Wall Mounting Robot - External Force Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso García, Alejandro; Villarmarzo Arruñada, Noelia; Pedersen, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The use of collaborative robots enhances human capabilities, leading to better working conditions and increased productivity. In building construction, such robots are needed, among other tasks, to install large glass panels, where the robot takes care of the heavy lifting part of the job while...

  1. Industrial dual arm robot manipulator for precise assembly of mechanical parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanhun; Kim, Doohyung; Park, Kyoungtaik; Choi, Youngjin

    2007-12-01

    A new structure of dual arm robot manipulator which consists of two industrial 6-DOF arms and one 2-DOF Torso is introduced. Each industrial 6-DOF arm is able to be used as a stand-alone industrial 6-DOF robot manipulator and as a part of dual arm manipulator at the same time. These structures help the robot maker which is willing to succeed in the emerging dual arm robot market in order to have high competition for the current industrial robot market at same time. Self-collision detection algorithm for multi-arm robot and kinematics algorithms for the developed dual arm robot manipulator which are implemented in our controller are introduced.

  2. Mobile Manipulation, Tool Use, and Intuitive Interaction for Cognitive Service Robot Cosero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Stückler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive service robots that shall assist persons in need in performing their activities of daily living have recently received much attention in robotics research.Such robots require a vast set of control and perception capabilities to provide useful assistance through mobile manipulation and human-robot interaction.In this article, we present hardware design, perception, and control methods for our cognitive service robot Cosero.We complement autonomous capabilities with handheld teleoperation interfaces on three levels of autonomy.The robot demonstrated various advanced skills, including the use of tools.With our robot we participated in the annual international RoboCup@Home competitions, winning them three times in a row.

  3. A new hybrid machine design for a 6 DOF industrial robot arm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shaik, AA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available of units sold since 1960 amounted to more than 2 230 000, and the IFR (International Federation of Robotics) estimates the total number of operational industrial robots worldwide to be between 1 021 000 and 1 300 000 units at the end of 2009. [Exec sum... productivity to be competitive on the global market and the competition for market share in rising consumer markets. [IFR 1] The main drivers for the strong recovery in 2010 were automotive manufacturers and the electronics industry. In addition...

  4. THE PERSPECTIVES AND THE CONDITIONS OF THE ROBOTICS DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Ivanovich Komkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the evolution of the attitude of the state, business and the population to automation and robotics problems in the period of the USSR and till the modern period – from the reserved and declarative and political attitude to the current integrated programmed and project -based approach. The analysis of the Government’s decisions and documents in the  eld of robotics development in the Russian Federation, including «Strategy – 2020» have been made, the conditions, restrictions and challenges of the environment applicable for the solution of the problems as well as the mass robotization task in the Russian Federation have been de ned with consideration of the best international experience. Forecasts of robotics market growth are provided for the Russian Federation and its participants, and the new requirements and the prospects of the new robotic market growth have been characterized. The reasons of low competitiveness of the Russian Federation robotic  eld including the market demand problems from the state and business for «the  fth and sixth technological shift» innovative products and services have been analysed. The low speed of a transfer of the breaking scienti c technologies to industry, restrictions for the mass introduction of robots in the Russian Federation for robotization processes acceleration are established. The Russian state integrated support of the robotic platform key participants, including a growth of investments into fundamental and applied researches in the  eld of robotization and the adaptation of the best international experience are presented as the progressive methods of the Russian Federation competitiveness increase in all  eld of economy and military industrial complex.

  5. A Course Programme in Mobile Robotics with Integrated Hands-on Exercises and Competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ole; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the design of and the considerations for a course programme in mobile robotics at the Technical University of Denmark. An integrated approach was taken designing mobile robot hardware, software and course curricula in an interconnected way. The courses in the programme all...

  6. The Role of Industrial Robots in the Development of Automotive Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Karabegović , Isak

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The world’s largest user of industrial robots in production processes is automotive industry, because global competition in the market requires continuous automation and modernization of production processes in the automotive industry. The use of robots in the world is continuously increasing year by year, so it is expected that about 414.000 robot units will be used in 2019. China is the first country in the world in the application of industrial robots, and is increa...

  7. Volunteers Oriented Interface Design for the Remote Navigation of Rescue Robots at Large-Scale Disaster Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhixiao; Ito, Kazuyuki; Saijo, Kazuhiko; Hirotsune, Kazuyuki; Gofuku, Akio; Matsuno, Fumitoshi

    This paper aims at constructing an efficient interface being similar to those widely used in human daily life, to fulfill the need of many volunteer rescuers operating rescue robots at large-scale disaster sites. The developed system includes a force feedback steering wheel interface and an artificial neural network (ANN) based mouse-screen interface. The former consists of a force feedback steering control and a six monitors’ wall. It provides a manual operation like driving cars to navigate a rescue robot. The latter consists of a mouse and a camera’s view displayed in a monitor. It provides a semi-autonomous operation by mouse clicking to navigate a rescue robot. Results of experiments show that a novice volunteer can skillfully navigate a tank rescue robot through both interfaces after 20 to 30 minutes of learning their operation respectively. The steering wheel interface has high navigating speed in open areas, without restriction of terrains and surface conditions of a disaster site. The mouse-screen interface is good at exact navigation in complex structures, while bringing little tension to operators. The two interfaces are designed to switch into each other at any time to provide a combined efficient navigation method.

  8. Multi-robots to micro-surgery: Selected robotic applications at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center

    1996-11-01

    The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program organization, pursuing research, development and applications in a wide range of field. Activities range from large-scale applications such as nuclear facility dismantlement for the US Department of Energy (DOE), to aircraft inspection and refurbishment, to automated script and program generation for robotic manufacturing and assembly, to miniature robotic devices and sensors for remote sensing and micro-surgery. This paper describes six activities in the large and small scale that are underway and either nearing technology transfer stage or seeking industrial partners to continue application development. The topics of the applications include multiple arm coordination for intuitively maneuvering large, ungainly work pieces; simulation, analysis and graphical training capability for CP-5 research reactor dismantlement; miniature robots with volumes of 16 cubic centimeters and less developed for inspection and sensor deployment; and biomedical sensors to enhance automated prosthetic device production and fill laparoscopic surgery information gap.

  9. Evidence for robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Ravikiran; Nathwani, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Robots have been successfully used in commercial industry and have enabled humans to perform tasks which are repetitive, dangerous and requiring extreme force. Their role has evolved and now includes many aspects of surgery to improve safety and precision. Orthopaedic surgery is largely performed on bones which are rigid immobile structures which can easily be performed by robots with great precision. Robots have been designed for use in orthopaedic surgery including joint arthroplasty and spine surgery. Experimental studies have been published evaluating the role of robots in arthroscopy and trauma surgery. In this article, we will review the incorporation of robots in orthopaedic surgery looking into the evidence in their use. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  10. Location and Position Determination Algorithm For Humanoid Soccer Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oei Kurniawan Utomo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm of location and position determination was designed for humanoid soccer robot. The robots have to be able to control the ball effectively on the field of Indonesian Robot Soccer Competition which has a size of 900 cm x 600 cm. The algorithm of location and position determination uses parameters, such as the goalpost’s thickness, the compass value, and the robot’s head servo value. The goalpost’s thickness is detected using The Centre of Gravity method. The width of the goalpost detected is analyzed using the principles of camera geometry to determine the distance between the robot and the goalpost. The tangent value of head servo’s tilt angle is used to determine the distance between the robot and the ball. The distance between robot-goalpost and the distance between robot-ball are processed with the difference of head servo’s pan angle and compass value using trigonometric formulas to determine the coordinates of the robot and the ball in the Cartesian coordinates.

  11. Machine Learnig for Robotic Manipulation in cluttered environments

    OpenAIRE

    Alet Puig, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on designing the planner for MIT s entry in the Amazon Picking Challenge, a robotic competition aiming at pushing the frontiers of manipulation until robots can substitute human pickers in warehouses. Given a set of manipulation primitives (such as grasping, suction, scooping, placing or pushing) we designed a system capable of learning a planner from a set of manipulation experiments. After learning, given any configuration of objects, the planner can come up with the...

  12. Hierarchical Motion Control for a Team of Humanoid Soccer Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Joon Yi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Robot soccer has become an effective benchmarking problem for robotics research as it requires many aspects of robotics including perception, self localization, motion planning and distributed coordination to work in uncertain and adversarial environments. Especially with humanoid robots that lack inherent stability, a capable and robust motion controller is crucial for generating walking and kicking motions without losing balance. In this paper, we describe the details of a motion controller to control a team of humanoid soccer robots, which consists of a hierarchy of controllers with different time frames and abstraction levels. A low level controller governs the real time control of each joint angle, either using target joint angles or target endpoint transforms. A mid-level controller handles bipedal locomotion and balancing of the robot. A high level controller decides the long term behavior of the robot, and finally the team level controller coordinates the behavior of a group of robots by means of asynchronous communication between the robots. The suggested motion system has been successfully used by many humanoid robot teams at the RoboCup international robot soccer competitions, which has awarded us five successful championships in a row.

  13. A heterogeneous electronics architecture for dealing with complexity in modular robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Ricardo Franco Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Modular robots are robots built from many similar modules that can be arranged in different configurations to suit tasks in hand. Although promising, current incarnations of this technology suffer of an important drawback: modules are usually extremely expensive. This thesis proposes...... a heterogeneous electronics architecture that addresses the price and complexity of modular robots by focusing on the good aspects of homogeneous and heterogeneous designs, such as sequential implementation and reusable components. The architecture was implemented in four robots: Odin V1, Odin V2, Thor...... and Locomorph. In all cases, development time from conception to realization took less than a year, and two of these robots were able to take part in an international robot competition soon after their implementation. We conclude that heterogeneity brings three important advantages to the current stage...

  14. Intelligent robot trends and predictions for the new millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ernest L.; Mundhenk, Terrell N.

    1999-08-01

    An intelligent robot is a remarkably useful combination of a manipulator, sensors and controls. The current use of these machines in outer space, medicine, hazardous materials, defense applications and industry is being pursued with vigor but little funding. In factory automation such robotics machines can improve productivity, increase product quality and improve competitiveness. The computer and the robot have both been developed during recent times. The intelligent robot combines both technologies and requires a thorough understanding and knowledge of mechatronics. In honor of the new millennium, this paper will present a discussion of futuristic trends and predictions. However, in keeping with technical tradition, a new technique for 'Follow the Leader' will also be presented in the hope of it becoming a new, useful and non-obvious technique.

  15. A Formation Behavior for Large-Scale Micro-Robot Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean; Jones, Michael Paul

    2000-12-01

    Micro-robots will soon be available for deployment by the thousands. Consequently, controlling and coordinating a force this large to accomplish a prescribed task is of great interest. This paper describes a flexible architecture for modeling thousands of autonomous agents simultaneously. The agents’ behavior is based on a subsumption architecture in which individual behaviors are prioritized with respect to all others. The primary behavior explored in this work is a group formation behavior based on social potential fields (Reif and Wang 1999). This paper extends the social potential field model by introducing a neutral zone within which other behaviors may exhibit themselves. Previous work with social potential fields has been restricted to models of “perfect” autonomous agents. The paper evaluates the effect of social potential fields in the presence of agent death (failure) and imperfect sensory input.

  16. Competition versus Cooperation: Implications for Music Teachers Following Students Feedback from Participation in a Large-Scale Cooperative Music Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Geoffrey M.

    2018-01-01

    Competition is reported in the general education literature as having a largely detrimental impact upon student engagement and long-term motivation, yet competition has long been an accepted part of the music education ensemble landscape. Adjudicated ensemble competitions and competition-festivals are commonplace in most Australian states, as…

  17. Optimizing a mobile robot control system using GPU acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Nat; McGuinness, Michael; Martin, Fred

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes our attempt to optimize a robot control program for the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) by running computationally intensive portions of the system on a commodity graphics processing unit (GPU). The IGVC Autonomous Challenge requires a control program that performs a number of different computationally intensive tasks ranging from computer vision to path planning. For the 2011 competition our Robot Operating System (ROS) based control system would not run comfortably on the multicore CPU on our custom robot platform. The process of profiling the ROS control program and selecting appropriate modules for porting to run on a GPU is described. A GPU-targeting compiler, Bacon, is used to speed up development and help optimize the ported modules. The impact of the ported modules on overall performance is discussed. We conclude that GPU optimization can free a significant amount of CPU resources with minimal effort for expensive user-written code, but that replacing heavily-optimized library functions is more difficult, and a much less efficient use of time.

  18. LEGO mindstorm masterpieces building and programming advanced robots

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In LEGO Mindstorm Masterpieces, some of the world's leading LEGO Mindstorms inventors share their knowledge and development secrets. The unique style of this book will allow it to cover an incredibly broad range of topics in unparalleled detail. Chapters within the book will include detailed discussions of the mechanics that drive the robot - and also provide step-by-step construction diagrams for each of the robots. This is perfect book for LEGO hobbyists looking to take their skills to the next level whether they build world-class competitive robots or just like to mess around for the fun of it.For experienced users of LEGO Mindstorms, LEGO Mindstorms Masterpiece is composed of three fundamental sections:·Part One: A review of the advanced robot building concepts and theories.·Part Two: Step-by-step building instructions for a series of complex models. The companion programming code is included, along with in-depth explanations of concepts needed for the specific models. Robots include Line Followers, Bip...

  19. Designing the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The project assigned this summer involves designing a lunar regolith mining robotics competition. This process involves consulting several assets available at the Kennedy Space Center. The process involves several steps. The first step is to determine the requirements for the competition. Once these requirements are determined, the dimensions of the playing field are drawn up, first by hand, and then using computer models. After these drawings are tentatively decided upon, the cost of materials must be determined, so as to fit within the allotted budget for the project. The materials are to then be ordered, assembled, broken down, and stored throughout the duration of the competition. We must also design the advertisements and logos for the competition. This is to market and publicize the competition to college level teams. We must also determine the rules for the competition so as to have uniform requirements for all teams. Once these processes are completed, the competition can be finalized and publicized for the public. The contributing parties are Greg Galloway, Robert Mueller, Susan Sawyer, Gloria Murphy, Julia Nething, and Cassandra Liles.

  20. Intelligent robotics can boost America's economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    A case is made for strategic investment in intelligent robotics as a part of the solution to the problem of improved global competitiveness for U.S. manufacturing, a critical industrial sector. Similar cases are made for strategic investments in intelligent robotics for field applications, construction, and service industries such as health care. The scope of the country's problems and needs is beyond the capability of the private sector alone, government alone, or academia alone to solve independently of the others. National cooperative programs in intelligent robotics are needed with the private sector supplying leadership direction and aerospace and non-aerospace industries conducting the development. Some necessary elements of such programs are outlined. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) can be key players in such national cooperative programs in intelligent robotics for several reasons: (1) human space exploration missions require supervised intelligent robotics as enabling tools and, hence must develop supervised intelligent robotic systems; (2) intelligent robotic technology is being developed for space applications at JSC (but has a strong crosscutting or generic flavor) that is advancing the state of the art and is producing both skilled personnel and adaptable developmental infrastructure such as integrated testbeds; and (3) a NASA JSC Technology Investment Program in Robotics has been proposed based on commercial partnerships and collaborations for precompetitive, dual-use developments.

  1. Improving mobile robot localization: grid-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junchi

    2012-02-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have been widely studied not only as advanced facilities for industrial and daily life automation, but also as a testbed in robotics competitions for extending the frontier of current artificial intelligence. In many of such contests, the robot is supposed to navigate on the ground with a grid layout. Based on this observation, we present a localization error correction method by exploring the geometric feature of the tile patterns. On top of the classical inertia-based positioning, our approach employs three fiber-optic sensors that are assembled under the bottom of the robot, presenting an equilateral triangle layout. The sensor apparatus, together with the proposed supporting algorithm, are designed to detect a line's direction (vertical or horizontal) by monitoring the grid crossing events. As a result, the line coordinate information can be fused to rectify the cumulative localization deviation from inertia positioning. The proposed method is analyzed theoretically in terms of its error bound and also has been implemented and tested on a customary developed two-wheel autonomous mobile robot.

  2. Evaluating maps produced by urban search and rescue robots: Lessons learned from RoboCup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaguer, B.; Balakirsky, S.; Carpin, S.; Visser, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the map evaluation methodology developed for the Virtual Robots Rescue competition held as part of RoboCup. The procedure aims to evaluate the quality of maps produced by multi-robot systems with respect to a number of factors, including usability, exploration, annotation and

  3. Future of robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, R.

    1984-01-01

    A decade ago, the United States was creating about 75% of the world's technology. Today, it is something like 50%. A decade from now, the figure could be down to 30%. The deteriorating condition of the U.S. competitive position in the world marketplace has become painfully evident to our government, the business community, and to labor. As with the energy crisis of several years ago, there has been a rude awakening to the critical need for a turnaround in our efforts to improve both productivity and quality. Industrial robots represent one of the most promising approaches to achieving both objectives. Today's top buzzword is, indeed, ''robot.'' The attention is well deserved. These versatile forms of flexible automation can improve productivity and quality through their consistent performance under the most difficult of working conditions. They are building an excellent track record in terms of dependability and uptime. The robot population in the U.S. now stands at around 7000, with sales growing at an annual rate of about 30%. By 1990, the total number of these machines on the plant floor could reach 100,000

  4. Race for the wireless robot platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    With the world going wireless, Norwegian energy champion Statoil Hydro is pushing forward with an unmanned, robot-operated production platform called Mesa Verde. Enlisted to solve safety and operational issues and help the oil company gain a cost edge on global competitors is an Emerson-Cisco wireless alliance itself facing stiff competition

  5. Evidence of Self-Directed Learning on a High School Robotics Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R. Dolenc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-directed learning is described as an individual taking the initiative to engage in a learning experience while assuming responsibility to follow through to its conclusion. Robotics competitions are examples of informal environments that can facilitate self-directed learning. This study examined how mentor involvement, student behavior, and physical workspace contributed to self-directed learning on one robotics competition team. How did mentors transfer responsibility to students? How did students respond to managing a team? Are the physical attributes of a workspace important? The mentor, student, and workplace factors captured in the research showed mentors wanting students to do the work, students assuming leadership roles, and the limited workspace having a positive effect on student productivity.

  6. Successful competitive strategies of large Croatian and Slovenian enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Buble

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research report, the authors identify and analyze the successful samples of strategic behaviour of large Croatian and Slovenian enterprises, as well as their similarities and dissimilarities. The research has encompassed the levels of corporate and business strategy (i.e. the strategy of a diversified firm and its strategic business units/areas, as well as the analysis of strategic performance and sources of competitive advantage. The research consists of two parts: the theoretical foundation for the analysis of the successful patterns of strategic behaviour and the empirical analysis, based on the primary data collected during the research project.

  7. Common mycorrhizal networks amplify competition by preferential mineral nutrient allocation to large host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weremijewicz, Joanna; Sternberg, Leonel da Silveira Lobo O'Reilly; Janos, David P

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi interconnect plants in common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs) which can amplify competition among neighbors. Amplified competition might result from the fungi supplying mineral nutrients preferentially to hosts that abundantly provide fixed carbon, as suggested by research with organ-cultured roots. We examined whether CMNs supplied (15) N preferentially to large, nonshaded, whole plants. We conducted an intraspecific target-neighbor pot experiment with Andropogon gerardii and several AM fungi in intact, severed or prevented CMNs. Neighbors were supplied (15) N, and half of the target plants were shaded. Intact CMNs increased target dry weight (DW), intensified competition and increased size inequality. Shading decreased target weight, but shaded plants in intact CMNs had mycorrhizal colonization similar to that of sunlit plants. AM fungi in intact CMNs acquired (15) N from the substrate of neighbors and preferentially allocated it to sunlit, large, target plants. Sunlit, intact CMN, target plants acquired as much as 27% of their nitrogen from the vicinity of their neighbors, but shaded targets did not. These results suggest that AM fungi in CMNs preferentially provide mineral nutrients to those conspecific host individuals best able to provide them with fixed carbon or representing the strongest sinks, thereby potentially amplifying asymmetric competition below ground. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Conference on Intelligent Robotics in Field, Factory, Service, and Space (CIRFFSS 1994), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jon D. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The AIAA/NASA Conference on Intelligent Robotics in Field, Factory, Service, and Space (CIRFFSS '94) was originally proposed because of the strong belief that America's problems of global economic competitiveness and job creation and preservation can partly be solved by the use of intelligent robotics, which are also required for human space exploration missions. Individual sessions addressed nuclear industry, agile manufacturing, security/building monitoring, on-orbit applications, vision and sensing technologies, situated control and low-level control, robotic systems architecture, environmental restoration and waste management, robotic remanufacturing, and healthcare applications.

  9. Competition-motivated teamwork and narratives to motivate girls for engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna; Timcenko, Olga

    2011-01-01

    cooperation between Ballerup Community, Copenhagen University College of Engineering and Aalborg University in Copenhagen. We focus on girls' engagement in FIRST LEGO League competitions, in order to motivate them in the future to study engineering. LEGO Mindstorm robots and RoboLab graphical programming......This paper describes competition-motivated teamwork and narratives to motivate teenager girls, 11-17 years old, to learn programming and basics of control. FIRST LEGO League competitions have been held at the Copenhagen University College of Engineering for several years because of successful...

  10. Mating competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes irradiated with a partially or fully sterilizing dose in small and large laboratory cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, M E H; Knols, B G J

    2008-07-01

    Male mating competitiveness is a crucial parameter in many genetic control programs including the sterile insect technique (SIT). We evaluated competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis Patton as a function of three experimental variables: (1) small or large cages for mating, (2) the effects of either a partially sterilizing (70 Gy) or fully sterilizing (120 Gy) dose, and (3) pupal or adult irradiation. Irradiated males competed for females with an equal number of unirradiated males. Competitiveness was determined by measuring hatch rates of individually laid egg batches. In small cages, pupal irradiation with the high dose resulted in the lowest competitiveness, whereas adult irradiation with the low dose gave the highest, with the latter males being equal in competitiveness to unirradiated males. In the large cage, reduced competitiveness of males irradiated in the pupal stage was more pronounced compared with the small cage; the males irradiated as adults at both doses performed similarly to unirradiated males. Unexpectedly, males irradiated with the high dose performed better in a large cage than in a small one. A high proportion of intermediate hatch rates was observed for eggs collected in the large cage experiments with males irradiated at the pupal stage. It is concluded that irradiation of adult An. arabiensis with the partially sterilizing dose results in the highest competitiveness for both cage designs. Cage size affected competitiveness for some treatments; therefore, competitiveness determined in laboratory experiments must be confirmed by releases into simulated field conditions. The protocols described are readily transferable to evaluate male competitiveness for other genetic control techniques.

  11. Efficient Control Law Simulation for Multiple Mobile Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, B.J.; Feddema, J.T.; Kotulski, J.D.; Kwok, K.S.

    1998-10-06

    In this paper we consider the problem of simulating simple control laws involving large numbers of mobile robots. Such simulation can be computationally prohibitive if the number of robots is large enough, say 1 million, due to the 0(N2 ) cost of each time step. This work therefore uses hierarchical tree-based methods for calculating the control law. These tree-based approaches have O(NlogN) cost per time step, thus allowing for efficient simulation involving a large number of robots. For concreteness, a decentralized control law which involves only the distance and bearing to the closest neighbor robot will be considered. The time to calculate the control law for each robot at each time step is demonstrated to be O(logN).

  12. Electronics and Software Engineer for Robotics Project Intern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teijeiro, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    I was assigned to mentor high school students for the 2017 First Robotics Competition. Using a team based approach, I worked with the students to program the robot and applied my electrical background to build the robot from start to finish. I worked with students who had an interest in electrical engineering to teach them about voltage, current, pulse width modulation, solenoids, electromagnets, relays, DC motors, DC motor controllers, crimping and soldering electrical components, Java programming, and robotic simulation. For the simulation, we worked together to generate graphics files, write simulator description format code, operate Linux, and operate SOLIDWORKS. Upon completion of the FRC season, I transitioned over to providing full time support for the LCS hardware team. During this phase of my internship I helped my co-intern write test steps for two networking hardware DVTs , as well as run cables and update cable running lists.

  13. Special Issue on Intelligent Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genci Capi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research on intelligent robots will produce robots that are able to operate in everyday life environments, to adapt their program according to environment changes, and to cooperate with other team members and humans. Operating in human environments, robots need to process, in real time, a large amount of sensory data—such as vision, laser, microphone—in order to determine the best action. Intelligent algorithms have been successfully applied to link complex sensory data to robot action. This editorial briefly summarizes recent findings in the field of intelligent robots as described in the articles published in this special issue.

  14. Concept and Functional Structure of a Service Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Pineda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a concept of service robot and a framework for its functional specification and implementation. The present discussion is grounded in Newell's system levels hierarchy which suggests organizing robotics research in three different layers, corresponding to Marr's computational, algorithmic and implementation levels, as follows: (1 the service robot proper, which is the subject of the present paper, (2 perception and action algorithms, and (3 the systems programming level. The concept of a service robot is articulated in practice through the introduction of a conceptual model for particular service robots; this consists of the specification of a set of basic robotic behaviours and a number of mechanisms for assembling such behaviours during the execution of complex tasks. The model involves an explicit representation of the task structure, allowing for deliberative reasoning and task management. The model also permits distinguishing between a robot's competence and performance, along the lines of Chomsky's corresponding distinction. We illustrate how this model can be realized in practice with two composition modes that we call static and dynamic; these are illustrated with the Restaurant Test and the General Purpose Service Robot Test of the RoboCup@Home competition, respectively. The present framework and methodology has been implemented in the robot Golem-II+, which is also described. The paper is concluded with an overall reflection upon the present concept of a service robot and its associated functional specifications, and the potential impact of such a conceptual model in the study, development and application of service robots in general.

  15. Service Oriented Robotic Architecture for Space Robotics: Design, Testing, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluckiger, Lorenzo Jean Marc E; Utz, Hans Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned from six years of experiments with planetary rover prototypes running the Service Oriented Robotic Architecture (SORA) developed by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at the NASA Ames Research Center. SORA relies on proven software engineering methods and technologies applied to space robotics. Based on a Service Oriented Architecture and robust middleware, SORA encompasses on-board robot control and a full suite of software tools necessary for remotely operated exploration missions. SORA has been eld tested in numerous scenarios of robotic lunar and planetary exploration. The experiments conducted by IRG with SORA exercise a large set of the constraints encountered in space applications: remote robotic assets, ight relevant science instruments, distributed operations, high network latencies and unreliable or intermittent communication links. In this paper, we present the results of these eld tests in regard to the developed architecture, and discuss its bene ts and limitations.

  16. Developing a successful robotics program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthringer, Tyler; Aleksic, Ilija; Caire, Arthur; Albala, David M

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in the robotic surgical technology have revolutionized the standard of care for many surgical procedures. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the important considerations in developing a new robotics program at a given healthcare institution. Patients' interest in robotic-assisted surgery has and continues to grow because of improved outcomes and decreased periods of hospitalization. Resulting market forces have created a solid foundation for the implementation of robotic surgery into surgical practice. Given proper surgeon experience and an efficient system, robotic-assisted procedures have been cost comparable to open surgical alternatives. Surgeon training and experience is closely linked to the efficiency of a new robotics program. Formally trained robotic surgeons have better patient outcomes and shorter operative times. Training in robotics has shown no negative impact on patient outcomes or mentor learning curves. Individual economic factors of local healthcare settings must be evaluated when planning for a new robotics program. The high cost of the robotic surgical platform is best offset with a large surgical volume. A mature, experienced surgeon is integral to the success of a new robotics program.

  17. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Knowledge based systems for intelligent robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, N. S.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the construction of large space platforms, such as space stations, has to be carried out in the outer space environment. As it is extremely expensive to support human workers in space for large periods, the only feasible solution appears to be related to the development and deployment of highly capable robots for most of the tasks. Robots for space applications will have to possess characteristics which are very different from those needed by robots in industry. The present investigation is concerned with the needs of space robotics and the technologies which can be of assistance to meet these needs, giving particular attention to knowledge bases. 'Intelligent' robots are required for the solution of arising problems. The collection of facts and rules needed for accomplishing such solutions form the 'knowledge base' of the system.

  19. Hierarchical coordination control of mobile robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adinandra, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, robotic systems have penetrated human life more than human can imagine. In particular, the multi-mobile robotic systems have faced a fast growing due to the fact that by deploying a large collection of mobile robots the overall system has a high redundancy and offers the

  20. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  1. Contemporary large-scale international design competitions1 in China. A case study of Baietan, Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of contemporary design competitions has been increasingly recognized in fast-growing China in the course of World Trade Organization (WTO integration and globalization. However, scientific and systematic analysis is rare on how international design competitions are introduced, and how they interact and transplant in the Chinese context. The well-known Chinese-Western culture gap and complicated social and political background make this topic more challenging. Herein, the authors focus on how the international design competitions were “translated” into both international and local perspectives with a compara­tive analysis on development of international design competitions between the Chinese and the Finnish model. To fully exemplify the design-completion procedure and the different roles of Chinese stakeholders and their perspectives on design competitions, the authors study the Baietan case, which was chosen due to its specific relationship with the city’s strategic plan, its representativeness in using international design competitions in connection to large-scale urban projects in China and its public access to the relevant documentation. The preliminary findings suggest that Chinese-style design competitions, acting as ‘designed trading zones’, with less-defined competition rules compared to the Finnish model, may foster the settings of local transformation in adopting international urban planning and design knowledge. However, an integrated approach is required to address subsequent implementation.

  2. Using Multi-Robot Systems for Engineering Education: Teaching and Outreach with Large Numbers of an Advanced, Low-Cost Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLurkin, J.; Rykowski, J.; John, M.; Kaseman, Q.; Lynch, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of using an advanced, low-cost robot in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. It presents three innovations: It is a powerful, cheap, robust, and small advanced personal robot; it forms the foundation of a problem-based learning curriculum; and it enables a novel multi-robot…

  3. Multi-staged robotic stereotactic radiosurgery for large cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Chuxiong; Solberg, Timothy D.; Hrycushko, Brian; Medin, Paul; Whitworth, Louis; Timmerman, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate a multi-staged robotic stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) delivery technique for the treatment of large cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The treatment planning process and strategies to optimize both individual and composite dosimetry are discussed. Methods: Eleven patients with large (30.7 ± 19.2 cm 3 ) AVMs were selected for this study. A fiducial system was designed for fusion of targets between planar angiograms and simulation CT scans. AVMs were contoured based on single contrast CT, MRI and orthogonal angiogram images. AVMs were divided into 3–8 sub-target volumes (3–7 cm 3 ) for sequential treatment at 1–4 week intervals to a prescription dose of 16–20 Gy. Forward and inversely developed treatment plans were optimized for 95% coverage of the total AVM volume by dose summation from each sub-volume, while minimizing dose to surrounding tissues. Dose-volume analysis was used to evaluate the PTV coverage, dose conformality (CI), and R 50 and V 12Gy parameters. Results: The treatment workflow was commissioned and able to localize within 1 mm. Inverse optimization outperformed forward planning for most patients for each index considered. Dose conformality was shown comparable to staged Gamma Knife treatments. Conclusion: The CyberKnife system is shown to be a practical delivery platform for multi-staged treatments of large AVMs using forward or inverse planning techniques

  4. The global susceptibility of coastal forage fish to competition by large jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnedler-Meyer, Nicolas Azaña; Mariani, Patrizio; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    dominance at low primary production, and a shift towards jellyfish with increasing productivity, turbidity and fishing. We present an index of global ecosystem susceptibility to shifts in fish–jellyfish dominance that compares well with data on jellyfish distributions and trends. The results are a step......Competition between large jellyfish and forage fish for zooplankton prey is both a possible cause of jellyfish increases and a concern for the management of marine ecosystems and fisheries. Identifying principal factors affecting this competition is therefore important for marine management......, but the lack of both good quality data and a robust theoretical framework have prevented general global analyses. Here, we present a general mechanistic food web model that considers fundamental differences in feeding modes and predation pressure between fish and jellyfish. The model predicts forage fish...

  5. Modeling and Implementation of Omnidirectional Soccer Robot with Wide Vision Scope Applied in Robocup-MSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Taheri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to design and implement a middle size soccer robot to conform RoboCup MSL league. First, according to the rules of RoboCup, we design the middle size soccer robot, The proposed autonomous soccer robot consists of the mechanical platform, motion control module, omni-directional vision module, front vision module, image processing and recognition module, investigated target object positioning and real coordinate reconstruction, robot path planning, competition strategies, and obstacle avoidance. And this soccer robot equips the laptop computer system and interface circuits to make decisions. In fact, the omnidirectional vision sensor of the vision system deals with the image processing and positioning for obstacle avoidance and
    target tracking. The boundary-following algorithm (BFA is applied to find the important features of the field. We utilize the sensor data fusion method in the control system parameters, self localization and world modeling. A vision-based self-localization and the conventional odometry
    systems are fused for robust selflocalization. The localization algorithm includes filtering, sharing and integration of the data for different types of objects recognized in the environment. In the control strategies, we present three state modes, which include the Attack Strategy, Defense Strategy and Intercept Strategy. The methods have been tested in the many Robocup competition field middle size robots.

  6. Robotic Discovery of the Auditory Scene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinson, E; Schultz, A

    2007-01-01

    .... Motivated by the large negative effect of ambient noise sources on robot audition, the long-term goal is to provide awareness of the auditory scene to a robot, so that it may more effectively act...

  7. WebotsTM: Professional Mobile Robot Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Michel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbotics Ltd. develops WebotsTM, a mobile robotics simulation software that provides you with a rapid prototyping environment for modelling, programming and simulating mobile robots. The provided robot libraries enable you to transfer your control programs to several commercially available real mobile robots. WebotsTM lets you define and modify a complete mobile robotics setup, even several different robots sharing the same environment. For each object, you can define a number of properties, such as shape, color, texture, mass, friction, etc. You can equip each robot with a large number of available sensors and actuators. You can program these robots using your favorite development environment, simulate them and optionally transfer the resulting programs onto your real robots. WebotsTM has been developed in collaboration with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, thoroughly tested, well documented and continuously maintained for over 7 years. It is now the main commercial product available from Cyberbotics Ltd.

  8. Wheeled hopping robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gary J [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-17

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  9. Hand-held medical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  10. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-093] Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample... Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge. SUMMARY: This notice is issued in accordance with... compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a program of prize competitions to stimulate innovation in...

  11. UWSim, an underwater robotic simulator on the cloud as educational tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the introduction of robotic applications in the modern society, such as service robots or self-driving cars, it is possible to use this trend as motivating factor in the learning process of robotics. Several possibilities about how to use this motivation to increase learning rate are analysed, focusing on underwater robotic simulators. Moreover, a cloud learning environment able to evaluate the students with a robotic simulator is proposed as key element of the system. These kinds of tools can be used with just an Internet-capable system through a web browser, reaching a virtually unlimited amount of resources. The implemented features are used in a underwater pipe following application, creating a comparison environment on the cloud that immerse students in a competition to reach the best possible result. Finally, a first experience in a real educational environment using the proposed tool is detailed, demonstrating the viability and suitability of the proposed tool.

  12. X-traktor: A Rookie Robot, Simple, Yet Complex, Impeccably Designed, a Very Innovative Multidisciplinary Engineering Masterpiece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A. J., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    FIRST is the acronym of For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology. FIRST is a 501.C.3 non-profit organization whose mission is to generate an interest in science and engineering among today's young adults and youth. This mission is accomplished through a robot competition held annually in the spring of each year. NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center, Education Programs Department, awarded a grant to Lee High School, the sole engineering magnet school in Huntsville, Alabama. MSFC awarded the grant in hopes of fulfilling its goal of giving back invaluable resources to its community and engineers, as well as educating tomorrow's work force in the high-tech area of science and technology. Marshall engineers, Lee High School students and teachers, and a host of other volunteers and parents officially initiated this robot design process and competitive strategic game plan. The FIRST Robotics Competition is a national engineering contest, which immerses high school students in the exciting world of science and engineering. Teaming with engineers from government agencies, businesses, and universities enables the students to learn about the engineering profession. The students and engineers have six weeks to work together to brainstorm, design, procure, construct, and test their robot. The team then competes in a spirited, 'no-holds barred' tournament, complete with referees, other FIRST-designed robots, cheerleaders, and time clocks. The partnerships developed between schools, government agencies, businesses, and universities provide an exchange of resources and talent that build cooperation and expose students to new and rewarding career options. The result is a fun, exciting, and stimulating environment in which all participants discover the important connections between classroom experiences and real-world applications. This paper will highlight the story, engineering development, and evolutionary design of Xtraktor, the rookie robot, a manufacturing

  13. Modular Track System For Positioning Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff

    1995-01-01

    Conceptual system for positioning mobile robotic manipulators on large main structure includes modular tracks and ancillary structures assembled easily along with main structure. System, called "tracked robotic location system" (TROLS), originally intended for application to platforms in outer space, but TROLS concept might also prove useful on Earth; for example, to position robots in factories and warehouses. T-cross-section rail keeps mobile robot on track. Bar codes mark locations along track. Each robot equipped with bar-code-recognizing circuitry so it quickly finds way to assigned location.

  14. Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration through Accomplishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Space Mining for resources such as water ice, and regolith, which contain many elements in the form of metals, minerals, volatiles and other compounds, is a necessary step in Space Resource Utilization. One of the primary goals is to extract propellants from the regolith such as oxygen and hydrogen which could then be used for in-space transportation. In addition, the space mining system can be used for various construction tasks that can benefit human and robotic exploration as well as scientific investigations based on the exposed topography. The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Lunabotics Mining Competition is a university-level competition designed to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). NASA will directly benefit from the competition by encouraging the development of innovative lunar excavation concepts from universities which may result in clever ideas and solutions which could be applied to an actual lunar excavation device or payload. The challenge is for students to design and build a remote controlled or autonomous excavator, called a lunabot, that can collect and deposit a minimum of 10 kilograms of lunar simulant within 15 minutes. The complexities of the challenge include the abrasive characteristics of the lunar simulant, the weight and size limitations of the lunabot, and the ability to control the lunabot from a remote control center or operate autonomously. This paper will present an update of the results and lessons learned during the first and second annual Lunabotics Mining Competitions held in May 2010 and May 2011. It will also preview the 2012 competition with a review of the revised rules. In 2010,22 United States (US) universities competed, and in May 2011 the competition was opened to international participation. In 2011, 36 teams actually competed from 26 USA states and 4 foreign countries (India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Canada). This combined total directly inspired an

  15. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Ball handling system for tech united soccer robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, K.P.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Hoogendijk, R.; Steinbuch, M.

    2012-01-01

    This pre-master end project is done for team Tech United of Eindhoven University of Technology. The Tech United team is a group of students and employees who design, build and program soccer robots to compete in the RoboCup Middle Size League. RoboCup is a worldwide competition in which two teams of

  17. Robotics: a way to link the "islands of automation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, D

    1994-01-01

    This article looks at what the natural evolution of robots can do for the clinical testing industry, from performing simple functions to becoming the prime labor force of the clinical laboratory. Until now, robots have been applied to instrument processes as somewhat of an upgrade to accomplish a variety of laboratory tasks. Over the next 10 years, however, robotics development will respond to the internal and external influences expected to challenge the industry. A limited supply of human workers and the increased demands of testing volumes and cost-effectiveness will herald a new phase of robotics to link, as well as develop, technological capabilities. Since science fiction was invented, robots have teased the imagination-alternately as mindless automatons or as clones of their inventors endowed with minds of their own. The appeal in the first case was the seemingly infinite capacity for performing menial tasks too boring, complex, or dangerous for mankind. The appeal in the second was the fantasy of artificial intelligence. In both cases, the fictional concept has become reality--and, by the 21st century, should even be commonplace. Financial encouragement of robotics development might even be a mission for laboratories themselves, as they prepare for potential competition from even more complex technology.

  18. Laws on Robots, Laws by Robots, Laws in Robots : Regulating Robot Behaviour by Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, R.E.; Lucivero, F.

    2015-01-01

    Speculation about robot morality is almost as old as the concept of a robot itself. Asimov’s three laws of robotics provide an early and well-discussed example of moral rules robots should observe. Despite the widespread influence of the three laws of robotics and their role in shaping visions of

  19. Robotics: The next step?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2014-02-01

    Robotic systems were introduced 15 years ago to support complex endoscopic procedures. The technology is increasingly used in gastro-intestinal surgery. In this article, literature on experimental- and clinical research is reviewed and ergonomic issues are discussed. literature review was based on Medline search using a large variety of search terms, including e.g. robot(ic), randomized, rectal, oesophageal, ergonomics. Review articles on relevant topics are discussed with preference. There is abundant evidence of supremacy in performing complex endoscopic surgery tasks when using the robot in an experimental setting. There is little high-level evidence so far on translation of these merits to clinical practice. Robotic systems may appear helpful in complex gastro-intestinal surgery. Moreover, dedicated computer based technology integrated in telepresence systems opens the way to integration of planning, diagnostics and therapy. The first high tech add-ons such as near infrared technology are under clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Robotics and tele-operation technology for applications in nuclear fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Takeo, Koji

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we introduce available robotics and tele-operation technology for applications in Nuclear Fields. First, robotics technology for manipulation of a large object is introduced which has been experimentally applied to ITER Maintenance Robot. Then, transportation technology of a large object by multiple mobile robots is reviewed. At last, recent tele-operation technologies and a prototype tele-operation system, referred to as VISIT (Visual Interface System for Interactive Task-execution), is introduced. Several experimental results are also introduced. (author)

  1. Races of robots as a tool for scientific and technical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bonarini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotics competitions have been introduced since the 80s in the community 'science, in order to compare the results obtained by different researchers on common ground and shared. In races and 'required that robots play activities' as defined by the rules of the race and measure the quality' of performance in an objective and / or shared. Among the interesting aspects of this type of scientific debate we want to deliver us out some, also relevant to the races used for educational purposes

  2. Medical robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  3. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. According to the importance of the embodiment of robots in the sense of presence, the influence of robots in communication culture is anticipated. The sustainability of robotics culture based on diversity for cultural communities for various acceptance modalities is explored in order to anticipate the creation of different attributes of culture between robots and humans in the future.

  4. Friendly network robotics; Friendly network robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the friendly network robotics in fiscal 1996. This research assumes an android robot as an ultimate robot and the future robot system utilizing computer network technology. The robot aiming at human daily work activities in factories or under extreme environments is required to work under usual human work environments. The human robot with similar size, shape and functions to human being is desirable. Such robot having a head with two eyes, two ears and mouth can hold a conversation with human being, can walk with two legs by autonomous adaptive control, and has a behavior intelligence. Remote operation of such robot is also possible through high-speed computer network. As a key technology to use this robot under coexistence with human being, establishment of human coexistent robotics was studied. As network based robotics, use of robots connected with computer networks was also studied. In addition, the R-cube (R{sup 3}) plan (realtime remote control robot technology) was proposed. 82 refs., 86 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Sterility and mating competitiveness of irradiated males of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, L.E.; Eesa, N.M.; Cutkomp, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    Low level gamma radiation adversely affected the reproductive capacity of the large milkweed bug, oncopeltus fasciatus dallas, as expressed by fecundity and fertility. Treatment was applied to late 5th instar male nymphs. Both fecundity and fertility decreased linearly with the treatment dose and complete sterility occurred when males were exposed to 6 kilorads and mated with normal females. The mating competitiveness of O. fasciatus males irradiated at late 5th instar nymphs decreased linearly with the treatment dose. A strong negative relationship existed between dose and mating competitiveness ( r = -0.93). A 3:2 ratio of irradiated males at 4 kilorads ( as late 5th instar as many progeny as normal in F 1 .2 tab.,1 fig

  6. A survey on dielectric elastomer actuators for soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2017-01-23

    Conventional industrial robots with the rigid actuation technology have made great progress for humans in the fields of automation assembly and manufacturing. With an increasing number of robots needing to interact with humans and unstructured environments, there is a need for soft robots capable of sustaining large deformation while inducing little pressure or damage when maneuvering through confined spaces. The emergence of soft robotics offers the prospect of applying soft actuators as artificial muscles in robots, replacing traditional rigid actuators. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are recognized as one of the most promising soft actuation technologies due to the facts that: i) dielectric elastomers are kind of soft, motion-generating materials that resemble natural muscle of humans in terms of force, strain (displacement per unit length or area) and actuation pressure/density; ii) dielectric elastomers can produce large voltage-induced deformation. In this survey, we first introduce the so-called DEAs emphasizing the key points of working principle, key components and electromechanical modeling approaches. Then, different DEA-driven soft robots, including wearable/humanoid robots, walking/serpentine robots, flying robots and swimming robots, are reviewed. Lastly, we summarize the challenges and opportunities for the further studies in terms of mechanism design, dynamics modeling and autonomous control.

  7. Competitive advantage with e-business : a survey of large American and Swedish firms

    OpenAIRE

    Beheshti, Hooshang; Salehi-Sangari, Esmail; Engström, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Advances in information and communications technology have allowed for a wide range of electronic business models and applications. These applications are providing a competitive advantage for organizations by creating efficiencies and cost reductions. Electronic business should be part of the overall corporate strategy and be integrated into core business processes. This study provides interesting insights into electronic business applications in large corporations and discusses similarities...

  8. Cyberbotics Ltd. Webots™: Professional Mobile Robot Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Michel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbotics Ltd. develops Webots™, a mobile robotics simulation software that provides you with a rapid prototyping environment for modelling, programming and simulating mobile robots. The provided robot libraries enable you to transfer your control programs to several commercially available real mobile robots. Webots™ lets you define and modify a complete mobile robotics setup, even several different robots sharing the same environment. For each object, you can define a number of properties, such as shape, color, texture, mass, friction, etc. You can equip each robot with a large number of available sensors and actuators. You can program these robots using your favorite development environment, simulate them and optionally transfer the resulting programs onto your real robots. Webots™ has been developed in collaboration with the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, thoroughly tested, well documented and continuously maintained for over 7 years. It is now the main commercial product available from Cyberbotics Ltd.

  9. Robots and plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.

    1996-02-01

    The application of robots in the harsh environments in which TELEMAN equipment will have to operate has large benefits, but also some drawbacks. The main benefit is the ability gained to perform tasks where people cannot go, while there is a possibility of inflicting damage to the equipment handled by the robot, and the plant when mobile robots are involved. The paper describes the types of possible damage and the precautions to be taken in order to reduce the frequency of the damaging events. A literature study for the topic only gave some insight into examples, but no means for a systematic treatment of the topic. (au) 16 refs

  10. From Virtual Creatures to Feasible Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faina, Andres; Souto, Daniel; Orjales, Félix

    with the main objective of obtaining feasible and manufacturable robots. To this end, a modular architecture has been defined and implemented [2], which faces real hardware issues and promotes the evolvability of the robotic structures by considering heterogeneous modules with a large number of connection faces......This paper provides a brief description of the robots obtained using the evolutionary design system called EDHMoR (Evolutionary Designer of Heterogeneous Modular Robots) that are displayed in the corresponding video [1]. This system is based on the coevolution of morphology and control...... per module. These modules constitute the building blocks the EDHMoR system uses to design the robots. Moreover, an evaluation methodology is proposed as a key element of EDMHoR, which is based on modifications in the environment that can produce more useful and realistic robots without limiting...

  11. Foot placement in robotic bipedal locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, T.

    2012-01-01

    Human walking is remarkably robust, versatile and energy-efficient: humans have the ability to handle large unexpected disturbances, perform a wide variety of gaits and consume little energy. A bipedal walking robot that performs well on all of these aspects has not yet been developed. Some robots

  12. Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission: Robotic Boulder Capture Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Belbin, Scott P.; Reeves, David M.; Earle, Kevin D.; Naasz, Bo J.; Abell, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying an option for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) that would capture a multi-ton boulder (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (is approximately 100+ meter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cislunar space for subsequent human and robotic exploration. This alternative mission approach, designated the Robotic Boulder Capture Option (Option B), has been investigated to determine the mission feasibility and identify potential differences from the initial ARRM concept of capturing an entire small NEA (4-10 meters in size), which has been designated the Small Asteroid Capture Option (Option A). Compared to the initial ARRM concept, Option B allows for centimeter-level characterization over an entire large NEA, the certainty of target NEA composition type, the ability to select the boulder that is captured, numerous opportunities for mission enhancements to support science objectives, additional experience operating at a low-gravity planetary body including extended surface contact, and the ability to demonstrate future planetary defense strategies on a hazardous-size NEA. Option B can leverage precursor missions and existing Agency capabilities to help ensure mission success by targeting wellcharacterized asteroids and can accommodate uncertain programmatic schedules by tailoring the return mass.

  13. Initial Validation of Robotic Operations for In-Space Assembly of a Large Solar Electric Propulsion Transport Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik E.; Dorsey, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Developing a capability for the assembly of large space structures has the potential to increase the capabilities and performance of future space missions and spacecraft while reducing their cost. One such application is a megawatt-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) tug, representing a critical transportation ability for the NASA lunar, Mars, and solar system exploration missions. A series of robotic assembly experiments were recently completed at Langley Research Center (LaRC) that demonstrate most of the assembly steps for the SEP tug concept. The assembly experiments used a core set of robotic capabilities: long-reach manipulation and dexterous manipulation. This paper describes cross-cutting capabilities and technologies for in-space assembly (ISA), applies the ISA approach to a SEP tug, describes the design and development of two assembly demonstration concepts, and summarizes results of two sets of assembly experiments that validate the SEP tug assembly steps.

  14. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Larsen, Morten; Nielsen, Søren H

    2014-01-01

    Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached...... the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to enable a more efficient, reliable and safe autonomy becomes increasingly demanding due to the growing...... software complexity. A lack of collaboration between research groups contributes to the problem. Scientific publications describe methods and results from the work, but little field robot software is released and documented for others to use. We hypothesize that a common open software platform tailored...

  15. Robotic Billiards: Understanding Humans in Order to Counter Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierhoff, Thomas; Leibrandt, Konrad; Lorenz, Tamara; Hirche, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Ongoing technological advances in the areas of computation, sensing, and mechatronics enable robotic-based systems to interact with humans in the real world. To succeed against a human in a competitive scenario, a robot must anticipate the human behavior and include it in its own planning framework. Then it can predict the next human move and counter it accordingly, thus not only achieving overall better performance but also systematically exploiting the opponent's weak spots. Pool is used as a representative scenario to derive a model-based planning and control framework where not only the physics of the environment but also a model of the opponent is considered. By representing the game of pool as a Markov decision process and incorporating a model of the human decision-making based on studies, an optimized policy is derived. This enables the robot to include the opponent's typical game style into its tactical considerations when planning a stroke. The results are validated in simulations and real-life experiments with an anthropomorphic robot playing pool against a human.

  16. Modeling and Simulation for Exploring Human-Robot Team Interaction Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald Dean; Bruemmer, David Jonathon; Davis, Midge Lee

    2001-12-01

    Small-sized and micro-robots will soon be available for deployment in large-scale forces. Consequently, the ability of a human operator to coordinate and interact with largescale robotic forces is of great interest. This paper describes the ways in which modeling and simulation have been used to explore new possibilities for human-robot interaction. The paper also discusses how these explorations have fed implementation of a unified set of command and control concepts for robotic force deployment. Modeling and simulation can play a major role in fielding robot teams in actual missions. While live testing is preferred, limitations in terms of technology, cost, and time often prohibit extensive experimentation with physical multi-robot systems. Simulation provides insight, focuses efforts, eliminates large areas of the possible solution space, and increases the quality of actual testing.

  17. Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  18. Design and evaluation of a motor imagery electroencephalogram-controlled robot system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain–computer interface provides a new communication channel to control external device by directly translating the brain activity into commands. In this article, as the foundation of electroencephalogram-based robot-assisted upper limb rehabilitation therapy, we report on designing a brain–computer interface–based online robot control system which is made up of electroencephalogram amplifier, acquisition and experimental platform, feature extraction algorithm based on discrete wavelet transform and autoregressive model, linear discriminant analysis classifier, robot control board, and Rhino XR-1 robot. The performance of the system has been tested by 30 participants, and satisfactory results are achieved with an average error rate of 8.5%. Moreover, the advantage of the feature extraction method was further validated by the Graz data set for brain–computer interface competition 2003, and an error rate of 10.0% was obtained. This method provides a useful way for the research of brain–computer interface system and lays a foundation for brain–computer interface–based robotic upper extremity rehabilitation therapy.

  19. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Jensen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to enable a more efficient, reliable and safe autonomy becomes increasingly demanding due to the growing software complexity. A lack of collaboration between research groups contributes to the problem. Scientific publications describe methods and results from the work, but little field robot software is released and documented for others to use. We hypothesize that a common open software platform tailored to field robots in precision agriculture will significantly decrease development time and resources required to perform experiments due to efficient reuse of existing work across projects and robot platforms. In this work we present the FroboMind software platform and evaluate the performance when applied to precision agriculture tasks.

  20. Sample Return Robot

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Challenge requires demonstration of an autonomous robotic system to locate and collect a set of specific sample types from a large planetary analog area and...

  1. IHMC's experience competing in the Cybathlon compared to the DARPA robotics challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Peter

    2017-11-09

    As a research scientist, my work tends to focus on scientific investigations. Our group occasionally makes discoveries or has a successful demonstration, and sometimes we can even repeatedly demonstrate something working on the hardware. This mode of operation works for research, but not for competitions. In the past few years, I have participated in two international robotics competitions, the DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) and the Cybathlon; the research and development process for these competitions is significantly different from our typical research work. This commentary discusses our experience preparing for the Cybathlon, and contrasts it with our experience with the DRC. The human in the loop for the Cybathlon was the biggest differentiator between the DRC and the Cybathlon. Having the human at the center of the competition not only changed the way we developed, but changed how we viewed the impact of our work. For the DRC, a physics based dynamic simulation was a powerful, and invaluable, tool for not only the algorithm developers, but the robot operator as well. For the Cybathlon, simulation was of little use because the all of closed-loop control was performed by the pilot. In the software development cycle for the Cybathlon, the push was to just come up with something that works and "lock it down" and do not change it, so that the pilot could train with a given set of motions that would not change and make up for any deficiencies with his own abilities. The Cybathlon was more of an athletic challenge for the human who was assisted by technology. The DRC was the opposite, it was a robotics challenge assisted by a human. This commentary focuses on describing the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition's (IHMC) experience leading up to and at the Cybathlon, with some comparisons to the DRC experience. The Cybathlon was a very worthwhile experience me, my team, and of course our pilot. Knowing that our development could improve the quality of life

  2. Remote-controlled vision-guided mobile robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ande, Raymond; Samu, Tayib; Hall, Ernest L.

    1997-09-01

    Automated guided vehicles (AGVs) have many potential applications in manufacturing, medicine, space and defense. The purpose of this paper is to describe exploratory research on the design of the remote controlled emergency stop and vision systems for an autonomous mobile robot. The remote control provides human supervision and emergency stop capabilities for the autonomous vehicle. The vision guidance provides automatic operation. A mobile robot test-bed has been constructed using a golf cart base. The mobile robot (Bearcat) was built for the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems (AUVS) 1997 competition. The mobile robot has full speed control with guidance provided by a vision system and an obstacle avoidance system using ultrasonic sensors systems. Vision guidance is accomplished using two CCD cameras with zoom lenses. The vision data is processed by a high speed tracking device, communicating with the computer the X, Y coordinates of blobs along the lane markers. The system also has three emergency stop switches and a remote controlled emergency stop switch that can disable the traction motor and set the brake. Testing of these systems has been done in the lab as well as on an outside test track with positive results that show that at five mph the vehicle can follow a line and at the same time avoid obstacles.

  3. PLANNING IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (PAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Foreword

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available September 18th, 2016Deggendorf, Germanyhttp://robotics.fel.cvut.cz/pair16/Organized by: Artificial Intelligence Center Department of Computer Science Faculty of Electrical Engineering Czech Technical University in PragueTechnicka 2, Prague 6, 166 27, Czech RepublicGuest editors:Jan Faigl (Artificial Intelligence Center, Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in PragueJiří Vokřínek (Artificial Intelligence Center, Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in PragueScientific comittee:D. Belter (Poznań University of Technology, PolandW. Dorner (Technische Hochschule Deggendorf, GermanyJ. Faigl (Czech Technical University in PragueT. Krajník (University of Lincoln, United KingdomA. Komenda (Czech Technical University in PragueG. Kupris (Technische Hochschule Deggendorf, GermanyM. Rollo (Czech Technical University in PragueM. Saska (Czech Technical University in PragueJ. Vokřínek (Czech Technical University in PragueV. Vonásek (Czech Technical University in PragueK. Walas (Poznań University of Technology, Poland Foreword:The third year of the student conference on “Planning in Artificial Intelligence and Robotics” (PAIR continues in joining young researchers and students interested in robotics and artificial intelligence. In 2016, we follow the schema of the last year as a joint event with the RoboTour competition in Deggendorf, Germany. Thanks to the great collaboration with Gerald Kupris and Wolfgang Donner from Technische Hochschule Deggendorf and support from Czech Technical University under project No. SVK 26/16/F3 and Bayerisches Staatsministerium der Finanzen, für Landesentwicklung und Heimat, we have been able to provide accommodations and travel support to participants and an invited speaker. Fourteen papers have accepted and listed in the conference program. The papers have been authored by students from Central Europe

  4. Mating competitiveness of Aedes albopictus radio-sterilized males in large enclosures exposed to natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, R; Balestrino, F; Medici, A; Gentile, G; Veronesi, R; Carrieri, M

    2013-01-01

    Mating competitiveness trials have been conducted in large net-screened enclosures (8 by 5 by 2.8 m) built in a natural shaded environment, in the summers of 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 in northern Italy. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males were radio-sterilized by applying gamma radiations at doses in the range 30-60 Gy. Gamma radiation was administered to aged pupae at the rate of 2.3 Gy/min. Reared radiated males (originally collected in Rimini, Forli, Bologna, Matera, Pinerolo) and hybrid radiated males were tested against wild fertile males (originated from eggs collected in Rimini and Cesena) and reared fertile males, in multiple comparisons for mating competitiveness with reared or wild females. The ratio was kept constant at 100-100_100 (fertile males-radiated males_virgin females). Mating competitiveness was estimated through the calculation of the hatching rate of the eggs laid in oviposition traps positioned inside enclosures. No clear effect of the strains tested (reared, wild, or hybrid) was found. Results demonstrated that reducing the radiation dose from 60 to 30 Gy increases males' competitiveness. Laboratory investigations conducted after controversial results in the 2006 preliminary trials, showed that radiation induces precociousness in adult male emergence.

  5. Dynamic analysis of space robot remote control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, Felix; Alferov, Gennady; Sokolov, Boris; Gorovenko, Polina; Sharlay, Artem

    2018-05-01

    The article presents analysis on construction of two-stage remote control for space robots. This control ensures efficiency of the robot control system at large delays in transmission of control signals from the ground control center to the local control system of the space robot. The conditions for control stability of and high transparency are found.

  6. Educational resources and tools for robotic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gil Vazquez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 139 795 Universidad de Salamanca 6 1 976 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} This paper discusses different teaching experiences which aims are the learning robotics in the university. These experiences are reflected in the development of several robotics courses and subjects at the University of Alicante.  The authors have created various educational platforms or they have used tools of free distribution and open source for the implementation of these courses. The main objetive of these courses is to teach the design and implementation of robotic solutions to solve various problems not only such as the control, programming and handling of robot but also the assembly, building and programming of educational mini-robots. On the one hand, new teaching tools are used such as simulators and virtual labs which make flexible the learning of robot arms. On the other hand, competitions are used to motivate students because this way, the students put into action the skills learned through building and programming low-cost mini-robots.

  7. Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, E. P.; Iurevich, E. I.

    The history and the current status of robotics are reviewed, as are the design, operation, and principal applications of industrial robots. Attention is given to programmable robots, robots with adaptive control and elements of artificial intelligence, and remotely controlled robots. The applications of robots discussed include mechanical engineering, cargo handling during transportation and storage, mining, and metallurgy. The future prospects of robotics are briefly outlined.

  8. Intelligent robot trends and predictions for the first year of the new millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ernest L.

    2000-10-01

    An intelligent robot is a remarkably useful combination of a manipulator, sensors and controls. The current use of these machines in outer space, medicine, hazardous materials, defense applications and industry is being pursued with vigor. In factory automation, industrial robots can improve productivity, increase product quality and improve competitiveness. The computer and the robot have both been developed during recent times. The intelligent robot combines both technologies and requires a thorough understanding and knowledge of mechatronics. Today's robotic machines are faster, cheaper, more repeatable, more reliable and safer than ever. The knowledge base of inverse kinematic and dynamic solutions and intelligent controls is increasing. More attention is being given by industry to robots, vision and motion controls. New areas of usage are emerging for service robots, remote manipulators and automated guided vehicles. Economically, the robotics industry now has more than a billion-dollar market in the U.S. and is growing. Feasibility studies show decreasing costs for robots and unaudited healthy rates of return for a variety of robotic applications. However, the road from inspiration to successful application can be long and difficult, often taking decades to achieve a new product. A greater emphasis on mechatronics is needed in our universities. Certainly, more cooperation between government, industry and universities is needed to speed the development of intelligent robots that will benefit industry and society. The fearful robot stories may help us prevent future disaster. The inspirational robot ideas may inspire the scientists of tomorrow. However, the intelligent robot ideas, which can be reduced to practice, will change the world.

  9. Robot 2015 : Second Iberian Robotics Conference : Advances in Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreira, António; Lima, Pedro; Montano, Luis; Muñoz-Martinez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers accepted for presentation and discussion at ROBOT 2015: Second Iberian Robotics Conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, November 19th-21th, 2015. ROBOT 2015 is part of a series of conferences that are a joint organization of SPR – “Sociedade Portuguesa de Robótica/ Portuguese Society for Robotics”, SEIDROB – Sociedad Española para la Investigación y Desarrollo de la Robótica/ Spanish Society for Research and Development in Robotics and CEA-GTRob – Grupo Temático de Robótica/ Robotics Thematic Group. The conference organization had also the collaboration of several universities and research institutes, including: University of Minho, University of Porto, University of Lisbon, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, University of Aveiro, University of Zaragoza, University of Malaga, LIACC, INESC-TEC and LARSyS. Robot 2015 was focussed on the Robotics scientific and technological activities in the Iberian Peninsula, although open to research and delegates from other...

  10. Developmental Robots - A New Paradigm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weng, Juyang; Zhang, Yilu

    2005-01-01

    .... This is especially true for a humanoid robot due to the very large number of redundant degrees of freedom and large number of sensors that are required for a humanoid to work safely and effectively...

  11. Inspection, maintenance, and repair of large pumps and piping systems using advanced robotic tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.K.; Radigan, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Operating and maintaining large pumps and piping systems can be an expensive proposition. Proper inspections and monitoring can reduce costs. This was difficult in the past, since detailed pump inspections could only be performed by disassembly and many portions of piping systems are buried or covered with insulation. Once these components were disassembled, a majority of the cost was already incurred. At that point, expensive part replacement usually took place whether it was needed or not. With the completion of the Pipe Walkertrademark/LIP System and the planned development of the Submersible Walkertrademark, this situation is due to change. The specifications for these inspection and maintenance robots will ensure that. Their ability to traverse both horizontal and vertical, forward and backward, make them unique tools. They will open the door for some innovative approaches to inspection and maintenance of large pumps and piping systems

  12. Advanced robot vision system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoguchi, Kazunori; Kawamura, Atsuro; Nakayama, Ryoichi.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a robot vision system for advanced robots used in nuclear power plants, under a contract with the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. This work is part of the large-scale 'advanced robot technology' project. The robot vision system consists of self-location measurement, obstacle detection, and object recognition subsystems, which are activated by a total control subsystem. This paper presents details of these subsystems and the experimental results obtained. (author)

  13. Analysis of the type II robotic mixed-model assembly line balancing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çil, Zeynel Abidin; Mete, Süleyman; Ağpak, Kürşad

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing trend towards using robots in production systems. Robots are used in different areas such as packaging, transportation, loading/unloading and especially assembly lines. One important step in taking advantage of robots on the assembly line is considering them while balancing the line. On the other hand, market conditions have increased the importance of mixed-model assembly lines. Therefore, in this article, the robotic mixed-model assembly line balancing problem is studied. The aim of this study is to develop a new efficient heuristic algorithm based on beam search in order to minimize the sum of cycle times over all models. In addition, mathematical models of the problem are presented for comparison. The proposed heuristic is tested on benchmark problems and compared with the optimal solutions. The results show that the algorithm is very competitive and is a promising tool for further research.

  14. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots enhance a safety and operations in nuclear plants. E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligence, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  15. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots will enhance safety and operations in nuclear plants. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligent, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  16. Design and Implementation an Autonomous Humanoid Robot Based on Fuzzy Rule-Based Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Taheri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on humanoid robotics in Mechatronics and Automation Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University Khorasgan branch (Isfahan of Iran was started at
    the beginning of this decade. Various research prototypes for humanoid robots have been designed and are going through evolution over these years. This paper describes the hardware and software design of the kid size humanoid robot systems of the PERSIA Team in 2009. The robot has 20 actuated degrees of freedom based on Hitec HSR898. In this paper we have tried to focus on areas such as mechanical structure, Image processing unit, robot controller, Robot AI and behavior
    learning. In 2009, our developments for the Kid size humanoid robot include: (1 the design and construction of our new humanoid robots (2 the design and construction of a new hardware and software controller to be used in our robots. The project is described in two main parts: Hardware and Software. The software is developed a robot application which consists walking controller, autonomous motion robot, self localization base on vision and Particle Filter, local AI, Trajectory Planning, Motion Controller and Network. The hardware consists of the mechanical structure and the driver circuit board. Each robot is able to walk, fast walk, pass, kick and dribble when it catches
    the ball. These humanoids have been successfully participating in various robotic soccer competitions. This project is still in progress and some new interesting methods are described in the current report.

  17. Concept for a large master/slave-controlled robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, William A.; Abdallah, Mahmoud A.; White, Carl L.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy is presented for the design and construction of a large master/slave-controlled, five-finger robotic hand. Each of the five fingers will possess four independent axes each driven by a brushless DC servomotor and, thus, four degrees-of-freedom. It is proposed that commercially available components be utilized as much as possible to fabricate a working laboratory model of the device with an anticipated overall length of two-to-four feet (0.6 to 1.2 m). The fingers are to be designed so that proximity, tactile, or force/torque sensors can be imbedded in their structure. In order to provide for the simultaneous control of the twenty independent hand joints, a multilevel master/slave control strategy is proposed in which the operator wears a specially instrumented glove which produces control signals corresponding to the finger configurations and which is capable of conveying sensor feedback signals to the operator. Two dexterous hand master devices are currently commercially available for this application with both undergoing continuing development. A third approach to be investigated for the master control mode is the use of real-time image processing of a specially patterned master glove to provide the respective control signals for positioning the multiple finger joints.

  18. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Samani; Elham Saadatian; Natalie Pang; Doros Polydorou; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Ryohei Nakatsu; Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the concept of “Cultural Robotics” with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...

  19. Swarm Robotics, or: The Smartness of 'a bunch of cheap dumb things'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Vehlken

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Not only recent Science Fiction – e.g., Star Trek Beyond (USA 2016 – celebrates the capacities of robot collectives. Also RoboCup, an annual robot soccer competition, or Harvard University’s Kilobot Project show stunning examples of the central idea behind Swarm Robotics: »[U]sing swarms is the same as getting a bunch of small cheap dumb things to do the same job as an expensive smart thing« (Beni/Wang 1989. This article examines some crucial aspects of the techno-history of a research field which intertwines engineering and biological knowledge and whose applications deal with compelling questions about synchronization and self-organization in changing environments – on the ground, in the air, and under water.

  20. Robot Actors, Robot Dramaturgies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth

    This paper considers the use of tele-operated robots in live performance. Robots and performance have long been linked, from the working androids and automata staged in popular exhibitions during the nineteenth century and the robots featured at Cybernetic Serendipity (1968) and the World Expo...

  1. Vision-Based Recognition of Activities by a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounîm A. El-Yacoubi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an autonomous assistive robotic system for human activity recognition from video sequences. Due to the large variability inherent to video capture from a non-fixed robot (as opposed to a fixed camera, as well as the robot's limited computing resources, implementation has been guided by robustness to this variability and by memory and computing speed efficiency. To accommodate motion speed variability across users, we encode motion using dense interest point trajectories. Our recognition model harnesses the dense interest point bag-of-words representation through an intersection kernel-based SVM that better accommodates the large intra-class variability stemming from a robot operating in different locations and conditions. To contextually assess the engine as implemented in the robot, we compare it with the most recent approaches of human action recognition performed on public datasets (non-robot-based, including a novel approach of our own that is based on a two-layer SVM-hidden conditional random field sequential recognition model. The latter's performance is among the best within the recent state of the art. We show that our robot-based recognition engine, while less accurate than the sequential model, nonetheless shows good performances, especially given the adverse test conditions of the robot, relative to those of a fixed camera.

  2. Multicenter review of robotic versus laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: is there a role for robotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter A; May, Audriene C; Mo, Jiandi; Cherla, Deepa V; Santillan, Monica Rosales; Kim, Steven; Ryan, Heidi; Shah, Shinil K; Wilson, Erik B; Tsuda, Shawn

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of robotic platforms for general surgery procedures such as hernia repair is growing rapidly in the United States. A limited amount of data are available evaluating operative outcomes in comparison to standard laparoscopic surgery. We completed a retrospective review comparing robotic and laparoscopic ventral hernia repair to provide safety and outcomes data to help design a future prospective trial design. A retrospective review of 215 patients undergoing ventral hernia repair (142 robotic and 73 laparoscopic) was completed at two large academic centers. Primary outcome measure evaluated was recurrence. Secondary outcomes included incidence of primary fascial closure, and surgical site occurrences. Propensity for treatment match comparison demonstrated that robotic repair was associated with a decreased incidence of recurrence (2.1 versus 4.2%, p robotic repair was associated with increased incidence of primary fascial closure (77.1 versus 66.7%, p robotic repairs were completed on patients with lower body mass index (28.1 ± 3.6 versus 34.2 ± 6.4, p robotic repair was associated with decreased recurrence and surgical site occurrence. However, the differences noted in the patient populations limit the interpretability of these results. As adoption of robotic ventral hernia repair increases, prospective trials need to be designed in order to investigate the efficacy, safety, and cost effectiveness of this evolving technique.

  3. Robotic Range Clearance Competition (R2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    MON TUE MAP MAP VEG automated vegetation clearance, automated Aug 10 Aug 11 WED THU Med VEG ia and Visitor D MAP ay Aug 12 FRI SURF...competitors will not be penalized if they enter this area. For the competition we will add an additional Pan , Tilt, Zoom (PTZ) Camera that will be...Johnston’s Corner –Gas Station Restaurant: Pizza, Fired Chicken , Subs 550 W Whalen St., Guernsey, WY 82214 (307) 836-3155 R2C2 Competitor Information

  4. Positioning the laparoscopic camera with industrial robot arm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Marie Claire; Wu, Haiyan; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a solution for the movement control of the laparoscopic camera employing a teleoperated robotic assistant. The project propose an autonomous robotic solution based on an industrial manipulator, provided with a modular software which is applicable to large scale. The robot arm...... industrial robot arm is designated to accomplish this manipulation task. The software is implemented in ROS in order to facilitate future extensions. The experimental results shows a manipulator capable of moving fast and smoothly the surgical tool around a remote center of motion....

  5. Cost assessment of robotics in gynecologic surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, Christos; Papadopoulou, Eleni K; Gkegkes, Ioannis D

    2014-11-01

    The application of robotics is an innovation in the field of gynecologic surgery. Our objective was to evaluate the currently available literature on the cost assessment of robotic surgery of various operations in the field of gynecologic surgery. PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched in order to retrieve the included studies in our review. We retrieved 23 studies on a variety of gynecologic operations. The mean cost for robotic, open and laparoscopic surgery ranged from 1731 to 48,769, 894 to 20,277 and 411 to 41,836 Euros, respectively. Operative charges, in hysterectomy, for robotic, open and laparoscopic technique ranged from 936 to 33,920, 684 to 25,616 and 858 to 25,578 Euros, respectively. In sacrocolpopexy, these costs ranged from 2067 to 7275, 2904 to 69,792 and 1482 to 2000 Euros, respectively. Non-operative charges ranged from 467 to 39,121 Euros. The mean total costs for myomectomy ranged from 27,342 to 42,497 and 13,709 to 20,277 Euros, respectively, for the robotic and open methods, while the mean total cost of the laparoscopic technique was 26,181 Euros. Conversions to laparotomy were present in 79/36,185 (0.2%) cases of laparoscopic surgery and in 21/3345 (0.62%) cases of robotic technique. Duration of robotic, open and laparoscopic surgery ranged from 50 to 445, 83.7 to 701 and 74 to 330 min, respectively. Robotic surgery has the potential to become cost-effective in centers with many patients while industry competition could reduce the cost of the robotic instrumentation, making robotic technology more affordable and cost-effective. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Transformers: Shape-Changing Space Systems Built with Robotic Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Prior approaches to transformer-like robots had only very limited success. They suffer from lack of reliability, ability to integrate large surfaces, and very modest change in overall shape. Robots can now be built from two-dimensional (2D) layers of robotic fabric. These transformers, a new kind of robotic space system, are dramatically different from current systems in at least two ways. First, the entire transformer is built from a single, thin sheet; a flexible layer of a robotic fabric (ro-fabric); or robotic textile (ro-textile). Second, the ro-textile layer is foldable to small volume and self-unfolding to adapt shape and function to mission phases.

  7. Robotics and general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Brian P; Gagner, Michel

    2003-12-01

    Robotics are now being used in all surgical fields, including general surgery. By increasing intra-abdominal articulations while operating through small incisions, robotics are increasingly being used for a large number of visceral and solid organ operations, including those for the gallbladder, esophagus, stomach, intestines, colon, and rectum, as well as for the endocrine organs. Robotics and general surgery are blending for the first time in history and as a specialty field should continue to grow for many years to come. We continuously demand solutions to questions and limitations that are experienced in our daily work. Laparoscopy is laden with limitations such as fixed axis points at the trocar insertion sites, two-dimensional video monitors, limited dexterity at the instrument tips, lack of haptic sensation, and in some cases poor ergonomics. The creation of a surgical robot system with 3D visual capacity seems to deal with most of these limitations. Although some in the surgical community continue to test the feasibility of these surgical robots and to question the necessity of such an expensive venture, others are already postulating how to improve the next generation of telemanipulators, and in so doing are looking beyond today's horizon to find simpler solutions. As the robotic era enters the world of the general surgeon, more and more complex procedures will be able to be approached through small incisions. As technology catches up with our imaginations, robotic instruments (as opposed to robots) and 3D monitoring will become routine and continue to improve patient care by providing surgeons with the most precise, least traumatic ways of treating surgical disease.

  8. Robots testing robots: ALAN-Arm, a humanoid arm for the testing of robotic rehabilitation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Jack; Kuznecovs, Maksims; Kanakis, Menelaos; Grigals, Arturs; Narvidas, Mazvydas; Gallagher, Justin; Levesley, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Robotics is increasing in popularity as a method of providing rich, personalized and cost-effective physiotherapy to individuals with some degree of upper limb paralysis, such as those who have suffered a stroke. These robotic rehabilitation systems are often high powered, and exoskeletal systems can attach to the person in a restrictive manner. Therefore, ensuring the mechanical safety of these devices before they come in contact with individuals is a priority. Additionally, rehabilitation systems may use novel sensor systems to measure current arm position. Used to capture and assess patient movements, these first need to be verified for accuracy by an external system. We present the ALAN-Arm, a humanoid robotic arm designed to be used for both accuracy benchmarking and safety testing of robotic rehabilitation systems. The system can be attached to a rehabilitation device and then replay generated or human movement trajectories, as well as autonomously play rehabilitation games or activities. Tests of the ALAN-Arm indicated it could recreate the path of a generated slow movement path with a maximum error of 14.2mm (mean = 5.8mm) and perform cyclic movements up to 0.6Hz with low gain (<1.5dB). Replaying human data trajectories showed the ability to largely preserve human movement characteristics with slightly higher path length and lower normalised jerk.

  9. Is Ethics of Robotics about Robots? Philosophy of Robotics Beyond Realism and Individualilsm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2011-01-01

    If we are doing ethics of robotics, what exactly is the object of our inquiry? This paper challenges 'individualist' robot ontology and 'individualist' social philosophy of robots. It is argued that ethics of robotics should not study and evaluate robotics exclusively in terms of individual

  10. A survey of bio-inspired compliant legged robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaodong; Bi Shusheng

    2012-01-01

    The roles of biological springs in vertebrate animals and their implementations in compliant legged robots offer significant advantages over the rigid legged ones in certain types of scenarios. A large number of robotics institutes have been attempting to work in conjunction with biologists and incorporated these principles into the design of biologically inspired robots. The motivation of this review is to investigate the most published compliant legged robots and categorize them according to the types of compliant elements adopted in their mechanical structures. Based on the typical robots investigated, the trade-off between each category is summarized. In addition, the most significant performances of these robots are compared quantitatively, and multiple available solutions for the future compliant legged robot design are suggested. Finally, the design challenges for compliant legged robots are analysed. This review will provide useful guidance for robotic designers in creating new designs by inheriting the virtues of those successful robots according to the specific tasks. (topical review)

  11. Posture manipulation for rescue activity via small traction robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yuki; Osuka, Koichi; Amano, Hisanori

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a conceptual design of rescue robots against nuclear-power plant accidents. We claim that the rescue robots in nuclear-power plants should have the following properties. (1) The size is small. (2) The structure is simple. (3) The number of the robots is large. This paper studies the rescue robots to rescue people in an area polluted with radioactive leakage in nuclear power institutions. In particular, we propose a rescue system which consists of a group of small mobile robots. First, small traction robots set the posture of the fainted victims to carry easily, and carry them to the safety space with the mobile robots for the stretcher composition. In this paper, we describe the produced small traction robots. And, we confirm that the robots can manipulate a 40 kg dummy doll's posture. We also examine the optimal number of robots from a perspective of working efficiency in the assumption spot. (author)

  12. Sensor based real-time control of robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Timm

    in the sensor to actuation delays in the robot. To that end a method for measuring the actuation and response delay of an industrial robot manipulator, relative to the joint configuration of the robot, is presented. It is also shown how modern machine learning algorithms can be trained to build model based......As robots are becoming more and more widespread in manufacturing, the desire and need for more advanced robotic solutions are increasingly expressed. This is especially the case in Denmark where products with natural variances like agricultural products takes up a large share of the produced goods....... For such production lines, it is often not possible to use primitive preprogrammed industrial robots to handle the otherwise repetitive tasks due to the uniqueness of each product. To handle such products it is necessary to use sensors to determine the size, shape, and position of the product before a proper...

  13. Exploratorium: Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  14. A new neural net approach to robot 3D perception and visuo-motor coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukhan

    1992-01-01

    A novel neural network approach to robot hand-eye coordination is presented. The approach provides a true sense of visual error servoing, redundant arm configuration control for collision avoidance, and invariant visuo-motor learning under gazing control. A 3-D perception network is introduced to represent the robot internal 3-D metric space in which visual error servoing and arm configuration control are performed. The arm kinematic network performs the bidirectional association between 3-D space arm configurations and joint angles, and enforces the legitimate arm configurations. The arm kinematic net is structured by a radial-based competitive and cooperative network with hierarchical self-organizing learning. The main goal of the present work is to demonstrate that the neural net representation of the robot 3-D perception net serves as an important intermediate functional block connecting robot eyes and arms.

  15. Autonomous Fault Detection for Performance Bugs in Component Based Robotic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    platform performs a modified version of the restaurant task from the RoboCup@Home competition 2015 [20]. Here, an operator first guides the robot around a...Control. Berlin: Springer, 2008. DOI: 10.1007/ 978-3-540-76304-8. [18] H. Zou and T. Hastie, “Regularization and variable selection via the elastic net

  16. A One-Year Introductory Robotics Curriculum for Computer Science Upperclassmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, N.; Wing, R.; Coleman, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a one-year introductory robotics course sequence focusing on computational aspects of robotics for third- and fourth-year students. The key challenges this curriculum addresses are "scalability," i.e., how to teach a robotics class with a limited amount of hardware to a large audience, "student assessment,"…

  17. "Integrative Social Robotics"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibt, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    -theoretic research in the Humanities, the Social Sciences, and the Human Sciences. The resulting paradigm is user-driven design writ large: research, design, and development of social robotics applications are guided—with multiple feedback—by the reflected normative preferences of a cultural community....

  18. Robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheide, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    This article reviews some of the technical areas and history associated with robotics, provides information relative to the formation of a Robotics Industry Committee within the Industry Applications Society (IAS), and describes how all activities relating to robotics will be coordinated within the IEEE. Industrial robots are being used for material handling, processes such as coating and arc welding, and some mechanical and electronics assembly. An industrial robot is defined as a programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for a variety of tasks. The initial focus of the Robotics Industry Committee will be on the application of robotics systems to the various industries that are represented within the IAS

  19. Mobile Robots for Hospital Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan

    services to maintain the quality of healthcare provided. Logistics is the most resource demanding service in a hospital. The scale of the transportation tasks is huge and the material flow in a hospital is comparable to that of a factory. We believe that these transportation tasks, to a great extent, can...... be and will be automated using mobile robots. This talk consequently addresses the key technical issues of implementing service robots in hospitals. In simple terms, a robotic system for automating hospital logistics has to be reliable, adaptable and scalable. Robots have to be semi-autonomous, and should reliably...... navigate in large and dynamic environments in the hospital. The complexity of the problem has to be manageable, and the solutions have to be flexible, so that the system can be applicable in real world settings. This talk summarizes the efforts to address these issues. Upon the analysis...

  20. Autonomous stair-climbing with miniature jumping robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeter, Sascha A; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2005-04-01

    The problem of vision-guided control of miniature mobile robots is investigated. Untethered mobile robots with small physical dimensions of around 10 cm or less do not permit powerful onboard computers because of size and power constraints. These challenges have, in the past, reduced the functionality of such devices to that of a complex remote control vehicle with fancy sensors. With the help of a computationally more powerful entity such as a larger companion robot, the control loop can be closed. Using the miniature robot's video transmission or that of an observer to localize it in the world, control commands can be computed and relayed to the inept robot. The result is a system that exhibits autonomous capabilities. The framework presented here solves the problem of climbing stairs with the miniature Scout robot. The robot's unique locomotion mode, the jump, is employed to hop one step at a time. Methods for externally tracking the Scout are developed. A large number of real-world experiments are conducted and the results discussed.

  1. THE CURRENT STATE AND THE PERSPECTIVES OF ROBOTICS DEVELOPMENT: IN THE GLOBE AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Bondareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the methodological bases for the new criteria of goods and services efficiency and standards in a new cyber environment, and also the reasons and consequences of the robotic goods and services demands' transformation are defined. The newest era of the mass cyber development and hybridization as the following robotization stage is predicted, the analysis of the new mass commercialization challenges and threats of its breakthrough researches is carried out. The global environment influence on the level of corporate robotization and replacement of a non-hybrid environment by the totally hybrid environment are given on the example of the countries pioneers of the forced technological development (Japan, the USA, South Korea, and Germany. The definitions and the existing robots' classifications of three generations are revealed, taking into the account its main criteria robots' so called self-training ability.The methodological criteria and requirements to the leading countries' competitiveness in a new cyber environment in "the sixth technological shift era", including the military, social, political and economic stability, the defensive potential in the new hybrid and contactless cyber wars, are described.The comparative analysis of the well-known forecasts is conducted, including 'The Future of Employment is carried out: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerization" by Karl Frey and Michael Osborn, 'The Future of Jobs, 2025: Working Side-By-Side with Robots" from "Forrester Research" the forecast of the World Economic Forum (WEF of'The Future of Jobs" from 2016 and "Robotic Nation" of Marshall Brian, for the period till 2025 about the mass robotization effects, including the influence of robotization on the global employment.The target approach analysis is carried out, as well as the progressive methodological approaches on the governmental and corporate levels are described. The value of the efficient implementation criteria of the

  2. Motion and operation planning of robotic systems background and practical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Barvo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the broad multi-disciplinary topic of robotics, and presents the basic techniques for motion and operation planning in robotics systems. Gathering contributions from experts in diverse and wide ranging fields, it offers an overview of the most recent and cutting-edge practical applications of these methodologies. It covers both theoretical and practical approaches, and elucidates the transition from theory to implementation. An extensive analysis is provided, including humanoids, manipulators, aerial robots and ground mobile robots. ‘Motion and Operation Planning of Robotic Systems’ addresses the following topics: *The theoretical background of robotics. *Application of motion planning techniques to manipulators, such as serial and parallel manipulators. *Mobile robots planning, including robotic applications related to aerial robots, large scale robots and traditional wheeled robots. *Motion planning for humanoid robots. An invaluable reference text for graduate students and researche...

  3. Visual servo simulation of EAST articulated maintenance arm robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangyang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Song, Yuntao; Pan, Hongtao; Cheng, Yong; Feng, Hansheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wu, Huapeng [Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    For the inspection and light-duty maintenance of the vacuum vessel in the EAST tokamak, a serial robot arm, called EAST articulated maintenance arm, is developed. Due to the 9-m-long cantilever arm, the large flexibility of the EAMA robot introduces a problem in the accurate positioning. This article presents an autonomous robot control to cope with the robot positioning problem, which is a visual servo approach in context of tile grasping for the EAMA robot. In the experiments, the proposed method was implemented in a simulation environment to position and track a target graphite tile with the EAMA robot. As a result, the proposed visual control scheme can successfully drive the EAMA robot to approach and track the target tile until the robot reaches the desired position. Furthermore, the functionality of the simulation software presented in this paper is proved to be suitable for the development of the robotic and computer vision application.

  4. Visual servo simulation of EAST articulated maintenance arm robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yang; Song, Yuntao; Pan, Hongtao; Cheng, Yong; Feng, Hansheng; Wu, Huapeng

    2016-01-01

    For the inspection and light-duty maintenance of the vacuum vessel in the EAST tokamak, a serial robot arm, called EAST articulated maintenance arm, is developed. Due to the 9-m-long cantilever arm, the large flexibility of the EAMA robot introduces a problem in the accurate positioning. This article presents an autonomous robot control to cope with the robot positioning problem, which is a visual servo approach in context of tile grasping for the EAMA robot. In the experiments, the proposed method was implemented in a simulation environment to position and track a target graphite tile with the EAMA robot. As a result, the proposed visual control scheme can successfully drive the EAMA robot to approach and track the target tile until the robot reaches the desired position. Furthermore, the functionality of the simulation software presented in this paper is proved to be suitable for the development of the robotic and computer vision application.

  5. Robots and Cultural Heritage: New Museum Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Germak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new technologies to enhance the visiting museum experience is not a novelty. A large variety of interactive systems are nowadays available, including virtual tours, which makes cultural heritage accessible remotely. The theme of increase in accessibility and attractiveness has lately been faced with the employment of the service robotics, covering various types of applications. Regrettably, many of robotics solutions appear less successful in terms of utility and usability. On the basis of this awareness, a design for a new robotic solution for cultural heritage has been proposed. The project, developed at the royal residence of Racconigi Castle, consists of a telepresence robot designed as a tool to explore inaccessible areas of the heritage. The employed robot, called Virgil, was expressly designed for the project. The control of the robot is entrusted to the museum guides in order to enhance their work and enrich the cultural storytelling.

  6. Cooperative robots and sensor networks 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Khelil, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    This book is the second volume on Cooperative Robots and Sensor Networks. The primary objective of this book is to provide an up-to-date reference for cutting-edge studies and research trends related to mobile robots and wireless sensor networks, and in particular for the coupling between them. Indeed, mobile robots and wireless sensor networks have enabled great potentials and a large space for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. Robotics and wireless sensor networks have mostly been considered as separate research fields and little work has investigated the marriage between these two technologies. However, these two technologies share several features, enable common cyber-physical applications and provide complementary support to each other. The book consists of ten chapters, organized into four parts. The first part of the book presents three chapters related to localization of mobile robots using wireless sensor networks. Two chapters presented new solutions based Extended Kalman Filter and Particle Fi...

  7. Robot soccer anywhere: achieving persistent autonomous navigation, mapping, and object vision tracking in dynamic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragone, Mauro; O'Donoghue, Ruadhan; Leonard, John J.; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Patrikalakis, Andrew; Leederkerken, Jacques

    2005-06-01

    The paper describes an ongoing effort to enable autonomous mobile robots to play soccer in unstructured, everyday environments. Unlike conventional robot soccer competitions that are usually held on purpose-built robot soccer "fields", in our work we seek to develop the capability for robots to demonstrate aspects of soccer-playing in more diverse environments, such as schools, hospitals, or shopping malls, with static obstacles (furniture) and dynamic natural obstacles (people). This problem of "Soccer Anywhere" presents numerous research challenges including: (1) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic, unstructured environments, (2) software control architectures for decentralized, distributed control of mobile agents, (3) integration of vision-based object tracking with dynamic control, and (4) social interaction with human participants. In addition to the intrinsic research merit of these topics, we believe that this capability would prove useful for outreach activities, in demonstrating robotics technology to primary and secondary school students, to motivate them to pursue careers in science and engineering.

  8. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ''life-cycle'' cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots

  9. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ``life-cycle`` cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots.

  10. Robots that can adapt like animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Antoine; Clune, Jeff; Tarapore, Danesh; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-05-28

    Robots have transformed many industries, most notably manufacturing, and have the power to deliver tremendous benefits to society, such as in search and rescue, disaster response, health care and transportation. They are also invaluable tools for scientific exploration in environments inaccessible to humans, from distant planets to deep oceans. A major obstacle to their widespread adoption in more complex environments outside factories is their fragility. Whereas animals can quickly adapt to injuries, current robots cannot 'think outside the box' to find a compensatory behaviour when they are damaged: they are limited to their pre-specified self-sensing abilities, can diagnose only anticipated failure modes, and require a pre-programmed contingency plan for every type of potential damage, an impracticality for complex robots. A promising approach to reducing robot fragility involves having robots learn appropriate behaviours in response to damage, but current techniques are slow even with small, constrained search spaces. Here we introduce an intelligent trial-and-error algorithm that allows robots to adapt to damage in less than two minutes in large search spaces without requiring self-diagnosis or pre-specified contingency plans. Before the robot is deployed, it uses a novel technique to create a detailed map of the space of high-performing behaviours. This map represents the robot's prior knowledge about what behaviours it can perform and their value. When the robot is damaged, it uses this prior knowledge to guide a trial-and-error learning algorithm that conducts intelligent experiments to rapidly discover a behaviour that compensates for the damage. Experiments reveal successful adaptations for a legged robot injured in five different ways, including damaged, broken, and missing legs, and for a robotic arm with joints broken in 14 different ways. This new algorithm will enable more robust, effective, autonomous robots, and may shed light on the principles

  11. The Three Laws of Neurorobotics: A Review on What Neurorehabilitation Robots Should Do for Patients and Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Morone, Giovanni; Cherubini, Andrea; Paolucci, Stefano

    Most studies and reviews on robots for neurorehabilitation focus on their effectiveness. These studies often report inconsistent results. This and many other reasons limit the credit given to these robots by therapists and patients. Further, neurorehabilitation is often still based on therapists' expertise, with competition among different schools of thought, generating substantial uncertainty about what exactly a neurorehabilitation robot should do. Little attention has been given to ethics. This review adopts a new approach, inspired by Asimov's three laws of robotics and based on the most recent studies in neurorobotics, for proposing new guidelines for designing and using robots for neurorehabilitation. We propose three laws of neurorobotics based on the ethical need for safe and effective robots, the redefinition of their role as therapist helpers, and the need for clear and transparent human-machine interfaces. These laws may allow engineers and clinicians to work closely together on a new generation of neurorobots.

  12. Towards Versatile Robots Through Open Heterogeneous Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyder, Andreas

    arises, a new robot can be assembled rapidly from the existing modules, in contrast to conventional robots, which require a time consuming and expensive development process. In this thesis we define a modular robot to be a robot consisting of dynamically reconfigurable modules. The goal of this thesis......Robots are important tools in our everyday life. Both in industry and at the consumer level they serve the purpose of increasing our scope and extending our capabilities. Modular robots take the next step, allowing us to easily create and build various robots from a set of modules. If a problem...... is to increase the versatility and practical usability of modular robots by introducing new conceptual designs. Until now modular robots have been based on a pre-specified set of modules, and thus, their functionality is limited. We propose an open heterogeneous design concept, which allows a modular robot...

  13. A survey of snake-inspired robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, James K; Spranklin, Brent W; Gupta, Satyandra K

    2009-01-01

    Body undulation used by snakes and the physical architecture of a snake body may offer significant benefits over typical legged or wheeled locomotion designs in certain types of scenarios. A large number of research groups have developed snake-inspired robots to exploit these benefits. The purpose of this review is to report different types of snake-inspired robot designs and categorize them based on their main characteristics. For each category, we discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. This review will assist in familiarizing a newcomer to the field with the existing designs and their distinguishing features. We hope that by studying existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from successful robots. The review also summarizes the design challenges associated with the further advancement of the field and deploying snake-inspired robots in practice. (topical review)

  14. Oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets: Large-scale simulation and policy analysis using complementarity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, E. Udi

    This dissertation conducts research into the large-scale simulation of oligopolistic competition in wholesale electricity markets. The dissertation has two parts. Part I is an examination of the structure and properties of several spatial, or network, equilibrium models of oligopolistic electricity markets formulated as mixed linear complementarity problems (LCP). Part II is a large-scale application of such models to the electricity system that encompasses most of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, the Eastern Interconnection. Part I consists of Chapters 1 to 6. The models developed in this part continue research into mixed LCP models of oligopolistic electricity markets initiated by Hobbs [67] and subsequently developed by Metzler [87] and Metzler, Hobbs and Pang [88]. Hobbs' central contribution is a network market model with Cournot competition in generation and a price-taking spatial arbitrage firm that eliminates spatial price discrimination by the Cournot firms. In one variant, the solution to this model is shown to be equivalent to the "no arbitrage" condition in a "pool" market, in which a Regional Transmission Operator optimizes spot sales such that the congestion price between two locations is exactly equivalent to the difference in the energy prices at those locations (commonly known as locational marginal pricing). Extensions to this model are presented in Chapters 5 and 6. One of these is a market model with a profit-maximizing arbitrage firm. This model is structured as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC), but due to the linearity of its constraints, can be solved as a mixed LCP. Part II consists of Chapters 7 to 12. The core of these chapters is a large-scale simulation of the U.S. Eastern Interconnection applying one of the Cournot competition with arbitrage models. This is the first oligopolistic equilibrium market model to encompass the full Eastern Interconnection with a realistic network representation (using

  15. Multi-Sensor SLAM Approach for Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid Ahmed BERRABAH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available o be able to operate and act successfully, the robot needs to know at any time where it is. This means the robot has to find out its location relative to the environment. This contribution introduces the increase of accuracy of mobile robot positioning in large outdoor environments based on data fusion from different sensors: camera, GPS, inertial navigation system (INS, and wheel encoders. The fusion is done in a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM approach. The paper gives an overview on the proposed algorithm and discusses the obtained results.

  16. Socially intelligent robots: dimensions of human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2007-04-29

    Social intelligence in robots has a quite recent history in artificial intelligence and robotics. However, it has become increasingly apparent that social and interactive skills are necessary requirements in many application areas and contexts where robots need to interact and collaborate with other robots or humans. Research on human-robot interaction (HRI) poses many challenges regarding the nature of interactivity and 'social behaviour' in robot and humans. The first part of this paper addresses dimensions of HRI, discussing requirements on social skills for robots and introducing the conceptual space of HRI studies. In order to illustrate these concepts, two examples of HRI research are presented. First, research is surveyed which investigates the development of a cognitive robot companion. The aim of this work is to develop social rules for robot behaviour (a 'robotiquette') that is comfortable and acceptable to humans. Second, robots are discussed as possible educational or therapeutic toys for children with autism. The concept of interactive emergence in human-child interactions is highlighted. Different types of play among children are discussed in the light of their potential investigation in human-robot experiments. The paper concludes by examining different paradigms regarding 'social relationships' of robots and people interacting with them.

  17. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot`s own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup.

  18. Current use and possibilities of robots in care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Robots are seen as one of the possibilities to provide care to older people, especially when care by humans becomes scarce and too expensive. In the past sixty years, however, robots have diversified into many different types with a very broad range of functionalities. Despite this large

  19. Robot engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-15

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  20. Robot engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  1. Soft Dielectric Elastomer Oscillators Driving Bioinspired Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, E-F Markus; Schlatter, Samuel; Anderson, Iain A

    2017-12-01

    Entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. To produce them, we must integrate control and actuation in the same soft structure. Soft actuators (e.g., pneumatic and hydraulic) exist but electronics are hard and stiff and remotely located. We present novel soft, electronics-free dielectric elastomer oscillators, which are able to drive bioinspired robots. As a demonstrator, we present a robot that mimics the crawling motion of the caterpillar, with an integrated artificial nervous system, soft actuators and without any conventional stiff electronic parts. Supplied with an external DC voltage, the robot autonomously generates all signals that are necessary to drive its dielectric elastomer actuators, and it translates an in-plane electromechanical oscillation into a crawling locomotion movement. Therefore, all functional and supporting parts are made of polymer materials and carbon. Besides the basic design of this first electronic-free, biomimetic robot, we present prospects to control the general behavior of such robots. The absence of conventional stiff electronics and the exclusive use of polymeric materials will provide a large step toward real animal-like robots, compliant human machine interfaces, and a new class of distributed, neuron-like internal control for robotic systems.

  2. Quality and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Inder Khosla; Kingshuk K. Sinha

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the practitioner literature in operations management has seen a dramatic surge in articles on quality management. It reflects the increased emphasis on quality by U.S. firms, which has been attributed largely to increased competition faced by them. The question of how quality is influenced by competitive intensity, however, has not received much attention, either in the practitioner or the academic research literatures. The notion of competitive intensity itself has not been ...

  3. Robotics in surgery: is a robot necessary? For what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sharona B; Downs, Darrell; Saeed, Sabrina M; Dolce, John K; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2017-02-01

    Every operation can be categorized along a spectrum from "most invasive" to "least invasive", based on the approach(es) through which it is commonly undertaken. Operations that are considered "most invasive" are characterized by "open" approaches with a relatively high degree of morbidity, while operations that are considered "least invasive" are undertaken with minimally invasive techniques and are associated with relatively improved patient outcomes, including faster recovery times and fewer complications. Because of the potential for reduced morbidity, movement along the spectrum towards minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is associated with a host of salutary benefits and, as well, lower costs of patient care. Accordingly, the goal of all stakeholders in surgery should be to attain universal application of the most minimally invasive approaches. Yet the difficulty of performing minimally invasive operations has largely limited its widespread application in surgery, particularly in the context of complex operations (i.e., those requiring complex extirpation and/or reconstruction). Robotic surgery, however, may facilitate application of minimally invasive techniques requisite for particular operations. Enhancements in visualization and dexterity offered by robotic surgical systems allow busy surgeons to quickly gain proficiency in demanding techniques (e.g., pancreaticojejunostomy), within a short learning curve. That is not to say, however, that all operations undertaken with minimally invasive techniques require robotic technology. Herein, we attempt to define how surgeon skill, operative difficulty, patient outcomes, and cost factors determine when robotic technology should be reasonably applied to patient care in surgery.

  4. Hydrodynamic design of an underwater hull cleaning robot and its evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Hyung Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An underwater hull cleaning robot can be a desirable choice for the cleaning of large ships. It can make the cleaning process safe and economical. This paper presents a hydrodynamic design of an underwater cleaning robot and its evaluation for an underwater ship hull cleaning robot. The hydrodynamic design process of the robot body is described in detail. Optimal body design process with compromises among conflicting design requirements is given. Experimental results on the hydrodynamic performance of the robot are given.

  5. Intelligent robots for nuclear power plant inspection and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Kazumi; Fujie, Hideo; Fujii, Masaaki; Asai, Takashi; Sugimoto, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    Recently, the research and development of robotizing the patrol and works in nuclear power plants have been actively carried out since the TMI-2 accident in March, 1979. In this paper, among these robots, six examples of the movable robots, of which the working and movement were intellectualized by using information processing techniques and others, are reported, and their intellectualization is concretely discussed. In Japan, the development of the supporting system for nuclear power generation was carried out for five years from fiscal year 1980 as the project subsidized by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and during this period, the inspection robots for LWR plants were developed. The development of the robots for ultimate working as the large scale project of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology aiming at further heightening the function is in progress as the eight-year project from fiscal year 1983. Monorail type automatic surveillance robots, system maintenance robots 'AMOOTY', variable crawler type intelligent movable robots, hybrid running type intelligent movable robots, monorail running type small checkup robots, and floor running type checkup and light work robots are reported. Sense information processing control and a robot language processor for expanding the function of autonomous control are outlined. (Kako, I.)

  6. Robots and Humans in Planetary Exploration: Working Together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Today's approach to human-robotic cooperation in planetary exploration focuses on using robotic probes as precursors to human exploration. A large portion of current NASA planetary surface exploration is focussed on Mars, and robotic probes are seen as precursors to human exploration in: Learning about operation and mobility on Mars; Learning about the environment of Mars; Mapping the planet and selecting landing sites for human mission; Demonstration of critical technology; Manufacture fuel before human presence, and emplace elements of human-support infrastructure

  7. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter [Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software.

  8. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software

  9. SMARBot: a modular miniature mobile robot platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Johnson, Kerry; Simms, Brian; Conforth, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Miniature robots have many advantages over their larger counterparts, such as low cost, low power, and easy to build a large scale team for complex tasks. Heterogeneous multi miniature robots could provide powerful situation awareness capability due to different locomotion capabilities and sensor information. However, it would be expensive and time consuming to develop specific embedded system for different type of robots. In this paper, we propose a generic modular embedded system architecture called SMARbot (Stevens Modular Autonomous Robot), which consists of a set of hardware and software modules that can be configured to construct various types of robot systems. These modules include a high performance microprocessor, a reconfigurable hardware component, wireless communication, and diverse sensor and actuator interfaces. The design of all the modules in electrical subsystem, the selection criteria for module components, and the real-time operating system are described. Some proofs of concept experimental results are also presented.

  10. Calibration of Robot Reference Frames for Enhanced Robot Positioning Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Frank Shaopeng

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discussed the importance and methods of conducting robot workcell calibration for enhancing the accuracy of the robot TCP positions in industrial robot applications. It shows that the robot frame transformations define the robot geometric parameters such as joint position variables, link dimensions, and joint offsets in an industrial robot system. The D-H representation allows the robot designer to model the robot motion geometry with the four standard D-H parameters. The robot k...

  11. Design of an Action Selection Mechanism for Cooperative Soccer Robots Based on Fuzzy Decision Making Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alireza Mohades Kasaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Robocup is an international competition for multi agent research and related subject like: Artificial intelligence, Image processing, machine learning, robot path planning, control, and
    obstacle avoidance. In a soccer robot game, the environment is highly competitive and dynamic. In order to work in the dynamically changing environment, the decision-making system of a soccer robot system should have the features of flexibility and real-time adaptation. In this paper we will
    focus on the Middle Size Soccer Robot league (MSL and new hierarchical hybrid fuzzy methods for decision making and action selection of a robot in Middle Size Soccer Robot league (MSL are presented. First, the behaviors of an agent are introduced, implemented and classified in two layers,
    the Low_Level_Behaviors and the High_Level_Behaviors. In the second layer, a two phase mechanism for decision making is introduced. In phase one, some useful methods are implemented which check the robot’s situation for performing required behaviors. In the next phase, the team strategy, team formation, robot’s role and the robot’s positioning system are introduced. A fuzzy logical approach is employed to recognize the team strategy and further more to tell the player the
    best position to move. We believe that a Dynamic role engine is necessary for a successful team. Dynamic role engine and formation control during offensive or defensive play, help us to prevent collision avoidance among own players when attacking the ball and obstacle avoidance of the opponents. At last, we comprised our implemented algorithm in the Robocup 2007 and 2008 and results showed the efficiency of the introduced methodology. The results are satisfactory which has already been successfully implemented in ADRO RoboCup team. This project is still in progress and some new interesting methods are described in the current report.

  12. Approaches to probabilistic model learning for mobile manipulation robots

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Mobile manipulation robots are envisioned to provide many useful services both in domestic environments as well as in the industrial context. Examples include domestic service robots that implement large parts of the housework, and versatile industrial assistants that provide automation, transportation, inspection, and monitoring services. The challenge in these applications is that the robots have to function under changing, real-world conditions, be able to deal with considerable amounts of noise and uncertainty, and operate without the supervision of an expert. This book presents novel learning techniques that enable mobile manipulation robots, i.e., mobile platforms with one or more robotic manipulators, to autonomously adapt to new or changing situations. The approaches presented in this book cover the following topics: (1) learning the robot's kinematic structure and properties using actuation and visual feedback, (2) learning about articulated objects in the environment in which the robot is operating,...

  13. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot's own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup

  14. Human-robot cooperative movement training: Learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benitez Raul

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Methods Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. Results We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. Conclusion The assist

  15. Human-robot cooperative movement training: learning a novel sensory motor transformation during walking with robotic assistance-as-needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, Jeremy L; Benitez, Raul; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2007-03-28

    A prevailing paradigm of physical rehabilitation following neurologic injury is to "assist-as-needed" in completing desired movements. Several research groups are attempting to automate this principle with robotic movement training devices and patient cooperative algorithms that encourage voluntary participation. These attempts are currently not based on computational models of motor learning. Here we assume that motor recovery from a neurologic injury can be modelled as a process of learning a novel sensory motor transformation, which allows us to study a simplified experimental protocol amenable to mathematical description. Specifically, we use a robotic force field paradigm to impose a virtual impairment on the left leg of unimpaired subjects walking on a treadmill. We then derive an "assist-as-needed" robotic training algorithm to help subjects overcome the virtual impairment and walk normally. The problem is posed as an optimization of performance error and robotic assistance. The optimal robotic movement trainer becomes an error-based controller with a forgetting factor that bounds kinematic errors while systematically reducing its assistance when those errors are small. As humans have a natural range of movement variability, we introduce an error weighting function that causes the robotic trainer to disregard this variability. We experimentally validated the controller with ten unimpaired subjects by demonstrating how it helped the subjects learn the novel sensory motor transformation necessary to counteract the virtual impairment, while also preventing them from experiencing large kinematic errors. The addition of the error weighting function allowed the robot assistance to fade to zero even though the subjects' movements were variable. We also show that in order to assist-as-needed, the robot must relax its assistance at a rate faster than that of the learning human. The assist-as-needed algorithm proposed here can limit error during the learning of a

  16. Virtual Reality Robotic Operation Simulations Using MEMICA Haptic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mavroidis, C.; Bouzit, M.; Dolgin, B.; Harm, D. L.; Kopchok, G. E.; White, R.

    2000-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that some tasks can be performed significantly better by humans than robots but, due to associated hazards, distance, etc., only a robot can be employed. Telemedicine is one area where remotely controlled robots can have a major impact by providing urgent care at remote sites. In recent years, remotely controlled robotics has been greatly advanced. The robotic astronaut, "Robonaut," at NASA Johnson Space Center is one such example. Unfortunately, due to the unavailability of force and tactile feedback capability the operator must determine the required action using only visual feedback from the remote site, which limits the tasks that Robonaut can perform. There is a great need for dexterous, fast, accurate teleoperated robots with the operator?s ability to "feel" the environment at the robot's field. Recently, we conceived a haptic mechanism called MEMICA (Remote MEchanical MIrroring using Controlled stiffness and Actuators) that can enable the design of high dexterity, rapid response, and large workspace system. Our team is developing novel MEMICA gloves and virtual reality models to allow the simulation of telesurgery and other applications. The MEMICA gloves are designed to have a high dexterity, rapid response, and large workspace and intuitively mirror the conditions at a virtual site where a robot is simulating the presence of the human operator. The key components of MEMICA are miniature electrically controlled stiffness (ECS) elements and Electrically Controlled Force and Stiffness (ECFS) actuators that are based on the sue of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERF). In this paper the design of the MEMICA system and initial experimental results are presented.

  17. The Walk-Man Robot Software Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Ferrati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A software and control architecture for a humanoid robot is a complex and large project, which involves a team of developers/researchers to be coordinated and requires many hard design choices. If such project has to be done in a very limited time, i.e., less than 1 year, more constraints are added and concepts, such as modular design, code reusability, and API definition, need to be used as much as possible. In this work, we describe the software architecture developed for Walk-Man, a robot participant at the Darpa Robotics Challenge. The challenge required the robot to execute many different tasks, such as walking, driving a car, and manipulating objects. These tasks need to be solved by robotics specialists in their corresponding research field, such as humanoid walking, motion planning, or object manipulation. The proposed architecture was developed in 10 months, provided boilerplate code for most of the functionalities required to control a humanoid robot and allowed robotics researchers to produce their control modules for DRC tasks in a short time. Additional capabilities of the architecture include firmware and hardware management, mixing of different middlewares, unreliable network management, and operator control station GUI. All the source code related to the architecture and some control modules have been released as open source projects.

  18. Mechanized and robotized welding in shipbuilding; Zosen ni okeru yosetsu no jidoka robot ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Y. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Large-scale ships such as VLCC are built at the Kure No.1 Works of IHI (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industry). This paper introduces current status of mechanized and robotized welding at the works. For the sub-assembly with short weld length and horizontal fillet, simplified automatic welders are used in which mag-welding method using CO2 is adopted. The frequent wound welding of member ends can be automatically conducted using welders developed by IHI. In the large-scale assembly processes, remarkable rationalization and highly accurate assembly of flat plate welding have been promoted. Tankers, container ships, and bulk carriers can be treated at the same time. Teaching times of welding robots can be greatly reduced by a technique called parametric treatment. In the future, it is essential to enhance the accuracy of members by introducing the laser cutting during machining processes. Completely self-type mechanization is required as well as large-output laser welding and sensor technology. 3 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Outsourcing of generating assets as a competitive strategy for large electric customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacalone, F.T.; Hocker, C.

    1998-01-01

    The US electric power industry is at a transitional stage on the way to full competition at the retail level. A fundamental difference between wholesale and retail competition is that, with the latter, the end user will have a choice of suppliers. Large electric customers, such as industrial manufacturers, have traditionally had only two choices: to purchase from the local franchise utility or to self-generate. With retail competition, however, these same customers will have not only have many choices of suppliers to compare against the self-generation option, but also will have a new alternative to consider - that of outsourcing their generating assets as a means of retaining effective control, but not necessarily ownership, of their electric supply. Outsourcing of generation assets means turning over complete or partial ownership of these assets to a third party, who then sells the electricity back to the customer at retail. This approach can be advantageous to a customer who wants to achieve one or more of the following benefits that are generally not available in the traditional ''make or buy'' paradigm: monetize (receive cash for) assets to pay down debt or redeploy into its core business; reduce operating and overhead costs; meet increasing power demand without making a significant capital expenditure; retain a significant degree of control over the operation of the assets, rather than turning its source of supply to a utility, independent generator, or power marketer; and move the assets off-balance sheet and off-credit as a means of improving its corporate financial position. Outsourcing of industrial generation, including most or all of the above benefits has already occurred successfully in a handful of cases, such as the James River and Stone Container mills discussed in this paper

  20. Outsourcing of generating assets as a competitive strategy for large electric customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacalone, F.T.; Hocker, C.

    1998-07-01

    The US electric power industry is at a transitional stage on the way to full competition at the retail level. A fundamental difference between wholesale and retail competition is that, with the latter, the end user will have a choice of suppliers. Large electric customers, such as industrial manufacturers, have traditionally had only two choices: to purchase from the local franchise utility or to self-generate. With retail competition, however, these same customers will have not only have many choices of suppliers to compare against the self-generation option, but also will have a new alternative to consider - that of outsourcing their generating assets as a means of retaining effective control, but not necessarily ownership, of their electric supply. Outsourcing of generation assets means turning over complete or partial ownership of these assets to a third party, who then sells the electricity back to the customer at retail. This approach can be advantageous to a customer who wants to achieve one or more of the following benefits that are generally not available in the traditional ``make or buy'' paradigm: monetize (receive cash for) assets to pay down debt or redeploy into its core business; reduce operating and overhead costs; meet increasing power demand without making a significant capital expenditure; retain a significant degree of control over the operation of the assets, rather than turning its source of supply to a utility, independent generator, or power marketer; and move the assets off-balance sheet and off-credit as a means of improving its corporate financial position. Outsourcing of industrial generation, including most or all of the above benefits has already occurred successfully in a handful of cases, such as the James River and Stone Container mills discussed in this paper.

  1. Autonomy in robots and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, T

    1997-06-01

    The word "autonomous" has become widely used in artificial intelligence, robotics, and, more recently, artificial life and is typically used to qualify types of systems, agents, or robots: we see terms like "autonomous systems," "autonomous agents," and "autonomous robots." Its use in these fields is, however, both weak, with no distinctions being made that are not better and more precisely made with other existing terms, and varied, with no single underlying concept being involved. This ill-disciplined usage contrasts strongly with the use of the same term in other fields such as biology, philosophy, ethics, law, and human rights, for example. In all these quite different areas the concept of autonomy is essentially the same, though the language used and the aspects and issues of concern, of course, differ. In all these cases the underlying notion is one of self-law making and the closely related concept of self-identity. In this paper I argue that the loose and varied use of the term autonomous in artificial intelligence, robotics, and artificial life has effectively robbed these fields of an important concept. A concept essentially the same as we find it in biology, philosophy, ethics, and law, and one that is needed to distinguish a particular kind of agent or robot from those developed and built so far. I suggest that robots and other agents will have to be autonomous, i.e., self-law making, not just self-regulating, if they are to be able effectively to deal with the kinds of environments in which we live and work: environments which have significant large scale spatial and temporal invariant structure, but which also have large amounts of local spatial and temporal dynamic variation and unpredictability, and which lead to the frequent occurrence of previously unexperienced situations for the agents that interact with them.

  2. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) proposed dual-use technology investment program in intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the proposed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) precompetitive, dual-use technology investment project in robotics. New robotic technology in advanced robots, which can recognize and respond to their environments and to spoken human supervision so as to perform a variety of combined mobility and manipulation tasks in various sectors, is an obejective of this work. In the U.S. economy, such robots offer the benefits of improved global competitiveness in a critical industrial sector; improved productivity by the end users of these robots; a growing robotics industry that produces jobs and profits; lower cost health care delivery with quality improvements; and, as these 'intelligent' robots become acceptable throughout society, an increase in the standard of living for everyone. In space, such robots will provide improved safety, reliability, and productivity as Space Station evolves, and will enable human space exploration (by human/robot teams). The proposed effort consists of partnerships between manufacturers, universities, and JSC to develop working production prototypes of these robots by leveraging current development by both sides. Currently targeted applications are in the manufacturing, health care, services, and construction sectors of the U.S. economy and in the inspection, servicing, maintenance, and repair aspects of space exploration. But the focus is on the generic software architecture and standardized interfaces for custom modules tailored for the various applications allowing end users to customize a robot as PC users customize PC's. Production prototypes would be completed in 5 years under this proposal.

  3. Robotics, vision and control fundamental algorithms in Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Corke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Robotic vision, the combination of robotics and computer vision, involves the application of computer algorithms to data acquired from sensors. The research community has developed a large body of such algorithms but for a newcomer to the field this can be quite daunting. For over 20 years the author has maintained two open-source MATLAB® Toolboxes, one for robotics and one for vision. They provide implementations of many important algorithms and allow users to work with real problems, not just trivial examples. This book makes the fundamental algorithms of robotics, vision and control accessible to all. It weaves together theory, algorithms and examples in a narrative that covers robotics and computer vision separately and together. Using the latest versions of the Toolboxes the author shows how complex problems can be decomposed and solved using just a few simple lines of code. The topics covered are guided by real problems observed by the author over many years as a practitioner of both robotics and compu...

  4. 3D printing for soft robotics - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Jahan Zeb; Sajid, Memoon; Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Shah, Imran; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Wook; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Soft robots have received an increasing attention due to their advantages of high flexibility and safety for human operators but the fabrication is a challenge. Recently, 3D printing has been used as a key technology to fabricate soft robots because of high quality and printing multiple materials at the same time. Functional soft materials are particularly well suited for soft robotics due to a wide range of stimulants and sensitive demonstration of large deformations, high motion complexities and varied multi-functionalities. This review comprises a detailed survey of 3D printing in soft robotics. The development of key 3D printing technologies and new materials along with composites for soft robotic applications is investigated. A brief summary of 3D-printed soft devices suitable for medical to industrial applications is also included. The growing research on both 3D printing and soft robotics needs a summary of the major reported studies and the authors believe that this review article serves the purpose.

  5. Hydraulically actuated hexapod robots design, implementation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Nonami, Kenzo; Irawan, Addie; Daud, Mohd Razali

    2014-01-01

    Legged robots are a promising locomotion system, capable of performing tasks that conventional vehicles cannot. Even more exciting is the fact that this is a rapidly developing field of study for researchers from a variety of disciplines. However, only a few books have been published on the subject of multi-legged robots. The main objective of this book is to describe some of the major control issues concerning walking robots that the authors have faced over the past 10 years. A second objective is to focus especially on very large hydraulically driven hexapod robot locomotion weighing more than 2,000 kg, making this the first specialized book on this topic. The 10 chapters of the book touch on diverse relevant topics such as design aspects, implementation issues, modeling for control, navigation and control, force and impedance control-based walking, fully autonomous walking, walking and working tasks of hexapod robots, and the future of walking robots. The construction machines of the future will very likel...

  6. Generic robot architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  7. Small-scale soft-bodied robot with multimodal locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenqi; Lum, Guo Zhan; Mastrangeli, Massimo; Sitti, Metin

    2018-02-01

    Untethered small-scale (from several millimetres down to a few micrometres in all dimensions) robots that can non-invasively access confined, enclosed spaces may enable applications in microfactories such as the construction of tissue scaffolds by robotic assembly, in bioengineering such as single-cell manipulation and biosensing, and in healthcare such as targeted drug delivery and minimally invasive surgery. Existing small-scale robots, however, have very limited mobility because they are unable to negotiate obstacles and changes in texture or material in unstructured environments. Of these small-scale robots, soft robots have greater potential to realize high mobility via multimodal locomotion, because such machines have higher degrees of freedom than their rigid counterparts. Here we demonstrate magneto-elastic soft millimetre-scale robots that can swim inside and on the surface of liquids, climb liquid menisci, roll and walk on solid surfaces, jump over obstacles, and crawl within narrow tunnels. These robots can transit reversibly between different liquid and solid terrains, as well as switch between locomotive modes. They can additionally execute pick-and-place and cargo-release tasks. We also present theoretical models to explain how the robots move. Like the large-scale robots that can be used to study locomotion, these soft small-scale robots could be used to study soft-bodied locomotion produced by small organisms.

  8. Design of a Multi Agent Architecture for Robot Soccer. A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; Seesink, R.A.; Schoute, Albert L.; Dierssen, W.; Kooij, N.

    A Multi Agent System (MAS) for the FIRA Mirosot League is presented. This MAS allows a general number of players and is used in the 5 against 5 and 7 against 7 competition. In the MAS there is coach agent and n (the number of robots in the team) player agents. There is a one to one correspondence

  9. Lending a helping hand: toward novel assistive robotic arms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Stefan; Stramigioli, Stefano; Carloni, Raffaella

    Assistive robotics is an increasingly popular research field, which has led to a large number of commercial and noncommercial systems aimed at assisting physically impaired or elderly users in the activities of daily living. In this article, we propose five criteria based on robotic arm usage

  10. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  11. Using LEGO NXT Mobile Robots with LabVIEW for Undergraduate Courses on Mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-de-Gabriel, J. M.; Mandow, A.; Fernandez-Lozano, J.; Garcia-Cerezo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes lab work and student competitions based on the LEGO NXT Mindstorms kits and standard LabVIEW. The goal of this combination is to stimulate design and experimentation with real hardware and representative software in courses where mobile robotics is adopted as a motivating platform to introduce mechatronics competencies. Basic…

  12. Micro intelligence robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yon Ho

    1991-07-01

    This book gives descriptions of micro robot about conception of robots and micro robot, match rules of conference of micro robots, search methods of mazes, and future and prospect of robots. It also explains making and design of 8 beat robot like making technique, software, sensor board circuit, and stepping motor catalog, speedy 3, Mr. Black and Mr. White, making and design of 16 beat robot, such as micro robot artist, Jerry 2 and magic art of shortening distances algorithm of robot simulation.

  13. FIRST Robotics as a model for experiential problem-based learning: A comparison of student attitudes and interests in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Donald Sanford, Jr.

    2005-07-01

    This research study was undertaken to examine potential relationships between high school students' attitudes and interests in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology, and their participation in the FIRST Robotics Competition six-week challenge to design, and build a robot. High school students' gender and race, in relationship to students' interest in the aforementioned topics was also examined in this study. A convenience sample of 727 South Carolina public high school students agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected using pre-and post-survey questionnaires. Student participants completed pre-survey questionnaires at the onset of the 2005 FIRST Robotics Competition Kick-off, concurrent with the beginning of the second semester of the 2004--2005 school year. Participants completed post-survey questionnaires after six-weeks, the period of time allocated for teams to design, build, and ship their 2005 FIRST Robotics Competition robot. Data analyzed was collected from the group of students participating in FIRST Robotics (treatment), the experimental group, and the group of students who are not participating in FIRST Robotics (control). Findings reported that the pre- and post-survey questionnaire responses regarding attitudinal change were not significantly different in either the experimental or control group. High pre-survey dependent variable scores provided by students in the FIRST group did not allow for significant gain in each of the seven-attitudinal categories. Findings also indicated that there were significant attitudinal differences between students in the experimental group (FIRST), and students the control group (SMET) pre- and post-survey responses. Students in the FIRST group had statistically significant higher attitude means than students in the SMET group on both pre- and post-surveys in the seven-attitudinal categories. The frequency for responses to each question in the three interest categories on the pre- and post

  14. Mapping of unknown industrial plant using ROS-based navigation mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyandoko, G.; Ming, T. Y.; Achmad, M. S. H.

    2017-10-01

    This research examines how humans work with teleoperated unmanned mobile robot inspection in industrial plant area resulting 2D/3D map for further critical evaluation. This experiment focuses on two parts, the way human-robot doing remote interactions using robust method and the way robot perceives the environment surround as a 2D/3D perspective map. ROS (robot operating system) as a tool was utilized in the development and implementation during the research which comes up with robust data communication method in the form of messages and topics. RGBD SLAM performs the visual mapping function to construct 2D/3D map using Kinect sensor. The results showed that the mobile robot-based teleoperated system are successful to extend human perspective in term of remote surveillance in large area of industrial plant. It was concluded that the proposed work is robust solution for large mapping within an unknown construction building.

  15. Robotic Milking Implementation in the Sverdlovsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor Artyomovich Skvortcov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research topic is relevant due to a high rate of the implementation of milking robots (automatic milking system, AMS in Western Europe and in the Middle Urals. As of January 1, 2016, 21 milking robot systems of six different brands of foreign production were installed in the region. Milking robotics is used in small, medium and large enterprises (by the number of personnel, in contrast to Western Europe, where it is mainly used on the farms of family type. The article examines the socioeconomic causes of the introduction of robotics, as well as the impact of the use of robots to the economic indicators of milk production. The expert survey has revealed as the main reasons for the introduction of robotics, a desire to reduce the risks of personnel (45.5 % and a shortage of staff (18.2 %. The analysis of the utilization efficiency of fixed assets in all organizations introduced robots has shown both a decrease of capital productivity after the introduction of milking robots for 15–60 % or more, and the reduce of the profit rate in 9 out of 11 of the analysed organizations because of the high capital intensity of robotics projects. The analysis of labour indicators and the net cost of milk is carried out in 45.5 % of organizations, where we have obtained the consistent results of the use of robotics. The authors have analysed the direct costs for the production of 1 quintal of milk. In a group of 5 companies, on a robotic farm, it is 5.1 % lower than in a conventional farm. The complexity of the production of milk on a robotic farm is lower by 48.7 %, and labour productivity per person is higher on 95.3 % than on conventional farms. The results of the study can be used as the recommendations for agricultural organizations to use robotics milking to reduce the deficit of staff and to minimize the impact of personnel risks on production results. The growth of the importance of the reasons for the introduction of milking robots and a high

  16. Modelling of industrial robot in LabView Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, W.; Cwikła, G.; Foit, K.; Gwiazda, A.; Monica, Z.; Sekala, A.

    2017-08-01

    Currently can find many models of industrial systems including robots. These models differ from each other not only by the accuracy representation parameters, but the representation range. For example, CAD models describe the geometry of the robot and some even designate a mass parameters as mass, center of gravity, moment of inertia, etc. These models are used in the design of robotic lines and sockets. Also systems for off-line programming use these models and many of them can be exported to CAD. It is important to note that models for off-line programming describe not only the geometry but contain the information necessary to create a program for the robot. Exports from CAD to off-line programming system requires additional information. These models are used for static determination of reachability points, and testing collision. It’s enough to generate a program for the robot, and even check the interaction of elements of the production line, or robotic cell. Mathematical models allow robots to study the properties of kinematic and dynamic of robot movement. In these models the geometry is not so important, so are used only selected parameters such as the length of the robot arm, the center of gravity, moment of inertia. These parameters are introduced into the equations of motion of the robot and motion parameters are determined.

  17. Salvage robotic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Kaffenberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of non-surgical primary treatment for localized prostate cancer is a common occurrence, with rates of disease recurrence ranging from 20% to 60%. In a large proportion of patients, disease recurrence is clinically localized and therefore potentially curable. Unfortunately, due to the complex and potentially morbid nature of salvage treatment, radical salvage surgery is uncommonly performed. In an attempt to decrease the morbidity of salvage therapy without sacrificing oncologic efficacy, a number of experienced centers have utilized robotic assistance to perform minimally invasive salvage radical prostatectomy. Herein, we critically evaluate the existing literature on salvage robotic radical prostatectomy with a focus on patient selection, perioperative complications and functional and early oncologic outcomes. These results are compared with contemporary and historical open salvage radical prostatectomy series and supplemented with insights we have gained from our experience with salvage robotic radical prostatectomy. The body of evidence by which conclusions regarding the efficacy and safety of robotic salvage radical prostatectomy can be drawn comprises fewer than 200 patients with limited follow-up. Preliminary results are promising and some outcomes have been favorable when compared with contemporary open salvage prostatectomy series. Advantages of the robotic platform in the performance of salvage radical prostatectomy include decreased blood loss, short length of stay and improved visualization. Greater experience is required to confirm the long-term oncologic efficacy and functional outcomes as well as the generalizability of results achieved at experienced centers.

  18. Towards Sociable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    This thesis studies aspects of self-sufficient energy (energy autonomy) for truly autonomous robots and towards sociable robots. Over sixty years of history of robotics through three developmental ages containing single robot, multi-robot systems, and social (sociable) robots, the main objective...... of roboticists mostly focuses on how to make a robotic system function autonomously and further, socially. However, such approaches mostly emphasize behavioural autonomy, rather than energy autonomy which is the key factor for not only any living machine, but for life on the earth. Consequently, self......-sufficient energy is one of the challenges for not only single robot or multi-robot systems, but also social and sociable robots. This thesis is to deal with energy autonomy for multi-robot systems through energy sharing (trophallaxis) in which each robot is equipped with two capabilities: self-refueling energy...

  19. Biomass feeds vegetarian robot; Biomassa voedt vegetarische robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Brandt, M. [Office for Science and Technology, Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Washington (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This brief article addresses the EATR robot (Energetically Autonomous Tactical Robot) that was developed by Cyclone Power and uses biomass as primary source of energy for propulsion. [Dutch] Een kort artikel over de door Cyclone Power ontwikkelde EATR-robot (Energetically Autonomous Tactical Robot) die voor de voortdrijving biomassa gebruikt als primaire energiebron.

  20. Robot Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Anja; Grindsted Nielsen, Sally; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann

    Robots are increasingly used in health care settings, e.g., as homecare assistants and personal companions. One challenge for personal robots in the home is acceptance. We describe an innovative approach to influencing the acceptance of care robots using theatrical performance. Live performance...... is a useful testbed for developing and evaluating what makes robots expressive; it is also a useful platform for designing robot behaviors and dialogue that result in believable characters. Therefore theatre is a valuable testbed for studying human-robot interaction (HRI). We investigate how audiences...... perceive social robots interacting with humans in a future care scenario through a scripted performance. We discuss our methods and initial findings, and outline future work....

  1. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  2. Towards Versatile Robots Through Open Heterogeneous Modular Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Lyder, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Robots are important tools in our everyday life. Both in industry and at the consumer level they serve the purpose of increasing our scope and extending our capabilities. Modular robots take the next step, allowing us to easily create and build various robots from a set of modules. If a problem arises, a new robot can be assembled rapidly from the existing modules, in contrast to conventional robots, which require a time consuming and expensive development process. In this thesis we define a ...

  3. Robotic architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  4. Robotics Algorithms Provide Nutritional Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    On July 5, 1997, a small robot emerged from its lander like an insect from an egg, crawling out onto the rocky surface of Mars. About the size of a child s wagon, NASA s Sojourner robot was the first successful rover mission to the Red Planet. For 83 sols (Martian days, typically about 40 minutes longer than Earth days), Sojourner - largely remote controlled by NASA operators on Earth - transmitted photos and data unlike any previously collected. Sojourner was perhaps the crowning achievement of the NASA Space Telerobotics Program, an Agency initiative designed to push the limits of robotics in space. Telerobotics - devices that merge the autonomy of robotics with the direct human control of teleoperators - was already a part of NASA s efforts; probes like the Viking landers that preceded Sojourner on Mars, for example, were telerobotic applications. The Space Telerobotics Program, a collaboration between Ames Research Center, Johnson Space Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and multiple universities, focused on developing remote-controlled robotics for three main purposes: on-orbit assembly and servicing, science payload tending, and planetary surface robotics. The overarching goal was to create robots that could be guided to build structures in space, monitor scientific experiments, and, like Sojourner, scout distant planets in advance of human explorers. While telerobotics remains a significant aspect of NASA s efforts, as evidenced by the currently operating Spirit and Opportunity Mars rovers, the Hubble Space Telescope, and many others - the Space Telerobotics Program was dissolved and redistributed within the Agency the same year as Sojourner s success. The program produced a host of remarkable technologies and surprising inspirations, including one that is changing the way people eat

  5. Folk-Psychological Interpretation of Human vs. Humanoid Robot Behavior: Exploring the Intentional Stance toward Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellman, Sam; Silvervarg, Annika; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants ( N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior - (2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people's intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.

  6. [Robotic general surgery: where do we stand in 2013?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Nicolas C; Pugin, François; Ris, Frédéric; Jung, Minoa; Hagen, Monika E; Volonté, Francesco; Azagury, Dan; Morel, Philippe

    2013-06-19

    While the number of publications concerning robotic surgery is increasing, the level of evidence remains to be improved. The safety of robotic approach has been largely demonstrated, even for complex procedures. Yet, the objective advantages of this technology are still lacking in several fields, notably in comparison to laparoscopy. On the other hand, the development of robotic surgery is on its way, as the enthusiasm of the public and the surgical community can testify. Still, clear clinical indications remain to be determined in the field of general surgery. The study aim is to review the current literature on robotic general surgery and to give the reader an overview in 2013.

  7. Robotized Surface Mounting of Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hultman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using permanent magnets on a rotor can both simplify the design and increase the efficiency of electric machines compared to using electromagnets. A drawback, however, is the lack of existing automated assembly methods for large machines. This paper presents and motivates a method for robotized surface mounting of permanent magnets on electric machine rotors. The translator of the Uppsala University Wave Energy Converter generator is used as an example of a rotor. The robot cell layout, equipment design and assembly process are presented and validated through computer simulations and experiments with prototype equipment. A comparison with manual assembly indicates substantial cost savings and an improved work environment. By using the flexibility of industrial robots and a scalable equipment design, it is possible for this assembly method to be adjusted for other rotor geometries and sizes. Finally, there is a discussion on the work that remains to be done on improving and integrating the robot cell into a production line.

  8. A simulation and training environment for robotic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaefer, Alexander [University of Luebeck, Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, Luebeck (Germany); Stanford University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford, CA (United States); Gill, Jakub; Schweikard, Achim [University of Luebeck, Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, Luebeck (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    To provide a software environment for simulation of robotic radiosurgery, particularly to study the effective robot workspace with respect to the treatment plan quality, and to illustrate the concepts of robotic radiosurgery. A simulation environment for a robotic radiosurgery system was developed using Java and Java3D. The kinematics and the beam characteristics were modeled and linked to a treatment planning module. Simulations of different robot workspace parameters for two example radiosurgical patient cases were performed using the novel software tool. The first case was an intracranial lesion near the left inner ear, the second case was a spinal lesion. The planning parameters for both cases were visualized with the novel simulation environment. An incremental extension of the robot workspace had limited effect for the intracranial case, where the original workspace already covered the left side of the patient. For the spinal case, a larger workspace resulted in a noticeable improvement in plan quality and a large portion of the beams being delivered from the extended workspace. The new software environment is useful to simulate and analyze parameters and configurations for robotic radiosurgery. An enlarged robot workspace may result in improved plan quality depending on the location of the target region. (orig.)

  9. A simulation and training environment for robotic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaefer, Alexander; Gill, Jakub; Schweikard, Achim

    2008-01-01

    To provide a software environment for simulation of robotic radiosurgery, particularly to study the effective robot workspace with respect to the treatment plan quality, and to illustrate the concepts of robotic radiosurgery. A simulation environment for a robotic radiosurgery system was developed using Java and Java3D. The kinematics and the beam characteristics were modeled and linked to a treatment planning module. Simulations of different robot workspace parameters for two example radiosurgical patient cases were performed using the novel software tool. The first case was an intracranial lesion near the left inner ear, the second case was a spinal lesion. The planning parameters for both cases were visualized with the novel simulation environment. An incremental extension of the robot workspace had limited effect for the intracranial case, where the original workspace already covered the left side of the patient. For the spinal case, a larger workspace resulted in a noticeable improvement in plan quality and a large portion of the beams being delivered from the extended workspace. The new software environment is useful to simulate and analyze parameters and configurations for robotic radiosurgery. An enlarged robot workspace may result in improved plan quality depending on the location of the target region. (orig.)

  10. Structural Feasibility Analysis of a Robotically Assembled Very Large Aperture Optical Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, William Keats; Williams, R. Brett; Agnes, Gregory S.; Wilcox, Brian H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study of robotically constructing a very large aperture optical space telescope on-orbit. Since the largest engineering challenges are likely to reside in the design and assembly of the 150-m diameter primary reflector, this preliminary study focuses on this component. The same technology developed for construction of the primary would then be readily used for the smaller optical structures (secondary, tertiary, etc.). A reasonable set of ground and on-orbit loading scenarios are compiled from the literature and used to define the structural performance requirements and size the primary reflector. A surface precision analysis shows that active adjustment of the primary structure is required in order to meet stringent optical surface requirements. Two potential actuation strategies are discussed along with potential actuation devices at the current state of the art. The finding of this research effort indicate that successful technology development combined with further analysis will likely enable such a telescope to be built in the future.

  11. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of intelligent mobile robots that execute medium sized production runs. For a wide range of products, the machining tasks will be defined on an appropriate level, enabling control over the robots beha...

  12. Development of a remote inspection robot for high pressure structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae C.; Kim, Jae H.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S

    1999-10-01

    The high pressure structures in industrial plants must be periodically inspected for ensure their safety. Currently, the examination of them is manually performed by human inspectors, and there are many restrictions to examine the large containers which enclose dangerous chemicals or radioactive materials. We developed a remotely operated robot to examine these structures using recent mobile robot and computer technologies. Our robot has two magnetic caterpillars that make the robot can adhere to the structures made of steel like materials. The robot moves to the position for examination, and scans that position using ultrasonic probes equipped on it's arm, and transmits the result to the inspector according to his/her commands. Without building any auxiliary structures the robot can inspect the places where manual inspection can't reach. Therefore the robot can make shortening the inspection time as well as preventing the inspector from an accident. (author)

  13. Development of a remote inspection robot for high pressure structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae C.; Kim, Jae H.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.

    1999-10-01

    The high pressure structures in industrial plants must be periodically inspected for ensure their safety. Currently, the examination of them is manually performed by human inspectors, and there are many restrictions to examine the large containers which enclose dangerous chemicals or radioactive materials. We developed a remotely operated robot to examine these structures using recent mobile robot and computer technologies. Our robot has two magnetic caterpillars that make the robot can adhere to the structures made of steel like materials. The robot moves to the position for examination, and scans that position using ultrasonic probes equipped on it's arm, and transmits the result to the inspector according to his/her commands. Without building any auxiliary structures the robot can inspect the places where manual inspection can't reach. Therefore the robot can make shortening the inspection time as well as preventing the inspector from an accident. (author)

  14. Energy efficiency of mobile soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Langquan; Zhu, Liangliang; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2017-11-15

    The performance of mobile soft robots is usually characterized by their locomotion/velocity efficiency, whereas the energy efficiency is a more intrinsic and fundamental criterion for the performance evaluation of independent or integrated soft robots. In this work, a general framework is established to evaluate the energy efficiency of mobile soft robots by considering the efficiency of the energy source, actuator and locomotion, and some insights for improving the efficiency of soft robotic systems are presented. Proposed as the ratio of the desired locomotion kinetic energy to the input mechanical energy, the energy efficiency of locomotion is found to play a critical role in determining the overall energy efficiency of soft robots. Four key factors related to the locomotion energy efficiency are identified, that is, the locomotion modes, material properties, geometric sizes, and actuation states. It is found that the energy efficiency of most mobile soft robots reported in the literature is surprisingly low (mostly below 0.1%), due to the inefficient mechanical energy that essentially does not contribute to the desired locomotion. A comparison of the locomotion energy efficiency for several representative locomotion modes in the literature is presented, showing a descending ranking as: jumping ≫ fish-like swimming > snake-like slithering > rolling > rising/turning over > inchworm-like inching > quadruped gait > earthworm-like squirming. Besides, considering the same locomotion mode, soft robots with lower stiffness, higher density and larger size tend to have higher locomotion energy efficiency. Moreover, a periodic pulse actuation instead of a continuous actuation mode may significantly reduce the input mechanical energy, thus improving the locomotion energy efficiency, especially when the pulse actuation matches the resonant states of the soft robots. The results presented herein indicate a large and necessary space for improving the locomotion energy

  15. Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M

    2018-04-09

    This description of "soft robotics" is not intended to be a conventional review, in the sense of a comprehensive technical summary of a developing field. Rather, its objective is to describe soft robotics as a new field-one that offers opportunities to chemists and materials scientists who like to make "things" and to work with macroscopic objects that move and exert force. It will give one (personal) view of what soft actuators and robots are, and how this class of soft devices fits into the more highly developed field of conventional "hard" robotics. It will also suggest how and why soft robotics is more than simply a minor technical "tweak" on hard robotics and propose a unique role for chemistry, and materials science, in this field. Soft robotics is, at its core, intellectually and technologically different from hard robotics, both because it has different objectives and uses and because it relies on the properties of materials to assume many of the roles played by sensors, actuators, and controllers in hard robotics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Advances in Robotic-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. P. Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP, robotics has become increasingly more commonplace in the armamentarium of the urologic surgeon. Robotic utilization has exploded across surgical disciplines well beyond the fields of urology and prostate surgery. The literature detailing technical steps, comparison of large surgical series, and even robotically focused randomized control trials are available for review. RALP, the first robot-assisted surgical procedure to achieve widespread use, has recently become the primary approach for the surgical management of localized prostate cancer. As a result, surgeons are constantly trying to refine and improve upon current technical aspects of the operation. Recent areas of published modifications include bladder neck anastomosis and reconstruction, bladder drainage, nerve sparing approaches and techniques, and perioperative and postoperative management including penile rehabilitation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in perioperative management and surgical technique for RALP.

  17. Ubiquitous Robotic Technology for Smart Manufacturing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshan; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Liyu; Qiu, Qiang; Cao, Qixin

    2016-01-01

    As the manufacturing tasks become more individualized and more flexible, the machines in smart factory are required to do variable tasks collaboratively without reprogramming. This paper for the first time discusses the similarity between smart manufacturing systems and the ubiquitous robotic systems and makes an effort on deploying ubiquitous robotic technology to the smart factory. Specifically, a component based framework is proposed in order to enable the communication and cooperation of the heterogeneous robotic devices. Further, compared to the service robotic domain, the smart manufacturing systems are often in larger size. So a hierarchical planning method was implemented to improve the planning efficiency. A test bed of smart factory is developed. It demonstrates that the proposed framework is suitable for industrial domain, and the hierarchical planning method is able to solve large problems intractable with flat methods.

  18. Exploiting Child-Robot Aesthetic Interaction for a Social Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Dae-Won; Kang, Bo-Yeong

    2012-01-01

    A social robot interacts and communicates with humans by using the embodied knowledge gained from interactions with its social environment. In recent years, emotion has emerged as a popular concept for designing social robots. Several studies on social robots reported an increase in robot sociability through emotional imitative interactions between the robot and humans. In this paper conventional emotional interactions are extended by exploiting the aesthetic theories that the sociability of ...

  19. Software for project-based learning of robot motion planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Mark; Bordeaux, Janice; Kavraki, Lydia E.

    2013-12-01

    Motion planning is a core problem in robotics concerned with finding feasible paths for a given robot. Motion planning algorithms perform a search in the high-dimensional continuous space of robot configurations and exemplify many of the core algorithmic concepts of search algorithms and associated data structures. Motion planning algorithms can be explained in a simplified two-dimensional setting, but this masks many of the subtleties and complexities of the underlying problem. We have developed software for project-based learning of motion planning that enables deep learning. The projects that we have developed allow advanced undergraduate students and graduate students to reflect on the performance of existing textbook algorithms and their own variations on such algorithms. Formative assessment has been conducted at three institutions. The core of the software used for this teaching module is also used within the Robot Operating System, a widely adopted platform by the robotics research community. This allows for transfer of knowledge and skills to robotics research projects involving a large variety robot hardware platforms.

  20. Evolutionary robotics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system. Several methods have been tried by various investigators to ...

  1. Interactive Exploration Robots: Human-Robotic Collaboration and Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terry

    2017-01-01

    For decades, NASA has employed different operational approaches for human and robotic missions. Human spaceflight missions to the Moon and in low Earth orbit have relied upon near-continuous communication with minimal time delays. During these missions, astronauts and mission control communicate interactively to perform tasks and resolve problems in real-time. In contrast, deep-space robotic missions are designed for operations in the presence of significant communication delay - from tens of minutes to hours. Consequently, robotic missions typically employ meticulously scripted and validated command sequences that are intermittently uplinked to the robot for independent execution over long periods. Over the next few years, however, we will see increasing use of robots that blend these two operational approaches. These interactive exploration robots will be remotely operated by humans on Earth or from a spacecraft. These robots will be used to support astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), to conduct new missions to the Moon, and potentially to enable remote exploration of planetary surfaces in real-time. In this talk, I will discuss the technical challenges associated with building and operating robots in this manner, along with lessons learned from research conducted with the ISS and in the field.

  2. The 15th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: Intelligent Ground Robots Created by Intelligent Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theisen, Bernard L

    2007-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s...

  3. Robotics as science (re)form: Exploring power, learning and gender(ed) identity formation in a "community of practice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurner, Sheryl Marie

    "Robotics as Science (re)Form" utilizes qualitative research methods to examine the career trajectories and gender identity formation of female youth participating as members of an all-girl, academic team within the male-dominated environment of the FIRST Robotics competition. Following the constant comparative approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), my project relies upon triangulating ethnographic data drawn from extensive field notes, semi-structured interviews, and digital and video imagery compiled over two years of participant observation. Drawing upon the sociolinguistic "community of practice" (CoP) framework (Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 1992; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998), this study maps the range of gendered "identities" available to girls involved in non-traditional academic and occupational pursuits within a local context, and reveals the nature, structure and impact of power operating within this CoP, a significantly underdeveloped construct within the language and gender literature. These research findings (1) contribute to refining theories of situated or problem based learning with a focus on female youth (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998); (2) reveal affordances and barriers within the local program design that enable (and preclude) women and minority youth entering the engineering pipeline; and (3) enrich our understanding of intragroup language and gendered "practices" to counter largely essentializing generalizations based upon quantitative analysis. Keywords: Robotics, gender, identity formation, science, STEM, communities of practice

  4. Development of a soft untethered robot using artificial muscle actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiawei; Qin, Lei; Lee, Heow Pueh; Zhu, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Soft robots have attracted much interest recently, due to their potential capability to work effectively in unstructured environment. Soft actuators are key components in soft robots. Dielectric elastomer actuators are one class of soft actuators, which can deform in response to voltage. Dielectric elastomer actuators exhibit interesting attributes including large voltage-induced deformation and high energy density. These attributes make dielectric elastomer actuators capable of functioning as artificial muscles for soft robots. It is significant to develop untethered robots, since connecting the cables to external power sources greatly limits the robots' functionalities, especially autonomous movements. In this paper we develop a soft untethered robot based on dielectric elastomer actuators. This robot mainly consists of a deformable robotic body and two paper-based feet. The robotic body is essentially a dielectric elastomer actuator, which can expand or shrink at voltage on or off. In addition, the two feet can achieve adhesion or detachment based on the mechanism of electroadhesion. In general, the entire robotic system can be controlled by electricity or voltage. By optimizing the mechanical design of the robot (the size and weight of electric circuits), we put all these components (such as batteries, voltage amplifiers, control circuits, etc.) onto the robotic feet, and the robot is capable of realizing autonomous movements. Experiments are conducted to study the robot's locomotion. Finite element method is employed to interpret the deformation of dielectric elastomer actuators, and the simulations are qualitatively consistent with the experimental observations.

  5. 3D printing for soft robotics – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Jahan Zeb; Sajid, Memoon; Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Shah, Imran; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Wook; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Soft robots have received an increasing attention due to their advantages of high flexibility and safety for human operators but the fabrication is a challenge. Recently, 3D printing has been used as a key technology to fabricate soft robots because of high quality and printing multiple materials at the same time. Functional soft materials are particularly well suited for soft robotics due to a wide range of stimulants and sensitive demonstration of large deformations, high motion complexities and varied multi-functionalities. This review comprises a detailed survey of 3D printing in soft robotics. The development of key 3D printing technologies and new materials along with composites for soft robotic applications is investigated. A brief summary of 3D-printed soft devices suitable for medical to industrial applications is also included. The growing research on both 3D printing and soft robotics needs a summary of the major reported studies and the authors believe that this review article serves the purpose. PMID:29707065

  6. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  7. Welding robot package; Arc yosetsu robot package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S. [Yaskawa Electric Corp., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    For the conventional high-speed welding robot, the welding current was controlled mainly for reducing the spatters during short circuits and for stabilizing the beads by the periodic short circuits. However, an increase of deposition amount in response to the speed is required for the high-speed welding. Large-current low-spatter welding current region control was added. Units were integrated into a package by which the arc length is kept in short without dispersion of arc length for welding without defects such as undercut and unequal beads. In automobile industry, use of aluminum parts is extended for the light weight. The welding is very difficult, and automation is not so progressing in spite of the poor environment. Buckling of welding wire is easy to occur, and supply of wire is obstructed by the deposition of chipped powders on the torch cable, which stay within the contact chip resulting in the deposition. Dislocation of locus is easy to occur at the corner of rectangular pipe during the welding. By improving these troubles, an aluminum MIG welding robot package has been developed. 13 figs.

  8. Kinematics analysis and simulation of a new underactuated parallel robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxu YAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of the traditional robot driving motors, which causes defects such as low efficiency. To overcome that problem, based on the traditional parallel robot, a new underactuated parallel robot is presented. The structure characteristics and working principles of the underactuated parallel robot are analyzed. The forward and inverse solutions are derived by way of space analytic geometry and vector algebra. The kinematics model is established, and MATLAB is implied to verify the accuracy of forward and inverse solutions and identify the optimal work space. The simulation results show that the robot can realize the function of robot switch with three or four degrees of freedom when the number of driving motors is three, improving the efficiency of robot grasping, with the characteristics of large working space, high speed operation, high positioning accuracy, low manufacturing cost and so on, and it will have a wide range of industrial applications.

  9. Research on a New Bilateral Self-locking Mechanism for an Inchworm Micro In-pipe Robot with Large Traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an innovative bilaterally-controllable self-locking mechanism that can be applied to the micro in-pipe robot. The background and state of the art of the inchworm micro in-pipe robot is briefly described in the very beginning of the paper, where the main factors that influence the traction ability are also discussed. Afterwards, the micro in-pipe robots’ propulsion principle based on a unidirectional self-locking mechanism is discussed. Then, several kinds of self-locking mechanisms are compared, and a new bilaterally-controllable self-locking mechanism is proposed. By implementing the self-locking mechanism, the robot's tractive force is no longer restricted by the friction force, and both two-way motion and position locking for the robot can be achieved. Finally, the traction experiment is conducted using a prototype robot with the new bilaterally-controllable self-locking mechanism. Test results show that this new self-locking mechanism can adapt itself to a diameter of >17~>20 mm and has a blocking force up to 25N, and the maximum tractive force of the in-pipe robot based on such a locking mechanism is 12N under the maximum velocity of 10mm/s.

  10. The Walk-Man Robot Software Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Ferrati; Alessandro Settimi; Alessandro Settimi; Luca Muratore; Alberto Cardellino; Alessio Rocchi; Enrico Mingo Hoffman; Corrado Pavan; Dimitrios Kanoulas; Nikos G. Tsagarakis; Lorenzo Natale; Lucia Pallottino

    2016-01-01

    A software and control architecture for a humanoid robot is a complex and large project, which involves a team of developers/researchers to be coordinated and requires many hard design choices. If such project has to be done in a very limited time, i.e., less than 1 year, more constraints are added and concepts, such as modular design, code reusability, and API definition, need to be used as much as possible. In this work, we describe the software architecture developed for Walk-Man, a robot ...

  11. The trials and tribulations of purchasing robots for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.; Bowen, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    The adaptation of commercial robots using current robotic technology to handle and manufacture nuclear materials has had its problems. The robots available today were developed primarily to support the automotive or electronics industries. Nuclear material is very heavy, abrasive material with stringent accountability and nuclear safety requirements. The operational space and maintenance constraints have special consideration where the robotic system must operate and be maintained in an environmentally controlled area. The robotic systems of today tend to have limited payload capability for nuclear applications or, if the payload is sufficient, the system is very large and has several operating and maintenance accessibility requirements. The process of specifying, purchasing, and modifying a robotic system is an expensive and time-consuming process at best. The process of product evaluation, operation envelop, design maintenance concepts, and special nuclear materials handling requirements are essential in the development of a procurement specification. The procurement specification is critical to getting an economical robotic system and successfully enticing robotic vendors to quote for nuclear applications

  12. Present Circumstances and its Effect of Participation in NHK Robocon/RoboCup Competition for Engineering Education in College of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Touko; Ito, Kazuaki; Watanabe, Masato

    The engineering education through making robots which needs various techniques such as construction of mechanism and electric circuit design are very useful for training of the students' creativity and developing the students' personality. Toyota National College of Technology has participate in NHK Robocon competition for sixteen years and Robocup competition for four years as a part of engineering education getting spectacular results in those competitions. This paper discusses the present circumstances and its effect of participation in Robocon/RoboCup competition for the engineering education, based on the students' questionnaire survey. It is described to participate in NHK Robocon competition is very important for enhancing the students' knowledge and experience. Furthermore, the participation in Robocup competition brings better results for student' personality development as compared with participation in only Robocon competition.

  13. The price effects of enhancing services sector competition in a large open economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.D. Cavelaars

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the price e?ects of shocks to the degree of competition. It is motivated by initiatives to enhance competition in services in the European Union. The paper shows that a higher degree of competition in the nontradable goods sector may have adverse implications for

  14. Robotic surgery in urological oncology: patient care or market share?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Deborah R; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Carter, H Ballentine; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2015-01-01

    Surgical robotic use has grown exponentially in spite of limited or uncertain benefits and large costs. In certain situations, adoption of robotic technology provides value to patients and society. In other cases, however, the robot provides little or no increase in surgical quality, with increased expense, and, therefore, does not add value to health care. The surgical robot is expensive to purchase, maintain and operate, and can contribute to increased consumerism in relation to surgical procedures, and increased reliance on the technology, thus driving future increases in health-care expenditure. Given the current need for budget constraints, the cost-effectiveness of specific procedures must be evaluated. The surgical robot should be used when cost-effective, but traditional open and laparoscopic techniques also need to be continually fostered.

  15. Robot-Assisted Antegrade In-Situ Fenestrated Stent Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riga, Celia V.; Bicknell, Colin D.; Wallace, Daniel; Hamady, Mohamad; Cheshire, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    To determine the technical feasibility of a novel approach of in-situ fenestration of aortic stent grafts by using a remotely controlled robotic steerable catheter system in the porcine model. A 65-kg pig underwent robot-assisted bilateral antegrade in-situ renal fenestration of an abdominal aortic stent graft with subsequent successful deployment of a bare metal stent into the right renal artery. A 16-mm iliac extension covered stent served as the porcine aortic endograft. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the graft was punctured with a 20-G customized diathermy needle that was introduced and kept in place by the robotic arm. The needle was exchanged for a 4 x 20 mm cutting balloon before successful deployment of the renal stent. Robot-assisted antegrade in-situ fenestration is technically feasible in a large mammalian model. The robotic system enables precise manipulation, stable positioning, and minimum instrumentation of the aorta and its branches while minimizing radiation exposure.

  16. ADAPTIVE DISTRIBUTION OF A SWARM OF HETEROGENEOUS ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Prorok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a method that distributes a swarm of heterogeneous robots among a set of tasks that require specialized capabilities in order to be completed. We model the system of heterogeneous robots as a community of species, where each species (robot type is defined by the traits (capabilities that it owns. Our method is based on a continuous abstraction of the swarm at a macroscopic level as we model robots switching between tasks. We formulate an optimization problem that produces an optimal set of transition rates for each species, so that the desired trait distribution is reached as quickly as possible. Since our method is based on the derivation of an analytical gradient, it is very efficient with respect to state-of-the-art methods. Building on this result, we propose a real-time optimization method that enables an online adaptation of transition rates. Our approach is well-suited for real-time applications that rely on online redistribution of large-scale robotic systems.

  17. ROBOT LITERACY AN APPROACH FOR SHARING SOCIETY WITH INTELLIGENT ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetsugu Suto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel concept of media education called “robot literacy” is proposed. Here, robot literacy refers to the means of forming an appropriate relationship with intelligent robots. It can be considered a kind of media literacy. People who were born after the Internet age can be considered “digital natives” who have new morals and values and behave differently than previous generations in Internet societies. This can cause various problems among different generations. Thus, the necessity of media literacy education is increasing. Internet technologies, as well as robotics technologies are growing rapidly, and people who are born after the “home robot age,” whom the author calls “robot natives,” will be expected to have a certain degree of “robot literacy.” In this paper, the concept of robot literacy is defined and an approach to robot literacy education is discussed.

  18. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically

  19. Cooperative robots and sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khelil, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Mobile robots and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have enabled great potentials and a large space for ubiquitous and pervasive applications. Robotics and WSNs have mostly been considered as separate research fields and little work has investigated the marriage between these two technologies. However, these two technologies share several features, enable common cyber-physical applications and provide complementary support to each other.
 The primary objective of book is to provide a reference for cutting-edge studies and research trends pertaining to robotics and sensor networks, and in particular for the coupling between them. The book consists of five chapters. The first chapter presents a cooperation strategy for teams of multiple autonomous vehicles to solve the rendezvous problem. The second chapter is motivated by the need to improve existing solutions that deal with connectivity prediction, and proposed a genetic machine learning approach for link-quality prediction. The third chapter presents an arch...

  20. Robots with a gentle touch: advances in assistive robotics and prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwin, W S

    1999-01-01

    As healthcare costs rise and an aging population makes an increased demand on services, so new techniques must be introduced to promote an individuals independence and provide these services. Robots can now be designed so they can alter their dynamic properties changing from stiff to flaccid, or from giving no resistance to movement, to damping any large and sudden movements. This has some strong implications in health care in particular for rehabilitation where a robot must work in conjunction with an individual, and might guiding or assist a persons arm movements, or might be commanded to perform some set of autonomous actions. This paper presents the state-of-the-art of rehabilitation robots with examples from prosthetics, aids for daily living and physiotherapy. In all these situations there is the potential for the interaction to be non-passive with a resulting potential for the human/machine/environment combination to become unstable. To understand this instability we must develop better models of the human motor system and fit these models with realistic parameters. This paper concludes with a discussion of this problem and overviews some human models that can be used to facilitate the design of the human/machine interfaces.

  1. Cloud Robotics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busra Koken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud robotics is a rapidly evolving field that allows robots to offload computation-intensive and storage-intensive jobs into the cloud. Robots are limited in terms of computational capacity, memory and storage. Cloud provides unlimited computation power, memory, storage and especially collaboration opportunity. Cloud-enabled robots are divided into two categories as standalone and networked robots. This article surveys cloud robotic platforms, standalone and networked robotic works such as grasping, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM and monitoring.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Cloud via Peer-Robot Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When building a 3D printing cloud manufacturing platform, self-sensing and collaboration on manufacturing resources present challenging problems. This paper proposes a peer-robot collaboration framework to deal with these issues. Each robot combines heterogeneous additive manufacturing hardware and software, acting as an intelligent agent. Through collaboration with other robots, it forms a dynamic and scalable integration manufacturing system. The entire distributed system is managed by rules that employ an internal rule engine, which supports rule conversion and conflict resolution. Two additive manufacturing service scenarios are designed to analyse the efficiency and scalability of the framework. Experiments show that the presented method performs well in tasks requiring large-scale access to resources and collaboration.

  3. Distributed Robotics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Distributed robotics takes many forms, for instance, multirobots, modular robots, and self-reconfigurable robots. The understanding and development of such advanced robotic systems demand extensive knowledge in engineering and computer science. In this paper, we describe the concept of a distribu......Distributed robotics takes many forms, for instance, multirobots, modular robots, and self-reconfigurable robots. The understanding and development of such advanced robotic systems demand extensive knowledge in engineering and computer science. In this paper, we describe the concept...... to be changed, related to multirobot control and human-robot interaction control from virtual to physical representation. The proposed system is valuable for bringing a vast number of issues into education – such as parallel programming, distribution, communication protocols, master dependency, connectivity...

  4. Fish-inspired robots: design, sensing, actuation, and autonomy--a review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Aditi; Thakur, Atul

    2016-04-13

    Underwater robot designs inspired by the behavior, physiology, and anatomy of fishes can provide enhanced maneuverability, stealth, and energy efficiency. Over the last two decades, robotics researchers have developed and reported a large variety of fish-inspired robot designs. The purpose of this review is to report different types of fish-inspired robot designs based upon their intended locomotion patterns. We present a detailed comparison of various design features like sensing, actuation, autonomy, waterproofing, and morphological structure of fish-inspired robots reported in the past decade. We believe that by studying the existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from the successful robots. The review also summarizes the open research issues that need to be taken up for the further advancement of the field and also for the deployment of fish-inspired robots in practice.

  5. Robot Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Lenarcic, Jadran; Stanišić, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the area of robot mechanisms, primarily considering industrial manipulators and humanoid arms. The book is intended for both teaching and self-study. Emphasis is given to the fundamentals of kinematic analysis and the design of robot mechanisms. The coverage of topics is untypical. The focus is on robot kinematics. The book creates a balance between theoretical and practical aspects in the development and application of robot mechanisms, and includes the latest achievements and trends in robot science and technology.

  6. Decommissioning? Why not use a robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bares, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Tasks which may be accomplished by robots alone or in conjunction with human workers in decommissioning nuclear facilities include: routine surveillance in contaminated areas; radiation surveys and sampling; preparation of work area; decontamination of walls and floors; disassembly of contaminated equipment and piping; internal decontamination of piping and waste storage/processing tanks; sorting materials; removal of large activated/contaminated structures; asbestos removal and packaging; transport of waste from disassembly areas; tending waste processing equipment; waste packaging for storage. The status of the technology is briefly reviewed and examples of the use of robots in decommissioning work in the USA are described. Although the use of robots in this field is not extensive so far, that use is increasing and information on its costs and benefits are becoming available. (UK)

  7. Robots de servicio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Aracil

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El término Robots de Servicio apareció a finales de los años 80 como una necesidad de desarrollar máquinas y sistemas capaces de trabajar en entornos diferentes a los fabriles. Los Robots de Servicio tenían que poder trabajar en entornos noestructurados, en condiciones ambientales cambiantes y con una estrecha interacción con los humanos. En 1995 fue creado por la IEEE Robotics and Automation Society, el Technical Committee on Service Robots, y este comité definió en el año 2000 las áreas de aplicación de los Robots de Servicios, que se pueden dividir en dos grandes grupos: 1 sectores productivos no manufactureros tales como edificación, agricultura, naval, minería, medicina, etc. y 2 sectores de servicios propiamente dichos: asistencia personal, limpieza, vigilancia, educación, entretenimiento, etc. En este trabajo se hace una breve revisión de los principales conceptos y aplicaciones de los robots de servicio. Palabras clave: Robots de servicio, robots autónomos, robots de exteriores, robots de educación y entretenimiento, robots caminantes y escaladores, robots humanoides

  8. Filigree Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Clausen Nørgaard, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture.......Filigree Robotics experiments with the combination of traditional ceramic craft with robotic fabrication in order to generate a new narrative of fine three-dimensional ceramic ornament for architecture....

  9. Hydraulic bilateral construction robot; Yuatsushiki bilateral kensetsu robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehata, K.; Mori, N. [Kayaba Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    Concerning a hydraulic bilateral construction robot, its system constitution, structures and functions of important components, and the results of some tests are explained, and the researches conducted at Gifu University are described. The construction robot in this report is a servo controlled system of a version developed from the mini-shovel now available in the market. It is equipped, in addition to an electrohydraulic servo control system, with various sensors for detecting the robot attitude, vibration, and load state, and with a camera for visualizing the surrounding landscape. It is also provided with a bilateral joy stick which is a remote control actuator capable of working sensation feedback and with a rocking unit that creates robot movements of rolling, pitching, and heaving. The construction robot discussed here, with output increased and response faster thanks to the employment of a hydraulic driving system for the aim of building a robot system superior in performance to the conventional model designed primarily for heavy duty, proves after tests to be a highly sophisticated remotely controlled robot control system. (NEDO)

  10. Robotics education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, O.

    1984-01-01

    Robotics education courses are rapidly spreading throughout the nation's colleges and universities. Engineering schools are offering robotics courses as part of their mechanical or manufacturing engineering degree program. Two year colleges are developing an Associate Degree in robotics. In addition to regular courses, colleges are offering seminars in robotics and related fields. These seminars draw excellent participation at costs running up to $200 per day for each participant. The last one drew 275 people from Texas to Virginia. Seminars are also offered by trade associations, private consulting firms, and robot vendors. IBM, for example, has the Robotic Assembly Institute in Boca Raton and charges about $1,000 per week for course. This is basically for owners of IBM robots. Education (and training) can be as short as one day or as long as two years. Here is the educational pattern that is developing now

  11. Robotic Technology Efforts at the NASA/Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Ron

    2017-01-01

    The NASA/Johnson Space Center has been developing robotic systems in support of space exploration for more than two decades. The goal of the Center’s Robotic Systems Technology Branch is to design and build hardware and software to assist astronauts in performing their mission. These systems include: rovers, humanoid robots, inspection devices and wearable robotics. Inspection systems provide external views of space vehicles to search for surface damage and also maneuver inside restricted areas to verify proper connections. New concepts in human and robotic rovers offer solutions for navigating difficult terrain expected in future planetary missions. An important objective for humanoid robots is to relieve the crew of “dull, dirty or dangerous” tasks allowing them more time to perform their important science and exploration missions. Wearable robotics one of the Center’s newest development areas can provide crew with low mass exercise capability and also augment an astronaut’s strength while wearing a space suit.This presentation will describe the robotic technology and prototypes developed at the Johnson Space Center that are the basis for future flight systems. An overview of inspection robots will show their operation on the ground and in-orbit. Rovers with independent wheel modules, crab steering, and active suspension are able to climb over large obstacles, and nimbly maneuver around others. Humanoid robots, including the First Humanoid Robot in Space: Robonaut 2, demonstrate capabilities that will lead to robotic caretakers for human habitats in space, and on Mars. The Center’s Wearable Robotics Lab supports work in assistive and sensing devices, including exoskeletons, force measuring shoes, and grasp assist gloves.

  12. Aviation Competition: Challenges in Enhancing Competition in Dominated Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hecker, Jayetta

    2001-01-01

    ... reductions in fares and expansion of service. These benefits are largely attributable to increased competition--by the entry of both new airlines into the industry and established airlines into new markets...

  13. Electric power's new competitive marketplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornick, R.; Zeppieri, J.; Rudden, K.

    1993-01-01

    Currently, competition is limited primarily to power generation, the sale of wholesale bulk power, and fuel substitution at the point of end use. However, within the next several years, the rivalry will focus on large, energy-intensive industrial and large commercial customers. Driven by the disparity in rates among neighboring and regional utilities, large users are expected to lobby aggressively for retail wheeling and access to new supplies. New competitors will provide customers with additional supply options, forcing traditional utilities to offer better prices and or service. Competition at the point of end use also will increase as the natural gas industry develops new end-use technologies, gas utilities compete more aggressively, and some state regulatory commissions promote fuel switching as part of integrated resource planning (IRP) and demand-side management (DSM). However, as long as electric utilities are subject to cost-based rate of return regulation within price-sensitive markets, they will be a competitive disadvantage. The paper discusses the following: competitive risks by market segment, wholesale markets, industrial markets, commercial markets, residential markets, and franchise markets

  14. A review on robotic fish enabled by ionic polymer-metal composite artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    A novel actuating material, which is lightweight, soft, and capable of generating large flapping motion under electrical stimuli, is highly desirable to build energy-efficient and maneuverable bio-inspired underwater robots. Ionic polymer-metal composites are important category of electroactive polymers, since they can generate large bending motions under low actuation voltages. IPMCs are ideal artificial muscles for small-scale and bio-inspired robots. This paper takes a system perspective to review the recent work on IPMC-enabled underwater robots, from modeling, fabrication, and bio-inspired design perspectives. First, a physics-based and control-oriented model of IPMC actuator will be reviewed. Second, a bio-inspired robotic fish propelled by IPMC caudal fin will be presented and a steady-state speed model of the fish will be demonstrated. Third, a novel fabrication process for 3D actuating membrane will be introduced and a bio-inspired robotic manta ray propelled by two IPMC pectoral fins will be demonstrated. Fourth, a 2D maneuverable robotic fish propelled by multiple IPMC fin will be presented. Last, advantages and challenges of using IPMC artificial muscles in bio-inspired robots will be concluded.

  15. Robot Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance Jonathan

    This paper considers art-based research practice in robotics through a discussion of our course and relevant research projects in autonomous art. The undergraduate course integrates basic concepts of computer science, robotic art, live performance and aesthetic theory. Through practice...... in robotics research (such as aesthetics, culture and perception), we believe robot aesthetics is an important area for research in contemporary aesthetics....

  16. Robots: l'embarras de richesses [:survey of robots available

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meieran, H.; Brittain, K.; Sturkey, R.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of robots available for use in the nuclear industry is presented. Two new categories of mobile robots have been introduced since the last survey (April 1987): pipe crawlers and underwater robots. The number of robots available has risen to double what it was two years ago and four times what it was in 1986. (U.K.)

  17. Using robots to understand animal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohnwieser, Anna; Murray, John C; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, robotic animals and humans have been used to answer a variety of questions related to behavior. In the case of animal behavior, these efforts have largely been in the field of behavioral ecology. They have proved to be a useful tool for this enterprise as they allow the presentation of naturalistic social stimuli whilst providing the experimenter with full control of the stimulus. In interactive experiments, the behavior of robots can be controlled in a manner that is impossible with real animals, making them ideal instruments for the study of social stimuli in animals. This paper provides an overview of the current state of the field and considers the impact that the use of robots could have on fundamental questions related to comparative psychology: namely, perception, spatial cognition, social cognition, and early cognitive development. We make the case that the use of robots to investigate these key areas could have an important impact on the field of animal cognition. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Robots Social Embodiment in Autonomous Mobile Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Duffy

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at demonstrating the inherent advantages of embracing a strong notion of social embodiment in designing a real-world robot control architecture with explicit ?intelligent? social behaviour between a collective of robots. It develops the current thinking on embodiment beyond the physical by demonstrating the importance of social embodiment. A social framework develops the fundamental social attributes found when more than one robot co-inhabit a physical space. The social metaphors of identity, character, stereotypes and roles are presented and implemented within a real-world social robot paradigm in order to facilitate the realisation of explicit social goals.

  19. Facilitative-competitive interactions in an old-growth forest: the importance of large-diameter trees as benefactors and stimulators for forest community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Forrester, David I; Härdtle, Werner; Sturm, Knut; von Oheimb, Goddert

    2015-01-01

    The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading) and belowground competition (crowding) among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services.

  20. Facilitative-Competitive Interactions in an Old-Growth Forest: The Importance of Large-Diameter Trees as Benefactors and Stimulators for Forest Community Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Andreas; Forrester, David I.; Härdtle, Werner; Sturm, Knut; von Oheimb, Goddert

    2015-01-01

    The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading) and belowground competition (crowding) among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services. PMID:25803035

  1. Robotic intelligence kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  2. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  3. NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition for Universities: Results and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Murphy, Gloria A.

    2011-01-01

    Space Mining for resources such as water ice, and regolith, which contain many elements in the form of metals, minerals, volatiles and other compounds, is a necessary step in Space Resource Utilization. One of the primary goals is to extract propellants from the regolith such as oxygen and hydrogen which could then be used for in-space transportation. In addition, the space mining system can be used for various construction tasks that can benefit human and robotic exploration as well as scientific investigations based on the exposed topography. The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Lunabotics Mining Competition is a university-level competition designed to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). NASA will directly benefit from the competition by encouraging the development of innovative lunar excavation concepts from universities which may result in clever ideas and solutions which could be applied to an actual lunar excavation device or payload. The challenge is for students to design and build a remote controlled or autonomous excavator, called a lunabot, that can collect and deposit a minimum of 10 kilograms of lunar simulant within 15 minutes. The complexities of the challenge include the abrasive characteristics of the lunar simulant, the weight and size limitations of the lunabot, and the ability to control the lunabot from a remote control center. This paper will present the results of the first and second annual Lunabotics Mining Competitions held in May 2010 and May 2011. In 2010, 22 United States (US) universities competed, and in May 2011 the competition was opened to international participation, with 46 Universities expected to attend. There are 12 international teams and 34 US teams. This combined total directly inspired an estimated 544 university students. More students and the public were engaged via internet broadcasting and social networking media. The various designs will be

  4. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  5. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  6. Model-Based Design of Brushless DC Motor Control and Motion Control Modelling for RoboCup SSL Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaotian

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent years, the RoboCup competition has grown popular and attracted more and more domestic and international universities, and the levels of the teams increase every year. In Small Size League (SSL) competition, besides a good strategy system, the precision of the robots’ actions is also of vital importance in order to achieve high performance. Thus, a highly accurate and stable motion control system is needed to drive the robots to move in accordance with the planned trajectory. C...

  7. Neuro-robotics from brain machine interfaces to rehabilitation robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiadis

    2014-01-01

    Neuro-robotics is one of the most multidisciplinary fields of the last decades, fusing information and knowledge from neuroscience, engineering and computer science. This book focuses on the results from the strategic alliance between Neuroscience and Robotics that help the scientific community to better understand the brain as well as design robotic devices and algorithms for interfacing humans and robots. The first part of the book introduces the idea of neuro-robotics, by presenting state-of-the-art bio-inspired devices. The second part of the book focuses on human-machine interfaces for pe

  8. Automation and Robotics for Space-Based Systems, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L., II (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this in-house workshop was to assess the state-of-the-art of automation and robotics for space operations from an LaRC perspective and to identify areas of opportunity for future research. Over half of the presentations came from the Automation Technology Branch, covering telerobotic control, extravehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA) robotics, hand controllers for teleoperation, sensors, neural networks, and automated structural assembly, all applied to space missions. Other talks covered the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) active damping augmentation, space crane work, modeling, simulation, and control of large, flexible space manipulators, and virtual passive controller designs for space robots.

  9. Dynamic Modelling and Adaptive Traction Control for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Albagul

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots have received a great deal of research in recent years. A significant amount of research has been published in many aspects related to mobile robots. Most of the research is devoted to design and develop some control techniques for robot motion and path planning. A large number of researchers have used kinematic models to develop motion control strategy for mobile robots. Their argument and assumption that these models are valid if the robot has low speed, low acceleration and light load. However, dynamic modelling of mobile robots is very important as they are designed to travel at higher speed and perform heavy duty work. This paper presents and discusses a new approach to develop a dynamic model and control strategy for wheeled mobile robot which I modelled as a rigid body that roles on two wheels and a castor. The motion control strategy consists of two levels. The first level is dealing with the dynamic of the system and denoted as ‘Low’ level controller. The second level is developed to take care of path planning and trajectory generation.

  10. Three dialogues concerning robots in elder care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Theodore A; Barnes, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    The three dialogues in this contribution concern 21st century application of life-like robots in the care of older adults. They depict conversations set in the near future, involving a philosopher (Dr Phonius) and a nurse (Dr Myloss) who manages care at a large facility for assisted living. In their first dialogue, the speakers discover that their quite different attitudes towards human-robot interaction parallel fundamental differences separating their respective concepts of consciousness. The second dialogue similarly uncovers deeply contrasting notions of personhood that appear to be associated with respective communities of nursing and robotics. The additional key awareness that arises in their final dialogue links applications of life-like robots in the care of older adults with potential transformations in our understandings of ourselves - indeed, in our understandings of the nature of our own humanity. This series of dialogues, therefore, appears to address a topic in nursing philosophy that merits our careful attention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The immediate effects of robot-assistance on energy consumption and cardiorespiratory load during walking compared to walking without robot-assistance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Nina; Swinnen, Eva; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The integration of sufficient cardiovascular stress into robot-assisted gait (RAG) training could combine the benefits of both RAG and aerobic training. The aim was to summarize literature data on the immediate effects of RAG compared to walking without robot-assistance on metabolic-, cardiorespiratory- and fatigue-related parameters. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for eligible articles till February 2016. Means, SDs and significance values were extracted. Effect sizes were calculated. Fourteen studies were included, concerning 155 participants (85 healthy subjects, 39 stroke and 31 spinal cord injury patients), 9 robots (2 end-effectors, 1 treadmill-based and 6 wearable exoskeletons), and 7 outcome parameters (mostly oxygen consumption and heart rate). Overall, metabolic and cardiorespiratory parameters were lower during RAG compared to walking without robot-assistance (moderate to large effect sizes). In healthy subjects, when no body-weight support (BWS) was provided, RAG with an end-effector device was more energy demanding than walking overground (p > .05, large effect sizes). Generally, results suggest that RAG is less energy-consuming and cardiorespiratory stressful than walking without robot-assistance, but results depend on factors such as robot type, walking speed, BWS and effort. Additional research is needed to draw firm conclusions. Implications for Rehabilitation Awareness of the energy consumption and cardiorespiratory load of robot-assisted gait (RAG) training is important in the rehabilitation of (neurological) patients with impaired cardiorespiratory fitness and patients who are at risk of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, the integration of sufficient cardiometabolic stress in RAG training could combine the effects of both RAG and aerobic training. Energy consumption and cardiorespiratory load during walking with robot-assistance seems to depend on factors such as robot type, walking speed, body-weight support or amount of

  12. Cloud Robotics Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mester, Gyula

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Robotics was born from the merger of service robotics and cloud technologies. It allows robots to benefit from the powerful computational, storage, and communications resources of modern data centres. Cloud robotics allows robots to take advantage of the rapid increase in data transfer rates to offload tasks without hard real time requirements. Cloud Robotics has rapidly gained momentum with initiatives by companies such as Google, Willow Garage and Gostai as well as more than a dozen a...

  13. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  14. Are Sex Robots as Bad as Killing Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    In 2015 the Campaign Against Sex Robots was launched to draw attention to the technological production of new kinds of objects: sex robots of women and children. The campaign was launched shortly after the Future of Life Institute published an online petition: “Autonomous Weapons: An Open Letter From AI and Robotics Researchers” which was signed by leading luminaries in the field of AI and Robotics. In response to the Campaign, an academic at Oxford University opened an ethics thread “Are sex...

  15. Computer-controlled wall servicing robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefkowitz, S. [Pentek, Inc., Corapolis, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    After four years of cooperative research, Pentek has unveiled a new robot with the capability to automatically deliver a variety of cleaning, painting, inspection, and surveillance devices to large vertical surfaces. The completely computer-controlled robot can position a working tool on a 50-foot tall by 50-foot wide vertical surface with a repeatability of 1/16 inch. The working end can literally {open_quotes}fly{close_quotes} across the face of a wall at speed of 60 per minute, and can handle working loads of 350 pounds. The robot was originally developed to decontaminate the walls of reactor fueling cavities at commercial nuclear power plants during fuel outages. If these cavities are left to dry after reactor refueling, contamination present in the residue could later become airborne and move throughout the containment building. Decontaminating the cavity during the refueling outage reduces the need for restrictive personal protective equipment during plant operations to limit the dose rates.

  16. Multi-robot control interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  17. Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer for Logistic Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Marojahan Tampubolon; Laskar Pamungkas; Huang-Jen Chiu; Yu-Chen Liu; Yao-Ching Hsieh

    2018-01-01

    The prospect of using robots in warehouses or supply chain processes is increasing due to the growth of the online retail market. This logistic robot is available in the market and uses a battery as energy storage device. However, this battery is large and heavy. Therefore, it needs a long recharging time. Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer (DWPT) can be an alternative to the conventional charging system because of its safety and flexibility that enables in motion charging. DWPT reduces the batt...

  18. Assembly Line Productivity Assessment by Comparing Optimization-Simulation Algorithms of Trajectory Planning for Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rubio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of productivity will be carried out from the resolution of the problem of trajectory planning of industrial robots. The analysis entails economic considerations, thus overcoming some limitations of the existing literature. Two methodologies based on optimization-simulation procedures are compared to calculate the time needed to perform an industrial robot task. The simulation methodology relies on the use of robotics and automation software called GRASP. The optimization methodology developed in this work is based on the kinematics and the dynamics of industrial robots. It allows us to pose a multiobjective optimization problem to assess the trade-offs between the economic variables by means of the Pareto fronts. The comparison is carried out for different examples and from a multidisciplinary point of view, thus, to determine the impact of using each method. Results have shown the opportunity costs of non using the methodology with optimized time trajectories. Furthermore, it allows companies to stay competitive because of the quick adaptation to rapidly changing markets.

  19. Robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorino, P; Altwegg, J M

    1985-05-01

    This article, which is aimed at the general reader, examines latest developments in, and the role of, modern robotics. The 7 main sections are sub-divided into 27 papers presented by 30 authors. The sections are as follows: 1) The role of robotics, 2) Robotics in the business world and what it can offer, 3) Study and development, 4) Utilisation, 5) Wages, 6) Conditions for success, and 7) Technological dynamics.

  20. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  1. Robot calibration with a photogrammetric on-line system using reseau scanning cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diewald, Bernd; Godding, Robert; Henrich, Andreas

    1994-03-01

    The possibility for testing and calibration of industrial robots becomes more and more important for manufacturers and users of such systems. Exacting applications in connection with the off-line programming techniques or the use of robots as measuring machines are impossible without a preceding robot calibration. At the LPA an efficient calibration technique has been developed. Instead of modeling the kinematic behavior of a robot, the new method describes the pose deviations within a user-defined section of the robot's working space. High- precision determination of 3D coordinates of defined path positions is necessary for calibration and can be done by digital photogrammetric systems. For the calibration of a robot at the LPA a digital photogrammetric system with three Rollei Reseau Scanning Cameras was used. This system allows an automatic measurement of a large number of robot poses with high accuracy.

  2. Classification of obstacle shape for generating walking path of humanoid robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Soo; Kim, Do Ik

    2013-01-01

    To generate the walking path of a humanoid robot in an unknown environment, the shapes of obstacles around the robot should be detected accurately. However, doing so incurs a very large computational cast. Therefore this study proposes a method to classify the obstacle shape into three types: a shape small enough for the robot to go over, a shape planar enough for the robot foot to make contact with, and an uncertain shape that must be avoided by the robot. To classify the obstacle shape, first, the range and the number of the obstacles is detected. If an obstacle can make contact with the robot foot, the shape of an obstacle is accurately derived. If an obstacle has uncertain shape or small size, the shape of an obstacle is not detected to minimize the computational load. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently classifies the shapes of obstacles around the robot in real time with low computational load

  3. Classification of obstacle shape for generating walking path of humanoid robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Soo; Kim, Do Ik [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    To generate the walking path of a humanoid robot in an unknown environment, the shapes of obstacles around the robot should be detected accurately. However, doing so incurs a very large computational cast. Therefore this study proposes a method to classify the obstacle shape into three types: a shape small enough for the robot to go over, a shape planar enough for the robot foot to make contact with, and an uncertain shape that must be avoided by the robot. To classify the obstacle shape, first, the range and the number of the obstacles is detected. If an obstacle can make contact with the robot foot, the shape of an obstacle is accurately derived. If an obstacle has uncertain shape or small size, the shape of an obstacle is not detected to minimize the computational load. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently classifies the shapes of obstacles around the robot in real time with low computational load.

  4. FPGA for Robotic Applications: from Android/Humanoid Robots to Artificial Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tole Sutikno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches on home robots have been increasing enormously. There has always existed a continuous research effort on problems of anthropomorphic robots which is now called humanoid robots. Currently, robotics has evolved to the point that different branches have reached a remarkable level of maturity, that neural network and fuzzy logic are the main artificial intelligence as intelligent control on the robotics. Despite all this progress, while aiming at accomplishing work-tasks originally charged only to humans, robotic science has perhaps quite naturally turned into the attempt to create artificial men. It is true that artificial men or android humanoid robots open certainly very broad prospects. This “robot” may be viewed as a personal helper, and it will be called a home-robot, or personal robot. This is main reason why the two special sections are issued in the TELKOMNIKA sequentially.

  5. Teaching Joint-Level Robot Programming with a New Robotics Software Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gonzalez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rising popularity of robotics in our modern world there is an increase in the number of engineering programs that offer the basic Introduction to Robotics course. This common introductory robotics course generally covers the fundamental theory of robotics including robot kinematics, dynamics, differential movements, trajectory planning and basic computer vision algorithms commonly used in the field of robotics. Joint programming, the task of writing a program that directly controls the robot’s joint motors, is an activity that involves robot kinematics, dynamics, and trajectory planning. In this paper, we introduce a new educational robotics tool developed for teaching joint programming. The tool allows the student to write a program in a modified C language that controls the movement of the arm by controlling the velocity of each joint motor. This is a very important activity in the robotics course and leads the student to gain knowledge of how to build a robotic arm controller. Sample assignments are presented for different levels of difficulty.

  6. Concurrent use of data base and graphics computer workstations to provide graphic access to large, complex data bases for robotics control of nuclear surveillance and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, G.R.; Tulenko, J.S.; Zhou, X.

    1990-01-01

    The University of Florida is part of a multiuniversity research effort, sponsored by the US Department of Energy which is under way to develop and deploy an advanced semi-autonomous robotic system for use in nuclear power stations. This paper reports on the development of the computer tools necessary to gain convenient graphic access to the intelligence implicit in a large complex data base such as that in a nuclear reactor plant. This program is integrated as a man/machine interface within the larger context of the total computerized robotic planning and control system. The portion of the project described here addresses the connection between the three-dimensional displays on an interactive graphic workstation and a data-base computer running a large data-base server program. Programming the two computers to work together to accept graphic queries and return answers on the graphic workstation is a key part of the interactive capability developed

  7. Evaluation of modular robot system for maintenance tasks in hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagala, Prithvi Sekhar, E-mail: ps.pagala@upm.es [Centre for Automation and Robotics UPM-CSIC (Spain); Ferre, Manuel, E-mail: m.ferre@upm.es [Centre for Automation and Robotics UPM-CSIC (Spain); Orona, Luis, E-mail: l.orona@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Modular robot deployment inside hot cell for remote manipulation evaluated. •Flexible and adaptable system for variety of tasks presented. •Uses in large workspaces and evolving requirements shown. -- Abstract: This work assesses the use of a modular robot system to perform maintenance and inspection tasks such as, remote flexible inspection, manipulation and cooperation with deployed systems inside the hot cell. A flexible modular solution for the inclusion in maintenance operations is presented. The proposed heterogeneous modular robotic system is evaluated using simulations of the prototype across selected robot configuration to perform tasks. Results obtained show the advantages and ability of the modular robot to perform the necessary tasks as well as its ability to adapt and evolve depending on the need. The simulation test case inside hot cell shows modular robot configuration, a two modular arm to perform tele-operation tasks in the workspace and a wheeled platform for inspection collaborating to perform tasks. The advantage of using re-configurable modular robot over conventional robot platforms is shown.

  8. Timing of Multimodal Robot Behaviors during Human-Robot Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Christian; Fischer, Kerstin; Suvei, Stefan-Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of timing between robot behaviors in multimodal human-robot interaction. In particular, we study what effects sequential order and simultaneity of robot arm and body movement and verbal behavior have on the fluency of interactions. In a study with the Care-O-bot, ...... output plays a special role because participants carry their expectations from human verbal interaction into the interactions with robots....

  9. Robotic surgery claims on United States hospital websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Linda X; Ibrahim, Andrew M; Newman, Naeem A; Makarov, Danil V; Pronovost, Peter J; Makary, Martin A

    2011-11-01

    To examine the prevalence and content of robotic surgery information presented on websites of U.S. hospitals. We completed a systematic analysis of 400 randomly selected U.S. hospital websites in June of 2010. Data were collected on the presence and location of robotic surgery information on a hospital's website; use of images or text provided by the manufacturer; use of direct link to manufacturer website; statements of clinical superiority; statements of improved cancer outcome; mention of a comparison group for a statement; citation of supporting data and mention of specific risks. Forty-one percent of hospital websites described robotic surgery. Among these, 37% percent presented robotic surgery on their homepage, 73% used manufacturer-provided stock images or text, and 33% linked to a manufacturer website. Statements of clinical superiority were made on 86% of websites, with 32% describing improved cancer control, and 2% described a reference group. No hospital website mentioned risks. Materials provided by hospitals regarding the surgical robot overestimate benefits, largely ignore risks and are strongly influenced by the manufacturer. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  10. Manifold learning in machine vision and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Smart algorithms are used in Machine vision and Robotics to organize or extract high-level information from the available data. Nowadays, Machine learning is an essential and ubiquitous tool to automate extraction patterns or regularities from data (images in Machine vision; camera, laser, and sonar sensors data in Robotics) in order to solve various subject-oriented tasks such as understanding and classification of images content, navigation of mobile autonomous robot in uncertain environments, robot manipulation in medical robotics and computer-assisted surgery, and other. Usually such data have high dimensionality, however, due to various dependencies between their components and constraints caused by physical reasons, all "feasible and usable data" occupy only a very small part in high dimensional "observation space" with smaller intrinsic dimensionality. Generally accepted model of such data is manifold model in accordance with which the data lie on or near an unknown manifold (surface) of lower dimensionality embedded in an ambient high dimensional observation space; real-world high-dimensional data obtained from "natural" sources meet, as a rule, this model. The use of Manifold learning technique in Machine vision and Robotics, which discovers a low-dimensional structure of high dimensional data and results in effective algorithms for solving of a large number of various subject-oriented tasks, is the content of the conference plenary speech some topics of which are in the paper.

  11. Robotics Potential Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Lucero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This problem was to calculate the path a robot would take to navigate an obstacle field and get to its goal. Three obstacles were given as negative potential fields which the robot avoided, and a goal was given a positive potential field that attracted the robot. The robot decided each step based on its distance, angle, and influence from every object. After each step, the robot recalculated and determined its next step until it reached its goal. The robot's calculations and steps were simulated with Microsoft Excel.

  12. Facilitative-competitive interactions in an old-growth forest: the importance of large-diameter trees as benefactors and stimulators for forest community assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fichtner

    Full Text Available The role of competition in tree communities is increasingly well understood, while little is known about the patterns and mechanisms of the interplay between above- and belowground competition in tree communities. This knowledge, however, is crucial for a better understanding of community dynamics and developing adaptive near-natural management strategies. We assessed neighbourhood interactions in an unmanaged old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica forest by quantifying variation in the intensity of above- (shading and belowground competition (crowding among dominant and co-dominant canopy beech trees during tree maturation. Shading had on average a much larger impact on radial growth than crowding and the sensitivity to changes in competitive conditions was lowest for crowding effects. We found that each mode of competition reduced the effect of the other. Increasing crowding reduced the negative effect of shading, and at high levels of shading, crowding actually had a facilitative effect and increased growth. Our study demonstrates that complementarity in above- and belowground processes enable F. sylvatica to alter resource acquisition strategies, thus optimising tree radial growth. As a result, competition seemed to become less important in stands with a high growing stock and tree communities with a long continuity of anthropogenic undisturbed population dynamics. We suggest that growth rates do not exclusively depend on the density of potential competitors at the intraspecific level, but on the conspecific aggregation of large-diameter trees and their functional role for regulating biotic filtering processes. This finding highlights the potential importance of the rarely examined relationship between the spatial aggregation pattern of large-diameter trees and the outcome of neighbourhood interactions, which may be central to community dynamics and the related forest ecosystem services.

  13. 8th International Conference on Field and Service Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Tadokoro, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    FSR, the International Conference on Field and Service Robotics, is the leading single track conference of robotics for field and service applications. This book presents the results of FSR2012, the eighth conference of Field and Service Robotics, which was originally planned for 2011 with the venue of Matsushima in Tohoku region of Japan. However, on March 11, 2011, a magnitude M9.0 earthquake occurred off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, and a large-scale disaster was caused by the Tsunami which resulted, therefore the conference was postponed by one year to July, 2012. In fact, this earthquake raised issues concerning the contribution of field and service robotics technology to emergency scenarios. A number of precious lessons were learned from operation of robots in the resulting, very real and challenging, disaster environments. Up-to-date study on disaster response, relief and recovery was then featured in the conference. This book offers 43 papers on a broad range of topics including: Disaster Response, Se...

  14. Healthcare Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Riek, Laurel D.

    2017-01-01

    Robots have the potential to be a game changer in healthcare: improving health and well-being, filling care gaps, supporting care givers, and aiding health care workers. However, before robots are able to be widely deployed, it is crucial that both the research and industrial communities work together to establish a strong evidence-base for healthcare robotics, and surmount likely adoption barriers. This article presents a broad contextualization of robots in healthcare by identifying key sta...

  15. RIPE [robot independent programming environment]: A robot independent programming environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.; Lennox, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Remote manual operations in radiation environments are typically performed very slowly. Sensor-based computer-controlled robots hold great promise for increasing the speed and safety of remote operations; however, the programming of robotic systems has proven to be expensive and difficult. Generalized approaches to robot programming that reuse available software modules and employ programming languages which are independent of the specific robotic and sensory devices being used are needed to speed software development and increase overall system reliability. This paper discusses the robot independent programming environment (RIPE) developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The RIPE is an object-oriented approach to robot system architectures; it is a software environment that facilitates rapid design and implementation of complex robot systems for diverse applications. An architecture based on hierarchies of distributed multiprocessors provides the computing platform for a layered programming structure that models applications using software objects. These objects are designed to support model-based automated programming of robotic and machining devices, real-time sensor-based control, error handling, and robust communication

  16. Evolutionary Developmental Robotics: Improving Morphology and Control of Physical Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujovic, Vuk; Rosendo, Andre; Brodbeck, Luzius; Iida, Fumiya

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms have previously been applied to the design of morphology and control of robots. The design space for such tasks can be very complex, which can prevent evolution from efficiently discovering fit solutions. In this article we introduce an evolutionary-developmental (evo-devo) experiment with real-world robots. It allows robots to grow their leg size to simulate ontogenetic morphological changes, and this is the first time that such an experiment has been performed in the physical world. To test diverse robot morphologies, robot legs of variable shapes were generated during the evolutionary process and autonomously built using additive fabrication. We present two cases with evo-devo experiments and one with evolution, and we hypothesize that the addition of a developmental stage can be used within robotics to improve performance. Moreover, our results show that a nonlinear system-environment interaction exists, which explains the nontrivial locomotion patterns observed. In the future, robots will be present in our daily lives, and this work introduces for the first time physical robots that evolve and grow while interacting with the environment.

  17. Recent advances in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beni, G.; Hackwood, S.

    1984-01-01

    Featuring 10 contributions, this volume offers a state-of-the-art report on robotic science and technology. It covers robots in modern industry, robotic control to help the disabled, kinematics and dynamics, six-legged walking robots, a vector analysis of robot manipulators, tactile sensing in robots, and more

  18. Here today, gone tomorrow: biodegradable soft robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Winfield, Jonathan; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges to modern technologies is what to do with them when they go irreparably wrong or come to the end of their productive lives. The convention, since the development of modern civilisation, is to discard a broken item and then procure a new one. In the 20th century enlightened environmentalists campaigned for recycling and reuse (R and R). R and R has continued to be an important part of new technology development, but there is still a huge problem of non-recyclable materials being dumped into landfill and being discarded in the environment. The challenge is even greater for robotics, a field which will impact on all aspects of our lives, where discards include motors, rigid elements and toxic power supplies and batteries. One novel solution is the biodegradable robot, an active physical machine that is composed of biodegradable materials and which degrades to nothing when released into the environment. In this paper we examine the potential and realities of biodegradable robotics, consider novel solutions to core components such as sensors, actuators and energy scavenging, and give examples of biodegradable robotics fabricated from everyday, and not so common, biodegradable electroactive materials. The realisation of truly biodegradable robots also brings entirely new deployment, exploration and bio-remediation capabilities: why track and recover a few large non-biodegradable robots when you could speculatively release millions of biodegradable robots instead? We will consider some of these exciting developments and explore the future of this new field.

  19. Put Your Robot In, Put Your Robot Out: Sequencing through Programming Robots in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakoff, Elizabeth R.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of programming robots on sequencing ability in early childhood. Thirty-four children (ages 4.5-6.5 years) participated in computer programming activities with a developmentally appropriate tool, CHERP, specifically designed to program a robot's behaviors. The children learned to build and program robots over three…

  20. Real Time Mapping and Dynamic Navigation for Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki K. Habib

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the importance, the complexity and the challenges of mapping mobile robot?s unknown and dynamic environment, besides the role of sensors and the problems inherited in map building. These issues remain largely an open research problems in developing dynamic navigation systems for mobile robots. The paper presenst the state of the art in map building and localization for mobile robots navigating within unknown environment, and then introduces a solution for the complex problem of autonomous map building and maintenance method with focus on developing an incremental grid based mapping technique that is suitable for real-time obstacle detection and avoidance. In this case, the navigation of mobile robots can be treated as a problem of tracking geometric features that occur naturally in the environment of the robot. The robot maps its environment incrementally using the concept of occupancy grids and the fusion of multiple ultrasonic sensory information while wandering in it and stay away from all obstacles. To ensure real-time operation with limited resources, as well as to promote extensibility, the mapping and obstacle avoidance modules are deployed in parallel and distributed framework. Simulation based experiments has been conducted and illustrated to show the validity of the developed mapping and obstacle avoidance approach.

  1. Measuring competition in civil aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijesen, M.G.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2002-01-01

    Markets in civil aviation are characterized by large differences in the level of competition, both between time periods as between regions. To measure competition, several indicators are available, such as the number of competitors, the C4-index and the Herfindahl index. We use these measures in

  2. The use of robotics in surgery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A; Malik, A; Halim, M U; Ali, A M

    2014-11-01

    There is an ever-increasing drive to improve surgical patient outcomes. Given the benefits which robotics has bestowed upon a wide range of industries, from vehicle manufacturing to space exploration, robots have been highlighted by many as essential for continued improvements in surgery. The goal of this review is to outline the history of robotic surgery, and detail the key studies which have investigated its effects on surgical outcomes. Issues of cost-effectiveness and patient acceptability will also be discussed. Robotic surgery has been shown to shorten hospital stays, decrease complication rates and allow surgeons to perform finer tasks, when compared to the traditional laparoscopic and open approaches. These benefits, however, must be balanced against increased intraoperative times, vast financial costs and the increased training burden associated with robotic techniques. The outcome of such a cost-benefit analysis appears to vary depending on the procedure being conducted; indeed the strongest evidence in favour of its use comes from the fields of urology and gynaecology. It is hoped that with the large-scale, randomised, prospective clinical trials underway, and an ever-expanding research base, many of the outstanding questions surrounding robotic surgery will be answered in the near future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Plant Size and Competitive Dynamics along Nutrient Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Deborah E; Martina, Jason P; Elgersma, Kenneth J; Currie, William S

    2017-08-01

    Resource competition theory in plants has focused largely on resource acquisition traits that are independent of size, such as traits of individual leaves or roots or proportional allocation to different functions. However, plants also differ in maximum potential size, which could outweigh differences in module-level traits. We used a community ecosystem model called mondrian to investigate whether larger size inevitably increases competitive ability and how size interacts with nitrogen supply. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that bigger is better, we found that invader success and competitive ability are unimodal functions of maximum potential size, such that plants that are too large (or too small) are disproportionately suppressed by competition. Optimal size increases with nitrogen supply, even when plants compete for nitrogen only in a size-symmetric manner, although adding size-asymmetric competition for light does substantially increase the advantage of larger size at high nitrogen. These complex interactions of plant size and nitrogen supply lead to strong nonlinearities such that small differences in nitrogen can result in large differences in plant invasion success and the influence of competition along productivity gradients.

  4. Human Robot Interaction for Hybrid Collision Avoidance System for Indoor Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Ghandour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach for collision avoidance for indoor mobile robots based on human-robot interaction is realized. The main contribution of this work is a new technique for collision avoidance by engaging the human and the robot in generating new collision-free paths. In mobile robotics, collision avoidance is critical for the success of the robots in implementing their tasks, especially when the robots navigate in crowded and dynamic environments, which include humans. Traditional collision avoidance methods deal with the human as a dynamic obstacle, without taking into consideration that the human will also try to avoid the robot, and this causes the people and the robot to get confused, especially in crowded social places such as restaurants, hospitals, and laboratories. To avoid such scenarios, a reactive-supervised collision avoidance system for mobile robots based on human-robot interaction is implemented. In this method, both the robot and the human will collaborate in generating the collision avoidance via interaction. The person will notify the robot about the avoidance direction via interaction, and the robot will search for the optimal collision-free path on the selected direction. In case that no people interacted with the robot, it will select the navigation path autonomously and select the path that is closest to the goal location. The humans will interact with the robot using gesture recognition and Kinect sensor. To build the gesture recognition system, two models were used to classify these gestures, the first model is Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN, and the second model is Support Vector Machine (SVM. Furthermore, a novel collision avoidance system for avoiding the obstacles is implemented and integrated with the HRI system. The system is tested on H20 robot from DrRobot Company (Canada and a set of experiments were implemented to report the performance of the system in interacting with the human and avoiding

  5. Omni directional mobile robot capable of variable foot printing based on hub type drive module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Joong; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Hwi Su; Song, Jae Bok [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In recent years, an increased amount of research has been carried out on mobile robots to improve the performance of service robots. Mobile robots maximize the mobility of service robots, thus allowing them to work in different areas. However, conventional service robots have their center of mass placed high above the ground, which may cause them to fall when moving at high speed. Furthermore, hub type actuators, which are often used for mobile robots, are large and expensive. In this study, we propose a mobile robot with a hub type actuator unit and a variable footprint mechanism. The proposed variable footprint mechanism greatly improves the stability and mobility of the robot, allowing it to move freely in a narrow space and carry out various tasks. The performance of the proposed robot is verified experimentally.

  6. Robots and lattice automata

    CERN Document Server

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The book gives a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research and engineering in theory and application of Lattice Automata in design and control of autonomous Robots. Automata and robots share the same notional meaning. Automata (originated from the latinization of the Greek word “αυτόματον”) as self-operating autonomous machines invented from ancient years can be easily considered the first steps of robotic-like efforts. Automata are mathematical models of Robots and also they are integral parts of robotic control systems. A Lattice Automaton is a regular array or a collective of finite state machines, or automata. The Automata update their states by the same rules depending on states of their immediate neighbours. In the context of this book, Lattice Automata are used in developing modular reconfigurable robotic systems, path planning and map exploration for robots, as robot controllers, synchronisation of robot collectives, robot vision, parallel robotic actuators. All chapters are...

  7. Robot vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Almost all industrial robots use internal sensors such as shaft encoders which measure rotary position, or tachometers which measure velocity, to control their motions. Most controllers also provide interface capabilities so that signals from conveyors, machine tools, and the robot itself may be used to accomplish a task. However, advanced external sensors, such as visual sensors, can provide a much greater degree of adaptability for robot control as well as add automatic inspection capabilities to the industrial robot. Visual and other sensors are now being used in fundamental operations such as material processing with immediate inspection, material handling with adaption, arc welding, and complex assembly tasks. A new industry of robot vision has emerged. The application of these systems is an area of great potential

  8. Multi-Locomotion Robotic Systems New Concepts of Bio-inspired Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Toshio; Sekiyama, Kosuke; Aoyama, Tadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, multiple attention have been paid on a robot working in the human living environment, such as in the field of medical, welfare, entertainment and so on. Various types of researches are being conducted actively in a variety of fields such as artificial intelligence, cognitive engineering, sensor- technology, interfaces and motion control. In the future, it is expected to realize super high functional human-like robot by integrating technologies in various fields including these types of researches. The book represents new developments and advances in the field of bio-inspired robotics research introducing the state of the art, the idea of multi-locomotion robotic system to implement the diversity of animal motion. It covers theoretical and computational aspects of Passive Dynamic Autonomous Control (PDAC), robot motion control, multi legged walking and climbing as well as brachiation focusing concrete robot systems, components and applications. In addition, gorilla type robot systems are described as...

  9. Robot Wars: US Empire and geopolitics in the robotic age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ian GR

    2017-01-01

    How will the robot age transform warfare? What geopolitical futures are being imagined by the US military? This article constructs a robotic futurology to examine these crucial questions. Its central concern is how robots – driven by leaps in artificial intelligence and swarming – are rewiring the spaces and logics of US empire, warfare, and geopolitics. The article begins by building a more-than-human geopolitics to de-center the role of humans in conflict and foreground a worldly understanding of robots. The article then analyzes the idea of US empire, before speculating upon how and why robots are materializing new forms of proxy war. A three-part examination of the shifting spaces of US empire then follows: (1) Swarm Wars explores the implications of miniaturized drone swarming; (2) Roboworld investigates how robots are changing US military basing strategy and producing new topological spaces of violence; and (3) The Autogenic Battle-Site reveals how autonomous robots will produce emergent, technologically event-ful sites of security and violence – revolutionizing the battlespace. The conclusion reflects on the rise of a robotic US empire and its consequences for democracy. PMID:29081605

  10. Development of the pneumatic service robot with a hybrid type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Cheol U; Choi, Hyeun Seok; Han, Chang Soo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the pneumatic service robot with a hybrid type is developed. A pneumatic has the advantage of good compliance, high payload-to-weight and payload-to-volume ratios, high speed and force capabilities. Using pneumatic actuators which have low stiffness, the service robot can guarantee safety. By suggesting a new serial-parallel hybrid type for the service robot which separates into positioning motion and orienting motion, we can achieve large workspace and high strength-to-moving-weight ratio at the same time. A sliding mode controller can be designed for tracking the desired output using the Lyapunov stability theory and structural properties of pneumatic servo systems. Through many experiments of circular trajectory, the pneumatic service robot is evaluated and verified

  11. CO{sub 2} mitigation costs of large-scale bioenergy technologies in competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, L [Mid-Sweden University, Ostersund (Sweden). Dept. of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Ecotechnology; Madlener, R [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). CEPE

    2003-11-01

    In this study, we compare and contrast the impact of recent technological developments in large biomass-fired and natural-gas-fired cogeneration and condensing plants in terms of CO{sub 2} mitigation costs and under the conditions of a competitive electricity market. The CO{sub 2} mitigation cost indicates the minimum economic incentive required (e.g. in the form of a carbon tax) to equal the cost of a less carbon extensive system with the cost of a reference system. The results show that CO{sub 2} mitigation costs are lower for biomass systems than for natural gas systems with decarbonization. However, in liberalized energy markets and given the sociopolitical will to implement carbon extensive energy systems, market-based policy measures are still required to make biomass and decarbonization options competitive and thus help them to penetrate the market. This cost of cogeneration plants, however, depends on the evaluation method used. If we account for the limitation of heat sinks by expanding the reference entity to include both heat and power, as is typically recommended in life-cycle analysis, then the biomass-based gasification combined cycle (BIG/CC) technology turns out to be less expensive and to exhibit lower CO{sub 2} mitigation costs than biomass-fired steam turbine plants. However, a heat credit granted to cogeneration systems that is based on avoided cost of separate heat production, puts the steam turbine technology despite its lower system efficiency at an advantage. In contrast, when a crediting method based on avoided electricity production in natural gas fired condensing plants is employed, the BIG/CC technology turns out to be more cost competitive than the steam turbine technology for carbon tax levels beyond about $150/t C. Furthermore, steam turbine plants are able to compete with natural gas fired cogeneration plants at carbon tax levels higher than about $90/tC. (author)

  12. Robotic vision system for random bin picking with dual-arm robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sangseung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Random bin picking is one of the most challenging industrial robotics applications available. It constitutes a complicated interaction between the vision system, robot, and control system. For a packaging operation requiring a pick-and-place task, the robot system utilized should be able to perform certain functions for recognizing the applicable target object from randomized objects in a bin. In this paper, we introduce a robotic vision system for bin picking using industrial dual-arm robots. The proposed system recognizes the best object from randomized target candidates based on stereo vision, and estimates the position and orientation of the object. It then sends the result to the robot control system. The system was developed for use in the packaging process of cell phone accessories using dual-arm robots.

  13. Modular Robotic Wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this concept paper we trace the contours and define a new approach to robotic systems, composed of interactive robotic modules which are somehow worn on the body. We label such a field as Modular Robotic Wearable (MRW). We describe how, by using modular robotics for creating wearable....... Finally, by focusing on the intersection of the combination modular robotic systems, wearability, and bodymind we attempt to explore the theoretical characteristics of such approach and exploit the possible playware application fields....

  14. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  15. Industrial Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  16. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  17. Social Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us as indiv......Social robotics is a cutting edge research area gathering researchers and stakeholders from various disciplines and organizations. The transformational potential that these machines, in the form of, for example, caregiving, entertainment or partner robots, pose to our societies and to us...... as individuals seems to be limited by our technical limitations and phantasy alone. This collection contributes to the field of social robotics by exploring its boundaries from a philosophically informed standpoint. It constructively outlines central potentials and challenges and thereby also provides a stable...

  18. Non-manufacturing applications of robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauchez, P.

    2000-12-01

    This book presents the different non-manufacturing sectors of activity where robotics can have useful or necessary applications: underwater robotics, agriculture robotics, road work robotics, nuclear robotics, medical-surgery robotics, aids to disabled people, entertainment robotics. Service robotics has been voluntarily excluded because this developing sector is not mature yet. (J.S.)

  19. Robust online belief space planning in changing environments: Application to physical mobile robots

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning in belief space (under motion and sensing uncertainty) is a challenging problem due to the computational intractability of its exact solution. The Feedback-based Information RoadMap (FIRM) framework made an important theoretical step toward enabling roadmap-based planning in belief space and provided a computationally tractable version of belief space planning. However, there are still challenges in applying belief space planners to physical systems, such as the discrepancy between computational models and real physical models. In this paper, we propose a dynamic replanning scheme in belief space to address such challenges. Moreover, we present techniques to cope with changes in the environment (e.g., changes in the obstacle map), as well as unforeseen large deviations in the robot\\'s location (e.g., the kidnapped robot problem). We then utilize these techniques to implement the first online replanning scheme in belief space on a physical mobile robot that is robust to changes in the environment and large disturbances. This method demonstrates that belief space planning is a practical tool for robot motion planning.

  20. Detection of Subtle Context-Dependent Model Inaccuracies in High-Dimensional Robot Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Juan Pablo; Simmons, Reid; Veloso, Manuela

    2016-12-01

    Autonomous robots often rely on models of their sensing and actions for intelligent decision making. However, when operating in unconstrained environments, the complexity of the world makes it infeasible to create models that are accurate in every situation. This article addresses the problem of using potentially large and high-dimensional sets of robot execution data to detect situations in which a robot model is inaccurate-that is, detecting context-dependent model inaccuracies in a high-dimensional context space. To find inaccuracies tractably, the robot conducts an informed search through low-dimensional projections of execution data to find parametric Regions of Inaccurate Modeling (RIMs). Empirical evidence from two robot domains shows that this approach significantly enhances the detection power of existing RIM-detection algorithms in high-dimensional spaces.

  1. Bio-inspired grasp control in a robotic hand with massive sensorial input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascari, Luca; Bertocchi, Ulisse; Corradi, Paolo; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    The capability of grasping and lifting an object in a suitable, stable and controlled way is an outstanding feature for a robot, and thus far, one of the major problems to be solved in robotics. No robotic tools able to perform an advanced control of the grasp as, for instance, the human hand does, have been demonstrated to date. Due to its capital importance in science and in many applications, namely from biomedics to manufacturing, the issue has been matter of deep scientific investigations in both the field of neurophysiology and robotics. While the former is contributing with a profound understanding of the dynamics of real-time control of the slippage and grasp force in the human hand, the latter tries more and more to reproduce, or take inspiration by, the nature's approach, by means of hardware and software technology. On this regard, one of the major constraints robotics has to overcome is the real-time processing of a large amounts of data generated by the tactile sensors while grasping, which poses serious problems to the available computational power. In this paper a bio-inspired approach to tactile data processing has been followed in order to design and test a hardware-software robotic architecture that works on the parallel processing of a large amount of tactile sensing signals. The working principle of the architecture bases on the cellular nonlinear/neural network (CNN) paradigm, while using both hand shape and spatial-temporal features obtained from an array of microfabricated force sensors, in order to control the sensory-motor coordination of the robotic system. Prototypical grasping tasks were selected to measure the system performances applied to a computer-interfaced robotic hand. Successful grasps of several objects, completely unknown to the robot, e.g. soft and deformable objects like plastic bottles, soft balls, and Japanese tofu, have been demonstrated.

  2. Advanced robot locomotion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  3. Scaling Robotic Displays: Displays and Techniques for Dismounted Movement with Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    you are performing the low crawl 4.25 5.00 Drive the robot while you are negotiating the hill 6.00 5.00 Drive the robot while you are climbing the... stairs 4.67 5.00 Drive the robot while you are walking 5.70 5.27 HMD It was fairly doable. 1 When you’re looking through the lens, it’s not...Scaling Robotic Displays: Displays and Techniques for Dismounted Movement with Robots by Elizabeth S. Redden, Rodger A. Pettitt

  4. Evolution of Collective Behaviors for a Real Swarm of Aquatic Surface Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Miguel; Costa, Vasco; Gomes, Jorge; Rodrigues, Tiago; Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    Swarm robotics is a promising approach for the coordination of large numbers of robots. While previous studies have shown that evolutionary robotics techniques can be applied to obtain robust and efficient self-organized behaviors for robot swarms, most studies have been conducted in simulation, and the few that have been conducted on real robots have been confined to laboratory environments. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time a swarm robotics system with evolved control successfully operating in a real and uncontrolled environment. We evolve neural network-based controllers in simulation for canonical swarm robotics tasks, namely homing, dispersion, clustering, and monitoring. We then assess the performance of the controllers on a real swarm of up to ten aquatic surface robots. Our results show that the evolved controllers transfer successfully to real robots and achieve a performance similar to the performance obtained in simulation. We validate that the evolved controllers display key properties of swarm intelligence-based control, namely scalability, flexibility, and robustness on the real swarm. We conclude with a proof-of-concept experiment in which the swarm performs a complete environmental monitoring task by combining multiple evolved controllers.

  5. How Developmental Psychology and Robotics Complement Each Other

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scassellati, Brian

    2000-01-01

    .... First, the use of developmental models will be a critical requirement in the construction of robotic systems that can acquire a large repertoire of motor, perceptual, and cognitive capabilities...

  6. Automation &robotics for future Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, W.; von Richter, A.; Bertrand, R.

    2003-04-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) are currently considered as a key technology for Mars exploration. initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. Kayser-Threde led the study AROMA (Automation &Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals was to define new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. We present a summary of the A&R study in respect to a particular system: The Autonomous Research Island (ARI). In the Mars exploration scenario initially a robotic outpost system lands at pre-selected sites in order to search for life forms and water and to analyze the surface, geology and atmosphere. A&R systems, i.e. rovers and autonomous instrument packages, perform a number of missions with scientific and technology development objectives on the surface of Mars as part of preparations for a human exploration mission. In the Robotic Outpost Phase ARI is conceived as an automated lander which can perform in-situ analysis. It consists of a service module and a micro-rover system for local investigations. Such a system is already under investigation and development in other TRP activities. The micro-rover system provides local mobility for in-situ scientific investigations at a given landing or deployment site. In the long run ARI supports also human Mars missions. An astronaut crew would travel larger distances in a pressurized rover on Mars. Whenever interesting features on the surface are identified, the crew would interrupt the travel and perform local investigations. In order to save crew time ARI could be deployed by the astronauts to perform time-consuming investigations as for example in-situ geochemistry analysis of rocks/soil. Later, the crew could recover the research island for refurbishment and deployment at another

  7. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  8. Next generation light robotic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Palima, Darwin; Banas, Andrew Rafael

    2017-01-01

    -assisted surgery imbibes surgeons with superhuman abilities and gives the expression “surgical precision” a whole new meaning. Still in its infancy, much remains to be done to improve human-robot collaboration both in realizing robots that can operate safely with humans and in training personnel that can work......Conventional robotics provides machines and robots that can replace and surpass human performance in repetitive, difficult, and even dangerous tasks at industrial assembly lines, hazardous environments, or even at remote planets. A new class of robotic systems no longer aims to replace humans...... with so-called automatons but, rather, to create robots that can work alongside human operators. These new robots are intended to collaborate with humans—extending their abilities—from assisting workers on the factory floor to rehabilitating patients in their homes. In medical robotics, robot...

  9. Human-Robot Interaction: Does Robotic Guidance Force Affect Gait-Related Brain Dynamics during Robot-Assisted Treadmill Walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Knaepen

    Full Text Available In order to determine optimal training parameters for robot-assisted treadmill walking, it is essential to understand how a robotic device interacts with its wearer, and thus, how parameter settings of the device affect locomotor control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different levels of guidance force during robot-assisted treadmill walking on cortical activity. Eighteen healthy subjects walked at 2 km.h-1 on a treadmill with and without assistance of the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis. Event-related spectral perturbations and changes in power spectral density were investigated during unassisted treadmill walking as well as during robot-assisted treadmill walking at 30%, 60% and 100% guidance force (with 0% body weight support. Clustering of independent components revealed three clusters of activity in the sensorimotor cortex during treadmill walking and robot-assisted treadmill walking in healthy subjects. These clusters demonstrated gait-related spectral modulations in the mu, beta and low gamma bands over the sensorimotor cortex related to specific phases of the gait cycle. Moreover, mu and beta rhythms were suppressed in the right primary sensory cortex during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking with 100% guidance force, indicating significantly larger involvement of the sensorimotor area during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking. Only marginal differences in the spectral power of the mu, beta and low gamma bands could be identified between robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force. From these results it can be concluded that a high level of guidance force (i.e., 100% guidance force and thus a less active participation during locomotion should be avoided during robot-assisted treadmill walking. This will optimize the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex which is known to be crucial for motor learning.

  10. Human-Robot Interaction: Does Robotic Guidance Force Affect Gait-Related Brain Dynamics during Robot-Assisted Treadmill Walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Swinnen, Eva; Fernandez Tellez, Helio; Michielsen, Marc; Kerckhofs, Eric; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine optimal training parameters for robot-assisted treadmill walking, it is essential to understand how a robotic device interacts with its wearer, and thus, how parameter settings of the device affect locomotor control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different levels of guidance force during robot-assisted treadmill walking on cortical activity. Eighteen healthy subjects walked at 2 km.h-1 on a treadmill with and without assistance of the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis. Event-related spectral perturbations and changes in power spectral density were investigated during unassisted treadmill walking as well as during robot-assisted treadmill walking at 30%, 60% and 100% guidance force (with 0% body weight support). Clustering of independent components revealed three clusters of activity in the sensorimotor cortex during treadmill walking and robot-assisted treadmill walking in healthy subjects. These clusters demonstrated gait-related spectral modulations in the mu, beta and low gamma bands over the sensorimotor cortex related to specific phases of the gait cycle. Moreover, mu and beta rhythms were suppressed in the right primary sensory cortex during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking with 100% guidance force, indicating significantly larger involvement of the sensorimotor area during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking. Only marginal differences in the spectral power of the mu, beta and low gamma bands could be identified between robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force. From these results it can be concluded that a high level of guidance force (i.e., 100% guidance force) and thus a less active participation during locomotion should be avoided during robot-assisted treadmill walking. This will optimize the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex which is known to be crucial for motor learning.

  11. Controlling legs for locomotion-insights from robotics and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Thomas; Ewald, Alexander; von Twickel, Arndt; Büschges, Ansgar

    2015-06-29

    Walking is the most common terrestrial form of locomotion in animals. Its great versatility and flexibility has led to many attempts at building walking machines with similar capabilities. The control of walking is an active research area both in neurobiology and robotics, with a large and growing body of work. This paper gives an overview of the current knowledge on the control of legged locomotion in animals and machines and attempts to give walking control researchers from biology and robotics an overview of the current knowledge in both fields. We try to summarize the knowledge on the neurobiological basis of walking control in animals, emphasizing common principles seen in different species. In a section on walking robots, we review common approaches to walking controller design with a slight emphasis on biped walking control. We show where parallels between robotic and neurobiological walking controllers exist and how robotics and biology may benefit from each other. Finally, we discuss where research in the two fields diverges and suggest ways to bridge these gaps.

  12. Roles and Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvinge, Nicolai; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Christensen, David Johan

    2007-01-01

    A self-reconfigurable robot is a robotic device that can change its own shape. Self-reconfigurable robots are commonly built from multiple identical modules that can manipulate each other to change the shape of the robot. The robot can also perform tasks such as locomotion without changing shape......., significantly simplifying the task of programming self-reconfigurable robots. Our language fully supports programming the ATRON self-reconfigurable robot, and has been used to implement several controllers running both on the physical modules and in simulation.......A self-reconfigurable robot is a robotic device that can change its own shape. Self-reconfigurable robots are commonly built from multiple identical modules that can manipulate each other to change the shape of the robot. The robot can also perform tasks such as locomotion without changing shape....... Programming a modular, self-reconfigurable robot is however a complicated task: the robot is essentially a real-time, distributed embedded system, where control and communication paths often are tightly coupled to the current physical configuration of the robot. To facilitate the task of programming modular...

  13. Robotic surgery in children: adopt now, await, or dismiss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundy, Thomas P; Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Khurana, Sanjeev; Darzi, Ara

    2015-12-01

    The role of robot-assisted surgery in children remains controversial. This article aims to distil this debate into an evidence informed decision-making taxonomy; to adopt this technology (1) now, (2) later, or (3) not at all. Robot-assistance is safe, feasible and effective in selected cases as an adjunctive tool to enhance capabilities of minimally invasive surgery, as it is known today. At present, expectations of rigid multi-arm robotic systems to deliver higher quality care are over-estimated and poorly substantiated by evidence. Such systems are associated with high costs. Further comparative effectiveness evidence is needed to define the case-mix for which robot-assistance might be indicated. It seems unlikely that we should expect compelling patient benefits when it is only the mode of minimally invasive surgery that differs. Only large higher-volume institutions that share the robot amongst multiple specialty groups are likely to be able to sustain higher associated costs with today's technology. Nevertheless, there is great potential for next-generation surgical robotics to enable better ways to treat childhood surgical diseases through less invasive techniques that are not possible today. This will demand customized technology for selected patient populations or procedures. Several prototype robots exclusively designed for pediatric use are already under development. Financial affordability must be a high priority to ensure clinical accessibility.

  14. Robot Teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Ess, Charles Melvin; Bhroin, Niamh Ni

    The world's first robot teacher, Saya, was introduced to a classroom in Japan in 2009. Saya, had the appearance of a young female teacher. She could express six basic emotions, take the register and shout orders like 'be quiet' (The Guardian, 2009). Since 2009, humanoid robot technologies have...... developed. It is now suggested that robot teachers may become regular features in educational settings, and may even 'take over' from human teachers in ten to fifteen years (cf. Amundsen, 2017 online; Gohd, 2017 online). Designed to look and act like a particular kind of human; robot teachers mediate human...... existence and roles, while also aiming to support education through sophisticated, automated, human-like interaction. Our paper explores the design and existential implications of ARTIE, a robot teacher at Oxford Brookes University (2017, online). Drawing on an initial empirical exploration we propose...

  15. Accelerating Robot Development through Integral Analysis of Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijmans, T.; Kanda, T.; Bartneck, C.; Ishiguro, H.; Hagita, N.

    2007-01-01

    The development of interactive robots is a complicated process, involving a plethora of psychological, technical, and contextual influences. To design a robot capable of operating "intelligently" in everyday situations, one needs a profound understanding of human-robot interaction (HRI). We propose

  16. A Concurrent Programming Language for Arduino and Educational Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Morán, Ricardo; Teragni, Matías; Zabala, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Arduino is currently one of the most popular platforms for educational robotics due to its low cost and large amount of available resources online. The Arduino software library provides an abstraction layer over the hardware details, making it possible for novices to build interesting projects. However, its lack of support for concurrency makes some educational robotics projects difficult. In this paper, we explore different approaches to solve this problem and we propose the implementation o...

  17. Kontrol Kecepatan Robot Hexapod Pemadam Api menggunakan Metoda Logika Fuzzy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwison

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to create a hexapod robot speed control fire extinguisher using fuzzy logic method . By applying the method of fuzzy logic will make the robot move smoother and comparable to the distance . The input of the fuzzy logic method is obtained from three ultrasonic sensors as detection distance to the wall / barrier . Hexapod robot using a servomotor with torgue large enough to perform the movement . Robot speed will be faster if the purpose of the movement of the robot is still far from the wall / barrier and vice versa . Microcontroller with fuzzy logic -based program of its use as a controller movement . The results showed that more refined movement based on the distance read by the sensor , where the sensor is experiencing an error distance measurement is influenced by the material wall / barrier . For the wall material / to obstacle of the board experienced a reading error of 0.18 % , amounting to 0.5 % of books and dolls of 1.58 %.

  18. Micro Robotics Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our research is focused on the challenges of engineering robotic systems down to sub-millimeter size scales. We work both on small mobile robots (robotic insects for...

  19. Human-Agent Teaming for Multi-Robot Control: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    advent of the Goggle driverless car , autonomous farm equipment, and unmanned commercial aircraft (Mosher, 2012). The inexorable trend towards...because a robot cannot be automated to navigate in difficult terrain. However, this high ratio will not be sustainable if large numbers of autonomous ...Parasuraman et al., 2007). 3.5 RoboLeader Past research indicates that autonomous cooperation between robots can improve the performance of the human

  20. Robot fish bio-inspired fishlike underwater robots

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zheng; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal; Alvarado, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive coverage on robot fish including design, modeling and optimization, control, autonomous control and applications. It gathers contributions by the leading researchers in the area. Readers will find the book very useful for designing and building robot fish, not only in theory but also in practice. Moreover, the book discusses various important issues for future research and development, including design methodology, control methodology, and autonomous control strategy. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students in the fields of robotics, ocean engineering and related areas.

  1. Robotics in endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibansky, David; Rothstein, Richard I

    2012-09-01

    The increasing complexity of intralumenal and emerging translumenal endoscopic procedures has created an opportunity to apply robotics in endoscopy. Computer-assisted or direct-drive robotic technology allows the triangulation of flexible tools through telemanipulation. The creation of new flexible operative platforms, along with other emerging technology such as nanobots and steerable capsules, can be transformational for endoscopic procedures. In this review, we cover some background information on the use of robotics in surgery and endoscopy, and review the emerging literature on platforms, capsules, and mini-robotic units. The development of techniques in advanced intralumenal endoscopy (endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection) and translumenal endoscopic procedures (NOTES) has generated a number of novel platforms, flexible tools, and devices that can apply robotic principles to endoscopy. The development of a fully flexible endoscopic surgical toolkit will enable increasingly advanced procedures to be performed through natural orifices. The application of platforms and new flexible tools to the areas of advanced endoscopy and NOTES heralds the opportunity to employ useful robotic technology. Following the examples of the utility of robotics from the field of laparoscopic surgery, we can anticipate the emerging role of robotic technology in endoscopy.

  2. Implementation and Reconfiguration of Robot Operating System on Human Follower Transporter Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addythia Saphala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Robotic Operation System (ROS is an im- portant platform to develop robot applications. One area of applications is for development of a Human Follower Transporter Robot (HFTR, which  can  be  considered  as a custom mobile robot utilizing differential driver steering method and equipped with Kinect sensor. This study discusses the development of the robot navigation system by implementing Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM.

  3. Conceptual requirements for large fusion experiment control, data, robotics, and management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    The conceptual system requirements for the control, data, robotics, and project management (CDRM) system for the next generation of fusion experiments are developed by drawing on the success of the Tara control and data system. The requirements are described in terms of an integrated but separable matrix of well-defined interfaces among the various systems and subsystems. The study stresses modularity, performance, cost effectiveness, and exportability

  4. Presentation robot Advee

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Věchet, Stanislav; Hrbáček, J.; Ripel, T.; Ondroušek, V.; Hrbáček, R.; Schreiber, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, 5/6 (2012), s. 307-322 ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : mobile robot * human - robot interface * localization Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robot ics

  5. Robotic surgery update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, G; Elli, F; Horgan, S

    2004-08-01

    Minimally invasive surgical techniques have revolutionized the field of surgery. Telesurgical manipulators (robots) and new information technologies strive to improve upon currently available minimally invasive techniques and create new possibilities. A retrospective review of all robotic cases at a single academic medical center from August 2000 until November 2002 was conducted. A comprehensive literature evaluation on robotic surgical technology was also performed. Robotic technology is safely and effectively being applied at our institution. Robotic and information technologies have improved upon minimally invasive surgical techniques and created new opportunities not attainable in open surgery. Robotic technology offers many benefits over traditional minimal access techniques and has been proven safe and effective. Further research is needed to better define the optimal application of this technology. Credentialing and educational requirements also need to be delineated.

  6. Robot-laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeel, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    A robot-laser system is described for providing a laser beam at a desired location, the system comprising: a laser beam source; a robot including a plurality of movable parts including a hollow robot arm having a central axis along which the laser source directs the laser beam; at least one mirror for reflecting the laser beam from the source to the desired location, the mirror being mounted within the robot arm to move therewith and relative thereto to about a transverse axis that extends angularly to the central axis of the robot arm; and an automatic programmable control system for automatically moving the mirror about the transverse axis relative to and in synchronization with movement of the robot arm to thereby direct the laser beam to the desired location as the arm is moved

  7. Effects of Robot Facial Characteristics and Gender in Persuasive Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimi S. Ghazali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in social robotics makes it relevant to examine the potential of robots as persuasive agents and, more specifically, to examine how robot characteristics influence the way people experience such interactions and comply with the persuasive attempts by robots. The purpose of this research is to identify how the (ostensible gender and the facial characteristics of a robot influence the extent to which people trust it and the psychological reactance they experience from its persuasive attempts. This paper reports a laboratory study where SociBot™, a robot capable of displaying different faces and dynamic social cues, delivered persuasive messages to participants while playing a game. In-game choice behavior was logged, and trust and reactance toward the advisor were measured using questionnaires. Results show that a robotic advisor with upturned eyebrows and lips (features that people tend to trust more in humans is more persuasive, evokes more trust, and less psychological reactance compared to one displaying eyebrows pointing down and lips curled downwards at the edges (facial characteristics typically not trusted in humans. Gender of the robot did not affect trust, but participants experienced higher psychological reactance when interacting with a robot of the opposite gender. Remarkably, mediation analysis showed that liking of the robot fully mediates the influence of facial characteristics on trusting beliefs and psychological reactance. Also, psychological reactance was a strong and reliable predictor of trusting beliefs but not of trusting behavior. These results suggest robots that are intended to influence human behavior should be designed to have facial characteristics we trust in humans and could be personalized to have the same gender as the user. Furthermore, personalization and adaptation techniques designed to make people like the robot more may help ensure they will also trust the robot.

  8. Robotic technological aids in esophageal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecchi, Fabrizio; Allaix, Marco E; Morino, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Robotic technology is an emerging technology that has been developed in order to overcome some limitations of the standard laparoscopic approach, offering a stereoscopic three-dimensional visualization of the surgical field, increased maneuverability of the surgical tools with consequent increased movement accuracy and precision and improved ergonomics. It has been used for the surgical treatment of most benign esophageal disorders. More recently, it has been proposed also for patients with operable esophageal cancer. The current evidence shows that there are no real benefits of the robotic technology over conventional laparoscopy in patients undergoing a fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), hiatal closure for giant hiatal hernia, or Heller myotomy for achalasia. A few small studies suggest potential advantages in patients undergoing redo surgery for failed fundoplication or Heller myotomy, but large comparative studies are needed to better clarify the role of the robotic technology in these patients. Robot-assisted esophagectomy seems to be safe and effective in selected patients; however, there are no data showing superiority of this approach over both conventional laparoscopic and open surgery. The short-term and long-term oncologic results of ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are awaited to validate this approach for the treatment of esophageal cancer.

  9. Robotic seeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Fountas, Spyros; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural robotics has received attention for approximately 20 years, but today there are only a few examples of the application of robots in agricultural practice. The lack of uptake may be (at least partly) because in many cases there is either no compelling economic benefit......, or there is a benefit but it is not recognized. The aim of this chapter is to quantify the economic benefits from the application of agricultural robots under a specific condition where such a benefit is assumed to exist, namely the case of early seeding and re-seeding in sugar beet. With some predefined assumptions...... with regard to speed, capacity and seed mapping, we found that among these two technical systems both early seeding with a small robot and re-seeding using a robot for a smaller part of the field appear to be financially viable solutions in sugar beet production....

  10. An Adaptive Robot Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal is to im......The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...

  11. Facilitating Programming of Vision-Equipped Robots through Robotic Skills and Projection Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rasmus Skovgaard

    The field of collaborative industrial robots is currently developing fast both in the industry and in the scientific community. Companies such as Rethink Robotics and Universal Robots are redefining the concept of an industrial robot and entire new markets and use cases are becoming relevant for ...

  12. Evolution of robotic arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  13. Accuracy in Robot Generated Image Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a practical innovation concerning how to achieve high accuracy of camera positioning, when using a 6 axis industrial robots to generate high quality data sets for computer vision. This innovation is based on the realization that to a very large extent the robots positioning...... error is deterministic, and can as such be calibrated away. We have successfully used this innovation in our efforts for creating data sets for computer vision. Since the use of this innovation has a significant effect on the data set quality, we here present it in some detail, to better aid others...

  14. Advanced mechanics in robotic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nava Rodríguez, Nestor Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Illustrates original and ambitious mechanical designs and techniques for the development of new robot prototypes Includes numerous figures, tables and flow charts Discusses relevant applications in robotics fields such as humanoid robots, robotic hands, mobile robots, parallel manipulators and human-centred robots

  15. Design and Implementation of Fire Extinguisher Robot with Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memon Abdul Waris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot is a device, which performs human task or behave like a human-being. It needs expertise skills and complex programming to design. For designing a fire fighter robot, many sensors and motors were used. User firstly send robot to an affected area, to get live image of the field with the help of mobile camera via Wi-Fi using IP camera application to laptop. If any signs of fire shown in image, user direct robot in that particular direction for confirmation. Fire sensor and temperature sensor detects and measures the reading, after confirmation robot sprinkle water on affected field. During extinguish process if any obstacle comes in between the prototype and the affected area the ultrasonic sensor detects the obstacle, in response the robotic arm moves to pick and place that obstacle to another location for clearing the path. Meanwhile if any poisonous gas is present, the gas sensor detects and indicates by making alarm.

  16. The Tactile Ethics of Soft Robotics: Designing Wisely for Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas; Scheutz, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Soft robots promise an exciting design trajectory in the field of robotics and human-robot interaction (HRI), promising more adaptive, resilient movement within environments as well as a safer, more sensitive interface for the objects or agents the robot encounters. In particular, tactile HRI is a critical dimension for designers to consider, especially given the onrush of assistive and companion robots into our society. In this article, we propose to surface an important set of ethical challenges for the field of soft robotics to meet. Tactile HRI strongly suggests that soft-bodied robots balance tactile engagement against emotional manipulation, model intimacy on the bonding with a tool not with a person, and deflect users from personally and socially destructive behavior the soft bodies and surfaces could normally entice.

  17. Design on a Composite Mobile System for Exploration Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Weiyan; Yang, Canjun; Liu, Yunping; Wang, Junming

    2016-01-01

    In order to accomplish exploration missions in complex environments, a new type of robot has been designed. By analyzing the characteristics of typical moving systems, a new mobile system which is named wheel-tracked moving system (WTMS) has been presented. Then by virtual prototype simulation, the new system’s ability to adapt complex environments has been verified. As the curve of centroid acceleration changes in large amplitude in this simulation, ride performance of this robot has been st...

  18. Human Brain inspired Artificial Intelligence & Developmental Robotics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the developments in the field of the robotics, fascinating contributions and developments can be seen in the field of Artificial intelligence (AI. In this paper we will discuss about the developments is the field of artificial intelligence focusing learning algorithms inspired from the field of Biology, particularly large scale brain simulations, and developmental Psychology. We will focus on the emergence of the Developmental robotics and its significance in the field of AI.

  19. Continuum Reconfigurable Parallel Robots for Surgery: Shape Sensing and State Estimation with Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Patrick L; Mahoney, Arthur W; Webster, Robert J

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines shape sensing for a new class of surgical robot that consists of parallel flexible structures that can be reconfigured inside the human body. Known as CRISP robots, these devices provide access to the human body through needle-sized entry points, yet can be configured into truss-like structures capable of dexterous movement and large force application. They can also be reconfigured as needed during a surgical procedure. Since CRISP robots are elastic, they will deform when subjected to external forces or other perturbations. In this paper, we explore how to combine sensor information with mechanics-based models for CRISP robots to estimate their shapes under applied loads. The end result is a shape sensing framework for CRISP robots that will enable future research on control under applied loads, autonomous motion, force sensing, and other robot behaviors.

  20. Robot-assisted general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazey, Jeffrey W; Melvin, W Scott

    2004-06-01

    With the initiation of laparoscopic techniques in general surgery, we have seen a significant expansion of minimally invasive techniques in the last 16 years. More recently, robotic-assisted laparoscopy has moved into the general surgeon's armamentarium to address some of the shortcomings of laparoscopic surgery. AESOP (Computer Motion, Goleta, CA) addressed the issue of visualization as a robotic camera holder. With the introduction of the ZEUS robotic surgical system (Computer Motion), the ability to remotely operate laparoscopic instruments became a reality. US Food and Drug Administration approval in July 2000 of the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) further defined the ability of a robotic-assist device to address limitations in laparoscopy. This includes a significant improvement in instrument dexterity, dampening of natural hand tremors, three-dimensional visualization, ergonomics, and camera stability. As experience with robotic technology increased and its applications to advanced laparoscopic procedures have become more understood, more procedures have been performed with robotic assistance. Numerous studies have shown equivalent or improved patient outcomes when robotic-assist devices are used. Initially, robotic-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy was deemed safe, and now robotics has been shown to be safe in foregut procedures, including Nissen fundoplication, Heller myotomy, gastric banding procedures, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These techniques have been extrapolated to solid-organ procedures (splenectomy, adrenalectomy, and pancreatic surgery) as well as robotic-assisted laparoscopic colectomy. In this chapter, we review the evolution of robotic technology and its applications in general surgical procedures.

  1. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  2. Grasping in Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Grasping in Robotics contains original contributions in the field of grasping in robotics with a broad multidisciplinary approach. This gives the possibility of addressing all the major issues related to robotized grasping, including milestones in grasping through the centuries, mechanical design issues, control issues, modelling achievements and issues, formulations and software for simulation purposes, sensors and vision integration, applications in industrial field and non-conventional applications (including service robotics and agriculture).   The contributors to this book are experts in their own diverse and wide ranging fields. This multidisciplinary approach can help make Grasping in Robotics of interest to a very wide audience. In particular, it can be a useful reference book for researchers, students and users in the wide field of grasping in robotics from many different disciplines including mechanical design, hardware design, control design, user interfaces, modelling, simulation, sensors and hum...

  3. Designing Emotionally Expressive Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsiourti, Christiana; Weiss, Astrid; Wac, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Socially assistive agents, be it virtual avatars or robots, need to engage in social interactions with humans and express their internal emotional states, goals, and desires. In this work, we conducted a comparative study to investigate how humans perceive emotional cues expressed by humanoid...... robots through five communication modalities (face, head, body, voice, locomotion) and examined whether the degree of a robot's human-like embodiment affects this perception. In an online survey, we asked people to identify emotions communicated by Pepper -a highly human-like robot and Hobbit – a robot...... for robots....

  4. Online absolute pose compensation and steering control of industrial robot based on six degrees of freedom laser measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juqing; Wang, Dayong; Fan, Baixing; Dong, Dengfeng; Zhou, Weihu

    2017-03-01

    In-situ intelligent manufacturing for large-volume equipment requires industrial robots with absolute high-accuracy positioning and orientation steering control. Conventional robots mainly employ an offline calibration technology to identify and compensate key robotic parameters. However, the dynamic and static parameters of a robot change nonlinearly. It is not possible to acquire a robot's actual parameters and control the absolute pose of the robot with a high accuracy within a large workspace by offline calibration in real-time. This study proposes a real-time online absolute pose steering control method for an industrial robot based on six degrees of freedom laser tracking measurement, which adopts comprehensive compensation and correction of differential movement variables. First, the pose steering control system and robot kinematics error model are constructed, and then the pose error compensation mechanism and algorithm are introduced in detail. By accurately achieving the position and orientation of the robot end-tool, mapping the computed Jacobian matrix of the joint variable and correcting the joint variable, the real-time online absolute pose compensation for an industrial robot is accurately implemented in simulations and experimental tests. The average positioning error is 0.048 mm and orientation accuracy is better than 0.01 deg. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is feasible, and the online absolute accuracy of a robot is sufficiently enhanced.

  5. Optimization of Power Utilization in Multimobile Robot Foraging Behavior Inspired by Honeybees System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faisul Arif; Ramli, Abd Rahman; Samsudin, Khairulmizam; Hashim, Shaiful Jahari

    2014-01-01

    Deploying large numbers of mobile robots which can interact with each other produces swarm intelligent behavior. However, mobile robots are normally running with finite energy resource, supplied from finite battery. The limitation of energy resource required human intervention for recharging the batteries. The sharing information among the mobile robots would be one of the potentials to overcome the limitation on previously recharging system. A new approach is proposed based on integrated intelligent system inspired by foraging of honeybees applied to multimobile robot scenario. This integrated approach caters for both working and foraging stages for known/unknown power station locations. Swarm mobile robot inspired by honeybee is simulated to explore and identify the power station for battery recharging. The mobile robots will share the location information of the power station with each other. The result showed that mobile robots consume less energy and less time when they are cooperating with each other for foraging process. The optimizing of foraging behavior would result in the mobile robots spending more time to do real work. PMID:24949491

  6. Problems in software development for nuclear robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Yoshikuni

    1986-01-01

    Major technical problems in developing softwares for intelligent robots for future nuclear applications are explained briefly. In order that a robot can perform various kinds of complex works, it must be equipped with a high level of artificial intelligence which includes sensing functions such as visiual, auditory, tactile, proximity sensing, cognitive functions such as recognition of objects and understanding of working environment, decision-making functions such as work planning and control functions such as manipulator and locomotion controls. A large amount of various kinds of signals and informations must be processed with a high speed for an integrated control of these functions. It will be desirable that the computer program for controlling a robot which must run in a real-time will have a functionally hierarchical and distributed structure from the view point of software development. Parallel processing will be required from the view point of computation time. (author)

  7. Enhancing the effectiveness of human-robot teaming with a closed-loop system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Grace; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren; Matthews, Gerald; Szalma, James; Jentsch, Florian; Hancock, Peter

    2018-02-01

    With technological developments in robotics and their increasing deployment, human-robot teams are set to be a mainstay in the future. To develop robots that possess teaming capabilities, such as being able to communicate implicitly, the present study implemented a closed-loop system. This system enabled the robot to provide adaptive aid without the need for explicit commands from the human teammate, through the use of multiple physiological workload measures. Such measures of workload vary in sensitivity and there is large inter-individual variability in physiological responses to imposed taskload. Workload models enacted via closed-loop system should accommodate such individual variability. The present research investigated the effects of the adaptive robot aid vs. imposed aid on performance and workload. Results showed that adaptive robot aid driven by an individualized workload model for physiological response resulted in greater improvements in performance compared to aid that was simply imposed by the system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rough terrain motion planning for actively reconfigurable mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Tohoku earthquake and the nuclear meltdown at the power plant of Fukushima Daiichi in 2011, reconfigurable robots like the iRobot Packbot were deployed. Instead of humans, the robots were used to investigate contaminated areas. Other incidents are the two major earthquakes in Northern Italy in May 2012. Besides many casualties, a large number of historical buildings was severely damaged. Due to the imminent danger of collapse, it was too dangerous for rescue personnel to enter many of the buildings. Therefore, the sites were inspected by reconfigurable robots, which are able to traverse the rubble and debris of the partially destroyed buildings. This thesis develops a navigation system enabling wheeled and tracked robots to safely traverse rough terrain and challenging structures. It consists of a planning mechanism and a controller. The focus of this thesis, however, is on the contribution to motion planning. The planning scheme employs a hierarchical approach to motion planning for actively reconfigurable robots in rough environments. Using a map of the environment the algorithm estimates the traversability under the consideration of uncertainties. Based on this analysis, an initial path search determines an approximate solution with respect to the robot's operating limits.Subsequently, a detailed planning step refines the initial path where it is required. The refinement step considers the robot's actuators and stability in addition to the quantities of the first search. Determining the robot-terrain interaction is very important in rough terrain. This thesis presents two path refinement approaches: a deterministic and a randomized approach. The experimental evaluation investigates the separate components of the planning scheme, the robot-terrain interaction for instance.In simulation as well as in real world experiments the evaluation demonstrates the necessity of such a planning algorithm in rough terrain and it provides

  9. Rough terrain motion planning for actively reconfigurable mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Michael

    2015-02-05

    In the aftermath of the Tohoku earthquake and the nuclear meltdown at the power plant of Fukushima Daiichi in 2011, reconfigurable robots like the iRobot Packbot were deployed. Instead of humans, the robots were used to investigate contaminated areas. Other incidents are the two major earthquakes in Northern Italy in May 2012. Besides many casualties, a large number of historical buildings was severely damaged. Due to the imminent danger of collapse, it was too dangerous for rescue personnel to enter many of the buildings. Therefore, the sites were inspected by reconfigurable robots, which are able to traverse the rubble and debris of the partially destroyed buildings. This thesis develops a navigation system enabling wheeled and tracked robots to safely traverse rough terrain and challenging structures. It consists of a planning mechanism and a controller. The focus of this thesis, however, is on the contribution to motion planning. The planning scheme employs a hierarchical approach to motion planning for actively reconfigurable robots in rough environments. Using a map of the environment the algorithm estimates the traversability under the consideration of uncertainties. Based on this analysis, an initial path search determines an approximate solution with respect to the robot's operating limits.Subsequently, a detailed planning step refines the initial path where it is required. The refinement step considers the robot's actuators and stability in addition to the quantities of the first search. Determining the robot-terrain interaction is very important in rough terrain. This thesis presents two path refinement approaches: a deterministic and a randomized approach. The experimental evaluation investigates the separate components of the planning scheme, the robot-terrain interaction for instance.In simulation as well as in real world experiments the evaluation demonstrates the necessity of such a planning algorithm in rough terrain and it provides

  10. Composite Configuration Interventional Therapy Robot for the Microwave Ablation of Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying-Yu; Xue, Long; Qi, Bo-Jin; Jiang, Li-Pei; Deng, Shuang-Cheng; Liang, Ping; Liu, Jia

    2017-11-01

    The existing interventional therapy robots for the microwave ablation of liver tumors have a poor clinical applicability with a large volume, low positioning speed and complex automatic navigation control. To solve above problems, a composite configuration interventional therapy robot with passive and active joints is developed. The design of composite configuration reduces the size of the robot under the premise of a wide range of movement, and the robot with composite configuration can realizes rapid positioning with operation safety. The cumulative error of positioning is eliminated and the control complexity is reduced by decoupling active parts. The navigation algorithms for the robot are proposed based on solution of the inverse kinematics and geometric analysis. A simulation clinical test method is designed for the robot, and the functions of the robot and the navigation algorithms are verified by the test method. The mean error of navigation is 1.488 mm and the maximum error is 2.056 mm, and the positioning time for the ablation needle is in 10 s. The experimental results show that the designed robot can meet the clinical requirements for the microwave ablation of liver tumors. The composite configuration is proposed in development of the interventional therapy robot for the microwave ablation of liver tumors, which provides a new idea for the structural design of medical robots.

  11. Nurse's Aid And Housekeeping Mobile Robot For Use In The Nursing Home Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sines, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The large nursing home market has several natural characteristics which make it a good applications area for robotics. The environment is already robot accessible and the work functions require large quantities of low skilled services on a daily basis. In the near future, a commercial opportunity for the practical application of robots is emerging in the delivery of housekeeping services in the nursing home environment. The robot systems will assist in food tray delivery, material handling, and security, and will perform activities such as changing a resident's table side drinking water twice a day, and taking out the trash. The housekeeping work functions will generate cost savings of approximately 22,000 per year, at a cost of 6,000 per year. Technical system challenges center around the artificial intelligence required for the robot to map its own location within the facility, to find objects, and to avoid obstacles, and the development of an energy efficient mechanical lifting system. The long engineering and licensing cycles (7 to 12 years) required to bring this type of product to market make it difficult to raise capital for such a venture.

  12. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, M; Picardi, G; Laschi, C

    2017-05-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Autonomous mobile robotic system for supporting counterterrorist and surveillance operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marek; Bulandra, Kazimierz; Moczulski, Wojciech

    2017-10-01

    Contemporary research on mobile robots concerns applications to counterterrorist and surveillance operations. The goal is to develop systems that are capable of supporting the police and special forces by carrying out such operations. The paper deals with a dedicated robotic system for surveillance of large objects such as airports, factories, military bases, and many others. The goal is to trace unauthorised persons who try to enter to the guarded area, document the intrusion and report it to the surveillance centre, and then warn the intruder by sound messages and eventually subdue him/her by stunning through acoustic effect of great power. The system consists of several parts. An armoured four-wheeled robot assures required mobility of the system. The robot is equipped with a set of sensors including 3D mapping system, IR and video cameras, and microphones. It communicates with the central control station (CCS) by means of a wideband wireless encrypted system. A control system of the robot can operate autonomously, and under remote control. In the autonomous mode the robot follows the path planned by the CCS. Once an intruder has been detected, the robot can adopt its plan to allow tracking him/her. Furthermore, special procedures of treatment of the intruder are applied including warning about the breach of the border of the protected area, and incapacitation of an appropriately selected very loud sound until a patrol of guards arrives. Once getting stuck the robot can contact the operator who can remotely solve the problem the robot is faced with.

  14. Advancing the Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust Effect: The Dynamic of User- and Robot-Generated Content on Human-Robot Trust and Interaction Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuhua Jake; Lee, Seungcheol Austin

    2016-09-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) will soon transform and shift the communication landscape such that people exchange messages with robots. However, successful HRI requires people to trust robots, and, in turn, the trust affects the interaction. Although prior research has examined the determinants of human-robot trust (HRT) during HRI, no research has examined the messages that people received before interacting with robots and their effect on HRT. We conceptualize these messages as SMART (Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust). Moreover, we posit that SMART can ultimately affect actual HRI outcomes (i.e., robot evaluations, robot credibility, participant mood) by affording the persuasive influences from user-generated content (UGC) on participatory Web sites. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of two conditions (UGC/control) in an original experiment of HRT. Compared with the control (descriptive information only), results showed that UGC moderated the correlation between HRT and interaction outcomes in a positive direction (average Δr = +0.39) for robots as media and robots as tools. In Study 2, we explored the effect of robot-generated content but did not find similar moderation effects. These findings point to an important empirical potential to employ SMART in future robot deployment.

  15. Declarative Rule-based Safety for Robotic Perception Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Johann Thor Ingibergsson; Kraft, Dirk; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2017-01-01

    Mobile robots are used across many domains from personal care to agriculture. Working in dynamic open-ended environments puts high constraints on the robot perception system, which is critical for the safety of the system as a whole. To achieve the required safety levels the perception system needs...... to be certified, but no specific standards exist for computer vision systems, and the concept of safe vision systems remains largely unexplored. In this paper we present a novel domain-specific language that allows the programmer to express image quality detection rules for enforcing safety constraints...

  16. Robotic Fabrication in Architecture, Art and Design 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Saunders, Rob; Burry, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the proceedings of Rob/Arch 2016, the third international conference on robotic fabrication in architecture, art, and design. The work contains a wide range of contemporary topics, from methodologies for incorporating dynamic material feedback into existing fabrication processes, to novel interfaces for robotic programming, to new processes for large-scale automated construction. The latent argument behind this research is that the term ‘file-to-factory’ must not be a reductive celebration of expediency but instead a perpetual challenge to increase the quality of feedback between design, matter, and making.

  17. Next-generation robotic surgery--from the aspect of surgical robots developed by industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadate, Ryu; Arata, Jumpei; Hashizume, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    At present, much of the research conducted worldwide focuses on extending the ability of surgical robots. One approach is to extend robotic dexterity. For instance, accessibility and dexterity of the surgical instruments remains the largest issue for reduced port surgery such as single port surgery or natural orifice surgery. To solve this problem, a great deal of research is currently conducted in the field of robotics. Enhancing the surgeon's perception is an approach that uses advanced sensor technology. The real-time data acquired through the robotic system combined with the data stored in the robot (such as the robot's location) provide a major advantage. This paper aims at introducing state-of-the-art products and pre-market products in this technological advancement, namely the robotic challenge in extending dexterity and hopefully providing the path to robotic surgery in the near future.

  18. Humanlike Robots - The Upcoming Revolution in Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  19. Humanlike robots: the upcoming revolution in robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-08-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  20. Inverse kinematic solution for near-simple robots and its application to robot calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Samad A.; Roston, Gerald P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper provides an inverse kinematic solution for a class of robot manipulators called near-simple manipulators. The kinematics of these manipulators differ from those of simple-robots by small parameter variations. Although most robots are by design simple, in practice, due to manufacturing tolerances, every robot is near-simple. The method in this paper gives an approximate inverse kinematics solution for real time applications based on the nominal solution for these robots. The validity of the results are tested both by a simulation study and by applying the algorithm to a PUMA robot.

  1. Fish and robots swimming together: attraction towards the robot demands biomimetic locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Stefano; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2012-08-07

    The integration of biomimetic robots in a fish school may enable a better understanding of collective behaviour, offering a new experimental method to test group feedback in response to behavioural modulations of its 'engineered' member. Here, we analyse a robotic fish and individual golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas) swimming together in a water tunnel at different flow velocities. We determine the positional preference of fish with respect to the robot, and we study the flow structure using a digital particle image velocimetry system. We find that biomimetic locomotion is a determinant of fish preference as fish are more attracted towards the robot when its tail is beating rather than when it is statically immersed in the water as a 'dummy'. At specific conditions, the fish hold station behind the robot, which may be due to the hydrodynamic advantage obtained by swimming in the robot's wake. This work makes a compelling case for the need of biomimetic locomotion in promoting robot-animal interactions and it strengthens the hypothesis that biomimetic robots can be used to study and modulate collective animal behaviour.

  2. A Perspective on Robotic Assistance for Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A. Netravali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee arthroplasty is used to treat patients with degenerative joint disease of the knee to reduce pain and restore the function of the joint. Although patient outcomes are generally quite good, there are still a number of patients that are dissatisfied with their procedures. Aside from implant design which has largely become standard, surgical technique is one of the main factors that determine clinical results. Therefore, a lot of effort has gone into improving surgical technique including the use of computer-aided surgery. The latest generation of orthopedic surgical tools involves the use of robotics to enhance the surgeons’ abilities to install implants more precisely and consistently. This review presents an evolution of robot-assisted surgical systems for knee replacement with an emphasis on the clinical results available in the literature. Ever since various robotic-assistance systems were developed and used clinically worldwide, studies have demonstrated that these systems are as safe as and more accurate than conventional methods of manual implantation. Robotic surgical assistance will likely result in improved surgical technique and improved clinical results.

  3. Micro robot bible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jin Yeong

    2000-08-01

    This book deals with micro robot, which tells of summary of robots like entertainment robots and definition of robots, introduction of micro mouse about history, composition and rules, summary of micro controller with its history, appearance and composition, introduction of stepping motor about types, structure, basic characteristics, and driving ways, summary of sensor section, power, understanding of 80C196KC micro controller, basic driving program searching a maze algorithm, smooth turn and making of tracer line.

  4. Micro robot bible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin Yeong

    2000-08-15

    This book deals with micro robot, which tells of summary of robots like entertainment robots and definition of robots, introduction of micro mouse about history, composition and rules, summary of micro controller with its history, appearance and composition, introduction of stepping motor about types, structure, basic characteristics, and driving ways, summary of sensor section, power, understanding of 80C196KC micro controller, basic driving program searching a maze algorithm, smooth turn and making of tracer line.

  5. Robots at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Graetz, Georg; Michaels, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Despite ubiquitous discussions of robots' potential impact, there is almost no systematic empirical evidence on their economic effects. In this paper we analyze for the first time the economic impact of industrial robots, using new data on a panel of industries in 17 countries from 1993-2007. We find that industrial robots increased both labor productivity and value added. Our panel identification is robust to numerous controls, and we find similar results instrumenting increased robot use wi...

  6. To Err Is Robot: How Humans Assess and Act toward an Erroneous Social Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Mirnig

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a user study for which we purposefully programmed faulty behavior into a robot’s routine. It was our aim to explore if participants rate the faulty robot different from an error-free robot and which reactions people show in interaction with a faulty robot. The study was based on our previous research on robot errors where we detected typical error situations and the resulting social signals of our participants during social human–robot interaction. In contrast to our previous work, where we studied video material in which robot errors occurred unintentionally, in the herein reported user study, we purposefully elicited robot errors to further explore the human interaction partners’ social signals following a robot error. Our participants interacted with a human-like NAO, and the robot either performed faulty or free from error. First, the robot asked the participants a set of predefined questions and then it asked them to complete a couple of LEGO building tasks. After the interaction, we asked the participants to rate the robot’s anthropomorphism, likability, and perceived intelligence. We also interviewed the participants on their opinion about the interaction. Additionally, we video-coded the social signals the participants showed during their interaction with the robot as well as the answers they provided the robot with. Our results show that participants liked the faulty robot significantly better than the robot that interacted flawlessly. We did not find significant differences in people’s ratings of the robot’s anthropomorphism and perceived intelligence. The qualitative data confirmed the questionnaire results in showing that although the participants recognized the robot’s mistakes, they did not necessarily reject the erroneous robot. The annotations of the video data further showed that gaze shifts (e.g., from an object to the robot or vice versa and laughter are typical reactions to unexpected robot behavior

  7. ROILA : RObot Interaction LAnguage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubin, O.

    2011-01-01

    The number of robots in our society is increasing rapidly. The number of service robots that interact with everyday people already outnumbers industrial robots. The easiest way to communicate with these service robots, such as Roomba or Nao, would be natural speech. However, the limitations

  8. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  9. Message Encryption in Robot Operating System: Collateral Effects of Hardening Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Rodríguez-Lera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In human–robot interaction situations, robot sensors collect huge amounts of data from the environment in order to characterize the situation. Some of the gathered data ought to be treated as private, such as medical data (i.e., medication guidelines, personal, and safety information (i.e., images of children, home habits, alarm codes, etc.. However, most robotic software development frameworks are not designed for securely managing this information. This paper analyzes the scenario of hardening one of the most widely used robotic middlewares, Robot Operating System (ROS. The study investigates a robot’s performance when ciphering the messages interchanged between ROS nodes under the publish/subscribe paradigm. In particular, this research focuses on the nodes that manage cameras and LIDAR sensors, which are two of the most extended sensing solutions in mobile robotics, and analyzes the collateral effects on the robot’s achievement under different computing capabilities and encryption algorithms (3DES, AES, and Blowfish to robot performance. The findings present empirical evidence that simple encryption algorithms are lightweight enough to provide cyber-security even in low-powered robots when carefully designed and implemented. Nevertheless, these techniques come with a number of serious drawbacks regarding robot autonomy and performance if they are applied randomly. To avoid these issues, we define a taxonomy that links the type of ROS message, computational units, and the encryption methods. As a result, we present a model to select the optimal options for hardening a mobile robot using ROS.

  10. 1st Iberian Robotics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Ferre, Manuel; ROBOT2013; Advances in robotics

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the ROBOT 2013: FIRST IBERIAN ROBOTICS CONFERENCE and it can be said that included both state of the art and more practical presentations dealing with implementation problems, support technologies and future applications. A growing interest in Assistive Robotics, Agricultural Robotics, Field Robotics, Grasping and Dexterous Manipulation, Humanoid Robots, Intelligent Systems and Robotics, Marine Robotics, has been demonstrated by the very relevant number of contributions. Moreover, ROBOT2013 incorporates a special session on Legal and Ethical Aspects in Robotics that is becoming a topic of key relevance. This Conference was held in Madrid (28-29 November 2013), organised by the Sociedad Española para la Investigación y Desarrollo en Robótica (SEIDROB) and by the Centre for Automation and Robotics - CAR (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)), along with the co-operation of Grupo Temático de Robótica CEA-GT...

  11. Objective specific beam generation for image guided robotic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlaefer, A.; Jungmann, O.; Schweikard, A.; Kilby, W.

    2007-01-01

    Robotic radiosurgery enables precise dose delivery throughout the body. Planning for robotic radiosurgery comprises of finding a suitable set of beams and beam weights. The problem can be addressed by generating a large set of candidate beams, and selection of beams with nonzero weight by mathematical programming. We propose to use different randomized beam generation methods depending on the type of lesion and the clinical objective. Results for three patient cases indicate that this can improve the plan quality. (orig.)

  12. Objective specific beam generation for image guided robotic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaefer, A.; Jungmann, O.; Schweikard, A. [Inst. for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Kilby, W. [Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Robotic radiosurgery enables precise dose delivery throughout the body. Planning for robotic radiosurgery comprises of finding a suitable set of beams and beam weights. The problem can be addressed by generating a large set of candidate beams, and selection of beams with nonzero weight by mathematical programming. We propose to use different randomized beam generation methods depending on the type of lesion and the clinical objective. Results for three patient cases indicate that this can improve the plan quality. (orig.)

  13. Springer handbook of robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Khatib, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of this handbook provides a state-of-the-art cover view on the various aspects in the rapidly developing field of robotics. Reaching for the human frontier, robotics is vigorously engaged in the growing challenges of new emerging domains. Interacting, exploring, and working with humans, the new generation of robots will increasingly touch people and their lives. The credible prospect of practical robots among humans is the result of the scientific endeavour of a half a century of robotic developments that established robotics as a modern scientific discipline. The ongoing vibrant expansion and strong growth of the field during the last decade has fueled this second edition of the Springer Handbook of Robotics. The first edition of the handbook soon became a landmark in robotics publishing and won the American Association of Publishers PROSE Award for Excellence in Physical Sciences & Mathematics as well as the organization’s Award for Engineering & Technology. The second edition o...

  14. Innovations in robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettman, Matthew; Rivera, Marcelino

    2016-05-01

    Developments in robotic surgery have continued to advance care throughout the field of urology. The purpose of this review is to evaluate innovations in robotic surgery over the past 18 months. The release of the da Vinci Xi system heralded an improvement on the Si system with improved docking, the ability to further manipulate robotic arms without clashing, and an autofocus universal endoscope. Robotic simulation continues to evolve with improvements in simulation training design to include augmented reality in robotic surgical education. Robotic-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site surgery continues to evolve with improvements on technique that allow for tackling previously complex pathologic surgical anatomy including urologic oncology and reconstruction. Last, innovations of new surgical platforms with robotic systems to improve surgeon ergonomics and efficiency in ureteral and renal surgery are being applied in the clinical setting. Urologic surgery continues to be at the forefront of the revolution of robotic surgery with advancements in not only existing technology but also creation of entirely novel surgical systems.

  15. Faster-than-real-time robot simulation for plan development and robot safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, C.D. III; Dalton, R.; Ogles, J.; Tulenko, J.S.; Zhou, X.

    1990-01-01

    The University of Florida, in cooperation with the Universities of Texas, Tennessee, and Michigan and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is developing an advanced robotic system for the US Department of Energy under the University Program for Robotics for Advanced Reactors. As part of this program, the University of Florida has been pursuing the development of a faster-than-real-time robotic simulation program for planning and control of mobile robotic operations to ensure the efficient and safe operation of mobile robots in nuclear power plants and other hazardous environments

  16. Soft-Material Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; Nurzaman, SG; Iida, Fumiya

    2017-01-01

    There has been a boost of research activities in robotics using soft materials in the past ten years. It is expected that the use and control of soft materials can help realize robotic systems that are safer, cheaper, and more adaptable than the level that the conventional rigid-material robots can achieve. Contrary to a number of existing review and position papers on soft-material robotics, which mostly present case studies and/or discuss trends and challenges, the review focuses on the fun...

  17. AssistMe robot, an assistance robotic platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Alexan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a full size assistance robot. Its main purpose it to assist a person and eventually avoid a life threatening situation. Its implementation revolves around a chipKIT Arduino board that interconnects a robotic base controller with a 7 inch TABLET PC and various sensors. Due to the Android and Arduino combination, the robot can interact with the person and provide an easy development platform for future improvement and feature adding. The TABLET PC is Webcam, WIFI and Bluetooth enabled, offering a versatile platform that is able to process data and in the same time provide the user a friendly interface.

  18. Socially Impaired Robots: Human Social Disorders and Robots' Socio-Emotional Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Vitale, Jonathan; Williams, Mary-Anne; Johnston, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Social robots need intelligence in order to safely coexist and interact with humans. Robots without functional abilities in understanding others and unable to empathise might be a societal risk and they may lead to a society of socially impaired robots. In this work we provide a survey of three relevant human social disorders, namely autism, psychopathy and schizophrenia, as a means to gain a better understanding of social robots' future capability requirements. We provide evidence supporting...

  19. Educational Robotics as Mindtools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Bellou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    Although there are many studies on the constructionist use of educational robotics, they have certain limitations. Some of them refer to robotics education, rather than educational robotics. Others follow a constructionist approach, but give emphasis only to design skills, creativity and collaboration. Some studies use robotics as an educational…

  20. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot System for Mapping Environmental Variables of Greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Garcia-Aunon, Pablo; Garzón, Mario; de León, Jorge; Del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The productivity of greenhouses highly depends on the environmental conditions of crops, such as temperature and humidity. The control and monitoring might need large sensor networks, and as a consequence, mobile sensory systems might be a more suitable solution. This paper describes the application of a heterogeneous robot team to monitor environmental variables of greenhouses. The multi-robot system includes both ground and aerial vehicles, looking to provide flexibility and improve performance. The multi-robot sensory system measures the temperature, humidity, luminosity and carbon dioxide concentration in the ground and at different heights. Nevertheless, these measurements can be complemented with other ones (e.g., the concentration of various gases or images of crops) without a considerable effort. Additionally, this work addresses some relevant challenges of multi-robot sensory systems, such as the mission planning and task allocation, the guidance, navigation and control of robots in greenhouses and the coordination among ground and aerial vehicles. This work has an eminently practical approach, and therefore, the system has been extensively tested both in simulations and field experiments.

  1. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot System for Mapping Environmental Variables of Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Roldán

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of greenhouses highly depends on the environmental conditions of crops, such as temperature and humidity. The control and monitoring might need large sensor networks, and as a consequence, mobile sensory systems might be a more suitable solution. This paper describes the application of a heterogeneous robot team to monitor environmental variables of greenhouses. The multi-robot system includes both ground and aerial vehicles, looking to provide flexibility and improve performance. The multi-robot sensory system measures the temperature, humidity, luminosity and carbon dioxide concentration in the ground and at different heights. Nevertheless, these measurements can be complemented with other ones (e.g., the concentration of various gases or images of crops without a considerable effort. Additionally, this work addresses some relevant challenges of multi-robot sensory systems, such as the mission planning and task allocation, the guidance, navigation and control of robots in greenhouses and the coordination among ground and aerial vehicles. This work has an eminently practical approach, and therefore, the system has been extensively tested both in simulations and field experiments.

  2. Robot friendship: Can a robot be a friend?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmeche, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Friendship is used here as a conceptual vehicle for framing questions about the distinctiveness of human cognition in relation to natural systems such as other animal species and to artificial systems such as robots. By exploring this very common form of a human interpersonal relationship......, the author indicates that even though it is difficult to say something generally true about friendship among humans, distinct forms of friendship as practiced and distinct notions of friendship have been investigated in the social and human sciences and in biology. A more general conceptualization...... of friendship as a triadic relation analogous to the sign relation is suggested. Based on this the author asks how one may conceive of robot-robot and robot-human friendships; and how an interdisciplinary perspective upon that relation can contribute to analyse levels of embodied cognition in natural...

  3. Multi-robot caravanning

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2013-11-01

    We study multi-robot caravanning, which is loosely defined as the problem of a heterogeneous team of robots visiting specific areas of an environment (waypoints) as a group. After formally defining this problem, we propose a novel solution that requires minimal communication and scales with the number of waypoints and robots. Our approach restricts explicit communication and coordination to occur only when robots reach waypoints, and relies on implicit coordination when moving between a given pair of waypoints. At the heart of our algorithm is the use of leader election to efficiently exploit the unique environmental knowledge available to each robot in order to plan paths for the group, which makes it general enough to work with robots that have heterogeneous representations of the environment. We implement our approach both in simulation and on a physical platform, and characterize the performance of the approach under various scenarios. We demonstrate that our approach can successfully be used to combine the planning capabilities of different agents. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Self-Organizing Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is man’s ongoing hope that a machine could somehow adapt to its environment by reorganizing itself. This is what the notion of self-organizing robots is based on. The theme of this book is to examine the feasibility of creating such robots within the limitations of current mechanical engineering. The topics comprise the following aspects of such a pursuit: the philosophy of design of self-organizing mechanical systems; self-organization in biological systems; the history of self-organizing mechanical systems; a case study of a self-assembling/self-repairing system as an autonomous distributed system; a self-organizing robot that can create its own shape and robotic motion; implementation and instrumentation of self-organizing robots; and the future of self-organizing robots. All topics are illustrated with many up-to-date examples, including those from the authors’ own work. The book does not require advanced knowledge of mathematics to be understood, and will be of great benefit to students in the rob...

  5. Big Robots for Little Kids: Investigating the Role of Scale in Early Childhood Robotics Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizner, Miki Z.

    Couch fort and refrigerator box constructions are staples of early childhood play in American culture. Can this this large-scale fantasy type of play be leveraged to facilitate computational thinking? This thesis looks at the ways Kindergarteners (age 5-6) use two variations of the KIBO robotics platform in their play and learning. The first is the standard KIBO kit developed at the DevTech research group at Tufts University and commercialized by Kinderlab robotics. The second, created by the author, is 100 times bigger and can be ridden by children and adults. Specifically this study addresses the research question "How are children's experiences with big-KIBO different from KIBO?" To do so this thesis presents two analytical tools that were assembled conceptually from literature and the authors experiences with KIBO, examined using the data collected in this study, refined, and used as frameworks for understanding the data. They are a developmental model of programming with KIBO and an operationalization of Bers's (2018) powerful ideas of computational thinking when using KIBO. Vignettes from the data are presented and analyzed using these frameworks. Content and structural play themes are extracted from additional vignettes with each robot. In this study there are no clear differences in the ways children engage in computational thinking or develop their ability to program. There appear to be differences in the ways children play with the robots. Suggesting that a larger robot offers new opportunities and pathways for children to engage in computational thinking tasks. This study makes a case for the importance of thinking developmentally about computational thinking. Connections to literature and theory as well as suggestions for future work, both for children and designers, are discussed.

  6. Human-robot interaction tests on a novel robot for gait assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Nevio Luigi; Sergi, Fabrizio; Carpino, Giorgio; Accoto, Dino; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents tests on a treadmill-based non-anthropomorphic wearable robot assisting hip and knee flexion/extension movements using compliant actuation. Validation experiments were performed on the actuators and on the robot, with specific focus on the evaluation of intrinsic backdrivability and of assistance capability. Tests on a young healthy subject were conducted. In the case of robot completely unpowered, maximum backdriving torques were found to be in the order of 10 Nm due to the robot design features (reduced swinging masses; low intrinsic mechanical impedance and high-efficiency reduction gears for the actuators). Assistance tests demonstrated that the robot can deliver torques attracting the subject towards a predicted kinematic status.

  7. Pose Estimation and Adaptive Robot Behaviour for Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikael; Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—This paper introduces a new method to determine a person’s pose based on laser range measurements. Such estimates are typically a prerequisite for any human-aware robot navigation, which is the basis for effective and timeextended interaction between a mobile robot and a human. The robot......’s pose. The resulting pose estimates are used to identify humans who wish to be approached and interacted with. The interaction motion of the robot is based on adaptive potential functions centered around the person that respect the persons social spaces. The method is tested in experiments...

  8. From sex robots to love robots: is mutual love with a robot possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyholm, S.R.; Frank, L.E.; Danaher, J.; McArthur, N.

    2017-01-01

    Some critics of sex-robots worry that their use might spread objectifying attitudes about sex, and common sense places a higher value on sex within love-relationships than on casual sex. If there could be mutual love between humans and sex-robots, this could help to ease the worries about

  9. The relation between people's attitudes and anxiety towards robots in human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, M.M.A.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between an interaction with a robot and peoples’ attitudes and emotion towards robots. In our study, participants have had an acquaintance talk with a social robot and both their general attitude and anxiety towards social robots were measured before and after the

  10. Robotic influence in the conceptual design of mechanical systems in space and vice versa - A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, George F.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of methods using robotic devices to construct structural elements in space is presented. Two approaches to robotic construction are considered: one in which the structural elements are designed using conventional aerospace techniques which tend to constrain the function aspects of robotics and one in which the structural elements are designed from the conceptual stage with built-in robotic features. Examples are presented of structural building concepts using robotics, including the construction of the SP-100 nuclear reactor power system, a multimirror large aperture IR space telescope concept, retrieval and repair in space, and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer.

  11. Robotic hand project

    OpenAIRE

    Karaçizmeli, Cengiz; Çakır, Gökçe; Tükel, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the mechatronic based robotic hand is controlled by the position data taken from the glove which has flex sensors mounted to capture finger bending of the human hand. The angular movement of human hand’s fingers are perceived and processed by a microcontroller, and the robotic hand is controlled by actuating servo motors. It has seen that robotic hand can simulate the movement of the human hand that put on the glove, during tests have done. This robotic hand can be used not only...

  12. Ultra-fast escape maneuver of an octopus-inspired robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weymouth, G D; Subramaniam, V; Triantafyllou, M S

    2015-01-01

    We design and test an octopus-inspired flexible hull robot that demonstrates outstanding fast-starting performance. The robot is hyper-inflated with water, and then rapidly deflates to expel the fluid so as to power the escape maneuver. Using this robot we verify for the first time in laboratory testing that rapid size-change can substantially reduce separation in bluff bodies traveling several body lengths, and recover fluid energy which can be employed to improve the propulsive performance. The robot is found to experience speeds over ten body lengths per second, exceeding that of a similarly propelled optimally streamlined rigid rocket. The peak net thrust force on the robot is more than 2.6 times that on an optimal rigid body performing the same maneuver, experimentally demonstrating large energy recovery and enabling acceleration greater than 14 body lengths per second squared. Finally, over 53% of the available energy is converted into payload kinetic energy, a performance that exceeds the estimated energy conversion efficiency of fast-starting fish. The Reynolds number based on final speed and robot length is Re≈700 000. We use the experimental data to establish a fundamental deflation scaling parameter σ∗ which characterizes the mechanisms of flow control via shape change. Based on this scaling parameter, we find that the fast-starting performance improves with increasing size. (paper)

  13. Ultra-fast escape maneuver of an octopus-inspired robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymouth, G D; Subramaniam, V; Triantafyllou, M S

    2015-02-02

    We design and test an octopus-inspired flexible hull robot that demonstrates outstanding fast-starting performance. The robot is hyper-inflated with water, and then rapidly deflates to expel the fluid so as to power the escape maneuver. Using this robot we verify for the first time in laboratory testing that rapid size-change can substantially reduce separation in bluff bodies traveling several body lengths, and recover fluid energy which can be employed to improve the propulsive performance. The robot is found to experience speeds over ten body lengths per second, exceeding that of a similarly propelled optimally streamlined rigid rocket. The peak net thrust force on the robot is more than 2.6 times that on an optimal rigid body performing the same maneuver, experimentally demonstrating large energy recovery and enabling acceleration greater than 14 body lengths per second squared. Finally, over 53% of the available energy is converted into payload kinetic energy, a performance that exceeds the estimated energy conversion efficiency of fast-starting fish. The Reynolds number based on final speed and robot length is [Formula: see text]. We use the experimental data to establish a fundamental deflation scaling parameter [Formula: see text] which characterizes the mechanisms of flow control via shape change. Based on this scaling parameter, we find that the fast-starting performance improves with increasing size.

  14. Robots in P.W.R. nuclear powerplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubourg, M.

    1987-01-01

    The satisfactory operation of 37 900-MWe PWR powerplants in France, Belgium and South-Africa and the start-up of 1300 MWe powerplants allowed the development of a wide range of automatic units and robots for the periodic maintenance of nuclear plants, reducing the risk of ionizing radiation for the personnel. A large number of automated tools have been built. Among them: - inspection and maintenance systems for the tube bundle of steam generators, - robotized arms ROTETA and ROMEO for the heavy maintenance and delicate operations such as tube extraction or shot peening of tubes to improve their resistance to corrosion; - the versatile manipulator T.A.M. with electrically controlled articulations. The development of functionally versatile tools and robots and the integration of new technologies such as 3-D vision allowed the construction of the self-guided vehicle FRASTAR capable of moving within a nuclear building and in a cluttered environment. This vehicle includes means for avoiding isolated obstacles and can move on stairs [fr

  15. PEAR: Prototyping Expressive Animated Robots - A framework for social robot prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Balit , Etienne; Vaufreydaz , Dominique; Reignier , Patrick

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Social robots are transitioning from lab experiments to commercial products, creating new needs for proto-typing and design tools. In this paper, we present a framework to facilitate the prototyping of expressive animated robots. For this, we start by reviewing the design of existing social robots in order to define a set of basic components of social robots. We then show how to extend an existing 3D animation software to enable the animation of these components. By co...

  16. Communication of Robot Status to Improve Human-Robot Collaboration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future space exploration will require humans and robots to collaborate to perform all the necessary tasks. Current robots mostly operate separately from humans due...

  17. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  18. Making Humanoid Robots More Acceptable Based on the Study of Robot Characters in Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Maleki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we take an approach in Humanoid Robots are not considered as robots who resembles human beings in a realistic way of appearance and act but as robots who act and react like human that make them more believable by people. Regarding this approach we will study robot characters in animation movies and discuss what makes some of them to be accepted just like a moving body and what makes some other robot characters to be believable as a living human. The goal of this paper is to create a rule set that describes friendly, socially acceptable, kind, cute... robots and in this study we will review example robots in popular animated movies. The extracted rules and features can be used for making real robots more acceptable.

  19. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant, cooperative control of heterogeneous mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  20. Robotics in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  1. Distributed Bees Algorithm Parameters Optimization for a Cost Efficient Target Allocation in Swarms of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Swarms of robots can use their sensing abilities to explore unknown environments and deploy on sites of interest. In this task, a large number of robots is more effective than a single unit because of their ability to quickly cover the area. However, the coordination of large teams of robots is not an easy problem, especially when the resources for the deployment are limited. In this paper, the Distributed Bees Algorithm (DBA, previously proposed by the authors, is optimized and applied to distributed target allocation in swarms of robots. Improved target allocation in terms of deployment cost efficiency is achieved through optimization of the DBA’s control parameters by means of a Genetic Algorithm. Experimental results show that with the optimized set of parameters, the deployment cost measured as the average distance traveled by the robots is reduced. The cost-efficient deployment is in some cases achieved at the expense of increased robots’ distribution error. Nevertheless, the proposed approach allows the swarm to adapt to the operating conditions when available resources are scarce.

  2. Inventing Japan's 'robotics culture': the repeated assembly of science, technology, and culture in social robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanović, Selma

    2014-06-01

    Using interviews, participant observation, and published documents, this article analyzes the co-construction of robotics and culture in Japan through the technical discourse and practices of robotics researchers. Three cases from current robotics research--the seal-like robot PARO, the Humanoid Robotics Project HRP-2 humanoid, and 'kansei robotics' - show the different ways in which scientists invoke culture to provide epistemological grounding and possibilities for social acceptance of their work. These examples show how the production and consumption of social robotic technologies are associated with traditional crafts and values, how roboticists negotiate among social, technical, and cultural constraints while designing robots, and how humans and robots are constructed as cultural subjects in social robotics discourse. The conceptual focus is on the repeated assembly of cultural models of social behavior, organization, cognition, and technology through roboticists' narratives about the development of advanced robotic technologies. This article provides a picture of robotics as the dynamic construction of technology and culture and concludes with a discussion of the limits and possibilities of this vision in promoting a culturally situated understanding of technology and a multicultural view of science.

  3. German robots: The impact of industrial robots on workers

    OpenAIRE

    Dauth, Wolfgang; Findeisen, Sebastian; Südekum, Jens; Wößner, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    We study the impact of rising robot exposure on the careers of individual manufacturing workers, and the equilibrium impact across industries and local labor markets in Germany. We find no evidence that robots cause total job losses, but they do affect the composition of aggregate employment. Every robot destroys two manufacturing jobs. This accounts for almost 23 percent of the overall decline of manufacturing employment in Germany over the period 1994-2014, roughly 275,000 jobs. But this lo...

  4. Autonomous military robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Nath, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief reveals the latest techniques in computer vision and machine learning on robots that are designed as accurate and efficient military snipers. Militaries around the world are investigating this technology to simplify the time, cost and safety measures necessary for training human snipers. These robots are developed by combining crucial aspects of computer science research areas including image processing, robotic kinematics and learning algorithms. The authors explain how a new humanoid robot, the iCub, uses high-speed cameras and computer vision algorithms to track the objec

  5. Robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  6. Toward cognitive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John E.

    2009-05-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop autonomous robotic systems that have the cognitive abilities of humans, including communication, coordination, adapting to novel situations, and learning through experience. Our approach rests on the recent integration of the Soar cognitive architecture with both virtual and physical robotic systems. Soar has been used to develop a wide variety of knowledge-rich agents for complex virtual environments, including distributed training environments and interactive computer games. For development and testing in robotic virtual environments, Soar interfaces to a variety of robotic simulators and a simple mobile robot. We have recently made significant extensions to Soar that add new memories and new non-symbolic reasoning to Soar's original symbolic processing, which should significantly improve Soar abilities for control of robots. These extensions include episodic memory, semantic memory, reinforcement learning, and mental imagery. Episodic memory and semantic memory support the learning and recalling of prior events and situations as well as facts about the world. Reinforcement learning provides the ability of the system to tune its procedural knowledge - knowledge about how to do things. Mental imagery supports the use of diagrammatic and visual representations that are critical to support spatial reasoning. We speculate on the future of unmanned systems and the need for cognitive robotics to support dynamic instruction and taskability.

  7. Conceptions of health service robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2015-01-01

    Technology developments create rich opportunities for health service providers to introduce service robots in health care. While the potential benefits of applying robots in health care are extensive, the research into the conceptions of health service robot and its importance for the uptake...... of robotics technology in health care is limited. This article develops a model of the basic conceptions of health service robots that can be used to understand different assumptions and values attached to health care technology in general and health service robots in particular. The article takes...... a discursive approach in order to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the social values of health service robots. First a discursive approach is proposed to develop a typology of conceptions of health service robots. Second, a model identifying four basic conceptions of health service robots...

  8. Continuum limbed robots for locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Alper

    This thesis focuses on continuum robots based on pneumatic muscle technology. We introduce a novel approach to use these muscles as limbs of lightweight legged robots. The flexibility of the continuum legs of these robots offers the potential to perform some duties that are not possible with classical rigid-link robots. Potential applications are as space robots in low gravity, and as cave explorer robots. The thesis covers the fabrication process of continuum pneumatic muscles and limbs. It also provides some new experimental data on this technology. Afterwards, the designs of two different novel continuum robots - one tripod, one quadruped - are introduced. Experimental data from tests using the robots is provided. The experimental results are the first published example of locomotion with tripod and quadruped continuum legged robots. Finally, discussion of the results and how far this technology can go forward is presented.

  9. Soft computing in advanced robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Ichiro; Kim, Euntai

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent system and robotics are inevitably bound up; intelligent robots makes embodiment of system integration by using the intelligent systems. We can figure out that intelligent systems are to cell units, while intelligent robots are to body components. The two technologies have been synchronized in progress. Making leverage of the robotics and intelligent systems, applications cover boundlessly the range from our daily life to space station; manufacturing, healthcare, environment, energy, education, personal assistance, logistics. This book aims at presenting the research results in relevance with intelligent robotics technology. We propose to researchers and practitioners some methods to advance the intelligent systems and apply them to advanced robotics technology. This book consists of 10 contributions that feature mobile robots, robot emotion, electric power steering, multi-agent, fuzzy visual navigation, adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system, swarm EKF localization and inspection robot. Th...

  10. Robotics and remote systems applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    This article is a review of numerous remote inspection techniques in use at the Savannah River (and other) facilities. These include: (1) reactor tank inspection robot, (2) californium waste removal robot, (3) fuel rod lubrication robot, (4) cesium source manipulation robot, (5) tank 13 survey and decontamination robots, (6) hot gang valve corridor decontamination and junction box removal robots, (7) lead removal from deionizer vessels robot, (8) HB line cleanup robot, (9) remote operation of a front end loader at WIPP, (10) remote overhead video extendible robot, (11) semi-intelligent mobile observing navigator, (12) remote camera systems in the SRS canyons, (13) cameras and borescope for the DWPF, (14) Hanford waste tank camera system, (15) in-tank precipitation camera system, (16) F-area retention basin pipe crawler, (17) waste tank wall crawler and annulus camera, (18) duct inspection, and (19) deionizer resin sampling

  11. Situation Assessment for Mobile Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anders Billesø

    Mobile robots have become a mature technology. The first cable guided logistics robots were introduced in the industry almost 60 years ago. In this time the market for mobile robots in industry has only experienced a very modest growth and only 2.100 systems were sold worldwide in 2011. In recent...... years, many other domains have adopted the mobile robots, such as logistics robots at hospitals and the vacuum robots in our homes. However, considering the achievements in research the last 15 years within perception and operation in natural environments together with the reductions of costs in modern...... sensor systems, the growth potential for mobile robot applications are enormous. Many new technological components are available to move the limits of commercial mobile robot applications, but a key hindrance is reliability. Natural environments are complex and dynamic, and thus the risk of robots...

  12. Advances in Autonomous Mini Robots : Proceedings of the 6-th AMiRE Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Joaquin, Sitte; Felix, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous robots must carry out useful tasks all by themselves relying entirely on their own perceptions of their environment. The cognitive abilities required for autonomous action are largely independent of robot size, which makes mini robots attractive as artefacts for research, education and entertainment. Autonomous mini robots must be small enough for experimentation on a desktop or a small laboratory.  They must be easy to carry and safe for interaction with humans. They must not be expensive. Mini robot designers have to work at the leading edge of technology so that their creations can carry out purposeful autonomic action under these constraints. Since 2001 researchers have met every two years for an international symposium to report on the advances achieved in Autonomous Mini  Robots for Research and Edutainment (AMiRE). The AMiRE Symposium is a single track conference that offers ample opportunities for discussion and exchange of ideas. This volume contains the contributed papers of the 2011 AM...

  13. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Calisti, M.; Picardi, G.; Laschi, C.

    2017-01-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human���robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human���robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This p...

  14. Design and Control of a Twelve-Bar Tensegrity Robot

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A tensegrity (tensional integrity) robot is a lightweight, compliant system consisting of rods suspended in a network of cables. It can absorb large loads on impact,...

  15. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions

  16. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  17. Mergeable nervous systems for robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Nithin; Christensen, Anders Lyhne; O'Grady, Rehan; Mondada, Francesco; Dorigo, Marco

    2017-09-12

    Robots have the potential to display a higher degree of lifetime morphological adaptation than natural organisms. By adopting a modular approach, robots with different capabilities, shapes, and sizes could, in theory, construct and reconfigure themselves as required. However, current modular robots have only been able to display a limited range of hardwired behaviors because they rely solely on distributed control. Here, we present robots whose bodies and control systems can merge to form entirely new robots that retain full sensorimotor control. Our control paradigm enables robots to exhibit properties that go beyond those of any existing machine or of any biological organism: the robots we present can merge to form larger bodies with a single centralized controller, split into separate bodies with independent controllers, and self-heal by removing or replacing malfunctioning body parts. This work takes us closer to robots that can autonomously change their size, form and function.Robots that can self-assemble into different morphologies are desired to perform tasks that require different physical capabilities. Mathews et al. design robots whose bodies and control systems can merge and split to form new robots that retain full sensorimotor control and act as a single entity.

  18. Evolving self-assembly in autonomous homogeneous robots: experiments with two physical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampatzis, Christos; Tuci, Elio; Trianni, Vito; Christensen, Anders Lyhne; Dorigo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    This research work illustrates an approach to the design of controllers for self-assembling robots in which the self-assembly is initiated and regulated by perceptual cues that are brought forth by the physical robots through their dynamical interactions. More specifically, we present a homogeneous control system that can achieve assembly between two modules (two fully autonomous robots) of a mobile self-reconfigurable system without a priori introduced behavioral or morphological heterogeneities. The controllers are dynamic neural networks evolved in simulation that directly control all the actuators of the two robots. The neurocontrollers cause the dynamic specialization of the robots by allocating roles between them based solely on their interaction. We show that the best evolved controller proves to be successful when tested on a real hardware platform, the swarm-bot. The performance achieved is similar to the one achieved by existing modular or behavior-based approaches, also due to the effect of an emergent recovery mechanism that was neither explicitly rewarded by the fitness function, nor observed during the evolutionary simulation. Our results suggest that direct access to the orientations or intentions of the other agents is not a necessary condition for robot coordination: Our robots coordinate without direct or explicit communication, contrary to what is assumed by most research works in collective robotics. This work also contributes to strengthening the evidence that evolutionary robotics is a design methodology that can tackle real-world tasks demanding fine sensory-motor coordination.

  19. Laboratory on Legs: An Architecture for Adjustable Morphology with Legged Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    including walking, running,7 pronking,8,9 leaping and flipping,10 climbing stairs ,11,12 recovering from failures,13 and even running upright on (modified...speed activities requiring large leg torques, such as clambering over rocks and climbing stairs , as well as high speed activities with moderate torques...8] McMordie, D. and Buehler, M., “Towards pronking with a hexapod robot ,” in [International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots

  20. [Robotics in pediatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, J I

    2011-10-01

    Despite the extensive use of robotics in the adult population, the use of robotics in pediatrics has not been well accepted. There is still a lack of awareness from pediatric surgeons on how to use the robotic equipment, its advantages and indications. Benefit is still controversial. Dexterity and better visualization of the surgical field are one of the strong values. Conversely, cost and a lack of small instruments prevent the use of robotics in the smaller patients. The aim of this manuscript is to present the controversies about the use of robotics in pediatric surgery.